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Sample records for aligned vertical fractures

  1. Aligned vertical fractures, HTI reservoir symmetry, and Thomsenseismic anisotropy parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, James G.

    2007-06-27

    The Sayers and Kachanov (1991) crack-influence parametersare shown to be directly related to Thomsen (1986) weak-anisotropyseismic parameters for fractured reservoirs when the crack density issmall enough. These results are then applied to seismic wave propagationin reservoirs having HTI symmetry due to aligned vertical fractures. Theapproach suggests a method of inverting for fracture density from wavespeed data.

  2. Aligned vertical fractures, HTI reservoir symmetry, and Thomsenseismic anisotropy parameters for polar media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, James G.

    2007-12-12

    Sayers and Kachanov (1991) defined crack-influence parameters that are shown to be directly related to Thomsen (1986) weak-anisotropy seismic parameters for fractured reservoirs when the crack/fracture density is small enough. These results are then applied to the problem of seismic wave propagation in polar (i.e., non-isotropic) reservoirs having HTI seismic wave symmetry due to the presence of aligned vertical fractures and resulting in azimuthal seismic wave symmetry at the earth's surface. The approach presented suggests one method of inverting for fracture density from wave-speed data. It is also observed that the angular location {theta}{sub ex} of the extreme value (peak or trough) of the quasi-SV-wave speed for VTI occurs at an angle determined approximately by the formula tan{sup 2} {theta}{sub ex} {approx_equal} tan {theta}{sub m} = [(c{sub 33} - c{sub 44})/(c{sub 11}-c{sub 44})]{sup 1/2}, where {theta}{sub m} is an angle determined directly (as shown) from the c{sub ij} elastic stiffnesses, whenever these are known from either quasi-static or seismic wave measurements. Alternatively, {theta}{sub ex} is given in terms of the Thomsen seismic anisotropy parameters by tan {theta}{sub ex} {approx_equal} ([v{sub p}{sup 2}(0)-v{sub s}{sup 2}(0)]/[(1 + 2{epsilon})v{sub p}{sup 2}(0)-v{sub s}{sup 2}(0)]){sup 1/4}, where {epsilon} = (c{sub 11}-c{sub 33})/2c{sub 33}, v{sub p}{sup 2}(0) = c{sub 33}/{rho}, and v{sub s}{sup 2}(0) = c{sub 44}/{rho}, with {rho} being the background inertial mass density. The axis of symmetry is always treated here as the x{sub 3}-axis for either VTI symmetry (due, for example, to horizontal cracks), or HTI symmetry (due to aligned vertical cracks). Then the meaning of the stiffnesses is derived from the fracture analysis in the same way for VTI and HTI media, but for HTI the wave speeds relative to the earth's surface are shifted by 90{sup o} in the plane perpendicular to the aligned vertical fractures. Skempton's (1954) coefficient is

  3. A physical model study of converted wave amplitude variation in a reservoir of systematically aligned vertical fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Sun, L.; Lin, C.; Chang, Y.; Tseng, P.

    2013-12-01

    The existence of fractures not only provides spaces for the residence of oils and gases reside, but it also creates pathways for migration. Characterizing a fractured reservoir thus becomes an important subject and has been widely studied by exploration geophysicists and drilling engineers. In seismic anisotropy, a reservoir of systematically aligned vertical fractures (SAVF) is often treated as a transversely isotropic medium (TIM) with a horizontal axis of symmetry (HTI). Subjecting to HTI, physical properties vary in azimuth. P-wave reflection amplitude, which is susceptible to vary in azimuth, is one of the most popular seismic attributes which is widely used to delineate the fracture strike of an SAVF reservoir. Instead of going further on analyzing P-wave signatures, in this study, we focused on evaluating the feasibility of orienting the fracture strike of an SAVF reservoir using converted (C-) wave amplitude. For a C-wave is initiated by a downward traveling P-wave that is converted on reflection to an upcoming S-wave; the behaviors of both P- and S-waves should be theoretically woven in a C-wave. In our laboratory work, finite offset reflection experiments were carried out on the azimuthal plane of a HTI model at two different offset intervals. To demonstrate the azimuthal variation of C-wave amplitude in a HTI model, reflections were acquired along the principal symmetry directions and the diagonal direction of the HTI model. Inheriting from phenomenon of S-wave splitting in a transversely isotropic medium (TIM), P-waves get converted into both the fast (S1) and slow (S2) shear modes at all azimuths outside the vertical symmetry planes, thus producing split PS-waves (PS1 and PS2). In our laboratory data, the converted PS1- (C1-) wave were observed and identified. As the azimuth varies from the strike direction to the strike normal, C1-wave amplitude exhibits itself in a way of weakening and can be view from the common-reflection-point (CRP) gathers

  4. Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2007-11-01

    When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

  5. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  6. Advancements of vertically aligned liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Jaggi, Chinky; Sharma, Vandna; Raina, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the recent advancements in the field of the vertical aligned (VA) liquid crystal displays. The process and formation of different vertical alignment modes such as conventional VA, patterned VA, multi-domain VA, and polymer stabilised VA etc are widely discussed. Vertical alignment of liquid crystal due to nano particle dispersion in LC host, bifunctional PR-SAM formed by silane coupling reaction to oxide surfaces, azo dye etc., are also highlighted and discussed. Overall, the article highlights the advances in the research of vertical aligned liquid crystal in terms of their scientific and technological aspects.

  7. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  8. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures. PMID:1659859

  9. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  10. Order in vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Xu, Z; Eres, Gyula

    2006-01-01

    We report the direct measurements on the bulk morphology of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS measurements at different heights of CNT arrays corresponding to different stages of the growth reveal increasing alignment order along the thickness and two distinctly different CNT morphologies. The observations suggest that the evolution of the macroscopic CNT morphologies be driven by competing collective growth and spatial constraints.

  11. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rahul; Riley, Michael; Lee, Sabrina; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  12. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs. PMID:23504581

  13. Vertical root fractures and their management

    PubMed Central

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-01-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

  14. Vertical root fractures and their management.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-03-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

  15. Pore-fluid effects on seismic waves in vertically fractured earth with orthotropic symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-05-15

    For elastically noninteracting vertical-fracture sets at arbitrary orientation angles to each other, a detailed model is presented in which the resulting anisotropic fractured medium generally has orthorhombic symmetry overall. Some of the analysis methods and ideas of Schoenberg are emphasized, together with their connections to other similarly motivated and conceptually related methods by Sayers and Kachanov, among others. Examples show how parallel vertical-fracture sets having HTI (horizontal transversely isotropic) symmetry transform into orthotropic fractured media if some subsets of the vertical fractures are misaligned with the others, and then the fractured system can have VTI (vertical transversely isotropic) symmetry if all of the fractures are aligned randomly or half parallel and half perpendicular to a given vertical plane. An orthotropic example having vertical fractures in an otherwise VTI earth system (studied previously by Schoenberg and Helbig) is compared with the other examples treated and it is finally shown how fluids in the fractures affect the orthotropic poroelastic system response to seismic waves. The key result is that fracture-influence parameters are multiplied by a factor of (1-B), where 0 {le} B < 1 is Skempton's second coefficient for poroelastic media. Skempton's B coefficient is itself a measurable characteristic of fluid-saturated porous rocks, depending on porosity, solid moduli, and the pore-fluid bulk modulus. For heterogeneous porous media, connections between the present work and earlier related results of Brown and Korringa are also established.

  16. Vertical root fracture: prevalence, etiology, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Haueisen, Helga; Gärtner, Kathrin; Kaiser, Lea; Trohorsch, Dominik; Heidemann, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    A vertical root fracture (VRF) is a frustrating complication that may occur following root canal treatment, and in almost every case leads to the extraction of the affected tooth. This type of fracture is usually diagnosed by secondary symptoms that develop some time after primary treatment, often when prosthodontic restoration has already been completed. The fracture line itself is often not directly visible, and therefore clinical and radiographic signs and symptoms indicate the diagnosis indirectly. Knowledge of the condition and pathogenesis of VRF is required in order to avoid hopeless trials of periodontal and/or endodontic therapy. Several etiologic factors are discussed that make teeth susceptible to VRF, such as the loss of substance due to restorative and endodontic therapy and stress factors associated with root canal debridement, and filling. PMID:23757466

  17. [Radiographic diagnosis of vertical root fracture].

    PubMed

    Guangning, Zheng; Jiyao, Li

    2016-02-01

    Vertical root fracture (VRF) is different from odontoclasis caused by trauma or injury. VRF is defined as a complete or incomplete fracture of roots caused by long-term and persistent stimulus, such as excessive forces from mastication or occlusion, improper tooth anatomy, and tooth treatment accident. Early diagnosis of VRF is essential to prevent the absorption of alveolar bone, thereby improving prognosis. Radiographic examination is the most common and effective evaluation method for VRF. Cone beam computed tomography can provide three-dimensional information for fracture details, which are more precise than traditional periapical films. In this paper, we present the radiographic features, differential diagnosis, and new treatment techniques for VRF. PMID:27266189

  18. Silicon oxides as alignment surfaces for vertically-aligned nematics in photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oton, E.; López-Andrés, S.; Bennis, N.; Otón, J. M.; Geday, M. A.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative study on alignment performance and microstructure of inorganic layers used for liquid crystal cell conditioning has been carried out. The study has focused on two specific materials, SiOx and SiO2, deposited under different conditions. The purpose was to establish a relationship between layer microstructure and liquid crystal alignment. The surface morphology has been studied by FESEM and AFM. An analysis on liquid crystal alignment, pretilt angle, response time, contrast ratio and the conditions to develop backflow effect (significant rise time increase due to pure homeotropic alignment) on vertically-aligned nematic cells has been carried out. A technique to overcome the presence of backflow has been identified. The full comparative study of SiOx and SiO2 layer properties and their influence over liquid crystal alignment and electrooptic response is presented.

  19. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  20. Growth and characterization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Suman; Li, Wenzhi

    2010-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been grown by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD). The density of the CNTs is controlled by the density of the nickel catalyst nanoparticles on silicon (Si) surface. Photolithography and nanosphere lithography have been employed to form a catalyst nanoparticle pattern on Si to grow periodic array of CNTS with controllable size and distribution. The electron emission properties of the CNT array have also been investigated.

  1. Compression behaviour of thick vertically aligned carbon nanotube blocks.

    PubMed

    Pavese, Matteo; Musso, Simone; Pugno, Nicola M

    2010-07-01

    Blocks of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes were prepared by thermal chemical vapor deposition starting from camphor and ferrocene precursors. The blocks, having a thickness of approximately 2 mm and composed of nanotubes with diameter ranging between 30 and 80 nm, were submitted to compression tests. The results were analyzed accordingly with a simple model consisting in a parallel array of nanotubes under compression and bending suffering microscopic instability and compaction. The model mostly fits the experimental stress-strain curves, with a small deviation attributed to dissipative phenomena, such as frictional forces and nanotube wall breakage. PMID:21128406

  2. Microwave characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsounaros, Anestis; Rajab, Khalid Z.; Hao, Yang; Mann, Mark; Milne, William I.

    2011-05-01

    Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (VACNT) films have been characterized by rectangular waveguide measurements. The complex scattering parameters (S-parameters) are measured by a vector network analyzer at X-band frequencies. The effective complex permittivity and permeability of the VACNT films have been extracted. The extracted parameters are verified by full wave simulations and very good agreement has been obtained. The results of the systematic error analysis are presented and the errors are within the acceptable range. The performance of VACNT films as an absorber is examined, and comparison with the conventional carbon loaded materials shows that a 90% size reduction is possible while maintaining the same absorption level.

  3. Copper-encapsulated vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Stano, Kelly L; Chapla, Rachel; Carroll, Murphy; Nowak, Joshua; McCord, Marian; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-11-13

    A new procedure is described for the fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) that are decorated, and even completely encapsulated, by a dense network of copper nanoparticles. The process involves the conformal deposition of pyrolytic carbon (Py-C) to stabilize the aligned carbon-nanotube structure during processing. The stabilized arrays are mildly functionalized using oxygen plasma treatment to improve wettability, and they are then infiltrated with an aqueous, supersaturated Cu salt solution. Once dried, the salt forms a stabilizing crystal network throughout the array. After calcination and H2 reduction, Cu nanoparticles are left decorating the CNT surfaces. Studies were carried out to determine the optimal processing parameters to maximize Cu content in the composite. These included the duration of Py-C deposition and system process pressure as well as the implementation of subsequent and multiple Cu salt solution infiltrations. The optimized procedure yielded a nanoscale hybrid material where the anisotropic alignment from the VACNT array was preserved, and the mass of the stabilized arrays was increased by over 24-fold because of the addition of Cu. The procedure has been adapted for other Cu salts and can also be used for other metal salts altogether, including Ni, Co, Fe, and Ag. The resulting composite is ideally suited for application in thermal management devices because of its low density, mechanical integrity, and potentially high thermal conductivity. Additionally, further processing of the material via pressing and sintering can yield consolidated, dense bulk composites. PMID:24143862

  4. Measurement of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array Compression Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changhong

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the form of vertically aligned arrays or films has been of interest due to the super-compressible response and the ability to be used as electrical and thermal contacts. CNT arrays have shown the remarkable ability to react as foam-like structures and exhibit localized, coordinated buckling within specific regions. An understanding of the buckling region evolution and the resulting effects on the bulk CNT array response are important, unanswered fundamental questions necessary for the future application of CNT arrays. Here, we report on the low-cycle compression of bulk vertically aligned CNT arrays to observe initiation and growth of the buckling as a function of compressive strain and the contacting substrate material. A critical strain of ˜5.5% is found above which the buckling region length increased and below which remained at or below the applied strain. The results are corroborated with nanoindentation on the surfaces, which indicate a stiffening of the near surface by 9.4%-16.5% with increasing applied strain. Also, contact counterfaces with different stiffness, lithium niobate and a polymer gel, were compared, which resulted in changes of ˜32% in total array height after cyclic compression. Raman spectroscopy on CNT arrays before and after compressive deformation was performed observing repeatable vibrational shifts in the strained regions. Also, to observe the applicability of CNT arrays as contact sensors, electrical resistance change during compression was measured and found to increase by 4 times in the parallel versus vertical direction. Observation and results of the buckling region nature and relationship with applied strain and contacting substrates are important for applying the nanotube arrays to energy absorbing cushions, tunable dampers, thermal contacts, contact sensing, chemical sensing, or in sliding contact.

  5. Study of a subsurface fracture zone by vertical seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Robert R.; Turpening, Roger M.; Toksoz, M. Nafi

    Remotely estimating the properties of subsurface fracture zones is important in characterizing the structure of the shallow earth. We present a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) technique to make this fracture zone estimation and discuss the results of a VSP experiment performed in the upper 770 m of the Michigan Basin. Both P and SH waves were used to observe an explosively-fractured volume of Antrim shale. The experiment was divided into two parts: a "before" survey run on the unaltered rock, then an identical "after" survey executed across the fractured volume. A seismic velocity structure of the basin was calculated from the "before" survey. Comparison of the "after" observations to the "before" data, elucidated the fracture volume and its effective elastic parameters. From travel-time delays, amplitude attenuation, converted and scattered waves, we estimated the depth (395 m), shape (ellipsoidal), size (10 m × 20 m × 30 m) and porosity (20%) of the fracture zone.

  6. Thermal conductivity of vertically aligned boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essedik Belkerk, Boubakeur; Achour, Amine; Zhang, Dongyan; Sahli, Salah; Djouadi, M.-Abdou; Khin Yap, Yoke

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, we report the thermal conductivity of vertically aligned boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) films produced by catalytic chemical vapor deposition. High-quality BNNTs were synthesized at 1200 °C on fused silica substrates precoated with Pt thin-film thermometers. The thermal conductivity of the BNNTs was measured at room temperature by using a pulsed photothermal technique. The apparent thermal conductivity of the BNNT coatings increased from 55 to 170 W m-1 K-1 when the thickness increased from 10 to 28 µm, while the thermal conductivity attained a value as high as 2400 W m-1 K-1. These results suggested that BNNTs, which are highly thermally conductive, but electrically insulating, are promising materials with unique properties.

  7. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A.; Tulip, Fahmida S.; MacArthur, Kimberly; McFarlane, Nicole; Islam, Syed K.; Hensley, Dale

    2014-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  8. Gas sensing with gold-decorated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Mudimela, Prasantha R; Scardamaglia, Mattia; González-León, Oriol; Reckinger, Nicolas; Snyders, Rony; Llobet, Eduard; Colomer, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes of different lengths (150, 300, 500 µm) synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition and decorated with gold nanoparticles were investigated as gas sensitive materials for detecting nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at room temperature. Gold nanoparticles of about 6 nm in diameter were sputtered on the top surface of the carbon nanotube forests to enhance the sensitivity to the pollutant gas. We showed that the sensing response to nitrogen dioxide depends on the nanotube length. The optimum was found to be 300 µm for getting the higher response. When the background humidity level was changed from dry to 50% relative humidity, an increase in the response to NO2 was observed for all the sensors, regardless of the nanotube length. PMID:24991529

  9. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber electrode arrays for nucleic acid detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Prabhu U.; Yu, Edmond; Riviere, Roger; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-10-01

    We present electrochemical detection of DNA targets that corresponds to Escherichia coli O157:H7 16S rRNA gene using a nanoelectrode array consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) electrodes. Parylene C is used as gap filling 'matrix' material to avoid high temperature processing in electrode construction. This easy to deposit film of several micron heights provides a conformal coating between the high aspect ratio VACNFs with negligible pin-holes. The low background currents show the potential of this approach for ultra-sensitive detection. Consistent and reproducible electrochemical-signals are achieved using a simple electrode preparation. This simple, reliable and low-cost approach is a forward step in developing practical sensors for applications like pathogen detection, early cancer diagnosis and environmental monitoring.

  10. Energy harvesting from vertically aligned PZT nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Zhou, Zhi; Sodano, Henry A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a nanostructured piezoelectric beam is fabricated using vertically aligned lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanowire arrays and its capability of continuous power generation is demonstrated through direct vibration tests. The lead zirconate titanate nanowires are grown on a PZT thin film coated titanium foil using a hydrothermal reaction. The PZT thin film serves as a nucleation site while the titanium foil is used as the bottom electrode. Electromechanical frequency response function (FRF) analysis is performed to evaluate the power harvesting efficiency of the fabricated device. Furthermore, the feasibility of the continuous power generation using the nanostructured beam is demonstrated through measuring output voltage from PZT nanowires when beam is subjected to a sinusoidal base excitation. The effect of tip mass on the voltage generation of the PZT nanowire arrays is evaluated experimentally. The final results show the great potential of synthesized piezoelectric nanowire arrays in a wide range of applications, specifically power generation at nanoscale.

  11. Nanogenerators based on vertically aligned InN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guocheng; Zhao, Songrui; Henderson, Robert D E; Leonenko, Zoya; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Mi, Zetian; Ban, Dayan

    2016-01-28

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) based on vertically aligned InN nanowires (NWs) are fabricated, characterized, and evaluated. In these NGs, arrays of p-type and intrinsic InN NWs prepared by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) demonstrate similar piezoelectric properties. The p-type NGs show 160% more output current and 70% more output power product than the intrinsic NGs. The features driving performance enhancement are reduced electrostatic losses due to better NW array morphology, improved electromechanical energy conversion efficiency due to smaller NW diameters, and the higher impedance of intrinsic NGs due to elevated NW surface charge levels. These findings highlight the potential of InN based NGs as a power source for self-powered systems and the importance of NW morphology and surface state in overall NG performance. PMID:26700694

  12. Thermal conductivity of vertically aligned boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essedik Belkerk, Boubakeur; Achour, Amine; Zhang, Dongyan; Sahli, Salah; Djouadi, M.-Abdou; Khin Yap, Yoke

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, we report the thermal conductivity of vertically aligned boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) films produced by catalytic chemical vapor deposition. High-quality BNNTs were synthesized at 1200 °C on fused silica substrates precoated with Pt thin-film thermometers. The thermal conductivity of the BNNTs was measured at room temperature by using a pulsed photothermal technique. The apparent thermal conductivity of the BNNT coatings increased from 55 to 170 W m‑1 K‑1 when the thickness increased from 10 to 28 µm, while the thermal conductivity attained a value as high as 2400 W m‑1 K‑1. These results suggested that BNNTs, which are highly thermally conductive, but electrically insulating, are promising materials with unique properties.

  13. Gas sensing with gold-decorated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Mudimela, Prasantha R; Scardamaglia, Mattia; González-León, Oriol; Reckinger, Nicolas; Snyders, Rony; Llobet, Eduard; Bittencourt, Carla; Colomer, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes of different lengths (150, 300, 500 µm) synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition and decorated with gold nanoparticles were investigated as gas sensitive materials for detecting nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at room temperature. Gold nanoparticles of about 6 nm in diameter were sputtered on the top surface of the carbon nanotube forests to enhance the sensitivity to the pollutant gas. We showed that the sensing response to nitrogen dioxide depends on the nanotube length. The optimum was found to be 300 µm for getting the higher response. When the background humidity level was changed from dry to 50% relative humidity, an increase in the response to NO2 was observed for all the sensors, regardless of the nanotube length. PMID:24991529

  14. Pulsed Growth of Vertically Aligned Nanotube Arrays with Variable Density

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Jeremy Joseph; Puretzky, Alexander A; More, Karren Leslie; Rouleau, Christopher M; Eres, Gyula; Geohegan, David B

    2010-01-01

    The density of vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays is shown to vary significantly during normal growth by chemical vapor deposition and respond rapidly to changes in feedstock flux. Pulsing the feedstock gas to repeatedly stop and start nanotube growth is shown to induce density variations up to a factor of 1.6 within ~1-2 micron-long layers, allowing the synthesis of new array architectures with distinct regions of controllable length and density variation. The evolution of density within each layer of growth is determined from time-resolved optical reflectivity measurements of the height and optical extinction coefficient of the array as it grows, providing a real-time diagnostic of both density and growth kinetics. Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy of corresponding sections of the arrays is used to independently assess and confirm these density variations.

  15. Vertical-split fracture of mandibular condyle and its sequelae.

    PubMed

    Hackett, J F; Sleeman, D J

    2001-11-24

    A case of vertical-split fracture of the right mandibular condyle and its sequelae is presented. The patient was a 16-year-old female being assessed for orthodontic treatment. Orthopantomograph and plain joint view radiographs showed a remodelled condyle which had suffered trauma 10 years previously. This type of fracture is unusual in nature but has not led to any secondary lack of growth, restriction of movement or facial asymmetry. PMID:11767857

  16. Heat transfer in vertically aligned phase change energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Dessouky, H.T.; Bouhamra, W.S.; Ettouney, H.M.; Akbar, M.

    1999-05-01

    Convection effects on heat transfer are analyzed in low temperature and vertically aligned phase change energy storage systems. This is performed by detailed temperature measurements in the phase change material (PCM) in eighteen locations forming a grid of six radial and three axial positions. The system constitutes a double pipe configuration, where commercial grade paraffin wax is stored in the annular space between the two pipes and water flows inside the inner pipe. Vertical alignment of the system allowed for reverse of the flow direction of the heat transfer fluid (HTF), which is water. Therefore, the PCM is heated from the bottom for HTF flow from bottom to top and from the top as the HTF flow direction is reversed. For the former case, natural convection affects the melting process. Collected data are used to study variations in the transient temperature distribution at axial and radial positions as well as for the two-dimensional temperature field. The data are used to calculate the PCM heat transfer coefficient and to develop correlations for the melting Fourier number. Results indicate that the PCM heat transfer coefficient is higher for the case of PCM heating from bottom to top. Nusselt number correlations are developed as a function of Rayleigh, Stefan, and Fourier numbers for the HTF flow from bottom to top and as a function of Stefan and Fourier numbers for HTF flow from top to bottom. The enhancement ratio for heat transfer caused by natural convection increases and then levels off as the inlet temperature of the HTF is increased.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of vertically aligned carbon-nanotube membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Richard; Akin, Cevat; Purri, Matt; Shan, Jerry; Kim, Sangil; Fornasiero, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Membranes having vertically-aligned carbon-nanotube (VACNT) pores offer promise as highly efficient and permeable membranes for use as breathable thin films, or in filtration and separation applications, among others. However, current membrane-fabrication techniques utilizing chemical-vapor-deposition-grown VACNT arrays are costly and difficult to scale up. We have developed a solution-based, electric-field-assisted approach as a cost-effective and scalable method to produce large-area VACNT membranes. Nanotubes are dispersed in a liquid polymer, and aligned and electrodeposited with the aid of an electric field prior to crosslinking the polymer to create VACNT membranes. We experimentally examine the electrodeposition process, focusing on parameters including the electric field, composition of the solution, and CNT functionalization that can affect the nanotube number density in the resulting membrane. We characterize the CNT pore size and number density and investigate the transport properties of the membrane. Size-exclusion tests are used to check for defects and infer the pore size of the VACNT membranes. Dry-gas membrane permeability is measured with a pressurized nitrogen-flow system, while moisture-vapor-transfer rate is measured with the ASTM-E96 upright-cup test. We discuss the measured transport properties of the solution-based, electric-field-fabricated VACNT membranes in reference to their application as breathable thin films. We would like to acknowledge DTRA for their funding and support of our research.

  18. Vertically aligned carbon nanopillars with size and spacing control for a transparent field emission display.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, Jung A; Lee, Seung S

    2013-01-18

    A top-down fabrication method is presented for vertically aligned carbon nanopillars (CNPs) using photolithography and pyrolysis. The modified backside exposure method of photolithography fabricates vertically aligned polymer (SU-8) nanopillars. The pyrolysis process, which transforms the polymer to amorphous carbon, reliably produces vertically aligned CNPs with widths ranging from 100 to 400 nm. The CNPs can be used as a transparent field emission cathode for a transparent display and light emission is observed.

  19. CO2 laser irradiation on vertical root fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Luciana X.; Aun, Carlos E.; de Campos Ferraz, Jussara

    1997-05-01

    Vertical root fracture has been requested tooth extraction or root hemisection. There is no conservative treatment. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the CO2 laser effects on root fracture, associated with other materials. Forty two extracted human canines divided into 6 groups have their root vertically fractured. In groups A and B the CO2 laser was used with power of 5 W and 7 W respectively and the fracture line was covered with glass ionomer cement. In groups C and D the laser was used with 5 and 7 W and fracture line was covered with a dual composite. Groups E and F were controls, treated with glass ionomer cement and FLC dual composite. The teeth were placed in 5 percent methylene blue dye for 48 hs. The dye penetration was lowest in groups with glass ionomer cement and laser (A and B), at about (1.06mm). The difference between groups was statistically significant at 1 percent. All experimental groups showed dye penetration. The laser seemed to favor the sealing of the fracture line.

  20. DC Plasma Synthesis of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers for Biointerfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Ryan Christopher

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are a class of materials whose nanoscale dimensions and physical properties makes them uniquely suitable as functional elements in many applications for biodetection and biointerfacing on a cellular level. Control of VACNF synthesis by catalytic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) presents many challenges in integration into devices and structures designed for biointerfacing, such as transparent or flexible substrates. This dissertation addresses ways to overcome many of these issues in addition to deepening the fundamental understanding of nano-synthesis in catalytic PECVD. First, a survey of the field of VACNF synthesis and biointerfacing is presented, identifying the present challenges and greatest experimental applications. It is followed by experimental observations that elucidate the underlying mechanism to fiber alignment during synthesis, a critical step for deterministic control of fiber growth. Using a grid of electrodes patterned by photolithography on an insulating substrate, it was found that the alignment of the fibers is controlled by the anisotropic etching provided by ions during dc-PECVD synthesis. The VACNFs that have been utilized for many cellular interfacing experiments have unique mechanical and fluorescent properties due to a SiNx coating. The mechanism for SiNx deposition to VACNF sidewalls during synthesis is explored in addition to a detailed study of the optical properties of the coating. To explain the optical properties of this coating it is proposed that the source of photoluminescence for the SiNx coated VACNFs is quantum confinement effects due to the presence of silicon nanoclusters embedded in a Si3N4 matrix. These luminescent fibers have proven useful as registry markers in cell impalefection studies. To realize VACNF arrays used as an inflatable angioplasty balloon with embedded fibers to deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier, a method for transferring fibers to

  1. MOCVD growth of vertically aligned InGaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, H. C.; Su Oh, Tae; Ku, P.-C.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we report the growth of vertically aligned bulk InGaN nanowires (NWs) on r-plane sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Through the optimization process of growth conditions, such as growth temperature and pressure, we obtained high density InGaN NWs consisting of one (0001) polar- and two equivalent {1101} semi-polar planes. We have shown the highest InGaN NWs wire density of 8×108 cm-2,with an average diameter of 300 nm and a length of 2 μm. From results of photoluminescence (PL) at 30 K and 300 K, we observed the intense and broad emission peak from InGaN NWs at around 595 nm, and confirmed that the luminescence could be tuned from 580 nm to 660 nm by controlling the indium flow (TMIn) rate. Our results indicate that MOCVD-grown InGaN NWs can be effective absorbers of the blue-green range of solar spectrum and may be one of the good candidates for high efficiency photovoltaic devices targeting at blue-green photons.

  2. Growth of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, M. I.; Giorcelli, M.; Perrone, D.; Virga, A.; Shahzad, N.; Jagdale, P.; Cocuzza, M.; Tagliaferro, A.

    2013-06-01

    Capability of patterning carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth is of tantamount importance for a number of applications ranging from thermal to electronic. This article reports on the columnar growth of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) on patterned Silicon (Si) surface. We have developed procedures based on negative as well as positive masking approaches which allows the growth of predetermined MWCNTs patterns. We describe in detail the process steps leading to Si surface patterning. As quoted above, patterns are exploited to grow VA-MWCNTs. We have focused in particular on the growth of CNT pillars by chemical vapor despoition (CVD) technique at 850°C with camphor and ferrocene as carbon precursors and catalyst respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) is employed at low magnification to verify the correct patterning, and at high magnification to examine the surface morphology of CNTs pillars. The pillars are up to 2 mm high, their height being tailored through the deposition time. The diameter of each MWCNT is in the range 30-70 nm and the length is up to few hundred micrometers. The small CNT pillars produced, have several electrical and thermal applications. For instance they can be very useful for heat transfer systems as the lower thermal conductivity of fluids can be improved by the inclusion of nanotubes thanks to their peculiar 1-dimensional heat transfer characteristics.

  3. Modelling clustering of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    PubMed Central

    Schaber, Clemens F.; Filippov, Alexander E.; Heinlein, Thorsten; Schneider, Jörg J.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research demonstrated that arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) exhibit strong frictional properties. Experiments indicated a strong decrease of the friction coefficient from the first to the second sliding cycle in repetitive measurements on the same VACNT spot, but stable values in consecutive cycles. VACNTs form clusters under shear applied during friction tests, and self-organization stabilizes the mechanical properties of the arrays. With increasing load in the range between 300 µN and 4 mN applied normally to the array surface during friction tests the size of the clusters increases, while the coefficient of friction decreases. To better understand the experimentally obtained results, we formulated and numerically studied a minimalistic model, which reproduces the main features of the system with a minimum of adjustable parameters. We calculate the van der Waals forces between the spherical friction probe and bunches of the arrays using the well-known Morse potential function to predict the number of clusters, their size, instantaneous and mean friction forces and the behaviour of the VACNTs during consecutive sliding cycles and at different normal loads. The data obtained by the model calculations coincide very well with the experimental data and can help in adapting VACNT arrays for biomimetic applications. PMID:26464787

  4. Modelling clustering of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Schaber, Clemens F; Filippov, Alexander E; Heinlein, Thorsten; Schneider, Jörg J; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-08-01

    Previous research demonstrated that arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) exhibit strong frictional properties. Experiments indicated a strong decrease of the friction coefficient from the first to the second sliding cycle in repetitive measurements on the same VACNT spot, but stable values in consecutive cycles. VACNTs form clusters under shear applied during friction tests, and self-organization stabilizes the mechanical properties of the arrays. With increasing load in the range between 300 µN and 4 mN applied normally to the array surface during friction tests the size of the clusters increases, while the coefficient of friction decreases. To better understand the experimentally obtained results, we formulated and numerically studied a minimalistic model, which reproduces the main features of the system with a minimum of adjustable parameters. We calculate the van der Waals forces between the spherical friction probe and bunches of the arrays using the well-known Morse potential function to predict the number of clusters, their size, instantaneous and mean friction forces and the behaviour of the VACNTs during consecutive sliding cycles and at different normal loads. The data obtained by the model calculations coincide very well with the experimental data and can help in adapting VACNT arrays for biomimetic applications. PMID:26464787

  5. Fabrication and optical simulation of vertically aligned silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. K.; Salhi, B.; Mukhaimer, A. W.; Al-Sulaiman, F. A.

    2016-10-01

    Silicon nanowires (Si-NWs) have been considered widely as a perfect light absorber with strong evidence of enhanced optical functionalities. Here we report finite-difference time-domain simulations for Si-NWs to elucidate the key factors that determine enhanced light absorption, energy flow behavior, electric field profile, and excitons generation rate distribution. To avoid further complexity, a single Si-NW of cylindrical shape was modeled on c-Si and optimized to elucidate the aforementioned characteristics. Light absorption and energy flow distribution confirmed that Si-NW facilitates to confine photon absorption of several orders of enhancement whereas the energy flow is also distributed along the wire itself. With reference to electric field and excitons generation distribution it was revealed that Si-NW possesses the sites of strongest field distributions compared to those of flat silicon wafer. To realize the potential of Si-NWs-based thin film solar cell, a simple process was adopted to acquire vertically aligned Si-NWs grown on c-Si wafer. Further topographic characterizations were conducted through scanning electron microscope and tunneling electron microscope-coupled energy-dispersive spectroscopy.

  6. Thermal Conduction in Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Arrays and Composites.

    PubMed

    Barako, Michael T; Roy-Panzer, Shilpi; English, Timothy S; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    The ability to efficiently and reliably transfer heat between sources and sinks is often a bottleneck in the thermal management of modern energy conversion technologies ranging from microelectronics to thermoelectric power generation. These interfaces contribute parasitic thermal resistances that reduce device performance and are subjected to thermomechanical stresses that degrade device lifetime. Dense arrays of vertically aligned metal nanowires (NWs) offer the unique combination of thermal conductance from the constituent metal and mechanical compliance from the high aspect ratio geometry to increase interfacial heat transfer and device reliability. In the present work, we synthesize copper NW arrays directly onto substrates via templated electrodeposition and extend this technique through the use of a sacrificial overplating layer to achieve improved uniformity. Furthermore, we infiltrate the array with an organic phase change material and demonstrate the preservation of thermal properties. We use the 3ω method to measure the axial thermal conductivity of freestanding copper NW arrays to be as high as 70 W m(-1) K(-1), which is more than an order of magnitude larger than most commercial interface materials and enhanced-conductivity nanocomposites reported in the literature. These arrays are highly anisotropic, and the lateral thermal conductivity is found to be only 1-2 W m(-1) K(-1). We use these measured properties to elucidate the governing array-scale transport mechanisms, which include the effects of morphology and energy carrier scattering from size effects and grain boundaries. PMID:26284489

  7. Thermal Conduction in Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Arrays and Composites.

    PubMed

    Barako, Michael T; Roy-Panzer, Shilpi; English, Timothy S; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    The ability to efficiently and reliably transfer heat between sources and sinks is often a bottleneck in the thermal management of modern energy conversion technologies ranging from microelectronics to thermoelectric power generation. These interfaces contribute parasitic thermal resistances that reduce device performance and are subjected to thermomechanical stresses that degrade device lifetime. Dense arrays of vertically aligned metal nanowires (NWs) offer the unique combination of thermal conductance from the constituent metal and mechanical compliance from the high aspect ratio geometry to increase interfacial heat transfer and device reliability. In the present work, we synthesize copper NW arrays directly onto substrates via templated electrodeposition and extend this technique through the use of a sacrificial overplating layer to achieve improved uniformity. Furthermore, we infiltrate the array with an organic phase change material and demonstrate the preservation of thermal properties. We use the 3ω method to measure the axial thermal conductivity of freestanding copper NW arrays to be as high as 70 W m(-1) K(-1), which is more than an order of magnitude larger than most commercial interface materials and enhanced-conductivity nanocomposites reported in the literature. These arrays are highly anisotropic, and the lateral thermal conductivity is found to be only 1-2 W m(-1) K(-1). We use these measured properties to elucidate the governing array-scale transport mechanisms, which include the effects of morphology and energy carrier scattering from size effects and grain boundaries.

  8. Highly Enhanced Gas Adsorption Properties in Vertically Aligned MoS2 Layers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Seon Joon; Lee, Youhan; Kim, Jong-Seon; Jung, Woo-Bin; Yoo, Hae-Wook; Kim, Jihan; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-09-22

    In this work, we demonstrate that gas adsorption is significantly higher in edge sites of vertically aligned MoS2 compared to that of the conventional basal plane exposed MoS2 films. To compare the effect of the alignment of MoS2 on the gas adsorption properties, we synthesized three distinct MoS2 films with different alignment directions ((1) horizontally aligned MoS2 (basal plane exposed), (2) mixture of horizontally aligned MoS2 and vertically aligned layers (basal and edge exposed), and (3) vertically aligned MoS2 (edge exposed)) by using rapid sulfurization method of CVD process. Vertically aligned MoS2 film shows about 5-fold enhanced sensitivity to NO2 gas molecules compared to horizontally aligned MoS2 film. Vertically aligned MoS2 has superior resistance variation compared to horizontally aligned MoS2 even with same surface area exposed to identical concentration of gas molecules. We found that electrical response to target gas molecules correlates directly with the density of the exposed edge sites of MoS2 due to high adsorption of gas molecules onto edge sites of vertically aligned MoS2. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations corroborate the experimental results as stronger NO2 binding energies are computed for multiple configurations near the edge sites of MoS2, which verifies that electrical response to target gas molecules (NO2) correlates directly with the density of the exposed edge sites of MoS2 due to high adsorption of gas molecules onto edge sites of vertically aligned MoS2. We believe that this observation extends to other 2D TMD materials as well as MoS2 and can be applied to significantly enhance the gas sensor performance in these materials.

  9. Fracture mechanics analysis of vertical root fracture from condensation of gutta-percha.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Tamse, Aviad

    2012-06-01

    A two-dimensional fracture mechanics analysis of vertical root fracture (VRF) in single-canal roots from apical condensation of gutta-percha (gp) is developed. The resulting analytic relation for apical load causing VRF agrees with major trends reported in in-vitro tests on roots subjected to either continuous or, the more clinically relevant, repeating vertical condensation of gp. The model explicitly exposes the role of root canal morphology and dentin fracture toughness on VRF. Ovoid and irregular canals are prone to fracture while the effect of mean root canal radius is modest. Canal taper and instrumentation details may affect VRF only marginally and indirectly. The model predicts dentinal cracks to occur following root canal instrumentation and obturation, which may pose long-term threats to tooth integrity. PMID:22503579

  10. Superemission in vertically-aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelinskii, Igor; Makarov, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Presently we used two samples of vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes (VA SWCNTs) with parallelepiped geometry, sized 0.02 cm × 0.2 cm × 1.0 cm and 0.2 cm × 0.2 cm × 1.0 cm. We report absorption and emission properties of the VA SWCNTs, including strong anisotropy in both their absorption and emission spectra. We found that the emission spectra extend from the middle-IR range to the near-IR range, with such extended spectra being reported for the first time. Pumping the VA SWCNTs in the direction normal to their axis, superemission (SE) was observed in the direction along their axis. The SE band maximum is located at 7206 ± 0.4 cm-1. The energy and the power density of the superemission were estimated, along with the diffraction-limited divergence. At the pumping energy of 3 mJ/pulse, the SE energy measured by the detector was 0.74 mJ/pulse, corresponding to the total SE energy of 1.48 mJ/pulse, with the energy density of 18.5 mJ cm-2/pulse and the SE power density of 1.2 × 105 W cm-2/pulse. We report that a bundle of VA SWCNTs is an emitter with a relatively small divergence, not exceeding 3.9 × 10-3 rad. We developed a theoretical approach to explain such absorption and emission spectra. The developed theory is based on the earlier proposed SSH theory, which we extended to include the exchange interactions between the closest SWCNT neighbors. The developed theoretical ideas were implemented in a homemade FORTRAN code. This code was successfully used to calculate and reproduce the experimental spectra and to determine the SWCNT species that originate the respective absorption bands, with acceptable agreement between theory and experiment.

  11. Multidisciplinary approach to the repair of vertically fractured teeth.

    PubMed

    Trope, M; Rosenberg, E S

    1992-09-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a vertically fractured upper left second molar. The two segments were extracted separately. The periodontal ligament was protected from damage extraorally by soaking it with Hanks' balanced salt solution. The two segments were bonded with the use of a biocompatible glass ionomer bone cement and replanted in conjunction with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (gore-tex) membrane. After 1 yr the tooth functions normally and is clinically and radiographically within normal limits. PMID:9796517

  12. Vertical arrays for fracture mapping in geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.N.; Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Thomson, J.C.; Stevenson, M.A.

    1998-12-01

    In collaboration with UNOCAL Geothermal Operations, Los Alamos National Laboratory assessed the feasibility of using vertical arrays of borehole seismic sensors for mapping of microseismicity in The Geysers geothermal field. Seismicity which arises from minute displacements along fracture or fault surfaces has been shown in studies of seismically active oil reservoirs to be useful in identifying fractures affected by and possibly contributing to production. Use of retrievable borehole seismic packages at The Geysers was found to reduce the threshold for detection of microearthquakes by an estimated 2--3 orders of magnitude in comparison to surface-based sensors. These studies led to the design, materials selection, fabrication, and installation of a permanent array of geophones intended for long term seismic monitoring and mapping of fractures in the vicinity of the array at The Geysers.

  13. Utilizing vertically aligned CdSe/CdS nanorods within a luminescent solar concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Martyn; Farrell, Daniel; Zanella, Marco; Lupi, Antonio; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Chatten, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Optical characterisation methodologies are employed to validate a nanorod self-alignment technique for use in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). The nanorods utilised in this work were CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods, and the self-alignment technique relied on the evaporation of a highly concentrated nanorod/xylene solution onto a glass substrate. Position and angular dependent light absorptivity measurements revealed evidence of vertical nanorod alignment over a limited region at the centre of the LSC sample. Vertical nanorod alignment is beneficial for absorbing diffuse/scattered sunlight and provides for a high light trapping efficiency in the LSC.

  14. Highly aligned vertical GaN nanowires using submonolayer metal catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Creighton, J. Randall

    2010-06-29

    A method for forming vertically oriented, crystallographically aligned nanowires (nanocolumns) using monolayer or submonolayer quantities of metal atoms to form uniformly sized metal islands that serve as catalysts for MOCVD growth of Group III nitride nanowires.

  15. Physical Continuity and Vertical Alignment of Block Copolymer Domains by Kinetically Controlled Electrospray Deposition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanqiong; Choo, Youngwoo; Feng, Xunda; Osuji, Chinedum O

    2015-07-01

    The fabrication of block copolymer (BCP) thin films is reported with vertically aligned cylindrical domains using continuous electrospray deposition onto bare wafer surfaces. The out-of-plane orientation of hexagonally packed styrene cylinders is achieved in the "fast-wet" deposition regime in which rapid evaporation of the solvent in deposited droplets of polymer solution drives the vertical alignment of the self-assembled structure. Thermally activated crosslinking of the polybutadiene matrix provides kinetic control of the morphology, freezing the vertical alignment and preventing relaxation of the system to its preferred parallel orientation on the nontreated substrate. Physically continuous vertically oriented domains can be achieved over several micrometers of film thickness. The ability of electrospray deposition to fabricate well-ordered and aligned BCP films on nontreated substrates, the low amount of material used relative to spin-coating, and the continuous nature of the deposition may open up new opportunities for BCP thin films. PMID:25959572

  16. Structure and Characterization of Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    DOE PAGES

    Márquez, Francisco; López, Vicente; Morant, Carmen; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando; Domingo, Concepción; Elizalde, Eduardo; Zamora, Félix

    2010-01-01

    Arrmore » ays of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube bundles, SWCNTs, have been synthesized by simple alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition process, carried out at 800°C. The formed SWCNTs are organized in small groups perpendicularly aligned and attached to the substrate. These small bundles show a constant diameter of ca. 30 nm and are formed by the adhesion of no more than twenty individual SWCNTs perfectly aligned along their length.« less

  17. The correlation between electron density and anchoring strength in the inorganic vertical alignment layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Byoung Har; Yoo, Young Bum; Oh, Jin Young; Chae, Soo Sang; Baik, Hong Koo; Lee, Se Jong; Song, Kie Moon

    2009-08-01

    The relationship between the liquid crystal (LC) alignment and the density of the silicon oxide alignment layer was studied by theoretical and experimental approaches. The thin films were deposited by various methods and conditions, and then their densities were analyzed by x-ray reflectivity measurement. The alignment of LC was highly dependent on their densities, which we found to be closely related to the number of interacting dipoles. Ultimately, a-SiOx thin film with lower density gives rise to the uniform vertical alignment of liquid crystal.

  18. Using Dynamic Solution Exercises to Achieve Vertical Course Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Elliot; Flesch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper justifies the need for, and offers some suggestions on, the selection and implementation of mathematical problems known as dynamic solution exercises (DSEs). The intent of this article is to help provide insight into how mathematics teachers can go about making "vertical articulation" a cooperative and tangible part of the mathematics…

  19. A numerical approach for pressure transient analysis of a vertical well with complex fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yizhao; Liu, Yuewu; Liu, Wenchao; Han, Guofeng; Niu, Congcong

    2016-08-01

    A new well test model for a vertical fractured well is developed based on a discrete-fracture model in which the fractures are discretized as one dimensional (1-D) entities. The model overcomes the weakness of complex meshing, a large number of grids, and instability in conventional stripe-fracture models. Then, the discrete-fracture model is implemented using a hybrid element finite-element method. Triangular elements are used for matrix and line elements for the fractures. The finite element formulation is validated by comparing with the semi-analytical solution of a single vertical fractured well. The accuracy of the approach is shown through several examples with different fracture apertures, fracture conductivity, and fracture amount. Results from the discrete-fracture model agree reasonably well with the stripe-fracture model and the analytic solutions. The advantages of the discrete-fracture model are presented in mesh generation, computational improvement, and abilities to handle complex fractures like wedge-shaped fractures and fractures with branches. Analytical results show that the number of grids in the discrete-fracture model is 10 % less than stripe-fracture model, and computational efficiency increases by about 50 %. The more fractures there are, the more the computational efficiency increases.

  20. Infrared vertically-illuminated photodiode for chip alignment feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloatti, L.; Ram, R. J.

    2016-08-01

    We report on vertically-illuminated photodiodes fabricated in the GlobalFoundries 45nm 12SOI node and on a packaging concept for optically-interconnected chips. The photodiodes are responsive at 1180 nm -a wavelength currently used in chip-to-chip communications. They have further a wide field-of-view which enables chip-to-board positional feedback in chip-board assemblies. Monolithic integration enables on-chip processing of the positional data.

  1. Unraveling the growth of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, A.; Royo, C.; Latorre, N.; Mallada, R.; Tiggelaar, R. M.; Monzón, A.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between the main operational variables during the growth of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) by catalytic chemical vapor deposition is studied. In this contribution, we report the influence of the carbon source (i.e. acetylene, ethylene and propylene), the reaction/activation temperature, the rate of heating, the reaction time, the metal loading, and the metallic nanoparticle size and distribution on the growth and alignment of carbon nanotubes. Fe/Al thin films deposited onto silicon samples by electron-beam evaporation are used as catalyst. A phenomenological growth mechanism is proposed to explain the interaction between these multiple factors. Three different outcomes of the synthesis process are found: i) formation of forests of non-aligned, randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotubes, ii) growth of vertically aligned tubes with a thin and homogeneous carbonaceous layer on the top, and iii) formation of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. This carbonaceous layer (ii) has not been reported before. The main requirements to promote vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth are determined.

  2. [Three-dimensional vertically aligned CNTs coated by Ag nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Jie; Fan, Tuo; Ren, Wen-Jie; Lai, Chun-Hong

    2014-09-01

    In order to make surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates contained more "hot spots" in a three-dimensional (3D) focal volume, and can be adsorbed more probe molecules and metal nanoparticles, to obtain stronger Raman spectral signal, a new structure based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated by Ag nanoparticles for surface Raman enhancement is presented. The vertically aligned CNTs are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A silver film is first deposited on the vertically aligned CNTs by magnetron sputtering. The samples are then annealed at different temperature to cause the different size silver nanoparticles to coat on the surface and sidewalls of vertically aligned CNTs. The result of scanning electron microscopy(SEM) shows that Ag nanoparticles are attached onto the sidewalls and tips of the vertically aligned CNTs, as the annealing temperature is different , pitch size, morphology and space between the silver nanoparticles is vary. Rhodamine 6G is served as the probe analyte. Raman spectrum measurement indicates that: the higher the concentration of R6G, the stronger the Raman intensity, but R6G concentration increase with the enhanced Raman intensity varies nonlinearly; when annealing temperature is 450 °C, the average size of silver nanoparticles is about 100 to 120 nm, while annealing temperature is 400 °C, the average size is about 70 nm, and the Raman intensity of 450 °C is superior to the annealing temperature that of 400 °C and 350 °C. PMID:25532342

  3. Benefits of dipped vertical alignments for rail transit routes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.N.; Schonfeld, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Dipped track profiles between rail transit stations can significantly reduce propulsive energy, braking energy, and travel times. This work quantifies their potential benefits for circumstances reflected in various values for dips, speed and acceleration limits, station spacings, and available power. A deterministic simulation model has been developed to precisely estimate train motions and performance using basic equations for kinematics, resistance, power, and braking. For a 1% dip (i.e., a vertical dip equal to 1% of station spacing) in which gradients never exceed 4%, the results show savings (compared with level tracks) exceeding 9% for propulsive energy, 15% for braking energy, and 5% for travel time between stations.

  4. Controllable growth of vertically aligned graphene on C-face SiC

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Lianlian; Hilliard, Donovan; Huang, Qing-song; Liu, Fang; Wang, Mao; Böttger, Roman; Hübner, René; N’Diaye, Alpha T.; Arenholz, Elke; Heera, Viton; Skorupa, Wolfgang; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how to control the growth of vertically aligned graphene on C-face SiC by varying the processing conditions. It is found that, the growth rate scales with the annealing temperature and the graphene height is proportional to the annealing time. Temperature gradient and crystalline quality of the SiC substrates influence their vaporization. The partial vapor pressure is crucial as it can interfere with further vaporization. A growth mechanism is proposed in terms of physical vapor transport. The monolayer character of vertically aligned graphene is verified by Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. With the processed samples, d0 magnetism is realized and negative magnetoresistance is observed after Cu implantation. We also prove that multiple carriers exist in vertically aligned graphene. PMID:27708399

  5. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chen; Zhu, Guang

    2014-09-09

    A generator includes a substrate, a first electrode layer, a dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures, an insulating layer and a second electrode layer. The substrate has a top surface and the first electrode layer is disposed on the top surface of the substrate. The dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures extends from the first electrode layer. Each of the nanostructures has a top end. The insulating layer is disposed on the top ends of the nanostructures. The second electrode layer is disposed on the non-conductive layer and is spaced apart from the nanostructures.

  6. Hybrid hydrogels containing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with anisotropic electrical conductivity for muscle myofiber fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Ostrovidov, Serge; Shiku, Hitoshi; Ramalingam, Murugan; Nakajima, Ken; Sakka, Yoshio; Bae, Hojae; Matsue, Tomokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Biological scaffolds with tunable electrical and mechanical properties are of great interest in many different fields, such as regenerative medicine, biorobotics, and biosensing. In this study, dielectrophoresis (DEP) was used to vertically align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in a robust, simple, and rapid manner. GelMA-aligned CNT hydrogels showed anisotropic electrical conductivity and superior mechanical properties compared with pristine GelMA hydrogels and GelMA hydrogels containing randomly distributed CNTs. Skeletal muscle cells grown on vertically aligned CNTs in GelMA hydrogels yielded a higher number of functional myofibers than cells that were cultured on hydrogels with randomly distributed CNTs and horizontally aligned CNTs, as confirmed by the expression of myogenic genes and proteins. In addition, the myogenic gene and protein expression increased more profoundly after applying electrical stimulation along the direction of the aligned CNTs due to the anisotropic conductivity of the hybrid GelMA-vertically aligned CNT hydrogels. We believe that platform could attract great attention in other biomedical applications, such as biosensing, bioelectronics, and creating functional biomedical devices. PMID:24642903

  7. Hybrid hydrogels containing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with anisotropic electrical conductivity for muscle myofiber fabrication.

    PubMed

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Ostrovidov, Serge; Shiku, Hitoshi; Ramalingam, Murugan; Nakajima, Ken; Sakka, Yoshio; Bae, Hojae; Matsue, Tomokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Biological scaffolds with tunable electrical and mechanical properties are of great interest in many different fields, such as regenerative medicine, biorobotics, and biosensing. In this study, dielectrophoresis (DEP) was used to vertically align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in a robust, simple, and rapid manner. GelMA-aligned CNT hydrogels showed anisotropic electrical conductivity and superior mechanical properties compared with pristine GelMA hydrogels and GelMA hydrogels containing randomly distributed CNTs. Skeletal muscle cells grown on vertically aligned CNTs in GelMA hydrogels yielded a higher number of functional myofibers than cells that were cultured on hydrogels with randomly distributed CNTs and horizontally aligned CNTs, as confirmed by the expression of myogenic genes and proteins. In addition, the myogenic gene and protein expression increased more profoundly after applying electrical stimulation along the direction of the aligned CNTs due to the anisotropic conductivity of the hybrid GelMA-vertically aligned CNT hydrogels. We believe that platform could attract great attention in other biomedical applications, such as biosensing, bioelectronics, and creating functional biomedical devices.

  8. Hybrid hydrogels containing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with anisotropic electrical conductivity for muscle myofiber fabrication.

    PubMed

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Ostrovidov, Serge; Shiku, Hitoshi; Ramalingam, Murugan; Nakajima, Ken; Sakka, Yoshio; Bae, Hojae; Matsue, Tomokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Biological scaffolds with tunable electrical and mechanical properties are of great interest in many different fields, such as regenerative medicine, biorobotics, and biosensing. In this study, dielectrophoresis (DEP) was used to vertically align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in a robust, simple, and rapid manner. GelMA-aligned CNT hydrogels showed anisotropic electrical conductivity and superior mechanical properties compared with pristine GelMA hydrogels and GelMA hydrogels containing randomly distributed CNTs. Skeletal muscle cells grown on vertically aligned CNTs in GelMA hydrogels yielded a higher number of functional myofibers than cells that were cultured on hydrogels with randomly distributed CNTs and horizontally aligned CNTs, as confirmed by the expression of myogenic genes and proteins. In addition, the myogenic gene and protein expression increased more profoundly after applying electrical stimulation along the direction of the aligned CNTs due to the anisotropic conductivity of the hybrid GelMA-vertically aligned CNT hydrogels. We believe that platform could attract great attention in other biomedical applications, such as biosensing, bioelectronics, and creating functional biomedical devices. PMID:24642903

  9. Hybrid hydrogels containing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with anisotropic electrical conductivity for muscle myofiber fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Ostrovidov, Serge; Shiku, Hitoshi; Ramalingam, Murugan; Nakajima, Ken; Sakka, Yoshio; Bae, Hojae; Matsue, Tomokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-03-01

    Biological scaffolds with tunable electrical and mechanical properties are of great interest in many different fields, such as regenerative medicine, biorobotics, and biosensing. In this study, dielectrophoresis (DEP) was used to vertically align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in a robust, simple, and rapid manner. GelMA-aligned CNT hydrogels showed anisotropic electrical conductivity and superior mechanical properties compared with pristine GelMA hydrogels and GelMA hydrogels containing randomly distributed CNTs. Skeletal muscle cells grown on vertically aligned CNTs in GelMA hydrogels yielded a higher number of functional myofibers than cells that were cultured on hydrogels with randomly distributed CNTs and horizontally aligned CNTs, as confirmed by the expression of myogenic genes and proteins. In addition, the myogenic gene and protein expression increased more profoundly after applying electrical stimulation along the direction of the aligned CNTs due to the anisotropic conductivity of the hybrid GelMA-vertically aligned CNT hydrogels. We believe that platform could attract great attention in other biomedical applications, such as biosensing, bioelectronics, and creating functional biomedical devices.

  10. Alignment of muscle precursor cells on the vertical edges of thick carbon nanotube films.

    PubMed

    Holt, Ian; Gestmann, Ingo; Wright, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    The development of scaffolds and templates is an essential aspect of tissue engineering. We show that thick (>0.5 mm) vertically aligned carbon nanotube films, made by chemical vapour deposition, can be used as biocompatible substrates for the directional alignment of mouse muscle cells where the cells grow on the exposed sides of the films. Ultra high resolution scanning electron microscopy reveals that the films themselves consist mostly of small diameter (10 nm) multi-wall carbon nanotubes of wavy morphology with some single wall carbon nanotubes. Our findings show that for this alignment to occur the nanotubes must be in pristine condition. Mechanical wiping of the films to create directional alignment is detrimental to directional bioactivity. Larger areas for study have been formed from a composite of multiply stacked narrow strips of nanotubes wipe-transferred onto elastomer supports. These composite substrates appear to show a useful degree of alignment of the cells.

  11. Vertical Continuity and Alignment of Block Copolymer Domains by Kinetically Controlled Electrospray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hanqiong; Woo, Youngwoo; Feng, Xunda; Osuji, Chinedum; Osuji Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    We report the fabrication of vertically aligned cylindrical block copolymer (BCP) domains using continuous electrospray deposition (ESD) onto bare wafer surfaces. The out-of-plane orientation of hexagonally packed styrene cylinders was achieved in a ``fast-wet'' deposition regime where rapid evaporation of solvent in droplets of polymer solution drove the vertical alignment of SBS domains. The deposition conditions were optimized such that thermally activated crosslinking of the polybutadiene matrix provided kinetic control of the morphology, locking in the vertical alignment and preventing relaxation of the system to its preferred parallel orientation on the non-treated substrate. Physically continuous and vertically oriented domains is achieved over several microns of film thickness. We describe the effects of flow rate, collection distance and substrate temperature on thin film morphology and demonstrate selective etching capabilities. The ability of ESD to fabricate well-ordered and aligned BCP films on non-treated substrates, the low utilization of material relative to spin-coating and the continuous nature of the deposition may open up new opportunities for BCP thin films. We are exploring ESD as a new platform for sequential deposition of BCPs with different functionalities.

  12. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  13. Growth Mechanisms of Vertically-aligned Carbon, Boron Nitride, and Zinc Oxide Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, Yoke Khin

    2009-07-07

    Nanotubes are one-dimensional nanomaterials with all atoms located near the surface. This article provides a brief review on the possible growth mechanisms of a series of inorganic nanotubes, in particular, vertically-aligned (VA) carbon nanotubes (CNTs), boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), and ZnO nanotubes (ZnO NTs).

  14. Fast preparation of hydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube composites for bioactive application.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Anderson O; Corat, Marcus A F; Ramos, Sandra C; Matsushima, Jorge T; Granato, Alessandro E C; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Corat, Evaldo J

    2010-12-01

    A method for the electrodeposition of hydroxyapatite films on superhydrophilic vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes is presented. The formation of a thin homogeneous film with high crystallinity was observed without any thermal treatment and with bioactivity properties that accelerate the in vitro biomineralization process and osteoblast adhesion.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest for solid state fiber spinning.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seong Woo; Hwang, Jae Won; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2012-07-01

    Continuous carbon nanotubes (CNT) fibers were directly spun from a vertically aligned CNT forest grown by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The correlation of the CNT structure with Fe catalyst coarsening, reaction time, and the CNTs bundling phenomenon was investigated. We controlled the diameters and walls of the CNTs and minimized the amorphous carbon deposition on the CNTs for favorable bundling and spinning of the CNT fibers. The CNT fibers were fabricated with an as-grown vertically aligned CNT forest by a PECVD process using nanocatalyst an Al2O3 buffer layer, followed by a dry spinning process. Well-aligned CNT fibers were successfully manufactured using a dry spinning process and a surface tension-based densification process by ethanol. The mechanical properties were characterized for the CNT fibers spun from different lengths of a vertically aligned CNT forest. Highly oriented CNT fibers from the dry spinning process were characterized with high strength, high modulus, and high electrical as well as thermal conductivities for possible application as ultralight, highly strong structural materials. Examples of structural materials include space elevator cables, artificial muscle, and armor material, while multifunctional materials include E-textile, touch panels, biosensors, and super capacitors. PMID:22966627

  16. Synthesis and characterization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest for solid state fiber spinning.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seong Woo; Hwang, Jae Won; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2012-07-01

    Continuous carbon nanotubes (CNT) fibers were directly spun from a vertically aligned CNT forest grown by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The correlation of the CNT structure with Fe catalyst coarsening, reaction time, and the CNTs bundling phenomenon was investigated. We controlled the diameters and walls of the CNTs and minimized the amorphous carbon deposition on the CNTs for favorable bundling and spinning of the CNT fibers. The CNT fibers were fabricated with an as-grown vertically aligned CNT forest by a PECVD process using nanocatalyst an Al2O3 buffer layer, followed by a dry spinning process. Well-aligned CNT fibers were successfully manufactured using a dry spinning process and a surface tension-based densification process by ethanol. The mechanical properties were characterized for the CNT fibers spun from different lengths of a vertically aligned CNT forest. Highly oriented CNT fibers from the dry spinning process were characterized with high strength, high modulus, and high electrical as well as thermal conductivities for possible application as ultralight, highly strong structural materials. Examples of structural materials include space elevator cables, artificial muscle, and armor material, while multifunctional materials include E-textile, touch panels, biosensors, and super capacitors.

  17. The effects of window shape and reticle presence on performance in a vertical alignment task.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, E L; Haines, R F; Jordan, K

    1989-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of selected interior work-station orientational cuing upon the ability to align a target image with local vertical in the frontal plane. Angular error from gravitational vertical in an alignment task was measured for 20 observers viewing through two window shapes (square, round), two initial orientations of a computer-generated space shuttle image, and the presence or absence of a stabilized optical alignment reticle. In terms of overall accuracy, it was found that observer error was significantly smaller for the square window and reticle-present conditions than for the round window and reticle-absent conditions. Response bias data reflected an overall tendency to undershoot and greater variability of response in the round window/no reticle condition. These results suggest that environmental cuing information, such as that provided by square window frames and alignment reticles, may aid in subjective orientation and increase accuracy of response in a space station proximity operations alignment task. PMID:2751584

  18. The effects of window shape and reticle presence on performance in a vertical alignment task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Erika L.; Haines, Richard F.; Jordan, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of selected interior work-station orientational cuing upon the ability to align a target image with local vertical in the frontal plane. Angular error from gravitational vertical in an alignment task was measured for 20 observers viewing through two window shapes (square, round), two initial orientations of a computer-generated space shuttle image, and the presence or absence of a stabilized optical alignment reticle. In terms of overall accuracy, it was found that observer error was significantly smaller for the square window and reticle-present conditions than for the round window and reticle-absent conditions. Response bias data reflected an overall tendency to undershoot and greater variability of response in the round window/no reticle condition. These results suggest that environmental cuing information, such as that provided by square window frames and alignment reticles, may aid in subjective orientation and increase accuracy of response in a Space Station proximity operations alignment task.

  19. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube emitter on metal foil for medical X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Je Hwang; Kim, Wan Sun; Lee, Seung Ho; Eom, Young Ju; Park, Hun Kuk; Park, Kyu Chang

    2013-10-01

    A simple method is proposed for growing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on metal foil using the triode direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The carbon nanotube (CNT) electron emitter was fabricated using fewer process steps with an acid treated metal substrate. The CNT emitter was used for X-ray generation, and the X-ray image of mouse's joint was obtained with an anode current of 0.5 mA at an anode bias of 60 kV. The simple fabrication of a well-aligned CNT with a protection layer on metal foil, and its X-ray application, were studied. PMID:24245201

  20. The impact of fractured endodontic file removal on vertical root fracture resistance: three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Romeed, S A; Dunne, S M; Madarati, A A

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated by means of finite element analysis the influence of fractured file removal on root fracture resistance in an endodontically-treated canine. A 4mm fragment of an endodontic file was deliberately fractured in the apical third of an upper canine root and removed by ultrasonic tips. Micro-computed tomography scans were carried out before and after fractured file removal on the same tooth. Two 3D-FE models (before and after file removal) were subjected to 100N loading. Results indicate that the fractured file removal increased von Mises stresses by 55%. Peak stresses were located around the root filling/dentine interface prior to file removal. Following file removal, peak stresses were concentrated at the buccal root surface/bone interface that might initiate vertical root fracture buccolingually.

  1. Outcome and Efficacy of Height Gain and Sagittal Alignment after Kyphoplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-One; Jo, Dae-Jean

    2007-01-01

    Objective Although a significant correction of local kyphosis has been reported previously, only a few studies have investigated whether this correction leads to an improved overall sagittal alignment. The study objective was to determine whether an improvement in the local kyphotic angle improves the overall sagittal alignment. We examined and compared the effects of thoracic and lumbar level kyphoplasty procedures on local versus overall sagittal alignment of the spine. Methods Thirty-eight patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures who showed poor response to conventional, palliative medical therapy underwent single-level kyphoplasty. The pertinent clinical data of these patients, from June 2006 to November 2006, were reviewed retrospectively. We measured preoperative and postoperative vertebral body heights, which were classified as anterior, middle, or posterior fractured vertebral body heights. Furthermore, the local and overall sagittal angles after polymethylmethacrylate deposition were measured. Results More height was gained at the thoracic level, and the middle vertebral height regained the most. A significant local kyphosis correction was observed at the fractured level, and the correction at larger spanning segments decreased with the distance from the fractured level. Conclusion The inflatable balloon kyphoplasty procedure was the most effective in regaining the height of the thoracic fractured vertebra in the middle vertebral body. The kyphosis correction by kyphoplasty was mainly achieved in the fractured vertebral body. Sagittal angular correction decreased with an increase in the distance from the fractured vertebra. No significant improvement was observed in the overall sagittal alignment after kyphoplasty. Further studies in a larger population are required to clarify this issue. PMID:19096555

  2. Method of Deployment of a Space Tethered System Aligned to the Local Vertical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzhevskii, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    The object of this research is a space tether of two bodies connected by a flexible massless string. The research objective is the development and theoretical justification of a novel approach to the solution of the problem of deployment of the space tether in a circular orbit with its alignment to the local vertical. The approach is based on use of the theorem on the angular momentum change. It allows developing the open-loop control of the tether length that provides desired change of the angular momentum of the tether under the effect of the gravitational torque to the value, which corresponds to the angular momentum of the deployed tether aligned to the local vertical. The given example of application of the approach to a case of deployment of a tether demonstrates the simplicity of use of the method in practice, and also the method of validation of the mathematical model.

  3. Efficient Z-scheme charge separation in novel vertically aligned ZnO/CdSSe nanotrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengxin; Nieto-Pescador, Jesus; Carson, Alexander J.; Blake, Jolie C.; Gundlach, Lars

    2016-04-01

    A new tree-like ZnO/CdSSe nanocomposite with CdSSe branches grown on ZnO nanowires prepared via a two-step chemical vapor deposition is presented. The nanotrees (NTs) are vertically aligned on a substrate. The CdSSe branches result in strong visible light absorption and form a type-II heterojunction with the ZnO stem that facilitates efficient electron transfer. A combination of photoluminescence spectroscopy and lifetime measurements indicates that the NTs are promising materials for applications that benefit from a Z-scheme charge transfer mechanism. Vertically aligned branched ZnO nanowires can provide direct electron transport pathways to substrates and allow for efficient charge separation. These advantages of nanoscale hierarchical heterostructures make ZnO/CdSSe NTs a promising semiconductor material for solar cells, and other opto-electronic devices.

  4. Wafer-scale high-throughput ordered growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yaguang; Wu, Wenzhuo; Guo, Rui; Yuan, Dajun; Das, Suman; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-09-01

    This article presents an effective approach for patterned growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with high throughput and low cost at wafer scale without using cleanroom technology. Periodic hole patterns are generated using laser interference lithography on substrates coated with the photoresist SU-8. ZnO NWs are selectively grown through the holes via a low-temperature hydrothermal method without using a catalyst and with a superior control over orientation, location/density, and as-synthesized morphology. The development of textured ZnO seed layers for replacing single crystalline GaN and ZnO substrates extends the large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays on substrates of other materials, such as polymers, Si, and glass. This combined approach demonstrates a novel method of manufacturing large-scale patterned one-dimensional nanostructures on various substrates for applications in energy harvesting, sensing, optoelectronics, and electronic devices.

  5. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  6. Fluid flow into vertical fractures from a point source

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, P.E.; Zhu, Q.

    1995-03-01

    Flow into a fracture from a point source recently has been the focus of attention in the petroleum industry. The suggestion has been made that, in this flow configuration, convection (gravity-driven flow) would dominate Stokes`-type settling for determining final proppant distribution. The theory is that when a dense fluid flows into a fracture filled with a less dense fluid from a point source, the density of the fluid will force it to the bottom of the fracture. This clearly happens when the two fluids have low viscosity. However, viscosity of both the fluid in the fracture and the displacing fluid and nonuniformities in the fracture influence displacement process significantly. Results presented in this study clearly show the effects of viscosity and fracture nonuniformity on the convective settling mechanism.

  7. Effect of Different Instrumentation Techniques on Vertical Root Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Tavanafar, Saeid; Karimpour, Azadeh; Karimpour, Hamideh; Mohammed Saleh, Abdulrahman; Hamed Saeed, Musab

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Vertical root fractures are catastrophic events that often result in tooth extraction. Many contributing factor are associated with increasing incidence of vertical root fracture. Root canal preparation is one of the predisposing factors which can increase the root susceptibility to vertical fracture. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different instrumentation techniques on vertical root fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods In this study, 120 freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth of similar dimensions were decoronated and randomly divided into control (n=30), nickel-titanium hand K-file (HF, n=30), BioRaCe rotary file (BR, n=30), and WaveOne reciprocating single-file (WO, n=30) groups. After cleaning and shaping the root canals, AH26 was used as canal sealer, and obturation was completed using the continuous wave technique. The root canals were embedded vertically in standardised autopolymerising acrylic resin blocks, and subjected to a vertical load to cause vertical root fracture. The forces required to induce fractures were measured using a universal testing machine. ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to analyse the data. Results All experimental groups showed statistically significant reductions in fracture resistance as compared with the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the HF and BR groups. The WO group did not differ significantly from the HF group or the BR group. Conclusion All three instrumentation techniques caused weakening of the structure of the roots, and rendered them susceptible to fracture under lesser load than unprepared roots. The fracture resistance of roots prepared with the single-file reciprocating technique was similar to that of those prepared with NiTi hand and rotary instrumentation techniques. PMID:26106635

  8. Fabrication of Single, Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes in 3D Nanoscale Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Von Allmen, Paul A.; Baron, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and high-throughput manufacturing techniques for integrating single, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into novel 3D nanoscale architectures have been developed. First, the PECVD growth technique ensures excellent alignment of the tubes, since the tubes align in the direction of the electric field in the plasma as they are growing. Second, the tubes generated with this technique are all metallic, so their chirality is predetermined, which is important for electronic applications. Third, a wafer-scale manufacturing process was developed that is high-throughput and low-cost, and yet enables the integration of just single, aligned tubes with nanoscale 3D architectures with unprecedented placement accuracy and does not rely on e-beam lithography. Such techniques should lend themselves to the integration of PECVD grown tubes for applications ranging from interconnects, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), sensors, bioprobes, or other 3D electronic devices. Chemically amplified polyhydroxystyrene-resin-based deep UV resists were used in conjunction with excimer laser-based (lambda = 248 nm) step-and-repeat lithography to form Ni catalyst dots = 300 nm in diameter that nucleated single, vertically aligned tubes with high yield using dc PECVD growth. This is the first time such chemically amplified resists have been used, resulting in the nucleation of single, vertically aligned tubes. In addition, novel 3D nanoscale architectures have been created using topdown techniques that integrate single, vertically aligned tubes. These were enabled by implementing techniques that use deep-UV chemically amplified resists for small-feature-size resolution; optical lithography units that allow unprecedented control over layer-to-layer registration; and ICP (inductively coupled plasma) etching techniques that result in near-vertical, high-aspect-ratio, 3D nanoscale architectures, in conjunction with the use of materials that are

  9. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays: electrochemical etching and electrode reusability

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakesh K.; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers in the form of nanoelectrode arrays were grown on nine individual electrodes, arranged in a 3 × 3 array geometry, in a 2.5 cm2 chip. Electrochemical etching of the carbon nanofibers was employed for electrode activation and enhancing the electrode kinetics. Here, we report the effects of electrochemical etching on the fiber height and electrochemical properties. Electrode regeneration by amide hydrolysis and electrochemical etching is also investigated for electrode reusability. PMID:25089188

  10. Preferential syntheses of semiconducting vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes for direct use in FETs.

    PubMed

    Qu, Liangti; Du, Feng; Dai, Liming

    2008-09-01

    We have combined fast heating with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for preferential growth of semiconducting vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs). Raman spectroscopic estimation indicated a high yield of up to 96% semiconducting SWNTs in the VA-SWNT array. The as-synthesized semiconducting SWNTs can be used directly for fabricating FET devices without the need for any postsynthesis purification or separation. PMID:18665651

  11. Characterization of fracture permeability with high-resolution vertical flow measurements during borehole pumping.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.; Cheng, C.H.; Hardin, E.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of fracture permeability in granitic rocks was investigated by measuring the distribution of vertical flow in boreholes during periods of steady pumping. Pumping tests were conducted at two sites chosen to provide examples of moderately fractured rocks near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire and intensely fractured rocks near Oracle, Arizona. A sensitive heat-pulse flowmeter was used for accurate measurements of vertical flow as low as 0.2 liter per minute. Results indicate zones of fracture permeability in crystalline rocks are composed of irregular conduits that cannot be approximated by planar fractures of uniform aperture, and that the orientation of permeability zones may be unrelated to the orientation of individual fractures within those zones.-Authors

  12. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Properties of Vertically-Aligned Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, K.; Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Hivin, Q.; Ducournau, G.; Teo, E.; Coquet, P.; Tay, B. K.; Lepilliet, S.; Avramovic, V.; Chazelas, J.; Decoster, D.

    2016-05-01

    We present the experimental determination of the complex permittivity of vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) films grown on quartz substrates in the microwave regime from 10 MHz up to 67 GHz, with the electrical field perpendicular to the main axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), based on coplanar waveguide transmission line approach together with the measurement of the microwave impedance of top metalized vertically—aligned SWCNTs grown on conductive silicon substrates up to 26 GHz. From coplanar waveguide measurements, we obtain a real part of the permittivity almost equal to unity, which is interpreted in terms of low carbon atom density (3 × 1019 at/cm3) associated with a very low imaginary part of permittivity (<10-3) in the frequency range considered due to a very small perpendicular conductivity. The microwave impedance of a vertically aligned CNTs bundle equivalent to a low resistance reveals a good conductivity (3 S/cm) parallel to the CNTs axis. From these two kinds of data, we experimentally demonstrate the tensor nature of the vertically grown CNTs bundles.

  13. Electrokinetics of scalable, electric-field-assisted fabrication of vertically aligned carbon-nanotube/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Richard J.; Akin, Cevat; Giraldo, Gabriel; Kim, Sangil; Fornasiero, Francesco; Shan, Jerry W.

    2015-06-01

    Composite thin films incorporating vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) offer promise for a variety of applications where the vertical alignment of the CNTs is critical to meet performance requirements, e.g., highly permeable membranes, thermal interfaces, dry adhesives, and films with anisotropic electrical conductivity. However, current VACNT fabrication techniques are complex and difficult to scale up. Here, we describe a solution-based, electric-field-assisted approach as a cost-effective and scalable method to produce large-area VACNT composites. Multiwall-carbon nanotubes are dispersed in a polymeric matrix, aligned with an alternating-current (AC) electric field, and electrophoretically concentrated to one side of the thin film with a direct-current (DC) component to the electric field. This approach enables the fabrication of highly concentrated, individually aligned nanotube composites from suspensions of very dilute ( ϕ = 4 × 10 - 4 ) volume fraction. We experimentally investigate the basic electrokinetics of nanotube alignment under AC electric fields, and show that simple models can adequately predict the rate and degree of nanotube alignment using classical expressions for the induced dipole moment, hydrodynamic drag, and the effects of Brownian motion. The composite AC + DC field also introduces complex fluid motion associated with AC electro-osmosis and the electrochemistry of the fluid/electrode interface. We experimentally probe the electric-field parameters behind these electrokinetic phenomena, and demonstrate, with suitable choices of processing parameters, the ability to scalably produce large-area composites containing VACNTs at number densities up to 1010 nanotubes/cm2. This VACNT number density exceeds that of previous electric-field-fabricated composites by an order of magnitude, and the surface-area coverage of the 40 nm VACNTs is comparable to that of chemical-vapor-deposition-grown arrays of smaller-diameter nanotubes.

  14. Lineament mapping of vertical fractures of rock outcrops by remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matarrese, Raffaella; Masciopinto, Costantino

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of hydrological processes within the vadose zone is usually difficult, especially in the presence of compact rock subsoil. The possibility of recognizing the trend of the structural lineaments in fractured systems has important fallout in the understanding water infiltration processes, especially when the groundwater flow is strongly affected by the presence of faults and fractures that constitute the preferred ways of water fluxes. This study aims to detect fracture lineaments on fractured rock formations from CASI hyperspectral airborne VNIR images, with a size of 60 cm of the spatial resolution, and collected during November 2014. Lineaments detected with such high resolution have been compared with the fracture lineaments detected by a Landsat 8 image acquired at the same time of the CASI acquisition. The method has processed several remote sensed images at different spatial resolution, and it has produced the visualization of numerous lineament maps, as result of the vertical and sub-vertical fractures of the investigated area. The study has been applied to the fractured limestone outcrop of the Murgia region (Southern Italy). Here the rock formation hosts a deep groundwater, which supplies freshwater for drinking and irrigation purposes. The number of the fractures allowed a rough estimation of the vertical average hydraulic conductivity of the rock outcrop. This value was compared with field saturated rock hydraulic conductivity measurements derived from large ring infiltrometer tests carried out on the same rock outcrop.

  15. Treatment of a Vertical Root Fracture Using Dual-Curing Resin Cement: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moradi Majd, Nima; Akhtari, Farshid; Araghi, Solmaz; Homayouni, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF) is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth. PMID:23316397

  16. Treatment of a vertical root fracture using dual-curing resin cement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moradi Majd, Nima; Akhtari, Farshid; Araghi, Solmaz; Homayouni, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF) is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth. PMID:23316397

  17. Vertically Aligned Nanoplate Particles Directed by Block Copolymer Domains for Anisotropic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krook, Nadia; Meth, Jeffrey; Murray, Christopher; Riggleman, Robert; Composto, Russell

    During common processing methods, anisotropic fillers in polymer nanocomposites align in the direction of flow, parallel to the surfaces, thus enhancing properties in the plane of the substrate. This research aims to create thin film nanocomposites with perpendicularly aligned anisotropic particles to improve properties in the out-of-plane direction. The demonstrated work explores vertical orientation of rare-earth fluoride nanoplates in lamellar-forming poly(styrene- b-methyl methacrylate) to establish a platform that controls the alignment of any planar particle. Currently, gadolinium fluoride (GdF3) rhombus nanoplates with the longest and shortest diagonal dimensions of ~30 nm and ~25 nm, respectively, have been specially synthesized with the potential to intercalate the block copolymer (BCP) domains. By employing a ternary brush blend layer to neutralize silicon substrates to both BCP domains, vertical lamellae orientation has been enabled with an optimum film thickness of ~110 nm. The GdF3 surfaces are chemically modified to drive the plates to a specific BCP domain. After surface modification, the dispersion of GdF3 in homopolymer will first be shown followed by morphology results from integrating GdF3 into the BCP using scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Super growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on pulsed laser deposited catalytic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejes, D.; Pápa, Z.; Kecsenovity, E.; Réti, B.; Toth, Z.; Hernadi, K.

    2015-03-01

    Efficient and reproducible growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) requires precise setting of the properties of the catalyst thin films and CVD conditions. In this work, super growth of vertically aligned CNTs onto Al2O3 support and Fe-Co catalyst layer system is presented. The layers were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto silicon wafer pieces. Their thickness and optical properties were controlled by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The effect of heat treatment at 750 °C in nitrogen and in hydrogen of these PLD layers was compared. High-resolution electron microscopic images showed that treatment of catalyst layers in H2 resulted in finer and denser catalytic particles. As a result, well-aligned, dense and few-walled CNT forests with 1-1.5 mm height were deposited by water-vapor-assisted CVD on the hydrogen-treated films, while without hydrogen treatment defected CNT structures were grown. According to these observations, Raman spectroscopy showed a higher degree of crystallinity in case of CNT-s, where reduction by hydrogen influenced the oxidation state of the metallic catalytic particles in a beneficial way.

  19. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100) substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.) PMID:21899743

  20. Solution-based electric-field-assisted assembly of vertically aligned CNT membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Richard; Akin, Cevat; Shan, Jerry

    2014-11-01

    Carbon-nanotube (CNT) membranes are of interest due to experiments and simulations showing flow through nanotubes to be 3 to 5 orders of magnitude faster than predicted by viscous flow theory. Thus, membranes incorporating vertically aligned CNTs (VACNTs) as through-pores offer promise as highly efficient and permeable membranes for a variety of filter and separation processes. However, current membrane-fabrication techniques utilizing CVD-grown VACNT arrays are costly and difficult to scale up. We are developing a solution-based, electric-field-assisted approach as a cost-effective and scalable method to producing large-area VACNT membranes and composites. Post-growth nanotubes are first dispersed in a polymeric matrix and then aligned with an AC electric field. A DC component induces electrophoresis to the CNTs to significantly increase the VACNT number density. This composite field also introduces complex fluid motion caused by induced-charge electro-osmosis and the electrochemistry of the fluid/electrode interface. We experimentally probe all of these effects and consider factors affecting the number density and spatial uniformity of VACNT membranes. We also consider the basic electrokinetics of nanotube alignment under spatially uniform AC electric fields, making quantitative comparison with classical models of the dynamics of polarizable, 1D particles under the combined effects of electric fields, hydrodynamic drag, and Brownian motion. We conclude by discussing the implications of these fundamental electrohydrodynamic studies for producing large-area membranes containing aligned CNTs.

  1. Novel switching mode in a vertically aligned liquid crystal contact lens.

    PubMed

    Syed, Ishtiaque M; Kaur, Sarabjot; Milton, Harry E; Mistry, Devesh; Bailey, James; Morgan, Philip B; Jones, J Cliff; Gleeson, Helen F

    2015-04-20

    Liquid crystal (LC) contact lenses are emerging as an exciting technology for vision correction. A homeotropically (vertical) aligned LC lens is reported that offers improved optical quality and simplified construction techniques over previously reported LC contact lens designs. The lens has no polarization dependence in the off state and produces a continuous change in optical power of up to 2.00 ± 0.25 D with a voltage applied. The variation in optical power results from the voltage-induced change in refractive index of the nematic LC layer, from 1.52 to a maximum of 1.72. One device substrate is treated with an alignment layer that is a mixture of planar and homeotropic polyimides, rubbed to induce a preferred director orientation in the switched state. Defects that could occur during switching are thus avoided and the lens exhibits excellent optical quality with a continuous variation in focal power. PMID:25969032

  2. Vertically-aligned BCN nanotube arrays with superior performance in electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junshuang; Li, Na; Gao, Faming; Zhao, Yufeng; Hou, Li; Xu, Ziming

    2014-08-15

    Electrochemical capacitors (EC) have received tremendous interest due to their high potential to satisfy the urgent demand in many advanced applications. The development of new electrode materials is considered to be the most promising approach to enhance the EC performance substantially. Herein, we present a high-capacity capacitor material based on vertically-aligned BC₂N nanotube arrays (VA-BC₂NNTAs) synthesized by low temperature solvothermal route. The obtained VA-BC₂NNTAs display the good aligned nonbuckled tubular structure, which could indeed advantageously enhance capacitor performance. VA-BC₂NNTAs exhibit an extremely high specific capacitance, 547 Fg(-1), which is about 2-6 times larger than that of the presently available carbon-based materials. Meanwhile, VA-BC₂NNTAs maintain an excellent rate capability and high durability. All these characteristics endow VA-BC₂NNTAs an alternative promising candidate for an efficient electrode material for electrochemical capacitors (EC).

  3. 25 Gbps silicon photonics multi-mode fiber link with highly alignment tolerant vertically illuminated germanium photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Tadashi; Wakayama, Yuki; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Oda, Katsuya; Sagawa, Misuzu; Takemoto, Takashi; Nomoto, Etsuko; Arimoto, Hideo; Tanaka, Shigehisa

    2015-02-01

    For a multi mode fiber optical link, a high speed silicon photonics receiver based on a highly alignment tolerant vertically illuminated germanium photodiode was developed. The germanium photodiode has 20 GHz bandwidth and responsivity of 0.5 A/W with highly alignment tolerance for passive optical assembly. The receiver achieves 25 Gbps error free operation after 100 m multi mode fiber transmission.

  4. Thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: Growth conditions and tube inhomogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Pham, Quang N.; Saltonstall, Christopher B.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2014-10-13

    The thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VACNTAs) grown on silicon dioxide substrates via chemical vapor deposition is measured using a 3ω technique. For each sample, the VACNTA layer and substrate are pressed to a heating line at varying pressures to extract the sample's thermophysical properties. The nanotubes' structure is observed via transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of hydrogen and water vapor in the fabrication process is tuned to observe the effect on measured thermal properties. The presence of iron catalyst particles within the individual nanotubes prevents the array from achieving the overall thermal conductivity anticipated based on reported measurements of individual nanotubes and the packing density.

  5. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kodumagulla, A; Varanasi, V; Pearce, Ryan; Wu, W-C; Hensley, Dale K; Tracy, Joseph B; McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) have been synthesized in a mixture of acetone and air using catalytic DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Typically, ammonia or hydrogen is used as etchant gas in the mixture to remove carbon that otherwise passivates the catalyst surface and impedes growth. Our demonstration of using air as the etchant gas opens up a possibility that ion etching could be sufficient to maintain the catalytic activity state during synthesis. It also demonstrates the path toward growing VACNFs in open atmosphere.

  6. Monolayer formation of human osteoblastic cells on vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Anderson O; Antunes, Erica F; Palma, Mariana Bs; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J; Corat, Evaldo J

    2010-04-01

    Monolayer formation of SaOS-2 (human osteoblast-like cells) was observed on VACNT (vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes) scaffolds without purification or functionalization. The VACNT were produced by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition on titanium surfaces with nickel or iron as catalyst. Cell viability and morphology studies were evaluated by LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release assay and SEM (scanning electron microscopy), respectively. The non-toxicity and the flat spreading with monolayer formation of the SaOs-2 on VACNT scaffolds surface indicate that they can be used for biomedical applications. PMID:19947917

  7. Modeling and experimental study of resistive switching in vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, O. A.; Blinov, Yu F.; Ilina, M. V.; Ilin, O. I.; Smirnov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Model of the resistive switching in vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA CNT) taking into account the processes of deformation, polarization and piezoelectric charge accumulation have been developed. Origin of hysteresis in VA CNT-based structure is described. Based on modeling results the VACNTs-based structure has been created. The ration resistance of high-resistance to low-resistance states of the VACNTs-based structure amounts 48. The correlation the modeling results with experimental studies is shown. The results can be used in the development nanoelectronics devices based on VA CNTs, including the nonvolatile resistive random-access memory.

  8. Kerr effect and Kerr constant enhancement in vertically aligned deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liangyu; Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we review recently achieved Kerr effect progress in novel liquid crystal (LC) material: vertically aligned deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (VADHFLC). With an increasing applied electric field, the induced inplane birefringence of LCs shows quadratic nonlinearity. The theoretical calculations and experimental details are illustrated. With an enhanced Kerr constant to 130 nm/V2, this VADHFLC cell can achieve a 2π modulation by a small efficient electric field with a fast response around 100 μs and thus can be employed in both display and photonics devices.

  9. Hydrophobic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on Corning glass for self cleaning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.; Oei, Shu Pei

    2010-09-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were prepared by Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on inexpensive Corning glass substrates using different under layers. The samples were functionalised by a simple 1H,1H-2H,2H perfluorodecyl-trichlorosilane (FDTS) and hexane mixture. The surface roughness of the CNTs and protective FDTS coating provides an ideal hydrophobic surface of around 141°. Auger spectroscopy analysis was performed to confirm fluorination of the sample. It was also found titanium provides a suitable under layer support for Ni catalyst due to the wetability of the two elements.

  10. Angular distribution of field emitted electrons from vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobucci, S.; Fratini, M.; Rizzo, A.; Scarinci, F.; Zhang, Y.; Mann, M.; Li, C.; Milne, W. I.; El Gomati, M. M.; Lagomarsino, S.; Stefani, G.

    2012-01-01

    Angular field emission (FE) properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays have been measured on samples grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and characterized by scanning electron microscope and I-V measurements. These properties determine the angular divergence of electron beams, a crucial parameter in order to obtain high brilliance FE based cathodes. From angular distributions of the electron beam transmitted through extraction grids of different mesh size and by using ray-tracing simulations, the maximum emission angle from carbon nanotube tips has been determined to be about ± 30° around the tube main axis.

  11. Monolayer formation of human osteoblastic cells on vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Anderson O; Antunes, Erica F; Palma, Mariana Bs; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J; Corat, Evaldo J

    2010-03-12

    Monolayer formation of SaOS-2 (human osteoblast-like cells) was observed on VACNT (vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes) scaffolds without purification or functionalization. The VACNT were produced by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition on titanium surfaces with nickel or iron as catalyst. Cell viability and morphology studies were evaluated by LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release assay and SEM (scanning electron microscopy), respectively. The non-toxicity and the flat spreading with monolayer formation of the SaOs-2 on VACNT scaffolds surface indicate that they can be used for biomedical applications.

  12. Cyclohexane triggers staged growth of pure and vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, P.; Grüneis, A.; Grimm, D.; Kramberger, C.; Engelhard, R.; Rümmeli, M.; Schumann, J.; Kaltofen, R.; Büchner, B.; Schaman, C.; Kuzmany, H.; Gemming, T.; Barreiro, A.; Pichler, T.

    2008-03-01

    An innovative staged chemical vapor deposition (SCVD) approach providing flexible control over the feedstock type during single wall carbon nanotube (SWNTs) growth is proposed. The efficiency of staged growth by means of a cyclohexane/methane system using thin film catalysts is here illustrated. The mechanism involves the nucleation stage efficiently triggered by cyclohexane, followed by methane assisting a growth stage yielding high purity SWNTs vertically aligned with lengths of several hundred μm. In addition, SCVD also facilitates catalyst free SWNT detachment enabling repeated growth.

  13. Self-assembly of gold nanorods into vertically aligned, rectangular microplates with a supercrystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junyan; Li, Zhe; Ye, Xiaozhou; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2013-12-01

    Vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates with a well-defined rectangular shape were fabricated in a large area through self-assembly of gold nanorods by a novel bulk solution evaporation method. This evaporative self-assembly strategy involving continuous movement of the contact line can prevent the coffee-ring effect, thus allowing uniform deposition of discrete GNR superstructures over a large area and favoring the formation of GNR supercrystals with geometrically symmetric shapes. A mechanism based on the continuing nucleation and growth of smectic GNR superstructures accompanying the movement of the contact line was put forward for the formation of the unique GNR supercrystal arrays. Based on this mechanism, a micropatterned substrate was designed to control the nucleation location and growth direction, leading to the spontaneous self-assembly of nearly parallel arrays of vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates of GNRs. The obtained rectangular-plate-shaped GNR supercrystals exhibited interesting anisotropic optical reflection properties, which were revealed by polarized light microscopy.Vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates with a well-defined rectangular shape were fabricated in a large area through self-assembly of gold nanorods by a novel bulk solution evaporation method. This evaporative self-assembly strategy involving continuous movement of the contact line can prevent the coffee-ring effect, thus allowing uniform deposition of discrete GNR superstructures over a large area and favoring the formation of GNR supercrystals with geometrically symmetric shapes. A mechanism based on the continuing nucleation and growth of smectic GNR superstructures accompanying the movement of the contact line was put forward for the formation of the unique GNR supercrystal arrays. Based on this mechanism, a micropatterned substrate was designed to control the nucleation location and growth direction, leading to the spontaneous self-assembly of

  14. Magnetotransport properties of quasi-one-dimensionally channeled vertically aligned heteroepitaxial nanomazes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Aiping; Zhang, Wenrui; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Su, Qing; Tsai, Chen-Fong; Chen, Li; Wang, H.; Jia, Q. X.; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2013-03-04

    A unique quasi-one-dimensionally channeled nanomaze structure has been self-assembled in the (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}){sub 1−x}:(ZnO){sub x} vertically aligned nanocomposites (VANs). Significantly enhanced magnetotransport properties have been achieved by tuning the ZnO composition x. The heteroepitaxial VAN thin films, free of large angle grain boundaries, exhibit a maximum low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) of 75% (20 K and 1 T). The enhanced LFMR close to the percolation threshold is attributed to the spin-polarized tunneling through the ferromagnetic/insulating/ferromagnetic vertical sandwiches in the nanomazes. This study suggests that the phase boundary in the nanomaze structure is an alternative approach to produce decoupled ferromagnetic domains and thus to achieve enhanced magnetoresistance.

  15. Conformal atomic layer deposition of alumina on millimeter tall, vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Stano, Kelly L; Carroll, Murphy; Padbury, Richard; McCord, Marian; Jur, Jesse S; Bradford, Philip D

    2014-11-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to coat high aspect ratio and high surface area substrates with conformal and precisely controlled thin films. Vertically aligned arrays of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with lengths up to 1.5 mm were conformally coated with alumina from base to tip. The nucleation and growth behaviors of Al2O3 ALD precursors on the MWCNTs were studied as a function of CNT surface chemistry. CNT surfaces were modified through a series of post-treatments including pyrolytic carbon deposition, high temperature thermal annealing, and oxygen plasma functionalization. Conformal coatings were achieved where post-treatments resulted in increased defect density as well as the extent of functionalization, as characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using thermogravimetric analysis, it was determined that MWCNTs treated with pyrolytic carbon and plasma functionalization prior to ALD coating were more stable to thermal oxidation than pristine ALD coated samples. Functionalized and ALD coated arrays had a compressive modulus more than two times higher than a pristine array coated for the same number of cycles. Cross-sectional energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that Al2O3 could be uniformly deposited through the entire thickness of the vertically aligned MWCNT array by manipulating sample orientation and mounting techniques. Following the ALD coating, the MWCNT arrays demonstrated hydrophilic wetting behavior and also exhibited foam-like recovery following compressive strain.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of vertically aligned zinc nanowires using track-etched polycarbonate membranes as templates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Zein El Abedin, S; Ghazvini, M S; Endres, F

    2013-07-21

    In the present paper, vertically aligned arrays of zinc nanowires were synthesized by electrochemical deposition into ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes in the ionic liquid electrolyte 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate ([EMIm]TfO)/Zn(TfO)2. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were performed to investigate the electrochemical growth of zinc nanowires inside of the membranes. The transport processes and mechanisms of the nanowire growth in the membranes are also discussed. A supporting zinc or copper layer was deposited on the sputtered side in order to make the back layer thick enough to stabilize the wires. Zinc nanowires with a diameter of 90 nm and a length of up to 18 μm were obtained after removing the template. Furthermore, short nanowires with lengths less than 5 μm and a sandwich-like structure with nanowires in the middle were also synthesized. Vertically aligned zinc nanowire structures on such a substrate might be a potential anode candidate for future generation lithium ion batteries.

  17. Fabricating vertically aligned sub-20 nm Si nanowire arrays by chemical etching and thermal oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Luping; Fang, Yin; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Zang, Nanzhi; Jiang, Peng; Ziegler, Kirk J.

    2016-04-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are appealing building blocks in various applications, including photovoltaics, photonics, and sensors. Fabricating SiNW arrays with diameters <100 nm remains challenging through conventional top-down approaches. In this work, chemical etching and thermal oxidation are combined to fabricate vertically aligned, sub-20 nm SiNW arrays. Defect-free SiNWs with diameters between 95 and 200 nm are first fabricated by nanosphere (NS) lithography and chemical etching. The key aspects for defect-free SiNW fabrication are identified as: (1) achieving a high etching selectivity during NS size reduction; (2) retaining the circular NS shape with smooth sidewalls; and (3) using a directional metal deposition technique. SiNWs with identical spacing but variable diameters are demonstrated by changing the reactive ion etching power. The diameter of the SiNWs is reduced by thermal oxidation, where self-limiting oxidation is encountered after oxidizing the SiNWs at 950 °C for 1 h. A second oxidation is performed to achieve vertically aligned, sub-20 nm SiNW arrays. Si/SiO2 core/shell NWs are obtained before removing the oxidized shell. HRTEM imaging shows that the SiNWs have excellent crystallinity.

  18. Schottky-contacted vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods for hydrogen gas nanosensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ranwa, Sapana; Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Jitendra; Fanetti, Mattia

    2015-07-21

    Vertically well aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on Si(100) substrate using RF magnetron sputtering technique. Scanning electron microscopy images confirms uniform distribution of NRs on 2 in. wafer with average diameter, height and density being ∼75 nm, ∼850 nm, and ∼1.5 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}, respectively. X-ray diffraction reveals that the ZnO NRs are grown along c-axis direction with wurtzite crystal structure. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, which shows a single strong peak around 3.24 eV with full width half maxima 130 meV, indicates the high crystalline and optical quality of ZnO and very low defect density. Vertically aligned nanosensors were fabricated by depositing gold circular Schottky contacts on ZnO NRs. Resistance responses of nanosensors were observed in the range from 50 to 150 °C in 1% and 5% hydrogen in argon environment, which is below and above the explosive limit (4%) of hydrogen in air. The nanosensor's sensitivity increases from 11% to 67% with temperature from 50 to 150 °C and also shows fast response time (9–16 s) and moderate recovery time (100–200 s). A sensing mechanism is proposed based on Schottky barrier changes at heterojunctions and change in depletion region of NRs.

  19. The role of substrate surface alteration in the fabrication of vertically aligned CdTe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Neretina, S; Hughes, R A; Devenyi, G A; Sochinskii, N V; Preston, J S; Mascher, P

    2008-05-01

    Previously we have described the deposition of vertically aligned wurtzite CdTe nanowires derived from an unusual catalytically driven growth mode. This growth mode could only proceed when the surface of the substrate was corrupted with an alcohol layer, although the role of the corruption was not fully understood. Here, we present a study detailing the remarkable role that this substrate surface alteration plays in the development of CdTe nanowires; it dramatically improves the size uniformity and largely eliminates lateral growth. These effects are demonstrated to arise from the altered surface's ability to limit Ostwald ripening of the catalytic seed material and by providing a surface unable to promote the epitaxial relationship needed to sustain a lateral growth mode. The axial growth of the CdTe nanowires is found to be exclusively driven through the direct impingement of adatoms onto the catalytic seeds leading to a self-limiting wire height associated with the sublimation of material from the sidewall facets. The work presented furthers the development of the mechanisms needed to promote high quality substrate-based vertically aligned CdTe nanowires. With our present understanding of the growth mechanism being a combination of selective area epitaxy and a catalytically driven vapour-liquid-solid growth mode, these results also raise the intriguing possibility of employing this growth mode in other material systems in an effort to produce superior nanowires.

  20. Vertically-Aligned Single-Crystal Nanocone Arrays: Controlled Fabrication and Enhanced Field Emission.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jing Lai; Lei, Dang Yuan; Chen, Fei; Lau, Shu Ping; Milne, William I; Toimil-Molares, M E; Trautmann, Christina; Liu, Jie

    2016-01-13

    Metal nanostructures with conical shape, vertical alignment, large ratio of cone height and curvature radius at the apex, controlled cone angle, and single-crystal structure are ideal candidates for enhancing field electron-emission efficiency with additional merits, such as good mechanical and thermal stability. However, fabrication of such nanostructures possessing all these features is challenging. Here, we report on the controlled fabrication of large scale, vertically aligned, and mechanically self-supported single-crystal Cu nanocones with controlled cone angle and enhanced field emission. The Cu nanocones were fabricated by ion-track templates in combination with electrochemical deposition. Their cone angle is controlled in the range from 0.3° to 6.2° by asymmetrically selective etching of the ion tracks and the minimum tip curvature diameter reaches down to 6 nm. The field emission measurements show that the turn-on electric field of the Cu nanocone field emitters can be as low as 1.9 V/μm at current density of 10 μA/cm(2) (a record low value for Cu nanostructures, to the best of our knowledge). The maximum field enhancement factor we measured was as large as 6068, indicating that the Cu nanocones are promising candidates for field emission applications.

  1. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications. PMID:26726580

  2. Vertically aligned N-doped CNTs growth using Taguchi experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Ricardo M.; Fernandes, António J. S.; Ferro, Marta C.; Pinna, Nicola; Silva, Rui F.

    2015-07-01

    The Taguchi method with a parameter design L9 orthogonal array was implemented for optimizing the nitrogen incorporation in the structure of vertically aligned N-doped CNTs grown by thermal chemical deposition (TCVD). The maximization of the ID/IG ratio of the Raman spectra was selected as the target value. As a result, the optimal deposition configuration was NH3 = 90 sccm, growth temperature = 825 °C and catalyst pretreatment time of 2 min, the first parameter having the main effect on nitrogen incorporation. A confirmation experiment with these values was performed, ratifying the predicted ID/IG ratio of 1.42. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization revealed a uniform completely vertically aligned array of multiwalled CNTs which individually exhibit a bamboo-like structure, consisting of periodically curved graphitic layers, as depicted by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated a 2.00 at.% of N incorporation in the CNTs in pyridine-like and graphite-like, as the predominant species.

  3. Self-assembly of gold nanorods into vertically aligned, rectangular microplates with a supercrystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Junyan; Li, Zhe; Ye, Xiaozhou; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2014-01-21

    Vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates with a well-defined rectangular shape were fabricated in a large area through self-assembly of gold nanorods by a novel bulk solution evaporation method. This evaporative self-assembly strategy involving continuous movement of the contact line can prevent the coffee-ring effect, thus allowing uniform deposition of discrete GNR superstructures over a large area and favoring the formation of GNR supercrystals with geometrically symmetric shapes. A mechanism based on the continuing nucleation and growth of smectic GNR superstructures accompanying the movement of the contact line was put forward for the formation of the unique GNR supercrystal arrays. Based on this mechanism, a micropatterned substrate was designed to control the nucleation location and growth direction, leading to the spontaneous self-assembly of nearly parallel arrays of vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates of GNRs. The obtained rectangular-plate-shaped GNR supercrystals exhibited interesting anisotropic optical reflection properties, which were revealed by polarized light microscopy. PMID:24292548

  4. Schottky-contacted vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods for hydrogen gas nanosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranwa, Sapana; Kumar, Mohit; Singh, Jitendra; Fanetti, Mattia; Kumar, Mahesh

    2015-07-01

    Vertically well aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on Si(100) substrate using RF magnetron sputtering technique. Scanning electron microscopy images confirms uniform distribution of NRs on 2 in. wafer with average diameter, height and density being ˜75 nm, ˜850 nm, and ˜1.5 × 1010 cm-2, respectively. X-ray diffraction reveals that the ZnO NRs are grown along c-axis direction with wurtzite crystal structure. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, which shows a single strong peak around 3.24 eV with full width half maxima 130 meV, indicates the high crystalline and optical quality of ZnO and very low defect density. Vertically aligned nanosensors were fabricated by depositing gold circular Schottky contacts on ZnO NRs. Resistance responses of nanosensors were observed in the range from 50 to 150 °C in 1% and 5% hydrogen in argon environment, which is below and above the explosive limit (4%) of hydrogen in air. The nanosensor's sensitivity increases from 11% to 67% with temperature from 50 to 150 °C and also shows fast response time (9-16 s) and moderate recovery time (100-200 s). A sensing mechanism is proposed based on Schottky barrier changes at heterojunctions and change in depletion region of NRs.

  5. The Relationship Between the Sloshing and Breathing Frequencies in a 1D Vertically Aligned Dust Particle Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Sabo, Hannah; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2013-10-01

    When confined in a glass box placed on the lower powered electrode of a GEC rf reference cell, dust particles immersed in plasma can form vertically aligned 1D chains. Both the formation and subsequent structural changes within this vertically aligned dust chain are controlled by the rf power, since the rf power effects the ionization rate in the cell, the screening parameter and the charge on the dust particles. In this study, oscillations of a 1D vertically aligned dust particle chain are employed to investigate the dust charge and screening length through measurement of the resonance frequency. It will be shown that the relationship between the sloshing and breathing frequencies indicates that the ion streaming effect plays an important role in vertical oscillations and must be included in any structural analysis of the system.

  6. Metal-modified and vertically aligned carbon nanotube sensors array for landfill gas monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Penza, M; Rossi, R; Alvisi, M; Serra, E

    2010-03-12

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) layers were synthesized on Fe-coated low-cost alumina substrates using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology. A miniaturized CNT-based gas sensor array was developed for monitoring landfill gas (LFG) at a temperature of 150 degrees C. The sensor array was composed of 4 sensing elements with unmodified CNT, and CNT loaded with 5 nm nominally thick sputtered nanoclusters of platinum (Pt), ruthenium (Ru) and silver (Ag). Chemical analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures constituted of CO(2), CH(4), H(2), NH(3), CO and NO(2) has been performed by the array sensor responses and pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA results demonstrate that the metal-decorated and vertically aligned CNT sensor array is able to discriminate the NO(2) presence in the multicomponent mixture LFG. The NO(2) gas detection in the mixture LFG was proved to be very sensitive, e.g.: the CNT:Ru sensor shows a relative change in the resistance of 1.50% and 0.55% for NO(2) concentrations of 3.3 ppm and 330 ppb dispersed in the LFG, respectively, with a wide NO(2) gas concentration range measured from 0.33 to 3.3 ppm, at the sensor temperature of 150 degrees C. The morphology and structure of the CNT networks have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. A forest-like nanostructure of vertically aligned CNT bundles in the multi-walled form appeared with a height of about 10 microm and a single-tube diameter varying in the range of 5-35 nm. The intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy D-peak and G-peak indicates the presence of disorder and defects in the CNT networks. The size of the metal (Pt, Ru, Ag) nanoclusters decorating the CNT top surface varies in the range of 5-50 nm. Functional characterization based on electrical charge transfer sensing mechanisms in the metal-modified CNT-chemoresistor array

  7. Measurement and analysis of fractures in vertical, slant, and horizontal core, with examples from the Mesaverde formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C. ); Hill, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Optimum analysis of natural fracture characteristics and distributions in reservoirs requires conscientious supervision of coring operations, on-site core processing, careful layout and marketing of the core, and detailed measurement of fracture characteristics. Natural fractures provide information on the in situ permeability system, and coring-induced fractures provide data on the in situ stresses. Fracture data derived from vertical core should include fracture height, type and location of fracture terminations with respect to lithologic heterogeneity, fracture planatary and roughness, and distribution with depth. Fractures in core from either a vertical or a deviated well will yield information on dip, dip azimuth, strike, mineralization, and the orientation of fractures relative to the in situ stresses. Only measurements of fractures in core from a deviated/horizontal well will provide estimates of fracture spacing and porosity. These data can be graphed and cross-plotted to yield semi-quantitative fracture characteristics for reservoir models. Data on the orientations of fractures relative to each other in unoriented core can be nearly as useful as the absolute orientations of fractures. A deviated pilot hole is recommended for fracture assessment prior to a drilling horizontal production well because it significantly enhances the chances of fracture intersection, and therefore of fracture characterization. 35 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Multi-domain vertical alignment of nematic liquid crystals for reduced off-axis gamma shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Park, Byung Wok; Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Hoon; Shin, Ki-Chul; Kim, Hee Seop

    2013-03-01

    Several liquid crystal (LC) modes, such as twisted nematic, vertical alignment (VA), and in-plane switching, have been in competition with each other in the LC display market. Among them, the VA mode has been widely used because of the high contrast ratio. Since the LC molecules are aligned perpendicular to the substrate in the initial state, an excellent dark state can be obtained at normal viewing direction. However, effective phase retardation of LC layer at oblique viewing direction differs greatly from that at normal viewing direction. Thus, gamma distortion phenomenon occurs at oblique view direction. To reduce the gamma shift in the VA mode at oblique viewing direction, multi-domain VA modes were proposed. Although gamma shifts of these modes are smaller than that of the single domain VA mode, the problems still remain. Recently, several technologies for 8-domain alignment have been proposed to decrease the gamma shift at off-axis. However, additional driving circuits are required to realize the eight-domain structure. In this paper we report technologies for the multi-domain VA mode with no additional driving circuits. By using the proposed technologies, we can obtain the dual threshold voltage in each sub-pixel to realize the multi-domain VA mode with no decrease of contrast ratio.

  9. Replantation with intentional rotation of a complete vertically fractured root using adhesive resin cement.

    PubMed

    Kudou, Yoshiyuki; Kubota, Minoru

    2003-04-01

    This case describes intentional replantation with rotation of a complete vertically fractured root using adhesive resin cement. The fractured root was fixed with adhesive resin cement extra-orally. The tooth was replanted into the socket with rotation in order to avoid contact with the area where the periodontal ligament of the root surface was lost and the area where the alveola bone was lost along the fracture line. At follow-up 18 months later, the tooth was asymptomatic and radiographically showed an increase in the density of the alveolar bone, and the periodontal pockets were improved.

  10. Prognosis of intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikako; Kinomoto, Yoshifumi; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2004-03-01

    There is no particular treatment established to preserve vertically fractured teeth. We evaluated the long-term prognosis of the intentional replantation of 26 vertically fractured roots after reconstruction with 4-META/MMA-TBB dentin-bonded resin. Replanted teeth were evaluated according to clinical criteria and radiographic examinations for periods ranging from 4 to 76 months. Eighteen cases were functional and retained, with six fully successful; the others needed further observation. Eight cases failed to respond to treatment because of refracture, recurrence of gingival inflammation, or both. Longevity was calculated as 88.5% at 12 months after replantation, 69.2% at 36 months, and 59.3% at 60 months. All failures occurred in premolar and molar teeth. Longitudinal fractures extending more than 2/3 from the cervical portion toward the apex showed significantly shorter longevity compared with fractures within the 2/3 area (log-rank test, p = 0.02). Intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin may be considered for incisors as an alternative to extraction, although the long-term success is not optimal.

  11. Surgical Alternative for Treatment of Vertical Root fracture: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nogueira Leal da Silva, Emmanuel João; Romão Dos Santos, Gustavo; Liess Krebs, Renato; Coutinho-Filho, Tauby de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Vertical root fracture (VRF) has been a great challenge in dentistry; most fractures often result in tooth extraction. Inflammation of tissues around the fractured root is the main reason for tooth extraction. Based on the strategic importance of some fractured teeth, treatment may be necessary and often complicated. However, performing a proper repair or even splinting the fractured segments may result in tooth preservation. Accordingly, in this case we report a new method for fractured tooth preservation. The surgical exposition of the fracture tooth was carried out through the radicular portion of the element via ultrasonic preparation, filling with composed resin and a synthetic hydroxyapatite graft. All these were performed around the tooth which received five sections of low-power laser. The patient was followed for two years with no signs or symptoms of inflammation and gingival recession. In conclusion, the used treatment protocol could be considered as a promising approach for VRF treatment, especially in cases where there is advanced or moderate bone loss in the surrounding sites of the fractured tooth. PMID:23060913

  12. Simulation of water impregnation through vertically aligned CNT forests using a molecular dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajiri, Tomohiro; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Shimamura, Yoshinobu

    2016-08-01

    The flow rate of water through carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes is considerably large. Hence, CNT membranes can be used in nanofluidic applications. In this work, we performed a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the introduction of water into CNTs in the CNT membranes, especially in vertically aligned CNT forests. The results showed that the Knudsen number (Kn) increased with an increasing volume fraction of CNT (VC) and was greater than 10‑3 for each VC. Beyond this value, the flow became a slip flow. Further, the permeability increased as VC increased in the actual state calculated by the MD simulation, whereas the permeability in the no-slip state predicted by the Hagen–Poiseuille relationship decreased. Thus, a clear divergence in the permeability trend existed between the states. Finally, the flow enhancement ranged from 0.1 to 23,800, and the results show that water easily permeates as VC increases.

  13. Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes for pressure, tactile and vibration sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmazoglu, O.; Popp, A.; Pavlidis, D.; Schneider, J. J.; Garth, D.; Schüttler, F.; Battenberg, G.

    2012-03-01

    We report a simple method for the micro-nano integration of flexible, vertically aligned multiwalled CNT arrays sandwiched between a top and bottom carbon layer via a porous alumina (Al2O3) template approach. The electromechanical properties of the flexible CNT arrays have been investigated under mechanical stress conditions. First experiments show highly sensitive piezoresistive sensors with a resistance decrease of up to ˜35% and a spatial resolution of <1 mm. The results indicate that these CNT structures can be utilized for tactile sensing components. They also confirm the feasibility of accessing and utilizing nanoscopic CNT bundles via lithographic processing. The method involves room-temperature processing steps and standard microfabrication techniques.

  14. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Nuri; Chawla, Vipin; Edwards, Eve; Wood, Vanessa; Park, Hyung Gyu; Utke, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays.

  15. Simulation of water impregnation through vertically aligned CNT forests using a molecular dynamics method.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Tomohiro; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Shimamura, Yoshinobu

    2016-08-26

    The flow rate of water through carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes is considerably large. Hence, CNT membranes can be used in nanofluidic applications. In this work, we performed a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the introduction of water into CNTs in the CNT membranes, especially in vertically aligned CNT forests. The results showed that the Knudsen number (Kn) increased with an increasing volume fraction of CNT (VC) and was greater than 10(-3) for each VC. Beyond this value, the flow became a slip flow. Further, the permeability increased as VC increased in the actual state calculated by the MD simulation, whereas the permeability in the no-slip state predicted by the Hagen-Poiseuille relationship decreased. Thus, a clear divergence in the permeability trend existed between the states. Finally, the flow enhancement ranged from 0.1 to 23,800, and the results show that water easily permeates as VC increases.

  16. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOEpatents

    Dale, Steinar J.

    1984-01-01

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  17. Field Emission Characteristics of the Structure of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Bundles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pao-Hung; Sie, Cong-Lin; Chen, Ching-An; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Shih, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yueh; Su, Wei-Jhih; Lee, Kuei-Yi

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we performed thermal chemical vapor deposition for growing vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) bundles for a field emitter and applied photolithography for defining the arrangement pattern to simultaneously compare square and hexagonal arrangements by using two ratios of the interbundle distance to the bundle height (R) of field emitters. The hexagon arrangement with R = 2 had the lowest turn-on electric field (E to) and highest enhancement factor, whereas the square arrangement with R = 3 had the most stable field emission (FE) characteristic. The number density can reveal the correlation to the lowest E to and highest enhancement factor more effectively than can the R or L. The fluorescent images of the synthesized VACNT bundles manifested the uniformity of FE currents. The results of our study indicate the feasibility of applying the VACNT field emitter arrangement to achieve optimal FE performance. PMID:26183388

  18. Simulation of water impregnation through vertically aligned CNT forests using a molecular dynamics method

    PubMed Central

    Tajiri, Tomohiro; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Shimamura, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    The flow rate of water through carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes is considerably large. Hence, CNT membranes can be used in nanofluidic applications. In this work, we performed a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the introduction of water into CNTs in the CNT membranes, especially in vertically aligned CNT forests. The results showed that the Knudsen number (Kn) increased with an increasing volume fraction of CNT (VC) and was greater than 10−3 for each VC. Beyond this value, the flow became a slip flow. Further, the permeability increased as VC increased in the actual state calculated by the MD simulation, whereas the permeability in the no-slip state predicted by the Hagen–Poiseuille relationship decreased. Thus, a clear divergence in the permeability trend existed between the states. Finally, the flow enhancement ranged from 0.1 to 23,800, and the results show that water easily permeates as VC increases. PMID:27562112

  19. Heat Dissipation Interfaces Based on Vertically Aligned Diamond/Graphite Nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Santos, N F; Holz, T; Santos, T; Fernandes, A J S; Vasconcelos, T L; Gouvea, C P; Archanjo, B S; Achete, C A; Silva, R F; Costa, F M

    2015-11-11

    Crystalline carbon-based materials are intrinsically chemically inert and good heat conductors, allowing their applications in a great variety of devices. A technological step forward in heat dissipators production can be given by tailoring the carbon phase microstructure, tuning the CVD synthesis conditions. In this work, a rapid bottom-up synthesis of vertically aligned hybrid material comprising diamond thin platelets covered by a crystalline graphite layer was developed. A single run was designed in order to produce a high aspect ratio nanostructured carbon material favoring the thermal dissipation under convection-governed conditions. The produced material was characterized by multiwavelength Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy (scanning and transmission), and the macroscopic heat flux was evaluated. The results obtained confirm the enhancement of heat dissipation rate in the developed hybrid structures, when compared to smooth nanocrystalline diamond films.

  20. Enhanced photoelectrochemical activity of vertically aligned ZnO-coated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hua; Yang, Qin; You, Qinghu; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada; Hu, Zhigao; Duan, Zhihua

    2014-02-03

    Vertically aligned ZnO-TiO{sub 2} hetero-nanostructures constructed of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs) and wurtzite ZnO coatings are fabricated by atomic layer deposition of ZnO coatings on electrochemical anodization formed TiO{sub 2} NTs, and their photoelectrochemical activities are studied through photoelectrochemical and electrochemical characterization. Compared with bare TiO{sub 2} NTs, the transient photocurrent increases to over 1.5-fold for the annealed ZnO-coated TiO{sub 2} NTs under visible illumination. The ZnO-coated TiO{sub 2} NTs also show a longer electron lifetime, a lower charge-transfer resistance and a more negative flat-band potential than the bare TiO{sub 2} NTs, confirming the improved photoelectrochemical activity due to the enhanced charge separation.

  1. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Nuri; Chawla, Vipin; Edwards, Eve; Wood, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays. PMID:24778944

  2. A Glucose Biosensor Using CMOS Potentiostat and Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A; Islam, Syed K; Hensley, Dale K; McFarlane, Nicole

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a linear, low power, and compact CMOS based potentiostat for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) based amperometric glucose sensors. The CMOS based potentiostat consists of a single-ended potential control unit, a low noise common gate difference-differential pair transimpedance amplifier and a low power VCO. The potentiostat current measuring unit can detect electrochemical current ranging from 500 nA to 7 [Formula: see text] from the VACNF working electrodes with high degree of linearity. This current corresponds to a range of glucose, which depends on the fiber forest density. The potentiostat consumes 71.7 [Formula: see text] of power from a 1.8 V supply and occupies 0.017 [Formula: see text] of chip area realized in a 0.18 [Formula: see text] standard CMOS process. PMID:27337723

  3. Polarization-dependent DANES study on vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chengjun; Park, Chang-In; Jin, Zhenlan; Hwang, In-Hui; Heald, S. M.; Han, Sang-Wook

    2016-05-01

    The local structural and local density of states of vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods are examined by using polarization-dependent diffraction anomalous near edge structure (DANES) measurements from c-oriented ZnO nanorods at the Zn K edge at the geometry of the incident x-ray electric field parallel and perpendicular to the x-ray momentum transfer direction. Orientation-dependent local structures determined by DANES are comparable with polarization- dependent EXAFS results. Unlike other techniques, polarization-dependent DANES can uniquely describe the orientation-dependent local structural properties and the local density of states of a selected element in selected-phased crystals of compounds or mixed-phased structures.

  4. Modeling and optimization of atomic layer deposition processes on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Nuri; Chawla, Vipin; Edwards, Eve; Wood, Vanessa; Park, Hyung Gyu; Utke, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Many energy conversion and storage devices exploit structured ceramics with large interfacial surface areas. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays have emerged as possible scaffolds to support large surface area ceramic layers. However, obtaining conformal and uniform coatings of ceramics on structures with high aspect ratio morphologies is non-trivial, even with atomic layer deposition (ALD). Here we implement a diffusion model to investigate the effect of the ALD parameters on coating kinetics and use it to develop a guideline for achieving conformal and uniform thickness coatings throughout the depth of ultra-high aspect ratio structures. We validate the model predictions with experimental data from ALD coatings of VACNT arrays. However, the approach can be applied to predict film conformality as a function of depth for any porous topology, including nanopores and nanowire arrays. PMID:24778944

  5. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber as nano-neuron interface for monitoring neural function

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, Milton Nance; McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich; Simpson, Michael L; Morrison, Barclay; Yu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Neural chips, which are capable of simultaneous, multi-site neural recording and stimulation, have been used to detect and modulate neural activity for almost 30 years. As a neural interface, neural chips provide dynamic functional information for neural decoding and neural control. By improving sensitivity and spatial resolution, nano-scale electrodes may revolutionize neural detection and modulation at cellular and molecular levels as nano-neuron interfaces. We developed a carbon-nanofiber neural chip with lithographically defined arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber electrodes and demonstrated its capability of both stimulating and monitoring electrophysiological signals from brain tissues in vitro and monitoring dynamic information of neuroplasticity. This novel nano-neuron interface can potentially serve as a precise, informative, biocompatible, and dual-mode neural interface for monitoring of both neuroelectrical and neurochemical activity at the single cell level and even inside the cell.

  6. Vertically aligned self-assembled gold nanorods as low turn-on, stable field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apte, Amey; Joshi, Padmashree; Bhaskar, Prashant; Joag, Dilip; Kulkarni, Sulabha

    2015-11-01

    In this work we have investigated field emission from self-assembled, vertically aligned, gold nanorod arrays, which were synthesized via a colloidal growth method. A field emission current density of ∼1 mA/cm2 was measured for these gold nanorod arrays using an anode-cathode separation of ∼3.5 mm. The field emission investigation of these gold nanorod arrays was carried out at a base pressure of ∼10-8 mbar. The turn on field, defined as the electric field required to obtain a current density of 1 μA/cm2, is observed to be 1.9 V/μm. Assuming a work function value of 5.3 eV, the field enhancement factor β is estimated to be ∼2931, which is higher than the reported values for other gold nanostructures/arrays.

  7. Optimization of MnO 2/vertically aligned carbon nanotube composite for supercapacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amade, Roger; Jover, Eric; Caglar, Burak; Mutlu, Toygan; Bertran, Enric

    The optimization strategy for producing manganese oxide supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) deposited on large area electrodes is presented. A single sequential process of sputtering, annealing and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is applied to produce dense and uniform VACNTs electrodes. As dielectric layer of the supercapacitor, manganese oxide is electrodeposited lining the surface of the VACNTs electrodes. The control of the growing parameters such as catalyst thickness layer, temperature and deposition time for tuning the density, length and diameter of the VACNTs and their structure are found to be key points for the optimization of the MnO 2 electrodeposition process in view to improve the efficiency of the supercapacitor devices. The electrochemical properties of the obtained electrodes are characterized using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. A specific capacitance of 642 Fg -1 is obtained for MnO 2/VACNTs nanocomposite electrode at a scan rate of 10 mV s -1.

  8. Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes for pressure, tactile and vibration sensing.

    PubMed

    Yilmazoglu, O; Popp, A; Pavlidis, D; Schneider, J J; Garth, D; Schüttler, F; Battenberg, G

    2012-03-01

    We report a simple method for the micro-nano integration of flexible, vertically aligned multiwalled CNT arrays sandwiched between a top and bottom carbon layer via a porous alumina (Al(2)O(3)) template approach. The electromechanical properties of the flexible CNT arrays have been investigated under mechanical stress conditions. First experiments show highly sensitive piezoresistive sensors with a resistance decrease of up to ∼35% and a spatial resolution of <1 mm. The results indicate that these CNT structures can be utilized for tactile sensing components. They also confirm the feasibility of accessing and utilizing nanoscopic CNT bundles via lithographic processing. The method involves room-temperature processing steps and standard microfabrication techniques.

  9. The rapid growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using laser heating.

    PubMed

    Park, J B; Jeong, S H; Jeong, M S; Lim, S C; Lee, I H; Lee, Y H

    2009-05-01

    Growth of densely packed vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) using laser-induced chemical vapor deposition with visible laser (lambda = 532 nm) irradiation at room temperature is reported. Using a multiple-catalyst layer (Fe/Al/Cr) on quartz as the substrate and an acetylene-hydrogen mixture as the precursor gas, VA-CNT pillars with 60 microm height and 4 microm diameter were grown at a high rate of around 1 microm s(-1) with good reproducibility. It is demonstrated that the fabrication of uniform pillar arrays of VA-CNTs can be achieved with a single irradiation for each pillar using LCVD with no annealing or preprocessing of the substrate. Here, laser fast heating is considered the primary mechanism facilitating the growth of VA-CNT pillars. Field emission characteristics of an array of VA-CNT pillars were then examined to investigate their potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  10. Simulation of water impregnation through vertically aligned CNT forests using a molecular dynamics method.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Tomohiro; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Shimamura, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    The flow rate of water through carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes is considerably large. Hence, CNT membranes can be used in nanofluidic applications. In this work, we performed a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the introduction of water into CNTs in the CNT membranes, especially in vertically aligned CNT forests. The results showed that the Knudsen number (Kn) increased with an increasing volume fraction of CNT (VC) and was greater than 10(-3) for each VC. Beyond this value, the flow became a slip flow. Further, the permeability increased as VC increased in the actual state calculated by the MD simulation, whereas the permeability in the no-slip state predicted by the Hagen-Poiseuille relationship decreased. Thus, a clear divergence in the permeability trend existed between the states. Finally, the flow enhancement ranged from 0.1 to 23,800, and the results show that water easily permeates as VC increases. PMID:27562112

  11. Graphene as an atomically thin interface for growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rahul; Chen, Gugang; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Kalaga, Kaushik; Ishigami, Masahiro; Heinz, Tony F.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Harutyunyan, Avetik R.

    2013-01-01

    Growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is highly sensitive to the nature of the substrate. This constraint narrows the range of available materials to just a few oxide-based dielectrics and presents a major obstacle for applications. Using a suspended monolayer, we show here that graphene is an excellent conductive substrate for CNT forest growth. Furthermore, graphene is shown to intermediate growth on key substrates, such as Cu, Pt, and diamond, which had not previously been compatible with nanotube forest growth. We find that growth depends on the degree of crystallinity of graphene and is best on mono- or few-layer graphene. The synergistic effects of graphene are revealed by its endurance after CNT growth and low contact resistances between the nanotubes and Cu. Our results establish graphene as a unique interface that extends the class of substrate materials for CNT growth and opens up important new prospects for applications. PMID:23712556

  12. Large-Stroke Self-Aligned Vertical Comb Drive Actuators for Adaptive Optics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E J; Olivier, S S; Solgaard, O

    2005-10-27

    A high-stroke micro-actuator array was designed, modeled, fabricated and tested. Each pixel in the 4x4 array consists of a self-aligned vertical comb drive actuator. This micro-actuator array was designed to become the foundation of a micro-mirror array that will be used as a deformable mirror for adaptive optics applications. Analytical models combined with CoventorWare{reg_sign} simulations were used to design actuators that would move up to 10{micro}m in piston motion with 100V applied. Devices were fabricated according to this design and testing of these devices demonstrated an actuator displacement of 1.4{micro}m with 200V applied. Further investigation revealed that fabrication process inaccuracy led to significantly stiffer mechanical springs in the fabricated devices. The increased stiffness of the springs was shown to account for the reduced displacement of the actuators relative to the design.

  13. Enhanced field emission of vertically aligned core-shelled carbon nanotubes with molybdenum oxide encapsulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J.; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Sow, C. H.; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2009-06-01

    The field emission characteristics of the core-shelled nanostructures obtained by directly coating molybdenum oxide onto vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was investigated. A metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique was used with Mo(CO){sub 6} as the precursor and films deposited at process temperatures of 200, 400, and 700 deg. C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction were used to study and understand the material properties of the deposited coatings. Enhanced field emission performance was observed for molybdenum oxide coated MWNT samples at 400 deg. C with a turn-on field of 1.33 V mum{sup -1} and a field enhancement factor beta estimated to be approx7000. The enhanced performance may be due to both the shape of the coated emitters and a decrease in the effective barrier height.

  14. Fracture spacing in slant/horizontal cores, Mesa Verde Formation, CO: Comparison with outcrop and vertical-core data

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Core from the U.S. Department of Energy's Slant Hole Completion Test well (SHCT-1) shows an irregular but remarkably close fracture spacing in flat-lying reservoirs of the Mesaverde Formation in northwestern Colorado. Core was taken from 30 ft thick lenticular sandstones where the wellbore is inclined 60{degree} to vertical (266 ft of core), and from a 60 ft thick marine blanket sandstone where the wellbore is near-horizontal (115 ft of core), at the vertical depths of about 7100 and 7850 ft, respectively. In both zones, fractures cut across the core at a near-orthogonal angle to the core axis, with true lateral spacing averaging about 3 ft/fracture. Fracture spacing is not proportional to bed thickness. Fractures occur in swarms of up to five fractures each, and swarms are somewhat more regularly spaced at 8-10 ft, although individual fracture spacing ranges from less than an inch to 17 ft. Only one fracture was present in the same zones in 175 ft of 4 in. diameter core taken in nearby vertical wells. Outcrops of the same facies, however, show irregular spacings that average on the order of 1.5 ft (lenticular sandstones) and 3 ft (blanket sandstones). Extrapolation of outcrop fracture data, or of fracture data from vertical wellbores, to engineering models of subsurface fracture spacing should be undertaken cautiously. However, subsurface fractures in flat-lying reservoirs can be more closely spaced than is commonly acknowledged.

  15. Investigations on the growth and characterization of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowires by radio frequency magnetronsputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesh, P. Sundara; Jeganathan, K.

    2013-04-15

    Undoped vertically aligned ZnO nanowires have been grown on silicon (111) substrates by the rf magnetron sputtering technique without metal catalyst. The diameter, length and density distributions of the nanowires have been analyzed with respect to the different growth durations. The tapering of the nanowires is observed for the growth duration of 120 min owing to the insufficient adatoms on the growth front. In the X-ray diffraction pattern, the dominant (002) peak with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ZnO nanowires indicates the c-axis orientation and high crystalline nature with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The narrow FWHM of E{sub 2}{sup low} and E{sub 2}{sup high} phonon modes (1.4 and 9.1 cm{sup −1}) provide an additional evidence for the high crystalline and optical properties of the nanowires. The low temperature photoluminescence spectra are dominated by the green emission at∼2.28 eV induced by the electron transitions between shallow donor and acceptor energy levels. - Graphical abstract: Coalescence free vertically aligned ZnO nanowires have been grown on silicon (111) substrate by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. Highlights: ► ZnO nanowires have been grown by rf magnetron sputtering. ► A morphologically superior and coalescence free ZnO nanowires have been realized. ► ZnO nanowires exhibit hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. ► A dominant visible emission indicates the presence of point defects in nanowires.

  16. Use of a Locked Fibular Plate for Fixation of a Vertical Shear Medial Malleolus Fracture: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Blake, Sean; Yakubek, George; Shaer, James

    2015-01-01

    Vertical shear fractures of the medial malleolus are less common than transverse fractures. These fractures are often treated with lag screws, posteromedial buttress plating, antiglide plates, and neutralization plates with screws. We report on a 37-year-old male who had fractured his ankle after tripping and falling into a ditch. Initially, the patient was treated with closed reduction and a splint for a trimalleolar fracture with a laterally subluxed talus. However, on review of his preoperative radiographs and computed tomography studies, we confirmed a medial malleolus fracture with a vertical shear pattern and communition. Recently, a contoured fibular locking plate has been developed. We considered this plate to be effective for containing the bone in part because of its broader plate design. We present a case in which a fibular locking plate was used successfully as a neutralization plate as an alternative fixation method for a vertical shear medial malleolar fracture. PMID:26253474

  17. Multilevel, multicomponent microarchitectures of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes for diverse applications.

    PubMed

    Qu, Liangti; Vaia, Rich A; Dai, Liming

    2011-02-22

    A simple multiple contact transfer technique has been developed for controllable fabrication of multilevel, multicomponent microarchitectures of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). Three dimensional (3-D) multicomponent micropatterns of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been fabricated, which can be used to develop a newly designed touch sensor with reversible electrical responses for potential applications in electronic devices, as demonstrated in this study. The demonstrated dependence of light diffraction on structural transfiguration of the resultant CNT micropattern also indicates their potential for optical devices. Further introduction of various components with specific properties (e.g., ZnO nanorods) into the CNT micropatterns enabled us to tailor such surface characteristics as wettability and light response. Owing to the highly generic nature of the multiple contact transfer strategy, the methodology developed here could provide a general approach for interposing a large variety of multicomponent elements (e.g., nanotubes, nanorods/wires, photonic crystals, etc.) onto a single chip for multifunctional device applications.

  18. Synthesis and Investigation of Millimeter-Scale Vertically Aligned Boron Nitride Nanotube Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Roland; Li, Hongling; Tsang, Siu Hon; Jing, Lin; Tan, Dunlin; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have shown potential in a wide range of applications due to their superior properties such as exceptionally high mechanical strength, excellent chemical and thermal stabilities. However, previously reported methods to date only produced BNNTs with limited length/density and insufficient yield at high temperatures. Here we present a facile and effective two-step synthesis route involving template-assisted chemical vapor deposition at a relatively low temperature of 900 degree C and subsequent annealing process to fabricate vertically aligned (VA) BN coated carbon nanotube (VA-BN/CNT) and VA-BNNT arrays. By using this method, we achieve the longest VA-BN/CNTs and VA-BNNTs to date with lengths of over millimeters (exceeding two orders of magnitude longer than the previously reported length of VA-BNNTs). In addition, the morphology, chemical composition and microstructure of the resulting products, as well as the mechanism of coating process are systematically investigated. This versatile BN coating technique and the synthesis of millimeter-scale BN/CNT and BNNT arrays pave a way for new applications especially where the aligned geometry of the NTs is essential such as for field-emission, interconnects and thermal management.

  19. Angular and local spectroscopic analysis to probe the vertical alignment of N-doped well-separated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Minea, T M; Bouchet-Fabre, B; Lazar, S; Point, S; Zandbergen, H W

    2006-08-17

    Vertically aligned well-separated N-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on a silicon substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Angular near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) was used to investigate the vertical alignment of as-grown CNTs. In addition, both individual tubes and tube bundles were characterized by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Simultaneous analysis of both spectroscopic techniques provides information on chemical environment, orbital orientation between carbon and heteroatoms, and local curvature effects. We demonstrate the utility of NEXAFS as an in situ probe of CNTs. PMID:16898707

  20. Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

    The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide

  1. Photoreactive self-assembled monolayer for the stabilization of tilt orientation of a director in vertically aligned nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Su Yeon; Kang, Shin-Woong

    2013-12-16

    Photo-reactive self-assembled monolayer (PR-SAM) is employed to mediate alignment of liquid crystals (LC) and stabilize the tilt orientation of a nematic director for a vertically aligned liquid crystal. Bifunctional PR-SAM formed by silane coupling reaction to oxide surfaces efficiently induces a homeotropic alignment and stabilizes LC director by the photo-polymerization under applied electric field. As a result, the substantial enhancement of electro-optic performance has been achieved after the PR-SAM assisted stabilization of tilt orientation of director. This approach for pretilt stabilization has multifarious advantages over the conventional PSVA. PMID:24514711

  2. Adhesive Approach Using Internal Coping for Vertical Root Fractured Teeth with Flared Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shuhei; Sekita, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures are often observed in teeth with endodontic treatment and post space preparation. Frequently, because such teeth have flared root canals with thin dentin walls, conventional treatments are disadvantageous in terms of adhesiveness, sealability and risk of refracture. Here we devised an intentional replantation method that uses internal resin coping, with a reinforcing effect on thin root canal dentin. In two patients treated with this method, satisfactory conditions have been maintained. This report suggests that an intentional replantation method in which an internal resin coping is employed may be a useful therapy for fractured teeth with flared root canals.

  3. Adhesive Approach Using Internal Coping for Vertical Root Fractured Teeth with Flared Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shuhei; Sekita, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures are often observed in teeth with endodontic treatment and post space preparation. Frequently, because such teeth have flared root canals with thin dentin walls, conventional treatments are disadvantageous in terms of adhesiveness, sealability and risk of refracture. Here we devised an intentional replantation method that uses internal resin coping, with a reinforcing effect on thin root canal dentin. In two patients treated with this method, satisfactory conditions have been maintained. This report suggests that an intentional replantation method in which an internal resin coping is employed may be a useful therapy for fractured teeth with flared root canals. PMID:26373031

  4. Synthesis of transparent vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes on a few-layer graphene (FLG) film.

    PubMed

    Cottineau, Thomas; Albrecht, Arnaud; Janowska, Izabela; Macher, Nicolas; Bégin, Dominique; Ledoux, Marc Jacques; Pronkin, Sergey; Savinova, Elena; Keller, Nicolas; Keller, Valérie; Pham-Huu, Cuong

    2012-01-30

    Novel transparent 1D-TiO(2)/few-layer graphene electrodes are realised by the anodic growth of vertically aligned TiO(2) nano-tubes on a few-layer graphene film coated on a glass substrate. PMID:22057023

  5. Vertically aligned graphitic carbon nanosheet arrays fabricated from graphene oxides for supercapacitors and Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyu; Zhang, Li; Lv, Jixian; Li, Changle; Sun, Kening

    2016-05-11

    Vertically aligned graphitic carbon nanosheet arrays were fabricated from graphene oxide solution by a hydrothermal method. The arrays exhibited a specific capacitance of 240 F g(-1) at 200 A g(-1) as a supercapacitor electrode and a capacity of 6500 mA h g(-1) as a Li-O2 battery cathode.

  6. Vertical Open Patella Fracture, Treatment, Rehabilitation and the Moment to Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Larangeira, Joao Alberto; Bellenzier, Liliane; Rigo, Vanessa da Silva; Ramos Neto, Elias Josue; Krum, Francisco Fritsch Machry; Ribeiro, Tiango Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Patella fracture is relatively uncommon and the vertical trace fracture represents almost 12-17%. The open patella fracture expresses 6-30%. The association of these two uncommon conditions was the aim of this case report even as the treatment and the moment of fixation (definitive surgical treatment). A 27-year-old man after a motorcycle accident showed an open patella fracture classified as a Gustilo and Anderson type IIIA lesion. The patient was immediately treated with precocious surgery fixation with a modified tension band which consists of two parallel K-wires positioned orthogonal to the fracture line and a cerclage wire shaped anteriorly at patella as an eight. The premature fixation benefited the infection prevention and provided earlier joint motion, which increased the nutrition of articular cartilage. Six months postoperatively, the patient had a satisfactory joint motion with full extension and 116° of joint flexion and returned to his daily life activities without restriction. Twelve months postoperatively, the patient had full extension and 120° of knee flexion without pain, joint effusion and instability. Muscle strength force was considered normal at grade V. In conclusion, early chirurgic treatment and precocious articular mobilization improve prognosis, suggesting that the employment of these practices should be adopted whenever possible in most of the open fractures. PMID:25436033

  7. Vertical open patella fracture, treatment, rehabilitation and the moment to fixation.

    PubMed

    Larangeira, Joao Alberto; Bellenzier, Liliane; Rigo, Vanessa da Silva; Ramos Neto, Elias Josue; Krum, Francisco Fritsch Machry; Ribeiro, Tiango Aguiar

    2015-02-01

    Patella fracture is relatively uncommon and the vertical trace fracture represents almost 12-17%. The open patella fracture expresses 6-30%. The association of these two uncommon conditions was the aim of this case report even as the treatment and the moment of fixation (definitive surgical treatment). A 27-year-old man after a motorcycle accident showed an open patella fracture classified as a Gustilo and Anderson type IIIA lesion. The patient was immediately treated with precocious surgery fixation with a modified tension band which consists of two parallel K-wires positioned orthogonal to the fracture line and a cerclage wire shaped anteriorly at patella as an eight. The premature fixation benefited the infection prevention and provided earlier joint motion, which increased the nutrition of articular cartilage. Six months postoperatively, the patient had a satisfactory joint motion with full extension and 116° of joint flexion and returned to his daily life activities without restriction. Twelve months postoperatively, the patient had full extension and 120° of knee flexion without pain, joint effusion and instability. Muscle strength force was considered normal at grade V. In conclusion, early chirurgic treatment and precocious articular mobilization improve prognosis, suggesting that the employment of these practices should be adopted whenever possible in most of the open fractures. PMID:25436033

  8. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells: optimal carrier transport in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Keisuke; Dutta, Mrinal; Fukata, Naoki

    2014-05-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells that combine vertically-aligned n-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) have great potential for replacing commercial Si solar cells. The chief advantage of such solar cells is that they exhibit higher absorbance for a given thickness than commercial Si solar cells, due to incident light-trapping within the NW arrays, thus enabling lower-cost solar cell production. We report herein on the effects of NW length, annealing and surface electrode on the device performance of SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the obtained SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by tuning the thickness of the surface electrode, and the etching conditions during NW formation and post-annealing. The PCE of 9.3% is obtained by forming efficient transport pathways for photogenerated charge carriers to electrodes. Our approach is a significant contribution to design of high-performance and low-cost inorganic/organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells.Inorganic/organic hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells that combine vertically-aligned n-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) have great potential for replacing commercial Si solar cells. The chief advantage of such solar cells is that they exhibit higher absorbance for a given thickness than commercial Si solar cells, due to incident light-trapping within the NW arrays, thus enabling lower-cost solar cell production. We report herein on the effects of NW length, annealing and surface electrode on the device performance of SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the obtained SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by tuning the thickness of the surface electrode, and the etching conditions during NW formation and

  9. Comparison of Heterogeneously-Propped Hydraulic Fractures for Vertical and Lateral Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J.; Chugunov, N.

    2014-12-01

    Heterogeneous proppant placement (HPP) technologies offer improved hydraulic fracturing performance through the creation of channels within propped fractures (see figure). Such schemes, however, can suffer from reduced performance due to uncertainty in reservoir properties (e.g.: embedment and moduli). This is particularly true of unconventional reservoirs where properties can be highly heterogeneous. We demonstrate that the mechanisms controlling uncertainty in HPP performance differ between vertical and lateral wells. For computational efficiency, we combine the boundary element method to simulate formation deformation with a detailed discretization of the proppant within the fracture to predict conductivity of the HPP channels. We performed an extensive parameter study with thousands of scenarios relevant to HPP, including placement geometries consistent with both vertical and lateral wells. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) was then applied to quantify and rank contributions from uncertain input parameters to variance in fracture conductivity. We were able to rigorously quantify the impact of parametric uncertainty. We found that for lateral wells the uncertainty in the conductivity is dominated by the uncertainty in diffusion of the proppant. For vertical wells, the dominant factors causing uncertainty in the performance change with stress. At low stress, performance is controlled by factors that dictate pillar geometry. At high stress, parameters that help preserve channels against closure stress control conductivity. Our results highlight the robustness of the HPP concept and quantify the sources of uncertainty in HPP performance. Further, we can clearly identify the fundamental parameters that control HPP conductivity and reveal that they are different for wellbore geometries that are typical of unconventional wells in North America. This implies that optimal HPP strategies will differ between vertical and lateral wells.

  10. New treatment option for an incomplete vertical root fracture--a preliminary case report.

    PubMed

    Hadrossek, Paul Henryk; Dammaschke, Till

    2014-01-01

    Instead of extraction this case report presents an alternative treatment option for a maxillary incisor with a vertical root fracture (VRF) causing pain in a 78-year-old patient. After retreatment of the existing root canal filling the tooth was stabilized with a dentine adhesive and a composite restoration. Then the tooth was extracted, the VRF gap enlarged with a small diamond bur and the existing retrograde root canal filling removed. The enlarged fracture line and the retrograde preparation were filled with a calcium-silicate-cement (Biodentine). Afterwards the tooth was replanted and a titanium trauma splint was applied for 12d. A 24 months clinical and radiological follow-up showed an asymptomatic tooth, reduction of the periodontal probing depths from 7 mm prior to treatment to 3 mm and gingival reattachment in the area of the fracture with no sign of ankylosis. Hence, the treatment of VRF with Biodentine seems to be a possible and promising option.

  11. Assessment of an Antrim Oil Shale fracture zone by vertical seismic profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoez, M.N.; Turpening, R.M.; Stewart, R.R.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents the results of a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) experiment performed in the upper 2500 feet (770 m) of the Michigan Basin. Both P and SH waves were used. The experiment was divided into two parts: a before survey run on the virgin rock, then an after survey across an explosively fractured volume of Antrim Oil Shale, centered at 1300 ft (400 m). From the before VSP survey, a velocity structure of the basin was calculated. Comparison of the after observations to the before elucidated the fracture volume and elastic parameters. Travel time delays, amplitude attenuation, converted and diffracted waves provided consistent information on the depth (1300 ft), shape (ellipsoid) and size (10 m x 20 m x 30 m) of the fractured volume.

  12. New treatment option for an incomplete vertical root fracture--a preliminary case report.

    PubMed

    Hadrossek, Paul Henryk; Dammaschke, Till

    2014-01-01

    Instead of extraction this case report presents an alternative treatment option for a maxillary incisor with a vertical root fracture (VRF) causing pain in a 78-year-old patient. After retreatment of the existing root canal filling the tooth was stabilized with a dentine adhesive and a composite restoration. Then the tooth was extracted, the VRF gap enlarged with a small diamond bur and the existing retrograde root canal filling removed. The enlarged fracture line and the retrograde preparation were filled with a calcium-silicate-cement (Biodentine). Afterwards the tooth was replanted and a titanium trauma splint was applied for 12d. A 24 months clinical and radiological follow-up showed an asymptomatic tooth, reduction of the periodontal probing depths from 7 mm prior to treatment to 3 mm and gingival reattachment in the area of the fracture with no sign of ankylosis. Hence, the treatment of VRF with Biodentine seems to be a possible and promising option. PMID:24670232

  13. Vertical root fracture: preservation of the alveolar ridge using immediate implants.

    PubMed

    Oya, Edmar de Oliveira; Pallos, Debora; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Brandt, William Cunha; Sendyk, Wilson Roberto; Roman-Torres, Caio Vinicius Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Teeth with vertical root fracture (VRF) have complete or incomplete fractures that begin in the root and extend toward the occlusal surface. The most frequent causes of VRF originate from physical trauma, occlusal prematurity, inadequate endodontic treatment, and iatrogenic causes. Diagnose is difficult and delay can cause stomatognathic system problem. The purpose of this case report was to evaluate immediate implant placement after extraction of teeth with vertical root fracture. For the 1st case, the VRF in 1st left lower molar was confirmed during surgical flap and at the same time, the tooth was removed and immediate implant was placed. For the 2nd case, the VRF 1st left lower molar was confirmed during endodontic access and at the same appointment, the tooth was removed and the immediate implant is placed. Several studies have shown that immediate implants have similar success rates when compared with late implants. Consider that this approach is a safe procedure with favorable prognosis. In cases of VRF, the main factor to be considered is the presence of adequate bone support and immediate implants can preserve the vertical bone height, adding the fact that good patient compliance reduces the number of surgical interventions and promotes the functionality of stomatognathic system. PMID:24715996

  14. [Distortion and vertical fracture of the root: effect produced by condenser design].

    PubMed

    Dang, D A; Walton, R E

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of vertical root fractures and the amount of root distortion created during lateral condensation of gutta-percha with either D11 spreaders or B-finger pluggers were evaluated in vitro. Fifty-five extracted human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented using the step-back flare technique. Ten teeth served as positive controls (obturation to the point of fracture) and five teeth as negative controls (prepared but not obtured). Strain gauges were attached to the root surfaces. In the experimental group, 20 teeth were obturated using a D11 spreader and 20 with a B-finger plugger. Recordings were made of root distortion (expansion) created during obturation. Then, after sectioning the teeth, root surfaces of obturated samples were examined for fractures under the scanning electron microscope. Only the more tapered spreader, the D11, produces vertical root fractures, although very few in number. Also, the D11 spreader caused greater root distortion than did the B-finger plugger.

  15. [Distortion and vertical fracture of the root: effect produced by condenser design].

    PubMed

    Dang, D A; Walton, R E

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of vertical root fractures and the amount of root distortion created during lateral condensation of gutta-percha with either D11 spreaders or B-finger pluggers were evaluated in vitro. Fifty-five extracted human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented using the step-back flare technique. Ten teeth served as positive controls (obturation to the point of fracture) and five teeth as negative controls (prepared but not obtured). Strain gauges were attached to the root surfaces. In the experimental group, 20 teeth were obturated using a D11 spreader and 20 with a B-finger plugger. Recordings were made of root distortion (expansion) created during obturation. Then, after sectioning the teeth, root surfaces of obturated samples were examined for fractures under the scanning electron microscope. Only the more tapered spreader, the D11, produces vertical root fractures, although very few in number. Also, the D11 spreader caused greater root distortion than did the B-finger plugger. PMID:1964071

  16. Temperature-dependent gas transport performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotube/parylene composite membranes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel composite membrane consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and parylene was successfully fabricated. Seamless filling of the spaces in CNT forests with parylene was achieved by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique and followed with the Ar/O2 plasma etching to expose CNT tips. Transport properties of various gases through the CNT/parylene membranes were explored. And gas permeances were independent on feed pressure in accordance with the Knudsen model, but the permeance values were over 60 times higher than that predicted by the Knudsen diffusion kinetics, which was attributed to specular momentum reflection inside smooth CNT pores. Gas permeances and enhancement factors over the Knudsen model firstly increased and then decreased with rising temperature, which confirmed the existence of non-Knudsen transport. And surface adsorption diffusion could affect the gas permeance at relatively low temperature. The gas permeance of the CNT/parylene composite membrane could be improved by optimizing operating temperature. PMID:25246864

  17. Vertically aligned CNT-Cu nano-composite material for stacked through-silicon-via interconnects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuangxi; Mu, Wei; Edwards, Michael; Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Fu, Yifeng; Jeppson, Kjell; Liu, Johan

    2016-08-19

    For future miniaturization of electronic systems using 3D chip stacking, new fine-pitch materials for through-silicon-via (TSV) applications are likely required. In this paper, we propose a novel carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper nanocomposite material consisting of high aspect ratio, vertically aligned CNT bundles coated with copper. These bundles, consisting of hundreds of tiny CNTs, were uniformly coated by copper through electroplating, and aspect ratios as high as 300:1 were obtained. The resistivity of this nanomaterial was found to be as low as ∼10(-8) Ω m, which is of the same order of magnitude as the resistivity of copper, and its temperature coefficient was found to be only half of that of pure copper. The main advantage of the composite TSV nanomaterial is that its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to that of silicon, a key reliability factor. A finite element model was set up to demonstrate the reliability of this composite material and thermal cycle simulations predicted very promising results. In conclusion, this composite nanomaterial appears to be a very promising material for future 3D TSV applications offering both a low resistivity and a low CTE similar to that of silicon. PMID:27383767

  18. Modifying surface structure to tune surface properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotube films.

    PubMed

    Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, P M

    2010-06-01

    We report a simple etching process to modify surface of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays for their applications in superhydrophobic surface, field emission display, and sun energy conversion, etc. At a high temperature (700-800 degrees C), very low concentration water vapor in presence with Ar and hydrogen flow can be a weak oxidant, and mildly etch nanotube tips without damaging their walls. This process can be performed right after the CNT growth process. Surface of nanotube arrays becomes multi-tiered nanotube patterns with open-ended nanotubes standing straightly. Surface morphology of nanotube arrays can be tuned by changing the etching time. Water droplets on a modified nanotube surface show a large contact angle and sliding angle, which make the etched nanotube film suitable for application such as small amount liquid transport. Light absorption measurement indicated that surface roughness has no effect to improve the light absorption, indicating a different mechanism from other black material. The surface modified nanotube arrays have much increased field enhancement factor in our field emission test, showing the better field emission ability of the nanotube arrays with open tips. PMID:20355379

  19. Self-Assembled Epitaxial Au-Oxide Vertically Aligned Nanocomposites for Nanoscale Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Leigang; Sun, Liuyang; Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian; Hogan, Nicki L; Lu, Ping; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Zhang, Wenrui; Jian, Jie; Huang, Jijie; Su, Qing; Fan, Meng; Jacob, Clement; Li, Jin; Zhang, Xinghang; Jia, Quanxi; Sheldon, Matthew; Alù, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-06-01

    Metamaterials made of nanoscale inclusions or artificial unit cells exhibit exotic optical properties that do not exist in natural materials. Promising applications, such as super-resolution imaging, cloaking, hyperbolic propagation, and ultrafast phase velocities have been demonstrated based on mostly micrometer-scale metamaterials and few nanoscale metamaterials. To date, most metamaterials are created using costly and tedious fabrication techniques with limited paths toward reliable large-scale fabrication. In this work, we demonstrate the one-step direct growth of self-assembled epitaxial metal-oxide nanocomposites as a drastically different approach to fabricating large-area nanostructured metamaterials. Using pulsed laser deposition, we fabricated nanocomposite films with vertically aligned gold (Au) nanopillars (∼20 nm in diameter) embedded in various oxide matrices with high epitaxial quality. Strong, broad absorption features in the measured absorbance spectrum are clear signatures of plasmon resonances of Au nanopillars. By tuning their densities on selected substrates, anisotropic optical properties are demonstrated via angular dependent and polarization resolved reflectivity measurements and reproduced by full-wave simulations and effective medium theory. Our model predicts exotic properties, such as zero permittivity responses and topological transitions. Our studies suggest that these self-assembled metal-oxide nanostructures provide an exciting new material platform to control and enhance optical response at nanometer scales.

  20. The effects of DRIE operational parameters on vertically aligned micropillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kane; Li, Mingxiao; Walsh, Kevin M.; Fu, Xiao-An

    2013-03-01

    Vertically aligned silicon micropillar arrays have been created by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and used for a number of microfabricated devices including microfluidic devices, micropreconcentrators and photovoltaic cells. This paper delineates an experimental design performed on the Bosch process of DRIE of micropillar arrays. The arrays are fabricated with direct-write optical lithography without photomask, and the effects of DRIE process parameters, including etch cycle time, passivation cycle time, platen power and coil power on profile angle, scallop depth and scallop peak-to-peak distance are studied by statistical design of experiments. Scanning electron microscope images are used for measuring the resultant profile angles and characterizing the scalloping effect on the pillar sidewalls. The experimental results indicate the effects of the determining factors, etch cycle time, passivation cycle time and platen power, on the micropillar profile angles and scallop depths. An optimized DRIE process recipe for creating nearly 90° and smooth surface (invisible scalloping) has been obtained as a result of the statistical design of experiments.

  1. Synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers-carbon nanowalls by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Atsuto; Tanaka, Kei; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Ueda, Kazuyuki; Ghosh, Pradip; Tanemura, Masaki

    2013-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VA-CNFs)-carbon nanowalls (CNWs) have been prepared on a silicon (Si) substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The VA-CNFs-CNWs were formed at bias voltage of - 185 V, whereas conventional VA-CNFs were synthesized under conditions of high bias voltages. Degenerated CNWs with turbostratic graphite structure were created on amorphous carbon layer around CNFs like a flag attached to a pole, which is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Electron field emission characteristics of VA-CNFs-CNWs with unique microstructure, fabricated on the Si substrate, were primarily investigated. As a result, the VA-CNFs-CNWs showed the turn-on and the threshold fields of 1.7 V x microm(-1) and 3.35 V x microm(-1) with current densities of 10 nA x cm(-2) and 1 microA x cm(-2), respectively. The field enhancement factor beta was estimated to be 1059 by using Fowler-Nordheim theory. PMID:23755628

  2. Highly flexible, all solid-state micro-supercapacitors from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsia, Ben; Marschewski, Julian; Wang, Shuang; In, Jung Bin; Carraro, Carlo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Maboudian, Roya

    2014-02-01

    We report a highly flexible planar micro-supercapacitor with interdigitated finger electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). The planar electrode structures are patterned on a thin polycarbonate substrate with a facile, maskless laser-assisted dry transfer method. Sputtered Ni is used to reduce the in-plane resistance of the VACNT electrodes. An ionogel, an ionic liquid in a semi-solid matrix, is used as an electrolyte to form a fully solid-state device. We measure a specific capacitance of 430 μF cm-2 for a scan rate of 0.1 V s-1 and achieve rectangular cyclic voltammograms at high scan rates of up to 100 V s-1. Minimal change in capacitance is observed under bending. Mechanical fatigue tests with more than 1000 cycles confirm the high flexibility and durability of the novel material combination chosen for this device. Our results indicate that this scalable and facile fabrication technique shows promise for application in integrated energy storage for all solid-state flexible microdevices.

  3. Vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowires electrodeposited within porous polycarbonate templates for vibrational energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Boughey, Francesca L; Davies, Timothy; Datta, Anuja; Whiter, Richard A; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2016-07-15

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator has been fabricated using a simple, fast and scalable template-assisted electrodeposition process, by which vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were directly grown within a nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) template. The nanowires, having average diameter 184 nm and length 12 μm, are polycrystalline and have a preferred orientation of the [100] axis parallel to the long axis. The output power density of a nanogenerator fabricated from the as-grown ZnO nanowires still embedded within the PC template was found to be 151 ± 25 mW m(-3) at an impedance-matched load, when subjected to a low-level periodic (5 Hz) impacting force akin to gentle finger tapping. An energy conversion efficiency of ∼4.2% was evaluated for the electrodeposited ZnO nanowires, and the ZnO-PC composite nanogenerator was found to maintain good energy harvesting performance through 24 h of continuous fatigue testing. This is particularly significant given that ZnO-based nanostructures typically suffer from mechanical and/or environmental degradation that otherwise limits their applicability in vibrational energy harvesting. Our template-assisted synthesis of ZnO nanowires embedded within a protective polymer matrix through a single growth process is thus attractive for the fabrication of low-cost, robust and stable nanogenerators.

  4. Vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowires electrodeposited within porous polycarbonate templates for vibrational energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughey, Francesca L.; Davies, Timothy; Datta, Anuja; Whiter, Richard A.; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2016-07-01

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator has been fabricated using a simple, fast and scalable template-assisted electrodeposition process, by which vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were directly grown within a nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) template. The nanowires, having average diameter 184 nm and length 12 μm, are polycrystalline and have a preferred orientation of the [100] axis parallel to the long axis. The output power density of a nanogenerator fabricated from the as-grown ZnO nanowires still embedded within the PC template was found to be 151 ± 25 mW m-3 at an impedance-matched load, when subjected to a low-level periodic (5 Hz) impacting force akin to gentle finger tapping. An energy conversion efficiency of ˜4.2% was evaluated for the electrodeposited ZnO nanowires, and the ZnO-PC composite nanogenerator was found to maintain good energy harvesting performance through 24 h of continuous fatigue testing. This is particularly significant given that ZnO-based nanostructures typically suffer from mechanical and/or environmental degradation that otherwise limits their applicability in vibrational energy harvesting. Our template-assisted synthesis of ZnO nanowires embedded within a protective polymer matrix through a single growth process is thus attractive for the fabrication of low-cost, robust and stable nanogenerators.

  5. Actuatable membranes based on polypyrrole-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Benjamin L; Retterer, Scott T; McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli V; Fowlkes, Jason D; Simpson, Michael L; Doktycz, Mitchel J

    2008-02-01

    Nanoporous membranes are applicable to a variety of research fields due to their ability to selectively separate molecules with high efficiency. Of particular interest are methods for controlling membrane selectivity through externally applied stimuli and integrating such membrane structures within multiscale systems. Membranes comprised of deterministically grown, vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are compatible with these needs. VACNF membranes can regulate molecular transport by physically selecting species as they pass between the fibers. Defined interfiber spacing allows for nanoscale control of membrane pore structure and resultant size selectivity. Subsequent physical or chemical modification of VACNF structures enables the tuning of physical pore size and chemical specificity allowing further control of membrane permeability. In this work, the dynamic physical modulation of membrane permeability that results when VACNFs are coated with an electrically actuatable polymer, polypyrrole, is demonstrated. Electrochemical reduction of polypyrrole on the VACNFs results in controlled swelling of the diameter of the nanofibers that in turn decreases the pore size. Dynamic control of membrane pore size enables selective transport and gating of nanoscale pores.

  6. Study of adhesion of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes to a substrate by atomic-force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, O. A.; Blinov, Yu. F.; Il'ina, M. V.; Il'in, O. I.; Smirnov, V. A.; Tsukanova, O. G.

    2016-02-01

    The adhesion to a substrate of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA CNT) produced by plasmaenhanced chemical vapor deposition has been experimentally studied by atomic-force microscopy in the current spectroscopy mode. The longitudinal deformation of VA CNT by applying an external electric field has been simulated. Based on the results, a technique of determining VA CNT adhesion to a substrate has been developed that is used to measure the adhesion strength of connecting VA CNT to a substrate. The adhesion to a substrate of VA CNT 70-120 nm in diameter varies from 0.55 to 1.19 mJ/m2, and the adhesion force from 92.5 to 226.1 nN. When applying a mechanical load, the adhesion strength of the connecting VA CNT to a substrate is 714.1 ± 138.4 MPa, and the corresponding detachment force increases from 1.93 to 10.33 μN with an increase in the VA CNT diameter. As an external electric field is applied, the adhesion strength is almost doubled and is 1.43 ± 0.29 GPa, and the corresponding detachment force is changed from 3.83 to 20.02 μN. The results can be used in the design of technological processes of formation of emission structures, VA CNT-based elements for vacuum microelectronics and micro- and nanosystem engineering, and also the methods of probe nanodiagnostics of VA CNT.

  7. Overhead drilling: Comparing three bases for aligning a drilling jig to vertical

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, David; Star, Demetra; Barr, Alan; Janowitz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Problem Drilling overhead into concrete or metal ceilings is a strenuous task done by construction workers to hang ductwork, piping, and electrical equipment. The task is associated with upper body pain and musculoskeletal disorders. Previously, we described a field usability evaluation of a foot lever and inverted drill press intervention devices that were compared to the usual method for overhead drilling. Both interventions were rated as inferior to the usual method based on poor setup time and mobility. Method Three new interventions, which differed on the design used for aligning the drilling column to vertical, were compared to the usual method for overhead drilling by commercial construction workers (n=16). Results The usual method was associated with the highest levels of regional body fatigue and the poorest usability ratings when compared to the three interventions. Conclusion Overall, the ‘Collar Base’ intervention design received the best usability ratings. Impact on Industry Intervention designs developed for overhead drilling may reduce shoulder fatigue and prevent subsequent musculoskeletal disorders. These designs may also be useful for other overhead work such as lifting and supporting materials (e.g., piping, ducts) that are installed near the ceiling. Workplace health and safety interventions may require multiple rounds of field-testing prior to achieving acceptable usability ratings by the end users. PMID:20630276

  8. Room temperature-synthesized vertically aligned InSb nanowires: electrical transport and field emission characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned single-crystal InSb nanowires were synthesized via the electrochemical method at room temperature. The characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectrum revealed that in the syntheses of InSb nanowires, energy bandgap shifts towards the short wavelength with the occurrence of an electron accumulation layer. The current–voltage curve, based on the metal–semiconductor–metal model, showed a high electron carrier concentration of 2.0 × 1017 cm−3 and a high electron mobility of 446.42 cm2 V−1 s−1. Additionally, the high carrier concentration of the InSb semiconductor with the surface accumulation layer induced a downward band bending effect that reduces the electron tunneling barrier. Consequently, the InSb nanowires exhibit significant field emission properties with an extremely low turn-on field of 1.84 V μm−1 and an estimative threshold field of 3.36 V μm−1. PMID:23399075

  9. Vertically aligned CNT-Cu nano-composite material for stacked through-silicon-via interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuangxi; Mu, Wei; Edwards, Michael; Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Fu, Yifeng; Jeppson, Kjell; Liu, Johan

    2016-08-01

    For future miniaturization of electronic systems using 3D chip stacking, new fine-pitch materials for through-silicon-via (TSV) applications are likely required. In this paper, we propose a novel carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper nanocomposite material consisting of high aspect ratio, vertically aligned CNT bundles coated with copper. These bundles, consisting of hundreds of tiny CNTs, were uniformly coated by copper through electroplating, and aspect ratios as high as 300:1 were obtained. The resistivity of this nanomaterial was found to be as low as ˜10-8 Ω m, which is of the same order of magnitude as the resistivity of copper, and its temperature coefficient was found to be only half of that of pure copper. The main advantage of the composite TSV nanomaterial is that its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to that of silicon, a key reliability factor. A finite element model was set up to demonstrate the reliability of this composite material and thermal cycle simulations predicted very promising results. In conclusion, this composite nanomaterial appears to be a very promising material for future 3D TSV applications offering both a low resistivity and a low CTE similar to that of silicon.

  10. Analysis of cellular adhesion on superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotube scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Machado, M M; Lobo, A O; Marciano, F R; Corat, E J; Corat, M A F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed GFP cells after 24h cultivated on superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotube scaffolds. We produced two different densities of VACNT scaffolds on Ti using Ni or Fe catalysts. A simple and fast oxygen plasma treatment promoted the superhydrophilicity of them. We used five different substrates, such as: as-grown VACNT produced using Ni as catalyst (Ni), as-grown VACNT produced using Fe as catalyst (Fe), VACNT-O produced using Ni as catalyst (NiO), VACNT-O produced using Fe as catalyst (FeO) and Ti (control). The 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole reagent nuclei stained the adherent cells cultivated on five different analyzed scaffolds. We used fluorescence microscopy for image collect, ImageJ® to count adhered cell and GraphPad Prism 5® for statistical analysis. We demonstrated in crescent order: Fe, Ni, NiO, FeO and Ti scaffolds that had an improved cellular adhesion. Oxygen treatment associated to high VACNT density (group FeO) presented significantly superior cell adhesion up to 24h. However, they do not show significant differences compared with Ti substrates (control). We demonstrated that all the analyzed substrates were nontoxic. Also, we proposed that the density and hydrophilicity influenced the cell adhesion behavior. PMID:25579935

  11. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells: optimal carrier transport in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keisuke; Dutta, Mrinal; Fukata, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells that combine vertically-aligned n-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) have great potential for replacing commercial Si solar cells. The chief advantage of such solar cells is that they exhibit higher absorbance for a given thickness than commercial Si solar cells, due to incident light-trapping within the NW arrays, thus enabling lower-cost solar cell production. We report herein on the effects of NW length, annealing and surface electrode on the device performance of SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the obtained SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by tuning the thickness of the surface electrode, and the etching conditions during NW formation and post-annealing. The PCE of 9.3% is obtained by forming efficient transport pathways for photogenerated charge carriers to electrodes. Our approach is a significant contribution to design of high-performance and low-cost inorganic/organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells.

  12. Versatile Particle-Based Route to Engineer Vertically Aligned Silicon Nanowire Arrays and Nanoscale Pores.

    PubMed

    Elnathan, Roey; Isa, Lucio; Brodoceanu, Daniel; Nelson, Adrienne; Harding, Frances J; Delalat, Bahman; Kraus, Tobias; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-10-28

    Control over particle self-assembly is a prerequisite for the colloidal templating of lithographical etching masks to define nanostructures. This work integrates and combines for the first time bottom-up and top-down approaches, namely, particle self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces and metal-assisted chemical etching, to generate vertically aligned silicon nanowire (VA-SiNW) arrays and, alternatively, arrays of nanoscale pores in a silicon wafer. Of particular importance, and in contrast to current techniques, including conventional colloidal lithography, this approach provides excellent control over the nanowire or pore etching site locations and decouples nanowire or pore diameter and spacing. The spacing between pores or nanowires is tuned by adjusting the specific area of the particles at the liquid-liquid interface before deposition. Hence, the process enables fast and low-cost fabrication of ordered nanostructures in silicon and can be easily scaled up. We demonstrate that the fabricated VA-SiNW arrays can be used as in vitro transfection platforms for transfecting human primary cells.

  13. Massive transfer of vertically aligned Si nanowire array onto alien substrates and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Shu-Chia; Hung, Shih-Che; Chao, Jiun-Jie; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2009-07-01

    Si nanowires (NWs) are promising materials for future electronic, photovoltaic, and sensor applications. So far the Si NWs are mainly formed on particular substrates or at high temperatures, greatly limiting their application flexibility. Here we report a low temperature process for forming and massively transferring vertically aligned Si NWs on alien substrates with a large density of about (3-5) × 10 7 NWs/mm 2. The X-ray diffraction spectrum reveals that the transferred NWs exhibit almost the same crystal property as the bulk Si. Our investigation further shows that the transferred NWs have exceptional optical characteristics. The transferred Si NWs of 12.14 μm exhibit the transmittance as low as 0.3% in the near infrared region and 0.07% in the visible region. The extracted absorption coefficient of Si NWs in the near infrared region is about 3 × 10 3 cm -1, over 30 times larger than that of the bulk Si. Because of the low temperature process, it enables a large variety of alien substrates such as glass and plastics to be used. In addition, the exceptional properties of the transferred NWs offer potential applications for photovoltaic, photo-detectors, sensors, and flexible electronics.

  14. Vertically aligned CNT-Cu nano-composite material for stacked through-silicon-via interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuangxi; Mu, Wei; Edwards, Michael; Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Fu, Yifeng; Jeppson, Kjell; Liu, Johan

    2016-08-01

    For future miniaturization of electronic systems using 3D chip stacking, new fine-pitch materials for through-silicon-via (TSV) applications are likely required. In this paper, we propose a novel carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper nanocomposite material consisting of high aspect ratio, vertically aligned CNT bundles coated with copper. These bundles, consisting of hundreds of tiny CNTs, were uniformly coated by copper through electroplating, and aspect ratios as high as 300:1 were obtained. The resistivity of this nanomaterial was found to be as low as ∼10‑8 Ω m, which is of the same order of magnitude as the resistivity of copper, and its temperature coefficient was found to be only half of that of pure copper. The main advantage of the composite TSV nanomaterial is that its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to that of silicon, a key reliability factor. A finite element model was set up to demonstrate the reliability of this composite material and thermal cycle simulations predicted very promising results. In conclusion, this composite nanomaterial appears to be a very promising material for future 3D TSV applications offering both a low resistivity and a low CTE similar to that of silicon.

  15. Insertion of Vertically Aligned Nanowires into Living Cells by Inkjet Printing of Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggyu; Lee, Daehee; Won, Yulim; Hong, Hyeonaug; Kim, Yongjae; Song, Hyunwoo; Pyun, Jae-Chul; Cho, Yong Soo; Ryu, Wonhyoung; Moon, Jooho

    2016-03-01

    Effective insertion of vertically aligned nanowires (NWs) into cells is critical for bioelectrical and biochemical devices, biological delivery systems, and photosynthetic bioenergy harvesting. However, accurate insertion of NWs into living cells using scalable processes has not yet been achieved. Here, NWs are inserted into living Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells (Chlamy cells) via inkjet printing of the Chlamy cells, representing a low-cost and large-scale method for inserting NWs into living cells. Jetting conditions and printable bioink composed of living Chlamy cells are optimized to achieve stable jetting and precise ink deposition of bioink for indentation of NWs into Chlamy cells. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is used to verify the viability of Chlamy cells after inkjet printing. Simple mechanical considerations of the cell membrane and droplet kinetics are developed to control the jetting force to allow penetration of the NWs into cells. The results suggest that inkjet printing is an effective, controllable tool for stable insertion of NWs into cells with economic and scale-related advantages. PMID:26800021

  16. Vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowires electrodeposited within porous polycarbonate templates for vibrational energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Boughey, Francesca L; Davies, Timothy; Datta, Anuja; Whiter, Richard A; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2016-07-15

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator has been fabricated using a simple, fast and scalable template-assisted electrodeposition process, by which vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were directly grown within a nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) template. The nanowires, having average diameter 184 nm and length 12 μm, are polycrystalline and have a preferred orientation of the [100] axis parallel to the long axis. The output power density of a nanogenerator fabricated from the as-grown ZnO nanowires still embedded within the PC template was found to be 151 ± 25 mW m(-3) at an impedance-matched load, when subjected to a low-level periodic (5 Hz) impacting force akin to gentle finger tapping. An energy conversion efficiency of ∼4.2% was evaluated for the electrodeposited ZnO nanowires, and the ZnO-PC composite nanogenerator was found to maintain good energy harvesting performance through 24 h of continuous fatigue testing. This is particularly significant given that ZnO-based nanostructures typically suffer from mechanical and/or environmental degradation that otherwise limits their applicability in vibrational energy harvesting. Our template-assisted synthesis of ZnO nanowires embedded within a protective polymer matrix through a single growth process is thus attractive for the fabrication of low-cost, robust and stable nanogenerators. PMID:27256619

  17. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-01-01

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures have been widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures. PMID:26040539

  18. Position-selective growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes for application of electronic-measuring nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Hiroki; Iwata, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    Position-selective growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and vertically aligned CNTs (VACNTs) on patterned metal electrodes have been prepared by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) and DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). We propose newly a position-controlling method of CNTs by controlling not only a position of Ni as catalysts but also the morphology of Mo as underlayers for the catalysts. The position-selective growth of CNTs was achieved at the edges of the patterned metal by TCVD. The morphologies of the Mo underlayer at the selected area were rough and porous. No CNTs grew on smooth Mo surfaces. The minimum width of selectively grown CNTs, ca. 2.6 μm, was approximately one-eightieth of the patterned metal, 200 μm. VACNTs were synthesized by a PECVD method, however, the VACNTs grew up all over the patterned metal. The Ni catalysts formed into fine particles on rough surfaces of the Mo underlayer. Then the selective growth was achieved by Ni fine particles formed only at the edges of the metal pattern. The results of PECVD suggest that the plasma promoted the Ni catalysts to become fine particles on smooth surfaces of Mo. Conclusively a position-controlling method of CNTs was demonstrated in the optimum conditions of the TCVD.

  19. Polymer stabilized vertical alignment liquid crystal display: effect of monomer structures and their stabilizing characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, You Ri; Choi, Young Eun; Wen, Pushen; Lee, Byeong Hoon; Kim, Jong Chan; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-04-01

    A polymer-stabilized vertical alignment (PS-VA) mode using a new type of photoreactive monomer for polymer stabilization of the liquid crystal (LC) director was developed. Conventional reactive mesogens having a higher molecular weight than those of the host LC tend to aggregate and form large-sized polymer grains when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light, subsequently deteriorating the quality of the dark state. To address these problems, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) diacrylates were synthesized with four different linking groups as stabilizing monomers (SMs) which have molecular weights similar to that of the host LC. Their stabilizing characteristics with respect to the molecular size and polarity of SMs were evaluated by examining the electro-optic characteristics of LC cells after UV irradiation. The results showed that the SM containing a small linking group in size between biphenyls with high polarity was favored to achieve excellent polymer stabilization. The SM containing an ether linkage showed excellent electro-optic characteristics with no large-sized polymer grains even in the absence of a photo-initiator. Consequently, we anticipate that SMs, polar and smaller in size, can improve the electro-optic characteristics in PS-VA mode.

  20. Plasma fluorination of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: functionalization and thermal stability

    PubMed Central

    Struzzi, Claudia; Scardamaglia, Mattia; Hemberg, Axel; Petaccia, Luca; Colomer, Jean-François; Snyders, Rony

    2015-01-01

    Summary Grafting of fluorine species on carbon nanostructures has attracted interest due to the effective modification of physical and chemical properties of the starting materials. Various techniques have been employed to achieve a controlled fluorination yield; however, the effect of contaminants is rarely discussed, although they are often present. In the present work, the fluorination of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes was performed using plasma treatment in a magnetron sputtering chamber with fluorine diluted in an argon atmosphere with an Ar/F2 ratio of 95:5. The effect of heavily diluted fluorine in the precursor gas mixture is investigated by evaluating the modifications in the nanotube structure and the electronic properties upon plasma treatment. The existence of oxygen-based grafted species is associated with background oxygen species present in the plasma chamber in addition to fluorine. The thermal stability and desorption process of the fluorine species grafted on the carbon nanotubes during the fluorine plasma treatment were evaluated by combining different spectroscopic techniques. PMID:26734518

  1. Engineering Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Growth by Decoupled Thermal Treatment of Precursor and Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Meshot, E.; Plata, D; Tawfick, S; Zhang, Y; Verploegen, E; Hart, A

    2009-01-01

    We study synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) 'forests' by a decoupled method that facilitates control of the mean diameter and structural quality of the CNTs and enables tuning of the kinetics for efficient growth to forest heights of several millimeters. The growth substrate temperature (Ts) primarily determines the CNT diameter, whereas independent and rapid thermal treatment (Tp) of the C2H4/H2 reactant mixture significantly changes the growth rate and terminal forest height but does not change the CNT diameter. Synchrotron X-ray scattering is utilized for precise, nondestructive measurement of CNT diameter in large numbers of samples. CNT structural quality monotonically increases with Ts yet decreases with Tp, and forests grown by this decoupled method have significantly higher quality than those grown using a conventional single-zone tube furnace. Chemical analysis reveals that the thermal treatment generates a broad population of hydrocarbon species, and a nonmonotonic relationship between catalyst lifetime and Tp suggests that certain carbon species either enhance or inhibit CNT growth. However, the forest height kinetics, as measured in real-time during growth, are self-similar, thereby indicating that a common mechanism of growth termination may be present over a wide range of process conditions.

  2. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.

  3. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use ofmore » the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.« less

  4. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-01-01

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures have been widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures. PMID:26040539

  5. Determination of material constants of vertically aligned carbon nanotube structures in compressions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yupeng; Kang, Junmo; Choi, Jae-Boong; Nam, Jae-Do; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2015-06-19

    Different chemical vapour deposition (CVD) fabrication conditions lead to a wide range of variation in the microstructure and morphologies of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which actually determine the compressive mechanical properties of CNTs. However, the underlying relationship between the structure/morphology and mechanical properties of CNTs is not fully understood. In this study, we characterized and compared the structural and morphological properties of three kinds of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays from different CVD fabrication methods and performed monotonic compressive tests for each VACNT array. The compressive stress-strain responses and plastic deformation were first compared and analyzed with nanotube buckling behaviours. To quantify the compressive properties of the VACNT arrays, a strain density energy function was used to determine their intrinsic material constants. Then, the structural and morphological effects on the quantified material constants of the VACNTs were statistically investigated and analogized to cellular materials with an open-cell model. The statistical analysis shows that density, defect degree, and the moment of inertia of the CNTs are key factors in the improvement of the compressive mechanical properties of VACNT arrays. This approach could allow a model-driven CNT synthesis for engineering their mechanical behaviours. PMID:26011574

  6. Temperature-dependent gas transport performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotube/parylene composite membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Junhe; Wang, Xianying; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Guangping

    2014-01-01

    A novel composite membrane consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and parylene was successfully fabricated. Seamless filling of the spaces in CNT forests with parylene was achieved by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique and followed with the Ar/O2 plasma etching to expose CNT tips. Transport properties of various gases through the CNT/parylene membranes were explored. And gas permeances were independent on feed pressure in accordance with the Knudsen model, but the permeance values were over 60 times higher than that predicted by the Knudsen diffusion kinetics, which was attributed to specular momentum reflection inside smooth CNT pores. Gas permeances and enhancement factors over the Knudsen model firstly increased and then decreased with rising temperature, which confirmed the existence of non-Knudsen transport. And surface adsorption diffusion could affect the gas permeance at relatively low temperature. The gas permeance of the CNT/parylene composite membrane could be improved by optimizing operating temperature. PMID:25246864

  7. Effects of ferrite catalyst concentration and water vapor on growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh Cao, Thi; Chuc Nguyen, Van; Thanh Tam Ngo, Thi; Le, Trong Lu; Loc Nguyen, Thai; Tran, Dai Lam; Obraztsova, Elena D.; Phan, Ngoc Minh

    2014-12-01

    In this study Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used as catalysts for the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The effect of catalyst concentration and water vapor during the CVD process on the properties of the VA-CNTs was investigated. Monodisperse Fe3O4 nanoparticles (4.5-9.0 nm diameter) prepared by thermal decomposition of iron acetylacetonate compounds were spin-coated on clean silicon substrates which served as a platform for VA-CNTs growth. The results indicated that the length, density and growth rate of CNTs were strongly affected by the catalyst concentration. CNTs grown at 0.026 g ml-1 Fe3O4 catalyst had greater length, density and growth rates than those obtained at 0.01 and 0.033 g ml-1 Fe3O4 catalyst. Addition of water during the CVD process had drastically improved CNTs growth. The length and growth rate of obtained CNTs were 40 μm and 1.33 μm min-1, respectively. The results provided insights into the role of Fe3O4 catalyst and water vapor during VA-CNTs growth process by CVD method and the obtained information might serve as a starting point for further optimization of VA-CNTs synthesis.

  8. Determination of material constants of vertically aligned carbon nanotube structures in compressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yupeng; Kang, Junmo; Choi, Jae-Boong; Nam, Jae-Do; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2015-06-01

    Different chemical vapour deposition (CVD) fabrication conditions lead to a wide range of variation in the microstructure and morphologies of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which actually determine the compressive mechanical properties of CNTs. However, the underlying relationship between the structure/morphology and mechanical properties of CNTs is not fully understood. In this study, we characterized and compared the structural and morphological properties of three kinds of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays from different CVD fabrication methods and performed monotonic compressive tests for each VACNT array. The compressive stress-strain responses and plastic deformation were first compared and analyzed with nanotube buckling behaviours. To quantify the compressive properties of the VACNT arrays, a strain density energy function was used to determine their intrinsic material constants. Then, the structural and morphological effects on the quantified material constants of the VACNTs were statistically investigated and analogized to cellular materials with an open-cell model. The statistical analysis shows that density, defect degree, and the moment of inertia of the CNTs are key factors in the improvement of the compressive mechanical properties of VACNT arrays. This approach could allow a model-driven CNT synthesis for engineering their mechanical behaviours.

  9. Reduced graphene oxide and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes superhydrophilic films for supercapacitors devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zanin, H.; Saito, E.; Ceragioli, H.J.; Baranauskas, V.; Corat, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene nanosheets were produced onto wire rods. • RGO and VACNT-O were evaluated and compared as supercapacitor electrode. • RGO and VACNT-O have structural and electrochemical properties quite similars. • The materials present good specific capacitance, energy storage and power delivery. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) superhydrophilic films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition techniques for electrical energy storage investigations. These electrodes were characterized in terms of their material and electrochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface wettability, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive and Raman spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge. We observed several physical structural and electrochemical similarities between these carbon-based materials with particular attention to very good specific capacitance, ultra-high energy storage and fast power delivery. Our results showed that the main difference between specific capacitance values is attributed to pseudocapacitive contribution and high density of multiwall nanotubes tips. In this work we have tested a supercapacitor device using the VACNT electrodes.

  10. Self-Assembled Epitaxial Au-Oxide Vertically Aligned Nanocomposites for Nanoscale Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Leigang; Sun, Liuyang; Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian; Hogan, Nicki L; Lu, Ping; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Zhang, Wenrui; Jian, Jie; Huang, Jijie; Su, Qing; Fan, Meng; Jacob, Clement; Li, Jin; Zhang, Xinghang; Jia, Quanxi; Sheldon, Matthew; Alù, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-06-01

    Metamaterials made of nanoscale inclusions or artificial unit cells exhibit exotic optical properties that do not exist in natural materials. Promising applications, such as super-resolution imaging, cloaking, hyperbolic propagation, and ultrafast phase velocities have been demonstrated based on mostly micrometer-scale metamaterials and few nanoscale metamaterials. To date, most metamaterials are created using costly and tedious fabrication techniques with limited paths toward reliable large-scale fabrication. In this work, we demonstrate the one-step direct growth of self-assembled epitaxial metal-oxide nanocomposites as a drastically different approach to fabricating large-area nanostructured metamaterials. Using pulsed laser deposition, we fabricated nanocomposite films with vertically aligned gold (Au) nanopillars (∼20 nm in diameter) embedded in various oxide matrices with high epitaxial quality. Strong, broad absorption features in the measured absorbance spectrum are clear signatures of plasmon resonances of Au nanopillars. By tuning their densities on selected substrates, anisotropic optical properties are demonstrated via angular dependent and polarization resolved reflectivity measurements and reproduced by full-wave simulations and effective medium theory. Our model predicts exotic properties, such as zero permittivity responses and topological transitions. Our studies suggest that these self-assembled metal-oxide nanostructures provide an exciting new material platform to control and enhance optical response at nanometer scales. PMID:27186652

  11. Overgrowth of Silver Nanodisks on a Substrate into Vertically Aligned Nanopillars for Chromatic Light Polarization.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud A

    2016-09-14

    Vertically aligned and well-separated 1D silver nanopillars (AgNPLs) are prepared on a large-area quartz surface using a robust colloidal chemical technique. Silver nanodisk (AgND) monolayers were first deposited on quartz using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, and the presence of the substrate induced asymmetric chemical overgrowth of the AgNDs into AgNPLs. The height and diameter of the prepared AgNPLs were controlled by changing the rate of the overgrowth reaction. Chloride ions were used during overgrowth to etch the silver atoms that formed sharp features on the sides of the AgNDs and to limit growth in the lateral direction. The grown AgNPLs displayed two surface plasmon resonance modes corresponding to the transverse and longitudinal electron oscillations. The intensity of the longitudinal mode increased by a factor of 9 while the intensity of the transverse mode decreased by a factor of 2.5 upon increasing the angle of incidence of the exciting light from 0° to 60°. This interesting property makes these AgNPL arrays on quartz useful as chromatic light polarizers. PMID:27561747

  12. Highly flexible, all solid-state micro-supercapacitors from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Ben; Marschewski, Julian; Wang, Shuang; In, Jung Bin; Carraro, Carlo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Maboudian, Roya

    2014-02-01

    We report a highly flexible planar micro-supercapacitor with interdigitated finger electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). The planar electrode structures are patterned on a thin polycarbonate substrate with a facile, maskless laser-assisted dry transfer method. Sputtered Ni is used to reduce the in-plane resistance of the VACNT electrodes. An ionogel, an ionic liquid in a semi-solid matrix, is used as an electrolyte to form a fully solid-state device. We measure a specific capacitance of 430 μF cm(-2) for a scan rate of 0.1 V s(-1) and achieve rectangular cyclic voltammograms at high scan rates of up to 100 V s(-1). Minimal change in capacitance is observed under bending. Mechanical fatigue tests with more than 1000 cycles confirm the high flexibility and durability of the novel material combination chosen for this device. Our results indicate that this scalable and facile fabrication technique shows promise for application in integrated energy storage for all solid-state flexible microdevices.

  13. Vertically aligned CNT-Cu nano-composite material for stacked through-silicon-via interconnects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuangxi; Mu, Wei; Edwards, Michael; Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Fu, Yifeng; Jeppson, Kjell; Liu, Johan

    2016-08-19

    For future miniaturization of electronic systems using 3D chip stacking, new fine-pitch materials for through-silicon-via (TSV) applications are likely required. In this paper, we propose a novel carbon nanotube (CNT)/copper nanocomposite material consisting of high aspect ratio, vertically aligned CNT bundles coated with copper. These bundles, consisting of hundreds of tiny CNTs, were uniformly coated by copper through electroplating, and aspect ratios as high as 300:1 were obtained. The resistivity of this nanomaterial was found to be as low as ∼10(-8) Ω m, which is of the same order of magnitude as the resistivity of copper, and its temperature coefficient was found to be only half of that of pure copper. The main advantage of the composite TSV nanomaterial is that its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to that of silicon, a key reliability factor. A finite element model was set up to demonstrate the reliability of this composite material and thermal cycle simulations predicted very promising results. In conclusion, this composite nanomaterial appears to be a very promising material for future 3D TSV applications offering both a low resistivity and a low CTE similar to that of silicon.

  14. Synthesis of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods on Ni-Based Buffer Layers Using a Thermal Evaporation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Dong-Hau; He, Jheng-Yu; Huang, Ying-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Uniform, vertically aligned ZnO nanorods have been grown mainly on Au-coated and ZnO-coated sapphire substrates, ZnO- and GaN-coated substrates, or self-catalyzing substrates. Conventionally, Ni-coated substrates have resulted in thick rods with diameter more than 250 nm, rods with nonuniform distribution in diameter, or rods with an alignment problem. In the best result in this paper, slender, uniform, vertically aligned, solely UV-emitting ZnO nanorods with diameter of 110 ± 25 nm and length of 30 ± 10 μm have been successfully grown at 700°C for 2 h on sapphire substrates covered with Ni-based buffer layers by using metallic zinc and oxygen as reactants. Scanning electron microscopy and room-temperature photoluminescence have been used to investigate the effects of process conditions on the slenderness and vertical alignment of the ZnO rods. To develop the desired ZnO nanorods, etched sapphire substrates, a second metallic Sn buffer layer on top of a spin-coated nickel oxide layer, polyvinyl alcohol binder at 10% concentration in solution of iron nitrate, and pyrolysis and reduction reactions were involved. Defect photoemission for thick ZnO rods is attributed to insufficient oxygen supply during the growth process with fixed oxygen flow rate.

  15. Postoperative bedrest improves the alignment of thoracolumbar burst fractures treated with the AO spinal fixator

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yen; Yen, David; Hopman, Wilma M.

    2009-01-01

    Background A loss of reduction due to inadequate support of the anterior column when using short-segment instrumentation to treat burst fracture and novel methods for support of the anterior column through a posterior approach to augment posterior instrumentation have been reported in the literature. We hypothesized that if anterior column support is an important adjunct to posterior short-segment instrumentation, then avoidance of axial load until sufficient anterior column healing occurs, allowing load-sharing with the implant, would improve spinal alignment at follow-up. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in which consecutive patients who had instrumentation and fusion with the AO spinal fixator were immediately ambulated after surgery or had 4 weeks of bedrest. We measured kyphosis and wedge angles preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and at the time of final follow-up. We used radiologic measures to assess instrumentation and bone failure. Results We found significant differences in the mean loss of wedge and kyphosis angle correction between patients immediately ambulated and those who had 4 weeks of bedrest (0.71º v. − 4.73º for wedge and 1.81º v. − 6.55º for kyphosis, respectively). There was significant correlation between instrumentation and bone failure in both the immediate ambulation and bedrest groups. Conclusion Bedrest improves the maintenance of intraoperative sagittal alignment correction, which is in agreement with the theory that inadequate support of the anterior spinal column is the mechanism for loss of reduction when using short-segment instrumentation to treat burst fractures. Therefore, addressing the anterior column directly through anterior surgery or by employing novel techniques in posterior surgery is recommended if one of the goals of treatment is to maintain the sagittal correction achieved at the time of surgery. Trying to achieve this goal by addressing posterior implant design or bone quality alone

  16. Alternating current impedance spectroscopic analysis of biofunctionalized vertically-aligned silica nanospring surface for biosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timalsina, Yukta P.

    In this dissertation, a process of vertically-aligned (silica) nanosprings (VANS) based biosensor development is presented. Alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy has been used to analyze sensor response as a function of saline phosphate (SP) buffer and biological solutions. The sensor is a parallel plate capacitor consisting of two glass substrates coated with indium tin oxide (ITO), where the VANS [or randomly-aligned nanosprings (RANS)] grown on one substrate serve as the dielectric spacer layer. The response of a VANS device as a function of ionic concentration in SP buffer was examined and an equivalent circuit model was developed. The results demonstrated that VANS sensors exhibited greater sensitivity to the changes in SP concentration relative to the ITO sensors, which serve as controls. The biofunctionalized VANS surface via physisorption and the cross-linker method demonstrates the repeatability, specificity, and selectivity of the binding. The physisorption of biotinylated immunoglobulin G (B-IgG) onto the VANS surface simplifies the whole sensing procedure for the detection of glucose oxidase, since the avidin-conjugated glucose oxidase (Av-GOx) can directly be immobilized on the B-IgG. The cross linker method involves the covalent attachment of antibodies onto the functionalized VANS surface via imine bond. The experiments revealed that the VANS sensor response is solely the result of the interaction of target molecule i.e. mouse IgG with the probe layer, i.e. goat antimouse IgG (GalphaM IgG). It was determined that VANS-based sensors exhibit a greater magnitude of change between successive bio-layers relative to the controls above 100 Hz, which indicates that the addition of biomolecules inhibits the diffusion of ions and changes the effective dielectric response of the VANS via biomolecular polarization. The study of ionic transport in nanosprings suggested that conductance follows a scaling law. It was demonstrated that a VANS-based device

  17. Enhanced optoelectronic performances of vertically aligned hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls-nanocrystalline diamond heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Hoang, Duc Quang; Kunuku, Srinivasu; Korneychuk, Svetlana; Turner, Stuart; Pobedinskas, Paulius; Drijkoningen, Sien; Van Bael, Marlies K.; D’ Haen, Jan; Verbeeck, Johan; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I-Nan; Haenen, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Field electron emission (FEE) properties of vertically aligned hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls (hBNNWs) grown on Si have been markedly enhanced through the use of nitrogen doped nanocrystalline diamond (nNCD) films as an interlayer. The FEE properties of hBNNWs-nNCD heterostructures show a low turn-on field of 15.2 V/μm, a high FEE current density of 1.48 mA/cm2 and life-time up to a period of 248 min. These values are far superior to those for hBNNWs grown on Si substrates without the nNCD interlayer, which have a turn-on field of 46.6 V/μm with 0.21 mA/cm2 FEE current density and life-time of 27 min. Cross-sectional TEM investigation reveals that the utilization of the diamond interlayer circumvented the formation of amorphous boron nitride prior to the growth of hexagonal boron nitride. Moreover, incorporation of carbon in hBNNWs improves the conductivity of hBNNWs. Such a unique combination of materials results in efficient electron transport crossing nNCD-to-hBNNWs interface and inside the hBNNWs that results in enhanced field emission of electrons. The prospective application of these materials is manifested by plasma illumination measurements with lower threshold voltage (370 V) and longer life-time, authorizing the role of hBNNWs-nNCD heterostructures in the enhancement of electron emission. PMID:27404130

  18. Enhanced optoelectronic performances of vertically aligned hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls-nanocrystalline diamond heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Hoang, Duc Quang; Kunuku, Srinivasu; Korneychuk, Svetlana; Turner, Stuart; Pobedinskas, Paulius; Drijkoningen, Sien; Van Bael, Marlies K; D' Haen, Jan; Verbeeck, Johan; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I-Nan; Haenen, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Field electron emission (FEE) properties of vertically aligned hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls (hBNNWs) grown on Si have been markedly enhanced through the use of nitrogen doped nanocrystalline diamond (nNCD) films as an interlayer. The FEE properties of hBNNWs-nNCD heterostructures show a low turn-on field of 15.2 V/μm, a high FEE current density of 1.48 mA/cm(2) and life-time up to a period of 248 min. These values are far superior to those for hBNNWs grown on Si substrates without the nNCD interlayer, which have a turn-on field of 46.6 V/μm with 0.21 mA/cm(2) FEE current density and life-time of 27 min. Cross-sectional TEM investigation reveals that the utilization of the diamond interlayer circumvented the formation of amorphous boron nitride prior to the growth of hexagonal boron nitride. Moreover, incorporation of carbon in hBNNWs improves the conductivity of hBNNWs. Such a unique combination of materials results in efficient electron transport crossing nNCD-to-hBNNWs interface and inside the hBNNWs that results in enhanced field emission of electrons. The prospective application of these materials is manifested by plasma illumination measurements with lower threshold voltage (370 V) and longer life-time, authorizing the role of hBNNWs-nNCD heterostructures in the enhancement of electron emission. PMID:27404130

  19. Enhanced optoelectronic performances of vertically aligned hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls-nanocrystalline diamond heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Hoang, Duc Quang; Kunuku, Srinivasu; Korneychuk, Svetlana; Turner, Stuart; Pobedinskas, Paulius; Drijkoningen, Sien; van Bael, Marlies K.; D' Haen, Jan; Verbeeck, Johan; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I.-Nan; Haenen, Ken

    2016-07-01

    Field electron emission (FEE) properties of vertically aligned hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls (hBNNWs) grown on Si have been markedly enhanced through the use of nitrogen doped nanocrystalline diamond (nNCD) films as an interlayer. The FEE properties of hBNNWs-nNCD heterostructures show a low turn-on field of 15.2 V/μm, a high FEE current density of 1.48 mA/cm2 and life-time up to a period of 248 min. These values are far superior to those for hBNNWs grown on Si substrates without the nNCD interlayer, which have a turn-on field of 46.6 V/μm with 0.21 mA/cm2 FEE current density and life-time of 27 min. Cross-sectional TEM investigation reveals that the utilization of the diamond interlayer circumvented the formation of amorphous boron nitride prior to the growth of hexagonal boron nitride. Moreover, incorporation of carbon in hBNNWs improves the conductivity of hBNNWs. Such a unique combination of materials results in efficient electron transport crossing nNCD-to-hBNNWs interface and inside the hBNNWs that results in enhanced field emission of electrons. The prospective application of these materials is manifested by plasma illumination measurements with lower threshold voltage (370 V) and longer life-time, authorizing the role of hBNNWs-nNCD heterostructures in the enhancement of electron emission.

  20. Nucleation, Growth Mechanism, and Controlled Coating of ZnO ALD onto Vertically Aligned N-Doped CNTs.

    PubMed

    Silva, R M; Ferro, M C; Araujo, J R; Achete, C A; Clavel, G; Silva, R F; Pinna, N

    2016-07-19

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc and water. The study demonstrates that doping CNTs with nitrogen is an effective approach for the "activation" of the CNTs surface for the ALD of metal oxides. Conformal ZnO coatings are already obtained after 50 ALD cycles, whereas at lower ALD cycles an island growth mode is observed. Moreover, the process allows for a uniform growth from the top to the bottom of the vertically aligned N-CNT arrays. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that ZnO nucleation takes place at the N-containing species on the surface of the CNTs by the formation of the Zn-N bonds at the interface between the CNTs and the ZnO film. PMID:27333190

  1. Determination of the effective Young's modulus of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: a simple nanotube-based varactor.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Niklas; Ek-Weis, Johan; Eriksson, Anders; Idda, Tonio; Campbell, Eleanor E B

    2009-09-23

    The electromechanical properties of arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were studied in a parallel plate capacitor geometry. The electrostatic actuation was visualized using both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and highly reproducible behaviour was achieved for actuation voltages below the pull-in voltage. The walls of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes behave as solid cohesive units. The effective Young's modulus for the carbon nanotube arrays was determined by comparing the actuation results with the results of electrostatic simulations and was found to be exceptionally low, of the order of 1-10 MPa. The capacitance change and Q-factor were determined by measuring the frequency dependence of the radio-frequency transmission. Capacitance changes of over 20% and Q-factors in the range 100-10 were achieved for a frequency range of 0.2-1.5 GHz.

  2. Catalyst-free highly vertically aligned ZnO nanoneedle arrays grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Yang, C. S.; Chen, P. I.; Su, C. F.; Chen, W. J.; Chiu, K. C.; Chou, W. C.

    2009-11-01

    This work describes the growth of highly vertically aligned ZnO nanoneedle arrays on wafer-scale catalyst-free c-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under high Zn flux conditions. The photoluminescence spectrum of the as-grown samples reveals strong free exciton emissions and donor-bound exciton emissions with an excellent full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.4 meV. The field emission of highly vertically aligned ZnO nanoneedle arrays closely follows the Fowler-Nordheim theory. The turn-on electric field was about 5.9 V/µm with a field enhancement factor β of around 793.

  3. Nucleation, Growth Mechanism, and Controlled Coating of ZnO ALD onto Vertically Aligned N-Doped CNTs.

    PubMed

    Silva, R M; Ferro, M C; Araujo, J R; Achete, C A; Clavel, G; Silva, R F; Pinna, N

    2016-07-19

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc and water. The study demonstrates that doping CNTs with nitrogen is an effective approach for the "activation" of the CNTs surface for the ALD of metal oxides. Conformal ZnO coatings are already obtained after 50 ALD cycles, whereas at lower ALD cycles an island growth mode is observed. Moreover, the process allows for a uniform growth from the top to the bottom of the vertically aligned N-CNT arrays. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that ZnO nucleation takes place at the N-containing species on the surface of the CNTs by the formation of the Zn-N bonds at the interface between the CNTs and the ZnO film.

  4. Joint Use of PP and PS AVOA Data to Estimate Fluid Indicator in Vertically Fractured Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, B.; Sen, M. K.; Gu, H.

    2015-12-01

    The existence of fractures induces anisotropy in medium. This anisotropy might be a comprehensive result of fractures' properties, such as the direction, spacing, apertures, intensity, microstructure, fluid infill, and so on. Among these properties, the preferential orientation of fracture networks makes the medium azimuthally anisotropic with respect to seismic wave propagation. To the medium containing a set of vertical fractures, the tangential weakness does not vary with the fluid content, however on which the normal weakness shows great dependence. Based on the theory of linear slip model and the sensitivity to fracture weakness of PP- and PS-reflection coefficients which can be derived by a Born formula, we did both the PP-AVOA and PS-AVOA numerical experiment and also the joint inversion of fluid indicator. Results show that when the fractures have low saturation of gas, the fluid indicator estimated from PP-AVOA data is precise enough; when gas saturation goes up to 70%, joint inversion can help to improve the poor quality of PP-AVOA data inversion. Under high gas-saturated case, both PP inversion and joint inversion are sensitive to the errors in g, where g is the square of the ratio of S- and P- wave velocity in the unfractured medium. This dependency can be reduced by adding a different weight to PP and PS data during the inversion.Based on the result of numerical experiment, we processed field data in Sichuan Basin in China. The inversion result is consistent with the well interpretation. The first column in figure represents the PP- and PS-reflectivity computed by matrix method(Fryer and Frazer,1984). The second column is the result of Born linearized method. In the last column, upper one shows the estimated fluid indicator in different gas saturation case and the below one consider the effect of error in g on the inversion results.

  5. Detection of fractures within the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS geothermal reservoir by processing of Vertical Seismic Profile data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubrano Lavadera, P.; Marthelot, J. M.; Zillmer, M.; Cornet, F.

    2012-04-01

    The 4 component multi-source/multi-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profile) conducted at the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) site in 2007 provides records of seismic waves recorded in the fractured granite basement within wells GPK3 and GPK4. Waves generated at 26 surface positions, located at distances between 500m and 5km from the well head in different azimuths, are recorded by 3 component geophones at depths between 5000m and 3000m with a 20m depth interval. The seismic source is a vibrator emitting a 16s long sweep with frequencies varying linearly between 8 and 88 Hz. Two shot locations were simultaneously recorded, one with an upsweep [8 to 88Hz], the other with a downsweep [88 to 8Hz]. Successive correlation with the two sweeps allows retrieving distinct seismograms for each shot from the mixed raw uncorrelated records. Most records show clear downgoing P and S waves. Detecting waves reflected or diffracted by fractures intersecting the wells requires extracting low amplitude upgoing waves from the dominant downgoing wavefield. However, the up to 30° inclination of the well relative to the vertical and the 60 to 90° dips of the fracture zones make the separation of the different waves complex. The wavefield separation of the vertical geophone component is done in the frequency-wavenumber Fourier domain which separates waves according to their apparent velocity across the receiver antenna. Picking of the first arrival times and shifting times allows aligning predominant P wave downgoing wavefield at constant times, or infinite apparent velocity in Fourier domain. Filtering the infinite apparent velocity attenuates all the waves having the same apparent velocity as the first arrivals. A second filtering at the downgoing S waves velocities is then applied, providing two downgoing wavefields, one for the P waves and the other for the S waves. The residuals correspond to the upgoing wavefield. To reduce the reverberations in the upgoing

  6. Vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes on aluminum as a light-weight positive electrode for lithium-polysulfide batteries.

    PubMed

    Liatard, S; Benhamouda, K; Fournier, A; Ramos, R; Barchasz, C; Dijon, J

    2015-05-01

    A light-weight, high specific surface current collector made of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes grown on an aluminum substrate was fabricated and studied as a positive electrode in a semi-liquid lithium/polysulfide battery. This simple system delivered stable capacities over 1000 mA h gS(-1) and 2 mA h cm(-2) with almost no capacity loss over 50 cycles.

  7. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  8. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  9. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of "closed" pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  10. Chip electrochromatographic systems: Novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube and silica monoliths based separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Shubhodeep

    2009-12-01

    Miniaturized chemical analysis systems, also know as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices have been rapidly developing over the last decade. Capillary electrochromatography (CEC), a multidimensional separation technique combining capillary electrophoresis (CE) and liquid chromatography (LC) has been of great interest for chip based applications. Preliminary work has been undertaken to develop vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and photopolymerizable silica solgel as novel stationary phase materials for 'chip CEC' separations. Patterned growth of CNTs in a specific location of the channel has been carried out using a solid phase Fe-Al catalyst as well as a vapor deposited ferrocene catalyst. Characterization of the CNT "forests" was achieved using optical microscopy, secondary electron microscopy, high resolution tunneling electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Proof-of-concept applications were demonstrated using reversed phase CEC separations as well as solid phase extraction of a glycosylated protein using concanavilin A immobilized onto the CNT bed. Photopolymerizable silica solgel materials were developed as stationary phase for microfluidic electrochromatographic separations in disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip devices. Effect on morphology and pore size of gels were studied as function of UV and solgel polymerization conditions, porogen, salt additives, geometry and hydrolyzable methoxy-ies. Structural morphologies were studied with Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM). Pore size and pore volumes were characterized by thermal porometry, nitrogen BET adsorptions and differential scanning calorimetry. Computational fluid dynamics and confocal microscopy tools were employed to study the transport of fluids and model analytes. These investigations were directed towards evolving improved strategies for rinsing of uncrosslinked monomers to form porous monoliths as well as to effect a desired separation under a set of electrochromatograhic conditions

  11. Photoresponsive carbohydrate-based giant surfactants: automatic vertical alignment of nematic liquid crystal for the remote-controllable optical device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Yoon; Lee, Sang-A; Kang, Dong-Gue; Park, Minwook; Choi, Yu-Jin; Jeong, Kwang-Un

    2015-03-25

    Photoresponsive carbohydrate-based giant surfactants (abbreviated as CELAnD-OH) were specifically designed and synthesized for the automatic vertical alignment (VA) layer of nematic (N) liquid crystal (LC), which can be applied for the fabrication of remote-controllable optical devices. Without the conventional polymer-based LC alignment process, a perfect VA layer was automatically constructed by directly adding the 0.1 wt % CELA1D-OH in the N-LC media. The programmed CELA1D-OH giant surfactants in the N-LC media gradually diffused onto the substrates of LC cell and self-assembled to the expanded monolayer structure, which can provide enough empty spaces for N-LC molecules to crawl into the empty zones for the construction of VA layer. On the other hand, the CELA3D-OH giant surfactants forming the condensed monolayer structure on the substrates exhibited a planar alignment (PA) rather than a VA. Upon tuning the wavelength of light, the N-LC alignments were reversibly switched between VA and PA in the remote-controllable LC optical devices. Based on the experimental results, it was realized that understanding the interactions between N-LC molecules and amphiphilic giant surfactants is critical to design the suitable materials for the automatic LC alignment.

  12. The influence of metallic posts in the detection of vertical root fractures using different imaging examinations

    PubMed Central

    Jakobson, S J M; Westphalen, V P D; Silva Neto, U X; Fariniuk, L F; Schroeder, A G D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of metallic posts in the detection of simulated vertical root fractures (VRFs) using the following imaging examinations: 2 cone beam CT (CBCT) systems [CBCT1: NewTom® 3G (QR Srl, Verona, Italy) and CBCT2: i-CAT Next Generation® (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA)] and film and digital radiographs. Additionally, the influence of the orientation of the fracture line in the detection of VRFs was evaluated. Methods: 100, human, single-rooted endodontically treated premolars were divided into 5 groups (Group 1: with posts and buccolingual VRFs, Group 2: with posts and mesiodistal VRFs, Group 3: without posts and with buccolingual VRFs, Group 4: without posts and with mesiodistal VRFs, and Group 5: with posts and without VRFs). The premolars were placed in human mandibles and imaged using the four examination modalities. The sensitivity and the specificity of each examination in the experimental groups were calculated. The data were analysed using Student's t-test. Results: The presence of metallic posts reduced the sensitivity of the CBCT1 system (p = 0.0244). Digital radiographs and the CBCT1 and CBCT2 systems had a higher sensitivity in detecting buccolingual fractures in teeth with posts, whereas film and digital radiographs had a higher sensitivity in detecting buccolingual fractures in teeth without posts (p < 0.05). The CBCT1 examination demonstrated the lowest specificity (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of metallic posts did not influence the sensitivity of most of the examinations, excluding the CBCT1 system. The fracture line orientation may influence VRF detection. PMID:24191261

  13. Vertical cross contamination of trichloroethylene in a borehole in fractured sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sterling, S.N.; Parker, B.L.; Cherry, J.A.; Williams, J.H.; Lane, J.W.; Haeni, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    Boreholes drilled through contaminated zones in fractured rock create the potential for vertical movement of contaminated ground water between fractures. The usual assumption is that purging eliminates cross contamination; however, the results of a field study conducted in a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in fractured sandstone with a mean matrix porosity of 13% demonstrates that matrix-diffusion effects can be strong and persistent. A deep borehole was drilled to 110 m below ground surface (mbgs) near a shallow bedrock well containing high TCE concentrations. The borehole was cored continuously to collect closely spaced samples of rock for analysis of TCE concentrations. Geophysical logging and flowmetering were conducted in the open borehole, and a removable multilevel monitoring system was installed to provide hydraulic-head and ground water samples from discrete fracture zones. The borehole was later reamed to complete a well screened from 89 to 100 mbgs; persistent TCE concentrations at this depth ranged from 2100 to 33,000 ??g/L. Rock-core analyses, combined with the other types of borehole information, show that nearly all of this deep contamination was due to the lingering effects of the downward flow of dissolved TCE from shallower depths during the few days of open-hole conditions that existed prior to installation of the multilevel system. This study demonstrates that transfer of contaminant mass to the matrix by diffusion can cause severe cross contamination effects in sedimentary rocks, but these effects generally are not identified from information normally obtained in fractured-rock investigations, resulting in potential misinterpretation of site conditions. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  14. Vertical cross contamination of trichloroethylene in a borehole in fractured sandstone.

    PubMed

    Sterling, S N; Parker, B L; Cherry, J A; Williams, J H; Lane, J W; Haeni, F P

    2005-01-01

    Boreholes drilled through contaminated zones in fractured rock create the potential for vertical movement of contaminated ground water between fractures. The usual assumption is that purging eliminates cross contamination; however, the results of a field study conducted in a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in fractured sandstone with a mean matrix porosity of 13% demonstrates that matrix-diffusion effects can be strong and persistent. A deep borehole was drilled to 110 m below ground surface (mbgs) near a shallow bedrock well containing high TCE concentrations. The borehole was cored continuously to collect closely spaced samples of rock for analysis of TCE concentrations. Geophysical logging and flowmetering were conducted in the open borehole, and a removable multilevel monitoring system was installed to provide hydraulic-head and ground water samples from discrete fracture zones. The borehole was later reamed to complete a well screened from 89 to 100 mbgs; persistent TCE concentrations at this depth ranged from 2100 to 33,000 microg/L. Rock-core analyses, combined with the other types of borehole information, show that nearly all of this deep contamination was due to the lingering effects of the downward flow of dissolved TCE from shallower depths during the few days of open-hole conditions that existed prior to installation of the multilevel system. This study demonstrates that transfer of contaminant mass to the matrix by diffusion can cause severe cross contamination effects in sedimentary rocks, but these effects generally are not identified from information normally obtained in fractured-rock investigations, resulting in potential misinterpretation of site conditions.

  15. A Novel Thresholding Based Algorithm for Detection of Vertical Root Fracture in Nonendodontically Treated Premolar Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Masume; Esmaeili, Farzad; Andalib, Alireza; Garjani, Shabnam; Saberkari, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed for detection of vertical root fractures (VRFs) in periapical (PA), and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) radiographs of nonendodontically treated premolar teeth. PA and CBCT images are divided into some sub-categories based on the fracture space between the two fragments as small, medium, and large for PAs and large for CBCTs. These graphics are first denoised using the combination of block matching 3-D filtering, and principle component analysis model. Then, we proposed an adaptive thresholding algorithm based on the modified Wellner model to segment the fracture and canal. Finally, VRFs are identified with a high accuracy through applying continuous wavelet transform on the segmented radiographs and choosing the most optimal value for sub-images based on the lowest interclass variance. Performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated utilizing the different tested criteria. Results illustrate that the range of specificity deviations for PA and CBCT radiographs are 99.69 ± 0.22 and 99.02 ± 0.77, respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity changes from 61.90 to 77.39 in the case of PA and from 79.54 to 100 in the case of CBCT. Based on our statistical evaluation, the CBCT imaging has the better performance in comparison with PA ones, so this technique could be a useful tool for clinical applications in determining the VRFs. PMID:27186535

  16. Controlled growth of vertically aligned MoO{sub 3} nanoflakes by plasma assisted paste sublimation process

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rabindar K.; Reddy, G. B.

    2013-11-14

    In this work, we have successfully developed plasma assisted paste sublimation route to deposit vertically aligned MoO{sub 3} nanoflakes (NFs) on nickel coated glass substrate in oxygen plasma ambience with the assistant of Ni thin layer as a catalyst. In our case, sublimation source (Mo strip surface) is resistively heated by flowing current across it. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of NFs have been investigated systematically using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Studies reveal that the presence of oxygen plasma and the nickel thin layer are very essential for the growth of vertically aligned NFs. The observed results divulge that α-MoO{sub 3} NFs are deposited uniformly on large scale with very high aspect (height/thickness) ratio more than 30 and well aligned along [0 k 0] crystallographic direction where k is even (2, 4, 6). Raman spectrum shows a significant size effect on the vibrational property of MoO{sub 3} nanoflakes. The PL spectrum of MoO{sub 3} NFs was recorded at room temperature and four prominent peaks at 365 nm, 395 nm, 452 nm, and 465 nm corresponding to UV-visible region were observed. In this paper, a three step growth strategy for the formation of MoO{sub 3} NFs has been proposed in detail.

  17. Vertical alignment of liquid crystal through ion beam exposure on oxygen-doped SiC films deposited at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Phil Kook; Park, Jeung Hun; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Rho, Soon Joon; Jeon, Back Kyun; Shin, Sung Tae; Kim, Jang Sub; Lim, Soon Kwon

    2007-09-03

    The authors report the vertical alignment of liquid crystal (LC) through the ion beam exposure on amorphous oxygen-doped SiC (SiOC) film surfaces deposited at room temperature. The optical transmittance of these films was similar to that of polyimide layers, but much higher than that of SiO{sub x} films. The light leakage of a LC cell aligned vertically on SiOC films was much lower than those of a LC cell aligned on polyimide layers or other inorganic films. They found that LC molecules align vertically on ion beam treated SiOC film when the roughness of the electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) data is high on the SiOC film surface, while they align homogeneously when the roughness of the EFM data is low.

  18. Transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes onto a polymeric substrate using a hot embossing technique for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Mathur, A; Roy, S S; McLaughlin, J A

    2010-07-01

    We explored the hot embossing method for transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into microfluidic channels, fabricated on poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). Patterned and unpatterned CNTs were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on silicon to work as a stamp. For hot embossing, 115 degrees C and 1 kN force for 2 min were found to be the most suitable parameters for the complete transfer of aligned CNTs on the PMMA microchannel. Raman and SEM studies were used to analyse the microstructure of CNTs before and after hot embossing. The PMMA microparticles with dimensions (approx. 10 microm in diameter) similar to red blood cells were successfully filtered using laminar flow through these microfluidic channels. Finally, a microfluidic-based point-of-care device for blood filtration and detection of bio-molecules is drawn schematically.

  19. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Micro Structure of Atmospheric Pressure Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Kuma; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Okazaki, Ken; Heberlein, Joachim; Kortshagen, Uwe

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is recognized as one of the viable fabrication techniques of carbon nanotubes. The outstanding advantage of PECVD is that free-standing, vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) are synthesized due to the electric field normal to the substrate. This feature draws intense attention for the fabrication of nanoelectronic devices such as high-resolution scanning nanoprobes, interconnects, and field emission devices. However, carbon nanotubes synthesized in PECVD are overwhelmingly carbon nanofibers (CNFs) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with measurable structural defects. Tremendous interest in the preparation and characterization of vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) and related applications had not been realized in the scope of PECVD until recently. Here we present a fabrication technique of high-purity vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes using atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. By now, we have developed the atmospheric pressure radio-frequency discharge (APRFD) for this purpose. Although densely mono-dispersed Fe-Co catalysts of a few nanometers is primarily responsible for VA-SWNT growth, carbon precipitation was virtually absent in the thermal CVD regime at 700°C. On the other hand, high-yield VA-SWNTs were grown at 4 μm min-1 by applying the atmospheric pressure radio-frequency discharge. The results proved that cathodic ion sheath adjacent to the substrates, where a large potential drop exists, also plays an essential role for the controlled growth of SWNTs, while ion damage to the VA-SWNTs is inherently avoided due to high collision frequency among molecules in atmospheric pressure. In this paper, operation regime of APRFD and tentative reaction mechanisms for VA-SWNT growth are discussed along with optical imaging of near substrate region of APRFD.

  20. A Precision Dose Control Circuit for Maskless E-Beam Lithography With Massively Parallel Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Eliza, Sazia A.; Islam, Syed K; Rahman, Touhidur; Bull, Nora D; Blalock, Benjamin; Baylor, Larry R; Ericson, Milton Nance; Gardner, Walter L

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a highly accurate dose control circuit (DCC) for the emission of a desired number of electrons from vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) in a massively parallel maskless e-beam lithography system. The parasitic components within the VACNF device cause a premature termination of the electron emission, resulting in underexposure of the photoresist. In this paper, we compensate for the effects of the parasitic components and noise while reducing the area of the chip and achieving a precise count of emitted electrons from the VACNFs to obtain the optimum dose for the e-beam lithography.

  1. Encapsulation of segmented Pd-Co nanocomposites into vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by plasma-hydrogen-induced demixing

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Butler, T.; Rupesinghe, N. L.; Teo, K. B. K.; Amaratunga, G. A. J.

    2007-03-26

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) filled with Pd-Co nanocomposites on an Si substrate have been synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. It was confirmed that adjacent Pd-Co nanocomposites in the VA-CNTs were compositionally separated. Most CNTs contained Co pillars on top; however, Pd pillars were rarely present. The strong magnetic induction from an individual Co pillar was revealed by electron holography. The simultaneous phenomenon of the demixing by plasma hydrogen irradiation and the preferential encapsulation into CNTs realized the unique Pd-Co nanocomposites.

  2. Microstructural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO deposited onto vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by physical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Borkar, Tushar; Chang, Won Seok; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Shepherd, Nigel D.; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2012-10-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films with thicknesses of 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm, and 50 nm were deposited via magnetron sputtering onto the surface of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The ZnO/CNTs heterostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. No structural degradation of the CNTs was observed and photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the nanostructured ZnO layers show that the optical properties of these films are typical of ZnO deposited at low temperatures. The results indicate that magnetron sputtering is a viable technique for growing heterostructures and depositing functional layers onto CNTs.

  3. Photoelectrochemical Properties of Vertically Aligned CuInS2 Nanorod Arrays Prepared via Template-Assisted Growth and Transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wooseok; Oh, Yunjung; Kim, Jimin; Kim, Hyunchul; Shin, Hyunjung; Moon, Jooho

    2016-01-13

    Although copper-based chalcopyrite materials such as CuInS2 have been considered promising photocathodes for solar water splitting, the fabrication route for a nanostructure with vertical orientation has not yet been developed. Here, a fabrication route for vertically aligned CuInS2 nanorod arrays from an aqueous solution using anodic aluminum oxide template-assisted growth and transfer is presented. The nanorods exhibit a phase-pure CuInS2 chalcopyrite structure and cathodic photocurrent response without co-catalyst loading. Small particles of CdS and ZnS were conformally decorated onto CuInS2 nanorods using a successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method. With surface modification of CdS/ZnS, the photoelectrochemical properties of CuInS2 nanorod arrays are enhanced via flat-band potential shift, as determined by analyses of onset potential and Mott-Schottky plots. PMID:26645722

  4. Verification and monitoring of deep granular iron permeable reactive barriers emplaced by vertical hydraulic fracturing and injection for groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubble, David Wallace

    This study evaluated the use of vertical hydraulic fracturing and injection (VHFI) to emplace granular iron as a deep passive treatment system to remove organic contaminants from groundwater at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. It was the first permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed at a depth greater than 15 m below the ground surface. VHFI propagates a vertical fracture from a slot cut through the injection-well casing at a selected depth and orientation. Granular iron is suspended in a viscous fluid using a biodegradable guar polymer and pumped through the slot to form a thin vertical sheet. Two PRBs were emplaced 6 m apart and perpendicular to the groundwater flow direction with mid-depths of about 30 m below the ground surface. Due to the depth, all of the emplacement and verification methods used down-hole tools. Resistivity imaging used salt added to the guar as an electrical tracer to map the spread of the VHFI fluid for propagation control and to estimate the extent of the completed PRB. Radar tomography before and after emplacement also provided images of the PRBs and hydraulic pulse testing and electromagnetic logging provided additional data. One PRB consisted of 40 tonnes of granular iron and was estimated to be an average of 80 mm thick. Based on geophysical imaging, the 100% iron PRB was 15 m long and extended from about 24.5 to 35.5 m depth. The second PRB consisted of a mixture of 5.6 tonnes of well sand and 4.4 tonnes of iron, but was only partially completed. Based on imaging, the sand/iron PRB comprised an area 9 m long extending from about 27 to 34.5 m below the ground surface. The proximity of screened wells, which deviated significantly from vertical toward the PRB alignment, resulted in loss of VHFI control. A sub-horizontal layer of iron formed between the 100% iron PRB and several of the wells. Similarly, piping failure zones formed between the sand/iron PRB and two geophysical wells. Selected

  5. Hemisection: A Treatment Option for an Endodontically treated Molar with Vertical Root Fracture.

    PubMed

    Anitha, S; Rao, Deepika S C

    2015-02-01

    Vertical root fractures (VRF) in endodontically treated teeth have long been reported and pose diagnostic difficulties. A hemisection/root resection procedures removes the fractured fragments completely, and retains a portion of the compromized tooth offers a predictable treatment option. The key to this rests in ideal case selection involving balancing all indications and contraindications. The success of the treatment depends on careful case selection based on a firm set of guidelines. This article presents a case with VRF in an endodontic treated molar. This article describes the case of a 65-year-old man with a VRF on the mesial root and a healthy periodontium supporting the distal root making it ideal for retention as well as restoration and support of the final prosthesis. Also, the patient was motivated to try and save as much of the tooth as possible. Postoperatively no untoward complication was reported making it an alternative treatment option in patients with VRF in a molar, willing to retain the remaining tooth portion. With all other factors balanced, it allows for retaining the remaining intact portion of the tooth structure. PMID:25906809

  6. Dehydration-induced shrinkage of dentin as a potential cause of vertical root fractures.

    PubMed

    Winter, Werner; Karl, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Vertical root fractures (VRF) of endodontically treated teeth constitute a severe clinical condition frequently requiring removal of the affected tooth. Numerous attempts have been made to find the cause for VRF without reaching definitive conclusions. As changes in moisture content have been reported to appear as a consequence of root canal therapy, it is the goal of this paper to evaluate associated volume changes as a possible cause for VRF. Considering disk shaped horizontal cross sections of endodontically treated teeth with a moisture content of dentin decreasing from the root surface towards the root canal, both relative circumferential and relative radial stresses resulting from volume changes of dentin were calculated. It could be shown that the presence of a root canal itself increases radial and circumferential stresses acting on root dentin by a factor of two. Reduction in moisture content of dentin at the wall of the root canal results in shrinkage of the tooth structure and tensile stress. On the outer surface of the root, compressive stresses occur. Thus, VRF would start at the canal wall and propagate to the root surface. The theory presented appears to be consistent with previous reports on stress development as a consequence of dehydration of dentin and finite element analysis on root fractures. It may be concluded that dehydration of dentin induces cracks at the walls of a root canal which subsequently grow as a result of cyclic loading or traumatic overload. PMID:22960027

  7. Differential diagnosis of vertical root fractures using reconstructed three-dimensional models of bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, K; Abe, Y; Yoshioka, T; Ishimura, H; Suda, H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of diagnosing vertical root fractures (VRFs) by comparing the volume of bone defects in VRFs with those in non-VRFs on reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) models (TDMs) using CBCT. Methods: 32 maxillary pre-molars and anterior teeth with radiolucent areas were evaluated on pre-operative CBCT images. Of the 32 teeth, 16 had a fractured root (VRF group) and 16 had a non-fractured root (non-VRF group). The radiolucent area of each tooth was traced in each dimension [mesiodistal, buccolingual and horizontal (the apicoincisal aspect)] by two observers, and 3D images were reconstructed with the Amira® software (Visage Imaging Inc., Richmond, Australia). The volume, V, of the TDM was divided into the coronal side and the periapical side at the horizontal slice through the apical foramen, and v was defined as the volume of the coronal side. The values of v/V were calculated for all cases. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare values between the VRF group and the non-VRF group (p < 0.05). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to select the optimal cut-point. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the value of v/V between the two groups (p < 0.05). With a cut-point derived from the ROC curve, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of predicting the VRFs were 1.00, 0.75 and 0.88, respectively. Conclusions: Lesions resulting from VRFs can be distinguished from those of non-VRFs on 3D CBCT images with a high degree of accuracy, based on their different 3D shapes. PMID:25245201

  8. Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae-Hoon; Woo, Jae-Hyeon; Choi, Yeongyu; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the two-dimensional (2-D) confinement effect of liquid crystals (LCs) on the switching of vertically aligned LCs by an in-plane electric field. When an in-plane field is applied to a vertical alignment (VA) cell, virtual walls are built at the center of the interdigitated electrodes and at the middle of the gaps between them. The LC molecules are confined not only by the two substrates but also by the virtual walls so that the turn-off time of a VA cell driven by an in-plane field is dependent on the pitch of the interdigitated electrodes as well as the cell gap. Therefore, the turn-off time of a VA cell driven by an in-plane field can be reduced simply by decreasing the pitch of the interdigitated electrodes as a result of the enhanced anchoring provided by the virtual walls. The experimental results showed good agreement with a simple model based on the 2-D confinement effect of LCs.

  9. Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae-Hoon; Woo, Jae-Hyeon; Choi, Yeongyu; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the two-dimensional (2-D) confinement effect of liquid crystals (LCs) on the switching of vertically aligned LCs by an in-plane electric field. When an in-plane field is applied to a vertical alignment (VA) cell, virtual walls are built at the center of the interdigitated electrodes and at the middle of the gaps between them. The LC molecules are confined not only by the two substrates but also by the virtual walls so that the turn-off time of a VA cell driven by an in-plane field is dependent on the pitch of the interdigitated electrodes as well as the cell gap. Therefore, the turn-off time of a VA cell driven by an in-plane field can be reduced simply by decreasing the pitch of the interdigitated electrodes as a result of the enhanced anchoring provided by the virtual walls. The experimental results showed good agreement with a simple model based on the 2-D confinement effect of LCs. PMID:27607702

  10. A vertically aligned carbon nanotube-based impedance sensing biosensor for rapid and high sensitive detection of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abdolahad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Hossein; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Shams

    2012-03-21

    A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube based electrical cell impedance sensing biosensor (CNT-ECIS) was demonstrated for the first time as a more rapid, sensitive and specific device for the detection of cancer cells. This biosensor is based on the fast entrapment of cancer cells on vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and leads to mechanical and electrical interactions between CNT tips and entrapped cell membranes, changing the impedance of the biosensor. CNT-ECIS was fabricated through a photolithography process on Ni/SiO(2)/Si layers. Carbon nanotube arrays have been grown on 9 nm thick patterned Ni microelectrodes by DC-PECVD. SW48 colon cancer cells were passed over the surface of CNT covered electrodes to be specifically entrapped on elastic nanotube beams. CNT arrays act as both adhesive and conductive agents and impedance changes occurred as fast as 30 s (for whole entrapment and signaling processes). CNT-ECIS detected the cancer cells with the concentration as low as 4000 cells cm(-2) on its surface and a sensitivity of 1.7 × 10(-3)Ω cm(2). Time and cell efficiency factor (TEF and CEF) parameters were defined which describe the sensor's rapidness and resolution, respectively. TEF and CEF of CNT-ECIS were much higher than other cell based electrical biosensors which are compared in this paper. PMID:22294045

  11. WC Nanocrystals Grown on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes: An Efficient and Stable Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiujun; Zhou, Haiqing; Guo, Xia

    2015-05-26

    Single nanocrystalline tungsten carbide (WC) was first synthesized on the tips of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) with a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) method through the directly reaction of tungsten metal with carbon source. The VA-CNTs with preservation of vertical structure integrity and alignment play an important role to support the nanocrystalline WC growth. With the high crystallinity, small size, and uniform distribution of WC particles on the carbon support, the formed WC-CNTs material exhibited an excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), giving a η10 (the overpotential for driving a current of 10 mA cm(-2)) of 145 mV, onset potential of 15 mV, exchange current density@ 300 mV of 117.6 mV and Tafel slope values of 72 mV dec(-1) in acid solution, and η10 of 137 mV, onset potential of 16 mV, exchange current density@ 300 mV of 33.1 mV and Tafel slope values of 106 mV dec(-1) in alkaline media, respectively. Electrochemical stability test further confirms the long-term operation of the catalyst in both acidic and alkaline media. PMID:25869150

  12. Analysis of Vertical Ground Reaction Force Variables during a Sit to Stand Task in Participants Recovering from a Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Houck, Jeff; Kneiss, Janet; Bukata, Susan V.; Puzas, J. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Background A sit to stand task following a hip fracture may be achieved through compensations (e.g. bilateral arms and uninvolved lower extremity), not restoration of movement strategies of the involved lower extremity. The primary purpose was to compare upper and lower extremity movement strategies using the vertical ground reaction force during a sit to stand task in participants recovering from a hip fracture to control participants. The secondary purpose was to evaluate the correlation between vertical ground reaction force variables and validated functional measures. Methods Twenty eight community dwelling older adults, 14 who had a hip fracture and 14 control participants completed the Sit to Stand task on an instrumented chair designed to measure vertical ground reaction force, performance based tests (Timed up and go, Berg Balance Scale and gait speed) and a self report Lower Extremity Measure. A MANOVA was used to compare functional scales and vertical ground reaction force variables between groups. Bivariate correlations were assessed using Pearson Product Moment correlations. Findings The vertical ground reaction force variables showed significantly higher bilateral arm force, higher uninvolved side peak force and asymmetry between the involved and uninvolved sides for the participants recovering from a hip fracture (Wilks’ Lambda = 3.16, p = 0.019). Significant correlations existed between the vertical ground reaction force variables and validated functional measures. Interpretation Participants recovering from a hip fracture compensated using their arms and the uninvolved side to perform a Sit to Stand. Lower extremity movement strategies captured during a Sit to Stand task were correlated to scales used to assess function, balance and falls risk. PMID:21196069

  13. The vertical alignment of the D0 overpass in the Fermilab Main Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.D.

    1989-03-01

    The DO overpass was recently reconfigured in order to reduce the vertical dispersion in the Main Ring. The relationship between the global arrangement of the Main Ring Quadrupoles and the placement of the quads in the overpass is described. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Enhanced electrical properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotube-epoxy nanocomposites with high packing density.

    PubMed

    Souier, Tewfik; Santos, Sergio; Al Ghaferi, Amal; Stefancich, Marco; Chiesa, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    During their synthesis, multi-walled carbon nanotubes can be aligned and impregnated in a polymer matrix to form an electrically conductive and flexible nanocomposite with high backing density. The material exhibits the highest reported electrical conductivity of CNT-epoxy composites (350 S/m). Here, we show how conductive atomic force microscopy can be used to study the electrical transport mechanism in order to explain the enhanced electrical properties of the composite. The high spatial resolution and versatility of the technique allows us to further decouple the two main contributions to the electrical transport: (1) the intrinsic resistance of the tube and (2) the tunneling resistance due to nanoscale gaps occurring between the epoxy-coated tubes along the composite. The results show that the material behaves as a conductive polymer, and the electrical transport is governed by electron tunneling at interconnecting CNT-polymer junctions. We also point out the theoretical formulation of the nanoscale electrical transport between the AFM tip and the sample in order to derive both the composite conductivity and the CNT intrinsic properties. The enhanced electrical properties of the composite are attributed to high degree of alignment, the CNT purity, and the large tube diameter which lead to low junction resistance. By controlling the tube diameter and using other polymers, the nanocomposite electrical conductivity can be improved. PMID:23158381

  15. Towards a full integration of vertically aligned silicon nanowires in MEMS using silane as a precursor.

    PubMed

    Gadea, G; Morata, A; Santos, J D; Dávila, D; Calaza, C; Salleras, M; Fonseca, L; Tarancón, A

    2015-05-15

    Silicon nanowires present outstanding properties for electronics, energy, and environmental monitoring applications. However, their integration into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a major issue so far due to low compatibility with mainstream technology, which complicates patterning and controlled morphology. This work addresses the growth of 〈111〉 aligned silicon nanowire arrays fully integrated into standard MEMS processing by means of the chemical vapor deposition-vapor liquid solid method (CVD-VLS) using silane as a precursor. A reinterpretation of the galvanic displacement method is presented for selectively depositing gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of synthesis temperature and pressure on the growth rate and alignment of nanowires is presented for the most common silicon precursor, i.e., silane. Compared with previously reported protocols, the redefined galvanic displacement together with a silane-based CVD-VLS growth methodology provides a more standard and low-temperature (<650 °C) synthesis scheme and a compatible route to reliably grow Si nanowires in MEMS for advanced applications.

  16. Towards a full integration of vertically aligned silicon nanowires in MEMS using silane as a precursor.

    PubMed

    Gadea, G; Morata, A; Santos, J D; Dávila, D; Calaza, C; Salleras, M; Fonseca, L; Tarancón, A

    2015-05-15

    Silicon nanowires present outstanding properties for electronics, energy, and environmental monitoring applications. However, their integration into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a major issue so far due to low compatibility with mainstream technology, which complicates patterning and controlled morphology. This work addresses the growth of 〈111〉 aligned silicon nanowire arrays fully integrated into standard MEMS processing by means of the chemical vapor deposition-vapor liquid solid method (CVD-VLS) using silane as a precursor. A reinterpretation of the galvanic displacement method is presented for selectively depositing gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of synthesis temperature and pressure on the growth rate and alignment of nanowires is presented for the most common silicon precursor, i.e., silane. Compared with previously reported protocols, the redefined galvanic displacement together with a silane-based CVD-VLS growth methodology provides a more standard and low-temperature (<650 °C) synthesis scheme and a compatible route to reliably grow Si nanowires in MEMS for advanced applications. PMID:25902702

  17. Towards a full integration of vertically aligned silicon nanowires in MEMS using silane as a precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadea, G.; Morata, A.; Santos, J. D.; Dávila, D.; Calaza, C.; Salleras, M.; Fonseca, L.; Tarancón, A.

    2015-05-01

    Silicon nanowires present outstanding properties for electronics, energy, and environmental monitoring applications. However, their integration into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a major issue so far due to low compatibility with mainstream technology, which complicates patterning and controlled morphology. This work addresses the growth of <111> aligned silicon nanowire arrays fully integrated into standard MEMS processing by means of the chemical vapor deposition-vapor liquid solid method (CVD-VLS) using silane as a precursor. A reinterpretation of the galvanic displacement method is presented for selectively depositing gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of synthesis temperature and pressure on the growth rate and alignment of nanowires is presented for the most common silicon precursor, i.e., silane. Compared with previously reported protocols, the redefined galvanic displacement together with a silane-based CVD-VLS growth methodology provides a more standard and low-temperature (<650 °C) synthesis scheme and a compatible route to reliably grow Si nanowires in MEMS for advanced applications.

  18. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm-2 for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm-2 for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles. PMID:25246867

  19. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Navjot Kaur; Rastogi, Alok C.

    2014-08-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm-2 for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm-2 for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles.

  20. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Navjot Kaur; Rastogi, Alok C

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm(-2) for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm(-2) for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles. PMID:25246867

  1. Comparing the Effect of Different Voxel Resolutions for Assessment of Vertical Root Fracture of Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Ismail; Gunduz, Kaan; Celenk, Peruze; Avsever, Hakan; Orhan, Kaan; Canitezer, Gozde; Ozmen, Bilal; Cicek, Ersan; Egrioglu, Erol

    2015-01-01

    Background: The teeth with undiagnosed vertical root fractures (VRFs) are likely to receive endodontic treatment or retreatment, leading to frustration and inappropriate endodontic therapies. Moreover, many cases of VRFs cannot be diagnosed definitively until the extraction of tooth. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the use of different voxel resolutions of two different cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units in the detection VRFs in vitro. Materials and Methods: The study material comprised 74 extracted human mandibular single rooted premolar teeth without root fractures that had not undergone any root-canal treatment. Images were obtained by two different CBCT units. Four image sets were obtained as follows: 1) 3D Accuitomo 170, 4 × 4 cm field of view (FOV) (0.080 mm3); 2) 3D Accuitomo 170. 6 × 6 cm FOV (0.125 mm3); 3) NewTom 3G, 6˝ (0.16 mm3) and 4) NewTom 3G, 9˝ FOV (0.25 mm3). Kappa coefficients were calculated to assess both intra- and inter-observer agreements for each image set. Results: No significant differences were found among observers or voxel sizes, with high average Z (Az) results being reported for all groups. Both intra- and inter-observer agreement values were relatively better for 3D Accuitomo 170 images than the images from NewTom 3G. The highest Az and kappa values were obtained with 3D Accuitomo 170, 4 × 4 cm FOV (0.080 mm3) images. Conclusion: No significant differences were found among observers or voxel sizes, with high Az results reported for all groups. PMID:26557279

  2. Growth of ultrahigh density vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests for interconnects.

    PubMed

    Esconjauregui, Santiago; Fouquet, Martin; Bayer, Bernhard C; Ducati, Caterina; Smajda, Rita; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

    2010-12-28

    We present a general catalyst design to synthesize ultrahigh density, aligned forests of carbon nanotubes by cyclic deposition and annealing of catalyst thin films. This leads to nanotube forests with an area density of at least 10(13) cm(-2), over 1 order of magnitude higher than existing values, and close to the limit of a fully dense forest. The technique consists of cycles of ultrathin metal film deposition, annealing, and immobilization. These ultradense forests are needed to use carbon nanotubes as vias and interconnects in integrated circuits and thermal interface materials. Further density increase to 10(14) cm(-2) by reducing nanotube diameter is possible, and it is also applicable to nanowires.

  3. Performance assessments of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes multi-electrode arrays using Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O

    2015-08-21

    In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions. PMID:26222018

  4. TLM-PSD model for optimization of energy and power density of vertically aligned carbon nanotube supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arunabha; Le, Viet Thong; Bae, Jung Jun; Lee, Young Hee

    2013-10-22

    Electrochemical capacitors with fast charging-discharging rates are very promising for hybrid electric vehicle industries including portable electronics. Complicated pore structures have been implemented in active materials to increase energy storage capacity, which often leads to degrade dynamic response of ions. In order to understand this trade-off phenomenon, we report a theoretical model based on transmission line model which is further combined with pore size distribution function. The model successfully explained how pores length, and pore radius of active materials and electrolyte conductivity can affect capacitance and dynamic performance of different capacitors. The powerfulness of the model was confirmed by comparing with experimental results of a micro-supercapacitor consisted of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (v-MWCNTs), which revealed a linear current increase up to 600 Vs(-1) scan rate demonstrating an ultrafast dynamic behavior, superior to randomly entangled singlewalled carbon nanotube device, which is clearly explained by the theoretical model.

  5. Photovoltaic property of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube hexagonal network assembled with CdS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Xia, Jun; Wang, Qilong; Chen, Jing; Li, Chi; Lei, Wei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2013-08-14

    A vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) hexagonal network was fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition as an electrode scaffold to assemble CdS quantum dots (QDs). The quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) based on a VACNT/CdS hexagonal network shows a short circuit current density of 4.7 mA/cm(2), which is almost twice of that based on screen-printed CNT/CdS thin film with the same thickness. The enhancement of the short circuit current could be attributed to the unique morphology of the VACNT hexagonal network, which provides direct and percolating pathways for the electrons to transfer, enhances the spectral transmission through the hexagonal microchannels to the photoactive QD sites, and also presents more surface area to assembled CdS QDs without consuming extra substrate space. The photovoltaic property of the VACNT/CdS hexagonal network indicates its potential application in the energy conversion devices.

  6. Performance assessments of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes multi-electrode arrays using Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O

    2015-08-21

    In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions.

  7. Electrochemical tuning of vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms and its application in improving hydrogen evolution reaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haotian; Lu, Zhiyi; Xu, Shicheng; Kong, Desheng; Cha, Judy J.; Zheng, Guangyuan; Hsu, Po-Chun; Yan, Kai; Bradshaw, David; Prinz, Fritz B.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The ability to intercalate guest species into the van der Waals gap of 2D layered materials affords the opportunity to engineer the electronic structures for a variety of applications. Here we demonstrate the continuous tuning of layer vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms through electrochemical intercalation of Li+ ions. By scanning the Li intercalation potential from high to low, we have gained control of multiple important material properties in a continuous manner, including tuning the oxidation state of Mo, the transition of semiconducting 2H to metallic 1T phase, and expanding the van der Waals gap until exfoliation. Using such nanofilms after different degree of Li intercalation, we show the significant improvement of the hydrogen evolution reaction activity. A strong correlation between such tunable material properties and hydrogen evolution reaction activity is established. This work provides an intriguing and effective approach on tuning electronic structures for optimizing the catalytic activity. PMID:24248362

  8. TLM-PSD model for optimization of energy and power density of vertically aligned carbon nanotube supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arunabha; Le, Viet Thong; Bae, Jung Jun; Lee, Young Hee

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical capacitors with fast charging-discharging rates are very promising for hybrid electric vehicle industries including portable electronics. Complicated pore structures have been implemented in active materials to increase energy storage capacity, which often leads to degrade dynamic response of ions. In order to understand this trade-off phenomenon, we report a theoretical model based on transmission line model which is further combined with pore size distribution function. The model successfully explained how pores length, and pore radius of active materials and electrolyte conductivity can affect capacitance and dynamic performance of different capacitors. The powerfulness of the model was confirmed by comparing with experimental results of a micro-supercapacitor consisted of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (v-MWCNTs), which revealed a linear current increase up to 600 Vs−1 scan rate demonstrating an ultrafast dynamic behavior, superior to randomly entangled singlewalled carbon nanotube device, which is clearly explained by the theoretical model. PMID:24145831

  9. The partial space qualification of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube coating on aluminium substrates for EO applications.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, Evangelos; Chunnilall, Christopher J; Mole, Ryan; Gibbs, David; Fox, Nigel; Shang, Naigui; Howlett, Guy; Jensen, Ben; Taylor, Rosie; Reveles, Juan R; Harris, Oliver B; Ahmed, Naseer

    2014-03-24

    The fabrication of NanoTube Black, a Vertically Aligned carbon NanoTube Array (VANTA) on aluminium substrates is reported for the first time. The coating on aluminium was realised using a process that employs top down thermal radiation to assist growth, enabling deposition at temperatures below the substrate's melting point. The NanoTube Black coatings were shown to exhibit directional hemispherical reflectance values of typically less than 1% across wavelengths in the 2.5 µm to 15 µm range. VANTA-coated aluminium substrates were subjected to space qualification testing (mass loss, outgassing, shock, vibration and temperature cycling) before their optical properties were re-assessed. Within measurement uncertainty, no changes to hemispherical reflectance were detected, confirming that NanoTube Black coatings on aluminium are good candidates for Earth Observation (EO) applications.

  10. Short-term evaluation of intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikako; Kinomoto, Yoshifumi; Miura, Masabumi; Sato, Ikuko; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intentional replantation of vertically fractured roots reconstructed with dentin-bonded resin. Twenty vertically fractured teeth were extracted intentionally and reconstructed with 4-META/MMA-TBB dentin-bonded resin. After reconstruction, the teeth were replanted into the original sockets. The replanted teeth were evaluated by clinical criteria and radiographic examination. The observation periods ranged between 4 and 45 months. Longevity was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and factors that had significant influence on the longevity were analyzed with the Log rank test at a 95% level of confidence. From this short-term observation, 14 of 20 cases were functioned in the oral environment. Of these 14 cases, 6 could be considered truly successful and 8 cases needed further observation. The other six cases were total failures and were extracted. The longevity was calculated as 83.3% at 12 months and 36.3% at 24 months. Teeth with thin roots or with longitudinal fractures extending over 2/3 of the root from the cervical portion toward the apex showed significantly lower longevity. It was concluded that this method had the potential to preserve vertically fractured teeth.

  11. The biomechanical role of periodontal ligament in bonded and replanted vertically fractured teeth under cyclic biting forces

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ya-Nan; Yang, Wei-Dong; Abbott, Paul V; Martin, Nicolas; Wei, Wen-Jia; Li, Jing-Jing; Chen, Zhi; Wang, Wen-Mei

    2015-01-01

    After teeth are replanted, there are two possible healing responses: periodontal ligament healing or ankylosis with subsequent replacement resorption. The purpose of this study was to compare the fatigue resistance of vertically fractured teeth after bonding the fragments under conditions simulating both healing modes. Thirty-two human premolars were vertically fractured and the fragments were bonded together with Super-Bond C&B. They were then randomly distributed into four groups (BP, CP, CA, BA). The BP and CP groups were used to investigate the periodontal ligament healing mode whilst the BA and CA groups simulated ankylosis. All teeth had root canal treatment performed. Metal crowns were constructed for the CP and CA groups. The BP and BA groups only had composite resin restorations in the access cavities. All specimens were subjected to a 260 N load at 4 Hz until failure of the bond or until 2×106 cycles had been reached if no fracture occurred. Cracks were detected by stereomicroscope imaging and also assessed via dye penetration tests. Finally, interfaces of the resin luting agent were examined by scanning electron microscope. The results confirmed that the fatigue resistance was higher in the groups with simulated periodontal ligament healing. Periodontal reattachment showed important biomechanical role in bonded and replanted vertically fractured teeth. PMID:25214360

  12. Energy band structure tailoring of vertically aligned InAs/GaAsSb quantum dot structure for intermediate-band solar cell application by thermal annealing process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Sheng; Chu, Ting-Fu; Huang, Tien-Hao

    2014-12-15

    This study presents an band-alignment tailoring of a vertically aligned InAs/GaAs(Sb) quantum dot (QD) structure and the extension of the carrier lifetime therein by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Arrhenius analysis indicates a larger activation energy and thermal stability that results from the suppression of In-Ga intermixing and preservation of the QD heterostructure in an annealed vertically aligned InAs/GaAsSb QD structure. Power-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence were utilized to demonstrate the extended carrier lifetime from 4.7 to 9.4 ns and elucidate the mechanisms of the antimony aggregation resulting in a band-alignment tailoring from straddling to staggered gap after the RTA process. The significant extension in the carrier lifetime of the columnar InAs/GaAsSb dot structure make the great potential in improving QD intermediate-band solar cell application.

  13. Mediator-less highly sensitive voltammetric detection of glutamate using glutamate dehydrogenase/vertically aligned CNTs grown on silicon substrate.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Azam; Shahrokhian, Saeed; zad, Azam Iraji; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin; Vosoughi, Manouchehr; Darbari, Sara; Sanaee, Zeinab

    2012-01-15

    A sensitive glutamate biosensor is prepared based on glutamate dehydrogenase/vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (GLDH, VACNTs). Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were grown on a silicon substrate by direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) method. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized VACNTs was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic methods. Glutamate dehydrogenase covalently attached on tip of VACNTs. The electrochemical performance of the electrode for detection of glutamate was investigated by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. Differential pulse voltammetric determinations of glutamate are performed in mediator-less condition and also, in the presence of 1 and 5 μM thionine as electron mediator. The linear calibration curve of the concentration of glutamate versus peak current is investigated in a wide range of 0.1-500 μM. The mediator-less biosensor has a low detection limit of 57 nM and two linear ranges of 0.1-20 μM with a sensitivity of 0.976 mA mM(-1) cm(-2) and 20-300 μM with a sensitivity of 0.182 mA mM(-1) cm(-2). In the presence of 1 μM thionine as an electron mediator, the prepared biosensor shows a low detection limit of 68 nM and two linear ranges of 0.1-20 with a calibration sensitivity of 1.17 mA mM(-1) cm(-2) and 20-500 μM with a sensitivity of 0.153 mA mM(-1) cm(-2). The effects of the other biological compounds on the voltammetric behavior of the prepared biosensor and its response stability are investigated. The results are demonstrated that the GLDH/VACNTs electrode even without electron mediator is a suitable basic electrode for detection of glutamate. PMID:22040749

  14. Coupled process of plastics pyrolysis and chemical vapor deposition for controllable synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhou; Zhang, Qiang; Luo, Guohua; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Wei, Fei

    2010-08-01

    Efficient conversion of waste plastics into advanced materials is of conspicuous environmental, social and economic benefits. A coupled process of plastic pyrolysis and chemical vapor deposition for vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) array growth was proposed. Various kinds of plastics, such as polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride, were used as carbon sources for the controllable growth of CNT arrays. The relationship between the length of CNT arrays and the growth time was investigated. It was found that the length of aligned CNTs increased with prolonged growth time. CNT arrays with a length of 500 μm were obtained for a 40-min growth and the average growth rate was estimated to be 12 μm/min. The diameter of CNTs in the arrays can be modulated by controlling the growth temperature and the feeding rate of ferrocene. In addition, substrates with larger specific surface area such as ceramic spheres, quartz fibers, and quartz particles, were adopted to support the growth of CNT arrays. Those results provide strong evidence for the feasibility of conversion from waste plastics into CNT arrays via this reported sustainable materials processing.

  15. Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Yusuke; OH, Jae Min; Kuwahara, Renpei

    2009-01-01

    Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy)-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxy)benzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs). PMID:20087476

  16. Complete magnesiothermic reduction reaction of vertically aligned mesoporous silica channels to form pure silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Dong Jin; Cho, Kyeong Min; Kim, Seon Joon; Park, Jung-Ki; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-03-01

    Owing to its simplicity and low temperature conditions, magnesiothermic reduction of silica is one of the most powerful methods for producing silicon nanostructures. However, incomplete reduction takes place in this process leaving unconverted silica under the silicon layer. This phenomenon limits the use of this method for the rational design of silicon structures. In this effort, a technique that enables complete magnesiothermic reduction of silica to form silicon has been developed. The procedure involves magnesium promoted reduction of vertically oriented mesoporous silica channels on reduced graphene oxides (rGO) sheets. The mesopores play a significant role in effectively enabling magnesium gas to interact with silica through a large number of reaction sites. Utilizing this approach, highly uniform, ca. 10 nm sized silicon nanoparticles are generated without contamination by unreacted silica. The new method for complete magnesiothermic reduction of mesoporous silica approach provides a foundation for the rational design of silicon structures.

  17. Complete magnesiothermic reduction reaction of vertically aligned mesoporous silica channels to form pure silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Dong Jin; Cho, Kyeong Min; Kim, Seon Joon; Park, Jung-Ki; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its simplicity and low temperature conditions, magnesiothermic reduction of silica is one of the most powerful methods for producing silicon nanostructures. However, incomplete reduction takes place in this process leaving unconverted silica under the silicon layer. This phenomenon limits the use of this method for the rational design of silicon structures. In this effort, a technique that enables complete magnesiothermic reduction of silica to form silicon has been developed. The procedure involves magnesium promoted reduction of vertically oriented mesoporous silica channels on reduced graphene oxides (rGO) sheets. The mesopores play a significant role in effectively enabling magnesium gas to interact with silica through a large number of reaction sites. Utilizing this approach, highly uniform, ca. 10 nm sized silicon nanoparticles are generated without contamination by unreacted silica. The new method for complete magnesiothermic reduction of mesoporous silica approach provides a foundation for the rational design of silicon structures. PMID:25757800

  18. Vertical root fracture: Biological effects and accuracy of diagnostic imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Baageel, Turki M.; Allah, Emad Habib; Bakalka, Ghaida T.; Jadu, Fatima; Yamany, Ibrahim; Jan, Ahmed M.; Bogari, Dania F.; Alhazzazi, Turki Y.

    2016-01-01

    This review assessed the most up-to-date literature on the accuracy of detecting vertical root fractures (VRFs] using the currently available diagnostic imaging methods. In addition, an overview of the biological and clinical aspects of VRFs will also be discussed. A systematic review of the literature was initiated in December of 2015 and then updated in May of 2016. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, Emabse, Ovid, and Google Scholar. An assessment of the methodological quality was performed using a modified version of the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Twenty-two studies were included in this systematic review after applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of those, 12 favored using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detecting VRF as compared to periapical radiographs, whereas 5 reported no differences between the two methods. The remaining 5 studies confirmed the advantages associated with using CBCT when diagnosing VRF and described the parameters and limitations associated with this method, but they were not comparative studies. In conclusion, overwhelming evidence suggests that the use of CBCT is a preferred method for detecting VRFs. Nevertheless, additional well controlled and high quality studies are needed to produce solid evidence and guidelines to support the routine use of CBCT in the diagnosis of VRFs as a standard of care. PMID:27652254

  19. Vertical root fracture: Biological effects and accuracy of diagnostic imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Baageel, Turki M.; Allah, Emad Habib; Bakalka, Ghaida T.; Jadu, Fatima; Yamany, Ibrahim; Jan, Ahmed M.; Bogari, Dania F.; Alhazzazi, Turki Y.

    2016-01-01

    This review assessed the most up-to-date literature on the accuracy of detecting vertical root fractures (VRFs] using the currently available diagnostic imaging methods. In addition, an overview of the biological and clinical aspects of VRFs will also be discussed. A systematic review of the literature was initiated in December of 2015 and then updated in May of 2016. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, Emabse, Ovid, and Google Scholar. An assessment of the methodological quality was performed using a modified version of the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Twenty-two studies were included in this systematic review after applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of those, 12 favored using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detecting VRF as compared to periapical radiographs, whereas 5 reported no differences between the two methods. The remaining 5 studies confirmed the advantages associated with using CBCT when diagnosing VRF and described the parameters and limitations associated with this method, but they were not comparative studies. In conclusion, overwhelming evidence suggests that the use of CBCT is a preferred method for detecting VRFs. Nevertheless, additional well controlled and high quality studies are needed to produce solid evidence and guidelines to support the routine use of CBCT in the diagnosis of VRFs as a standard of care.

  20. Vertical root fracture: Biological effects and accuracy of diagnostic imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Baageel, Turki M; Allah, Emad Habib; Bakalka, Ghaida T; Jadu, Fatima; Yamany, Ibrahim; Jan, Ahmed M; Bogari, Dania F; Alhazzazi, Turki Y

    2016-08-01

    This review assessed the most up-to-date literature on the accuracy of detecting vertical root fractures (VRFs] using the currently available diagnostic imaging methods. In addition, an overview of the biological and clinical aspects of VRFs will also be discussed. A systematic review of the literature was initiated in December of 2015 and then updated in May of 2016. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, Emabse, Ovid, and Google Scholar. An assessment of the methodological quality was performed using a modified version of the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Twenty-two studies were included in this systematic review after applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of those, 12 favored using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detecting VRF as compared to periapical radiographs, whereas 5 reported no differences between the two methods. The remaining 5 studies confirmed the advantages associated with using CBCT when diagnosing VRF and described the parameters and limitations associated with this method, but they were not comparative studies. In conclusion, overwhelming evidence suggests that the use of CBCT is a preferred method for detecting VRFs. Nevertheless, additional well controlled and high quality studies are needed to produce solid evidence and guidelines to support the routine use of CBCT in the diagnosis of VRFs as a standard of care. PMID:27652254

  1. Fabrication and Optimization of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Array-Based UV Photodetectors via Selective Hydrothermal Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Nagaraju, Goli; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-08-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array (NRA)-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) were successfully fabricated and optimized via a facile hydrothermal process. Using a shadow mask technique, the thin ZnO seed layer was deposited between the patterned Au/Ti electrodes to bridge the electrodes. Thus, both the Au electrodes could be connected by the ZnO seed layer. As the sample was immersed into growth solution and heated at 90 °C, the ZnO NRAs were crystallized and vertically grown on the ZnO seed layer, thus creating a metal-semiconductor-metal PD structure. To investigate the size effect of ZnO NRAs on photocurrent, the PDs were readily prepared with different concentrations of growth solution. For the ZnO NRAs grown at 25 mM of concentration, the PD with 10 μm of channel width (i.e., gap distance between two electrodes) exhibited a high photocurrent of 1.91 × 10-4 A at an applied bias of 10 V under 365 nm of UV light illumination. The PD was optimized by adjusting the channel width. For 15 μm of channel width, a relatively high photocurrent on-off ratio of 37.4 and good current transient characteristics were observed at the same applied bias. These results are expected to be useful for cost-effective and practical UV PD applications.

  2. Self-Catalyzed Growth of Vertically Aligned InN Nanorods by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tessarek, C; Fladischer, S; Dieker, C; Sarau, G; Hoffmann, B; Bashouti, M; Göbelt, M; Heilmann, M; Latzel, M; Butzen, E; Figge, S; Gust, A; Höflich, K; Feichtner, T; Büchele, M; Schwarzburg, K; Spiecker, E; Christiansen, S

    2016-06-01

    Vertically aligned hexagonal InN nanorods were grown mask-free by conventional metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy without any foreign catalyst. The In droplets on top of the nanorods indicate a self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth mode. A systematic study on important growth parameters has been carried out for the optimization of nanorod morphology. The nanorod N-polarity, induced by high temperature nitridation of the sapphire substrate, is necessary to achieve vertical growth. Hydrogen, usually inapplicable during InN growth due to formation of metallic indium, and silane are needed to enhance the aspect ratio and to reduce parasitic deposition beside the nanorods on the sapphire surface. The results reveal many similarities between InN and GaN nanorod growth showing that the process despite the large difference in growth temperature is similar. Transmission electron microscopy, spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been performed to analyze the structural properties. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence investigations are carried out to verify the optical activity of the InN nanorods. The InN nanorods are expected to be the material of choice for high-efficiency hot carrier solar cells. PMID:27187840

  3. Self-assembled, vertically aligned, epitaxial nanoscale p-n heterojunctions for thin film based photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorin, Daniela F.; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Parans M.; Lupini, Andrew A.; Rondinone, Adam; Winters, Kyle

    2012-02-01

    Using rf- sputtering technique we have exploited phase-separated self-assembly and developed epitaxial, nanostructured composite films composed of phase separated, and vertically oriented p-n interfacial nanocolumns of Cu2O (p type; 2eV bandgap) and TiO2 (n type; 3.2 eV bandgap). The characteristic band gaps of these phases allow extension of the solar capture from ultraviolet to a visible wavelenght. The composite films were grown on perovskite substrates and exhibit single crystalline epitaxy in both phases. We have investigated crystalline structure, interfacial quality and optical properties of the nanopillar arrays using XRD, TEM, SEM, AFM, and optical absorption techniques. Here, we show nearly complete atomic order at Cu2O-TiO2 interface (i.e., p-n junction) and an absorption profile that captures a wide range of solar spectrum extending from ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. Compared to layered thin film architectures, the use of such vertically aligned nanostructures in solar cells can promote cost-effective fabrication of high efficiency PV devices by providing low defect concentrations, improved absorption and light trapping capabilities, and increased minority carrier diffusion lengths.

  4. Mineral crystal alignment in mineralized fracture callus determined by 3D small-angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yifei; Manjubala, Inderchand; Roschger, Paul; Schell, Hanna; Duda, Georg N.; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Callus tissue formed during bone fracture healing is a mixture of different tissue types as revealed by histological analysis. But the structural characteristics of mineral crystals within the healing callus are not well known. Since two-dimensional (2D) scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) patterns showed that the size and orientation of callus crystals vary both spatially and temporally [1] and 2D electron microscopic analysis implies an anisotropic property of the callus morphology, the mineral crystals within the callus are also expected to vary in size and orientation in 3D. Three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (3D SAXS), which combines 2D SAXS patterns collected at different angles of sample tilting, has been previously applied to investigate bone minerals in horse radius [2] and oim/oim mouse femur/tibia [3]. We implement a similar 3D SAXS method but with a different way of data analysis to gather information on the mineral alignment in fracture callus. With the proposed accurate yet fast assessment of 3D SAXS information, it was shown that the plate shaped mineral particles in the healing callus were aligned in groups with their predominant orientations occurring as a fiber texture.

  5. Ultrahigh density array of vertically aligned small-molecular organic nanowires on arbitrary substrates.

    PubMed

    Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Pramanik, Sandipan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years π-conjugated organic semiconductors have emerged as the active material in a number of diverse applications including large-area, low-cost displays, photovoltaics, printable and flexible electronics and organic spin valves. Organics allow (a) low-cost, low-temperature processing and (b) molecular-level design of electronic, optical and spin transport characteristics. Such features are not readily available for mainstream inorganic semiconductors, which have enabled organics to carve a niche in the silicon-dominated electronics market. The first generation of organic-based devices has focused on thin film geometries, grown by physical vapor deposition or solution processing. However, it has been realized that organic nanostructures can be used to enhance performance of above-mentioned applications and significant effort has been invested in exploring methods for organic nanostructure fabrication. A particularly interesting class of organic nanostructures is the one in which vertically oriented organic nanowires, nanorods or nanotubes are organized in a well-regimented, high-density array. Such structures are highly versatile and are ideal morphological architectures for various applications such as chemical sensors, split-dipole nanoantennas, photovoltaic devices with radially heterostructured "core-shell" nanowires, and memory devices with a cross-point geometry. Such architecture is generally realized by a template-directed approach. In the past this method has been used to grow metal and inorganic semiconductor nanowire arrays. More recently π-conjugated polymer nanowires have been grown within nanoporous templates. However, these approaches have had limited success in growing nanowires of technologically important π-conjugated small molecular weight organics, such as tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), rubrene and methanofullerenes, which are commonly used in diverse areas including organic displays, photovoltaics, thin film transistors

  6. Ultrahigh Density Array of Vertically Aligned Small-molecular Organic Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Pramanik, Sandipan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years π-conjugated organic semiconductors have emerged as the active material in a number of diverse applications including large-area, low-cost displays, photovoltaics, printable and flexible electronics and organic spin valves. Organics allow (a) low-cost, low-temperature processing and (b) molecular-level design of electronic, optical and spin transport characteristics. Such features are not readily available for mainstream inorganic semiconductors, which have enabled organics to carve a niche in the silicon-dominated electronics market. The first generation of organic-based devices has focused on thin film geometries, grown by physical vapor deposition or solution processing. However, it has been realized that organic nanostructures can be used to enhance performance of above-mentioned applications and significant effort has been invested in exploring methods for organic nanostructure fabrication. A particularly interesting class of organic nanostructures is the one in which vertically oriented organic nanowires, nanorods or nanotubes are organized in a well-regimented, high-density array. Such structures are highly versatile and are ideal morphological architectures for various applications such as chemical sensors, split-dipole nanoantennas, photovoltaic devices with radially heterostructured "core-shell" nanowires, and memory devices with a cross-point geometry. Such architecture is generally realized by a template-directed approach. In the past this method has been used to grow metal and inorganic semiconductor nanowire arrays. More recently π-conjugated polymer nanowires have been grown within nanoporous templates. However, these approaches have had limited success in growing nanowires of technologically important π-conjugated small molecular weight organics, such as tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), rubrene and methanofullerenes, which are commonly used in diverse areas including organic displays, photovoltaics, thin film transistors

  7. Nonlinear viscoelasticity of freestanding and polymer-anchored vertically aligned carbon nanotube foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzi, Ludovica; Raney, Jordan R.; De Nardo, Luigi; Misra, Abha; Daraio, Chiara

    2012-04-01

    Vertical arrays of carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) show unique mechanical behavior in compression, with a highly nonlinear response similar to that of open cell foams and the ability to recover large deformations. Here, we study the viscoelastic response of both freestanding VACNT arrays and sandwich structures composed of a VACNT array partially embedded between two layers of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and bucky paper. The VACNTs tested are ˜2 mm thick foams grown via an injection chemical vapor deposition method. Both freestanding and sandwich structures exhibit a time-dependent behavior under compression. A power-law function of time is used to describe the main features observed in creep and stress-relaxation tests. The power-law exponents show nonlinear viscoelastic behavior in which the rate of creep is dependent upon the stress level and the rate of stress relaxation is dependent upon the strain level. The results show a marginal effect of the thin PDMS/bucky paper layers on the viscoelastic responses. At high strain levels (ɛ = 0.8), the peak stress for the anchored CNTs reaches ˜45 MPa, whereas it is only ˜15 MPa for freestanding CNTs, suggesting a large effect of PDMS on the structural response of the sandwich structures.

  8. Diagnostic Value of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography In Detection of Vertical Root Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ezzodini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Razavi, Seyed Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vertical root fracture (VRF) is the longitudinal fracture of the root in endodontically treated teeth. Considering the limitations of two-dimensional radiographic images in detection of VRF and introduction of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), this study was designed to find the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CBCT and periapical (PA) radiography in detection of VRFs. Methods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional in vitro study on 80 extracted human single canal teeth including 40 maxillary and 40 mandibular teeth. After standardized endodontic treatment of the roots, VRF was induced in half of the teeth in each group, and other half were left without fracture. Teeth were inserted in dry maxillary and mandibular alveoli. PA radiographs and CBCT images were taken from the specimens. Data were analyzed with SPSS software. The McNemar test was used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of images, and kappa coefficient was used to assess the degree of agreement between the observers. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Sensitivity and specificity values of CBCT were 97.5% and 95%, respectively. However, for PA radiography the sensitivity and specificity were 67.5% and 92.5%, in order of appearance. Accuracy of CBCT (96.25%) and PA radiography (80%) in both jaws were significantly different (P=0.022). Two methods were not significantly different when testing specificity (P=0.298). Conclusion: This study showed that the sensitivity and accuracy of CBCT in detection of vertical root fracture are higher than periapical radiography. CBCT can be recommended to be used in detection of vertical root fractures. PMID:25834597

  9. Diagnosis of vertical root fracture with cone-beam computerized tomography in endodontically treated teeth: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Miyagaki, Daniela Cristina; Marion, Jefferson; Randi Ferraz, Caio Cézar

    2013-01-01

    A definitive diagnosis of vertical root fracture (VRF) is often a challenging task for clinicians. This is because two dimensional periapical radiographs are usually unable to detect the fracture line due to the direction of the X-ray beam. This report presents a set of 3 cases of endodontically treated teeth that were diagnosed with VRFs based on findings from clinical, radiographic, and cone-beam computerized tomographic (CBCT) examinations. After extraction, VRFs were confirmed in all cases. The presence of periodontal pockets or other signs which would compromise the correct diagnosis could not be detected in all three cases. Fracture lines were only visible with the aid of CBCT which provided useful information for the diagnosis and management of VRF. However, the clinical and radiographic data should not be discarded, but used in conjunction with CBCT. PMID:23717335

  10. Dynamic mechanical analysis and high strain-rate energy absorption characteristics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube reinforced woven fiber-glass composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dynamic mechanical behavior and energy absorption characteristics of nano-enhanced functionally graded composites, consisting of 3 layers of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests grown on woven fiber-glass (FG) layer and embedded within 10 layers of woven FG, with polyester (PE) and...

  11. Dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquids in vertical fractures: effect of finger residuals and dead-end pools.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhibing; Niemi, Auli; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Illangasekare, Tissa; Detwiler, Russell L

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the dissolution behavior of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in rock fractures under different entrapment conditions is important for remediation activities and any related predictive modeling. This study investigates DNAPL dissolution in variable aperture fractures under two important entrapment configurations, namely, entrapped residual blobs from gravity fingering and pooling in a dead-end fracture. We performed a physical dissolution experiment of residual DNAPL blobs in a vertical analog fracture using light transmission techniques. A high-resolution mechanistic (physically-based) numerical model has been developed which is shown to excellently reproduce the experimentally observed DNAPL dissolution. We subsequently applied the model to simulate dissolution of the residual blobs under different water flushing velocities. The simulated relationship between the Sherwood number Sh and Peclet number Pe could be well fitted with a simple power-law function (Sh=1.43Pe⁰·⁴³). To investigate mass transfer from dead-end pools, another type of trapping in rock fractures, entrapment and dissolution of DNAPL in a vertical dead-end fracture was simulated. As the entrapped pool dissolves, the depth of the interface between the DNAPL and the flowing water increases linearly with decreasing DNAPL saturation. The interfacial area remains more or less constant as DNAPL saturation decreases, unlike in the case of residual DNAPL blobs. The decreasing depth of the contact interface changes the flow field and causes decreasing water flow velocity above the top of the DNAPL pool, suggesting the dependence of the mass transfer rate on the depth of the interface, or alternatively, the remaining mass percentage in the fracture. Simulation results show that the resultant Sherwood number Sh is significantly smaller than in the case of residual blobs for any given Peclet number, indicating slower mass transfer. The results also show that the Sh can be well

  12. Open Axial and True Vertical Ankle Dislocation Without Malleolar Fractures: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Tibiotalar dislocation is rare and usually associated with a high-velocity, high-energy impact or extreme sporting injuries. I describe complete tibiotalar dislocation from an unusual mechanism. A 22-year-old mechanic was sitting under a hydraulic lift when it began to leak, lowering the engine on which he was working onto his right lower thigh. This heavy load, without rotational force or high-velocity impact, was transmitted down his foreleg. Because his foot was fixed to the ground, the talus was proximally and vertically displaced, and the distal tibia was forced to the ground, beside his foot, and was contaminated with sand and grease. The circumferential ligament complexes and capsule were completely transected, but, despite a severely disrupted dorsal and capsular blood supply, talar vasculature remained adequate. In the emergency department, gentle traction restored impaired circulation. No malleolar fractures were seen. The wound was meticulously irrigated with saline and povidone-iodine and debrided. Cefepime, 2 g, was given twice daily. In surgery, the unstable joint was transfixed with two thick Kirschner wires, passed retrograde. Interrupted sutures were placed in the anterior capsule and anterior third of the lateral ligament without additional incisions. The wound healed aseptically. The Kirschner wires were removed at 6 weeks. The joint space was only minimally reduced. He returned to work after 4 months. His ankle-hindfoot score was 90/100 at 18 months, he could jog at 24 months, and he was still asymptomatic at 36 months. The case illustrates the importance of preserving talar circulation and treatment within the "golden hour." PMID:25524434

  13. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods of high crystalline and optical quality grown by dc reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, R.; Appani, Shravan K.; Major, S. S.

    2016-09-01

    ZnO nanorods were grown on Si and quartz substrates by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering of metallic zinc target in argon–oxygen ambient, without the use of any seed layer or catalyst. A combination of top-down and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy studies have shown that the substrate temperature critically controls the growth behavior and morphology of ZnO films, eventually resulting in the growth of well aligned and separated ZnO nanorods at substrate temperature of ∼750 °C. High resolution x-ray diffraction studies of ZnO nanorods grown at 750 °C have shown that the nanorods are highly c-axis oriented and vertically aligned perpendicular to both Si and quartz substrates, and display small values of tilt and micro-strain, particularly in the case of Si substrate (1.26° and 4 × 10‑4, respectively). Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of ZnO nanorods demonstrates their single-crystalline nature and growth along [0002] direction. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of ZnO nanorods display extremely high near-band-edge emission and weak defect emission due to point defects, compared to that of the ZnO films grown at lower substrate temperatures. The drastic enhancement of near-band-edge emission of ZnO nanorods (over two orders of magnitude) and strong suppression of defect emission are attributed to their high crystalline quality and absence of interface defects due to lateral coalescence.

  14. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods of high crystalline and optical quality grown by dc reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, R.; Appani, Shravan K.; Major, S. S.

    2016-09-01

    ZnO nanorods were grown on Si and quartz substrates by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering of metallic zinc target in argon-oxygen ambient, without the use of any seed layer or catalyst. A combination of top-down and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy studies have shown that the substrate temperature critically controls the growth behavior and morphology of ZnO films, eventually resulting in the growth of well aligned and separated ZnO nanorods at substrate temperature of ˜750 °C. High resolution x-ray diffraction studies of ZnO nanorods grown at 750 °C have shown that the nanorods are highly c-axis oriented and vertically aligned perpendicular to both Si and quartz substrates, and display small values of tilt and micro-strain, particularly in the case of Si substrate (1.26° and 4 × 10-4, respectively). Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of ZnO nanorods demonstrates their single-crystalline nature and growth along [0002] direction. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of ZnO nanorods display extremely high near-band-edge emission and weak defect emission due to point defects, compared to that of the ZnO films grown at lower substrate temperatures. The drastic enhancement of near-band-edge emission of ZnO nanorods (over two orders of magnitude) and strong suppression of defect emission are attributed to their high crystalline quality and absence of interface defects due to lateral coalescence.

  15. Synthesis of subnanometer-diameter vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with copper-anchored cobalt catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kehang; Kumamoto, Akihito; Xiang, Rong; An, Hua; Wang, Benjamin; Inoue, Taiki; Chiashi, Shohei; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    We synthesize vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) with subnanometer diameters on quartz (and SiO2/Si) substrates by alcohol CVD using Cu-anchored Co catalysts. The uniform VA-SWNTs with a nanotube diameter of 1 nm are synthesized at a CVD temperature of 800 °C and have a thickness of several tens of μm. The diameter of SWNTs was reduced to 0.75 nm at 650 °C with the G/D ratio maintained above 24. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-STEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of the Co/Cu bimetallic catalyst system showed that Co catalysts were captured and anchored by adjacent Cu nanoparticles, and thus were prevented from coalescing into a larger size, which contributed to the small diameter of SWNTs. The correlation between the catalyst size and the SWNT diameter was experimentally clarified. The subnanometer-diameter and high-quality SWNTs are expected to pave the way to replace silicon for next-generation optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.We synthesize vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) with subnanometer diameters on quartz (and SiO2/Si) substrates by alcohol CVD using Cu-anchored Co catalysts. The uniform VA-SWNTs with a nanotube diameter of 1 nm are synthesized at a CVD temperature of 800 °C and have a thickness of several tens of μm. The diameter of SWNTs was reduced to 0.75 nm at 650 °C with the G/D ratio maintained above 24. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-STEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of the Co/Cu bimetallic catalyst system showed that Co catalysts were captured and anchored by adjacent Cu nanoparticles, and thus were prevented from coalescing into a larger size, which contributed to the small diameter of SWNTs. The correlation between the catalyst size and the SWNT diameter was experimentally clarified. The subnanometer-diameter and high

  16. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Boncel, Slawomir; Pattinson, Sebastian W; Geiser, Valérie; Shaffer, Milo S P; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD) technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). A mixture of toluene (main carbon source), pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source) and ferrocene (catalyst precursor) was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C), composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs). As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM), the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs) grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 10(8) nanotubes per mm(2) (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor). In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a 'bamboo'-like or 'membrane'-like (multi-compartmental structure) morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp(2)-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a 'mixed base-and-tip' (primarily of the base-type) type as compared to the purely 'base'-type for undoped

  17. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays

    PubMed Central

    Pattinson, Sebastian W; Geiser, Valérie; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2014-01-01

    Summary The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD) technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). A mixture of toluene (main carbon source), pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source) and ferrocene (catalyst precursor) was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C), composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs). As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM), the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs) grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 108 nanotubes per mm2 (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor). In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a ‘bamboo’-like or ‘membrane’-like (multi-compartmental structure) morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp2-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a ‘mixed base-and-tip’ (primarily of the base-type) type as compared to the purely

  18. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Boncel, Slawomir; Pattinson, Sebastian W; Geiser, Valérie; Shaffer, Milo S P; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD) technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). A mixture of toluene (main carbon source), pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source) and ferrocene (catalyst precursor) was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C), composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs). As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM), the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs) grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 10(8) nanotubes per mm(2) (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor). In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a 'bamboo'-like or 'membrane'-like (multi-compartmental structure) morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp(2)-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a 'mixed base-and-tip' (primarily of the base-type) type as compared to the purely 'base'-type for undoped

  19. Dielectric tunability of vertically aligned ferroelectric-metal oxide nanocomposite films controlled by out-of-plane misfit strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaping; Ma, Xuefu; Zhang, Zheng; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Jie; Chai, Guozhong

    2016-04-01

    A nonlinear thermodynamic model based on the vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) thin films of ferroelectric-metal oxide system has been developed to investigate the physical properties of the epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) films containing vertical Sm2O3 (SmO) nanopillar arrays on the SrTiO3 substrate. The phase diagrams of out-of-plane lattice mismatch vs. volume fraction of SmO are calculated by minimizing the total free energy. It is found that the phase transformation and dielectric response of BST-SmO VAN systems are extremely dependent on the in-plane misfit strain, the out-of-plane lattice mismatch, the volume fraction of SmO phase, and the external electric field applied to the nanocomposite films at room temperature. In particular, the BST-SmO VAN systems exhibit higher dielectric properties than pure BST films. Giant dielectric response and maximum tunability are obtained near the lattice mismatch where the phase transition occurs. Under the in-plane misfit strain of umf=0.3 % and the out-of-plane lattice mismatch of u3=0.002 , the dielectric tunability can be dramatically enhanced to 90% with the increase of SmO volume fraction, which is well consistent with previous experimental results. This work represents an approach to further understand the dependence of physical properties on the lattice mismatch (in-plane and out-of-plane) and volume fraction, and to manipulate or optimize functionalities in the nanocomposite oxide thin films.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on Schottky-contacted vertically aligned ZnO nanorod-based hydrogen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranwa, Sapana; Singh Barala, Surendra; Fanetti, Mattia; Kumar, Mahesh

    2016-08-01

    We report the impact of gamma irradiation on the performance of a gold Schottky-contacted ZnO nanorod-based hydrogen sensor. RF-sputtered vertically aligned highly c-axis-oriented ZnO NRs were grown on Si(100) substrate. X-ray diffraction shows no significant change in crystal structure at low gamma doses from 1 to 5 kGy. As gamma irradiation doses increase to 10 kGy, the single crystalline ZnO structure converts to polycrystalline. The photoluminescence spectra also shows suppression of the near-band emission peak and the huge wide-band spectrum indicates the generation of structural defects at high gamma doses. At 1 kGy, the hydrogen sensor response was enhanced from 67% to 77% for 1% hydrogen in pure argon at a 150 °C operating temperature. However, at 10 kGy, the relative response decreases to 33.5%. High gamma irradiation causes displacement damage and defects in ZnO NRs, and as a result, degrades the sensor’s performance as a result. Low gamma irradiation doses activate the ZnO NR surface through ionization, which enhances the sensor performance. The relative response of the hydrogen sensor was enhanced by ∼14.9% with respect to pristine ZnO using 1 kGy gamma ray treatment.

  1. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes from natural precursors by spray pyrolysis method and their field electron emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pradip; Soga, T.; Tanemura, M.; Zamri, M.; Jimbo, T.; Katoh, R.; Sumiyama, K.

    2009-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized from botanical hydrocarbons: Turpentine oil and Eucalyptus oil on Si(100) substrate using Fe catalyst by simple spray pyrolysis method at 700°C and at atmospheric pressure. The as-grown carbon nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and Raman spectroscopy. It was observed that nanotubes grown from turpentine oil have better degree of graphitization and field emission performance than eucalyptus oil grown carbon nanotubes. The turpentine oil and eucalyptus oil grown carbon nanotubes indicated that the turn-on field of about 1.7 and 1.93 V/μm, respectively, at 10 μA/cm2. The threshold field was observed to be about 2.13 and 2.9 V/μm at 1 mA/cm2 of nanotubes grown from turpentine oil and eucalyptus oil respectively. Moreover, turpentine oil grown carbon nanotubes show higher current density in relative to eucalyptus oil grown carbon nanotubes. The maximum current density of 15.3 mA/cm2 was obtained for ˜3 V/μm corresponding to the nanotubes grown from turpentine oil. The improved field emission performance was attributed to the enhanced crystallinity, fewer defects, and greater length of turpentine oil grown carbon nanotubes.

  2. Nanoconfinement induced crystal orientation and large piezoelectric coefficient in vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array.

    PubMed

    Liew, Weng Heng; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2015-05-12

    Vertically aligned piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array comprising nanotubes embedded in anodized alumina membrane matrix without entanglement has been fabricated. It is found that the crystallographic polar axes of the P(VDF-TrFE) nanotubes are oriented along the nanotubes long axes. Such a desired crystal orientation is due to the kinetic selection mechanism for lamellae growth confined in the nanopores. The preferred crystal orientation in nanotubes leads to huge piezoelectric coefficients of the P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric strain and voltage coefficients of P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array are observed to be 1.97 and 3.40 times of those for conventional spin coated film. Such a significant performance enhancement is attributed to the well-controlled polarization orientation, the elimination of the substrate constraint, and the low dielectric constant of the nanotube array. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array exhibiting the unique structure and outstanding piezoelectric performance is promising for wide applications, including various electrical devices and electromechanical sensors and transducers.

  3. Enhanced photocurrent and dynamic response in vertically aligned In₂S₃/Ag core/shell nanorod array photoconductive devices.

    PubMed

    Cansizoglu, Hilal; Cansizoglu, Mehmet F; Watanabe, Fumiya; Karabacak, Tansel

    2014-06-11

    Enhanced photocurrent values were achieved through a semiconductor-core/metal-shell nanorod array photoconductive device geometry. Vertically aligned indium sulfide (In2S3) nanorods were formed as the core by using glancing angle deposition technique (GLAD). A thin silver (Ag) layer is conformally coated around nanorods as the metallic shell through a high pressure sputter deposition method. This was followed by capping the nanorods with a metallic blanket layer of Ag film by utilizing a new small angle deposition technique combined with GLAD. Radial interface that was formed by the core/shell geometry provided an efficient charge carrier collection by shortening carrier transit times, which led to a superior photocurrent and gain. Thin metal shells around nanorods acted as a passivation layer to decrease surface states that cause prolonged carrier lifetimes and slow recovery of the photocurrent in nanorods. A combination of efficient carrier collection with surface passivation resulted in enhanced photocurrent and dynamic response at the same time in one device structure. In2S3 nanorod devices without the metal shell and with relatively thicker metal shell were also fabricated and characterized for comparison. In2S3 nanorods with thin metal shell showed the highest photosensitivity (photocurrent/dark current) response compared to two other designs. Microstructural, morphological, and electronic properties of the core/shell nanorods were used to explain the results observed.

  4. Influence of Different Defects in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on TiO2 Nanoparticle Formation through Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Acauan, Luiz; Dias, Anna C; Pereira, Marcelo B; Horowitz, Flavio; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2016-06-29

    The chemical inertness of carbon nanotubes (CNT) requires some degree of "defect engineering" for controlled deposition of metal oxides through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The type, quantity, and distribution of such defects rules the deposition rate and defines the growth behavior. In this work, we employed ALD to grow titanium oxide (TiO2) on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT). The effects of nitrogen doping and oxygen plasma pretreatment of the CNT on the morphology and total amount of TiO2 were systematically studied using transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The induced chemical changes for each functionalization route were identified by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. The TiO2 mass fraction deposited with the same number of cycles for the pristine CNT, nitrogen-doped CNT, and plasma-treated CNT were 8, 47, and 80%, respectively. We demonstrate that TiO2 nucleation is dependent mainly on surface incorporation of heteroatoms and their distribution rather than structural defects that govern the growth behavior. Therefore, selecting the best way to functionalize CNT will allow us to tailor TiO2 distribution and hence fabricate complex heterostructures.

  5. Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2011-05-25

    Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been successfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/{mu}m and 5.6 V/{mu}m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

  6. Cycle stability of the electrochemical capacitors patterned with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in an LiPF6-based electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Yi-Deng; Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Lam, Hoa Hung; Chang, Chuan-Hua; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Ying-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The miniature ultracapacitors, with interdigitated electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) and an inter-electrode gap of 20 μm, have been prepared in the LiPF6 organic electrolyte with and without PVdF-HFP gel. PVdF-HFP between two opposing electrodes enhances the device reliability, but lessens its power performance because of the extra diffusion resistance. Also noteworthy are the gel influences on the cycle stability. When the applied voltage is 2.0 or 2.5 V, both the LiPF6 and the gel capacitors exhibit excellent stability, typified by a retention ratio of >=95% after 10 000 cycles. Their coulombic efficiencies quickly rise up, and hold steady at 100%. Nonetheless, when the applied voltage is 3.5 or 4.0 V, the cycle stability deteriorates, since the negative electrode potential descends below 0.9 V (vs. Li), leading to electrolyte decomposition and SEI formation. For the LiPF6 capacitor, its retention ratio could be around 60% after 10 000 cycles and the coulombic efficiency of 100% is difficult to reach throughout its cycle life. On the other hand, the gel capacitor cycles energy with a much higher retention ratio, >80% after 10 000 cycles, and a better coulombic efficiency, even though electrolyte decomposition still occurs. We attribute the superior stability of the gel capacitor to its extra diffusion resistance which slows down the performance deterioration.

  7. Vertically aligned GaAs nanowires on graphite and few-layer graphene: generic model and epitaxial growth.

    PubMed

    Munshi, A Mazid; Dheeraj, Dasa L; Fauske, Vidar T; Kim, Dong-Chul; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove; Weman, Helge

    2012-09-12

    By utilizing the reduced contact area of nanowires, we show that epitaxial growth of a broad range of semiconductors on graphene can in principle be achieved. A generic atomic model is presented which describes the epitaxial growth configurations applicable to all conventional semiconductor materials. The model is experimentally verified by demonstrating the growth of vertically aligned GaAs nanowires on graphite and few-layer graphene by the self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid technique using molecular beam epitaxy. A two-temperature growth strategy was used to increase the nanowire density. Due to the self-catalyzed growth technique used, the nanowires were found to have a regular hexagonal cross-sectional shape, and are uniform in length and diameter. Electron microscopy studies reveal an epitaxial relationship of the grown nanowires with the underlying graphitic substrates. Two relative orientations of the nanowire side-facets were observed, which is well explained by the proposed atomic model. A prototype of a single GaAs nanowire photodetector demonstrates a high-quality material. With GaAs being a model system, as well as a very useful material for various optoelectronic applications, we anticipate this particular GaAs nanowire/graphene hybrid to be promising for flexible and low-cost solar cells.

  8. An evaluation of chondrocyte morphology and gene expression on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube films.

    PubMed

    Antonioli, Eliane; Lobo, Anderson O; Ferretti, Mario; Cohen, Moisés; Marciano, Fernanda R; Corat, Evaldo J; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J

    2013-03-01

    Cartilage serves as a low-friction and wear-resistant articulating surface in diarthrodial joints and is also important during early stages of bone remodeling. Recently, regenerative cartilage research has focused on combinations of cells paired with scaffolds. Superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are of particular interest in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate cell expansion of human articular chondrocytes on superhydrophilic VACNTs, as well as their morphology and gene expression. VACNT films were produced using a microwave plasma chamber on Ti substrates and submitted to an O2 plasma treatment to make them superhydrophilic. Human chondrocytes were cultivated on superhydrophilic VACNTs up to five days. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to measure type I and type II Collagen, Sox9, and Aggrecan mRNA expression levels. The morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. SEM images demonstrated that superhydrophilic VACNTs permit cell growth and adhesion of human chondrocytes. The chondrocytes had an elongated morphology with some prolongations. Chondrocytes cultivated on superhydrophilic VACNTs maintain the level expression of Aggrecan, Sox9, and Collagen II determined by qPCR. This study was the first to indicate that superhydrophilic VACNTs may be used as an efficient scaffold for cartilage or bone repair. PMID:25427468

  9. Effect of vertically aligned carbon nanotube density on the water flux and salt rejection in desalination membranes.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Samarth; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) membranes of different densities are developed and their performances are investigated. VACNT arrays of densities 5 × 10(9), 10(10), 5 × 10(10) and 10(11) tubes cm(-2), are initially grown on 1 cm × 1 cm silicon substrates using chemical vapour deposition. A VACNT membrane is realised by attaching a 300 μm-thick 1 cm × 1 cm VACNT array on silicon to a 4″ glass substrate, applying polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through spin coating to fill the gaps between the VACNTs, and using a microtome to slice the VACNT-PDMS composite into 25-μm-thick membranes. Experimental results show that the permeability of the developed VACNT membranes increases with the density of the VACNTs, while the salt rejection is almost independent of the VACNT density. The best measured permeance is attained with a VACNT membrane having a CNT density of 10(11) tubes cm(-2) is 1203 LMH at 1 bar.

  10. Nanoconfinement induced crystal orientation and large piezoelectric coefficient in vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Weng Heng; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array comprising nanotubes embedded in anodized alumina membrane matrix without entanglement has been fabricated. It is found that the crystallographic polar axes of the P(VDF-TrFE) nanotubes are oriented along the nanotubes long axes. Such a desired crystal orientation is due to the kinetic selection mechanism for lamellae growth confined in the nanopores. The preferred crystal orientation in nanotubes leads to huge piezoelectric coefficients of the P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric strain and voltage coefficients of P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array are observed to be 1.97 and 3.40 times of those for conventional spin coated film. Such a significant performance enhancement is attributed to the well-controlled polarization orientation, the elimination of the substrate constraint, and the low dielectric constant of the nanotube array. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array exhibiting the unique structure and outstanding piezoelectric performance is promising for wide applications, including various electrical devices and electromechanical sensors and transducers. PMID:25966301

  11. Growth of vertically aligned α−MoO{sub 3} nanoflakes by using a facile PVD route

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rabindar K. Reddy, G. B.

    2014-04-24

    In this report, we synthesize vertically aligned molybdenum trioxide (α−MoO{sub 3}) nanoflakes (NFs) with high aspect ratio (height/thickness >15) on the cobalt coated glass substrates by the plasma assisted sublimation process, employing Mo metal strip as a sublimation source. The effect of substrate temperature, nature of substrate as well as the geometry of the sublimation source (Mo-strip) have been investigated on the morphological, structural and optical properties of the grown NFs, keeping plasma parameters as fixed. The surface morphology, crystalline structure and optical properties of MoO{sub 3} NFs have been studied systematically by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffractometer, and IR- spectroscopy. The experimental observations endorse that the characteristics of MoO{sub 3} NFs are strongly depend on substrate temperature, substrate nature as well as geometry of Mo-strip. All the observed results are well in consonance with each other.

  12. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube-ruthenium dioxide core-shell cathode for non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C. Y.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, L.; Tan, P.

    2016-11-01

    Exploitation of hierarchical porous carbons is increasingly attractive for high-capacity lithium (Li)-oxygen (O2) battery cathodes. However, their practical applications in non-aqueous electrolytes are limited by poor rechargeability, primarily due to the decomposition of carbon electrode and electrolyte. In this work, we report a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT)-ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) core-shell (VACNT@RuO2) cathode for non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. The cathode is fabricated with VACNT as the core material and hydrous RuO2 as the shell material, which eliminates the direct contact between the carbon and nucleophilic reactive intermediate species in the electrolyte. In comparison with the VACNT cathode, the VACNT@RuO2 cathode presents a superior rate capability (3.3-fold less reduction in capacity) and cycling stability (sustainable for 100 cycles), with a maximum capacity as large as 13.2 mAh cm-2 (6600 mAh gelectrode-1) at 1.0 mA cm-2. The proposed cathode exhibiting a binder-free and hierarchical core-shell structure is a promising candidate for rechargeable non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on Schottky-contacted vertically aligned ZnO nanorod-based hydrogen sensor.

    PubMed

    Ranwa, Sapana; Barala, Surendra Singh; Fanetti, Mattia; Kumar, Mahesh

    2016-08-26

    We report the impact of gamma irradiation on the performance of a gold Schottky-contacted ZnO nanorod-based hydrogen sensor. RF-sputtered vertically aligned highly c-axis-oriented ZnO NRs were grown on Si(100) substrate. X-ray diffraction shows no significant change in crystal structure at low gamma doses from 1 to 5 kGy. As gamma irradiation doses increase to 10 kGy, the single crystalline ZnO structure converts to polycrystalline. The photoluminescence spectra also shows suppression of the near-band emission peak and the huge wide-band spectrum indicates the generation of structural defects at high gamma doses. At 1 kGy, the hydrogen sensor response was enhanced from 67% to 77% for 1% hydrogen in pure argon at a 150 °C operating temperature. However, at 10 kGy, the relative response decreases to 33.5%. High gamma irradiation causes displacement damage and defects in ZnO NRs, and as a result, degrades the sensor's performance as a result. Low gamma irradiation doses activate the ZnO NR surface through ionization, which enhances the sensor performance. The relative response of the hydrogen sensor was enhanced by ∼14.9% with respect to pristine ZnO using 1 kGy gamma ray treatment. PMID:27418478

  14. Synthesis of subnanometer-diameter vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with copper-anchored cobalt catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kehang; Kumamoto, Akihito; Xiang, Rong; An, Hua; Wang, Benjamin; Inoue, Taiki; Chiashi, Shohei; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2016-01-21

    We synthesize vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) with subnanometer diameters on quartz (and SiO2/Si) substrates by alcohol CVD using Cu-anchored Co catalysts. The uniform VA-SWNTs with a nanotube diameter of 1 nm are synthesized at a CVD temperature of 800 °C and have a thickness of several tens of μm. The diameter of SWNTs was reduced to 0.75 nm at 650 °C with the G/D ratio maintained above 24. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-STEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of the Co/Cu bimetallic catalyst system showed that Co catalysts were captured and anchored by adjacent Cu nanoparticles, and thus were prevented from coalescing into a larger size, which contributed to the small diameter of SWNTs. The correlation between the catalyst size and the SWNT diameter was experimentally clarified. The subnanometer-diameter and high-quality SWNTs are expected to pave the way to replace silicon for next-generation optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. PMID:26690843

  15. Influence of Different Defects in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on TiO2 Nanoparticle Formation through Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Acauan, Luiz; Dias, Anna C; Pereira, Marcelo B; Horowitz, Flavio; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2016-06-29

    The chemical inertness of carbon nanotubes (CNT) requires some degree of "defect engineering" for controlled deposition of metal oxides through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The type, quantity, and distribution of such defects rules the deposition rate and defines the growth behavior. In this work, we employed ALD to grow titanium oxide (TiO2) on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT). The effects of nitrogen doping and oxygen plasma pretreatment of the CNT on the morphology and total amount of TiO2 were systematically studied using transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The induced chemical changes for each functionalization route were identified by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. The TiO2 mass fraction deposited with the same number of cycles for the pristine CNT, nitrogen-doped CNT, and plasma-treated CNT were 8, 47, and 80%, respectively. We demonstrate that TiO2 nucleation is dependent mainly on surface incorporation of heteroatoms and their distribution rather than structural defects that govern the growth behavior. Therefore, selecting the best way to functionalize CNT will allow us to tailor TiO2 distribution and hence fabricate complex heterostructures. PMID:27269125

  16. Effect of vertically aligned carbon nanotube density on the water flux and salt rejection in desalination membranes.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Samarth; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) membranes of different densities are developed and their performances are investigated. VACNT arrays of densities 5 × 10(9), 10(10), 5 × 10(10) and 10(11) tubes cm(-2), are initially grown on 1 cm × 1 cm silicon substrates using chemical vapour deposition. A VACNT membrane is realised by attaching a 300 μm-thick 1 cm × 1 cm VACNT array on silicon to a 4″ glass substrate, applying polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through spin coating to fill the gaps between the VACNTs, and using a microtome to slice the VACNT-PDMS composite into 25-μm-thick membranes. Experimental results show that the permeability of the developed VACNT membranes increases with the density of the VACNTs, while the salt rejection is almost independent of the VACNT density. The best measured permeance is attained with a VACNT membrane having a CNT density of 10(11) tubes cm(-2) is 1203 LMH at 1 bar. PMID:27504256

  17. An evaluation of chondrocyte morphology and gene expression on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube films.

    PubMed

    Antonioli, Eliane; Lobo, Anderson O; Ferretti, Mario; Cohen, Moisés; Marciano, Fernanda R; Corat, Evaldo J; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J

    2013-03-01

    Cartilage serves as a low-friction and wear-resistant articulating surface in diarthrodial joints and is also important during early stages of bone remodeling. Recently, regenerative cartilage research has focused on combinations of cells paired with scaffolds. Superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are of particular interest in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate cell expansion of human articular chondrocytes on superhydrophilic VACNTs, as well as their morphology and gene expression. VACNT films were produced using a microwave plasma chamber on Ti substrates and submitted to an O2 plasma treatment to make them superhydrophilic. Human chondrocytes were cultivated on superhydrophilic VACNTs up to five days. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to measure type I and type II Collagen, Sox9, and Aggrecan mRNA expression levels. The morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. SEM images demonstrated that superhydrophilic VACNTs permit cell growth and adhesion of human chondrocytes. The chondrocytes had an elongated morphology with some prolongations. Chondrocytes cultivated on superhydrophilic VACNTs maintain the level expression of Aggrecan, Sox9, and Collagen II determined by qPCR. This study was the first to indicate that superhydrophilic VACNTs may be used as an efficient scaffold for cartilage or bone repair.

  18. Nanoconfinement induced crystal orientation and large piezoelectric coefficient in vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array.

    PubMed

    Liew, Weng Heng; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array comprising nanotubes embedded in anodized alumina membrane matrix without entanglement has been fabricated. It is found that the crystallographic polar axes of the P(VDF-TrFE) nanotubes are oriented along the nanotubes long axes. Such a desired crystal orientation is due to the kinetic selection mechanism for lamellae growth confined in the nanopores. The preferred crystal orientation in nanotubes leads to huge piezoelectric coefficients of the P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric strain and voltage coefficients of P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array are observed to be 1.97 and 3.40 times of those for conventional spin coated film. Such a significant performance enhancement is attributed to the well-controlled polarization orientation, the elimination of the substrate constraint, and the low dielectric constant of the nanotube array. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array exhibiting the unique structure and outstanding piezoelectric performance is promising for wide applications, including various electrical devices and electromechanical sensors and transducers. PMID:25966301

  19. An experimental method to determine the resistance of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest in contact with a conductive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, T. T.; Poulain, C.; Dijon, J.; Fournier, A.; Chevalier, N.; Mariolle, D.

    2012-08-01

    High density vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests are considered as a promising conductive material for many applications (interconnects in microelectronics or contact material layer in sliding contact applications). It is thus crucial to characterize the electrical resistance of these forests, especially in contact with the inherent top/bottom conductive substrates. This paper aims to develop an original method to determine the contribution of the different terms in this electrical resistance, which is measured with a tipless atomic force microscope used in high accuracy "force mode." VACNT stacks with different heights on AlCu substrate with or without Au/Pd top coating are studied. The electrical contact area between the probe tip and the forest is considered to be equivalent to the classical electrical contact area between a tip and a rough surface. With this assumption, the scattering resistance of a mono-wall CNT is 14.6 kΩ μm-1, the top/bottom contact resistance is, respectively, 265 kΩ/385 kΩ. The bottom resistance divided in half is obtained by an interface substrate/CNT catalyst treatment. The same assumption leads to an effective compressive modulus of 175 MPa. These results are consistent with the values published by other authors. The proposed method is effective to optimise the CNT interface contact resistance before integration in a more complex functional structure.

  20. Synthesis and properties of SiN coatings as stable fluorescent markers on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Ryan; Klein, Kate L; Ivanov, Ilia N; Hensley, Dale K; Meyer III, Harry M; Melechko, Anatoli; McKnight, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    The growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) in a catalytic dc ammonia/acetylene plasma process on silicon substrates is often accompanied by sidewall deposition of material that contains mostly Si and N. In fluorescent microscopy experiments, imaging VACNF interfacing to live cell cultures it turned out that this material is broadly fluorescent, which made VACNFs useful as spatial markers, or created nuisance when DNA-labeling got masked. In this paper we provide insight into nature of this silicon/nitrogen in situ coatings. Here we have proposed a potential mechanism for deposition of SiNx coating on the sidewalls of VACNFs during PECVD synthesis in addition to exploring the origin of the coatings fluorescence. It seems most likely that the substrate reacts with the process gases through both processes similar to reactive sputtering and CVD to form silane and other silicon bearing compounds before being deposited isotropically as a SiNx coating onto the VACNFs. The case for the presence of Si-NCs is made strong through a combination of the strong fluorescence and elemental analysis of the samples. These broadly luminescent fibers can prove useful as registry markers in fluorescent cellular studies.

  1. Electrical characteristics and rectification performance of wet chemically synthesized vertically aligned n-ZnO nanowire/p-Si heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayen, R. N.; Bhattacharyya, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    Vertically well-aligned n-ZnO nanowire (NW) thin films were deposited onto p-Si substrates by a two-step wet chemical technique to form a p-n heterojunction diode. The morphological and structural characteristics of the ZnO NW performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed well-aligned h-ZnO NW with a wurtzite structure. A direct optical band gap of 3.30 eV was calculated from the transmittance trace obtained using a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The electrical characteristics of the heterojunction diode were studied by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement at room temperature, and current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) measurements performed in the 300-400 K range. The C-V measurements yield a carrier concentration of 1.3  ×  1016 c.c.-1 for the ZnO NW thin film. The ideality factor (n) was found to decrease, while the barrier height (φ b0) increased with the increase in temperature, when calculated using a thermionic emission model from the non-linear I-V-T plots. The series resistance (R s) calculated by the Cheung-Cheung method decreased with the increase in temperature. The mean barrier height (0.718 eV) and modified Richardson constant (28.4 A cm-2 K-2) calculated using a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights (considering barrier height inhomogeneity) were closer to the theoretical value than those calculated from the linear approximation of the ln(I s/T 2) versus 1000/T plot. The variation of the density of interface states with interface state energy was also studied. The n-ZnO NW/p-Si heterojunction diode performed very good half wave rectification in the frequency range 50 Hz-10 kHz, when a sinusoidal ac voltage of amplitude 4.5 V was applied across it.

  2. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up.

    PubMed

    Dua, Deepti; Dua, Ankur

    2015-09-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits.

  3. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits. PMID:26501026

  4. Magnetic and optical properties of Mn-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, J.; Sasmal, I.; Nath, T. K.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we have reported the synthesis of high quality vertically aligned undoped and Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline nanorods arrays on Si (100) substrates using two steps process, namely, initial slow seed layer formation followed by solution growth employing wet chemical hydrothermal method. The shapes of the as grown single crystalline nanorods are hexagonal. The diameter and length of the as grown undoped ZnO nanorods varies in the range of 80-150 nm and 1.0 - 1.4 μm, respectively. Along with the lattice parameters of the hexagonal crystal structure, the diameter and length of Mn doped ZnO nanorods are found to increase slightly as compared to the undoped ZnO nanorods. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Mn atoms in Mn2+ state in the single crystalline ZnO nanorods. The recorded photoluminescence spectrum contains two emissions peaks having UV exciton emissions along with a green-yellow emission. The green-yellow emissions provide the evidence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies. The magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements [M (H)] and zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization [M(T)] measurements have been carried out at different isothermal conditions in the temperature range of 5-300 K. The Mn doped ZnO nanorods clearly show room temperature ferromagnetic ordering near room temperature down to 5 K. The observed magnetization may be attributed to the long range ferromagnetic interaction between bound magnetic polarons led by singly charged oxygen vacancies.

  5. Optimal deposition conditions of TiN barrier layers for the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes onto metallic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Céspedes, J.; Álvarez-García, J.; Zhang, X.; Hampshire, J.; Bertran, E.

    2009-05-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical deposition (PECVD) has proven over the years to be the preferred method for the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nanofibres (VACNTs and VACNFs, respectively). In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown on metallic surfaces present a great potential for high power applications, including low resistance electrical contacts, high power switches, electron guns or supercapacitors. Nevertheless, the deposition of CNTs onto metallic substrates is challenging, due to the intrinsic incompatibility between such substrates and the metallic precursor layers required to promote the growth of CNTs. In particular, the formation of CNT films is assisted by the presence of a nanometric (10-100 nm) monolayer of catalyst clusters, which act as nucleation sites for CNTs. The nanometric character of the precursor layer, together with the high growth temperature involved during the PECVD process (~700 °C), strongly favours the in-diffusion of the catalyst nanoclusters into the bulk of the metallic substrate, which results in a dramatic reduction in the nucleation of CNTs. In order to overcome this problem, it is necessary to coat the metallic substrate with a diffusion barrier layer, prior to the growth of the catalyst precursor. Unlike other conventional ceramic barrier layers, TiN provides high electrical conductivity, thus being a promising candidate for use as barrier material in applications involving low resistance contacts. In this work we investigate the anti-diffusion properties of TiN sputtered coatings and its potential applicability to the growth of CNTs onto copper substrates, using Fe as catalyst material. The barrier and catalyst layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to determine the diffusivity of Fe into TiN. Morphological characterization of the CNTs coatings was performed on scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were employed to

  6. Improvement in device performance from a mixture of a liquid crystal and photosensitive acrylic prepolymer with the photoinduced vertical alignment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Czung-Yu; Lin, Fa-Hsin; Tao, Yu-Tai; Lee, Jiunn-Yih

    2011-12-01

    In a multicomponent nematic liquid crystal (NLC) mixture of a liquid crystal (negative-type NLC) and a photosensitive acrylic prepolymer, photopolymerization upon UV irradiation induces the separation of the LC and photosensitive acrylic prepolymer layers, thereby leading to a vertical arrangement of LC molecules. In this study, we propose a simple vertical alignment method for LC molecules, by adding a chiral smectic A (SmA*) liquid crystal having homeotropic texture characteristics to an NLC mixture solution. Measurements of electro-optical properties revealed that the addition of the SmA* LC not only strengthened the anchoring force of the copolymer alignment film surface, but also significantly enhanced the contrast ratio (~73%), response time and grayscale switching performance of the device.

  7. Vertically aligned dust particles under the influence of crossed electric and magnetic fields in the sheath of a radio frequency discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puttscher, M.; Melzer, A.

    2015-07-01

    We present experiments on two dust particles with a size of a few microns that are levitated in the sheath region of an rf discharge in the presence of an external magnetic field transverse to the sheath electric field. The two particles are vertically aligned due to the ion focusing effect. First, it is observed that the magnetic field causes a displacement of the dust particles either in the E → × B → - or in the opposite direction. Second, at a sufficiently large neutral gas pressure, the vertical alignment breaks up when the magnetic field strength is increased. The occurrence of this dissociation is described by the horizontal force balance on the two particles.

  8. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM⁻¹·cm⁻²) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:26404303

  9. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:26404303

  10. A Model for Self-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes from Acetylene Based on Real-Time Studies of Vertically Aligned Growth Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Eres, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved optical reflectivity was used to study the kinetics in the early stages of vertically aligned carbon nanotube array growth from a molecular beam of acetylene. The molecular beam environment was used to suppress gas phase reaction pathways and limit the growth to surface reactions specific to the molecular structure of acetylene. The observed acetylene flux dependent induction delay and the threshold for vertically aligned growth are characteristic features of heterogeneous chain reactions. Propagation of chain reactions requires regeneration of the active sites that can occur only if catalytic activity is transferred from the metal catalyst film to surface carbon species. After the active site transformation, acetylene self-assembles into carbon structures of progressively increasing size such as chains, graphene fragments, and nanotubes. In this paper we show that a conceptual framework supported by ab initio density functional theory calculations in which active carbon species facilitate incorporation of new carbon readily explains recent results in vertically aligned nanotube growth that are puzzling in the context of the diffusion/precipitation model.

  11. Effect of Amperage and Field of View on Detection of Vertical Root Fracture in Teeth with Intracanal Posts

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Yaser; Hosseinpour, Sepanta; Aziz, Alireza; Bamedi, Masoud; Malekashtari, Mahsa; Vasegh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to assess the effects of amperage (mA) and field of view (FOV) on intracanal metal post artifacts and the diagnostic parameters for detection of vertical root fracture (VRF) in teeth with intracanal posts. Methods and Materials: In this diagnostic study, 80 human single-canal teeth were evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Nickel chrome cast posts were placed into root canals after root canal therapy and canal preparation. In the test group, fracture was induced by an instron machine while no fracture was induced in the control group. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity and specificity values at different exposure settings were statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and pairwise comparisons were performed by Tukey’s test. Results: Significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of deterministic (P<0.0001) and probabilistic (P<0.013) sensitivity and deterministic (P<0.037) and probabilistic (P<0.0001) specificity at different FOV and mA combinations. Conclusion: A smaller FOV and lower mA should be preferably used for detection of VRFs in teeth with intracanal posts. PMID:27471532

  12. Hybrid core-shell nanowire electrodes utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays for high-performance energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klankowski, Steven Arnold

    Nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems have been shown to improve both rate performance and capacity retention, while allowing considerably longer cycling lifetime. The nano-architectures provide enhanced kinetics by means of larger surface area, higher porosity, better material interconnectivity, shorter diffusion lengths, and overall mechanical stability. Meanwhile, active materials that once were excluded from use due to bulk property issues are now being examined in new nanoarchitecture. Silicon was such a material, desired for its large lithium-ion storage capacity of 4,200 mAh g-1 and low redox potential of 0.4 V vs. Li/Li+; however, a ˜300% volume expansion and increased resistivity upon lithiation limited its broader applications. In the first study, the silicon-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) array presents a unique core-shell nanowire (NW) architecture that demonstrates both good capacity and high rate performance. In follow-up, the Si-VACNFs NW electrode demonstrates enhanced power rate capabilities as it shows excellent storage capacity at high rates, attributed to the unique nanoneedle structure that high vacuum sputtering produces on the three-dimensional array. Following silicon's success, titanium dioxide has been explored as an alternative high-rate electrode material by utilizing the dual storage mechanisms of Li+ insertion and pseudocapacitance. The TiO 2-coated VACNFs shows improved electrochemical activity that delivers near theoretical capacity at larger currents due to shorter Li+ diffusion lengths and highly effective electron transport. A unique cell is formed with the Si-coated and TiO2-coated electrodes place counter to one another, creating the hybrid of lithium ion battery-pseudocapacitor that demonstrated both high power and high energy densities. The hybrid cell operates like a battery at lower current rates, achieving larger discharge capacity, while retaining one-third of

  13. The electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal device in multi-component liquid crystal mixture system with non-contact photo-induced vertical alignment mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fa-Hsin; Ho, Czung-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Yih

    2012-05-01

    In previous studies, we mixed photo-curable acrylic pre-polymer into negative dielectric anisotropy nematic type liquid crystal (N-type LC, NLC) to obtain a NLC/photo-curable acrylic pre-polymer mixture solution (NLC mixture system). After irradiation with UV light of fixed intensity, we successfully fabricated copolymer films with vertical alignment effect among the LC molecules. In this study, we propose a new type of multi-component LC mixture system by mixing chiral smectic type (SmA*) LC with homeotropic texture into NLC/photo-curable acrylic pre-polymer mixture system (NSLC mixture system). Our experimental results revealed that this SmA* LC exhibited the vertical alignment effect associated with LC molecules in the auxiliary LC mixture system. Moreover, we also discovered that altering the main chain type biphenol acrylic pre-polymer had drastic impact on the contrast ratio (CR) of the LC mixture system, with an increase of as much as 73%. More importantly, adding the SmA* LC can evidently increase the anchoring energy of the alignment film surface. We also further performed measurements, analyses, and discussions of electro-optical properties of devices fabricated from the new LC mixture systems.

  14. Reservoir-scale stratigraphic controls on the distribution of vertical fractures: insights from a 200-m thick carbonate platform exposure (Sorrento peninsula, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradetti, Amerigo; Tavani, Stefano; Iannace, Alessandro; Vinci, Francesco; Pirmez, Carlos; Torrieri, Stefano; Giorgioni, Maurizio; Strauss, Christoph; Pignalosa, Antonio; Mazzoli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Through-going fractures cutting across numerous beds are often invoked to match large-scale permeability patterns in tight carbonate reservoirs. Despite the importance of these structures for fluid flow simulations, there are only few field analogues allowing estimating many of their parameters, including spacing and vertical extent, which are instead required to populate reservoir models. This is mostly due to the fact that the study of these reservoir-scale fractures requires very wide outcrops that for several reasons, including logistics, are rarely analysed. Nevertheless, recent improvements in the construction of digital models of outcrops can greatly help to overcome many logistic issues. In this work, we present the results obtained from combined field and remote sensing observations of a 300-meters wide and 200-meters high carbonate platform reservoir analogue in the Sorrento peninsula (Italy). The outcrop consists of a nearly vertical cliff exposing alternating gently-dipping shallow-water limestones and dolomites characterized by the presence of several vertical fractures of different size and hence with different vertical connectivity. In order to gather both stratigraphic and structural (i.e. fracture) data, we integrated field measurements and stratigraphic logs with a remote sensing study carried out on a digital model of the cliff, made by means of multi-view stereo-photogrammetry. This combined field and remote sensing study has allowed us to recognize that major bed-perpendicular through-going fractures are vertically discontinuous due to variable segmentation and fracture distribution within the country rock. In particular, we observed that large (i.e. tens of meters in height) fractures pass across medium to thick beds (bed thickness > 30 cm), while they arrest against packages made of thinly stratified layers of dolomites. In essence, through-going fractures arrest on weak levels, consisting of thinly bedded layers interposed between packages

  15. Role of ZnO thin film in the vertically aligned growth of ZnO nanorods by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Nguyen Thanh; Noh, Jin-Seo; Park, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ZnO thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods was investigated. ZnO thin films were sputter-deposited on Si substrate with varying the thickness. ZnO nanorods were grown on the thin film using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 90 °C. The ZnO thin films showed granular structure and vertical roughness on the surface, which facilitated the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The average grain size and the surface roughness of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness, and this led to the increase in both the average diameter and the average length of vertically grown ZnO nanorods. In particular, it was found that the average diameter of ZnO nanorods was very close to the average grain size of ZnO thin film, confirming the role of ZnO film as a seed layer for the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The CBD growth on ZnO seed layers may provide a facile route to engineering vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays.

  16. Effect of Metal Artifacts on Detection of Vertical Root Fractures Using Two Cone Beam Computed Tomography Systems

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Yaser; Aghdasi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ezoddini-Ardakani, Fatemeh; Beiraghi, Samira; Vasegh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vertical root fracture (VRF) is common in endodontically treated teeth. Conventional and digital radiographies have limitations for detection of VRFs. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers greater detection accuracy of VRFs in comparison with conventional radiography. This study compared the effects of metal artifacts on detection of VRFs by using two CBCT systems. Methods and Materials: Eighty extracted premolars were selected and sectioned at the level of the cemento enamel junction (CEJ). After preparation, root canals were filled with gutta-percha. Subsequently, two thirds of the root fillings were removed for post space preparation and a custom-made post was cemented into each canal. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n=40). In the test group, root fracture was created with Instron universal testing machine. The control teeth remained intact. CBCT scans of all teeth were obtained with either New Tom VGI or Soredex Scanora 3D. Three observers analyzed the images for detection of VRF. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for VRF detection and percentage of probable cases were calculated for each imaging system and compared using non-parametric tests considering the non-normal distribution of data. The inter-observer reproducibility was calculated using the weighted kappa coefficient. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV between the two CBCT systems. Conclusion: The effect of metal artifacts on VRF detection was not significantly different between the two CBCT systems. PMID:26213543

  17. The application of vertical seismic profiling and cross-hole tomographic imaging for fracture characterization at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E.; Tura, M.A.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    In order to obtain the necessary characterization for the storage of nuclear waste, much higher resolution of the features likely to affect the transport of radionuclides will be required than is normally achieved in conventional surface seismic reflection used in the exploration and characterization of petroleum and geothermal resources. Because fractures represent a significant mechanical anomaly seismic methods using are being investigated as a means to image and characterize the subsurface. Because of inherent limitations in applying the seismic methods solely from the surface, state-of-the-art borehole methods are being investigated to provide high resolution definition within the repository block. Therefore, Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) and cross-hole methods are being developed to obtain maximum resolution of the features that will possible affect the transport of fluids. Presented here will be the methods being developed, the strategy being pursued, and the rational for using VSP and crosshole methods at Yucca Mountain. The approach is intended to be an integrated method involving improvements in data acquisition, processing, and interpretation as well as improvements in the fundamental understanding of seismic wave propagation in fractured rock. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Spray-Coated Halloysite-Epoxy Composites: A Means To Create Mechanically Robust, Vertically Aligned Nanotube Composites.

    PubMed

    Song, Kenan; Polak, Roberta; Chen, Dayong; Rubner, Michael F; Cohen, Robert E; Askar, Khalid A

    2016-08-10

    Halloysite nanotube-filled epoxy composites were fabricated using spray-coating methods. The halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were aligned by the hydrodynamic flow conditions at the spray nozzle, and the polymer viscosity helped to preserve this preferential orientation in the final coatings on the target substrates. Electron microscopy demonstrated a consistent trend of higher orientation degree in the nanocomposite coatings as viscosity increased. The nanoindentation mechanical performances of these coatings were studied using a Hysitron TriboIndenter device. Composites showed improvements up to ∼50% in modulus and ∼100% in hardness as compared to pure epoxy, and the largest improvements in mechanical performance correlated with higher alignment of HNTs along the plane-normal direction. Achieving this nanotube alignment using a simple spray-coating method suggests potential for large-scale production of multifunctional anisotropic nanocomposite coatings on a variety of rigid and deformable substrates. PMID:27428814

  19. Direct synthesis of large-scale hierarchical MoS2 films nanostructured with orthogonally oriented vertically and horizontally aligned layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Saifeng; Chen, Bohua; Wang, Hao; Wu, Kan; Chen, Yang; Fan, Jintai; Qi, Shen; Cui, Xiaoli; Zhang, Long; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Hierarchical MoS2 thin films nanostructured with orthogonally oriented vertically and horizontally aligned layers were designed and excellent passive Q-switching behavior in a fiber laser was demonstrated. A special solvothermal system containing a small amount of water was applied to synthesize such hierarchical MoS2 nanofilms, in which the reaction rate is carefully controlled by the diffusion rate of the sulfur precursor. Wafer-scale MoS2 thin films with hierarchical structures are formed on various substrates. Moreover, the hierarchical MoS2 thin films consisting of both vertical and horizontal layers can be tuned to possess only horizontally aligned layers by controlling the solvothermal time. To show the potential application proof-of-concept, the nonlinear optical performance of the hierarchical MoS2 was investigated. Superior passive Q-switching behavior in a fiber laser with a minimum pulse width of 2.2 μs was observed.Hierarchical MoS2 thin films nanostructured with orthogonally oriented vertically and horizontally aligned layers were designed and excellent passive Q-switching behavior in a fiber laser was demonstrated. A special solvothermal system containing a small amount of water was applied to synthesize such hierarchical MoS2 nanofilms, in which the reaction rate is carefully controlled by the diffusion rate of the sulfur precursor. Wafer-scale MoS2 thin films with hierarchical structures are formed on various substrates. Moreover, the hierarchical MoS2 thin films consisting of both vertical and horizontal layers can be tuned to possess only horizontally aligned layers by controlling the solvothermal time. To show the potential application proof-of-concept, the nonlinear optical performance of the hierarchical MoS2 was investigated. Superior passive Q-switching behavior in a fiber laser with a minimum pulse width of 2.2 μs was observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05938k

  20. Combined antenna and localized plasmon resonance in Raman scattering from random arrays of silver-coated, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P; Duenas, J A; Boyle, M G; Doherty, M D; Bell, S E J; Kern, A M; Martin, O J F; Teh, A-S; Teo, K B K; Milne, W I

    2011-02-01

    The electric field enhancement associated with detailed structure within novel optical antenna nanostructures is modeled using the surface integral equation technique in the context of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The antennae comprise random arrays of vertically aligned, multiwalled carbon nanotubes dressed with highly granular Ag. Different types of "hot-spot" underpinning the SERS are identified, but contrasting characteristics are revealed. Those at the outer edges of the Ag grains are antenna driven with field enhancement amplified in antenna antinodes while intergrain hotspots are largely independent of antenna activity. Hot-spots between the tops of antennae leaning towards each other also appear to benefit from antenna amplification.

  1. Strain relaxation and enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in BiFeO{sub 3}:CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenrui; Jiao, Liang; Li, Leigang; Jian, Jie; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Chu, Frank; Chen, Aiping; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan

    2014-02-10

    Self-assembled BiFeO{sub 3}:CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (BFO:CFO) vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films have been fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The strain relaxation mechanism between BFO and CFO with a large lattice mismatch has been studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared nanocomposite films exhibit enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as the BFO composition increases. Different anisotropy sources have been investigated, suggesting that spin-flop coupling between antiferromagnetic BFO and ferrimagnetic CFO plays a dominant role in enhancing the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy.

  2. Hydrothermal growth and characterization of vertically well-aligned and dense ZnO nanorods on glass and silicon using a simple optimizer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Sabah M.; Hassan, Z.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Talib, Rawnaq A.; Abd-Alghafour, Nabeel M.; Omar, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    Vertically, well-aligned and high density ZnO nanorods were successfully hydrothermally grown on glass and silicon substrates using a simple and low cost system. The mechanism of synthesis of ZnO nanorods, generated with our system under hydrothermal conditions, is investigated in this report. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicated that the fabricated ZnO nanorods on both substrates have hexagonal shape with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 70 nm which grew vertically from the substrate. XRD analysis confirms the formation of wurtzite ZnO phase with a preferred orientation along (002) direction perpendicular on the substrate and enhanced crystallinity. The low value of the tensile strain (0.126 %) revealed that ZnO nanorods preferred to grow along the c-axis for both substrates. Photoluminescence spectra exhibited a strong, sharp UV near band edge emission peak with narrow FWHM values for both samples.

  3. Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael C.

    1963-01-01

    Recent studies on the epidemiology and repair of fractures are reviewed. The type and severity of the fracture bears a relation to the age, sex and occupation of the patient. Bone tissue after fracture shows a process of inflammation and repair common to all members of the connective tissue family, but it repairs with specific tissue. Cartilage forms when the oxygen supply is outgrown. After a fracture, the vascular bed enlarges. The major blood supply to healing tissue is from medullary vessels and destruction of them will cause necrosis of the inner two-thirds of the cortex. Callus rapidly mineralizes, but full mineralization is achieved slowly; increased mineral metabolism lasts several years after fracture. PMID:13952119

  4. Parallel analysis of finite element model controlled trial and retrospective case control study on percutaneous internal fixation for vertical sacral fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although percutaneous posterior-ring tension-band metallic plate and percutaneous iliosacral screws are used to fix unstable posterior pelvic ring fractures, the biomechanical stability and compatibility of both internal fixation techniques for the treatment of Denis I, II and III type vertical sacral fractures remain unclear. Methods Using CT and MR images of the second generation of Chinese Digitized Human “male No. 23”, two groups of finite element models were developed for Denis I, II and III type vertical sacral fractures with ipsilateral superior and inferior pubic ramus fractures treated with either a percutaneous metallic plate or a percutaneous screw. Accordingly, two groups of clinical cases that were fixed using the above-mentioned two internal fixation techniques were retrospectively evaluated to compare postoperative effect and function. Parallel analysis was performed with a finite element model controlled trial and a case control study. Results The difference of the postoperative Majeed standards and outcome rates between two case groups was no statistically significant (P > 0.05). Accordingly, the high values of the maximum displacements/stresses of the plate-fixation model group approximated those of the screw-fixation model group. However, further simulation of Denis I, II and III type fractures in each group of models found that the biomechanics of the plate-fixation models became increasingly stable and compatible, whereas the biomechanics of the screw-fixation models maintained tiny fluctuations. When treating Denis III fractures, the biomechanical effects of the pelvic ring of the plate-fixation model were better than the screw-fixation model. Conclusions Percutaneous plate and screw fixations are both appropriate for the treatment of Denis I and II type vertical sacral fractures; whereas percutaneous plate fixation appears be superior to percutaneous screw fixation for Denis III type vertical sacral fracture. Biomechanical

  5. The Surface Interface Characteristics of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube and Graphitic Carbon Fiber Arrays Grown by Thermal and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Nguyen, Cattien; Li, Jun; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nano-arrays for sensors and devices requires the growth of arrays with the proper characteristics. One such application is the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphitic carbon fibers (GCFs) for the chemical attachment of probe molecules. The effectiveness of such an array is dependent not only upon the effectiveness of the probe and the interface between that probe and the array, but also the array and the underlaying substrate. If that array is a growth of vertically aligned CNTs or GCFs then the attachment of that array to the surface is of the utmost importance. This attachment provides the mechanical stability and durability of the array, as well as, the electrical properties of that array. If the detection is to be acquired through an electrical measurement, then the appropriate resistance between the array and the surface need to be fabricated into the device. I will present data on CNTs and GCFs grown from both thermal and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The focus will be on the characteristics of the metal film from which the CNTs and GCFs are grown and the changes that occur due to changes within the growth process.

  6. Altering the catalytic activity of thin metal catalyst films for controlled growth of chemical vapor deposited vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rouleau, Christopher M; Christen, Hans M; Cui, Hongtao; Eres, Gyula; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B

    2008-01-01

    The growth rate and terminal length of vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VANTAs) grown by chemical vapor deposition have been dramatically improved through pulsed KrF-excimer laser pretreatments of multilayer metal catalyst films. Silicon wafers coated with Al, Mo, and Fe layers were laser processed in air with single laser shots of varying fluence through circular apertures, then heated to ~750C and exposed to acetylene and ferrocene-containing gas mixtures typically used to grow vertically-aligned nanotube arrays. In situ videography was used to record the growth kinetics of the nanotube arrays in both patterned and unpatterned regions to understand changes in catalytic activity, growth rates, and termination of growth. The height of the patterned regions varied with fluence, with the most successful treatment resulting in 1.4 cm-tall posts of nanotubes embedded in a 0.4 cm-tall nanotube carpet. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images from the nanotubes in the posts revealed fewer walls, smaller diameters, and a much narrower distribution of diameters compared to nanotubes grown in the carpet. This information, along with data obtained from weighing the material from each region, suggests that pulsed laser processing can also significantly increase the areal density of VANTAs.

  7. Field emission of vertically aligned V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires on an ITO surface prepared with gaseous transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Mingcheng; Lee, C.-S.

    2009-08-15

    Growing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires (NWs) on a conducting glass substrate combines gaseous transport and pyrolytic deposition of vanadium polyoxometalate anions, and yields vertically aligned vanadium-oxide nanowires. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, Raman spectra and powder X-ray analyses indicate that V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires as synthesized were single-crystalline and grew anisotropically among direction [010]. NH{sub 2}OH.HCl served not only as a reducing agent to produce vanadium polyoxometalate clusters but also as a source of NH{sub 3} gas to facilitate the vapor pyrolysis and deposition. The optical properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires exhibit a character dependent on structure. Field emission (FE) measurements show a small turn-on field voltage approx8.3 V/{mu}m, maximum current density 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and a linear Fowler-Nordheim behavior. - Graphical abstract: Growing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires on a conducting glass substrate combines gaseous transport and pyrolytic deposition of vanadium polyoxometalate anions, and yields vertically aligned vanadium-oxide nanowires.

  8. Low temperature and cost-effective growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers using spin-coated polymer-stabilized palladium nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Amin M.; Shafiee, Sareh; Krasia-Christoforou, Theodora; Savva, Ioanna; Göransson, Gert; Desmaris, Vincent; Enoksson, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We describe a fast and cost-effective process for the growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) at a temperature compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, using highly stable polymer-Pd nanohybrid colloidal solutions of palladium catalyst nanoparticles (NPs). Two polymer-Pd nanohybrids, namely poly(lauryl methacrylate)-block-poly((2-acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate)/Pd (LauMAx-b-AEMAy/Pd) and polyvinylpyrrolidone/Pd were prepared in organic solvents and spin-coated onto silicon substrates. Subsequently, vertically aligned CNFs were grown on these NPs by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at different temperatures. The electrical properties of the grown CNFs were evaluated using an electrochemical method, commonly used for the characterization of supercapacitors. The results show that the polymer-Pd nanohybrid solutions offer the optimum size range of palladium catalyst NPs enabling the growth of CNFs at temperatures as low as 350 °C. Furthermore, the CNFs grown at such a low temperature are vertically aligned similar to the CNFs grown at 550 °C. Finally the capacitive behavior of these CNFs was similar to that of the CNFs grown at high temperature assuring the same electrical properties thus enabling their usage in different applications such as on-chip capacitors, interconnects, thermal heat sink and energy storage solutions.

  9. Functionalized vertically aligned ZnO nanorods for application in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor based pH sensors and label-free immuno-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Narendra; Senapati, Sujata; Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Jitendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on a SiO2/Si surface by optimization of the temperature and atmosphere for annealing of the seed. The seed layer annealed at 500 °C in vacuum provided well separated and uniform seeds which also provided the best condition to get densely packed, uniformly distributed, and vertically aligned nanorods. These nanorods grown on the substrates were used to fabricate electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) devices for pH sensing. Etching of ZnO at acidic pH prevents the direct use of nanorods for pH sensing. Therefore, the nanorods functionalised with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were utilized for pH sensing and showed the pH sensitivity of 50.1 mV/pH. APTES is also known to be used as a linker to immobilize biomolecules (such as antibodies). The EIS device with APTES functionalized nanorods was used for the label free detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Finally, voltage shifts of 23 mV and 35 mV were observed with PSA concentrations of 1 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively.

  10. Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... commonly happen because of car accidents, falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause weakening of the bones. Overuse can cause stress fractures, which are very small cracks in the ...

  11. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, VF; Wu, LJ; Rupich, MW; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP; Li, Q

    2014-12-15

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 mu m long nano-rods with an average diameter of approximate to 20 nm. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE PAGES

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 μm long nano-rods with an average diameter of ≈20 nm.

  13. Phonon processes in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays produced by low-cost all-solution galvanic displacement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debika; Trudeau, Charles; Gerlein, Luis Felipe; Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2016-03-01

    The nanoscale engineering of silicon can significantly change its bulk optoelectronic properties to make it more favorable for device integration. Phonon process engineering is one way to enhance inter-band transitions in silicon's indirect band structure alignment. This paper demonstrates phonon localization at the tip of silicon nanowires fabricated by galvanic displacement using wet electroless chemical etching of a bulk silicon wafer. High-resolution Raman micro-spectroscopy reveals that such arrayed structures of silicon nanowires display phonon localization behaviors, which could help their integration into the future generations of nano-engineered silicon nanowire-based devices such as photodetectors and solar cells.

  14. A sweet spot for highly efficient growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube forests enabling their unique structures and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guohai; Davis, Robert C.; Futaba, Don N.; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Kobashi, Kazufumi; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the correlation between growth efficiency and structural parameters of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) forests and report the existence of a SWCNT ``sweet spot'' in the CNT diameter and spacing domain for highly efficient synthesis. Only within this region could SWCNTs be grown efficiently. Through the investigation of the growth rates for ~340 CNT forests spanning diameters from 1.3 to 8.0 nm and average spacing from 5 to 80 nm, this ``sweet spot'' was found to exist because highly efficient growth was constrained by several mechanistic boundaries that either hindered the formation or reduced the growth rate of SWCNT forests. Specifically, with increased diameter SWCNTs transitioned to multiwalled CNTs (multiwall border), small diameter SWCNTs could only be grown at low growth rates (low efficiency border), sparse SWCNTs lacked the requirements to vertically align (lateral growth border), and high density catalysts could not be prepared (high catalyst density border). As a result, the SWCNTs synthesized within this ``sweet spot'' possessed a unique set of characteristics vital for the development applications, such as large diameter, long, aligned, defective, and high specific surface area.We investigated the correlation between growth efficiency and structural parameters of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) forests and report the existence of a SWCNT ``sweet spot'' in the CNT diameter and spacing domain for highly efficient synthesis. Only within this region could SWCNTs be grown efficiently. Through the investigation of the growth rates for ~340 CNT forests spanning diameters from 1.3 to 8.0 nm and average spacing from 5 to 80 nm, this ``sweet spot'' was found to exist because highly efficient growth was constrained by several mechanistic boundaries that either hindered the formation or reduced the growth rate of SWCNT forests. Specifically, with increased diameter SWCNTs transitioned to multiwalled CNTs (multiwall border), small

  15. Characterizing fractured rock aquifers using heated Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensing to determine borehole vertical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, T. O.; Bour, O.; Selker, J. S.; Le Borgne, T.; Bense, V.; Hochreutener, R.; Lavenant, N.

    2013-12-01

    In highly heterogeneous media, fracture network connectivity and hydraulic properties can be estimated using methods such as packer- or cross-borehole pumping-tests. Typically, measurements of hydraulic head or vertical flow in such tests are made either at a single location over time, or at a series of depths by installing a number of packers or raising or lowering a probe. We show how this often encountered monitoring problem, with current solutions sacrificing either one of temporal or spatial information, can be addressed using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS). Here, we electrically heat the conductive cladding materials of cables deployed in boreholes to determine the vertical flow profile. We present results from heated fiber optic cables deployed in three boreholes in a fractured rock aquifer at the much studied experimental site near Ploemeur, France, allowing detailed comparisons with alternative methods (e.g. Le Borgne et al., 2007). When submerged in water and electrically heated, the cable very rapidly reaches a steady state temperature (less than 60 seconds). The steady state temperature of the heated cable, measured using the DTS method, is then a function of the velocity of the fluid in the borehole. We find that such cables are sensitive to a wide range of fluid velocities, and thus suitable for measuring both ambient and pumped flow profiles at the Ploemeur site. The cables are then used to monitor the flow profiles during all possible configurations of: ambient flow, cross-borehole- (pumping one borehole, and observing in another), and dipole-tests (pumping one borehole, re-injection in another). Such flow data acquired using DTS may then be used for tomographic flow inversions, for instance using the approach developed by Klepikova et al., (submitted). Using the heated fiber optic method, we are able to observe the flow response during such tests in high spatial detail, and are also able to capture temporal flow dynamics occurring at the

  16. Development of vertically aligned ZnO-nanowires scintillators for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Masakazu Komori, Jun; Shimidzu, Kaiji; Izaki, Masanobu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2015-02-23

    Newly designed scintillator of (0001)-oriented ZnO vertical nanowires (vnws) for X-ray imaging was prepared on a Ga-doped ZnO/soda-lime glass by electrodeposition, and the light emission feature was estimated in a synchrotron radiation facility. The ZnO-vnws scintillator revealed a strong light emission and improved resolution on CMOS image compared with that for the ZnO-layer scintillator, although the light emission performance was deteriorated in comparison to the Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12:}Ce{sup 3+}. The light emission property closely related to the nanostructure and the resultant photoluminescence characteristic.

  17. Well-Aligned Arrays of Vertically Oriented ZnO Nanorod Films for Photocatalytic Degradation of Textile Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba; Nekoubin, Amin

    2011-05-01

    Well-aligned hexagonal ZnO nanorods arrays were synthesized via mild hydrothermal method under different conditions. A two-step approach was employed for the epitaxial growth of ZnO. First a ZnO seed layer was prepared by spin-coating process and then ZnO nanorods were deposited on it. The influences of growth time on the surface morphology, length, diameters and phase structure of ZnO rods films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photocatalytic degradation of X6G an anionic monoazo dye, in aqueous solutions, was investigated and the effects of hydrothermal process time were examined. The results showed that the ZnO nonorods film hydrothermal treated for 4 h have a very high photocatalytic performance.

  18. Nanofabrication of arrays of silicon field emitters with vertical silicon nanowire current limiters and self-aligned gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrera, S. A.; Akinwande, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    We developed a fabrication process for embedding a dense array (108 cm-2) of high-aspect-ratio silicon nanowires (200 nm diameter and 10 μm tall) in a dielectric matrix and then structured/exposed the tips of the nanowires to form self-aligned gate field emitter arrays using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Using this structure, we demonstrated a high current density (100 A cm-2), uniform, and long lifetime (>100 h) silicon field emitter array architecture in which the current emitted by each tip is regulated by the silicon nanowire current limiter connected in series with the tip. Using the current voltage characteristics and with the aid of numerical device models, we estimated the tip radius of our field emission arrays to be ≈4.8 nm, as consistent with the tip radius measured using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  19. Nanofabrication of arrays of silicon field emitters with vertical silicon nanowire current limiters and self-aligned gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrera, S. A.; Akinwande, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    We developed a fabrication process for embedding a dense array (108 cm‑2) of high-aspect-ratio silicon nanowires (200 nm diameter and 10 μm tall) in a dielectric matrix and then structured/exposed the tips of the nanowires to form self-aligned gate field emitter arrays using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Using this structure, we demonstrated a high current density (100 A cm‑2), uniform, and long lifetime (>100 h) silicon field emitter array architecture in which the current emitted by each tip is regulated by the silicon nanowire current limiter connected in series with the tip. Using the current voltage characteristics and with the aid of numerical device models, we estimated the tip radius of our field emission arrays to be ≈4.8 nm, as consistent with the tip radius measured using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  20. Nanofabrication of arrays of silicon field emitters with vertical silicon nanowire current limiters and self-aligned gates.

    PubMed

    Guerrera, S A; Akinwande, A I

    2016-07-22

    We developed a fabrication process for embedding a dense array (10(8) cm(-2)) of high-aspect-ratio silicon nanowires (200 nm diameter and 10 μm tall) in a dielectric matrix and then structured/exposed the tips of the nanowires to form self-aligned gate field emitter arrays using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Using this structure, we demonstrated a high current density (100 A cm(-2)), uniform, and long lifetime (>100 h) silicon field emitter array architecture in which the current emitted by each tip is regulated by the silicon nanowire current limiter connected in series with the tip. Using the current voltage characteristics and with the aid of numerical device models, we estimated the tip radius of our field emission arrays to be ≈4.8 nm, as consistent with the tip radius measured using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). PMID:27292120

  1. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays Co-doped with Phosphorus and Nitrogen as Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dingshan; Xue, Yuhua; Dai, Liming

    2012-10-01

    Using a mixture of ferrocene, pyridine, and triphenylphosphine as precursors for injection-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD), we prepared the first vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube array co-doped with phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) with a relatively high P-doping level (designated as PN-ACNT). We have also demonstrated the potential applications of the resultant PN-ACNTs as high-performance electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). PN-ACNT arrays were shown to exhibit a high ORR electrocatalytic activity, superb long-term durability, and good tolerance to methanol and carbon monoxide, significantly outperforming their counterparts doped with P (P-ACNT) or N (N-ACNT) only and even comparable to the commercially available Pt-C catalyst (45 wt % Pt on Vulcan XC-72R; E-TEK) due to a demonstrated synergetic effect arising from the co-doping of CNTs with both P and N.

  2. Photoelectrochemical cell/dye-sensitized solar cell tandem water splitting systems with transparent and vertically aligned quantum dot sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kahee; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-01

    The present work reports fabrication of vertically aligned CdS sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on transparent conducting oxide substrate with high transparency as a photoanode in photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting. To realize an unassisted water splitting system, the photoanode and dye-sensitized solar cell tandem structures are tried and their electrochemical behaviors are also investigated. The hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays followed by CdS nanoparticle decoration can improve the light absorption of long wavelength light resulting in increased photocurrent density. Two different techniques (electrodeposition and spray pyrolysis deposition) of CdS nanoparticle sensitization are carried out and their water splitting behaviors in the tandem cell are compared.

  3. Self-aligned process for forming microlenses at the tips of vertical silicon nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Yaping Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2015-01-01

    The microlens is a key enabling technology in optoelectronics, permitting light to be efficiently coupled to and from devices such as image sensors and light-emitting diodes. Their ubiquitous nature motivates the development of new fabrication techniques, since existing methods face challenges as microlenses are scaled to smaller dimensions. Here, the authors demonstrate the formation of microlenses at the tips of vertically oriented silicon nanowires via a rapid atomic layer deposition process. The nature of the process is such that the microlenses are centered on the nanowires, and there is a self-limiting effect on the final sizes of the microlenses arising from the nanowire spacing. Finite difference time domain electromagnetic simulations are performed of microlens focusing properties, including showing their ability to enhance visible-wavelength absorption in silicon nanowires.

  4. Island nucleation, optical and ferromagnetic properties of vertically aligned secondary growth ZnO : Cu nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Zhu, Liping; Hu, Liang; Liu, Shijiang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Honghai; Yang, Xiaopeng; Sun, Luwei; Li, Dehui; Ye, Zhizhen

    2012-02-01

    The paper reports an island nucleation and secondary growth of aligned ZnO : Cu nanorod arrays via thermal vapor phase transport. Results analysis indicates that the secondary segment is epitaxially grown on the ZnO : Cu nanorods with the radius strongly dependent on temperature and the concentration of zinc vapor. The modified characteristic radius (Rc) model is used to explain the nucleation and secondary growth process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra indicate that the band gap emission of the secondary growth nanorods is greatly restrained. A controversial 3.31 eV emission (A line) and two different donor-acceptor pair (DAP) recombinations at 3.24 eV and 2.48 eV are observed at 13 K. The A line shows a different behavior from the two DAP emissions during the heat-up process. Intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) is observed in the secondary growth ZnO : Cu nanorods and it can be explained by oxygen vacancy and copper defects related to bound magnetic polar (BMP) or double exchange mechanism.The paper reports an island nucleation and secondary growth of aligned ZnO : Cu nanorod arrays via thermal vapor phase transport. Results analysis indicates that the secondary segment is epitaxially grown on the ZnO : Cu nanorods with the radius strongly dependent on temperature and the concentration of zinc vapor. The modified characteristic radius (Rc) model is used to explain the nucleation and secondary growth process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra indicate that the band gap emission of the secondary growth nanorods is greatly restrained. A controversial 3.31 eV emission (A line) and two different donor-acceptor pair (DAP) recombinations at 3.24 eV and 2.48 eV are observed at 13 K. The A line shows a different behavior from the two DAP emissions during the heat-up process. Intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) is observed in the secondary growth ZnO : Cu nanorods and it can be explained by oxygen vacancy and copper

  5. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods via self-assembled spray pyrolyzed nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Charu; Dutta, V.

    2012-03-01

    Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods are fabricated on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates via self-assembly of ZnO nanoparticles created using continuous spray pyrolysis (CoSP) technique. The method involves pre-treatment by dip-coating the substrate with a solution comprising of zinc salt for creating a seed layer, and then spray-pyrolyzed ZnO nanoparticles self-assemble on the pre-treated substrate. The effect of the substrate pre-treatment and the deposition time (tdep) of nanoparticles is investigated. The results show that the substrate pre-treatment influences the growth of ZnO nanorods which are absent without the pre-treatment. Nanoparticle collection and nanorod growth on different substrates are done simultaneously. The thin films of as-grown nanorods are used as photoelectrode materials to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the effect of nanorods grown for different times has been studied. The best performance with this cell structure is found for the layer with tdep=15 min, which showed a conversion efficiency of 1.77% for the cell area of 0.25 cm2.

  6. Facile construction of vertically aligned EuS-ZnO hybrid core shell nanorod arrays for visible light driven photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjith, K. S.; Kumar, D. Ranjith; Kumar, R. T. Rajendra

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrated the development of coupled semiconductor in the form of hybrid heterostructures for significant advancement in catalytic functional materials. In this article, we report the preparation of vertically aligned core shell ZnO-EuS nanorod photocatalyst arrays by a simple chemical solution process followed by sulfudation process. The XRD pattern confirmed formation of the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and cubic nature of the EuS. Cross sectional FESEM images show vertical rod array structure, and the size of the nanorods ranges from 80 to 120 nm. UV-Vis DRS spectra showed that the optical absorption of ZnO was significantly enhanced to the visible region by modification with EuS surfaces. TEM study confirmed that the surface of ZnO was drastically improved by the modification with EuS nanoparticle. The catalytic activity of EuS−ZnO core shell nanorod arrays were evaluated by the photodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye under visible irradiation. The results revealed that the photocatalytic activity of EuS−ZnO was much higher than that of ZnO under natural sunlight. EuS−ZnO was found to be stable and reusable without appreciable loss of catalytic activity up to four consecutive cycles.

  7. Solvent-Assisted Oxygen Incorporation of Vertically Aligned MoS2 Ultrathin Nanosheets Decorated on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Improved Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aiping; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Junma; Lin, Liangxu; Wu, Huaping

    2016-09-28

    Three-dimensional oxygen-incorporated MoS2 ultrathin nanosheets decorated on reduced graphene oxide (O-MoS2/rGO) had been successfully fabricated through a facile solvent-assisted hydrothermal method. The origin of the incorporated oxygen and its incorporation mechanism into MoS2 were carefully investigated. We found that the solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was the key as the reducing agent and the oxygen donor, expanding interlayer spaces and improving intrinsic conductivity of MoS2 sheets (modulating its electronic structure and vertical edge sites). These O dopants, vertically aligned edges and decoration with rGO gave effectively improved double-layer capacitance and catalytic performance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) of MoS2. The prepared O-MoS2/rGO catalysts showed an exceptional small Tafel slope of 40 mV/decade, a high current density of 20 mA/cm(2) at the overpotential of 200 mV and remarkable stability even after 2000th continuous HER test in the acid media.

  8. Solvent-Assisted Oxygen Incorporation of Vertically Aligned MoS2 Ultrathin Nanosheets Decorated on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Improved Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aiping; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Junma; Lin, Liangxu; Wu, Huaping

    2016-09-28

    Three-dimensional oxygen-incorporated MoS2 ultrathin nanosheets decorated on reduced graphene oxide (O-MoS2/rGO) had been successfully fabricated through a facile solvent-assisted hydrothermal method. The origin of the incorporated oxygen and its incorporation mechanism into MoS2 were carefully investigated. We found that the solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was the key as the reducing agent and the oxygen donor, expanding interlayer spaces and improving intrinsic conductivity of MoS2 sheets (modulating its electronic structure and vertical edge sites). These O dopants, vertically aligned edges and decoration with rGO gave effectively improved double-layer capacitance and catalytic performance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) of MoS2. The prepared O-MoS2/rGO catalysts showed an exceptional small Tafel slope of 40 mV/decade, a high current density of 20 mA/cm(2) at the overpotential of 200 mV and remarkable stability even after 2000th continuous HER test in the acid media. PMID:27599679

  9. Effective Infiltration of Gel Polymer Electrolyte into Silicon-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers as Anodes for Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Gaind P; Klankowski, Steven A; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Wu, Judy; Rojeski, Ronald A; Li, Jun

    2015-09-23

    This study demonstrates the full infiltration of gel polymer electrolyte into silicon-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (Si-VACNFs), a high-capacity 3D nanostructured anode, and the electrochemical characterization of its properties as an effective electrolyte/separator for future all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Two fabrication methods have been employed to form a stable interface between the gel polymer electrolyte and the Si-VACNF anode. In the first method, the drop-casted gel polymer electrolyte is able to fully infiltrate into the open space between the vertically aligned core-shell nanofibers and encapsulate/stabilize each individual nanofiber in the polymer matrix. The 3D nanostructured Si-VACNF anode shows a very high capacity of 3450 mAh g(-1) at C/10.5 (or 0.36 A g(-1)) rate and 1732 mAh g(-1) at 1C (or 3.8 A g(-1)) rate. In the second method, a preformed gel electrolyte film is sandwiched between an Si-VACNF electrode and a Li foil to form a half-cell. Most of the vertical core-shell nanofibers of the Si-VACNF anode are able to penetrate into the gel polymer film while retaining their structural integrity. The slightly lower capacity of 2800 mAh g(-1) at C/11 rate and ∼1070 mAh g(-1) at C/1.5 (or 2.6 A g(-1)) rate have been obtained, with almost no capacity fade for up to 100 cycles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy does not show noticeable changes after 110 cycles, further revealing the stable interface between the gel polymer electrolyte and the Si-VACNFs anode. These results show that the infiltrated flexible gel polymer electrolyte can effectively accommodate the stress/strain of the Si shell due to the large volume expansion/contraction during the charge-discharge processes, which is particularly useful for developing future flexible solid-state lithium-ion batteries incorporating Si-anodes.

  10. Vertically aligned nanostructured TiO2 photoelectrodes for high efficiency perovskite solar cells via a block copolymer template approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Myung-Seok; Jeong, Inyoung; Park, Joon-Suh; Lee, Jinwoo; Han, Il Ki; Lee, Wan In; Son, Hae Jung; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Ko, Min Jae

    2016-06-01

    We fabricated perovskite solar cells with enhanced device efficiency based on vertically oriented TiO2 nanostructures using a nanoporous template of block copolymers (BCPs). The dimension and shape controllability of the nanopores of the BCP template allowed for the construction of one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanorods and two-dimensional (2-D) TiO2 nanowalls. The TiO2 nanorod-based perovskite solar cells showed a more efficient charge separation and a lower charge recombination, leading to better performance compared to TiO2 nanowall-based solar cells. The best solar cells employing 1-D TiO2 nanorods showed an efficiency of 15.5% with VOC = 1.02 V, JSC = 20.0 mA cm-2 and fill factor = 76.1%. Thus, TiO2 nanostructures fabricated from BCP nanotemplates could be applied to the preparation of electron transport layers for improving the efficiency of perovskite solar cells.We fabricated perovskite solar cells with enhanced device efficiency based on vertically oriented TiO2 nanostructures using a nanoporous template of block copolymers (BCPs). The dimension and shape controllability of the nanopores of the BCP template allowed for the construction of one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanorods and two-dimensional (2-D) TiO2 nanowalls. The TiO2 nanorod-based perovskite solar cells showed a more efficient charge separation and a lower charge recombination, leading to better performance compared to TiO2 nanowall-based solar cells. The best solar cells employing 1-D TiO2 nanorods showed an efficiency of 15.5% with VOC = 1.02 V, JSC = 20.0 mA cm-2 and fill factor = 76.1%. Thus, TiO2 nanostructures fabricated from BCP nanotemplates could be applied to the preparation of electron transport layers for improving the efficiency of perovskite solar cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01010e

  11. Effect of Time Lapse on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Detection of Vertical Root Fractures.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Amir; Asl, Amin Mahdavi; Jalalzadeh, Mohsen; Tayari, Maryam; Hosseinipanah, Mohammad; Fardmal, Javad; Shokri, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis of vertical root fractures (VRFs) is imperative to prevent extensive bone loss and unnecessary endodontic and prosthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time lapse on the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for VRFs in endodontically treated dog's teeth. Forty-eight incisors and premolars of three adult male dogs underwent root canal therapy. The teeth were assigned to two groups: VRFs were artificially induced in the first group (n=24) while the teeth in the second group remained intact (n=24). The CBCT scans were obtained by NewTom 3G unit immediately after inducing VRFs and after one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists blinded to the date of radiographs assessed the presence/absence of VRFs on CBCT scans. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values were calculated and data were analyzed using SPSS v.16 software and ANOVA. The total accuracy of detection of VRFs immediately after surgery, one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks was 67.3%, 68.7%, 66.6%, 64.6%, 64.5%, 69.4%, 68.7%, 68% respectively. The effect of time lapse on detection of VRFs was not significant (p>0.05). Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CBCT for detection of VRFs were 74.3%, 62.2%, 67.2% respectively. Cone beam computed tomography is a valuable tool for detection of VRFs. Time lapse (four months) had no effect on detection of VRFs on CBCT scans. PMID:27007339

  12. Effect of Time Lapse on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Detection of Vertical Root Fractures.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Amir; Asl, Amin Mahdavi; Jalalzadeh, Mohsen; Tayari, Maryam; Hosseinipanah, Mohammad; Fardmal, Javad; Shokri, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis of vertical root fractures (VRFs) is imperative to prevent extensive bone loss and unnecessary endodontic and prosthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time lapse on the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for VRFs in endodontically treated dog's teeth. Forty-eight incisors and premolars of three adult male dogs underwent root canal therapy. The teeth were assigned to two groups: VRFs were artificially induced in the first group (n=24) while the teeth in the second group remained intact (n=24). The CBCT scans were obtained by NewTom 3G unit immediately after inducing VRFs and after one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists blinded to the date of radiographs assessed the presence/absence of VRFs on CBCT scans. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values were calculated and data were analyzed using SPSS v.16 software and ANOVA. The total accuracy of detection of VRFs immediately after surgery, one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks was 67.3%, 68.7%, 66.6%, 64.6%, 64.5%, 69.4%, 68.7%, 68% respectively. The effect of time lapse on detection of VRFs was not significant (p>0.05). Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CBCT for detection of VRFs were 74.3%, 62.2%, 67.2% respectively. Cone beam computed tomography is a valuable tool for detection of VRFs. Time lapse (four months) had no effect on detection of VRFs on CBCT scans.

  13. Controllable vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using chemical bath deposition synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabannia, R.; Abu Hassan, H.

    2014-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were successfully grown on polyethylene naphthalate substrates with a seed layer using a wet chemical bath deposition method at a low temperature. Using various precursor concentrations, the diameter, length, and density of the ZnO nanorods were controlled, and their optical and crystallinity properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the structure and morphology of the ZnO nanorods. The obtained ZnO nanorods were hexagonal and grew vertically from the substrate in the (002) direction along the c-axis. The low compressive strain values confirmed the high-quality crystal structure of the synthesized ZnO nanorods. A 0.050 M precursor concentration resulted in nanorods with a uniform diameter along their entire length and diameters ranging from 10 nm to 40 nm. The photoluminescence results indicated that the ZnO nanorods grown using a 0.050 M precursor concentration exhibited the sharpest and most intense PL peaks in the UV range compared with the other samples. Therefore, the precursor concentration considerably influenced the growth of the ZnO nanorods. These ZnO nanorods can be greatly applied for the development of flexible, elastic electronic, and optoelectronic devices.

  14. Vertically aligned nanostructured TiO2 photoelectrodes for high efficiency perovskite solar cells via a block copolymer template approach.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myung-Seok; Jeong, Inyoung; Park, Joon-Suh; Lee, Jinwoo; Han, Il Ki; Lee, Wan In; Son, Hae Jung; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Ko, Min Jae

    2016-06-01

    We fabricated perovskite solar cells with enhanced device efficiency based on vertically oriented TiO2 nanostructures using a nanoporous template of block copolymers (BCPs). The dimension and shape controllability of the nanopores of the BCP template allowed for the construction of one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanorods and two-dimensional (2-D) TiO2 nanowalls. The TiO2 nanorod-based perovskite solar cells showed a more efficient charge separation and a lower charge recombination, leading to better performance compared to TiO2 nanowall-based solar cells. The best solar cells employing 1-D TiO2 nanorods showed an efficiency of 15.5% with VOC = 1.02 V, JSC = 20.0 mA cm(-2) and fill factor = 76.1%. Thus, TiO2 nanostructures fabricated from BCP nanotemplates could be applied to the preparation of electron transport layers for improving the efficiency of perovskite solar cells.

  15. Electrochemical preparation of vertically aligned, hollow CdSe nanotubes and their p-n junction hybrids with electrodeposited Cu2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debgupta, Joyashish; Devarapalli, Ramireddy; Rahman, Shakeelur; Shelke, Manjusha V.; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K.

    2014-07-01

    Vertically aligned, hollow nanotubes of CdSe are grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates by ZnO nanowire template-assisted electrodeposition technique, followed by selective removal of the ZnO core using NH4OH. A detailed mechanism of nucleation and anisotropic growth kinetics of nanotubes have been studied by a combination of characterization tools such as chronoamperometry, SEM and TEM. Interestingly, ``as grown'' CdSe nanotubes (CdSe NTs) on FTO coated glass plates behave as n-type semiconductors exhibiting an excellent photo-response (with a generated photocurrent density value of ~470 μA cm-2) while in contact with p-type Cu2O (p-type semiconductor, grown separately on FTO plates) because of the formation of a n-p heterojunction (type II). The observed photoresponse is 3 times higher than that of a similar device prepared with electrodeposited CdSe films (not nanotubes) and Cu2O on FTO. This has been attributed to the hollow 1-D nature of CdSe NTs, which provides enhanced inner and outer surface areas for better absorption of light and also assists faster transport of photogenerated charge carriers.Vertically aligned, hollow nanotubes of CdSe are grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates by ZnO nanowire template-assisted electrodeposition technique, followed by selective removal of the ZnO core using NH4OH. A detailed mechanism of nucleation and anisotropic growth kinetics of nanotubes have been studied by a combination of characterization tools such as chronoamperometry, SEM and TEM. Interestingly, ``as grown'' CdSe nanotubes (CdSe NTs) on FTO coated glass plates behave as n-type semiconductors exhibiting an excellent photo-response (with a generated photocurrent density value of ~470 μA cm-2) while in contact with p-type Cu2O (p-type semiconductor, grown separately on FTO plates) because of the formation of a n-p heterojunction (type II). The observed photoresponse is 3 times higher than that of a similar

  16. Facile template-free synthesis of vertically aligned polypyrrole nanosheets on nickel foams for flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiangwen; Lin, Zhixing; Zheng, Jingxu; Huang, Yingjuan; Chen, Bin; Mai, Yiyong; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a novel and remarkably facile approach towards vertically aligned nanosheets on three-dimensional (3D) Ni foams. Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) sheets were grown on Ni foam through the volatilization of the environmentally friendly solvent from an ethanol-water solution of pyrrole (Py), followed by the polymerization of the coated Py in ammonium persulfate (APS) solution. The PPy-decorated Ni foams and commercial activated carbon (AC) modified Ni foams were employed as the two electrodes for the assembly of flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The sheet-like structure of PPy and the macroporous feature of the Ni foam, which render large electrode-electrolyte interfaces, resulted in good capacitive performance of the supercapacitors. Moreover, a high energy density of ca. 14 Wh kg-1 and a high power density of 6.2 kW kg-1 were achieved for the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors due to the wide cell voltage window.This paper reports a novel and remarkably facile approach towards vertically aligned nanosheets on three-dimensional (3D) Ni foams. Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) sheets were grown on Ni foam through the volatilization of the environmentally friendly solvent from an ethanol-water solution of pyrrole (Py), followed by the polymerization of the coated Py in ammonium persulfate (APS) solution. The PPy-decorated Ni foams and commercial activated carbon (AC) modified Ni foams were employed as the two electrodes for the assembly of flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The sheet-like structure of PPy and the macroporous feature of the Ni foam, which render large electrode-electrolyte interfaces, resulted in good capacitive performance of the supercapacitors. Moreover, a high energy density of ca. 14 Wh kg-1 and a high power density of 6.2 kW kg-1 were achieved for the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors due to the wide cell voltage window. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ESI

  17. Comparison of periapical radiography with cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of vertical root fractures in teeth with metallic post

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Sabio, Sergio; Albino, Paulo Ricardo Febrairo

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting vertical root fracture (VRF) in tooth with metallic post (MP). Materials and Methods: Twenty endodontically-treated teeth received MPs, artificial fractures were created in 10 teeth, and they were all examined with tomography and radiography. The sample consisted of periapical radiography with post and without post, and tomography with post and without post; each group with five fractured and five non-fractured teeth. The images were evaluated by three dental/maxillofacial radiologists and statistical validations were carried out using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of the area under the ROC (Az) of tomography with post (Az = 0.953) and without post (Az = 0.956) were significantly higher than those of periapical radiography with post (Az = 0.753) and without post (Az = 0.778). Conclusion: CBCT was more accurate than conventional periapical radiography in detecting VRF. PMID:24944444

  18. Vertically Aligned Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Carpet Electrodes: Highly Sensitive Interfaces for the Analysis of Serum from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Subramanian, Palaniappan; Schechter, Alex; Teblum, Eti; Yemini, Reut; Nessim, Gilbert Daniel; Vasilescu, Alina; Li, Musen; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-04-20

    The number of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The development of noninvasive tests that are rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple would allow preventing patient discomfort, delay in diagnosis, and the follow-up of the status of the disease. Herein, we show the interest of vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (VA-NCNT) electrodes for the required sensitive electrochemical detection of lysozyme in serum, a protein that is up-regulated in IBD. To achieve selective lysozyme detection, biotinylated lysozyme aptamers were covalently immobilized onto the VA-NCNTs. Detection of lysozyme in serum was achieved by measuring the decrease in the peak current of the Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) redox couple by differential pulse voltammetry upon addition of the analyte. We achieved a detection limit as low as 100 fM with a linear range up to 7 pM, in line with the required demands for the determination of lysozyme level in patients suffering from IBD. We attained the sensitive detection of biomarkers in clinical samples of healthy patients and individuals suffering from IBD and compared the results to a classical turbidimetric assay. The results clearly indicate that the newly developed sensor allows for a reliable and efficient analysis of lysozyme in serum.

  19. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Johnen, Sandra; Meißner, Frank; Krug, Mario; Baltz, Thomas; Endler, Ingolf; Mokwa, Wilfried; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe) or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt) and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti) acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28) cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue. PMID:27200182

  20. Small-scale field-aligned currents and ionospheric disturbances induced by vertical acoustic resonance during the 2015 eruption of Chile's Calbuco volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, T.; Iyemori, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Nishioka, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wave packet structure of small-scale magnetic fluctuations were observed by SWARM satellites just above the volcano and it's magnetic conjugate point after the eruption of Chile's Calbuco volcano on April 22, 2015. These magnetic fluctuations in low and middle latitudes generated by small-scale field aligned currents (FACs), and have about 10-30 seconds period along the satellites' orbit [Nakanishi et al., 2014] and about 200 (340) seconds temporal scale for meridional (longitudinal) magnetic components [Iyemori et al., 2015]. We also observed ionospheric disturbances and ground geomagnetic fluctuations just after the eruption. The 4-min period oscillations of total electron content (TEC) were observed by GPS receivers near the volcano. The 260 and 215 seconds spectral peaks in D component of ground based geomagnetic observation were found. Such oscillations and spectral peaks didn't exist before the eruption. All of these observations may have the same origin, i.e., vertical acoustic resonance between the ionosphere and the ground. In this presentation, we estimate the propagation velocity of the TEC oscillations and the spatial scale of the disturbance region in the E-layer where the FACs are generated by the ionospheric dynamo.

  1. Film fabrication of Fe or Fe3O4 nanoparticles mixed with palmitic acid for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth using Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kentaro; Kuriyama, Naoki; Takagiwa, Shota; Sato, Taiga; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) were studied as a new catalyst support for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Controlling the number density and the diameter of VA-CNTs may be necessary to optimize PEFC performance. As the catalyst for CNT growth, we fabricated Fe or Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP) films by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The catalyst Fe or Fe3O4 NPs were widely separated by mixing with filler molecules [palmitic acid (C16)]. The number density of VA-CNTs was controlled by varying the ratio of catalyst NPs to C16 filler molecules. The VA-CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst NP-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using acetylene gas as the carbon source. The developing solvents used in the LB technique and the hydrogen reduction conditions of CVD were optimized to improve the VA-CNT growth rate. We demonstrate that the proposed method can independently control both the density and the diameter of VA-CNTs.

  2. Vertically Aligned Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube Carpet Electrodes: Highly Sensitive Interfaces for the Analysis of Serum from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Subramanian, Palaniappan; Schechter, Alex; Teblum, Eti; Yemini, Reut; Nessim, Gilbert Daniel; Vasilescu, Alina; Li, Musen; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-04-20

    The number of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The development of noninvasive tests that are rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple would allow preventing patient discomfort, delay in diagnosis, and the follow-up of the status of the disease. Herein, we show the interest of vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (VA-NCNT) electrodes for the required sensitive electrochemical detection of lysozyme in serum, a protein that is up-regulated in IBD. To achieve selective lysozyme detection, biotinylated lysozyme aptamers were covalently immobilized onto the VA-NCNTs. Detection of lysozyme in serum was achieved by measuring the decrease in the peak current of the Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) redox couple by differential pulse voltammetry upon addition of the analyte. We achieved a detection limit as low as 100 fM with a linear range up to 7 pM, in line with the required demands for the determination of lysozyme level in patients suffering from IBD. We attained the sensitive detection of biomarkers in clinical samples of healthy patients and individuals suffering from IBD and compared the results to a classical turbidimetric assay. The results clearly indicate that the newly developed sensor allows for a reliable and efficient analysis of lysozyme in serum. PMID:27015265

  3. Structural and optical properties of dense vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grown onto silver and gold thin films by galvanic effect with iron contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpellini, D.; Paoloni, S.; Medaglia, P.G.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Orsini, A.; Falconi, C.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorods were grown on Au and Ag films in aqueous solution by galvanic effect. • The method is prone to metal contamination which can influence the ZnO properties. • Iron doping improves the lattice matching between ZnO and the substrate. • Energy levels of point defects are lowered and the light emission is red-shifted. • Galvanic-induced nucleation starts and proceeds continuously during the growth. - Abstract: Dense arrays of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods have been grown onto either silver or gold seedless substrates trough a simple hydrothermal method by exploiting the galvanic effect between the substrate and metallic parts. The nanorods exhibit larger bases and more defined hexagonal shapes, in comparison with standard non-galvanic wet-chemistry synthesis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the iron contamination, associated with the galvanic contact, significantly improves the in-plane compatibility of ZnO with the Au and Ag cubic lattice. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicate that the contamination does not affect the number density of localized defects, but lowers their energy levels uniformly; differently, the band-edge emission is not altered appreciably. Finally, we have found that the ZnO hetero-nucleation by galvanic effect initiates at different times in different sites of the substrate area. Our results can be useful for the fabrication of high performance piezonanodevices comprising high-density metal-to-ZnO nanoscaled junctions without intermediate polycrystalline layers.

  4. Controllable growth of vertically aligned Bi-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays for all-oxide solid-state DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asemi, Morteza; Ghanaatshoar, Majid

    2016-09-01

    In this study, vertically aligned Bi-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays as photoanodes were successfully grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide by hydrothermal method. Structural analysis showed that bismuth was successfully incorporated into the TiO2 lattice at low concentration, but at higher concentration, phase segregation of Bi2O3 in the TiO2 matrix was occurred. TiO2 nanorods with 3 % bismuth concentration had minimum electrical resistivity. As the solid-state electrolyte, Mg-doped CuCrO2 nanoparticles with p-type conductivity were synthesized by sol-gel method. The fabricated all-oxide solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with Bi-doped TiO2 nanorods displayed better photovoltaic performance due to the presence of Bi. The improved cell performance was correlated with the higher dye loading, slower charge recombination rate and the higher electrical conductivity of the photoanodes. After mechanical pressing, the all-oxide solid-state DSSC exhibited enhanced photovoltaic performance due to the formation of the large neck between adjacent nanoparticles by mechanical sintering. The open-circuit photovoltage decay measurement of the devices and electrical conductivity of the nanoparticles before and after pressing revealed that the mechanical pressing technique reduces charge recombination rate and facilitates electron transport through the interconnected nanoparticles.

  5. Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nanomolar levels of atorvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical and biological samples using a vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide electrode.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tiago Almeida; Zanin, Hudson; Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Corat, Evaldo José; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-06-01

    A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide (VACNT-GO) electrode is proposed, and its ability to determine atorvastatin calcium (ATOR) in pharmaceutical and biological samples by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV) is evaluated. VACNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method and then treated with oxygen plasma to produce the VACNT-GO electrode. The oxygen plasma treatment exfoliates the carbon nanotube tips exposing graphene foils and inserting oxygen functional groups, these effects improved the VACNT wettability (super-hydrophobic) which is crucial for its electrochemical application. The electrochemical behaviour of ATOR on the VACNT-GO electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry, which showed that it underwent an irreversible oxidation process at a potential of +1.08 V in pHcond 2.0 (0.2 mol L(-1) buffer phosphate solution). By applying DPAdSV under optimized experimental conditions the analytical curve was found to be linear in the ATOR concentration range of 90 to 3.81 × 10(3) nmol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 9.4 nmol L(-1). The proposed DPAdSV method was successfully applied in the determination of ATOR in pharmaceutical and biological samples, and the results were in close agreement with those obtained by a comparative spectrophotometric method at a confidence level of 95%.

  6. Effect of ion bombardment on the synthesis of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Lim, Sanhua; You, Yumeng; Miao, Jianmin; Gong, Hao; Zhang, Jixuan; Wang, Shanzhong; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Zexiang

    2008-06-25

    The synthesis of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was achieved at 500-600 °C, using ethylene as the carbon source and 1 nm Fe film as the catalyst. For growth of high-quality VA-SWNTs in a plasma sheath, it is crucial to alleviate the undesirable ion bombardment etching effects by the optimization of plasma input power and gas pressure. The resistibility of synthesized VA-SWNTs against ion bombardment etching was found to be closely related to the growth temperature. At relatively low temperature (500 °C), the VA-SWNTs were very susceptible to ion bombardments, which could induce structural defects, and even resulted in a structural transition to few-walled nanotubes. For capacitively coupled radio frequency (rf) PECVD operating at moderate gas pressure (0.3-10 Torr), the ion bombardment etching effect is mainly dependent on the ion flux, which is related to the plasma input power and gas pressure. PMID:21828659

  7. Damage free PECVD based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma and application to high-purity vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Kuma; Okazaki, Ken

    2007-10-01

    We developed atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesis, in which both ion-damage and radical-damage are preferentially avoided in atmospheric pressure [1]. In this study, we performed on-line gas analysis using quadrupole mass spectrometer. A metallic capillary tube (O.D. 450 μm) was inserted into the cathodic sheath (thickness: 900 μm) and reacting gas was extracted for real-time gas analysis. The result revealed the main product was C2H6, but CNTs were missing in the C2H6 thermal CVD. Ionic species such as CH4+ would have to be abundant reactive species in the plasma sheath. Those species are believed to once absorb on CNT surface and then migrated towards catalyst particles which are anchored on a substrate. We also studied the effect of total pressure. The D/G Raman peak ratios increased as total pressure decreased from 100 kPa to 20 kPa, although ion damage is neglected in this pressure range. Excessive supply of reactive species simultaneously formed amorphous carbon network that ultimately deteriorate CNT quality. [1] T Nozaki et al. Carbon, 45, 364-374 (2007)

  8. Effect of ion bombardment on the synthesis of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Lim, Sanhua; You, Yumeng; Miao, Jianmin; Gong, Hao; Zhang, Jixuan; Wang, Shanzhong; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Zexiang

    2008-06-01

    The synthesis of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was achieved at 500-600 °C, using ethylene as the carbon source and 1 nm Fe film as the catalyst. For growth of high-quality VA-SWNTs in a plasma sheath, it is crucial to alleviate the undesirable ion bombardment etching effects by the optimization of plasma input power and gas pressure. The resistibility of synthesized VA-SWNTs against ion bombardment etching was found to be closely related to the growth temperature. At relatively low temperature (500 °C), the VA-SWNTs were very susceptible to ion bombardments, which could induce structural defects, and even resulted in a structural transition to few-walled nanotubes. For capacitively coupled radio frequency (rf) PECVD operating at moderate gas pressure (0.3-10 Torr), the ion bombardment etching effect is mainly dependent on the ion flux, which is related to the plasma input power and gas pressure.

  9. Facile template-free synthesis of vertically aligned polypyrrole nanosheets on nickel foams for flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiangwen; Lin, Zhixing; Zheng, Jingxu; Huang, Yingjuan; Chen, Bin; Mai, Yiyong; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-04-28

    This paper reports a novel and remarkably facile approach towards vertically aligned nanosheets on three-dimensional (3D) Ni foams. Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) sheets were grown on Ni foam through the volatilization of the environmentally friendly solvent from an ethanol-water solution of pyrrole (Py), followed by the polymerization of the coated Py in ammonium persulfate (APS) solution. The PPy-decorated Ni foams and commercial activated carbon (AC) modified Ni foams were employed as the two electrodes for the assembly of flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The sheet-like structure of PPy and the macroporous feature of the Ni foam, which render large electrode-electrolyte interfaces, resulted in good capacitive performance of the supercapacitors. Moreover, a high energy density of ca. 14 Wh kg(-1) and a high power density of 6.2 kW kg(-1) were achieved for the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors due to the wide cell voltage window. PMID:27050711

  10. Ni foam supported three-dimensional vertically aligned and networked layered CoO nanosheet/graphene hybrid array as a high-performance oxygen evolution electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Weiyong; Zhao, Ming; Yuan, Jia; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-07-01

    The sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) represents a major kinetic bottleneck in water splitting. Herein we report the synthesis of a novel Ni foam (NF) supported 3-D vertically aligned and interconnected layered CoO nanosheet array with controlled density, layer thickness, and interlayer spacing, and the conformal self-assembly of graphene on this nanosheet array. The obtained CoO layered nanosheet/graphene hybrid nanoarray was directly used as an OER electrode, showing a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 330 mV and a Tafel slope of 79 mV dec-1, both of which are much lower than pristine NF and the nanosheet array without graphene, and are among the lowest reported for Co-based OER catalysts and transition metal oxide-based ones measured under the same conditions. In addition, it can retain 92.4% of the current density after 66 h of chronoamperometry testing at a potential of 1.0 V vs. SCE, and 94.3% of the current density at 1.0 V vs. SCE after 200 cyclic voltammetry cycles (0-1.0 V vs. SCE). The excellent catalytic activity and stability toward OER are ascribed to the 3-D NF supported robustly grown networked layered nanosheet array structure and the synergistic effects between CoO layered nanosheets and graphene.

  11. In Vitro Comparison of Cone Beam Computed Tomography with Digital Periapical Radiography for Detection of Vertical Root Fracture in Posterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Razavian, Hamid; Jenabi, Nastaran

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The diagnosis of vertical root fracture (VRF) is a challenging task. Purpose This in vitro study compared cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging with digital periapical radiography (DPR) made by three different horizontal angels (20°mesial, 0° and 20° distal) for accurate diagnosis of VRF. Materials and Method Among 120 posterior teeth included in this study, 60 were vertically fractured. Fractured and non-fractured teeth were randomly distributed into three groups defined as group 1 with no filling in the root canal, group 2 with gutta-percha in the canal, and group 3 with the intracanal post. All samples were placed in a dry mandible and imaged with CBCT and DPR techniques. Two blind observers investigated the images. Results CBCT had higher sensitivity but lower specificity compared with DPR, except for the intracanal post group in which the sensitivity of DPR was higher; though the chi-square test showed the differences to be statistically insignificant. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CBCT and DPR were reduced in the cases that gutta-percha or post were present in the canal. Inter-observer agreement was higher for CBCT. A set of three DPRs with different horizontal angels were significantly more sensitive for VRF recognition than a single orthogonal DPR. Conclusion Based on our results, there was no significant difference between CBCT and a set of three DPRs with different angulations for VRF detection in posterior teeth. Therefore, it is suggested to consider DPRs with three different horizontal angels (20°mesial, 0° and 20° distal) for radiographic evaluation before CBCT examination. PMID:27284552

  12. Fluid leakage through fractures in an impervious caprock embedded between two geologic aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvadurai, A. P. S.

    2012-06-01

    The paper develops an analytical result for the flow through a single fracture under a hydraulic gradient between the two aquifer regions and takes into account permeability characteristics of all components of the system. Non-dimensional results are presented to illustrate the influence of the permeability mis-match between the two geologic formations and the permeability and geometry of the fracture on the flow rate through the fracture. The analytical result is then used to develop additional results for leakage through a swarm of vertically aligned hydraulically non-interacting fractures and a damaged region containing a densely spaced array of vertically aligned fractures and worm hole type features in the caprock. The work presents a convenient result for the estimation of leakage from storage formations in geoenvironmental applications.

  13. Multi-offset vertical seismic profiles: fracture and fault identification for Appalachian basin reservoirs - two case examples

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Bennett, B.A.; Walsh, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    Many Appalachian basin reservoirs occur in older rocks that are commonly fractured and faulted. These fractures and faults very often act as the reservoir trapping mechanism, especially in lithologies with no log-detectable matrix porosity. Traditional logging techniques, although possibly showing fault or fracture presence in the well bore, seldom provide clues to the extent of fracturing or location of nearby faults. Surface seismic data should show faults and perhaps even fracturing, but showing these features is often not possible in rugged terrain or in areas with thick coverings of unconsolidated surface material. Traditional seismic also has resolutions lower than that needed to detect small faults (less than 70 ft). Two case examples are shown from the northern Appalachian basin. The first example utilizes Schlumberger's slim hole seismic tool in cased holes in an area of thick unconsolidated glacial material along the Bass Island trend of western New York. The second example utilizes Schlumberger's SAT tool in an open-hole environment in an area of northwestern Pennsylvania with disturbed surface bedding and poor conventional surface seismic returns. The slim hole tool provides good data but with only slightly greater resolution than surface Vibroseis data. The SAT tool provides excellent resolution (down to 25 ft) in highly disturbed bedding.

  14. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    PubMed

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO/Al2O3 double layers on vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays.

    PubMed

    Malek, Gary A; Brown, Emery; Klankowski, Steven A; Liu, Jianwei; Elliot, Alan J; Lu, Rongtao; Li, Jun; Wu, Judy

    2014-05-14

    High-aspect-ratio, vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) were conformally coated with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to produce a three-dimensional array of metal-insulator-metal core-shell nanostructures. Prefunctionalization before ALD, as required for initiating covalent bonding on a carbon nanotube surface, was eliminated on VACNFs due to the graphitic edges along the surface of each CNF. The graphitic edges provided ideal nucleation sites under sequential exposures of H2O and trimethylaluminum to form an Al2O3 coating up to 20 nm in thickness. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the conformal core-shell AZO/Al2O3/CNF structures while energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified the elemental composition of the different layers. HRTEM selected area electron diffraction revealed that the as-made Al2O3 by ALD at 200 °C was amorphous, and then, after annealing in air at 450 °C for 30 min, was converted to polycrystalline form. Nevertheless, comparable dielectric constants of 9.3 were obtained in both cases by cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 1000 V/s. The conformal core-shell AZO/Al2O3/VACNF array structure demonstrated in this work provides a promising three-dimensional architecture toward applications of solid-state capacitors with large surface area having a thin, leak-free dielectric.

  16. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO/Al2O3 double layers on vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays.

    PubMed

    Malek, Gary A; Brown, Emery; Klankowski, Steven A; Liu, Jianwei; Elliot, Alan J; Lu, Rongtao; Li, Jun; Wu, Judy

    2014-05-14

    High-aspect-ratio, vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) were conformally coated with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to produce a three-dimensional array of metal-insulator-metal core-shell nanostructures. Prefunctionalization before ALD, as required for initiating covalent bonding on a carbon nanotube surface, was eliminated on VACNFs due to the graphitic edges along the surface of each CNF. The graphitic edges provided ideal nucleation sites under sequential exposures of H2O and trimethylaluminum to form an Al2O3 coating up to 20 nm in thickness. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the conformal core-shell AZO/Al2O3/CNF structures while energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified the elemental composition of the different layers. HRTEM selected area electron diffraction revealed that the as-made Al2O3 by ALD at 200 °C was amorphous, and then, after annealing in air at 450 °C for 30 min, was converted to polycrystalline form. Nevertheless, comparable dielectric constants of 9.3 were obtained in both cases by cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 1000 V/s. The conformal core-shell AZO/Al2O3/VACNF array structure demonstrated in this work provides a promising three-dimensional architecture toward applications of solid-state capacitors with large surface area having a thin, leak-free dielectric. PMID:24689702

  17. Clavicle Fracture (Broken Collarbone)

    MedlinePlus

    ... place and the fragments are severely out of alignment. A large bump over the fracture site may ... bone fragments are first repositioned into their normal alignment, and then held in place with special screws ...

  18. Facile construction of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod/PEDOT:PSS hybrid heterojunction-based ultraviolet light sensors: efficient performance and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, K. S.; Rajendra Kumar, R. T.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a simple, planar manufacturing process-compatible fabrication of highly efficient UV sensors based on a hybrid heterojunction of an array of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) and PEDOT:PSS. The ZnO NR array was grown by the solution growth process and the aspect ratio (length 1 to 4 μm, diameter ˜80 nm) of the rods was controlled by varying the growth time. UV sensors based on (i) naked ZnO NRs and (ii) ZnO NR/PEDOT:PSS heterojunctions were fabricated and tested. The UV sensitivity of bare ZnO NRs was found to increase with increasing aspect ratio of the NRs due to the increase in the photogenerated charge carriers as the fraction of material interacting with the light increases. Under 5 V bias, naked ZnO NR arrays showed a photocurrent of 8.84 × 10-5 A, a responsivity of 0.538 A W-1 and a sensitivity of 4.80 under UV (λ = 256 nm, 130 μW) illumination. ZnO NR/PEDOT:PSS hybrid heterojunctions showed diode-like behavior with a leakage current less than 2.54 × 10-8 A at -5 V and forward turn-on voltage of 1.1 V. ZnO NR/polymer-based hybrid heterojunctions show a photocurrent of 6.74 × 10-4 A, responsivity of 5.046 A W-1 and excellent sensitivity of 37.65 under UV (λ = 256 nm, 130 μW) illumination. Compared with bare ZnO NR arrays, the ZnO NR/polymer heterojunction device shows responsivity enhanced by a factor of 10, sensitivity enhanced by a factor of 8 and faster rise and decay time. The enhanced performance may be due to effective charge separation guided by the built-in potential formed at the interface between ZnO NRs and PEDOT:PSS.

  19. Study of Diamond like Carbon as template for nanoimprint lithography and as a filler material for vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Seetharaman

    Due to its tunable properties like hardness, optical gap, chemical inertness, electrical resistivity, biocompatibility etc., coatings of the material Diamond like Carbon (DLC) have been used as protective layers for various applications. In this research effort, we add to the growing list of its potential applications by proposing them as a template material for the emerging field of nanoimprint lithography. Using capacitive and inductive plasmas, we demonstrate the possibility of depositing DLC films of reasonable hardness (10-25 GPa) and wear resistance (2X that of Si and 3X that of Quartz). We have successfully used these films as a mold material to obtain feature sizes as small as 40 nm. In addition, to further the understanding of the effect of the gas phase chemistry on the film properties, the Methane discharge used for obtaining these films has been studied using techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The higher degree of dissociation (up to 70%) of the precursor in case of inductive plasmas leads to selected conditions under which hard DLC films are obtained. We also show that for the same deposition conditions, films deposited on the insulating Quartz substrates are softer and more polymeric than those deposited on Si substrates. Carbon nanotubes with their unique physical properties are seen as ideal candidates for applications like field effect transistors, supercapacitors, AFM tips and electronic devices. One of the chief challenges in using them for these applications is obtaining them in a form that is easier to handle, thus enabling them to withstand the various post-processing steps. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the possibility of obtaining a Carbon-Carbon composite structure by subjecting vertically aligned Carbon nanotube forests to a PECVD based process. The distance from the top of the CNT forest that is coated with the deposited film (termed as the depth of infusion) shows

  20. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    PubMed

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited. PMID:27451619

  1. Effect of titanium and stainless steel posts in detection of vertical root fractures using NewTom VG cone beam computed tomography system

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Mahdis; Bakhshalian, Neema; Shahab, Shahriar; Sadeghi, Shaya; Ataee, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vertical root fracture (VRF) is a common complication in endodontically treated teeth. Considering the poor prognosis of VRF, a reliable and valid detection method is necessary. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been reported to be a reliable tool for the detection of VRF; however, the presence of metallic intracanal posts can decrease the diagnostic values of CBCT systems. This study evaluated and compared the effects of intracanal stainless steel or titanium posts on the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of VRF detection using a NewTom VG CBCT system. Materials and Methods Eighty extracted single-rooted teeth were selected and sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction. The roots were divided into two groups of 40. Root fracture was induced in the test group by using an Instron machine, while the control group was kept intact. Roots were randomly embedded in acrylic blocks and radiographed with the NewTom VG, both with titanium and stainless steel posts and also without posts. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values were calculated as compared to the gold standard. Results The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of VRF diagnosis were significantly lower in teeth with stainless steel and titanium posts than in those without posts. Interobserver agreement was the highest in teeth without posts, followed by stainless steel posts, and then titanium posts. Conclusion Intracanal posts significantly decreased the VRF diagnostic values of CBCT. The stainless steel posts decreased the diagnostic values more than the titanium posts. PMID:24944957

  2. Alignment and alignment transition of bent core nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamain, Omaima; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

    2013-07-01

    We report on the alignment of nematics consisting of bimesogen bent core molecules of chlorine substituent of benzene derivative and their binary mixture with rod like nematics. It was found that the alignment layer made from polyimide material, which is usually used for promoting vertical (homeotropic) alignment of rod like nematics, promotes instead a planar alignment of the bent core nematic and its nematic mixtures. At higher concentration of the rod like nematic component in these mixtures, a temperature driven transition from vertical to planar alignment was found near the transition to isotropic phase.

  3. THE VERTICAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

  4. Influence of the artefact reduction algorithm of Picasso Trio CBCT system on the diagnosis of vertical root fractures in teeth with metal posts

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, I S Q; Neves, F S; Vasconcelos, T V; Ambrosano, G M B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of the artefact reduction algorithm (AR) available on the Picasso Trio 3D® imaging system (Vatech, Hwaseong, Republic of Korea) on image quality [greyscale values, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and artefact formation] and diagnosis of vertical root fractures (VRFs) in the teeth with intracanal metal posts. Methods: 30 uniradicular teeth had their crowns removed and their roots endodontically treated to receive intracanal metal posts. In 20 teeth, both complete (n = 10) and incomplete (n = 10) VRFs were created. Each tooth was scanned twice, with and without AR activation. The mean and variation of greyscale values, as well as CNR, were calculated for all images. Subsequently, an evaluator compared the amount of artefact (cupping, white streaks and dark bands) in all images. Five evaluators rated for VRF presence using a five-point scale. Results: Mean greyscale values and CNR were significantly decreased in images acquired with the AR. The usage of the algorithm promoted an overall reduction of image artefacts. Regarding the diagnosis of complete and incomplete VRFs, the use of the AR had an overall negative impact on specificity and accuracy. Conclusions: While indeed reducing artefact formation, the use of the AR, instead of improving the impact on the diagnosis of VRFs in teeth with intracanal metal posts, had a negative impact on the diagnosis. PMID:25764360

  5. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 μm long nano-rods with an average diameter of ≈20 nm.

  6. Influence of CBCT enhancement filters on diagnosis of vertical root fractures: a simulation study in endodontically treated teeth with and without intracanal posts

    PubMed Central

    Visconti, M A P G; Nascimento, H A; Dallemolle, R R; Ambrosano, G M; Freitas, D Q

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the influence of CBCT enhancement filters on the diagnosis of vertical root fractures (VRFs) in teeth with and without metal posts. Methods: The crowns of 40 uniradicular human teeth were removed and all roots were prepared. 20 teeth were randomly selected, and VRFs were induced using a universal testing machine. The i-CAT (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA) CBCT was used to scan teeth with and without intracanal metal posts using the following parameters: 0.2 voxel size, 8 × 8-cm scan size and acquisition time of 26.9 s. Images were evaluated by three observers with and without the use of the following filters: S9, smooth, smooth 3 × 3, sharpen, sharpen-mild and sharpen 3 × 3. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreement ranged from poor to moderate. Images with and without CBCT filters did not show significant differences regarding the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, as well as sensitivity (p > 0.05). As for accuracy, the sharpen-mild filter was superior to the sharpen (p = 0.03), but these filters did not differ from all others. For specificity, S9, smooth and original images were superior to sharpen (p < 0.01). Results for teeth without posts differed from those for teeth with metal posts in all cases (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of enhancement filters in CBCT images has no influence on the diagnosis of VRFs in teeth with metal posts, and their use is not justified. PMID:25666446

  7. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  8. Subsurface fracture spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C. ); Hill, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to document and analyze the unique set of data on subsurface fracture characteristics, especially spacing, provided by the US Department of Energy's Slant Hole Completion Test well (SHCT-1) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Two hundred thirty-six (236) ft (71.9 m) of slant core and 115 ft (35.1 m) of horizontal core show irregular, but remarkably close, spacings for 72 natural fractures cored in sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde Group. Over 4200 ft (1280 m) of vertical core (containing 275 fractures) from the vertical Multiwell Experiment wells at the same location provide valuable information on fracture orientation, termination, and height, but only data from the SHCT-1 core allow calculations of relative fracture spacing. Within the 162-ft (49-m) thick zone of overlapping core from the vertical and deviated wellbores, only one fracture is present in vertical core whereas 52 fractures occur in the equivalent SHCT-1 core. The irregular distribution of regional-type fractures in these heterogeneous reservoirs suggests that measurements of average fracture spacing'' are of questionable value as direct input parameters into reservoir engineering models. Rather, deviated core provides data on the relative degree of fracturing, and confirms that cross fractures can be rare in the subsurface. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Synthesis of an ultradense forest of vertically aligned triple-walled carbon nanotubes of uniform diameter and length using hollow catalytic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baliyan, Ankur; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Fukuda, Takahiro; Uchida, Takashi; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2014-01-22

    It still remains a crucial challenge to actively control carbon nanotube (CNT) structure such as the alignment, area density, diameter, length, chirality, and number of walls. Here, we synthesize an ultradense forest of CNTs of a uniform internal diameter by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method using hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) modified with ligand as a catalyst. The diameters of the HNPs and internal cavities in the HNPs are uniform. A monolayer of densely packed HNPs is self-assembled on a silicon substrate by spin coating. HNPs shrink via the collapse of the internal cavities and phase transition from iron oxide to metallic iron in hydrogen plasma during the PECVD process. Agglomeration of catalytic NPs is avoided on account of the shrinkage of the NPs and ligand attached to the NPs. Diffusion of NPs into the substrate, which would inactivate the growth of CNTs, is also avoided on account of the ligand. As a result, an ultradense forest of triple-walled CNTs of a uniform internal diameter is successfully synthesized. The area density of the grown CNTs is as high as 0.6 × 10(12) cm(-2). Finally, the activity of the catalytic NPs and the NP/carbon interactions during the growth process of CNTs are investigated and discussed. We believe that the present approach may make a great contribution to the development of an innovative synthetic method for CNTs with selective properties. PMID:24369068

  10. Talus fractures: surgical principles.

    PubMed

    Rush, Shannon M; Jennings, Meagan; Hamilton, Graham A

    2009-01-01

    Surgical treatment of talus fractures can challenge even the most skilled foot and ankle surgeon. Complicated fracture patterns combined with joint dislocation of variable degrees require accurate assessment, sound understanding of principles of fracture care, and broad command of internal fixation techniques needed for successful surgical care. Elimination of unnecessary soft tissue dissection, a low threshold for surgical reduction, liberal use of malleolar osteotomy to expose body fracture, and detailed attention to fracture reduction and joint alignment are critical to the success of treatment. Even with the best surgical care complications are common and seem to correlate with injury severity and open injuries. PMID:19121756

  11. Nose fracture

    MedlinePlus

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It ... with other fractures of the face. Sometimes a blunt injury can ...

  12. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  13. Self-organization of dislocation-free, high-density, vertically aligned GaN nanocolumns involving InGaN quantum wells on graphene/SiO2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Konno, Yuta; Kishino, Katsumi

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrated the self-organization of high-density GaN nanocolumns on multilayer graphene (MLG)/SiO2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer by RF-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. MLG/SiO2 substrates were prepared by the transfer of CVD graphene onto thermally oxidized SiO2/Si [100] substrates. Employing the MLG with an AlN buffer layer enabled the self-organization of high-density and vertically aligned nanocolumns. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that no threading dislocations, stacking faults, or twinning defects were included in the self-organized nanocolumns. The photoluminescence (PL) peak intensities of the self-organized GaN nanocolumns were 2.0-2.6 times higher than those of a GaN substrate grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Moreover, no yellow luminescence or ZB-phase GaN emission was observed from the nanocolumns. An InGaN/GaN MQW and p-type GaN were integrated into GaN nanocolumns grown on MLG, displaying a single-peak PL emission at a wavelength of 533 nm. Thus, high-density nitride p-i-n nanocolumns were fabricated on SiO2/Si using the transferred MLG interlayer, indicating the possibility of developing visible nanocolumn LEDs on graphene/SiO2.

  14. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering study of thermal-induced phase transformation in vertically aligned TiO 2 nanocrystals grown on sapphire(1 0 0) via metal organic vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. A.; Chen, K. Y.; Huang, Y. S.; Tsai, D. S.; Tiong, K. K.; Chien, F. Z.

    2008-07-01

    We report a detailed study of thermal-induced phase transformation in TiO 2 nanocrystals (NCs) via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering (RS) spectroscopy. Vertically aligned anatase TiO 2(1 1 0) NCs were grown on the sapphire (SA)(1 0 0) substrate at 550 °C by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, using titanium-tetraisopropoxide (TTIP, Ti[OCH(CH 3) 2] 4), as the source reagent. The effects of thermal annealing of TiO 2 NCs in oxygen atmosphere between 600 and 1000 °C were investigated. XRD and RS spectra showed the onset of the phase transformation process from the as-grown anatase TiO 2(1 1 0) NCs into rutile TiO 2(0 0 1) at the annealing temperature of 800 °C. At annealing temperature higher than 900 °C, pure rutile phase of TiO 2(0 0 1) NCs were formed and the crystalline quality of TiO 2 NCs could be further improved upon higher annealing temperature.

  15. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  17. One-step synthesis of vertically aligned anatase thornbush-like TiO2 nanowire arrays on transparent conducting oxides for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Roh, Dong Kyu; Chi, Won Seok; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak

    2013-08-01

    Herein, we report a facile synthesis of high-density anatase-phase vertically aligned thornbush-like TiO2 nanowires (TBWs) on transparent conducting oxide glasses. Morphologically controllable TBW arrays of 9 μm in length are generated through a one-step hydrothermal reaction at 200 °C over 11 h using potassium titanium oxide oxalate dehydrate, diethylene glycol (DEG), and water. The TBWs consist of a large number of nanoplates or nanorods, as confirmed by SEM and TEM imaging. The morphologies of TBWs are controllable by adjusting DEG/water ratios. TBW diameters gradually decrease from 600 (TBW600) to 400 (TBW400) to 200 nm (TBW200) and morphologies change from nanoplates to nanorods with an increase in DEG content. TBWs are utilized as photoanodes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs) and solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs). The energy-conversion efficiency of qssDSSCs is in the order: TBW200 (5.2%)>TBW400 (4.5%)>TBW600 (3.4%). These results can be attributed to the different surface areas, light-scattering effects, and charge transport rates, as confirmed by dye-loading measurements, reflectance spectroscopy, and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy analyses. TBW200 is further treated with a graft-copolymer-directed organized mesoporous TiO2 to increase the surface area and interconnectivity of TBWs. As a result, the energy-conversion efficiency of the ssDSSC increases to 6.7% at 100 mW cm(-2) , which is among the highest values for N719-dye-based ssDSSCs.

  18. Dynamic Alignment at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2003-04-23

    The relative alignment of components in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) is guaranteed by mechanical means. The magnets are rigidly fixed to 48 girders by means of alignment rails with tolerances of less than {+-}15 {micro}m. The bending magnets, supported by 3 point ball bearings, overlap adjacent girders and thus establish virtual train links between the girders, located near the bending magnet centres. Keeping the distortion of the storage ring geometry within a tolerance of {+-}100 {micro}m in order to guarantee sufficient dynamic apertures, requires continuous monitoring and correction of the girder locations. Two monitoring systems for the horizontal and the vertical direction will be installed to measure displacements of the train link between girders, which are due to ground settings and temperature effects: The hydrostatic levelling system (HLS) gives an absolute vertical reference, while the horizontal positioning system (HPS), which employs low cost linear encoders with sub-micron resolution, measures relative horizontal movements. The girder mover system based on five DC motors per girder allows a dynamic realignment of the storage ring within a working window of more than {+-}1 mm for girder translations and {+-}1 mrad for rotations. We will describe both monitoring systems (HLS and HPS) as well as the applied correction scheme based on the girder movers. We also show simulations indicating that beam based girder alignment takes care of most of the static closed orbit correction.

  19. [Pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Ken; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated microdamage accumulation in the fracture sites in the patients of subtrochanteric atypical femoral fracture with long term bisphosphonate therapy and of incomplete shaft fracture of lateral femoral bowing without bisphosphonate therapy. Based on these findings, pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture is revealed stress fracture caused by accumulation of microdamages between distal to the lesser trochanter and proximal to the supracondylar flare in the femur in association with severely suppressed bone turnover and/or abnormal lower limb alignment, that causes stress concentration on the lateral side cortex of the femur. PMID:26728533

  20. Alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Grover C.; Gibson, O. Theodore

    1980-01-01

    A part alignment fixture is provided which may be used for precise variable lateral and tilt alignment relative to the fixture base of various shaped parts. The fixture may be used as a part holder for machining or inspection of parts or alignment of parts during assembly and the like. The fixture includes a precisely machined diameter disc-shaped hub adapted to receive the part to be aligned. The hub is nested in a guide plate which is adapted to carry two oppositely disposed pairs of positioning wedges so that the wedges may be reciprocatively positioned by means of respective micrometer screws. The sloping faces of the wedges contact the hub at respective quadrants of the hub periphery. The lateral position of the hub relative to the guide plate is adjusted by positioning the wedges with the associated micrometer screws. The tilt of the part is adjusted relative to a base plate, to which the guide plate is pivotally connected by means of a holding plate. Two pairs of oppositely disposed wedges are mounted for reciprocative lateral positioning by means of separate micrometer screws between flanges of the guide plate and the base plate. Once the wedges are positioned to achieve the proper tilt of the part or hub on which the part is mounted relative to the base plate, the fixture may be bolted to a machining, inspection, or assembly device.

  1. Curriculum Alignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Ronald; Tissot, Paula

    Curriculum alignment (CA) refers to the congruence of all the elements of a school's curriculum: curriculum goals; instructional program--what is taught and the materials used; and tests used to judge outcomes. CA can be a very powerful can be a very powerful factor in improving schools. Although further research is needed on CA, there is…

  2. BinAligner: a heuristic method to align biological networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The advances in high throughput omics technologies have made it possible to characterize molecular interactions within and across various species. Alignments and comparison of molecular networks across species will help detect orthologs and conserved functional modules and provide insights on the evolutionary relationships of the compared species. However, such analyses are not trivial due to the complexity of network and high computational cost. Here we develop a mixture of global and local algorithm, BinAligner, for network alignments. Based on the hypotheses that the similarity between two vertices across networks would be context dependent and that the information from the edges and the structures of subnetworks can be more informative than vertices alone, two scoring schema, 1-neighborhood subnetwork and graphlet, were introduced to derive the scoring matrices between networks, besides the commonly used scoring scheme from vertices. Then the alignment problem is formulated as an assignment problem, which is solved by the combinatorial optimization algorithm, such as the Hungarian method. The proposed algorithm was applied and validated in aligning the protein-protein interaction network of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and that of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Interestingly, we identified several putative functional orthologous proteins with similar functions but very low sequence similarity between the two viruses. For example, KSHV open reading frame 56 (ORF56) and VZV ORF55 are helicase-primase subunits with sequence identity 14.6%, and KSHV ORF75 and VZV ORF44 are tegument proteins with sequence identity 15.3%. These functional pairs can not be identified if one restricts the alignment into orthologous protein pairs. In addition, BinAligner identified a conserved pathway between two viruses, which consists of 7 orthologous protein pairs and these proteins are connected by conserved links. This pathway might be crucial for virus packing and

  3. Transphyseal Distal Humerus Fracture.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Joshua; Ho, Christine Ann; Ritzman, Todd F; Brighton, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Transphyseal distal humerus fractures typically occur in children younger than 3 years secondary to birth trauma, nonaccidental trauma, or a fall from a small height. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture is crucial for a successful outcome. Recognizing that the forearm is not aligned with the humerus on plain radiographs may aid in the diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture. Surgical management is most commonly performed with the aid of an arthrogram. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning techniques similar to those used for supracondylar humerus fractures are employed. Cubitus varus caused by a malunion, osteonecrosis of the medial condyle, or growth arrest is the most common complication encountered in the treatment of transphyseal distal humerus fractures. A corrective lateral closing wedge osteotomy can be performed to restore a nearly normal carrying angle.

  4. ALIGNING JIG

    DOEpatents

    Culver, J.S.; Tunnell, W.C.

    1958-08-01

    A jig or device is described for setting or aligning an opening in one member relative to another member or structure, with a predetermined offset, or it may be used for measuring the amount of offset with which the parts have previously been sct. This jig comprises two blocks rabbeted to each other, with means for securing thc upper block to the lower block. The upper block has fingers for contacting one of the members to be a1igmed, the lower block is designed to ride in grooves within the reference member, and calibration marks are provided to determine the amount of offset. This jig is specially designed to align the collimating slits of a mass spectrometer.

  5. Image alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  6. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-19

    This DOE-funded research into seismic detection of natural fractures is one of six projects within the DOE`s Detection and Analysis of Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs Program, a multidisciplinary research initiative to develop technology for prediction, detection, and mapping of naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The demonstration of successful seismic techniques to locate subsurface zones of high fracture density and to guide drilling orientation for enhanced fracture permeability will enable better returns on investments in the development of the vast gas reserves held in tight formations beneath the Rocky Mountains. The seismic techniques used in this project were designed to capture the azimuthal anisotropy within the seismic response. This seismic anisotropy is the result of the symmetry in the rock fabric created by aligned fractures and/or unequal horizontal stresses. These results may be compared and related to other lines of evidence to provide cross-validation. The authors undertook investigations along the following lines: Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-wave seismic data; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in a nine-component (P- and S-sources, three-component receivers) vertical seismic profile; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-to-S converted wave seismic data (P-wave source, three-component receivers); and Description of geological and reservoir-engineering data that corroborate the anisotropy: natural fractures observed at the target level and at the surface, estimation of the maximum horizontal stress in situ, and examination of the flow characteristics of the reservoir.

  7. Intra-articular fractures of the hand.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2013-11-01

    Fractures of the hand are common injuries and in particular, fractures involving the articular surfaces can present difficulties to the orthopedic surgeon in practice. Although the treatment of these fractures needs to be individualized based on fracture pattern and location, the goals for these fractures are to restore the alignment, stability, and congruity and to allow for early motion to prevent stiffness and traumatic arthritis. This article classifies the various types of intra-articular hand fractures as well as the workup and management of these injuries. PMID:24209952

  8. Global alignment: Finding rearrangements during alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Brudno, Michael; Malde, Sanket; Poliakov, Alexander; Do, Chuong B.; Couronne, Olivier; Dubchak, Inna; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2003-01-06

    Motivation: To compare entire genomes from different species, biologists increasingly need alignment methods that are efficient enough to handle long sequences, and accurate enough to correctly align the conserved biological features between distant species. The two main classes of pairwise alignments are global alignment, where one string is transformed into the other, and local alignment, where all locations of similarity between the two strings are returned. Global alignments are less prone to demonstrating false homology as each letter of one sequence is constrained to being aligned to only one letter of the other. Local alignments, on the other hand, can cope with rearrangements between non-syntenic, orthologous sequences by identifying similar regions in sequences; this, however, comes at the expense of a higher false positive rate due to the inability of local aligners to take into account overall conservation maps.

  9. Metacarpal and metatarsal fractures in dogs.

    PubMed

    Muir, P; Norris, J L

    1997-08-01

    Metacarpal fractures were more common than metatarsal fractures in this retrospective study of 37 dogs. Fractures of one metacarpal or metatarsal bone occurred in 24 per cent of the dogs, two metacarpal bones in 16 per cent, three metacarpal or metatarsal bones in 19 per cent, and four metacarpal or metatarsal bones in 41 per cent. Eighty-seven per cent of the dogs with fractures of four bones had fracture displacement or malalignment of at least one digit. Progressive fracture healing usually occurred irrespective of stabilisation method. For malaligned fractures, however, external coaptation did not consistently improve alignment. Fracture alignment was consistently improved by open reduction and internal fixation of acute fractures with bone plates. Fractures of four bones occurred most often in the distal metacarpus as opposed to the proximal metatarsus. Therefore, open reduction and internal fixation may be more commonly indicated for severe metacarpal fractures, because fracture displacement or axial malalignment was significantly associated with fractures of the mid or distal regions of the metacarpus or metatarsus (P = 0.052).

  10. Adult orbital trapdoor fracture.

    PubMed

    Kum, Clarissa; McCulley, Timothy J; Yoon, Michael K; Hwang, Thomas N

    2009-01-01

    Trapdoor fractures occur almost exclusively in the pediatric population. The authors describe an adult with an entrapped inferior rectus muscle sheath in a trapdoor fracture. A 37-year-old man presented with persistent diplopia 3 weeks after blunt right orbital trauma. The only abnormal findings on clinical examination were limited vertical ductions. No bony defect or displacement was evident on CT. However, several small pockets of air were visible adjacent to the inferior rectus muscle. On surgical exploration, a linear nondisplaced orbital floor fracture was confirmed, and the entrapped inferior rectus muscle was released. One month postoperatively, extraocular motility had improved with no diplopia in primary or reading positions. This case demonstrates that trapdoor fractures can occur in adults and should be considered when suggestive findings are encountered. Clinicians should be aware of this because timely diagnosis and treatment might achieve more favorable outcomes.

  11. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    DOEpatents

    Higgins, Robert W.; Robichaud, Roger E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  12. The Effect of Microbial Activity on Flow and Transport of an Organic Contaminant in Naturally Fractured Chalk Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, S.; Adar, E.; Ronen, Z.; Yakirevich, A.; Nativ, R.

    2001-12-01

    Low-permeability rock formations, such as chalk, are being selected as hydrogeological barriers for waste disposal sites and industrial areas throughout the world. Many sites constructed on chalk formations have failed due to existing fractures. Subsurface natural or enhanced microbial activity is the main biological process that causes transformation of organic contaminants in groundwater. However, this beneficial activity may result in physical, chemical, geological and biological changes affecting the hydrological properties of the fractured domain. Whereas these effects have been extensively investigated in porous media, they are less familiar in fractured formations, the topic of this work. A set of experiments was designed to quantify 2-D flow distribution along a single fracture and to assess the effect of biodegradation on its hydraulic properties. The experiments were carried out using 20-cm diameter and 30-50-cm long chalk cores, each intersected by a single natural fracture. Flow across the fracture was defined through both direct measurements of the out flux under various (controlled) hydraulic gradients, and through 2-D multi-tracer tests. The 2-D-distribution of flow in the fracture was investigated by injecting four non-reactive tracers (fluorobenzoic acids), each along a different section of the fracture inlet. Similarly, the outflux was sampled from four vertically aligned segments at the fracture outlet. Tracer breakthrough curves, mixing ratios and fluxes were evaluated for quantitative assessment of the 2-D flow distribution within the fracture. Results from the flow experiments suggested deviation from a linear relationship between the flux and the hydraulic gradient for Reynolds numbers exceeding 8, probably due to the increase of inertial forces. In addition, although flow out of the fracture was evenly distributed along the fracture width, different mixing ratios of tracers in neighboring sections were observed probably due to hydrodynamic

  13. Biomechanical Concepts for Fracture Fixation.

    PubMed

    Bottlang, Michael; Schemitsch, Christine E; Nauth, Aaron; Routt, Milton; Egol, Kenneth A; Cook, Gillian E; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2015-12-01

    Application of the correct fixation construct is critical for fracture healing and long-term stability; however, it is a complex issue with numerous significant factors. This review describes a number of common fracture types and evaluates their currently available fracture fixation constructs. In the setting of complex elbow instability, stable fixation or radial head replacement with an appropriately sized implant in conjunction with ligamentous repair is required to restore stability. For unstable sacral fractures with vertical or multiplanar instabilities, "standard" iliosacral screw fixation is not sufficient. Periprosthetic femur fractures, in particular Vancouver B1 fractures, have increased stability when using 90/90 fixation versus a single locking plate. Far cortical locking combines the concept of dynamization with locked plating to achieve superior healing of a distal femur fracture. Finally, there is no ideal construct for syndesmotic fracture stabilization; however, these fractures should be fixed using a device that allows for sufficient motion in the syndesmosis. In general, orthopaedic surgeons should select a fracture fixation construct that restores stability and promotes healing at the fracture site, while reducing the potential for fixation failure.

  14. Pediatric Ankle Fractures: Concepts and Treatment Principles.

    PubMed

    Su, Alvin W; Larson, A Noelle

    2015-12-01

    Current clinical concepts are reviewed regarding the epidemiology, anatomy, evaluation, and treatment of pediatric ankle fractures. Correct diagnosis and management relies on appropriate examination, imaging, and knowledge of fracture patterns specific to children. Treatment is guided by patient history, physical examination, plain film radiographs and, in some instances, computed tomography. Treatment goals are to restore acceptable limb alignment, physeal anatomy, and joint congruency. For high-risk physeal fractures, patients should be monitored for growth disturbance as needed until skeletal maturity. PMID:26589088

  15. Application of converted-wave amplitude for fracture strike delineation - a physical model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hsiung; Chang, Young-Fo Chang; Tseng, Po-Yen; Lin, Chao-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is aiming on directing the fracture strike in a vertically aligned fracture reservoir using the seismic signature of the azimuthal dependence of C-wave amplitude (ADCA). A fractured reservoir has made itself as one of the most important productive zones in petroleum exploration. The existence of fractures not just provides the space for the residence of oils and gases but creates pathways for migration. In terms of seismic anisotropy, reservoirs that possess vertical fractures system (VFS) has its physical properties vary in azimuth and is often grouped as a horizontally transversely isotropy (HTI). Since fracture strike is the priori information in drilling engineering that has to be known to maximize production or to enhance oil recovery (EOR) from a VFS reservoir. Therefore, characterizing a fractured reservoir and orienting the fracture strike has attracted much attention by exploration geophysicists and drilling engineers. To validate our objective, a HTI model was designed to simulate a VFS reservoir. A spherical dome was caved at one side of the HTI model. In laboratory, a pair of S-type transducer was used to carry out our reflection experiments. And constant offset reflections were acquired along principal symmetry directions and diagonal direction of the HTI model at two different offset intervals. In all, two constant offset reflection data sets were obtained and each data set consists of three observations collected at different azimuths. In the acquired seismic profile, a mixture of P-wave, S-wave and C-wave events were recognized. In analyzing the variation of C-wave amplitude in azimuth in the HTI model, reflections that were originated from apex of the dome structure were sorted and displayed as a common-reflection-point (CRP) gather. Our laboratory data show C-wave amplitude decrease with azimuth varying from a strike direction toward a direction transverse to the strike in the HTI model. The phenomenon of ADCA that was

  16. Fluid flow through rough fractures in rocks I: high resolution aperture determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, Evgeny; Ogilvie, Steven R.; Taylor, Colin W.; Glover, Paul W. J.

    2001-09-01

    Full characterisation of rough fracture surfaces and the resulting variable apertures is an important step in the drive towards an improved understanding of the factors which control fluid flow through rocks. A number of surface profiling techniques exist, such as needle or laser profiling. However, these techniques are difficult and time consuming to apply to the total area of a fracture because they involve measuring a large number of parallel profiles, which are then difficult to align accurately. Hence, although a single profile may have high resolution in the z-direction and the direction of the profile, the fracture surface has a much lower resolution due to alignment errors. We have developed and improved considerably a previously existing optical concept for obtaining the topography of a fracture surface where the information about surface heights is measured simultaneously. The method relies on the construction of high fidelity transparent models of the fracture surface, which are imaged while covered with dyed and undyed water. The resulting images are converted to topography by a simple calibration procedure that makes use of the Lambert-Beer law. This method utilises in-house OptiProf™ software, which provides considerably more control over the imaging process than previous attempts at optical profiling. We have applied the technique to a range of rock fractures and test pieces, and have found the technique to work reliably, with lateral resolutions of 15 μm, and a vertical resolution of 15 μm, although all these could be improved by increasing the pixel count and the bit-depth of the camera, respectively.

  17. The Evolution of Fracture Systems in Rocks with Veins: Insights from 3D Discrete Element Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, S.; Urai, J. L.; Abe, S.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from natural vein systems suggest that preexisting veins can strongly influence orientation, continuity and connectivity of fractures in a rock even in cases where the orientation of the veins is incompatible with the orientation of the stress field. We present a numerical method to model cycles of fracturing and sealing in a rotating stress field to simulate such systems, for different strength ratios of host rock and vein. We study a layered model under vertical stress and uniaxial horizontal extension. This represents common conditions in sedimentary basins with layers of varying composition. The model with fractures that form during the first deformation phase is sealed and deformed again in a different direction to model the effect of a changing horizontal stress field. We find different types of fracture interaction with veins, depending on the strength contrast between veins and host rock and amount of rotation. The crack-seal and crack-jump mechanisms ensue naturally from the models as a result of the strength of the vein material relative to the host rock. Weak veins localize fracturing and reactivate, even in high misorientation to the extension direction. Connecting fractures between reactivated veins form at a higher angle to the veins than expected. In these systems, the connectivity of the fracture network is dramatically increased. Veins stronger than the host rock have less influence on the new fractures. Most fractures crosscut the veins by the step-over mechanism. Deflection occurs for favorable vein orientations but the deflection length is very short. The results are in good agreement with natural crack seal vein networks found in carbonate rocks of the Oman Mountains. We find that preexisting veins can change the fracture behavior of a rock in a way that new fractures do not necessarily align with the principle extension direction and form a highly connected network with reactivated veins that dramatically enhances lateral

  18. Elbow Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... and held together with pins and wires or plates and screws. Fractures of the distal humerus (see ... doctor. These fractures usually require surgical repair with plates and/or screw, unless they are stable. SIGNS ...

  19. Integrated, Comprehensive Alignment as a Foundation for Measuring Student Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martineau, Joseph; Paek, Pamela; Keene, John; Hirsch, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive model of alignment that provides a foundation for meaningful reporting of students' academic progress over time. The model includes both horizontal and vertical alignment as integral parts of the development of content standards, test blueprints, items, item pools, instruments, performance level descriptors,…

  20. Alignment tool facilitates pin placement on irregular horizontal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. V.

    1966-01-01

    Alignment tool facilitates spotting and cementing plastic pins on the true vertical to irregular concave and convex surfaces. The tool consists of a wood tripod with individually adjustable legs, a wood block with a hole for placing the pins and two spirit levels at a 90 degree angle for easy alignment.

  1. Terrestrial Laser Scanning of Lava Flows to Constrain Fracture Models in Geothermal Reservoirs; a Case Study from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massiot, C.; Garcia-Sélles, D.; Nicol, A., , Prof; Mcnamara, D. D.; Townend, J.; Archibald, G.; Siratovich, P. A.; Villeneuve, M.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal reservoirs hosted in volcanic rocks, like the Rotokawa Geothermal Field in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand, typically contain fracture networks that control fluid flow. Realistic discrete fracture network (DFN) models have the potential to improve geothermal resource management. However, the spatial distribution and geometries of fracture networks are often poorly understood due to limited data and complex deformation histories including lava emplacement, subsequent burial and faulting.To understand better the distribution of fractures formed during lava emplacement, we study andesitic flow exposures from Mt Ruapehu, at the southern end of the TVZ. Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) acquisition on three 50-200 m2 outcrops provided large 3D point clouds of the shape of the outcrop. Delineation of thousands of individual fractures has been semi-automated using local geometrical constraints and a shape detection algorithm detecting planar and curved surfaces. Fracture orientation, length, area, linear (P10) and areal (P20) densities from the TLS data provide input parameters for the DFN models. Fracture detection is validated using high-resolution panoramic photographs (GigaPan) and manual scanline measurements. Cooling joints are highly connected via sub-horizontal joints that are aligned with vesicular layers. UCS tests show a mechanical anisotropy between vertical and horizontal samples. Most of the cooling joints terminate within or at the brecciated margins of individual flows which contrast mechanically with the massive flow interior. Thus, highly connected and curved fractures are mostly confined to lava flows.This study provides a framework for developing DFNs for geothermal reservoirs hosted in andesitic flows based on empirical observations of intrinsic fracturing and mechanical anisotropies of the host lithology. Fractures in individual lava flows may be interconnected in the reservoir by a combination of cooling joints, subsequent

  2. Alignment-free three-dimensional optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Shi, Jinwei; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional optical metamaterials based on multilayers typically rely on critical vertical alignment to achieve the desired functionality. Here the conditions under which three-dimensional metamaterials with different functionalities may be realized without constraints on alignment are analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. This study demonstrates that the release of alignment constraints for multilayered metamaterials is allowed, while their anomalous interaction with light is preserved.

  3. Facial fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a PMID:8199509

  4. MAVID multiple alignment server.

    PubMed

    Bray, Nicolas; Pachter, Lior

    2003-07-01

    MAVID is a multiple alignment program suitable for many large genomic regions. The MAVID web server allows biomedical researchers to quickly obtain multiple alignments for genomic sequences and to subsequently analyse the alignments for conserved regions. MAVID has been successfully used for the alignment of closely related species such as primates and also for the alignment of more distant organisms such as human and fugu. The server is fast, capable of aligning hundreds of kilobases in less than a minute. The multiple alignment is used to build a phylogenetic tree for the sequences, which is subsequently used as a basis for identifying conserved regions in the alignment. The server can be accessed at http://baboon.math.berkeley.edu/mavid/.

  5. Nearest Alignment Space Termination

    2006-07-13

    Near Alignment Space Termination (NAST) is the Greengenes algorithm that matches up submitted sequences with the Greengenes database to look for similarities and align the submitted sequences based on those similarities.

  6. Metatarsal fractures.

    PubMed

    Rammelt, Stefan; Heineck, Jan; Zwipp, Hans

    2004-09-01

    Metatarsal fractures are relatively common and if malunited, a frequent source of pain and disability. Nondisplaced fractures and fractures of the second to fourth metatarsal with displacement in the horizontal plane can be treated conservatively with protected weight bearing in a cast shoe for 4-6 weeks. In most displaced fractures, closed reduction can be achieved but maintenance of the reduction needs internal fixation. Percutaneous pinning is suitable for most fractures of the lesser metatarsals. Fractures with joint involvement and multiple fragments frequently require open reduction and plate fixation. Transverse fractures at the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction of the fifth metatarsal ("Jones fractures") require an individualized approach tailored to the level of activity and time to union. Avulsion fractures of the fifth metatarsal bone are treated by open reduction and tension-band wiring or screw fixation if displaced more than 2 mm or with more that 30% of the joint involved. The metatarsals are the most common site of stress fractures, most of which are treated nonoperatively. Symptomatic posttraumatic deformities need adequate correction, in most cases by osteotomy across the former fracture site.

  7. Girder Alignment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  8. Interstellar Dust Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Lazarian, A.; Vaillancourt, John E.

    2015-08-01

    Interstellar polarization at optical-to-infrared wavelengths is known to arise from asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. This effect provides a potentially powerful probe of magnetic field structure and strength if the details of the grain alignment can be reliably understood. Theory and observations have recently converged on a quantitative, predictive description of interstellar grain alignment based on radiative processes. The development of a general, analytical model for this radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory has allowed specific, testable predictions for realistic interstellar conditions. We outline the theoretical and observational arguments in favor of RAT alignment, as well as reasons the "classical" paramagnetic alignment mechanism is unlikely to work, except possibly for the very smallest grains. With further detailed characterization of the RAT mechanism, grain alignment and polarimetry promise to not only better constrain the interstellar magnetic field but also provide new information on the dust characteristics.

  9. Alignment of atmospheric mineral dust due to electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Bailey, J.; Lucas, P. W.; Hough, J. H.; Hirst, E.

    2007-12-01

    Optical polarimetry observations on La Palma, Canary Islands, during a Saharan dust episode show dichroic extinction indicating the presence of vertically aligned particles in the atmosphere. Modelling of the extinction together with particle orientation indicates that the alignment could have been due to an electric field of the order of 2 kV/m. Two alternative mechanisms for the origin of the field are examined: the effect of reduced atmospheric conductivity and charging of the dust layer, the latter effect being a more likely candidate. It is concluded that partial alignment may be a common feature of Saharan dust layers. The modelling indicates that the alignment can significantly alter dust optical depth. This "Venetian blind effect" may have decreased optical thickness in the vertical direction by as much as 10% for the case reported here. It is also possible that the alignment and the electric field modify dust transport.

  10. Applications of fractured continuum model to enhanced geothermal system heat extraction problems.

    PubMed

    Kalinina, Elena A; Klise, Katherine A; McKenna, Sean A; Hadgu, Teklu; Lowry, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the applications of the fractured continuum model to the different enhanced geothermal systems reservoir conditions. The capability of the fractured continuum model to generate fracture characteristics expected in enhanced geothermal systems reservoir environments are demonstrated for single and multiple sets of fractures. Fracture characteristics are defined by fracture strike, dip, spacing, and aperture. The paper demonstrates how the fractured continuum model can be extended to represent continuous fractured features, such as long fractures, and the conditions in which the fracture density varies within the different depth intervals. Simulations of heat transport using different fracture settings were compared with regard to their heat extraction effectiveness. The best heat extraction was obtained in the case when fractures were horizontal. A conventional heat extraction scheme with vertical wells was compared to an alternative scheme with horizontal wells. The heat extraction with the horizontal wells was significantly better than with the vertical wells when the injector was at the bottom.

  11. Management of malunited mandibular condylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Rubens, B C; Stoelinga, P J; Weaver, T J; Blijdorp, P A

    1990-02-01

    The non-surgical treatment of mandibular condylar fractures, may occasionally result in articular imbalance and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. This may be attributed to condylar head displacement and resorption, resulting in a shortened vertical ramus and lost posterior vertical facial height. Restoring the vertical ramus height is essential in the treatment of such dysfunction, and may be accomplished by unilateral, or bilateral ramus osteotomies. Four examples of patients treated with mandibular ramus osteotomies to restore vertical ramus height, with subsequent improvement in occlusal balance and function are presented. The use of the sagittal split mandibular osteotomy and the external vertical ramus osteotomy, stabilized with small osseous plates, and monocortical screws, is discussed.

  12. Hydraulic-fracture propagation in layered rock: experimental studies of fracture containment

    SciTech Connect

    Teufel, L. W.; Clark, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Fracture geometry is an important concern in the design of a massive hydraulic fracture treatment for improved natural gas recovery from tight gas sands. Possible prediction of vertical fracture growth and containment in layered rock requires an improved understanding of the parameters which may control fracture growth across layer interfaces. We have conducted laboratory hydraulic fracture experiments and elastic finite element studies which show that at least two distinct geologic conditions may inhibit or contain the vertical growth of hydraulic fractures in layered rock; (1) a weak interfacial shear strength of the layers and (2) a compressional increase in the minimum horizontal stress in the bounding layer. The second condition is more important and more likely to occur at depth. Variations in the horizontal stress can result from differences in elastic properties of individual layers in a layered rock sequence. A compressional increase in the minimum horizontal stress can occur in going from high shear modulus into low shear modulus layers.

  13. Seawater intrusion in fractured coastal aquifers: A preliminary numerical investigation using a fractured Henry problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebben, Megan L.; Werner, Adrian D.; Graf, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Despite that fractured coastal aquifers are widespread, the influence of fracture characteristics on seawater intrusion (SWI) has not been explored in previous studies. This research uses numerical modelling in a first step towards understanding the influence of fracture orientation, location and density on the extent of seawater and accompanying patterns of groundwater discharge in an idealised coastal aquifer. Specifically, aquifers containing single fractures or networks of regularly spaced fractures are studied using modified forms of the Henry SWI benchmark problem. The applicability of equivalent porous media (EPM) models for representing simple fracture networks in steady-state simulations of SWI is tested. The results indicate that the influence of fractures on SWI is likely to be mixed, ranging from enhancement to reduction in seawater extent and the width of the mixing zone. For the conceptual models considered here, vertical fractures in contact with the seawater wedge increase the width of the mixing zone, whereas vertical fractures inland of the wedge have minimal impact on the seawater distribution. Horizontal fractures in the lower part of the aquifer force the wedge seaward, whereas horizontal fractures located within the zone of freshwater discharge enhance the wedge. Inclined fractures roughly parallel to the seawater-freshwater interface increase the landward extent of seawater and fractures perpendicular to the interface inhibit the wedge. The results show that EPM models are likely inadequate for inferring salinity distributions in most of the fractured cases, although the EPM approach may be suitable for orthogonal fracture networks if fracture density is high and appropriate dispersivity values can be determined.

  14. Fatigue Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Morris, James M.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue (or stress) fracture of bone in military recruits has been recognized for many years. Most often it is a metatarsal bone that is involved but the tarsal bones, calcaneus, tibia, fibula, femur, and pelvis are occasionally affected. Reports of such fractures in the ribs, ulna and vertebral bodies may be found in the literature. In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the occurrence of fatigue fractures in the civilian population. Weekend sportsmen, athletes in an early phase of training, and persons engaged in unaccustomed, repetitive, vigorous activity are potential victims of such a fracture. The signs and symptoms, roentgenographic findings, treatment and etiology of fatigue fractures are dealt with in this presentation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:5652745

  15. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  16. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies.

  17. Orthodontics and Aligners

    MedlinePlus

    ... Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth-Colored Fillings Orthodontics and Aligners Straighten teeth for a healthier smile. Orthodontics When consumers think about orthodontics, braces are the ...

  18. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  19. Alignability of Optical Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Russell Scott

    With the continuing drive towards higher speed, density, and functionality in electronics, electrical interconnects become inadequate. Due to optics' high speed and bandwidth, freedom from capacitive loading effects, and freedom from crosstalk, optical interconnects can meet more stringent interconnect requirements. But, an optical interconnect requires additional components, such as an optical source and detector, lenses, holographic elements, etc. Fabrication and assembly of an optical interconnect requires precise alignment of these components. The successful development and deployment of optical interconnects depend on how easily the interconnect components can be aligned and/or how tolerant the interconnect is to misalignments. In this thesis, a method of quantitatively specifying the relative difficulty of properly aligning an optical interconnect is described. Ways of using this theory of alignment to obtain design and packaging guidelines for optical interconnects are examined. The measure of the ease with which an optical interconnect can be aligned, called the alignability, uses the efficiency of power transfer as a measure of alignment quality. The alignability is related to interconnect package design through the overall cost measure, which depends upon various physical parameters of the interconnect, such as the cost of the components and the time required for fabrication and alignment. Through a mutual dependence on detector size, the relationship between an interconnect's alignability and its bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and bit-error -rate is examined. The results indicate that a range of device sizes exists for which given performance threshold values are satisfied. Next, the alignability of integrated planar-optic backplanes is analyzed in detail. The resulting data show that the alignability can be optimized by varying the substrate thickness or the angle of reflection. By including the effects of crosstalk, in a multi-channel backplane, the

  20. A simplified approach to design of fracturing treatments using high viscosity cross-linked fluids

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, H.O.

    1983-03-01

    Simple models are presented to evaluate or design hydraulic fracturing treatments using perfect transport fluids. The fracture geometry program calculates dimensions of a vertically contained fracture and the expected productivity ratio for the fractured well. A sand concentration program helps schedule sand to prevent sandouts and to ensure sufficient proppant at the wellbore.

  1. Desktop aligner for fabrication of multilayer microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yu, Zeta Tak For; Geraldo, Dalton; Weng, Shinuo; Alve, Nitesh; Dun, Wu; Kini, Akshay; Patel, Karan; Shu, Roberto; Zhang, Feng; Li, Gang; Jin, Qinghui; Fu, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Multilayer assembly is a commonly used technique to construct multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices with complex 3D architecture and connectivity for large-scale microfluidic integration. Accurate alignment of structure features on different PDMS layers before their permanent bonding is critical in determining the yield and quality of assembled multilayer microfluidic devices. Herein, we report a custom-built desktop aligner capable of both local and global alignments of PDMS layers covering a broad size range. Two digital microscopes were incorporated into the aligner design to allow accurate global alignment of PDMS structures up to 4 in. in diameter. Both local and global alignment accuracies of the desktop aligner were determined to be about 20 μm cm(-1). To demonstrate its utility for fabrication of integrated multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices, we applied the desktop aligner to achieve accurate alignment of different functional PDMS layers in multilayer microfluidics including an organs-on-chips device as well as a microfluidic device integrated with vertical passages connecting channels located in different PDMS layers. Owing to its convenient operation, high accuracy, low cost, light weight, and portability, the desktop aligner is useful for microfluidic researchers to achieve rapid and accurate alignment for generating multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices.

  2. Desktop aligner for fabrication of multilayer microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Yu, Zeta Tak For; Geraldo, Dalton; Weng, Shinuo; Alve, Nitesh; Dun, Wu; Kini, Akshay; Patel, Karan; Shu, Roberto; Zhang, Feng; Li, Gang; Jin, Qinghui; Fu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Multilayer assembly is a commonly used technique to construct multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices with complex 3D architecture and connectivity for large-scale microfluidic integration. Accurate alignment of structure features on different PDMS layers before their permanent bonding is critical in determining the yield and quality of assembled multilayer microfluidic devices. Herein, we report a custom-built desktop aligner capable of both local and global alignments of PDMS layers covering a broad size range. Two digital microscopes were incorporated into the aligner design to allow accurate global alignment of PDMS structures up to 4 in. in diameter. Both local and global alignment accuracies of the desktop aligner were determined to be about 20 μm cm−1. To demonstrate its utility for fabrication of integrated multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices, we applied the desktop aligner to achieve accurate alignment of different functional PDMS layers in multilayer microfluidics including an organs-on-chips device as well as a microfluidic device integrated with vertical passages connecting channels located in different PDMS layers. Owing to its convenient operation, high accuracy, low cost, light weight, and portability, the desktop aligner is useful for microfluidic researchers to achieve rapid and accurate alignment for generating multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices. PMID:26233409

  3. Desktop aligner for fabrication of multilayer microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yu, Zeta Tak For; Geraldo, Dalton; Weng, Shinuo; Alve, Nitesh; Dun, Wu; Kini, Akshay; Patel, Karan; Shu, Roberto; Zhang, Feng; Li, Gang; Jin, Qinghui; Fu, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Multilayer assembly is a commonly used technique to construct multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices with complex 3D architecture and connectivity for large-scale microfluidic integration. Accurate alignment of structure features on different PDMS layers before their permanent bonding is critical in determining the yield and quality of assembled multilayer microfluidic devices. Herein, we report a custom-built desktop aligner capable of both local and global alignments of PDMS layers covering a broad size range. Two digital microscopes were incorporated into the aligner design to allow accurate global alignment of PDMS structures up to 4 in. in diameter. Both local and global alignment accuracies of the desktop aligner were determined to be about 20 μm cm(-1). To demonstrate its utility for fabrication of integrated multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices, we applied the desktop aligner to achieve accurate alignment of different functional PDMS layers in multilayer microfluidics including an organs-on-chips device as well as a microfluidic device integrated with vertical passages connecting channels located in different PDMS layers. Owing to its convenient operation, high accuracy, low cost, light weight, and portability, the desktop aligner is useful for microfluidic researchers to achieve rapid and accurate alignment for generating multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices. PMID:26233409

  4. Density-surfactant-motivated removal of DNAPL trapped in dead-end fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, In Wook; Ji, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2003-05-01

    Three kinds of experiments were conducted to test existing methods and develop an effective methodology for the remediation of DNAPL trapped in vertical dead-end fractures. A water-flushing method failed to remove TCE from vertical dead-end fractures where no fluid flow occurs. A water-flushing experiment implies that existing remediation methods, utilizing water-based remedial fluid such as surfactant-enhanced method, have difficulty in removing DNAPL trapped from the vertical downward dead-end fractures, because of no water flow through dead-end fractures, capillary, and gravity forces. Fluid denser than TCE was injected into the fracture network, but did not displace TCE from the vertical dead-end fractures. Based on the analysis of the experiments, the increase in the density of the dense fluid and the addition of surfactant to the dense fluid were suggested, and this composite dense fluid with surfactant effectively removed TCE from the vertical dead-end fractures.

  5. Measuring hydraulic fracture width behind casing using radioactive proppant

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, J.S.; Fisher, K.; Holcomb, D.

    1996-09-01

    Knowing the width of hydraulic fracture behind casing can be useful in evaluating both reservoir performance and fracture design methods. This paper presents a method to obtain the widths of hydraulic fractures behind casing using radioactive, isotope-traced proppants. A tool-specific relationship between the gamma ray flux detected in a wellbore and the fracture width was developed using Monte Carlo simulation of gamma ray transport around a wellbore. This method provides fracture width estimates with a vertical resolution of about one foot. The method has been successfully used in the field and compares favorably with other methods for evaluating fracture widths.

  6. Monterey fractured reservoir, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    SciTech Connect

    Belfield, W.C.; Helwig, J.; La Pointe, P.R.; Dahleen, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    The South Elwood field in the Santa Barbara Channel is a faulted anticline with cumulative production of 14.5 million bbl from the Monterey Formation as of September 1, 1982. The distributions of pressure, flow rates, and oil-water contacts and the low average matrix permeability of 0.2 md require a fractured reservoir. Core and outcrop studies show a dominant fracture set characterized by vertical, lithologically controlled fractures oriented across strike, and breccias controlled by lithology and structure. Generally, the fracture intensity is unaffected by structural position or bed curvature but is controlled by lithology and bed thickness. Other varieties of fracturing in the Monterey are related to a protracted history of diagenesis, deformation, and fluid injection. Three types of tar-bearing breccias occur in the Monterey Formation: stratigraphic breccia, coalescent-fracture breccia, and fault-related breccia. Formation of breccias probably involves high pore pressures. Because of their polygenetic origin, breccia masses have diverse orientations paralleling bedding or fracture/fault systems. In conclusions, fracturing and brecciation of the Monterey Formation reflect the interplay between processes of diagenesis, deformation, and fluid dynamics. The most important features of the reservoir in the area of the present study are: (1) vertical fractures oriented normal to the structural trends and inferred to be favorably oriented (to remain open) with respect to the regional minimum horizontal stress; and (2) breccias that are both stratigraphically and structurally controlled and inferred to be related to the interaction of rock stress and fluid dynamics.

  7. Measuring the vertical permeability of horizontally- stratified sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Novakowski, K.S.; Lapcevic, P.A. ); Reichart, T.M. )

    1993-03-01

    The vertical permeability of horizontally stratified rocks is usually assumed to be significantly less than the permeability of horizontal structural features such as bedding plane partings and sheeting structure. Consequently it is also assumed that this type of media provides suitable vertical barriers to the migration of both aqueous and non-aqueous phase groundwater contaminants. To investigate this assumption, a site adjacent to an inactive dolostone quarry was instrumented using nine boreholes drilled to a depth of approximately 25 m in a 30 x 30 m area. The area is immediately underlain by flat-lying thick-bedded dolostones of Middle-Silurian age. Six of the boreholes were drilled at angle of 45[degree] to intersect two vertical fracture sets oriented at 020[degree] and 110[degree] which were identified by mapping the fractures in the quarry. Detailed hydraulic tests (constant-head method) were conducted in each of the boreholes using a packer spacing of 0.5 m to determine the hydraulic properties of the individual horizontal and vertical fractures and fracture zones. In addition, four pumping tests were conducted in which a fracture zone in one of the vertical boreholes was shut-in and pumped and the hydraulic response was monitored in the observation boreholes using pressure transducer installed in 15 intervals isolated with multiple-packer strings. The results of the constant-head tests show that although the groundwater flow system in the dolostone is dominated by 3--4 horizontal fracture zones, the average permeability of the vertical fractures is only one order of magnitude less than the average permeability of the horizontal fractures. However, this aspect of the flow system is not detected using pumping tests, the results of which suggest that the average permeability is 3--4 orders of magnitude less in the vertical direction.

  8. Hole-Aligning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Frank A.; Saude, Frank; Sep, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    Tool designed for use in aligning holes in plates or other structural members to be joined by bolt through holes. Holes aligned without exerting forces perpendicular to planes of holes. Tool features screw-driven-wedge design similar to (but simpler than) that of some automotive exhaust-pipe-expanding tools.

  9. Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods: Effect of Synthesis Parameters.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Zeeshan Ur; Heo, Si-Nae; Cho, Hyeon Ji; Koo, Bon Heun

    2016-06-01

    This report is devoted to the synthesis of high quality nanorods using spin coating technique for seed layer growth. Effect of different parameter i.e., spins coating counts, spin coating speed, and the effect of temperature during the drying process was analyzed. Hot plate and furnace technique was used for heating purpose and the difference in the morphology was carefully observed. It is worthy to mention here that there is a substantial effect of all the above mentioned parameters on the growth and morphology of the ZnO nanostructure. The ZnO nanorods were finally synthesized using wet chemical method. The morphological properties of the obtained nanostructures were analyzed by using FESEM technique. PMID:27427752

  10. A Quantitative Comparison of Fracture Attributes and Fracture Patterns: Insights From Deformation Bands and Basement-hosted Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awdal, A. H.; Healy, D.; Alsop, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fractures can act as conduits or barriers to fluid flow, and understanding the geometrical attributes of individual fractures and their patterns is a crucial step in quantifying their connectivity. The quantification of fracture attributes and fracture patterns from outcrop analogues can guide the construction of testable expressions for multidimensional scaling relationships. These relationships may offer a key to better fracture prediction in the subsurface. Deformation band and basement fracture datasets have been collected from selected outcrops with a variety of sub-horizontal and sub-vertical rock faces. Cataclastic deformation bands and their patterns have been mapped and quantified in outcrops of aeolian sandstones of the Entrada formation in SE Utah (USA) and Hopeman formation in Moray (Scotland). Basement-hosted fracture data has been collected from outcrops of Lewisian gneiss and Torridonian sandstone in Clachtoll (Scotland), and Moine gneiss and Devonian sandstone in Portskerra (Scotland). Fracture orientations and spacing have been measured from maps, sections and linear scanlines, and fracture intensity, density and mean trace lengths have all been estimated through the application of the circular scan window method. Fracture trace angles and lengths have been calculated from 2D maps and sections using custom image analysis software. In addition, we have quantified the geometrical attributes of lozenges and lenses, the area or volume of relatively undeformed rock situated between two strands of a composite deformation band. We have investigated the statistical trends among different lozenge and lens datasets (Goblin Valley, Hopeman, Bartlett Wash) and explored their potential correlation to other attributes of the fracture pattern and petrophysical properties. Quantitative statistical analysis of these natural fracture datasets from 3 approximately orthogonal planes will allow us to test multidimensional scaling relationships of fracture attributes

  11. Deviations From Optimal Alignment in TKA: Is There a Biomechanical Difference Between Femoral or Tibial Component Alignment?

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Bernardo; Bellemans, Johan; Catani, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of neutral mechanical alignment is one of the prerequisites for long-term TKA survival. This study aimed to investigate the effect of deviations from neutral alignment on bone and implant stress and on ligament strain. Using a previously validated finite element model, a neutrally aligned TKA model was compared to 3 different varus and valgus configurations induced by tibial or by femoral component only and by both component simultaneously. Each model underwent a 2500 N vertical load simulating the peak walking force. Varus and valgus alignment increased polyethylene and bone stress, and altered ligament strains, as compared to the neutral aligned model. Changes in alignment of the tibial component were always associated with more detrimental effects compared to the one of the femoral component.

  12. An overview of management of root fractures.

    PubMed

    Prithviraj, D R; Bhalla, H K; Vashisht, R; Regish, K M; Suresh, P

    2014-01-01

    Crown or root fractures are the most commonly encountered emergencies in the dental clinic. Root fractures occur in fewer than eight percent of the traumatic injuries to permanent teeth. They are broadly classified as horizontal and vertical root fractures. Correct diagnosis of root fractures is essential to ensure a proper treatment plan and hence, the best possible prognosis. Indication of the type of treatment to be used depends primarily on the level of the fracture line. Therefore, a clinician must also have a thorough knowledge of the various treatment approaches to devise a treatment plan accordingly. Various treatment strategies have been proposed, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Hence, this literature review presents an overview of the various types of root fractures and their management.

  13. Fracture Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... to hold the fracture in the correct position. • Fiberglass casting is lighter and stronger and the exterior ... with your physician if this occurs. • When a fiberglass cast is used in conjunction with a GORE- ...

  14. Lisfranc fractures.

    PubMed

    Wright, Amanda; Gerhart, Ann E

    2009-01-01

    Injuries of the tarsometatarsal, or Lisfranc, joint are rarely seen. Lisfranc fractures and fracture dislocations are among the most frequently misdiagnosed foot injuries in the emergency department. A misdiagnosed injury may have severe consequences including chronic pain and loss of foot biomechanics. Evaluation of a foot injury should include a high level of suspicion of a Lisfranc injury, and a thorough work-up is needed for correct diagnosis.

  15. Alignment of atmospheric mineral dust due to electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Bailey, J.; Lucas, P. W.; Hough, J. H.; Hirst, E.

    2007-09-01

    Optical polarimetry observations on La Palma, Canary Islands, during a Saharan dust episode show dichroic extinction consistent with the presence of vertically aligned particles in the atmosphere. Modelling of the extinction together with particle orientation indicates that the alignment could have been due to an electric field of the order of 2 kV/m. Two alternative mechanisms for the origin of the field are examined: the effect of reduced atmospheric conductivity and charging of the dust layer, the latter effect being a more likely candidate. It is concluded that partial alignment may be a common feature of Saharan dust layers. The modelling also indicates that the alignment can significantly alter dust optical depth. This "Venetian blind effect" may have decreased optical thickness in the vertical direction by as much as 10% for the case reported here.

  16. Novel Matricing Technique for Management of Fractured Cusp Conundrum – A Clinician’s Corner

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Priya Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal tooth fracture can be classified as craze lines, fractured cusp, cracked tooth, split tooth and vertical root fracture based on extent and severity of the fracture line. The most common type of longitudinal tooth fracture is fractured cusp that poses the treatment dilemma. Retention of the fractured cusp segment temporarily with matrix band followed by permanent bonded restoration and finally removal of tooth fragment during crown preparation is a novel technique. This paper throws light on a matricing and holding technique for the management of supra-crestally fractured palatal cusp of maxillary first premolar in a 29-year-old Asian male. PMID:27190970

  17. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Nelson E.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

  18. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  19. Galaxy Alignments: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, Benjamin; Cacciato, Marcello; Kitching, Thomas D.; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Hoekstra, Henk; Kiessling, Alina; Kirk, Donnacha; Rassat, Anais

    2015-11-01

    The alignments between galaxies, their underlying matter structures, and the cosmic web constitute vital ingredients for a comprehensive understanding of gravity, the nature of matter, and structure formation in the Universe. We provide an overview on the state of the art in the study of these alignment processes and their observational signatures, aimed at a non-specialist audience. The development of the field over the past one hundred years is briefly reviewed. We also discuss the impact of galaxy alignments on measurements of weak gravitational lensing, and discuss avenues for making theoretical and observational progress over the coming decade.

  20. Radiative Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    Polarization due to aligned dust grains was discovered in the interstellar medium more than 60 years ago. A quantitative, observationally well tested theory of the phenomenon has finally emerged in the last decade, promising not only an improved understanding of interstellar magnetic fields, but new tools for studying the dust environments and grain characteristics. This Radiative Alignment Torque (RAT) theory also has many potential applications in solar system physics, including for comet dust characteristics. I will review the main aspects of the theory and the observational tests performed to date, as well as some of the new possibilities for using polarization as a tool to study dust and its environment, with RAT alignment.

  1. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  2. Melt fracture revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J. M.

    2003-07-16

    In a previous paper the author and Demay advanced a model to explain the melt fracture instability observed when molten linear polymer melts are extruded in a capillary rheometer operating under the controlled condition that the inlet flow rate was held constant. The model postulated that the melts were a slightly compressible viscous fluid and allowed for slipping of the melt at the wall. The novel feature of that model was the use of an empirical switch law which governed the amount of wall slip. The model successfully accounted for the oscillatory behavior of the exit flow rate, typically referred to as the melt fracture instability, but did not simultaneously yield the fine scale spatial oscillations in the melt typically referred to as shark skin. In this note a new model is advanced which simultaneously explains the melt fracture instability and shark skin phenomena. The model postulates that the polymer is a slightly compressible linearly viscous fluid but assumes no slip boundary conditions at the capillary wall. In simple shear the shear stress {tau}and strain rate d are assumed to be related by d = F{tau} where F ranges between F{sub 2} and F{sub 1} > F{sub 2}. A strain rate dependent yield function is introduced and this function governs whether F evolves towards F{sub 2} or F{sub 1}. This model accounts for the empirical observation that at high shears polymers align and slide more easily than at low shears and explains both the melt fracture and shark skin phenomena.

  3. Cement augmentation in vertebral burst fractures.

    PubMed

    Zaryanov, Anton V; Park, Daniel K; Khalil, Jad G; Baker, Kevin C; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    As a result of axial compression, traumatic vertebral burst fractures disrupt the anterior column, leading to segmental instability and cord compression. In situations with diminished anterior column support, pedicle screw fixation alone may lead to delayed kyphosis, nonunion, and hardware failure. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty (balloon-assisted vertebroplasty) have been used in an effort to provide anterior column support in traumatic burst fractures. Cited advantages are providing immediate stability, improving pain, and reducing hardware malfunction. When used in isolation or in combination with posterior instrumentation, these techniques theoretically allow for improved fracture reduction and maintenance of spinal alignment while avoiding the complications and morbidity of anterior approaches. Complications associated with cement use (leakage, systemic effects) are similar to those seen in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures; however, extreme caution must be used in fractures with a disrupted posterior wall.

  4. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.

    1985-02-01

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head.

  5. Seismic and well log characterization of fractures for geothermal exploration in hard rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleardi, Mattia; Mazzotti, Alfredo; Tognarelli, Andrea; Ciuffi, Simonetta; Casini, Michele

    2015-10-01

    We study the well log and seismic responses of intensively fractured portions of deep intrusive/metamorphic rocks in southern Tuscany (Italy), which constitute the main drilling targets of the geothermal exploration in the Larderello-Travale area. In particular, the target we consider is located near the contact between a deep Pliocene granitic intrusion and the overlying Palaeozoic metamorphic basement. Sonic, density and borehole image logs are analysed together with post-stack reflection attributes and reflection amplitude versus source to receiver azimuth (AVAZ) responses. It turns out that the intense fracturing in the contact zone causes significant decreases in the density and P-wave velocity, and that fracture planes exhibit very high dips and a common preferential direction. The fractured zone found by the well coincides with peculiar alignments of high-amplitude signals in the 3-D seismic stack volume, which are particularly visible on the reflection strength and instantaneous phase time slices. The normal incidence synthetic seismogram based on the log data matches the observed stack trace nearest to the well and confirms that the high-amplitude reflection occurs at the fractured zone. We then consider the pre-stack domain to study the same reflections on bin gathers that are close to the well and coincident with the anomalies in the 3-D volume. In particular, we perform AVAZ analysis to detect possible anisotropic features in the reflected amplitudes due to the preferential orientation of the fractures, and we study the effect of crack density on the seismic responses and on velocity and density values. To this end, we build simplified models where a level with vertical fractures is encased in tight isotropic rocks. Notwithstanding the suboptimal quality of the seismic data, we estimate the overall matching between the borehole information and the seismic response as fair. In particular, the azimuthal amplitude variation of the reflections from the

  6. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Daily, PNNL

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  7. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprintmore » that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.« less

  8. Characterization and significance of natural fractures in Mesaverde reservoirs at the Multiwell Experiment site

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, S.J.; Lorenz, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Natural fractures dominate the permeability of tight gas reservoirs in the Mesaverde Formation of the Piceance Creek Basin, northwestern Colorado. Roughly 450 natural fractures have been detected in reservoir sandstones and siltstones in 4200 ft of core from the US Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Sixty percent of the fractures are calcite-mineralized, vertical extension fractures that are probably the greatest contributors to reservoir permeability. However, the contribution of the other mineralized fractures should not be discounted. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Simulation of exposure and alignment for nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunfei; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2002-07-01

    Rigorous electromagnetic simulation with TEMPEST is used to examine the exposure and alignment processes for nano-imprint lithography with attenuating thin-film molds. Parameters in the design of topographical features of the nano-imprint system and material choices of the components are analyzed. The small feature size limits light transmission through the feature. While little can be done with auxiliary structures to attract light into small holes, the use of an absorbing material with a low real part of the refractive index such as silver helps mitigates the problem. Results on complementary alignment marks shows that the small transmission through the metal layer and the vertical separation of two alignment marks create the leakage equivalent to 1 nm misalignment but satisfactory alignment can be obtained by measuring alignment signals over a +/- 30 nm range.

  10. PDV Probe Alignment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

    2007-10-26

    This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes

  11. Galeazzi fracture.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc I; Jupiter, Jesse B; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2011-10-01

    Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the radial diaphysis with disruption at the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Typically, the mechanism of injury is forceful axial loading and torsion of the forearm. Diagnosis is established on radiographic evaluation. Underdiagnosis is common because disruption of the ligamentous restraints of the DRUJ may be overlooked. Nonsurgical management with anatomic reduction and immobilization in a long-arm cast has been successful in children. In adults, nonsurgical treatment typically fails because of deforming forces acting on the distal radius and DRUJ. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred surgical option. Anatomic reduction and rigid fixation should be followed by intraoperative assessment of the DRUJ. Further intraoperative interventions are based on the reducibility and postreduction stability of the DRUJ. Misdiagnosis or inadequate management of Galeazzi fracture may result in disabling complications, such as DRUJ instability, malunion, limited forearm range of motion, chronic wrist pain, and osteoarthritis.

  12. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  13. Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures in infants under 1 year old is child abuse. Child abuse is also a leading cause of thighbone fracture ... contact sports • Being in a motor vehicle accident • Child abuse Types of Femur Fractures (Classification) Femur fractures vary ...

  14. Seismic attenuation in fractured porous media: insights from a hybrid numerical and analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekanem, A. M.; Li, X. Y.; Chapman, M.; Main, I. G.

    2015-04-01

    Seismic attenuation in fluid-saturated porous rocks can occur by geometric spreading, wave scattering or the internal dissipation of energy, most likely due to the squirt-flow mechanism. In principle, the pattern of seismic attenuation recorded on an array of sensors contains information about the medium, in terms of material heterogeneity and anisotropy, as well as material properties such as porosity, crack density, and pore-fluid composition and mobility. In practice, this inverse problem is challenging. Here we provide some insights into the effects of internal dissipation by analysing synthetic data produced by a hybrid numerical and analytical model for seismic wave propagation in a fractured medium embedded within a layered geological structure. The model is made up of one anisotropic and three isotropic horizontal layers. The anisotropic layer consists of a porous, fluid-saturated material containing vertically aligned inclusions representing a set of fractures. This combination allows squirt-flow to occur between the pores in the matrix and the model fractures. Our results show that the fluid mobility and the associated relaxation time of the fluid-pressure gradient control the frequency range over which attenuation occurs. This induced attenuation increases with incidence angle and azimuth away from the fracture strike-direction. Azimuthal variations in the induced attenuation are elliptical allowing the fracture orientations to be obtained from the axes of the ellipse. These observations hold out the potential of using seismic attenuation as an additional diagnostic in the characterisation of rock formations for a variety of applications including hydrocarbon exploration and production, subsurface storage of CO2, and geothermal energy extraction.

  15. Pubic and sacral insufficiency fractures: clinical course and radiologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Neff, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    Distinctive vertical insufficiency fractures of the pelvis were found in nine osteopenic patients. Each patient had subacute pelvic pain without antecedent trauma. The sacral fractures healed fairly quickly, but the pubic fractures often had a protracted course. All nine patients had skeletal demineralization due to metabolic bone disease, radiation therapy, or multiple myeloma. Recognition of the association between public and sacral insufficiently fractures should aid in recognizing the diffuse nature of the skeletal disease so that unnecessary biopsy of the fracture sites can be avoided. Plain films, tomographic scans, and radionuclide bone scans are reviewed.

  16. Vertical Sextants give Good Sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark

    Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

  17. Steering epitaxial alignment of Au, Pd, and AuPd nanowire arrays by atom flux change.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Youngdong; Seo, Kwanyong; Han, Sol; Varadwaj, Kumar S K; Kim, Hyun You; Ryu, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Ahn, Jae Pyoung; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kim, Bongsoo

    2010-02-10

    We have synthesized epitaxial Au, Pd, and AuPd nanowire arrays in vertical or horizontal alignment on a c-cut sapphire substrate. We show that the vertical and horizontal nanowire arrays grow from half-octahedral seeds by the correlations of the geometry and orientation of seed crystals with those of as-grown nanowires. The alignment of nanowires can be steered by changing the atom flux. At low atom deposition flux vertical nanowires grow, while at high atom flux horizontal nanowires grow. Similar vertical/horizontal epitaxial growth is also demonstrated on SrTiO(3) substrates. This orientation-steering mechanism is visualized by molecular dynamics simulations.

  18. Optics Alignment Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The Optics Alignment Panel (OAP) was commissioned by the HST Science Working Group to determine the optimum alignment of the OTA optics. The goal was to find the position of the secondary mirror (SM) for which there is no coma or astigmatism in the camera images due to misaligned optics, either tilt or decenter. The despace position was reviewed of the SM and the optimum focus was sought. The results of these efforts are as follows: (1) the best estimate of the aligned position of the SM in the notation of HDOS is (DZ,DY,TZ,TY) = (+248 microns, +8 microns, +53 arcsec, -79 arcsec), and (2) the best focus, defined to be that despace which maximizes the fractional energy at 486 nm in a 0.1 arcsec radius of a stellar image, is 12.2 mm beyond paraxial focus. The data leading to these conclusions, and the estimated uncertainties in the final results, are presented.

  19. Barrel alignment fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeley, J. D.

    1981-04-01

    Fabrication of slapper type detonator cables requires bonding of a thin barrel over a bridge. Location of the barrel hole with respect to the bridge is critical: the barrel hole must be centered over the bridge uniform spacing on each side. An alignment fixture which permits rapid adjustment of the barrel position with respect to the bridge is described. The barrel is manipulated by pincer-type fingers which are mounted on a small x-y table equipped with micrometer adjustments. Barrel positioning, performed under a binocular microscopy, is rapid and accurate. After alignment, the microscope is moved out of position and an infrared (IR) heat source is aimed at the barrel. A 5-second pulse of infrared heat flows the adhesive under the barrel and bonds it to the cable. Sapphire and Fotoform glass barrels were bonded successfully with the alignment fixture.

  20. Magnetically aligned supramolecular hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Matthew; Cardoso, Andre Zamith; Frith, William J; Iggo, Jonathan A; Adams, Dave J

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic-field-induced alignment of the fibrillar structures present in an aqueous solution of a dipeptide gelator, and the subsequent retention of this alignment upon transformation to a hydrogel upon the addition of CaCl2 or upon a reduction in solution pH is reported. Utilising the switchable nature of the magnetic field coupled with the slow diffusion of CaCl2 , it is possible to precisely control the extent of anisotropy across a hydrogel, something that is generally very difficult to do using alternative methods. The approach is readily extended to other compounds that form viscous solutions at high pH. It is expected that this work will greatly expand the utility of such low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWG) in areas where alignment is key. PMID:25345918