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Sample records for aligned zno nrs

  1. Schottky-contacted vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods for hydrogen gas nanosensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ranwa, Sapana; Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Jitendra; Fanetti, Mattia

    2015-07-21

    Vertically well aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on Si(100) substrate using RF magnetron sputtering technique. Scanning electron microscopy images confirms uniform distribution of NRs on 2 in. wafer with average diameter, height and density being ∼75 nm, ∼850 nm, and ∼1.5 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}, respectively. X-ray diffraction reveals that the ZnO NRs are grown along c-axis direction with wurtzite crystal structure. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, which shows a single strong peak around 3.24 eV with full width half maxima 130 meV, indicates the high crystalline and optical quality of ZnO and very low defect density. Vertically aligned nanosensors were fabricated by depositing gold circular Schottky contacts on ZnO NRs. Resistance responses of nanosensors were observed in the range from 50 to 150 °C in 1% and 5% hydrogen in argon environment, which is below and above the explosive limit (4%) of hydrogen in air. The nanosensor's sensitivity increases from 11% to 67% with temperature from 50 to 150 °C and also shows fast response time (9–16 s) and moderate recovery time (100–200 s). A sensing mechanism is proposed based on Schottky barrier changes at heterojunctions and change in depletion region of NRs.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on Schottky-contacted vertically aligned ZnO nanorod-based hydrogen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranwa, Sapana; Singh Barala, Surendra; Fanetti, Mattia; Kumar, Mahesh

    2016-08-01

    We report the impact of gamma irradiation on the performance of a gold Schottky-contacted ZnO nanorod-based hydrogen sensor. RF-sputtered vertically aligned highly c-axis-oriented ZnO NRs were grown on Si(100) substrate. X-ray diffraction shows no significant change in crystal structure at low gamma doses from 1 to 5 kGy. As gamma irradiation doses increase to 10 kGy, the single crystalline ZnO structure converts to polycrystalline. The photoluminescence spectra also shows suppression of the near-band emission peak and the huge wide-band spectrum indicates the generation of structural defects at high gamma doses. At 1 kGy, the hydrogen sensor response was enhanced from 67% to 77% for 1% hydrogen in pure argon at a 150 °C operating temperature. However, at 10 kGy, the relative response decreases to 33.5%. High gamma irradiation causes displacement damage and defects in ZnO NRs, and as a result, degrades the sensor’s performance as a result. Low gamma irradiation doses activate the ZnO NR surface through ionization, which enhances the sensor performance. The relative response of the hydrogen sensor was enhanced by ∼14.9% with respect to pristine ZnO using 1 kGy gamma ray treatment.

  3. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-05-06

    Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures.

  4. Liquid crystal alignment on ZnO nanostructure films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Mu-Zhe; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Jeng, Shie-Chang

    2016-03-01

    The study of liquid crystal (LC) alignment is important for fundamental researches and industrial applications. The tunable pretilt angles of liquid crystal (LC) molecules aligned on the inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure films with controllable surface wettability are demonstrated in this work. The ZnO nanostructure films are deposited on the ITO- glass substrates by the two-steps hydrothermal process, and their wettability can be modified by annealing. Our experimental results show that the pretilt angles of LCs on ZnO nanostructure films can be successfully adjusted over a wide range from ~90° to ~0° as the surface energy on the ZnO nanostructure films changes from ~30 to ~70 mJ/m. Finally we have applied this technique to fabricate a no-bias optically-compensated bend (OCB) LCD with ZnO nanostructure films annealed at 235 °C.

  5. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100) substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.) PMID:21899743

  6. Solution-processed Cu2ZnSnS4 superstrate solar cell using vertically aligned ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongwook; Yong, Kijung

    2014-02-14

    One-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are considered to be promising materials for use in thin film solar cells because of their high light harvesting and charge collection efficiencies. We firstly report enhanced photovoltaic performances in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells prepared using ZnO nanostructures. A CdS-coated, vertically well-aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) array was prepared via a hydrothermal reaction and nanocrystal layer deposition (NCLD) and was used as a transparent window/buffer layer in a CZTS thin film photovoltaic. A light absorber CZTS thin film was prepared on the CdS/ZnO NRs in air by depositing a non-toxic precursor solution that was annealed in two steps at temperatures up to 250 °C. The crystallized CZTS phase completely infiltrated the CdS/ZnO NR array. The nanostructured ZnO array provided improved light harvesting behavior compared to a thin film configuration by measuring UV-vis transmittance spectroscopy. The prepared CZTS/CdS/ZnO NR device exhibited a solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.2%, which is the highest efficiency yet reported for nanostructured superstrate CZTS solar cells.

  7. Defect-free ZnO nanorods for low temperature hydrogen sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ranwa, Sapana; Kumar, Mahesh; Kulriya, Pawan K.; Sahu, Vikas Kumar; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-11-24

    Uniformly distributed and defect-free vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) with high aspect ratio are deposited on Si by sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction along with transmission electron microscopy studies confirmed the single crystalline wurtzite structure of ZnO. Absence of wide band emission in photoluminescence spectra showed defect-free growth of ZnO NRs which was further conformed by diamagnetic behavior of the NRs. H{sub 2} sensing mechanism based on the change in physical dimension of channel is proposed to explain the fast response (∼21.6 s) and recovery times (∼27 s) of ZnO NRs/Si/ZnO NRs sensors. Proposed H{sub 2} sensor operates at low temperature (∼70 °C) unlike the existing high temperature (>150 °C) sensors.

  8. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S; Mane, Rajaram S; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-03-07

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.

  9. Development of Solution-Processed ZnO Nanorod Arrays Based Photodetectors and the Improvement of UV Photoresponse via AZO Seed Layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Xu, Jianping; Shi, Shaobo; Gao, Yanyan; Wang, Chang; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yin, Shougen; Li, Lan

    2016-08-31

    Designing a rational structure and developing an efficient fabrication technique for bottom-up devices offer a promising opportunity for achieving high-performance devices. In this work, we studied how Al-doped ZnO (AZO) seed layer films influence the morphology and optical and electrical properties for ZnO aligned nanorod arrays (NRs) and then the performance of ZnO NRs based ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs) with Au/ZnO NRs Schottky junctions and p-CuSCN/n-ZnO NRs heterojunctions. The PD with AZO thin film with 0.5 at. % Al doping (named as AZO (0.5%)) exhibited more excellent photoresponse properties than that with pristine ZnO and AZO (1%) thin films. This phenomenon can be ascribed to the good light transmission of the AZO layer, increased density of the NRs, and improved crystallinity of ZnO NRs. The PDs based on CuSCN/ZnO NRs heterojunctions showed good rectification characteristics in the dark and self-powered UV photoresponse properties with excellent stability and reproducibility under low-intensity illumination conditions. A large responsivity located at 365 nm of 22.5 mA/W was achieved for the PD with AZO (0.5%) thin film without applied bias. The internal electric field originated from p-CuSCN/n-ZnO NRs heterojunctions can separate photogenerated carriers in ZnO NRs and drift toward the corresponding electrode.

  10. The role of seeding in the morphology and wettability of ZnO nanorods films on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Juan; Onna, Diego; Sánchez, Luis; Marchi, M. Claudia; Candal, Roberto; Ponce, Silvia; Bilmes, Sara A.

    2013-08-01

    Spray pyrolysis (SP) and spray-gel (SG) techniques were used to deposit ZnO seeds on Fluor doped tin oxide glasses (FTO), heated at 350 °C or 130 °C, and PET heated at 90 °C. The effect of seeding on the morphology and wettability of ZnO nanorods (NRs) films grown by wet chemical methods was analyzed. The morphology and wettability of ZnO NRs films depend on the seeding process. SP seeds formed from zinc acetate dissolved in water ethanol mixtures yield vertically aligned ZnO NRs, whose diameters and dispersion size are determined by the ethanol/water ratio in the precursor solution. SG seeds formed from a methanol ZnO sol produce a ring patterned distribution on the FTO substrate. The drying of ZnO sol drops impinging on the substrate produces high density of seeds along a ring yielding textured films with NRs vertically oriented on the rings and multi-oriented outside them. This effect was not observed when ZnO NRs grown onto the ZnO/PET substrate, however rod diameter is related with the density of seeds. This way to control the density and diameter of NRs deposited onto a substrate modify the wettability and opens new possibilities for the design of tailored nanomaterials for photochemical applications. Both type of NRs films showed a strong luminescence emission in the UV and in the blue, associated with surface and intrinsic defects.

  11. Process of in situ forming well-aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays on wood substrate using a two-step bottom-up method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongzhuang; Fu, Yanchun; Yu, Haipeng; Liu, Yixing

    2013-10-01

    A good nanocrystal covering layer on wood can serve as a protective coating and present some new surface properties. In this study, well-aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) arrays were successfully grown on wood surface through a two-step bottom-up growth process. The process involved pre-sow seeds and subsequently their growing into NRs under hydrothermal environment. The interface incorporation between wood and ZnO colloid particles in the precursor solution during the seeding process was analyzed and demonstrated through a schematic. The growth process of forming well-aligned ZnO NRs was analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, which showed that the NRs elongated with increased reaction time. The effects of ZnO crystal form and capping agent on the growth process were studied through different viewpoints.

  12. Fundamental understanding of the growth, doping and characterization of aligned ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gang

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a II-VI semiconductor whose wide direct bandgap (3.37 eV) and large exciton binding energy (60 meV) make it compelling for optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, solar cells, and mechanical energy harvesting devices. One dimensional structures of ZnO (nanowires) have become significant due to their unique physical properties arising from quantum confinement, and they are ideal for studying transport mechanisms in one-dimensional systems. In this doctoral research work, ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays were synthesized on sapphire substrates through carbo-thermal reduction of ZnO powders, and the effects of growth parameters on the properties of ZnO NW arrays were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the phonon mode selection rules in wurtzite ZnO, confocal Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the alignment of ZnO NWs in an array, thereby complementing X-ray diffraction. Al doped ZnO NW arrays were achieved by mixing Al powder into the ZnO and graphite source mixture, and the presence of Al was confirmed by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The incorporation of Al had the effects of lowering the electrical resistivity, slightly deteriorating crystal quality and suppressing defect related green emission. Two models of ZnO NW growth were developed by establishing the relationship between NW length and diameter for undoped and Al doped ZnO NWs separately. The growth of undoped ZnO NWs followed the diffusion-induced model which was characterized by thin wires being longer than thick wires, while the growth of Al doped ZnO was controlled by Gibbs-Thomson effect which was characterized by thin wires being shorter than thin wires. Local electrode atom probe analysis of ZnO NWs was carried out to study the crystal stoichiometry and Al incorporation. Undoped ZnO NWs were found to be high purity with no detectable impurities

  13. Role of ZnO thin film in the vertically aligned growth of ZnO nanorods by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Nguyen Thanh; Noh, Jin-Seo; Park, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ZnO thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods was investigated. ZnO thin films were sputter-deposited on Si substrate with varying the thickness. ZnO nanorods were grown on the thin film using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 90 °C. The ZnO thin films showed granular structure and vertical roughness on the surface, which facilitated the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The average grain size and the surface roughness of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness, and this led to the increase in both the average diameter and the average length of vertically grown ZnO nanorods. In particular, it was found that the average diameter of ZnO nanorods was very close to the average grain size of ZnO thin film, confirming the role of ZnO film as a seed layer for the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The CBD growth on ZnO seed layers may provide a facile route to engineering vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays.

  14. Controlled growth of well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailova, I.; Gerbreders, V.; Bulanovs, A.; Tamanis, E.; Sledevskis, E.; Ogurcovs, A.; Sarajevs, P.

    2014-10-01

    The application prospect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures largely relies on the ability to grow nanoobjects with necessary geometry. In this study well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with a high density and uniformity were successfully synthesized on the glass substrates by a hydrothermal method at low-temperature. The aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine was used. The effect of seed layer (obtained by electrochemical method and by vacuum deposition method) on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. The morphological properties of the ZnO nanorods were also examined in accordance with varying the magnetron sputtering angle for ZnO seeds deposition. It is also shown that the electric field can control the direction of the growth of ZnO nanorods. Morphological, structural and compositional characterizations of obtained films were carried out by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis methods.

  15. Growth of well-aligned ZnO nanorods using auge catalyst by vapor phase transportation.

    PubMed

    Ha, S Y; Jung, M N; Park, S H; Ko, H J; Ko, H; Oh, D C; Yao, T; Chang, J H

    2006-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been achieved using new alloy (AuGe) catalyst. Zn powder was used as a source material and it was transported in a horizontal tube furnace onto an AuGe deposited Si substrates. The structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. ZnO nanorods grown at 650 degrees C on 53 nm thick AuGe layer show uniform shape with the length of 8 +/- 0.5 microm and the diameter of 150 +/- 5 nm. Also, the tilting angle of ZnO nanorods (+/- 5.5 degrees) is confirmed by HRXRD. High structural quality of the nanorods is conformed by the photoluminescence measurement. All samples show strong UV emission without considerable deep level emission. However, weak deep level emission appears at high (700 degrees C) temperature due to the increase of oxygen desertion.

  16. Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods: Effect of Synthesis Parameters.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Zeeshan Ur; Heo, Si-Nae; Cho, Hyeon Ji; Koo, Bon Heun

    2016-06-01

    This report is devoted to the synthesis of high quality nanorods using spin coating technique for seed layer growth. Effect of different parameter i.e., spins coating counts, spin coating speed, and the effect of temperature during the drying process was analyzed. Hot plate and furnace technique was used for heating purpose and the difference in the morphology was carefully observed. It is worthy to mention here that there is a substantial effect of all the above mentioned parameters on the growth and morphology of the ZnO nanostructure. The ZnO nanorods were finally synthesized using wet chemical method. The morphological properties of the obtained nanostructures were analyzed by using FESEM technique.

  17. Growth of aligned ZnO nanowires via modified atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuping; Li, Chengchen; Chen, Mingming; Yu, Xiao; Chang, Yunwei; Chen, Anqi; Zhu, Hai; Tang, Zikang

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report the growth of high-quality aligned ZnO nanowires via a facile atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The CVD reactor chamber used was more complicated than a conventional one due to the quartz boats loaded with sources (ZnO/C) and substrates being inserted into a semi-open quartz tube, and then placed inside the CVD reactor. The semi-open quartz tube played a very important role in growing the ZnO nanowires, and demonstrated that the transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber. Aligned ZnO nanowires were successfully obtained, though they were only found at substrates located upstream. The very high crystalline quality of the obtained ZnO nanowires was demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence investigations. Such ZnO nanowires with high crystalline quality may provide opportunities for the fabrication of ZnO-based nano-devices in future.

  18. Enhanced UV photosensitivity from rapid thermal annealed vertically aligned ZnO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report on the major improvement in UV photosensitivity and faster photoresponse from vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) by means of rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The ZnO NWs were grown by vapor-liquid-solid method and subsequently RTA treated at 700°C and 800°C for 120 s. The UV photosensitivity (photo-to-dark current ratio) is 4.5 × 103 for the as-grown NWs and after RTA treatment it is enhanced by a factor of five. The photocurrent (PC) spectra of the as-grown and RTA-treated NWs show a strong peak in the UV region and two other relatively weak peaks in the visible region. The photoresponse measurement shows a bi-exponential growth and bi-exponential decay of the PC from as-grown as well as RTA-treated ZnO NWs. The growth and decay time constants are reduced after the RTA treatment indicating a faster photoresponse. The dark current-voltage characteristics clearly show the presence of surface defects-related trap centers on the as-grown ZnO NWs and after RTA treatment it is significantly reduced. The RTA processing diminishes the surface defect-related trap centers and modifies the surface of the ZnO NWs, resulting in enhanced PC and faster photoresponse. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of RTA processing for achieving improved photosensitivity of ZnO NWs. PMID:21859456

  19. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of aligned Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} coated ZnO nanorods and Ge doped ZnO nanocombs

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yong; Meng Xia Chen Yiqing; Li Sen; Zhou Qingtao; Liang Xuemei; Feng Yi

    2008-07-01

    Aligned Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} coated ZnO nanorods and Ge doped ZnO nanocombs were synthesized on a silicon substrate by a simple thermal evaporation method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized nanostructure were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The growth of aligned Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} coated ZnO nanorods and Ge doped ZnO nanocombs follows a vapor-solid (VS) process. Photoluminescence properties were also investigated at room temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals the nanostructures have a sharp ultraviolet luminescence peak centered at 382 nm and a broad green luminescence peak centered at about 494 nm.

  20. Well-Aligned Arrays of Vertically Oriented ZnO Nanorod Films for Photocatalytic Degradation of Textile Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba; Nekoubin, Amin

    2011-05-01

    Well-aligned hexagonal ZnO nanorods arrays were synthesized via mild hydrothermal method under different conditions. A two-step approach was employed for the epitaxial growth of ZnO. First a ZnO seed layer was prepared by spin-coating process and then ZnO nanorods were deposited on it. The influences of growth time on the surface morphology, length, diameters and phase structure of ZnO rods films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photocatalytic degradation of X6G an anionic monoazo dye, in aqueous solutions, was investigated and the effects of hydrothermal process time were examined. The results showed that the ZnO nonorods film hydrothermal treated for 4 h have a very high photocatalytic performance.

  1. Controllable growth and characterization of highly aligned ZnO nanocolumnar thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuk, Zuhal; Rujisamphan, Nopporn; Murray, Roy; Bah, Mohamed; Tomakin, Murat; Shah, S. Ismat

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of growth conditions during magnetron sputtering on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films. Undoped ZnO thin films are deposited onto p-type Si (100) and corning 7059 glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering using a ZnO target in combination with various Ar-O2 sputtering gas mixtures at room temperature. The effect of the partial pressure of oxygen on the morphology of ZnO thin film structure and band alignment were investigated. Thickness, and therefore the growth rate of the samples measured from the cross-sectional SEM micrographs, is found to be strongly correlated with the oxygen partial pressure in the sputtering chamber. The optical transmittance spectrometry results show that the absorption edge shifts towards the longer wavelength at higher oxygen partial pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) used for determining the surface chemical structure and valence band offsets show that conduction band can be controlled by changing the sputtering atmosphere.

  2. Raman silent modes in vertically aligned undoped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara Venkatesh, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Jeganathan, K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of Raman silent modes of B1low (276 cm-1) and B1high (582 cm-1) in vertically aligned ZnO nanorods due to the breakdown of translational symmetry. The structural studies reveal the high crystalline nature of the ZnO nanorods on the lattice mismatched silicon substrates. The dominant donor bound exciton emission and the phonon replicas signify the good quality of the nanorods which substantiate that the anomalous Raman modes could not be attributed to the intrinsic point defects. Further, our results show that the observed silent modes of wurtzite-ZnO become Raman active due to the breakdown of the wave-vector selection rule by loss of translational symmetry induced by nanorods geometry.

  3. Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous GaN and ZnO Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hybertsen, Mark S.; Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.

    2014-03-01

    Electronic energy level alignment at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces is fundamental to electrochemical activity. Motivated in particular by the search for new materials that can be more efficient for photocatalysis, we develop a first principles method to calculate this alignment at aqueous interfaces and demonstrate it for the specific case of non-polar GaN and ZnO interfaces with water. In the first step, density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics is used to sample the physical interface structure and to evaluate the electrostatic potential step at the interface. In the second step, the GW approach is used to evaluate the reference electronic energy level separately in the bulk semiconductor (valence band edge energy) and in bulk water (the 1b1 energy level), relative to the internal electrostatic energy reference. Use of the GW approach naturally corrects for errors inherent in the use of Kohn-Sham energy eigenvalues to approximate the electronic excitation energies in each material. With this predicted interface alignment, specific redox levels in water, with potentials known relative to the 1b1 level, can then be compared to the semiconductor band edge positions. Our results will be discussed in the context of experiments in which photoexcited GaN and ZnO drive the hydrogen evolution reaction. Research carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Field emission behavior of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire planar cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Semet, V.; Binh, Vu Thien; Pauporte, Th.; Joulaud, L.; Vermersch, F. J.

    2011-03-01

    A field emission (FE) study by scanning anode field emission microscopy was performed to evaluate the FE properties of vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays electrodeposited on a plane conductive surface. The specific FE behaviors of the cathode observed experimentally are (1) a turn-on macroscopic field of about 6 V/{mu}m for a FE current density J{sub FE} 5 x 10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2}, (2) a stable FE characteristics for 5 x 10{sup -4} < J{sub FE} < 5 x 10{sup -2} A/cm{sup 2}, and (3) a brutal shut down of FE when J{sub FE} crossed a limiting value of {approx}0.05 A/cm{sup 2} due to a rapid evolution of the nanowires toward a bulbous tip geometry or a complete melting. A physical process of FE from ZnO nanostructures is proposed from the experimental data analyses. An effective surface barrier of about 1 eV was determined from the experimental Fowler-Nordheim plot and the presence of a Zn enriched surface was assumed in considering the possibility of important modifications of the crystallography and charge transfers at the surface of ZnO nanowires during the application of the strong electric field required for FE.

  5. Electrochemical Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods/Nanotubes/Nanopencils on Transparent Aluminium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Photocatalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Ngoc Tu; Pham, Tan Thi; Ngo, Quang Minh; Vu, Thi Hanh Thu

    2015-09-01

    We report an electrochemical synthesis of homogeneous and well-aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) on transparent conducting aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films as electrodes. The selected ZnO NRs was then chemically corroded in HCl and KCl aqueous solutions to form nanopencils (NPs), and nanotubes (NTs), respectively. A DC magnetron sputtering was employed to fabricate AZO thin films at various thicknesses. The obtained AZO thin films have a c-direction orientation, transmittance above 80% in visible region, and sheet resistance approximately 40 Ω/sq. They are considered to be relevant as electrodes and seeding layers for electrochemical. The ZnO NRs are directly grown on the AZOs without a need of catalysts or additional seeding layers at temperature as low as 85 degrees C. Their shapes are strongly associated with the AZO thickness that provides a valuable way to control the diameter of ZnO NRs grown atop. With the addition of HCI and KCl aqueous solutions, ZnO NRs were modified their shape to NPs and NTs with the reaction time, respectively. All the ZnO NRs, NPs, and NTs are preferred to grow along c-direction that indicates a lattice matching between AZO thin films and ZnO nanostructrures. Photoluminescence spectra and XRD patterns show that they have good crystallinities. A great photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures promises potential application in environmental treatment and protection. The ZnO NTs exhibits a higher photocatalysis than others possibly due to the oxygen vacancies on the surface and the polarizability of Zn2+ and O2-.

  6. Fast growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave heating method and their photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guangxia; Hong, Kunquan; Wang, Wenda; Liu, Liqing; Xu, Mingxiang

    2016-10-28

    The fast growth of aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with optimized structure is attractive for electrical and optical devices. In this paper, we report a controllable and rapid growth of ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. When using different zinc salts as the precursors, the morphology of the samples changes a lot and the length growth rate is several times different. The growth mechanism is also investigated. It is found that the solution near neutral pH value is ideal for fast nanowire growth, in which the length of the nanowires increases linearly with growth time and the growth rate is over ten times faster than that in the traditional hydrothermal method. Therefore, aligned ZnO nanowire arrays can grow up to tens of microns in a few hours, while the density and sizes of these nanowires can be well controlled. The ZnO nanowire arrays used as photocatalysts present good photocatalytic performance to the degradation of methyl orange (MO) due to the large surface area. So this paper provides an effective method to obtain vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays for practical applications.

  7. Fast growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave heating method and their photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxia; Hong, Kunquan; Wang, Wenda; Liu, Liqing; Xu, Mingxiang

    2016-10-01

    The fast growth of aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with optimized structure is attractive for electrical and optical devices. In this paper, we report a controllable and rapid growth of ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. When using different zinc salts as the precursors, the morphology of the samples changes a lot and the length growth rate is several times different. The growth mechanism is also investigated. It is found that the solution near neutral pH value is ideal for fast nanowire growth, in which the length of the nanowires increases linearly with growth time and the growth rate is over ten times faster than that in the traditional hydrothermal method. Therefore, aligned ZnO nanowire arrays can grow up to tens of microns in a few hours, while the density and sizes of these nanowires can be well controlled. The ZnO nanowire arrays used as photocatalysts present good photocatalytic performance to the degradation of methyl orange (MO) due to the large surface area. So this paper provides an effective method to obtain vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays for practical applications.

  8. Nucleation, Growth Mechanism, and Controlled Coating of ZnO ALD onto Vertically Aligned N-Doped CNTs.

    PubMed

    Silva, R M; Ferro, M C; Araujo, J R; Achete, C A; Clavel, G; Silva, R F; Pinna, N

    2016-07-19

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc and water. The study demonstrates that doping CNTs with nitrogen is an effective approach for the "activation" of the CNTs surface for the ALD of metal oxides. Conformal ZnO coatings are already obtained after 50 ALD cycles, whereas at lower ALD cycles an island growth mode is observed. Moreover, the process allows for a uniform growth from the top to the bottom of the vertically aligned N-CNT arrays. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that ZnO nucleation takes place at the N-containing species on the surface of the CNTs by the formation of the Zn-N bonds at the interface between the CNTs and the ZnO film.

  9. Self-aligned nanocrystalline ZnO hexagons by facile solid-state and co-precipitation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorat, J. H.; Kanade, K. G.; Nikam, L. K.; Chaudhari, P. D.; Panmand, R. P.; Kale, B. B.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of well-aligned nanocrystalline hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles by facile solid-state and co-precipitation method. The co-precipitation reactions were performed using aqueous and ethylene glycol (EG) medium using zinc acetate and adipic acid to obtain zinc adipate and further decomposition at 450 °C to confer nanocrystalline ZnO hexagons. XRD shows the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO. Thermal study reveals complete formation of ZnO at 430 °C in case of solid-state method, whereas in case of co-precipitation method complete formation was observed at 400 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscope shows spherical morphology for ZnO synthesized by solid-state method. The aqueous-mediated ZnO by co-precipitation method shows rod-like morphology. These rods are formed via self assembling of spherical nanoparticles, however, uniformly dispersed spherical crystallites were seen in EG-mediated ZnO. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations clearly show well aligned and highly crystalline transparent and thin hexagonal ZnO. The particle size was measured using TEM and was observed to be 50-60 nm in case of solid-state method and aqueous-mediated co-precipitation method, while 25-50 nm in case of EG-mediated co-precipitation method. UV absorption spectra showed sharp absorption peaks with a blue shift for EG-mediated ZnO, which demonstrate the mono-dispersed lower particle size. The band gap of the ZnO was observed to be 3.4 eV which is higher than the bulk, implies nanocrystalline nature of the ZnO. The photoluminescence studies clearly indicate the strong violet and weak blue emission in ZnO nanoparticles which is quite unique. The process investigated may be useful to synthesize other oxide semiconductors and transition metal oxides.

  10. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Ambade, Rohan B.; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-02-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM

  11. Sequential microwave-assisted ultra-fast ZnO nanorod growth on optimized sol-gel seedlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanzadeh, Reza; Mousavi, Matin Sadat Saneei; Mehrfar, Amin; Esfahani, Zahra Kolahdouz; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Zhang, Kouchi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the studies on ZnO nanostructure characteristics and their fabrication methods have been increased significantly in order to be able to use its magnificent properties by reaching the desired optimum features. Very high growth rate and high quality growth have always been the center of attention. In this study, a sequential microwave-assisted ZnO nanorod (NR) growth as an ultra-fast, highly efficient method for vertical growth of high quality ZnO NRs on different substrates is proposed. A NRs' growth rate of 4.2 μm/h was obtained which led to uniformly distributed, high aspect ratio and vertically-aligned NRs. Furthermore, the influences of spinner's speed as an important parameter on the quality of ZnO seed and annealing treatment have been studied. The sol-gel casting approach is optimized for the layer. Different seed layers were used to grow the nanostructures and the optimum spinner speed is found to be 2000 rpm. In order to diminish the dependency of the uniformity of ZnO NRs on the quality of seed layers, a remedy is suggested.

  12. Gold nanoparticles modified ZnO nanorods with improved photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lanlan; Zhao, Dongxu; Song, Zhiming; Shan, Chongxin; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Li, Binghui; Shen, Dezhen

    2011-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) slide by the hydrothermal method and used as templates for preparing ZnO/Au composite nanoarrays. The optical and morphological properties of ZnO/Au composites under various HAuCl(4) concentrations were explored via UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The density and size of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on ZnO NRs can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of HAuCl(4). The optimal ZnO/Au composites display complete photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) within 60 min, which is superior to that with pure ZnO NRs prepared by the same method. The reason of better photocatalytic performance is that Au NPs act as electron traps and it prevents the rapid recombination of electrons and holes, resulting in the improvement of photocatalytic efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of ZnO/Au composites is mainly controlled by the density of Au NPs formed on ZnO NRs. The application in rapid photodegradation of MB shows the potential of ZnO/Au composite as a convenient catalyst for the environmental purification of organic pollutants.

  13. Robust nonsticky superhydrophobicity by the tapering of aligned ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Zhang, Yaping; Zhu, Jie; Yang, Zhongzhen; Gao, Xuefeng

    2014-04-04

    The robust nonsticky superhydrophobicity of aligned nanoneedle films is reported. A facile, efficient, cheap, and available method based on the diffusion-limited crystal growth principle is proposed for controlling the tapering of ZnO nanorods, the profiles of which can be tuned effectively by synergetic control over reaction time and temperature in an extremely strong alkaline reaction system. The synthesized nanoneedle, nanopencil, and nanorod arrays are chosen for studying the effects of nanoscale topography on anti-droplet-sticking ability. After silanization, all of them show excellent quasi-static anti-droplet-stickiness, and water adhesion along the normal and lateral directions can be greatly reduced by the tapering of nanorods and eliminated by sharp nanoneedles. However, their antisticking stability is distinct under the droplet impact: the nanoneedle sample is still nonsticky but the nanorod sample loses its antisticking ability. Only ensuring the liquid/air interface is in the suspended nonwetting state is insufficient to obtain robust nonsticky surfaces, which also require extremely low solid-liquid van der Waals attraction.

  14. Effect of TiO2 thickness on nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurdi, I.; Shafura, A. K.; Azhar, N. E. A.; Ishak, A.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, A. H. Salman; Khan, Haseeb A.; Mamat, M. H.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    The TiO2 films were deposited on glass substrate at different thicknesses with different deposition frequencies (1, 2, 3 and 4 times) using spin coating technique and their structural properties were investigated. Subsequently, the nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorods and TiO2 were formed by deposited the TiO2 on top of aligned ZnO Nanorod on ITO-coated glass at different thicknesses using the same method of TiO2 deposited on glass substrate. The nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2 were coated with different thicknesses of 900µm, 1815µm, 2710µm, 3620µm and ZnO without TiO2. The dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from the nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2 with thickness of 900µm, 1815µm, 2710µm and 3620µm and ZnO without TiO2 and their photovoltaic properties of the DSSCs were investigated. From the solar simulator measurement the solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.543% under AM 1.5 was obtained for the ZnO nanorod/TiO2 photoanode-2710µm Dye-Sensitized solar cell.

  15. Alignment nature of ZnO nanowires grown on polished and nanoscale etched lithium niobate surface through self-seeding thermal evaporation method

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Parthiban, R.; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires were grown directly on LiNbO{sub 3} surface for the first time by thermal evaporation. • Self-alignment of the nanowires due to step bunching of LiNbO{sub 3} surface is observed. • Increased roughness in surface defects promoted well-aligned growth of nanowires. • Well-aligned growth was then replicated in 50 nm deep trenches on the surface. • Study opens novel pathway for patterned growth of ZnO nanowires on LiNbO{sub 3} surface. - Abstract: High aspect ratio catalyst-free ZnO nanowires were directly synthesized on lithium niobate substrate for the first time through thermal evaporation method without the use of a buffer layer or the conventional pre-deposited ZnO seed layer. As-grown ZnO nanowires exhibited a crisscross aligned growth pattern due to step bunching of the polished lithium niobate surface during the nanowire growth process. On the contrary, scratches on the surface and edges of the substrate produced well-aligned ZnO nanowires in these defect regions due to high surface roughness. Thus, the crisscross aligned nature of high aspect ratio nanowire growth on the lithium niobate surface can be changed to well-aligned growth through controlled etching of the surface, which is further verified through reactive-ion etching of lithium niobate. The investigations and discussion in the present work will provide novel pathway for self-seeded patterned growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowires on lithium niobate based micro devices.

  16. Low-temperature growth of aligned ZnO nanorods: effect of annealing gases on the structural and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Hahn, Yoon-Bong; Al-Hajry, A; Abaker, M

    2014-06-01

    Aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on ZnO/Si substrate via simple aqueous solution process at low-temperature of - 65 degrees C by using zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The detailed morphological and structural properties measured by FESEM, XRD, EDS and TEM confirmed that the as-grown nanorods are vertically aligned, well-crystalline possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown along the [0001] direction. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the grown nanorods exhibited a strong and broad green emission and small ultraviolet emission. The as-prepared ZnO nanorods were post-annealed in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) environments and further characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties. After annealing the nanorods exhibit well-crystallinity and wurtzite hexagonal phase. Moreover, by annealing the PL spectra show the enhancement in the UV emission and suppression in the green emission. The presented results demonstrate that simply by post-annealing process, the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures can be controlled.

  17. Low-temperature growth of well-aligned ZnO nanorods/nanowires on flexible graphite sheet and their photoluminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Guo; Kalam, Abul; Al-Shihri, Ayed Sad; Su, Qingmei; Li, Jie; Du, Gaohui

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Well-aligned ZnO nanostructures were grown on flexible graphite sheets at 500–650 °C. ► ZnO nanostructures are formed via self-catalytic vapor–solid process assisted by immiscibility of ZnO with graphite. ► The ZnO nanostructures show intensive green emission. ► The photoluminescence property can be easily tuned by changing growth condition or annealing treatment. -- Abstract: We have grown large-scale well-aligned ZnO nanorods/nanowires on commercial flexible graphite sheet (FGS) at low temperature via chemical vapor deposition method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The effects of the growth temperature and oxygen flow rate on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures have been investigated. The growth mechanism of ZnO is found to be a self-catalytic vapor–solid process assisted by the immiscibility of ZnO with graphite. The as-grown ZnO/FGS products show strong green emission and their photoluminescence properties can be tuned by changing growth condition or annealing treatment.

  18. UV light sensing properties of Sm doped vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, D. Ranjith; Ranjith, K. S.; Rajendrakumar, R. T.

    2015-06-24

    Samarium doped ZnO nanorods were grown on silicon substrate by using vapor phase transport method (VPT) with the growth temperature of 950°C. The synthesized nanorods were characterized by XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, and photocurrent measurements. The XRD result revealed that Sm was successfully doped into lattice plane of hexagonal ZnO nanorods. The FESEM result confirms the pure ZnO has nanorod like morphology with an average diameter and length of 130nm and 10µm respectively. The above observation is supported by the Micro-Raman spectroscopy result. The photocurrent in the visible region has been significantly enhanced due to deposition of Sm on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. Sm acts as a visible sensitizer because of its lower band gap compared to ZnO.

  19. Type-II ZnO nanorod-SnO2 nanoparticle heterostructures: characterization of structural, optical and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing; Shang, Lu; Chen, Shu; Xia, Jing; Qi, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xuecong; Zhang, Tierui; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2013-05-07

    In this work we report, for the first time, on the preparation of ZnO nanorod-SnO2 nanoparticle (ZnO NR-SnO2 NP) heterostructures by a simple two-step thermal evaporation approach. Systematical characterization of the product reveals that the rutile SnO2 NPs, with a diameter of about 20 nm, are uniformly and tightly decorated on the entire ZnO NRs. Photoluminescence (PL) investigation on the ZnO NR-SnO2 NP heterostructures shows that they exhibit a significantly decreased UV emission compared with the bare ZnO NRs, revealing an efficient charge separation arising from the type-II band alignment. Enlightened by this merit, photocatalytic behavior of the synthesized heterostructures is studied, which shows a remarkably enhanced photodegradation performance of rhodamine B (RhB) in contrast to the pure ZnO NRs. We also carry out the stability test of the ZnO NR-SnO2 NP heterostructures and the result indicates an extremely high adhesion nature between the ZnO NR and the coated SnO2 NPs. This advantage endowed with the thermal evaporation approach can lead to an efficient spatial charge separation between the ZnO NR and the SnO2 NPs and thus effectively minimize the charge recombination along three-dimensional heterointerfaces, which makes such ZnO NR-SnO2 NP architectures highly promising for a wide range of photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  20. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, R. Mohan, S. Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology and vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.

  1. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm-2 for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm-2 for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles. PMID:25246867

  2. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod grown by hydrothermal based chemical method on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R.; Majumdar, S.; Bhunia, S.

    2012-06-01

    A low-temperature and effective precursor-based method has been demonstrated to synthesize nanostructured ZnO. It is found that the morphology of ZnO precursors has a strong dependence on the reaction conditions that include the molar ratio of reagents, solvent, and reaction temperature. In this work, ZnO nanostructures were synthesized via hydrothermal based chemical method. Zinc acetate dehydrate [Zn(Ac)2 2H2O] and 1-propanol(C3H8O) were adopted for a seed layer growth on glass substrate via spin coating technique. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO3)2 6H2O], hexamethylenetetramine(C6H12N4) and diethylamine(C4H11N) were adopted as synthesis precursors. The ZnO nanostructures obtained were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and the PL method. The SEM image of the sample showed that the thin film of ZnO on glass substrate has, predominantly, a nanometric rod-like morphology with hexagonal wurtzite structure.

  3. Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays Using Bilayered Metal Catalysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    catalyst [7], the use of these ZnO NW arrays in the design and fabrication of new plasmonic structures is limited due to the poor adhesion of Au on the...ratios of catalyst components for the NWs growth and results indicate that very thin adhesion layers of Ni or Cu deposited prior to the Au layer are not...deleterious to the ZnO NW array growth. Significant improvement of the Au adhesion on the substrate was noted, opening the potential for direct

  4. EPR investigation of pure and Co-doped ZnO oriented nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoyant, A.; Alnoor, H.; Bertaina, S.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2017-01-01

    Pure and cobalt-doped zinc oxide aligned nanorods have been grown by the low-temperature (90 °C) aqueous chemical method on amorphous ZnO seed layer, deposited on a sapphire substrate. High crystallinity of these objects is demonstrated by the electron paramagnetic resonance investigation at liquid helium temperature. The successful incorporation of Co2+ ions in substitution of Zn2+ ones in the ZnO matrix has also been confirmed. A drastic reduction of intrinsic ZnO nanorods core defects is observed in the Co-doped samples, which enhances the structural quality of the NRs. The quantification of substitutional Co2+ ions in the ZnO matrix is achieved by comparison with a reference sample. The findings in this study indicate the potential of using the low-temperature aqueous chemical approach for synthesizing material for spintronics applications.

  5. Formation, transformation and superhydrophobicity of compound surfactant-assisted aligned ZnO nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Mingshan; Xu, Tao; Xie, Xiaolin; Ou, Junfei; Wang, Fajun; Li, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis and understanding of hierarchically nanostructured materials are significant for exploring peculiar functional properties and underlying applications. In this study, the self-assembly formation and detailed transformation process of ZnO nanoplatelets grown by hydrothermal methods with the addition of compound surfactants (CTAB and Tween-20) have been investigated. The initial growth of ZnO nanoplatelets as well as the subsequent formation of bilayer nanorod arrays and divergent nanocone arrays on the surface and side face of these nanoplatelets were found. Compared with the formation of bulk/block crystals without the case of surfactants, the addition of compound surfactants into zinc nitrate solution is responsible for the self-assembly processes of ZnO because of the effective role of CTAB in decreasing the degree of crystallinity and the positive effect of Tween-20 on decreasing the particle size owing to the space hindered effect. As-formed hierarchically micro-nanostructured ZnO exhibits superhydrophobicity without any chemical modification, which can make water droplets suspend on the air film trapped between the nanoplatelet and nanoplatelet as well as between nanocone and nanocone.

  6. Efficiency enhancement of silicon solar cells with vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays as an antireflective layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardana, Sanjay K.; Chandrasekhar, P. S.; Kumar, Rupesh; Komarala, Vamsi K.

    2017-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grown by the hydrothermal method have been explored as an antireflection layer on polished, textured, and antireflection coating (ARC) coated textured silicon (Si) wafers. Average reflectance (from 380 to 1100 nm) of polished and textured Si wafers reduced from 32 to 9% and 14 to 2%, respectively. With nanorods, multiple light interactions and good optical impedance matching with graded refractive index (effective medium) from air to Si favored for light confinement in Si. Optimized nanorods on ARC coated textured Si cell led to an enhancement of photocurrent from 34.30 to 36.38 mA/cm2 and efficiency from 15.11 to 16.43%.

  7. Effect of Nb-doped TiO2 on nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2:Nb for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurdi, I.; Shafura, A. K.; Azhar, N. E. A.; Ishak, A.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, A. H. Salman; Khan, Haseeb A.; Mamat, M. H.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Nb-doped TiO2 films were deposited on glass substrate at different Nb concentrations of 0 at.%, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, 5 at.% and 7 at.%, respectively and their electrical and structural properties were investigated. Subsequently, the Nb-doped TiO2 films were deposited on top of aligned ZnO Nanorod on ITO glass substrates using spin coating technique. The nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/Nb-doped TiO2 (TiO2:Nb) were coated with different Nb concentrations of 0 at.%, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, 5 at.% and 7 at.%, respectively. The Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from the nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2:Nb photoanodes and their effects on the performance of the DSSCs were investigated. From the solar simulator measurement of DSSC the solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of 5.376% under AM 1.5 was obtained for the ZnO nanorod/TiO2:Nb-5at.%.

  8. Structural and optical properties of dense vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grown onto silver and gold thin films by galvanic effect with iron contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpellini, D.; Paoloni, S.; Medaglia, P.G.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Orsini, A.; Falconi, C.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorods were grown on Au and Ag films in aqueous solution by galvanic effect. • The method is prone to metal contamination which can influence the ZnO properties. • Iron doping improves the lattice matching between ZnO and the substrate. • Energy levels of point defects are lowered and the light emission is red-shifted. • Galvanic-induced nucleation starts and proceeds continuously during the growth. - Abstract: Dense arrays of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods have been grown onto either silver or gold seedless substrates trough a simple hydrothermal method by exploiting the galvanic effect between the substrate and metallic parts. The nanorods exhibit larger bases and more defined hexagonal shapes, in comparison with standard non-galvanic wet-chemistry synthesis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the iron contamination, associated with the galvanic contact, significantly improves the in-plane compatibility of ZnO with the Au and Ag cubic lattice. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicate that the contamination does not affect the number density of localized defects, but lowers their energy levels uniformly; differently, the band-edge emission is not altered appreciably. Finally, we have found that the ZnO hetero-nucleation by galvanic effect initiates at different times in different sites of the substrate area. Our results can be useful for the fabrication of high performance piezonanodevices comprising high-density metal-to-ZnO nanoscaled junctions without intermediate polycrystalline layers.

  9. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chen; Zhu, Guang

    2014-09-09

    A generator includes a substrate, a first electrode layer, a dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures, an insulating layer and a second electrode layer. The substrate has a top surface and the first electrode layer is disposed on the top surface of the substrate. The dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures extends from the first electrode layer. Each of the nanostructures has a top end. The insulating layer is disposed on the top ends of the nanostructures. The second electrode layer is disposed on the non-conductive layer and is spaced apart from the nanostructures.

  10. Chemically grown vertically aligned 1D ZnO nanorods with CdS coating for efficient quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC): a controlled synthesis route.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Kim, Hyungjin; Patil, Pramod S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2013-12-28

    In the present article, vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by an aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route on a fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate. These nanorods were further sensitized with cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The synthesized CdS coated ZnO nanorods were characterized for their structural and morphological properties with X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Finally, prepared CdS coated 1D ZnO photoelectrodes were tested for their photoelectrochemical performance. Our results show that the sample deposited after 40 SILAR cycles shows 5.61 mA cm(-2) short current density (JSC) with η = 1.61% power conversion efficiency.

  11. Al-doped ZnO seed layer-dependent crystallographic control of ZnO nanorods by using electrochemical deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung; Kim, Kyoung-Bo; Kim, Moojin; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Polar and semipolar ZnO NRs were successfully achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. • Semipolar and polar ZnO NRs were grown on ZnO and AZO/m-sapphire, respectively. • Al % of AZO/m-sapphire enhanced the lateral growth rate of polar ZnO NRs. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of an Al-doped ZnO film on the crystallographic direction of ZnO nanorods (NRs) using electrochemical deposition. From high-solution X-ray diffraction measurements, the crystallographic plane of ZnO NRs grown on (1 0 0) ZnO/m-plane sapphire was (1 0 1). The surface grain size of the (100) Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film decreased with increasing Al content in the ZnO seed layer, implying that the Al dopant accelerated the three-dimensional (3D) growth of the AZO film. In addition, it was found that with increasing Al doping concentration of the AZO seed layer, the crystal orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on the AZO seed layer changed from [1 0 1] to [0 0 1]. With increasing Al content of the nonpolar (1 0 0) AZO seed layer, the small surface grains with a few crystallographic planes of the AZO film changed from semipolar (1 0 1) ZnO NRs to polar (0 0 1) ZnO NRs due to the increase of the vertical [0 0 1] growth rate of the ZnO NRs owing to excellent electrical properties.

  12. Two-dimensional vanadium-doped ZnO nanosheet-based flexible direct current nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Keun Young; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2013-10-22

    Here, we report the synthesis of lead-free single-crystalline two-dimensional (2D) vanadium(V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and their application for high-performance flexible direct current (DC) power piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs). The vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) converted to NS networks by V doping. Piezoresponse force microscopy studies reveal that vertical V-doped ZnO NS exhibit typical ferroelectricity with clear phase loops, butterfly, and well-defined hysteresis loops with a piezoelectric charge coefficient of up to 4 pm/V, even in 2D nanostructures. From pristine ZnO NR-based NGs, alternating current (AC)-type output current was observed, while from V-doped ZnO NS-based NGs, a DC-type output current density of up to 1.0 μAcm(-2) was surprisingly obtained under the same vertical compressive force. The growth mechanism, ferroelectric behavior, charge inverted phenomena, and high piezoelectric output performance observed from the V-doped ZnO NS are discussed in terms of the formation of an ionic layer of [V(OH)4(-)], permanent electric dipole, and the doping-induced resistive behavior of ZnO NS.

  13. Self-assembled, aligned ZnO nanorod buffer layers for high-current-density, inverted organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Rao, Arun D; Karalatti, Suresh; Thomas, Tiju; Ramamurthy, Praveen C

    2014-10-08

    Two different soft-chemical, self-assembly-based solution approaches are employed to grow zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with controlled texture. The methods used involve seeding and growth on a substrate. Nanorods with various aspect ratios (1-5) and diameters (15-65 nm) are grown. Obtaining highly oriented rods is determined by the way the substrate is mounted within the chemical bath. Furthermore, a preheat and centrifugation step is essential for the optimization of the growth solution. In the best samples, we obtain ZnO nanorods that are almost entirely oriented in the (002) direction; this is desirable since electron mobility of ZnO is highest along this crystallographic axis. When used as the buffer layer of inverted organic photovoltaics (I-OPVs), these one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer: (a) direct paths for charge transport and (b) high interfacial area for electron collection. The morphological, structural, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods are studied using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, the surface chemical features of ZnO films are studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Using as-grown ZnO, inverted OPVs are fabricated and characterized. For improving device performance, the ZnO nanorods are subjected to UV-ozone irradiation. UV-ozone treated ZnO nanorods show: (i) improvement in optical transmission, (ii) increased wetting of active organic components, and (iii) increased concentration of Zn-O surface bonds. These observations correlate well with improved device performance. The devices fabricated using these optimized buffer layers have an efficiency of ∼3.2% and a fill factor of 0.50; this is comparable to the best I-OPVs reported that use a P3HT-PCBM active layer.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays: Dependence of morphology and alignment on growth conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzez, Shrook A.; Hassan, Z.; Hassan, J. J.; Alimanesh, M.; Rasheed, Hiba S.; Sabah, Fayroz A.; Abdulateef, Sinan A.

    2016-07-01

    Highly oriented zinc oxide nanorod were successfully grown on seeded p-type silicone substrate by hydrothermal methode. The morphology and the crystallinty of ZnO c-axis (002) arrays were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The effect of seed layer pre-annealing on nanorods properties was explained according to the nucleation site of ZnO nanoparticles on silicon substrate. In addition, the variation of the equal molarity of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamine concentrations in the reaction vessel play a crucial role related to the ZnO nanorods.

  15. Sensitive detection of hydrocarbon gases using electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO chemiresistors.

    PubMed

    Dilonardo, Elena; Penza, Michele; Alvisi, Marco; Cassano, Gennaro; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa; Cioffi, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Pristine and electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) were proposed as active sensing layers in chemiresistive gas sensors for hydrocarbon (HC) gas detection (e.g., CH4, C3H8, C4H10). The presence of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of ZnO NRs, obtained after the thermal treatment at 550 °C, was revealed by morphological and surface chemical analyses, using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the Pd catalyst on the performance of the ZnO-based gas sensor was evaluated by comparing the sensing results with those of pristine ZnO NRs, at an operating temperature of 300 °C and for various HC gas concentrations in the range of 30-1000 ppm. The Pd-modified ZnO NRs showed a higher selectivity and sensitivity compared to pristine ZnO NRs. The mean sensitivity of Pd-modified ZnO NRs towards the analyzed HCs gases increased with the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the target gas molecule. Finally, the evaluation of the selectivity revealed that the presence or the absence of metal nanoparticles on ZnO NRs improves the selectivity in the detection of specific HCs gaseous molecules.

  16. Sensitive detection of hydrocarbon gases using electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO chemiresistors

    PubMed Central

    Alvisi, Marco; Cassano, Gennaro; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Pristine and electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) were proposed as active sensing layers in chemiresistive gas sensors for hydrocarbon (HC) gas detection (e.g., CH4, C3H8, C4H10). The presence of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of ZnO NRs, obtained after the thermal treatment at 550 °C, was revealed by morphological and surface chemical analyses, using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the Pd catalyst on the performance of the ZnO-based gas sensor was evaluated by comparing the sensing results with those of pristine ZnO NRs, at an operating temperature of 300 °C and for various HC gas concentrations in the range of 30–1000 ppm. The Pd-modified ZnO NRs showed a higher selectivity and sensitivity compared to pristine ZnO NRs. The mean sensitivity of Pd-modified ZnO NRs towards the analyzed HCs gases increased with the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the target gas molecule. Finally, the evaluation of the selectivity revealed that the presence or the absence of metal nanoparticles on ZnO NRs improves the selectivity in the detection of specific HCs gaseous molecules. PMID:28144567

  17. Seedless Pattern Growth of Quasi-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Cover Glass Substrates in Solution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid technique for the selective growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on wanted areas of thin cover glass substrates was developed without the use of seed layer of ZnO. This method utilizes electron-beam lithography for pattern transfer on seedless substrate, followed by solution method for the bottom-up growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on the patterned substrates. The arrays of highly crystalline ZnO nanorods having diameter of 60 ± 10 nm and length of 750 ± 50 nm were selectively grown on different shape patterns and exhibited a remarkable uniformity in terms of diameter, length, and density. The room temperature cathodluminescence measurements showed a strong ultraviolet emission at 381 nm and broad visible emission at 585–610 nm were observed in the spectrum. PMID:20672029

  18. 7 CFR 400.713 - Nonreinsured supplemental (NRS) policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonreinsured supplemental (NRS) policy. 400.713 Section 400.713 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Submission of...

  19. 7 CFR 400.713 - Nonreinsured supplemental (NRS) policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonreinsured supplemental (NRS) policy. 400.713 Section 400.713 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Submission of...

  20. 7 CFR 400.713 - Nonreinsured supplemental (NRS) policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonreinsured supplemental (NRS) policy. 400.713 Section 400.713 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Submission of...

  1. 7 CFR 400.713 - Nonreinsured supplemental (NRS) policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonreinsured supplemental (NRS) policy. 400.713 Section 400.713 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Submission of...

  2. 7 CFR 400.713 - Nonreinsured supplemental (NRS) policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonreinsured supplemental (NRS) policy. 400.713 Section 400.713 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Submission of...

  3. Emission Pattern Control of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with ZnO Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Seok; Jung, Yong-Il; Noh, Bum-Young; Park, Il-Kyu

    2011-11-01

    We report a controllable way of changing the emission patterns of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown hydrothermally. The shape of the ZnO NRs was controlled using seed layers for flower, askance, and vertical structures. The electrical properties of the LEDs with the ZnO NRs did not degrade, while the integrated electroluminescence intensity increased compared with that of the bare LEDs. The emission patterns of the LEDs were broadened as the inclination angle of the ZnO NRs increased. These are attributed to the ZnO NRs acting a role in scattering and guiding the light wave efficiently.

  4. Fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods by hydrothermal process using GaN epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jae-Min; Yi, Sung-Hak; Choi, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Jung-A.; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2007-02-01

    One dimensional (1-D) ZnO nanorod structure of hexagonal shape was fabricated on epitaxial GaN layer by hydrothermal method. The growth of GaN epitaxial layer was carried out in a two-flow horizontal MOCVD reactor maintained at a pressure of 200 torr. Firstly, a 25 nm thick GaN buffer layer was grown at 520 °C. Then 2~3μm thick GaN epilayer was deposited at 1070 °C. Trimethylgallium (TMG) and NH 3 were used as Ga and N source, and H II gas was used as carrier gas. After the deposition of GaN epilayer thin-film, single crystalline ZnO nanorod was fabricated in aqueous solution. XRD and FE-SEM results showed ZnO nanorod arrays were oriented highly along the (002) plane. The ZnO nanorod was analyzed to have good quality crystallization by FE-TEM. The SAED pattern has shown that ZnO nanorod was grown in the direction along (002)-plane. Photoluminescence (PL) has shown that the GaN-ZnO hetero-structure has shown ultra-violet lasing action at room temperature. Narrow and strong ultra-violet peak was observed in comparison with PL result from epitaxial GaN layer. The analysis results have proved that aqueous solution growth method developed in the present work can be a good application for optical electronic device.

  5. Obtaining a Well-Aligned ZnO Nanotube Array Using the Hydrothermal Growth Method / Labi Sakārtotu Zno Nanocauruļu Kopu Iegūšana, Izmantojot Hidrotermālo Metodi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasovska, M.; Gerbreders, V.; Paskevics, V.; Ogurcovs, A.; Mihailova, I.

    2015-10-01

    Optimal growing parameters have been found using the hydrothermal method to obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanorod and nanotube arrays. The influence of different growing factors (such as temperature, growing solution concentration, method of obtaining seed layer and condition) on nanotube morphology and size is described in the paper. Well-structured ZnO nanotubes have been obtained by using a selfselective etching method with lowering temperatures of growth during the hydrothermal process. It is shown that the optical properties of the nanostructure arrays obtained are sensitive to the medium in which they are placed, which is why they can be used as sensors for pure substance detection and in different solutions for impurity determination. Dotajā darbā tika noteikti optimāli parametri labi sakārtotu ZnO nanocaurulīšu kopu iegūšanai, izmantojot hidrotermālo metodi ar temperatūras pazemināšanu, jeb t.s. selektīvu pa\\vskodināšanas metodi (self-selective etching), ir uzsvērtas šās metodes priekšrocības salīdzinājumā ar ķīmiskās kodināšanas metodi, kā arī tika aprakstīta dažādu augšanas faktora (tādu, ka darba šķīduma koncentrācija, augšanas temperatūra un laiks, iedīgļu slāņa iegūšanas veids un iegūšanas parametri) ietekme uz iegūtu nanostraktūra morfoloģiju. Tika konstatēts, ka noteicošu lomu ZnO nanocaurulīšu audzēšanas procesā spēlē iedīgļu slāņa graudu izmēri, kas savā staipā nosaka augošu nanostieņu izmērus un to tendenci pie pa\\vskodināšanas. Rentgenogrannnas parāda, ka iegūtām pie noteiktiem parametriem ZnO nanostruktūrām piemīt augsta kristāliskuma pakāpe un sakārtotība vertikālā virzienā. Optiskie mērījumi parāda, ka ZnO nanocauralītes ir jutīgas gan pret tīrām vielām (ūdens, spirts), gan pret dažādiem šķīdumiem, kas ļauj izmantot tos kā pie­jaukumu sensora. Salīdzinājumā ar ZnO nanostieņiem caurulīšu jūtība pieaug, jo pieaug nanostrakt

  6. ZnO Nanorod Array Grown on Ag Layer: A Highly Efficient Fluorescence Enhancement Platform

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongqi; Sun, Ye; Yu, Miao; Liu, Xiao; Jiang, Tingting; Yang, Bin; Liu, Danqing; Liu, Shaoqin; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) are known for ultra-sensitive biomolecule detection through fluorescence enhancement. In this work, we demonstrate that ZnO NR arrays grown on Ag layers can significantly improve the enhancement up to 86 times compared to that grown on bare Si, and the enhancement can be modified in a controlled manner by varying Ag thickness. The much improved waveguide properties are attributed to the high reflectance of the Ag layers and their tuning effect on the diameters of ZnO NRs. Our results provide a deep insight into the mechanism of NRs-based fluorescence enhancement platform. PMID:25633246

  7. Growth of Cu{sub 2}O on Ga-doped ZnO and their interface energy alignment for thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, L. M.; Chiam, S. Y.; Wang, S. J.; Pan, J. S.; Huang, J. Q.; Chim, W. K.

    2010-08-15

    Cu{sub 2}O thin films are deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering on borofloat glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass at room temperature. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structures and properties of Cu{sub 2}O thin films are investigated. We show that oxygen partial pressure is a crucial parameter in achieving pure phases of CuO and Cu{sub 2}O. Based on this finding, we fabricate heterojunctions of p-type Cu{sub 2}O with n-type gallium doped ZnO (GZO) on ITO coated glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition for GZO thin films. The energy band alignment for thin films of Cu{sub 2}O/GZO on ITO glass is characterized using high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The energy band alignment for the Cu{sub 2}O/GZO heterojunctions is determined to be type II with a valence band offset of 2.82 eV and shows negligible effects of variation with gallium doping. The higher conduction band of the Cu{sub 2}O relative to that of GZO in the obtained band alignment shows that the heterojunctions are suitable for solar cell application based on energy levels consideration.

  8. Band alignment at the interface between Ni-doped Cr2O3 and Al-doped ZnO: implications for transparent p-n junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arca, Elisabetta; McInerney, Michael A.; Shvets, Igor V.

    2016-06-01

    The realization of transparent electronic and optoelectronic devices requires the use of transparent p-n junctions. In this context, understanding the band alignment at the interface between the p- and n-components represents a fundamental step towards the realization of high performance devices. In this work, the band alignment at the interface between Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and Ni-doped Cr2O3 has been analysed. The formation and evolution of the core levels as the interface progressively forms have been followed by means of x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity. A type two (staggered) band alignment was identified, with the valence band offset and conduction band offset found to be 2.6 eV and 2.5 eV, respectively. The electrical behaviour will be discussed in terms of the position of the bands, the presence of band bending and the expected built-in potential and how these can be engineered in order to achieve the maximum performance for this hetero-structure.

  9. ZnO nanorods decorated with ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Joicy, S.; Sivakumar, P.; Thangadurai, P.; Ponpandian, N.

    2015-06-24

    In this study, ZnO nanorods (NRs) and ZnS nanoparticles decorated ZnO-NRs were prepared by a combination of hydrothermal and hydrolysis method. Structural and optical properties of the samples were studied by XRD, FE-SEM, UV-Vis DRS and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Microscopy analysis revealed that the diameter of ZnO-NRs was ∼500 nm and the length was ranging from a few hundred nm to several micrometers and their surface was decorated with ZnS nanoparticles. UV-Vis DRS showed the absorption of ZnS decorated ZnO-NRs was blue shifted with respect to pure ZnO-NRs which enhanced the separation of electron-hole pairs. PL spectrum of ZnS decorated ZnO-NRs showed a decrease in intensity of UV and green emissions with the appearance of blue emission at 436 nm.

  10. Energy level alignment of catechol molecular orbitals on ZnO(1 1 2¯ 0) and TiO 2(1 1 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangan, Sylvie; Theisen, Jean-Patrick; Bersch, Eric; Bartynski, R. A.

    2010-05-01

    The occupied and unoccupied electronic structure of catechol adsorbed onto two single crystal surfaces, rutile TiO 2(1 1 0) and wurtzite ZnO(1 1 2¯ 0), have been investigated using UV-photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopies (UPS and IPS) in an ultra-high vacuum environment. To aid in assignment of the spectral features, model metal-bound catechol structures were calculated using a DFT approach. From these measurements, the energy alignment of the catechol-related states with respect to the substrates band edges is directly determined and is in good agreement with a direct injection process of the photoexcited electron into the substrate conduction band, resulting in the characteristic absorption properties of adsorbed catechol.

  11. Modeling and experiment of dye-sensitized solar cell with vertically aligned ZnO nanorods through chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Risanti, Doty D.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model based on electron diffusion differential equation and Schottky barrier model was developed to determine the current-voltage characteristics of DSSC. To verify the model DSSC with ZnO nanorods photoelectrode which was chemically bath deposited onto the TCO was fabricated. According to modeling results, increasing of recombination current density J at these interfaces results in a decrease in Schottky barrier height φb and therefore improves the photovoltage under the open-circuit condition. It is found that the open-circuit voltage remains constant when the TCO/ZnO Schottky barrier height was varied in the range of 0.45 - 0.6 eV. This theoretical model consistents with the experimental result in which the fabricated DSSCs can produce conversion efficiency in the range of 0.98 - 1.16%. The trend in photovoltage calculated in the theoretical model basically agrees with the experimental result, although the calculated photocurrent is somewhat over estimated compared to the experimental results. The model presents that the ideality factor for ZnO nanorods, which also contributes to the enhancement of photovoltage, increases in the range of 2.75 - 3.0 as the annealing temperature is increased in the experiment.

  12. Physical properties of fish gelatin-based bio-nanocomposite films incorporated with ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mahmud, Shahrom; Naderi, Nima; Ooi, Ch Raymond; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2013-08-27

    Well-dispersed fish gelatin-based nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanorods (NRs) as fillers to aqueous gelatin. The effects of ZnO NR fillers on the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of fish gelatin bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. Results showed an increase in Young's modulus and tensile strength of 42% and 25% for nanocomposites incorporated with 5% ZnO NRs, respectively, compared with unfilled gelatin-based films. UV transmission decreased to zero with the addition of a small amount of ZnO NRs in the biopolymer matrix. X-ray diffraction showed an increase in the intensity of the crystal facets of (10ī1) and (0002) with the addition of ZnO NRs in the biocomposite matrix. The surface topography of the fish gelatin films indicated an increase in surface roughness with increasing ZnO NR concentrations. The conductivity of the films also significantly increased with the addition of ZnO NRs. These results indicated that bio-nanocomposites based on ZnO NRs had great potentials for applications in packaging technology, food preservation, and UV-shielding systems.

  13. Physical properties of fish gelatin-based bio-nanocomposite films incorporated with ZnO nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Well-dispersed fish gelatin-based nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanorods (NRs) as fillers to aqueous gelatin. The effects of ZnO NR fillers on the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of fish gelatin bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. Results showed an increase in Young's modulus and tensile strength of 42% and 25% for nanocomposites incorporated with 5% ZnO NRs, respectively, compared with unfilled gelatin-based films. UV transmission decreased to zero with the addition of a small amount of ZnO NRs in the biopolymer matrix. X-ray diffraction showed an increase in the intensity of the crystal facets of (10ī1) and (0002) with the addition of ZnO NRs in the biocomposite matrix. The surface topography of the fish gelatin films indicated an increase in surface roughness with increasing ZnO NR concentrations. The conductivity of the films also significantly increased with the addition of ZnO NRs. These results indicated that bio-nanocomposites based on ZnO NRs had great potentials for applications in packaging technology, food preservation, and UV-shielding systems. PMID:23981366

  14. Local photoelectric conversion properties of titanyl-phthalocyanine (TiOPc) coated aligned ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Heng, Liping; Tian, Dongliang; Chen, Long; Su, Junxin; Zhai, Jin; Han, Dong; Jiang, Lei

    2010-02-21

    The direct electrical pathway for rapid collection of charge carriers generated in aligned TiOPc/ZnO nanorod is visualized by using photoconductive atomic force microscopy (pc-AFM), which can provide theoretical guidance for preparing high efficiency solar cells.

  15. Optimizing performance of Cu2O/ZnO nanorods heterojunction based self-powered photodetector with ZnO seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chang; Xu, Jianping; Shi, Shaobo; Zhang, Yuzhu; Gao, Yanyan; Liu, Zeming; Zhang, Xuguang; Li, Lan

    2017-04-01

    The Cu2O films were electrodeposited on ZnO nanorod arrays (NRs) and the Cu2O/ZnO NRs heterojunctions were formed. The optical-electronic response of the heterojunctions was investigated. The diameter size and crystal quality of ZnO NRs were modified by the seed layer. ZnO NRs with good crystal quality were obtained on the 0.5% Al doped ZnO seed layer film (named as AZO (0.5%)). The devices based on the Cu2O/ZnO NRs heterojunction exhibit excellent stability and reproducibility of the self-powered photoresponse properties. The device with AZO (0.5%) seed layer demonstrates the high photoresponsivity of 60-70 mA/W in the violet and blue light with a fast response speed at zero applied bias.

  16. Dynamic measurement of temperature using neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, D. J.; Asay, B. W.; Bennett, B. I.; Bowman, J. D.; Boat, R. M.; Dickson, P. M.; Henson, B. F.; Hull, L. M.; Idar, D. J.; Laabs, G. W.; London, R. K.; Mace, J. L.; Morgan, G. L.; Murk, D. M.; Rabie, R. L.; Ragan, C. E.; Stacy, H. L.; Yuan, V. W.

    1998-07-01

    Accurate temperature measurements in dynamic systems have been pursued for decades and have usually relied on optical techniques. These approaches are generally hampered by insufficient information regarding the emissivity of the system under study. We are developing NRS techniques to measure temperature in dynamic systems and overcome these limitations. Many neutron resonances have narrow intrinsic Breit-Wigner widths such that the resonance is substantially broadened by the atomic motion even at room temperature. Thus, accurate measurement of the Doppler contribution allows one to infer the material temperature, and for the conditions achieved using standard high explosives, the probe itself is not perturbed by the high temperature and pressure. Experiments are conducted using a pulsed spallation source at LANSCE with time-of-flight measurement of the neutron spectra. In initial experiments, we have demonstrated that measurements with ten percent accuracy are possible. We have fielded dynamic tests, most of which were neutron-flux limited. An overview of the approach and the status of our experimental campaign are discussed.

  17. Dynamic Measurement of Temperature using Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy (NRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, David J.; Asay, B. W.; Bennett, B. I.; Bowman, J. D.; Boat, R. M.; Henson, B. F.; Hixson, R. S.; Hull, L. M.; Laabs, G. W.; London, R. K.; Mace, J. L.; Morgan, G. L.; Murk, D. M.; Rabie, R. L.; Ragan, C. E.; Stacy, H. L.; Yuan, V. W.

    1997-07-01

    Accurate temperature measurements in dynamic systems have been pursued for decades and have usually relied on optical techniques. These approaches are generally hampered by insufficient information regarding the emissivity of the system under study. We are developing NRS techniques to measure temperature in dynamic systems and overcome these limitations. Many neutron resonances have narrow intrinsic Breit-Wigner widths such that the resonance is substantially broadened by the atomic motion even at room temperature. Thus, accurate measurement of the Doppler contribution allows one to infer the material temperature, and for the conditions achieved using standard high explosives, the probe itself is not perturbed by the high temperature and pressure. Experiments are conducted using a pulsed spallation source at LANSCE with time-of-flight measurement of the neutron spectra. In initial experiments, we have demonstrated that measurements with ten percent accuracy are possible. We have fielded dynamic tests, most of which were neutron-flux limited. An overview of the approach and the status of our experimental campaign will be discussed.

  18. Efficiency enhancement of regular-type perovskite solar cells based on Al-doped ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng-Lun; Chen, Chih-Ming; Lin, Zheng-Kun; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we first incorporated Al(NO3)3·9H2O as the Al source into ZnO nanorods (NRs) lattice via the hydrothermal method to modify nature properties of ZnO NRs for the fabrication of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Al-doped ZnO NRs exhibits higher 2θ values and stronger intensity of (002) plane. Larger optical band gap and higher electrical conductivity of Al-doped ZnO NRs are also observed relative to non-doped ZnO ones. The steady-state photoluminescence shows effective charge extraction and collection at the interface between Al-doped ZnO NRs and perovskite layer. The optimized PSC based on Al-doped ZnO NRs showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.84 V, a short-circuit current density of 21.93 mA/cm2, a fill factor of 57%, and a power conversion efficiency of 10.45% that was 23% higher than the non-doped ZnO ones.

  19. Hybrid ZnO NR/graphene structures as advanced optoelectronic devices with high transmittance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid structure (HS) made of one-dimensional ZnO nanorods (NRs) and a two-dimensional synthesized graphene sheet was successfully constructed in this study. The uniform ZnO NRs were obtained by hydrothermal method and grown on a graphene surface that had been transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The HS exhibited high transmittance (approximately 75%) over the visible wavelength range, even after cyclic bending with a small radius of curvature. Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurement were carried out to verify the chemical composition and electrical properties of the structure. Stable electrical conductance of the ZnO NR/graphene HS was achieved, and increase in carrier mobility decreased the resistance of the ZnO-with-graphene sheet in comparison with bare ZnO NRs. PMID:23937804

  20. Tailoring the surface of ZnO nanorods into corrugated nanorods via a selective chemical etch method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiangyang; Chen, Guangde; Li, Chu; Yin, Yuan; Jin, Wentao; Guo, Lu'an; Ye, Honggang; Zhu, Youzhang; Wu, Yelong

    2016-07-01

    Using the chemical vapour deposition method, we successfully converted smooth ZnO nanorods (NRs) into corrugated NRs by simply increasing the reaction time. The surface morphology and crystallographic structure of the corrugated NRs were investigated. The corrugated NRs were decorated by alternant (11\\bar{2}1) and (11\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) planes at the exposed side surfaces while the conventional \\{10\\bar{1}0\\} planes disappeared. No twinning boundaries were found in the periodically corrugated structures, indicating that they were type II corrugated NRs. Further investigation told us that they were selectively etched. We introduced a hydrothermal method to synthesize the smooth ZnO NRs and then etched them in a tube furnace at 950 °C with a flow of carbon monoxide. By separating the growth stage and the selective etching stage, we explicitly demonstrated a successfully selective etching effect on ZnO NRs with a carbon monoxide reducing atmosphere for the first time. An etching mechanism based on the selective reaction between carbon monoxide and the different exposed surfaces was proposed. Our results will improve the understanding of the growth mechanism on coarse or corrugated NRs and provide a new strategy for the application of surface controlled nanostructured materials.

  1. Facile boosting light-scattering of ZnO nanorods in broadband spectrum region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuan; Yu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jianjun; Zhang, Dekun; Chen, Liqiao; Long, Yunqian

    2017-04-01

    We first report that the light-scattering characteristic of ZnO nanorods (NRs) can be controlled by a ramping annealing rate of the seed layer. The NRs were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results indicate that based on the seed layer with ramping rate, the average diameter and length of the NRs increased, which leads to about 1.74% mismatches and 7.57 GPa tensile stress between the NRs and substrate. The resulting NRs show a boosting light-scattering with an average Haze of 54.73% throughout 300-850 nm, obtaining an improvement of 43.93% than the NRs based on the regular heating seed layer throughout broadband spectrum region from 300 to 1000 nm. The work presents a facile solution way for strengthening the light-trapping of ZnO NRs and most importantly, it is especially suitable for the commercialized production of the thin films solar cells because the NRs can be fabricated using an inexpensive and scalable processes.

  2. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of ZnO nanorod arrays decorated with CdS shell and Ag2S quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holi, Araa Mebdir; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Lim, Hong-Ngee; Yap, Chi-Chin; Chang, Sook-Keng; Ayal, Asmaa Kadim

    2017-03-01

    Ternary nanostructured Ag2S/CdS/ZnO thin film was prepared by using a simple low-cost hydrothermal method. The hexagonal phase of ZnO nanorods and CdS shells combined with monoclinic Ag2S quantum dots resulted in improved optical and photoelectrochemical properties. CdS shell with high absorption property efficiently compliment the energy levels of ZnO and improved the ability of light absorption. Furthermore, narrow band gap Ag2S also played a vital part in the light harvesting. The photoelectrochemical performance of the ternary nanostructured Ag2S/CdS/ZnO NRs was investigated in a mixture of Na2S and Na2SO3 aqueous solutions under visible light illumination. The Ag2S/CdS/ZnO NRs were found to be more efficient than ZnO NRs, CdS/ZnO NRs, and Ag2S/ZnO NRs as this particular sample gave a maximum photocurrent of 5.69 mA cm-2, which is around 2 and 1.5 times greater than CdS/ZnO NRs and Ag2S/ZnO NRs, respectively. Besides that, it was found that this ternary film possessed 15 times higher photocurrent density than plain ZnO NRs. This is attributed to the larger amount of visible light absorbed by the ternary nanostructured composite.

  3. Annealing effects on the optical and morphological properties of ZnO nanorods on AZO substrate by using aqueous solution method at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hang, Da-Ren; Islam, Sk Emdadul; Sharma, Krishna Hari; Kuo, Shiao-Wei; Zhang, Cheng-Zu; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) substrates were fabricated by a single-step aqueous solution method at low temperature. In order to optimize optical quality, the effects of annealing on optical and structural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. We found that the annealing temperature strongly affects both the near-band-edge (NBE) and visible (defect-related) emissions. The best characteristics have been obtained by employing annealing at 400°C in air for 2 h, bringing about a sharp and intense NBE emission. The defect-related recombinations were also suppressed effectively. However, the enhancement decreases with higher annealing temperature and prolonged annealing. PL study indicates that the NBE emission is dominated by radiative recombination associated with hydrogen donors. Thus, the enhancement of NBE is due to the activation of radiative recombinations associated with hydrogen donors. On the other hand, the reduction of visible emission is mainly attributed to the annihilation of OH groups. Our results provide insight to comprehend annealing effects and an effective way to improve optical properties of low-temperature-grown ZnO NRs for future facile device applications.

  4. Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators based on a transferred ZnO nanorod/Si micro-pillar array.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Park, Il-Kyu

    2017-03-03

    Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) based on a composite of ZnO nanorods (NRs) and an array of Si micro-pillars (MPs) are demonstrated by a transfer process. The flexible composite structure was fabricated by hydrothermal growth of ZnO NRs on an electrochemically etched Si MP array with various lengths followed by mechanically delaminating the Si MP arrays from the Si substrate after embedding them in a polydimethylsiloxane matrix. Because the Si MP arrays act as a supporter to connect the ZnO NRs electrically and mechanically, verified by capacitance measurement, the output voltage from the flexible PNGs increased systematically with the increased density ZnO NRs depending on the length of the Si MPs. The flexible PNGs showed 3.2 times higher output voltage with a small change in current with increasing Si MP length from 5 to 20 μm. The enhancement of the output voltage is due to the increased number of series-connected ZnO NRs and the beneficial effect of a ZnO NR/Si MP heterojunction on reducing free charge screening effects. The flexible PNGs can be attached on fingers as a wearable electrical power source or motion sensor.

  5. Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators based on a transferred ZnO nanorod/Si micro-pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Park, Il-Kyu

    2017-03-01

    Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) based on a composite of ZnO nanorods (NRs) and an array of Si micro-pillars (MPs) are demonstrated by a transfer process. The flexible composite structure was fabricated by hydrothermal growth of ZnO NRs on an electrochemically etched Si MP array with various lengths followed by mechanically delaminating the Si MP arrays from the Si substrate after embedding them in a polydimethylsiloxane matrix. Because the Si MP arrays act as a supporter to connect the ZnO NRs electrically and mechanically, verified by capacitance measurement, the output voltage from the flexible PNGs increased systematically with the increased density ZnO NRs depending on the length of the Si MPs. The flexible PNGs showed 3.2 times higher output voltage with a small change in current with increasing Si MP length from 5 to 20 μm. The enhancement of the output voltage is due to the increased number of series-connected ZnO NRs and the beneficial effect of a ZnO NR/Si MP heterojunction on reducing free charge screening effects. The flexible PNGs can be attached on fingers as a wearable electrical power source or motion sensor.

  6. Dual functional AuNRs@MnMEIOs nanoclusters for magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yao-Chen; Lin, Chia-Jung; Lo, Shih-Feng; Wang, Jei-Lin; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Wang, Yun-Ming

    2014-05-01

    A novel dual functional theranosis platform is developed based on manganese magnetism-engineered iron oxide (MnMEIO) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) to combine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and photothermal therapy in one nanocluster. The platform showed improved T2-weighted MR imaging and exhibited a near-infrared (NIR) induced temperature elevation due to the unique characteristics of AuNRs@MnMEIOs nanoclusters. The obtained dual functional spherical-shaped nanoclusters showed low cytotoxicity, and high cellular uptake efficiency. The AuNRs@MnMEIOs nanoclusters also demonstrated a 1.9 and 2.2 folds r2 relaxivity value higher than those of monodispersed MnMEIO and Resovist. In addition, in vivo MR imaging study found that the contrast enhancements were - 70.4 ± 4.3% versus - 7.5 ± 3.0% in Her-2/neu overexpression tumors as compared to the control tumors. More importantly, NIR laser irradiation to the tumor site resulted in outstanding photothermal therapeutic efficacy and without damage to the surrounding tissue. In additional, the prepared dual functional AuNRs@MnMEIOs display high stability and furthermore disperse even in the presence of external magnet, showing that AuNRs@MnMEIOs nanoclusters can be manipulated by an external magnetic field. Therefore, such nanoclusters combined MR imaging and photothermal therapeutic functionality can be developed as a promising nanosystem for effective cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  7. High-Sensitive Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on ZnO Nanorods/CdS Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Kin-Tak; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Ji, Liang-Wen; Fang, Te-Hua; Hsiao, Kai-Hua; Chu, Tung-Te

    2017-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors with ZnO nanorods (NRs)/CdS thin film heterostructures on glass substrates have been fabricated and characterized. It can be seen that the UV photoresponsivity of such a device became higher as the ZnO NR length was increased in the investigation. With an incident wavelength of 350 nm and 5 V applied bias, the responsivity of photodetectors based on ZnO NR/CdS heterostructures with the ZnO NR length at 500, 350, and 200 nm and traditional CdS film were at 12.86, 3.83, 0.91, and 0.75 A/W, respectively. The measurement results of the fabricated photodetectors based on ZnO nanorods (NRs)/CdS heterostructures have shown a significant high sensitivity in the range of UV light, which can be useful for the application of UV detection.

  8. The role of Zn vacancies in UV sensing with ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagiovanni, E. G.; Strano, V.; Franzò, G.; Mirabella, S.

    2016-10-01

    The UV sensing properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs) fabricated by a chemical bath deposition using two different hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) concentrations, 25 mM and 50 mM, are studied in this work. The NRs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and photoconductivity measurements. The SEM images indicate that 25 mM HMTA NRs exhibit merging that increases the growth induced defects in this sample with respect to the 50 mM sample. PL measurements demonstrate a higher optical transition from the doubly ionized Zn vacancy ( VZ n 2 - ) at 2.52 eV in the 50 mM ZnO NRs due to the reduced growth defect density. The photoconductivity measurements indicate better sensitivity and spectral selectivity in the 50 mM NRs, which we present as a result of the VZ n 2 - state. These results are summarised with a UV sensing model based on the optical properties of ZnO NRs, which provides a route for the development of improved sensors.

  9. Intracellular ZnO Nanorods Conjugated with Protoporphyrin for Local Mediated Photochemistry and Efficient Treatment of Single Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) with high surface area to volume ratio and biocompatibility is used as an efficient photosensitizer carrier system and at the same time providing intrinsic white light needed to achieve cancer cell necrosis. In this letter, ZnO nanorods used for the treatment of breast cancer cell (T47D) are presented. To adjust the sample for intracellular experiments, we have grown the ZnO nanorods on the tip of borosilicate glass capillaries (0.5 μm diameter) by aqueous chemical growth technique. The grown ZnO nanorods were conjugated using protoporphyrin dimethyl ester (PPDME), which absorbs the light emitted by the ZnO nanorods. Mechanism of cytotoxicity appears to involve the generation of singlet oxygen inside the cell. The novel findings of cell-localized toxicity indicate a potential application of PPDME-conjugated ZnO NRs in the necrosis of breast cancer cell within few minutes. PMID:21076704

  10. Performance of inverted polymer solar cells with randomly oriented ZnO nanorods coupled with atomic layer deposited ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Muhammad; Yun, Ju-Young; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructuring of the electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) is of great interest because it increases the surface area of the cell and electron transport. In this work, hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been adopted as the ETL, and the effect of adding atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO on the ZnO NRs on the inverted organic solar cell performance has been investigated. The fabricated inverted organic solar cell with 5-nm-thick ALD-ZnO grown on the ZnO NRs showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of 85% from that of the cell without ALD-ZnO (PCE = 1.67%). The ultrathin ALD-ZnO was found to act as a curing layer of the surface defects on the hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, resulting in an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  11. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC3H7)4] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO2 shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO2 coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors.

  12. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO(2)@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC(3)H(7))(4)] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO(2) shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO(2) coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors.

  13. Effect of annealing on the sub-bandgap, defects and trapping states of ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Hermann-Westendorf, Felix; Dellith, Andrea; Schmidt, Christa; Dellith, Jan; Plentz, Jonathan; Schulz, Martin; Presselt, Martin; Seyring, Martin; Rettenmeyer, Markus; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Annealing treatment was applied to different mesoporous ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical synthesis, i.e. nanoflowers (NFs), spherical aggregates (SPs), and nanorods (NRs). The sub-bandgap, defect properties as well as the trapping state characteristics after annealing were characterized spectroscopically, including ultrasensitive photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), photoluminescence and photo-electrochemical methods. The comprehensive experimental analysis reveals that annealing alters both the bandgap and the sub-bandgap. The defect concentration and the density of surface traps in the ZnO nanostructures are suppressed upon annealing as deduced from photoluminescence and open-circuit voltage decay analysis. The photo-electrochemical investigations reveal that the surface traps dominate the near conduction band edge of ZnO and, hence, lead to high recombination rates when used in DSSCs. The density of bulk traps in ZnO SPs is higher than that in ZnO NFs and ZnO NRs and promote lower recombination loss between photoinjected electrons with the electrolyte-oxidized species on the surface. The highest power conversion efficiency of ZnO NFs-, ZnO SPs-, and ZnO NRs-based DSSC obtained in our system is 2.0, 4.5, and 1.8%, respectively.

  14. Preparation and multiple antitumor properties of AuNRs/spinach extract/PEGDA composite hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunlong; Zhang, Buchang; Zhu, Lin; Li, Yanjie; Huang, Fangzhi; Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian

    2014-09-10

    In this study, a novel composite hydrogel that contains spinach extract (SE), gold nanorods (AuNRs), and poly(ethylene glycol) double acrylates (PEGDA) is prepared through a one-step in situ photopolymerization under noninvasive 660 nm laser irradiation for localized antitumor activity. SE plays a role as a photoinitiator for initiating the formation of the PEGDA hydrogel and as an excellent photosensitizer for generating cytotoxic singlet oxygen ((1)O2) with oxygen to kill tumor cells. AuNRs can be used as a photoabsorbing agent to generate heat from optical energy. Moreover, the introduction of AuNRs is conducive to the formation of the hydrogel and accelerates the rate of (1)O2 generation. The composite hydrogel shell, which has good biocompatibility on tumor cells, can prevent the photosensitizer from migrating to normal tissue and maintains a high concentration on lesions, thereby enhancing the curative effect. The combination of NIR light-triggered mild photothermal heating of AuNRs, the photodynamic treatment using SE, and localized gelation by photopolymerization exhibits a synergistic effect for the destruction of cancer cells.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Cloacibacterium normanense NRS-1 Isolated from Municipal Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Nicole R.; Fleming, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Cloacibacterium normanense is a Gram-negative bacterium recovered from untreated human wastewater. Given its high abundance in wastewater and its apparent absence in human stool, it may contribute to biological phosphate removal. Here, we perform a whole-genome sequence of C. normanense NRS-1(T) and examine particular features of this draft genome. PMID:27979947

  16. Guide for Improving NRS Data Quality: Procedures for Data Collection and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condelli, Larry; Castillo, Laura; Seburn, Mary; Deveaux, Jon

    This guide for improving the quality of National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS) data through improved data collection and training is intended for local providers and state administrators. Chapter 1 explains the guide's purpose, contents, and use and defines the following components of data quality: objectivity; integrity;…

  17. Atmospheric pressure microplasmas in ZnO nanoforests under high voltage stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Nafisa; Manthina, Venkata; Cil, Kadir; Adnane, Lhacene; Agrios, Alexander G.; Gokirmak, Ali; Silva, Helena

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure ZnO microplasmas have been generated by high amplitude single pulses and DC voltages applied using micrometer-separated probes on ZnO nanoforests. The high voltage stress triggers plasma breakdown and breakdown in the surrounding air followed by sublimation of ZnO resulting in strong blue and white light emission with sharp spectral lines and non-linear current-voltage characteristics. The nanoforests are made of ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, poly-crystalline silicon and bulk p-type silicon substrates. The characteristics of the microplasmas depend strongly on the substrate and voltage parameters. Plasmas can be obtained with pulse durations as short as ˜1 μs for FTO glass substrate and ˜100 ms for the silicon substrates. Besides enabling plasma generation with shorter pulses, NRs on FTO glass substrate also lead to better tunability of the operating gas temperature. Hot and cold ZnO microplasmas have been observed with these NRs on FTO glass substrate. Sputtering of nanomaterials during plasma generation in the regions surrounding the test area has also been noticed and result in interesting ZnO nanostructures (`nano-flowers' and `nano-cauliflowers'). A practical way of generating atmospheric pressure ZnO microplasmas may lead to various lighting, biomedical and material processing applications.

  18. Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by ZnO nanorods with different sizes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Semi; Shin, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Sangbin; Yu, Hyeongwoo; Cho, Soohaeng; Kim, Kyoung-Kook

    2013-05-01

    The improvement of the optical output power of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) was achieved by employing nano-sized flat-top hexagonal ZnO rods. ZnO nanorods (NRs) with the average diameters of 250, 350, and 580 nm were grown on p-GaN top surfaces by a simple wet-chemical method at relatively low temperature (90 degrees C) to investigate the effect of the diameter of ZnO NRs on the light extraction efficiency. Consequently, the enhancement by the factor of as high as 2.63 in the light output intensity at 20 mA for the LED with 350 nm ZnO NRs was demonstrated without the increase in the operation voltage compared to the reference LED.

  19. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-02-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications.

  20. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications. PMID:28155879

  1. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  2. Epithermal Neutron Source for Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy (NRS) using High Intensity, Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, D P; McNaney, J M; Swift, D C; Bartal, T; Hey, D S; Pape, S L; Mackinnon, A; Mariscal, D; Nakamura, H; Nakanii, N; Beg, F N

    2010-04-22

    A neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) has been developed using high intensity, short pulse lasers. This measurement technique will allow for robust measurements of interior ion temperature of laser-shocked materials and provide insight into equation of state (EOS) measurements. The neutron generation technique uses protons accelerated by lasers off of Cu foils to create neutrons in LiF, through (p,n) reactions with {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F. The distribution of the incident proton beam has been diagnosed using radiochromic film (RCF). This distribution is used as the input for a (p,n) neturon prediction code which is compared to experimentally measured neutron yields. From this calculation, a total fluence of 1.8 x 10{sup 9} neutrons is infered, which is shown to be a reasonable amount for NRS temperature measurement.

  3. Isolation of Glucocardiolipins from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a

    PubMed Central

    Schäffer, Christina; Beckedorf, Anke I.; Scheberl, Andrea; Zayni, Sonja; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Messner, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-substituted cardiolipins account for about 4 mol% of total phospholipid extracted from exponentially grown cells of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a. Individual glucocardiolipin species exhibited differences in fatty acid substitution, with iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0 prevailing. The compounds were purified to homogeneity by a novel protocol and precharacterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PMID:12426359

  4. Analysis of Outcomes of the NRS 2002 in Patients Hospitalized in Nephrology Wards

    PubMed Central

    Borek, Paulina; Chmielewski, Michał; Małgorzewicz, Sylwia; Dębska Ślizień, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Malnutrition is a common problem among hospitalized patients. In chronic kidney disease, it affects up to 50% of the population. Undernourishment has an adverse effect on prognosis and prolongs convalescence. The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of NRS (Nutrition Risk Screening) -2002 in the assessment of risk of malnutrition for patients hospitalized in nephrology wards. The aim was to develop clinical characteristics of malnourished patients and to assess the relationship between nutritional status and patient outcome. Methods: The analysis included 292 patients, consecutively admitted to nephrology wards. NRS-2002 was assessed in comparison to subjective global assessment. Associations with patient characteristics and outcome were evaluated. Results: Out of all the respondents, 119 patients (40%) suffered from malnutrition. The NRS-2002 showed a very strong relationship with Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) (p < 0.0001). Malnourished patients were older, were characterized by a significantly lower body mass index (BMI), and had a much longer hospitalization duration. In multiple regression analysis, the presence of malnutrition proved to be an independent predictor of the duration of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition is highly prevalent among patients hospitalized in nephrology wards, and it affects the length of hospitalization. Identification of malnourished patients and patients at serious risk of malnutrition progression allows the implementation of appropriate nutritional intervention. PMID:28300757

  5. Micro-twins TiO2 nanorods grown on seeded ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Xia, Maosheng; Liu, Yuhua; Zheng, Biju; Jiang, Qing; Lian, Jianshe

    2012-04-01

    TiO2 anatase nanorods (NRs) epitaxially grew along the [001] direction at 600 °C on seeded c-axis oriented ZnO films which were deposited on a quartz glass substrate. The length of TiO2 NRs was about 450 nm. Micro-twins (MTs) were found in the TiO2 NRs with the (103) plane as the twin planes. The possible growth mechanisms of these TiO2 MTs have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The photo-degradation experiment showed that the TiO2 NRs have a high degradation efficiency of 32.9%. The effects of structural defects and MTs on the photocatalytic activity have been discussed.

  6. Electrochemically-deposited ZnO nanorods arrays on ITO seeding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, M.; Lovchinov, K.; Nichev, H.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, results are reported from the study of the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured arrays with nanorods (NRs) grown electrochemically on ITO seeding layers with two different thicknesses deposited on a glass substrate. The properties are compared of the ZnO NRs grown on ITO seeding layers with resistivity 6.4 × 10-4 Ω cm, sheet resistance 80 Ω/□ and 8 Ω/□ and different ITO thicknesses - 80 and 800 nm, respectively. The optical spectra of reflectance, transmittance, diffused reflection and diffused transmission and the haze ratio in transmission and reflection of the samples carried out before and after ZnO NRs deposition are compared and discussed. The structures' properties are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ZnO NRs arrays with increased values of diffused transmission and reflection compared to the seeding layer substrates can be used in thin-film solar cells for increasing the light trapping.

  7. Spatially branched hierarchical ZnO nanorod-TiO2 nanotube array heterostructures for versatile photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic applications: towards intimate integration of 1D-1D hybrid nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Hung, Sung-Fu; Tao, Hua Bing; Miao, Jianwei; Yang, Hong Bin; Liu, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Hierarchically ordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) decorated nanoporous-layer-covered TiO2 nanotube array (ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs) nanocomposites have been prepared by an efficient, two-step anodization route combined with an electrochemical deposition strategy, by which monodispersed one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs were uniformly grown on the framework of NP-TNTAs. The crystal phases, morphologies, optical properties, photocatalytic as well as photoelectrocatalytic performances of the well-defined ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs heterostructures were systematically explored to clarify the structure-property correlation. It was found that the ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs heterostructure exhibits significantly enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic performances, along with favorable photostability toward degradation of organic pollutants under UV light irradiation, as compared to the single component counterparts. The remarkably enhanced photoactivity of ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs heterostructure is ascribed to the intimate interfacial integration between ZnO NRs and NP-TNTAs substrate imparted by the unique spatially branched hierarchical structure, thereby contributing to the efficient transfer and separation of photogenerated electron-hole charge carriers. Moreover, the specific active species during the photocatalytic process was unambiguously determined and photocatalytic mechanism was tentatively presented. It is anticipated that our work could provide new insights for the construction of various hierarchical 1D-1D hybrid nanocomposites for extensive photocatalytic applications.Hierarchically ordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) decorated nanoporous-layer-covered TiO2 nanotube array (ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs) nanocomposites have been prepared by an efficient, two-step anodization route combined with an electrochemical deposition strategy, by which monodispersed one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs were uniformly grown on the framework of NP-TNTAs. The crystal phases, morphologies, optical properties, photocatalytic as well as

  8. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  9. A simple route to vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanofilms on FTO surfaces: 1D-crystal growth of nanoseeds under ammonia-assisted hydrolysis process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for the synthesis of ZnO nanofilms composed of vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures (quasi-NRs) on the surface was demonstrated via a 1D crystal growth of the attached nanoseeds under a rapid hydrolysis process of zinc salts in the presence of ammonia at room temperature. In a typical procedure, by simply controlling the concentration of zinc acetate and ammonia in the reaction, a high density of vertically oriented nanorod-like morphology could be successfully obtained in a relatively short growth period (approximately 4 to 5 min) and at a room-temperature process. The average diameter and the length of the nanostructures are approximately 30 and 110 nm, respectively. The as-prepared quasi-NRs products were pure ZnO phase in nature without the presence of any zinc complexes as confirmed by the XRD characterisation. Room-temperature optical absorption spectroscopy exhibits the presence of two separate excitonic characters inferring that the as-prepared ZnO quasi-NRs are high-crystallinity properties in nature. The mechanism of growth for the ZnO quasi-NRs will be proposed. Due to their simplicity, the method should become a potential alternative for a rapid and cost-effective preparation of high-quality ZnO quasi-NRs nanofilms for use in photovoltaic or photocatalytics applications. PACS: 81.07.Bc; 81.16.-c; 81.07.Gf. PMID:22027275

  10. A simple route to vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanofilms on FTO surfaces: 1D-crystal growth of nanoseeds under ammonia-assisted hydrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Ali Umar, Akrajas; Abd Rahman, Mohd Yusri; Taslim, Rika; Mat Salleh, Muhamad; Oyama, Munetaka

    2011-10-25

    A simple method for the synthesis of ZnO nanofilms composed of vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures (quasi-NRs) on the surface was demonstrated via a 1D crystal growth of the attached nanoseeds under a rapid hydrolysis process of zinc salts in the presence of ammonia at room temperature. In a typical procedure, by simply controlling the concentration of zinc acetate and ammonia in the reaction, a high density of vertically oriented nanorod-like morphology could be successfully obtained in a relatively short growth period (approximately 4 to 5 min) and at a room-temperature process. The average diameter and the length of the nanostructures are approximately 30 and 110 nm, respectively. The as-prepared quasi-NRs products were pure ZnO phase in nature without the presence of any zinc complexes as confirmed by the XRD characterisation. Room-temperature optical absorption spectroscopy exhibits the presence of two separate excitonic characters inferring that the as-prepared ZnO quasi-NRs are high-crystallinity properties in nature. The mechanism of growth for the ZnO quasi-NRs will be proposed. Due to their simplicity, the method should become a potential alternative for a rapid and cost-effective preparation of high-quality ZnO quasi-NRs nanofilms for use in photovoltaic or photocatalytics applications.PACS: 81.07.Bc; 81.16.-c; 81.07.Gf.

  11. Band alignment and photon extraction studies of Na-doped MgZnO/Ga-doped ZnO heterojunction for light-emitter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Awasthi, Vishnu; Sengar, Brajendra Singh; Garg, Vivek; Sharma, Pankaj; Mukherjee, Shaibal; Kumar, Shailendra; Mukherjee, C.

    2015-10-28

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is carried out to measure the energy discontinuity at the interface of p-type Na-doped MgZnO (NMZO)/n-type Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) heterojunction grown by dual ion beam sputtering. The offset values at valence band and conduction band of NMZO/GZO heterojunction are calculated to be 1.93 and −2.36 eV, respectively. The p-type conduction in NMZO film has been confirmed by Hall measurement and band structure. Moreover, the effect of Ar{sup +} ion sputtering on the valence band onset values of NMZO and GZO thin films has been investigated. This asymmetric waveguide structure formed by the lower refractive index of GZO than that of NMZO indicates that easy extraction of photons generated in GZO through the NMZO layer into free space. The asymmetric waveguide structure has potential applications to produce ZnO-based light emitters with high extraction efficiency.

  12. Amperometric Non-Enzymatic Hydrogen Peroxide Sensor Based on Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hardan, Naif H.; Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Kar Keng, Lim

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) have been synthesized via the hydrothermal process. The NRs were grown over a conductive glass substrate. A non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), based on the prepared ZnO NRs, was examined through the use of current-voltage measurements. The measured currents, as a function of H2O2 concentrations ranging from 10 μM to 700 μM, revealed two distinct behaviours and good performance, with a lower detection limit (LOD) of 42 μM for the low range of H2O2 concentrations (first region), and a LOD of 143.5 μM for the higher range of H2O2 concentrations (second region). The prepared ZnO NRs show excellent electrocatalytic activity. This enables a measurable and stable output current. The results were correlated with the oxidation process of the H2O2 and revealed a good performance for the ZnO NR non-enzymatic H2O2 sensor. PMID:27367693

  13. Corrosion-Assisted Self-Growth of Au-Decorated ZnO Corn Silks and Their Photoelectrochemical Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Choi, Mingi; Baek, Minki; Deng, Zexiang; Yong, Kijung

    2017-02-01

    Modern nanotechnology generates more stringent requirements for the design and synthetic strategy of nanostructural materials. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy for the synthesis of "corn silk"-like ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, simplified as ZnO corn silk: silk-like ZnO nanotubes (NTs) with a large length-to-diameter ratio are grown on the top tip of corn-shaped ZnO nanorods (NRs). The synthetic method is unique in that when the ZnO NRs are dipped into the aqueous solution of NaBH4, the release of Zn(2+) and OH(-) caused by the corrosion of ZnO NRs, as well as the subsequent growth of ZnO NTs, could allow the process to run step-by-step in self-assembly mode. This process is directed and driven by the change in concentrations of hydrogen anion H(s)(-) induced by NaBH4, as well as hydroxyl ions (OH(-)) induced by the H(-) formation and hydrolysis of dissociative Zn atoms. The prepared ZnO corn silks exhibit highly enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) efficiency after decoration with Au nanoparticles (NPs). ZnO silks act as pathways to facilitate efficient charge transfer, and the Au NP decoration induces the plasmonic effect, causing the hot electrons to inject into ZnO under visible illumination. At the same time, the formation of a Schottky barrier at the Au/ZnO interface can retard the electron-hole recombination. Overall, Au-decorated ZnO corn silk with an increased PEC efficiency represents a promising photoanode material, and the synthesis route developed in the current study is applicable to building hierarchical nanostructures of other materials.

  14. Role of sensitivity of zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO-NRs) based photosensitizers in hepatocellular site of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Fakhar-E-Alam, M.; Alsalhi, M. S.

    2011-11-01

    Zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO-NRs) with high surface to volume ratio and bio compatibility are used as an efficient photosensitizer carrier system for achievement of Hepatocellular cancer cell (HepG2) necrosis within few minutes. Present study highlights the role of effectiveness of ZnO-NRs in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We have grown the ZnO-NRs on the tip of borosilicate glass capillaries (0.5 μm diameter). The grown ZnO-NRs were conjugated using Photofrin® and ALA for the efficient intracellular drug delivery, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) via photochemical reactions leading to cell death within few minutes after exposing UV light (240 nm). Viability of controlled and treated HepG2 cells with optimum dose of light (UV-visible) has been assessed by neutral red assay (NRA). The results were verified by staining of mitochondria using Mitotracker® red as an efficient dye as well as ROS detection. ZnO-NRs based Phogem® (PG) treated normal liver tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats were used as comparative experimental model. Morphological apoptotic changes in liver tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats before and after ZnO-NRs conjugated with photosensitizer (PS)-mediated PDT were investigated by microscopic examination.

  15. Influence of an elevated nutrition risk score (NRS) on survival in patients following gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, J; Müller, T; Schröder, A; Riediger, C; Feith, M; Reim, D; Friess, H; Martignoni, M E

    2015-07-01

    In the last years, the impact of weight loss in patients with malignant tumors has come more and more into the focus of clinical research, as the occurrence of weight loss is often associated with a reduced survival. Weight loss can be a hint for metastases in patients suffering from malignant tumors; furthermore, these patients are usually not able to be treated with chemotherapy. The aim of the study was to show the influence of weight loss and an elevated nutrition risk score on survival following tumor resection in patients suffering from gastric cancer. In 99 patients in whom a gastrectomy due to gastric cancer was performed, the nutrition risk score was calculated and its influence on mortality, morbidity and survival was analyzed. Of the included patients, 45 % of the patients gave a history of weight loss; they had significantly more often a NRS ≥ 3. In UICC stage 1a/b, a NRS ≥ 3 was associated with a significantly reduced survival compared to patients with a NRS < 3. In early tumor stages (UICC 1a/b), a NRS ≥ 3 was associated with a significantly reduced survival, while in progressed tumor stage, the influence of a poor NRS was not significant. This seems to show that in progressed stages in patients with gastric cancer, the influence of a reduced NRS is negligible.

  16. Out-of-plane orientation alignment and reorientation dynamics of gold nanorods in polymer nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Glor, Ethan C; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Chen; Composto, Russell J; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2017-03-15

    In this work, we develop a novel, in situ characterization method to measure the orientation order parameter and investigate the reorientation and reshaping dynamics of polymer grafted gold nanorods (AuNRs) in polymer nanocomposite (PNC) thin films. The long aspect-ratio of AuNRs results in two well-defined plasmon resonance modes, allowing the optical properties of the PNC to be tuned over a wide spectral range. The alignment of the AuNRs in a particular direction can also be used to further tune these optical properties. We utilize variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry as a unique technique to measure the optical properties of PNC films containing AuNRs at various angles of incidence, and use effective index of refraction analysis of the PNC to relate the birefringence in the film due to changes of the plasmon coupling to the orientation order parameter of AuNRs. Polymer thin films (ca. 70 nm) of either polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing PS grafted AuNRs are probed with ellipsometry, and the resulting extinction coefficient spectra compare favorably with more traditional analytical techniques, electron microscopy (EM) and optical absorbance (vis-NIR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measures optical birefringence, which allows us to determine the in- and out-of plane order of the AuNRs, a property that is not easily accessible using other measurement techniques. Additionally, this technique is applied in situ to demonstrate that AuNRs undergo a rapid (ca. 1-5 hours) reorientation before undergoing a slower (ca. 24 hours) rod to sphere shape transition. The reorientation behavior is different depending on the polymer matrix used. In the athermal case (i.e. PS matrix), the AuNRs reorient isotropically, while in PMMA the AuNRs do not become isotropic, which we hypothesize is due to PMMA preferentially wetting the silica substrate, leaving less vertical space for the AuNRs to reorient.

  17. ZnO nanorods array based field-effect transistor biosensor for phosphate detection.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Ahn, Min-Sang; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2017-03-18

    A promising field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor has been fabricated based on pyruvate oxidase (PyO) functionalized ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array grown on seeded SiO2/Si substrate. The direct and vertically grown ZnO NRs on the seeded SiO2/Si substrate offers high surface area for enhanced PyO immobilization, which further helps to detect phosphate with higher specificity. Under optimum conditions, the fabricated FET biosensor provided a convenient method for phosphate detection with high sensitivity (80.57μAmM(-1)cm(-2)) in a wide-linear range (0.1µM-7.0mM). Additionally, it also showed very low effect of electroactive species, stability and good reproducibility. Encouraging results suggest that this approach presents a promising method to be used for field measurements to detect phosphate.

  18. Strong Red Luminescent Twin ZnO Nanorods for Nano-thermometry and Phonon Tunnel Device Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Avanendra; Senapati, Kartik; Nanda, Karunakar; Satpati, Biswarup; Sahoo, Pratap

    Two segments of horizontally grown crystalline ZnO nanorods (NRs) connected with an amorphous layer have been successfully synthesized using aqueous growth technique. The amorphous layer between the crystalline ZnO sections is tunable with growth parameters and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The confocal photoluminescence (PL) imaging and spectroscopy of twin ZnO NRs at different temperature shows stable and intense red emission with comparably weak UV emission. Red emission from the twin NRs are the consequence of surface defect and structural imperfections of lattice disorder. The disappearance of asymmetry in UV emission after 293K indicates the weak exciton-phonon coupling at higher temperature while the coupling is stronger at lower temperatures. An indirect analysis from phonon bands of PL shows that the amorphous layer acts as a phonon barrier beyond certain thickness. Such crystalline-amorphous-crystalline architecture may be suitable for fundamental studies of the phonon tunneling in nanostructure. We also show that the individual NRs can be used for sensing and mapping of temperature in a wide range of 80-373 K with an accuracy of 0.1K with good sensitivity. These NRs may have suitable application for non-contact nano-thermometry.

  19. A novel maskless approach towards aligned, density modulated and multi-junction ZnO nanowires for enhanced surface area and light trapping solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kevin, M; Fou, Y H; Wong, A S W; Ho, G W

    2010-08-06

    A maskless method of employing polymer growth inhibitor layers is used to modulate the conflicting parameters of density and alignment of multi-junction nanowires via large-scale low temperature chemical route. This low temperature chemical route is shown to synthesize multi-junction nanostructures without compromising the crystal quality at the interfaces. The final morphology of optimized multi-junctions nanowire arrays can be demonstrated on various substrates due to substrate independence and low temperature processing. Here, we also fabricated devices based on density modulated multi-junction nanowires tuned to infiltrate nanoparticles. The fabrication of hierarchically structured nanowire/nanoparticles composites presents an advantageous structure, one that allows nanoparticles to provide large surface areas for dye adsorption, whilst the nanowires can enhance the light harvesting, electron transport rate, and also the mechanical properties of the films. This work can be of great scientific and commercial interest since the technique employed is of low temperature (<90 degrees C) and economical for large-scale solution processing, much valued in today's flexible display and photovoltaic industries.

  20. ZnO nanorod arrays for various low-bandgap polymers in inverted organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ping-Yi; Thiyagu, Subramani; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Kao, Chia-Yu; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-07

    Due to the limited diffusion length of carriers in polymer solar cells (PSCs), the path of carriers is a crucial factor that determines the device performance. Zinc oxide nanorods (NRs) as the electron transport channel can reduce electron-hole recombination and transport the electron to the electrode efficiently for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), but have been seldom demonstrated for low-bandgap polymers. Here we successfully applied ZnO NRs, which were grown via the hydrothermal method, as a platform to enhance PSC efficiency for various low-bandgap polymers. In order to assure that the nanorod morphology functioned properly for PSCs, the growth time, the concentration, and the resulting morphology were systematically investigated in depths. Such ZnO NRs were applied to different organic systems, resulting in the increase of the PCE for PBDTTT-C/PC71BM from 4.76% to 6.07% and PBDTTT-C-T/PC71BM from 5.40% to 7.34%. Through those experiments, we established a potentially universal and efficient ZnO NRs platform for various low-bandgap polymers to achieve high efficiency of inverted PSCs.

  1. Assembly of AuNRs and eugenol for trace analysis of eugenol using resonance light scattering technique.

    PubMed

    Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Huifeng; Zhao, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    A new resonance light scattering (RLS) method for determining eugenol was developed using gold nanorods (AuNRs) as probes which were synthesized in our lab. The weak RLS intensity of eugenol was obviously enhanced by the use of AuNRs. All of the results from the SEM, RLS and UV spectra indicated that eugenol induced the assembly of AuNRs; thus, a new complex of AuNRs-eugenol was formed. The assembly of this new complex was achieved through a coordination bond between eugenol and AuNRs. Under optimum experimental conditions, a direct linear relationship was established between the enhancement of RLS intensity and the concentration of eugenol in the range of 0.043-10.60 μg ml(-1) (r=0.9927). Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD) was found at a nanogram level (7.28 ng ml(-1) by 3S0/S). The recovery and RSD (n=5) of three synthetic samples were 99.7-104.2% and 0.81-1.19%, respectively. The method was successfully employed for the analysis of eugenol in curry powder samples.

  2. Rational design of hierarchical ZnO superstructures for efficient charge transfer: mechanistic and photovoltaic studies of hollow, mesoporous, cage-like nanostructures with compacted 1D building blocks.

    PubMed

    Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Ansari, Mohammad Shaad; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2016-02-21

    Mesoporous and hollow zinc oxide (ZnO) hierarchical superstructures assembled with compact 1D building blocks that provide an efficient and faster transport pathway for photo-generated charge carriers have been synthesized using a biomass derived polysaccharide "alginic acid". To understand the interactions between the organic bio-template and inorganic growth units of ZnO in aqueous medium, the effects of additives such as the alginate ion (ALGI) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), along with the controlled reaction conditions, are investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and powder X-ray diffraction. Dynamic and steady-state photoluminescence measurements are carried out to understand the charge transfer processes in the compact 1D superstructures. Experimental analyses reveal that the alginate ions, under hydrothermal reaction conditions, act as a structure directing agent and assemble 1D ZnO nanorods (NRs) hierarchically while NH4OH assists the formation of ZnO growth units. A plausible mechanism for ZnO cage formation is proposed based on the experimental observations. Morphology dependent photovoltaic properties of ZnO heterostructures, i.e., for ZnO cages, ZnO NRs and ZnO PNPs, have been studied along with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Enhancement of ∼ 60% and ∼ 35% in power conversion efficiency (PCE) is observed in ZnO cage based devices as compared to ZnO NR- and ZnO PNP-based devices, respectively.

  3. Hierarchically structured ZnO nanorods-nanosheets for improved quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianjun; Uchaker, Evan; Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-03-26

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) and nanosheets (NSs) were fabricated by adjusting the growth orientation of ZnO crystals in the reaction solution, respectively. The thin ZnO NSs were slowly assembled on the surface of NRs to form a hierarchically structured NR-NS photoelectrode for constructing CdS/CdSe quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). This hierarchical structure had two advantages in improving the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cells: (a) it increased the surface area and modified the surface profile of the ZnO NRs to aid in harvesting more quantum dots, which leads to a high short-current density (Jsc); (b) it facilitated transportation of the electrons in this compact structure to reduce the charge recombination, which led to enhancement of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). As a result, the QDSC assembled with the hierarchical NR-NS photoelectrode exhibited a high PCE of 3.28%, which is twice as much as that of the NR photoelectrode (1.37%).

  4. Selective growth of ZnO nanorods on hydrophobic Si nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Yen; Wang, Ying-Jhe; Hong, Meng-Hsiang; Chiu, Cheng-Yao; You, Shuen-Jium; Lu, Ming-Pei

    2015-02-06

    In this paper we describe the selective growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) on top of hydrophobic Si NR arrays. The periodic Si NR arrays, prepared through electroless chemical etching and HF treatment, functioned as hydrophobic substrates. Droplets containing ZnO seeds could be positioned on the Si NR arrays, causing the ZnO seeds to deposit selectively upon them, with n-ZnO NR/p-Si NR array heterojunctions ultimately forming after hydrothermal growth of ZnO NRs. Because of compensation for the difference in refractive index between air and the Si substrate, the n-ZnO NR/p-Si NR arrays exhibited excellent absorption ability in the visible range. Devices based on these n-ZnO NR/p-Si NR array heterojunctions displayed not only rectifying behavior but also photovoltaic effects when illuminated with UV light. The low temperature and low cost of this fabrication process suggest that the selective growth of n-ZnO NRs on p-Si NR arrays might allow such structures to have diverse applications in optoelectronics.

  5. Enhanced photoelectrochemical property of ZnO nanorods array synthesized on reduced graphene oxide for self-powered biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhuo; Gu, Yousong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Bai, Zhiming; Liu, Yichong; Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Zhang, Yue

    2015-02-15

    We have realized the direct synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array on reduced graphene layer (rGO), and demonstrated the enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) property of the rGO/ZnO based photoanode under UV irradiation compared with the pristine ZnO NRs array. The introduction of the rGO layer resulted in a favorable energy band structure for electron migration, which finally led to the efficient photoinduced charge separation. Such nanostructure was subsequently employed for self-powered PEC biosensing of glutathione in the condition of 0 V bias, with a linear range from 10 to 200 µM, a detection limit of 2.17 µM, as well as excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The results indicated the rGO/ZnO nanostructure is a competitive candidate in the PEC biosensing field.

  6. Growth of Ga-doped ZnO nanowires by two-step vapor phase method

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, C.; Kim, M.; Chun, J.; Kim, D.

    2005-03-28

    A two-step route is presented to dope Ga into ZnO nanowires and also fabricate heterostructures of Ga-doped ZnO nanowires on ZnO. The content of Ga in ZnO nanowires is about 7 at. % from energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. The single crystal Ga doped ZnO nanowires with the diameter of 40 nm and the length of 300-500 nm are well aligned on the ZnO bulk. The growth direction is along [001]. Raman scattering analysis shows that the doping of Ga into ZnO nanowires depresses Raman E{sub 1L} mode of ZnO, manifesting that Ga sites in ZnO are Zn sites (Ga{sub Zn}). The formation mechanism of Zn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}O nanowires/ZnO heterostructures is proposed.

  7. Stabilization of organometal halide perovskite films by SnO2 coating with inactive surface hydroxyl groups on ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhao, Jinjin; Liu, Jinxi; Wei, Liyu; Liu, Zhenghao; Guan, Lihao; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells have advanced rapid in the last few years, however the thermal instability of perovskite film on ZnO nanorods (NRs) remains a big challenge limiting its commercialization. The present work demonstrated effective suppression of the decomposition of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite through inserting a thin tin oxide (SnO2) passivation layer between ZnO NRs and perovskite films. Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed no distinct difference in the amount of hydroxyl groups and oxygen vacancies on the surface of ZnO NRs and ZnO@SnO2 NRs, Raman spectra suggested the hydroxyl groups might be trapped in oxygen vacancies on SnO2 surface, preventing the decomposition of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite through reacting with the hydroxyl groups. The power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells was significantly increased from 6.92% to 12.17% and became hysteresis-free by applying SnO2 passivating layer between perovskite and ZnO layers.

  8. Improved dye-sensitized solar cell with a ZnO nanotree photoanode by hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shou-Yi; Yang, Jui-Fu; Lai, Fang-I

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of ZnO nanostructures on dye adsorption to increase the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. ZnO nanostructures were grown in both tree-like and nanorod (NR) arrays on an AZO/FTO film structure by using a hydrothermal method. The results were observed in detail using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and solar simulation. The selective growth of tree-like ZnO was found to exhibit higher dye adsorption loading and conversion efficiency than ZnO NRs. The multiple 'branches' of 'tree-like nanostructures' increases the surface area for higher light harvesting and dye loading while reducing charge recombination. These improvements result in a 15% enhancement in power conversion. The objective of this study is to facilitate the development of a ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cell.

  9. Low-Temperature Facile Synthesis of Sb-Doped p-Type ZnO Nanodisks and Its Application in Homojunction Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Doo; Biswas, Pranab; Kim, Jong-Woo; Kim, Yun Cheol; Lee, Tae Il; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2016-05-25

    This study explores low-temperature solution-process-based seed-layer-free ZnO p-n homojunction light-emitting diode (LED). In order to obtain p-type ZnO nanodisks (NDs), antimony (Sb) was doped into ZnO by using a facile chemical route at 120 °C. The X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated the presence of (SbZn-2VZn) acceptor complex in the Sb-doped ZnO NDs. Using these NDs as freestanding templates, undoped n-type ZnO nanorods (NRs) were epitaxially grown at 95 °C to form ZnO p-n homojunction. The homojunction with a turn-on voltage of 2.5 V was found to be significantly stable up to 100 s under a constant voltage stress of 5 V. A strong orange-red emission was observed by the naked eye under a forward bias of 5 V. The electroluminescence spectra revealed three major peaks at 400, 612, and 742 nm which were attributed to the transitions from Zni to VBM, from Zni to Oi, and from VO to VBM, respectively. The presence of these deep-level defects was confirmed by the photoluminescence of ZnO NRs. This study paves the way for future applications of ZnO homojunction LEDs using low-temperature and low-cost solution processes with the controlled use of native defects.

  10. Feasibility study of ZnO nanowire made accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chan; Ko, Hyun-U.; Song, Sangho; Yun, Youngmin; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-04-01

    Vertically aligned arrays of ZnO nanowire can be used for many applications such as energy harvesters, UV sensors and mechanical sensors. Here we report the feasibility of a miniaturized accelerometer made with ZnO nanowire. For improving the sensitivity of miniaturized piezoelectric accelerometer, size of piezoelectric ceramic should be large which results in heavy accelerometer and low resonance frequency. To resolve the problem for the miniaturized accelerometer fabrication, ZnO nanowire is chosen. ZnO nanowire, which has piezoelectric property with Wurtzite structure. Since it has high aspect ratio, the use of ZnO nanowire leads to increase deformation and piezoelectric response output. The vertically ZnO nanowire array is grown on a copper substrate by hydrothermal synthesis process. Detail Fabrication process of the miniaturized accelerometer is illustrated. To prove the feasibility of the fabricated accelerometer, dynamic response test is performed in comparison with a commercial accelerometer.

  11. Development of highly transparent seedless ZnO nanorods engineered for inverted polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Lee, Wonjoo; Mane, Rajaram S; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2014-10-21

    This work reports on inverted polymer solar cells (IPSCs) based on highly transparent (>95%), hydrophobic, seedless ZnO nanorods (NRs) as cathode buffers with extremely enhanced electrical characteristics. The transparent NR suspension with stability for more than a year is achieved by adding a small amount of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEA). The ability of the stable nanorod suspension to easily spin-coat is certainly an advance to the fabrication of films over large areas and to replace the conventional seeding method to grow one-dimensional nanostructures for use in optoelectronic devices. We observe a strong correlation between the photovoltaic performance and the transparency of ZnO NRs. IPSCs using poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixtures in the active layer and transparent (MEA-capped) ZnO NRs as cathode buffers exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.24% under simulated AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2) illumination.

  12. Hydrothermal growth and conductivity enhancement of (Al, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanorods thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Mahapatra, Preetilata; Thangavel, R.

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of Al, Cu co-doping in ZnO host lattice plays an important role in modification of structural, optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present work, we were grown one dimensional ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different concentration of Al (0%~5%) and Cu was kept 20 M% on ITO glass substrates using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the codoping on the surface morphology and the electrical and optical performances of the doped ZnO NRs as photo anodes for solar water splitting applications. The crystallite size of NRs shows tuning in the band gap between 3.194 (Zn0.79Al0.01Cu0.2O) to 3.212 eV (Zn0.75Al0.05Cu0.2O) with Aluminium doping concentration and a remarkable improvement in current density (J) from 0.05 mA/cm2 to 4.98 mA/cm2 was achieved by incorporating Al and Cu has a critical effect of ZnO nanorods.

  13. Ethyl Cellulose and Cetrimonium Bromide Assisted Synthesis of Mesoporous, Hexagon Shaped ZnO Nanodisks with Exposed ±{0001} Polar Facets for Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Ansari, Mohammad Shaad; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2015-06-24

    Hexagon shaped mesoporous zinc oxide nanodisks (ZnO NDs) with exposed ±{0001} polar facets have been synthesized by using ethyl cellulose (EC) and cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) as the capping and structure directing agents. We have characterized ZnO NDs using analytical techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), diffuse reflectance UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and proposed a plausible mechanism for the formation of ZnO NDs. EC molecules form a colloidal solution in a 1-butanol:water (3:1) solvent system having a negative zeta potential (ζ ≈ -32 mV) value which can inhibit CTAB assisted c-axis growth of ZnO crystal and encourage the formation of ZnO NDs. In the control reactions carried out in presence of only CTAB and only EC, formation of hexagonal ZnO nanorods (NRs) and ZnO nanosheets (NSs) composed of numerous ZnO nanoparticles are observed, respectively. Photovoltaic properties of ZnO NDs as compared to ZnO NRs, ZnO NSs, and conventional ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are investigated by co-sensitizing with CdS/CdSe quantum dots (QDs). An ∼35% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE, η) is observed in ZnO NDs (η ≈ 4.86%) as compared to ZnO NPs (η ≈ 3.14%) while the values of PCE for ZnO NR and ZnO NS based devices are found to be ∼2.52% and ∼1.64%, respectively. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of the ZnO NDs based solar cell is attributed to an efficient charge separation and collection, boosted by the exposed ±(0001) facets apart from the single crystalline nature, better light-scattering effects, and high BET surface area for sensitizer particle adsorption. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis further reveals that the charge recombination resistance and photoinduced electron lifetime are substantially higher in the ZnO ND based

  14. Studies on ZnO nanorods/CuInS2 coaxial n-p heterojunction arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2013-02-01

    We have fabricated an n-p nanorods (NRs) heterojunction consisting of n-type ZnO NR and p-type CuInS2 by a simple, low cost solution method through an ion-exchange route. The heterojunction shows a rectifying behavior with an ideality factor of 1.66. Furthermore, the heterojunction is promising candidates for applications in electro-optic devices.

  15. Synthesis and alignment of silver nanorods and nanowires and the formation of Pt, Pd, and core/shell structures by galvanic exchange directly on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sławiński, Grzegorz W; Zamborini, Francis P

    2007-09-25

    Here we describe the synthesis of Ag nanorods (NRs) (aspect ratio <20) and nanowires (NWs) (aspect ratio > or =20) directly on surfaces by seed-mediated growth. The procedure involves attaching gold seed nanoparticles (Au NPs) to 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS)-functionalized silicon or glass surfaces and growing them into NRs/NWs by placing the substrates into a solution containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), silver nitrate, and ascorbic acid with the pH ranging from 7 to 12. Under our conditions, Ag NRs/NWs grow optimally at pH 10.6 with a 3% yield, where spherical, triangular, and hexagonal nanostructures represent the other byproducts. The length of Ag NRs/NWs ranges from 50 nm to more than 10 microm, the aspect ratio (AR) ranges from 1.4 to >300, and the average diameter is approximately 35 nm. Approximately 40% of the 1D structures are NRs, and 60% are NWs as defined by their ARs. We also report the alignment of Ag NRs/NWs directly on surfaces by growing the structures on amine-functionalized Si(100) surfaces after an amidation reaction with acetic acid and a method to improve the percentage of Ag NRs/NWs on the surface by removing structures of other shapes with adhesive tape. Surface-grown Ag NRs/NWs also react with salts of palladium, platinum, and gold via galvanic exchange reactions to form high-surface-area 1D structures of the corresponding metal. The combination of the seed-mediated growth of Ag on Au NRs followed by the galvanic exchange of Ag with Pd leads to interesting core/shell NRs grown directly on surfaces. We used scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize the surface-grown nanostructures.

  16. Biomimetic alignment of zinc oxide nanoparticles along a peptide nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Tomizaki, Kin-ya; Kubo, Seiya; Ahn, Soo-Ang; Satake, Masahiko; Imai, Takahito

    2012-09-18

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential applications in solar cells, chemical sensors, and piezoelectronic and optoelectronic devices due to its attractive physical and chemical properties. Recently, a solution-phase method has been used to synthesize ZnO crystals with diverse (from simple to hierarchical) nanostructures that is simple, of low cost, and scalable. This method requires template molecules to control the morphology of the ZnO crystals. In this paper, we describe the design and synthesis of two short peptides (RU-003,Ac-AIEKAXEIA-NH(2); RU-027, EAHVMHKVAPRPGGGAIEKAXEIA-NH(2); X = l-2-naphthylalanine) and the characterization of their self-assembled nanostructures. We also report their potential for ZnO mineralization and the alignment of ZnO nanoparticles along peptide nanostructures at room temperature. Interestingly, nonapeptide RU-003 predominantly formed a straight fibrous structure and induced the nucleation of ZnO at its surface, leading to an alignment of ZnO nanoparticles along a peptide nanofiber. This novel method holds promise for the room-temperature fabrication of ZnO catalysts with increased specific surface area, ZnO-gated transistors, and ZnO-based nanomaterials for optical applications.

  17. Hierarchical Assembly of SnO2/ZnO Nanostructures for Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liangliang; Hong, Minghui; Wei Ho, Ghim

    2015-01-01

    SnO2/ZnO hierarchical heterostructures have been successfully synthesized by combining electrospinning technique and hydrothermal method. Various morphologies of the secondary ZnO nanostructures including nanorods (NRs) and nanosheets (NSs) can be tailored by adding surfactants. Photocatalytic performance of the heterostructures was investigated and obvious enhancement was demonstrated in degradation of the organic pollutant, compared to the primary SnO2-based nanofibers (NFs) and bare ZnO. Furthermore, it was found that the H2 evolution from water splitting was achieved by photocatalysis of heterostructured nanocomposites after sulfurization treatment. This synthetic methodology described herein promises to be an effective approach for fabricating variety of nanostructures for enhanced catalytic applications. The heterostructured nanomaterials have considerable potential to address the environmental and energy issues via degradation of pollutant and generation of clean H2 fuel. PMID:26109295

  18. Hierarchical Assembly of SnO2/ZnO Nanostructures for Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liangliang; Hong, Minghui; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2015-06-25

    SnO2/ZnO hierarchical heterostructures have been successfully synthesized by combining electrospinning technique and hydrothermal method. Various morphologies of the secondary ZnO nanostructures including nanorods (NRs) and nanosheets (NSs) can be tailored by adding surfactants. Photocatalytic performance of the heterostructures was investigated and obvious enhancement was demonstrated in degradation of the organic pollutant, compared to the primary SnO2-based nanofibers (NFs) and bare ZnO. Furthermore, it was found that the H2 evolution from water splitting was achieved by photocatalysis of heterostructured nanocomposites after sulfurization treatment. This synthetic methodology described herein promises to be an effective approach for fabricating variety of nanostructures for enhanced catalytic applications. The heterostructured nanomaterials have considerable potential to address the environmental and energy issues via degradation of pollutant and generation of clean H2 fuel.

  19. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of ZnO Nanorods Coupled by Two-Dimensional α-MoO3 Nanoflakes under UV and Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hang, Da-Ren; Sharma, Krishna Hari; Chen, Chun-Hu; Islam, Sk Emdadul

    2016-08-26

    We exploit the utilization of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxide nanoflakes as a co-catalyst for ZnO nanorods (NRs) to enhance their photocatalytic performance. The 2D nanoflakes of orthorhombic α-MoO3 were synthesized through a sonication-aided exfoliation technique. The 2D MoO3 nanoflakes can be further converted to substoichiometric quasi-metallic MoO3-x by using UV irradiation. Subsequently, 1D-2D MoO3 /ZnO NR and MoO3-x /ZnO NR composite photocatalysts have been successfully synthesized. The photocatalytic performances of the novel nanosystems in the decomposition of methylene blue are studied by using UV- and visible-illumination setup. The incorporated 2D nanoflakes show a positive influence on the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO. The obtained rate constant values follow the order of pristine ZnO NRZnO NRZnO NR composites. The enhancement of the photocatalytic efficiency can be ascribed to a fast charge carrier separation and transport within the heterojunctions of the MoO3 /ZnO NRs. In particular, the best photocatalytic performance of the MoO3-x /ZnO NR composite can be additionally attributed to a quasi-metallic conductivity and substoichiometry-induced mid-gap states, which extend the light absorption range. A tentative photocatalytic degradation mechanism was proposed. The strategy presented in this work not only demonstrates that coupling with nanoscale molybdenum oxide nanoflakes is a promising approach to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of ZnO but also hints at new type of composite catalyst with extended applications in energy conversion and environmental purification.

  20. CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell based hierarchical branched ZnO nanoarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Deng, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    The hierarchical branched ZnO nanoarrays (NAs) photoanode was prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method. Vertically aligned long ZnO NWs were first synthesized using as the backbone of hierarchical branched ZnO NAs structure and high quality ZnO NAs branches were grown on the surface of backbone ZnO NAs. The structured films enhance the optical path length through the light scatting effect of branched ZnO NAs and prove the larger internal surface area in NAs film to increase quantum dots (QDs) sensitizer loadings, so the light absorption has an optimization. Compared with the cell based conventional 1D ZnO NAs, the efficiency of the new cells has a great improvement due to the increase of the short circuit current density.

  1. Catalytic effects of ZnO nanorods grown by sonochemical decomposition of zinc acetate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok Cheol; Lee, Ho Suk; Sohn, Sang Ho

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we prepared ZnO nanorods by a sonochemical method using a zinc acetate dihydrate as a new precursor. Well-aligned high-quality ZnO nanorods were synthesized on FTO glass by the sonochemical decomposition of zinc acetate dihydrate using a ZnO thin-film as the catalytic layer. The ZnO thin-films were deposited on the FTO glass by a sputtering method. To investigate their catalytic effects on the ZnO nanorods, catalytic ZnO thin-films of 20 nm, 40 nm, and 60 nm thickness were prepared by adjusting the sputtering time. The ZnO nanorods grown on catalytic layers with different thicknesses were characterized by SEM, XRD, and PL. The ZnO nanorods grown on the catalytic layer of 40 nm thickness show the best crystal and spatial orientation and as a result display the best optical properties. It was found that a catalytic ZnO thin-film of 40 nm in thickness yields well-aligned high-quality ZnO nanorods, due to its small surface roughness and structural strain.

  2. Well-integrated ZnO nanorod arrays on conductive textiles by electrochemical synthesis and their physical properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We reported well-integrated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays (NRAs) on conductive textiles (CTs) and their structural and optical properties. The integrated ZnO NRAs were synthesized by cathodic electrochemical deposition on the ZnO seed layer-coated CT substrate in ultrasonic bath. The ZnO NRAs were regularly and densely grown as well as vertically aligned on the overall surface of CT substrate, in comparison with the grown ZnO NRAs without ZnO seed layer or ultrasonication. Additionally, their morphologies and sizes can be efficiently controlled by changing the external cathodic voltage between the ZnO seed-coated CT substrate and the counter electrode. At an external cathodic voltage of −2 V, the photoluminescence property of ZnO NRAs was optimized with good crystallinity and high density. PMID:23316935

  3. Polarized light emission by deposition of aligned semiconductor nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadimasoudi, Mohammad; Penninck, Lieven; Aubert, Tangi; Gomes, Raquel; Hens, Zeger; Strubbe, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2014-08-01

    The ability to control the position and orientation of nanorods in a device is interesting both from a scientific and a technological point of view. Because semiconductor nanorods exhibit anisotropic absorption, and spontaneous and stimulated emission, aligning individual NRs to a preferred axis is attractive for many applications in photonics such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, optical sensors, switches, etc. Electric-field-driven deposition from colloidal suspensions has proven to be an efficient method for the controlled positioning and alignment of anisotropic particles. In this work, we present a novel technique for the homogeneous deposition and alignment of CdSe/CdS NRs on a glass substrate patterned with transparent indium tin oxide interdigitated electrodes, with a spacing of a few micrometers. This method is based on applying a strong AC electric field over the electrodes during a dip-coating procedure and subsequent evaporation of the solvent. The reproducible and homogeneous deposition on large substrates is required for large size applications such as solar cells or OLEDs. The accumulation, alignment, and polarized fluorescence of the nanorods as a function of the electrical field during deposition are investigated. A preferential alignment with an order parameter of 0.92 has been achieved.

  4. Cd-free buffer layer materials on Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4: Band alignments with ZnO, ZnS, and In2S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.; Haight, Richard; Sakai, Noriyuki; Hiroi, Homare; Sugimoto, Hiroki; Mitzi, David B.

    2012-05-01

    The heterojunctions formed between Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) and three Cd-free n-type buffers, ZnS, ZnO, and In2S3, were studied using femtosecond ultraviolet photoemission and photovoltage spectroscopy. The electronic properties including the Fermi level location at the interface, band bending in the CZTSSe substrate, and valence and conduction band offsets were determined and correlated with device properties. We also describe a method for determining the band bending in the buffer layer and demonstrate this for the In2S3/CZTSSe system. The chemical bath deposited In2S3 buffer is found to have near optimal conduction band offset (0.15 eV), enabling the demonstration of Cd-free In2S3/CZTSSe solar cells with 7.6% power conversion efficiency.

  5. Study of NBE emission enhancement with an absence of DL emission from ZnO nanorods through controlled growth on ultra-thin Ag films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Bharathi Mohan, D.

    2015-04-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) exhibiting enhanced ultra-violet near band edge (UV-NBE) emission without a broad visible deep level (DL) emission has been investigated on catalytically grown ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructure. The hybrid structure is fabricated in two steps, (1) Thermal evaporation of ultra-thin catalytic layer of Ag with mass thickness ∼1 nm on glass substrate followed by annealing process from 50 to 250 °C and (2) vertical growth of ZnO NRs by hydrothermal reaction process on all Ag films. The surface properties of Ag layer such as particle size, inter-particle distance, particles number density, surface roughness and surface coverage area were altered through annealing process. Annealing at 100 °C modifies Ag from quasi-amorphous to nanocrystalline leading to high density growth and high aspect ratio of ZnO NRs where as a random and less density growth was realized at 250 °C due to increase of both particle size and inter-particles distance in Ag layer. X-ray diffraction reveals a predominant growth of (0 0 2) plane at 100 °C confirming the formation of wurtzite phase of ZnO NRs with highest texture coefficient of 2.35. Raman spectra verify the chemical structure of ZnO with very good crystallinity. Absorption spectra demonstrates the overlapping of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and exciton bands up to 200 °C while the excitonic absorption band is resolved at above 200 °C because of the red shift in SPR due to change in surface properties of Ag layer. At 250 °C, a broad optical absorption spectra from 300 to 800 nm attributed to the dominant properties of SPR and exciton. Besides acting as a catalyst, Ag interlayer enhances the NBE emission at above 200 °C through electrons transfer from Ag to ZnO which is quite possible because of the direct contact between them, explained by giving energy band diagram. The morphology is such that there is an increase in passage for light interaction due to less density and random growth of ZnO NRs leading to increase

  6. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  7. Nanowire Array Gratings with ZnO Combs

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zhengwei; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Dai, Sheng; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2005-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are mainly manufactured by mechanical ruling, interference lithography, or resin replication, which generally require expensive equipment, complicated procedures, and a stable environment. We describe the controlled growth of self-organized microscale ZnO comb gratings by a simple one-step thermal evaporation and condensation method. The ZnO combs consist of an array of very uniform, perfectly aligned, evenly spaced and long single-crystalline ZnO nanowires or nanobelts with periods in the range of 0.2 to 2 {mu}m. Diffraction experiments show that the ZnO combs can function as a tiny three-beam divider that may find applications in miniaturized integrated optics such as three-beam optical pickup systems.

  8. Selective growth of catalyst-free ZnO nanowire arrays on Al:ZnO for device application

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, T. F.; Luo, L. B.; He, Z. B.; Leung, Y. H.; Shafiq, I.; Yao, Z. Q.; Lee, S. T.

    2007-12-03

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays have been synthesized selectively on patterned aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) layer deposited on silicon substrates without using any metal catalysts. The growth region was defined by conventional photolithography with an insulating template. Careful control of the types of template materials and growth conditions allows good alignment and growth selectivity for ZnO NW arrays. Sharp ultraviolet band-edge peak observed in the photoluminescence spectra of the patterned ZnO NW arrays reveals good optical qualities. The current-voltage characteristics of ZnO NWs/AZO/p-Si device suggest that patterned and aligned ZnO NW arrays on AZO may be used in optoelectronic devices.

  9. Controllable Growth of Ultrathin P-doped ZnO Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuankun; Yang, Hengyan; Sun, Feng; Wang, Xianying

    2016-12-01

    Ultrathin phosphor (P)-doped ZnO nanosheets with branched nanowires were controllably synthesized, and the effects of oxygen and phosphor doping on the structural and optical properties were systematically studied. The grown ZnO nanosheet exhibits an ultrathin nanoribbon backbone with one-side-aligned nanoteeth. For the growth of ultrathin ZnO nanosheets, both oxygen flow rate and P doping are essential, by which the morphologies and microstructures can be finely tuned. P doping induces strain relaxation to change the growth direction of ZnO nanoribbons, and oxygen flow rate promotes the high supersaturation degree to facilitate the growth of nanoteeth and widens the nanoribbons. The growth of P-doped ZnO in this work provides a new progress towards the rational control of the morphologies for ZnO nanostructures.

  10. Controllable Growth of Ultrathin P-doped ZnO Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Yang, Hengyan; Sun, Feng; Wang, Xianying

    2016-04-01

    Ultrathin phosphor (P)-doped ZnO nanosheets with branched nanowires were controllably synthesized, and the effects of oxygen and phosphor doping on the structural and optical properties were systematically studied. The grown ZnO nanosheet exhibits an ultrathin nanoribbon backbone with one-side-aligned nanoteeth. For the growth of ultrathin ZnO nanosheets, both oxygen flow rate and P doping are essential, by which the morphologies and microstructures can be finely tuned. P doping induces strain relaxation to change the growth direction of ZnO nanoribbons, and oxygen flow rate promotes the high supersaturation degree to facilitate the growth of nanoteeth and widens the nanoribbons. The growth of P-doped ZnO in this work provides a new progress towards the rational control of the morphologies for ZnO nanostructures.

  11. Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Nour, E. S. Echresh, A.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Liu, Xianjie; Broitman, E.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we have synthesized Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) nanorods (NRs) via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002) direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence of Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  12. Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, E. S.; Echresh, A.; Liu, Xianjie; Broitman, E.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we have synthesized Zn1-xAgxO (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) nanorods (NRs) via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn1-xAgxO samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002) direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence of Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d33) as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn1-xAgxO NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  13. One dimensional SnO2 NRs/Fe2O3 NTs with dual synergistic effects for photoelectrocatalytic reduction CO2 into methanol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongxue; Wang, Huying; Song, Weijie; Wei, Wei; Mu, Qingping; Kong, Bo; Li, Peiqiang; Yin, Hongzong

    2017-01-15

    The hydrothermal method was explored to prepare SnO2 nanorods (SnO2 NRs) with the special faces of (110) and (101) on the surface of Fe2O3 nanotubes (Fe2O3 NTs). According to the SEM and XRD results, the formation process of the hierarchically assembled SnO2 NRs was deduced. The SnO2 NRs/Fe2O3 NTs catalyst that had reached for 120 mins behaved the best photoelectrocatalytic properties. From the view of photocatalytic reduction, the conduction band (-0.75eV vs NHE) is negative enough to drive CO2 reduction, and the valence band (1.82eV) is positive enough to oxidize H2O to generate proton, and then the proton is used for CO2 reduction. From the electrocatalytic reduction point, the net CO2 reduction current density of the composite is 7.48 times that of Fe2O3 NTs at -1.1V, indicating that the electrocatalytic performance of Fe2O3 NTs is greatly enhanced by the introduction of 6-fold branched SnO2 NRs. The predominant reduction product is analyzed by GC was methanol. Herein, two synergistic effects are proved according to the methanol yields, one is the synergistic effect of the photocatalytic and electrocatalytic reduction, the other is the synergistic effect between SnO2 NRs and Fe2O3 NTs. The results indicated that the composite catalyst behaves excellent photoelectrocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction.

  14. Selective area growth of well-ordered ZnO nanowire arrays with controllable polarity.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Vincent; Sarigiannidou, Eirini; Appert, Estelle; Bocheux, Amandine; Guillemin, Sophie; Donatini, Fabrice; Robin, Ivan-Christophe; Kioseoglou, Joseph; Robaut, Florence

    2014-05-27

    Controlling the polarity of ZnO nanowires in addition to the uniformity of their structural morphology in terms of position, vertical alignment, length, diameter, and period is still a technological and fundamental challenge for real-world device integration. In order to tackle this issue, we specifically combine the selective area growth on prepatterned polar c-plane ZnO single crystals using electron-beam lithography, with the chemical bath deposition. The formation of ZnO nanowires with a highly controlled structural morphology and a high optical quality is demonstrated over large surface areas on both polar c-plane ZnO single crystals. Importantly, the polarity of ZnO nanowires can be switched from O- to Zn-polar, depending on the polarity of prepatterned ZnO single crystals. This indicates that no fundamental limitations prevent ZnO nanowires from being O- or Zn-polar. In contrast to their catalyst-free growth by vapor-phase deposition techniques, the possibility to control the polarity of ZnO nanowires grown in solution is remarkable, further showing the strong interest in the chemical bath deposition and hydrothermal techniques. The single O- and Zn-polar ZnO nanowires additionally exhibit distinctive cathodoluminescence spectra. To a broader extent, these findings open the way to the ultimate fabrication of well-organized heterostructures made from ZnO nanowires, which can act as building blocks in a large number of electronic, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic devices.

  15. ALIGNING JIG

    DOEpatents

    Culver, J.S.; Tunnell, W.C.

    1958-08-01

    A jig or device is described for setting or aligning an opening in one member relative to another member or structure, with a predetermined offset, or it may be used for measuring the amount of offset with which the parts have previously been sct. This jig comprises two blocks rabbeted to each other, with means for securing thc upper block to the lower block. The upper block has fingers for contacting one of the members to be a1igmed, the lower block is designed to ride in grooves within the reference member, and calibration marks are provided to determine the amount of offset. This jig is specially designed to align the collimating slits of a mass spectrometer.

  16. Image alignment

    DOEpatents

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  17. Polyaniline hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods with long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Susanta; Khan, Hasmat; Biswas, Indranil; Jana, Sunirmal

    2016-10-01

    We report surfactant/template free precursor solution based synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods by a two-step process. Initially, ZnO nanorods have been prepared at 95 °C, followed by hybridization (coating) of PANI onto the ZnO via in situ polymerization of aniline monomer, forming ZnO-PANI nanohybrid (ZP). The structural properties of ZP have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The presence of surface defects especially the oxygen vacancies in ZnO has been characterized by photoluminescence emission, high resolution TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectral measurements. The chemical interaction of PANI with ZnO has been examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and XPS analyses. A significant enhancement in visible absorption of ZP sample is found as evidenced from UV-vis diffused reflectance spectral study. BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm shows an improved textural property (pore size, pore volume) of ZP. Moreover, a long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity (PEC) of ZP is found compare to pristine ZnO. The synergic effect of PANI hybridization and the presence of surface defects in ZnO NRs can enhance the PEC by prolonging the recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers. The effect can also provide large number of active sites to make electrolyte diffusion and mass transportation easier in the nanohybrid. This simple synthesis strategy can be adopted for PANI hybridization with different metal oxide semiconductors towards enhancing PEC activity of the hybrid materials.

  18. Cytotoxicity of ZnO Nanowire Arrays on Excitable Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongchen; Wu, Yu; Quadri, Farhan; Prox, Jordan D; Guo, Liang

    2017-04-07

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires have been widely studied for their applications in electronics, optics, and catalysts. Their semiconducting, piezoelectric, fluorescent, and antibacterial properties have also attracted broad interest in their biomedical applications. Thus, it is imperative to evaluate the biosafety of ZnO nanowires and their biological effects. In this study, the cellular level biological effects of ZnO nanowire arrays are specifically tested on three types of excitable cells, including NG108-15 neuronal cell line, HL-1 cardiac muscle cell line, and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Vertically aligned and densely packed ZnO nanowire arrays are synthesized using a solution-based method and used as a substrate for cell culture. The metabolism levels of all three types of cells cultured on ZnO nanowire arrays are studied using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays of a full factorial design. Under the studied settings, the results show statistically significant inhibitory effects of ZnO nanowire arrays on the metabolism of NG108-15 and HL-1 cells in comparison to gold, glass, and polystyrene substrates, and on the metabolism of cardiomyocytes in comparison to gold substrate.

  19. Catalyst free growth of ZnO nanowires on graphene and graphene oxide and its enhanced photoluminescence and photoresponse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biroju, Ravi K.; Tilak, Nikhil; Rajender, Gone; Dhara, S.; Giri, P. K.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate the graphene assisted catalyst free growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) and chemically processed graphene buffer layers at a relatively low growth temperature (580 °C) in the presence and absence of ZnO seed layers. In the case of CVD graphene covered with rapid thermal annealed ZnO buffer layer, the growth of vertically aligned ZnO NWs takes place, while the direct growth on CVD graphene, chemically derived graphene (graphene oxide and graphene quantum dots) without ZnO seed layer resulted in randomly oriented sparse ZnO NWs. Growth mechanism was studied from high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of the hybrid structure. Further, we demonstrate strong UV, visible photoluminescence (PL) and enhanced photoconductivity (PC) from the CVD graphene-ZnO NWs hybrids as compared to the ZnO NWs grown without the graphene buffer layer. The evolution of crystalinity in ZnO NWs grown with ZnO seed layer and graphene buffer layer is correlated with the Gaussian line shape of UV and visible PL. This is further supported by the strong Raman mode at 438 cm-1 significant for the wurtzite phase of the ZnO NWs grown on different graphene substrates. The effect of the thickness of ZnO seed layers and the role of graphene buffer layers on the aligned growth of ZnO NWs and its enhanced PC are investigated systematically. Our results demonstrate the catalyst free growth and superior performance of graphene-ZnO NW hybrid UV photodetectors as compared to the bare ZnO NW based photodetectors.

  20. Reliable thermal processing of organic perovskite films deposited on ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidov, Alex; Manspeaker, Chris; Lyashenko, Dmitry; Alex Zakhidov Team

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a promising semiconducting material to serve as an electron transport layer (ETL) for solar cell devices based on organo-halide lead perovskites. ZnO ETL for perovskite photovoltaics has a combination of attractive electronic and optical properties: i) the electron affinity of ZnO is well aligned with valence band edge of the CH3NH3PbI3, ii) electron mobility of ZnO is >1 cm2/(Vs), which is a few orders of magnitude higher than that of TiO2 (another popular choice of ETL for perovskite photovoltaic devices), and iii) ZnO has a large of band gap of 3.3 eV, which ensures optical transparency and large barrier for the hole injection. Moreover, ZnO nanostructures can be printed on flexible substrates at room temperatures in cost effective manner. However, it was recently found that organic perovskites deposited on ZnO are unstable and readily decompose at >90°C. In this work, we further investigate the mechanism of decomposition of CH3NH3PbI3 film deposited on ZnO and reveal the role of the solvent in the film during the annealing process. We also develop a restricted volume solvent annealing (RVSA) process for post annealing of the perovskite film on ZnO without decomposition. We demonstrate that RVSA enables reliable perovskite solar cell fabrication.

  1. Highly efficient hybrid solar cell using ZnO nanorods and assessment of changes in cell performance by varying the growth period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabian, Masood; Aslyousefzadeh, Sonya; Maleki, M. Hadi

    2015-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO NRs) were grown from ZnO seed-coated substrates in an aqueous solution by using the hydrothermal method for different growth periods varying from 5 min to 1 hour. The influence of the growth period of the ZnO nanorods on photovoltaic applications was studied in detail. Experimental results showed that utilization of the nanorod arrays lead to an enhanced the cell performance by increasing of light absorption and creation of a vertical direction for electron transport in the solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of 3.33% with an opencircuit voltage of V OC = 0.58 V, a short-circuit current of J SC = 10.05 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of FF = 54.35% was achieved for solar cells based on ZnO NRs with growth period of 20 min. Such solar cells with an optimal growth period are effective in light trapping, which leads to a significant enhancement in the absorption of light, and thereby, show an obvious increase in the power conversion efficiency.

  2. Selective growth of vertical ZnO nanowires with the control of hydrothermal synthesis and nano-imprint technology.

    PubMed

    Song, Jaejin; Baek, Seonghoon; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sangwoo

    2009-06-01

    Nano-imprint technology is one of the most advanced technologies for the fabrication of nano-size patterning. In this study, nano-imprint technology was used for the selective growth of ZnO nanowires on the Si wafer. When the poly methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) was first patterned by a nano-imprint process and ZnO seed layer was deposited and patterned by lift-off, ZnO nanowires were not vertically grown on the whole area of the patterned seed layer. Synthesis in zinc sulfate solution exhibited well-structured ZnO nanowires compared to the zinc nitrate solution, but uniformly aligned vertical growth of ZnO nanowires was not observed in either cases. On the other hand, when the PMMA was patterned using a nano-imprint process in the presence of seed layer, and ZnO nanowires were synthesized in zinc sulfate solution, selective growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on 0.5 microm pattern sizes was achieved. The observation in this study suggests that the selective growth of ZnO nanowires on a defined pattern size can be obtained with the modification of pattering sequence and the control of low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanowires.

  3. Laser doping of Sb into ZnO nanowires in the Sb nanoparticle-dispersed liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Hirotaka; Shimogaki, Tetsuya; Higashihata, Mitsuhiro; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Daisuke; Okada, Tatsuo

    2015-06-01

    We succeed in fabricating Sb-doped ZnO nanowires by laser doping using Sb nanoparticles (Sb NPs). Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires with a diameter of 100 nm were synthesized by the nanoparticles-assisted pulsed laser deposition. Sb NPs were prepared by laser ablation in liquid. The average size of 50 nm Sb NPs was successfully fabricated by laser ablation in ethanol. Subsequently, laser doping was performed by irradiating Nd:YAG laser beam (355 nm) in Sb-dispersed ethanol. After laser doping, the tip of ZnO nanowires was slightly deformed into spherical shape by laser heating. A rectifying property with a threshold voltage of 4.5 V was observed between n-type ZnO nanowires and Sb-doped ZnO nanowires.

  4. Effect of Ga-doping on the properties of ZnO nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiyama, Takeshi Nakane, Takaya Fujii, Tsutomu

    2015-02-27

    Arrays of single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires have been synthesized on silicon substrates by vapor-liquid-solid growth techniques. The effect of growth conditions including substrate temperature and Ar gas flow rate on growth properties of ZnO nanowire arrays were studied. Structural and optical characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. SEM images of the ZnO nanowire arrays grown at various Ar gas flow rates indicated that the alignment and structural features of ZnO nanowires were affected by the gas flow rate. The PL of the ZnO nanowire arrays exhibited strong ultraviolet (UV) emission at 380 nm and green emission around 510 nm. Moreover, the green emission reduced in Ga-doped sample.

  5. Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes in Carbon Nanotube Fibers Through Nanoparticles: A Route for Controlling Mechanical and Electrical Properties.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Muhammad Mohsin; Islam, Md Akherul; Shima, Hossain; Hasan, Mudassir; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-02-15

    This is the first study that describes how semiconducting ZnO can act as an alignment agent in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) fibers. Because of the alignment of CNTs through the ZnO nanoparticles linking groups, the CNTs inside the fibers were equally distributed by the attraction of bonding forces into sheetlike bunches, such that any applied mechanical breaking load was equally distributed to each CNT inside the fiber, making them mechanically robust against breaking loads. Although semiconductive ZnO nanoparticles were used here, the electrical conductivity of the aligned CNT fiber was comparable to bare CNT fibers, suggesting that the total electron movement through the CNTs inside the aligned CNT fiber is not disrupted by the insulating behavior of ZnO nanoparticles. A high degree of control over the electrical conductivity was also demonstrated by the ZnO nanoparticles, working as electron movement bridges between CNTs in the longitudinal and crosswise directions. Well-organized surface interface chemistry was also observed, which supports the notion of CNT alignment inside the fibers. This research represents a new area of surface interface chemistry for interfacially linked CNTs and ZnO nanomaterials with improved mechanical properties and electrical conductivity within aligned CNT fibers.

  6. Improved dye-sensitized solar cell with a ZnO nanotree photoanode by hydrothermal method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of ZnO nanostructures on dye adsorption to increase the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. ZnO nanostructures were grown in both tree-like and nanorod (NR) arrays on an AZO/FTO film structure by using a hydrothermal method. The results were observed in detail using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and solar simulation. The selective growth of tree-like ZnO was found to exhibit higher dye adsorption loading and conversion efficiency than ZnO NRs. The multiple ‘branches’ of ‘tree-like nanostructures’ increases the surface area for higher light harvesting and dye loading while reducing charge recombination. These improvements result in a 15% enhancement in power conversion. The objective of this study is to facilitate the development of a ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cell. PMID:24872799

  7. Arrays of ZnO nanorods decorated with Au nanoparticles as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates for rapid detection of trace melamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zao; Yi, Yong; Luo, Jiangshan; Li, Xibo; Xu, Xibin; Jiang, Xiaodong; Yi, Yougen; Tang, Yongjian

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, as a new, highly sensitive and uniform hybrid surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate, arrays of ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) decorated with Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been prepared. This hybrid substrate manifests high SERS sensitivity to melamine and a detection limit as low as 1.0×10-10 M (1.26 μg L-1). A maximum enhancement factor of 1.0×109 can be obtained with the ZnO NF-Au (sample 2) film. Au-NPs gaps in the array can create lots of SERS “hot spots” that mainly contribute to the high SERS sensitivity. Moreover, the supporting chemical enhancement effect of ZnO-NRs and the better enrichment effect ascribed to the large surface area of the substrate also help to achieve a lower detection limit. The promising advantages of easy sample pretreatment, short detection time and low cost makes the arrays of ZnO-NRs decorated with Au-NPs substrate a potential detection tool in the field of food safety.

  8. Outstanding H2 sensing performance of Pd nanoparticle-decorated ZnO nanorod arrays and the temperature-dependent sensing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Leu, Ing-Chi

    2013-01-01

    The nearly monodispersed Pd nanoparticles with controllable density on ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared by the unique PVP-mediated photochemical deposition (PCD). The changes in morphology and dispersion of Pd on ZnO surface are ascribed to the stabilizing property and self-assembly characteristic of PVP being exploited during PCD. There are three temperature-dependent H(2) sensing mechanisms in those Pd/ZnO NRs, including general oxygen adsorption/desorption mode within 200-300 °C, surface conductivity mode at 60-120 °C and palladium hydride (PdH(x)) formation at room temperature, which causes a significant discrepancy in sensitivity variations as a function of Pd density. It is also verified that the electronic sensitization related to the transition of Pd(2+)/Pd(0) redox couple predominates the promoting mechanism in Pd/ZnO NRs used for sensing H(2) at 200-300 °C. Therefore, the gas sensitivity to 500 ppm H(2) of Pd/ZnO NRs can be significantly improved by around 553-fold (S, R(a)/R(g) = 1106) at 260 °C through decorating an adequate amount of discrete Pd nanoparticles instead of the Pd clusters, moreover, the corresponding sensitivity at room temperature is 16.9 that is superior to some promising devices reported in the literatures.

  9. Structure and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanowire for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hone-Zern; Young, San-Lin; Lin, Chen-Cheng; Kung, Chung-Yuan

    2012-05-18

    Aligned ZnO nanowires with different lengths (1 to approximately 4 μm) have been deposited on indium titanium oxide-coated glass substrates by using the solution phase deposition method for application as a work electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). From the results, the increases in length of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires can increase adsorption of the N3 dye through ZnO nanowires to improve the short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) and open-circuit voltage (Voc), respectively. However, the Jsc and Voc values of DSSC with ZnO nanowires length of 4.0 μm (4.8 mA/cm2 and 0.58 V) are smaller than those of DSSC with ZnO nanowires length of 3.0 μm (5.6 mA/cm2 and 0.62 V). It could be due to the increased length of ZnO nanowires also resulted in a decrease in the transmittance of ZnO nanowires thus reducing the incident light intensity on the N3 dye. Optimum power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.49% was obtained in a DSSC with the ZnO nanowires length of 3 μm.

  10. Dielectrophoretic fabrication and characterization of a ZnO nanowire-based UV photosensor.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Junya; Nakagawa, Nobutaka; Hidaka, Shin-Ichiro; Ueda, Makoto; Imasaka, Kiminobu; Higashihata, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Tatsuo; Hara, Masanori

    2006-05-28

    Wide-gap semiconductors with nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires are promising as a new type of UV photosensor. Recently, ZnO (zinc oxide) nanowires have been extensively investigated for electronic and optoelectronic device applications. ZnO nanowires are expected to have good UV response due to their large surface area to volume ratio, and they might enhance the performance of UV photosensors. In this paper, a new fabrication method of a UV photosensor based on ZnO nanowires using dielectrophoresis is demonstrated. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the electrokinetic motion of dielectrically polarized materials in non-uniform electric fields. ZnO nanowires, which were synthesized by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed-laser deposition (NAPLD) and suspended in ethanol, were trapped in the microelectrode gap where the electric field became higher. The trapped ZnO nanowires were aligned along the electric field line and bridged the electrode gap. Under UV irradiation, the conductance of the DEP-trapped ZnO nanowires exponentially increased with a time constant of a few minutes. The slow UV response of ZnO nanowires was similar to that observed with ZnO thin films and might be attributed to adsorption and photodesorption of ambient gas molecules such as O(2) or H(2)O. At higher UV intensity, the conductance response became larger. The DEP-fabricated ZnO nanowire UV photosensor could detect UV light down to 10 nW cm(-2) intensity, indicating a higher UV sensitivity than ZnO thin films or ZnO nanowires assembled by other methods.

  11. Stability and electrorheology of ZnO nanofluids in the presence of anionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Hasnah Mohd; Adil, Muhammad; Chuan, Lee Kean; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    In this research, the preparation of stable ZnO nanofluids has been studied by the interaction of unmodified ZnO nanoparticles with anionic surfactant, and the impact of this on the electrorheological properties of nanofluid. Using laboratory experiments including measurement of sedimentation and adsorption of surfactant, the sedimentation behavior of ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated. The results show that the most stable aqueous dispersions of ZnO nanoparticles (calcined at 500 and 800°C) is obtained with the aid of 0.025 wt% sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), at a fixed concentration of 0.1 wt% ZnO. The ZnO@500/SDBS dispersion exhibits better stability at high temperature of 95°C, with the percentage stability of 56.6% compare to 44.2% of ZnO@800/SDBS dispersion. The stabilized nanofluids were then subjected for measuring of electrorehological behaviour using a rotating viscometer attached to a custom-built solenoid coil. The rheological measurements indicated that all the nanofluids exhibit pseudoplastic (shear thinning) behavior. At a low shear rate, the viscosity of 0.1 wt% ZnO@500/SDBS dispersion provide an enhancement in the viscosity of nanofluid up to 133% compare to brine as a base fluid. Whereas, ZnO@800/SDBS dispersion shows an increment of 183% in its viscosity under electromagnetic waves. This depicts the role of stability in order to achieve an electrorheological effect by activating dielectric ZnO nanoparticles. Further these investigations explained how the polarization of induced dipoles affects the electrorheology of ZnO nanofluids, by creating chains that align with the applied electric field. Hence the mobility of a stabilized nanofluid can be efficiently controlled by regulating the applied field for EOR purposes.

  12. Study of growth time and post annealing effect on the performance of ZnO nanorods ultraviolet photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasti, M.; Dariani, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, Zinc Oxide nanorods with different thicknesses are grown on a glass substrate by a hydrothermal method to fabricate an ultraviolet photodetector. The sample is post annealed in an argon environment as an annealing process can have a positive effect on the photodetector performance. The morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs) are investigated by SEM, XRD, UV-Visible spectrometer, and PL spectra. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of both growth time and post annealing on enhancement of photoresponse of the ZnO NR photodetector. Measurements indicate that the sample with higher thickness exhibits a higher photocurrent and photoresponsivity. Also, with post annealing, an increase in photocurrent and photoresponsivity is observed due to decreasing defect levels.

  13. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis.

  14. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis. PMID:26818603

  15. Metallic filament formation by aligned oxygen vacancies in ZnO-based resistive switches

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Tingkun

    2014-05-28

    The electronic structure of ZnO with defects of oxygen vacancies were investigated by using first-principles methods. Some structure models were constructed in order to investigate the effects of the distribution of oxygen vacancies on the electronic properties of ZnO. By analyzing the calculated results, we found that only the aligned oxygen vacancies can form the conducting channel in ZnO, and the transformation of the oxygen vacancy from charged state to neutral state is consistent with the energetics rule of the forming aligned oxygen vacancies. As for the heterojunction of Pt/ZnO/Pt, the oxygen vacancies near the interface of Pt/ZnO depress the local Schottky barrier effectively, and the aligned oxygen vacancies in ZnO form a conducting filament connecting two Pt electrodes. The metallic filament formation in Pt/ZnO/Pt resistive switching cells should be closely related to the carrier injection from Pt electrode into ZnO and the arrangement of oxygen vacancies in ZnO slab.

  16. CdS quantum dots sensitized Cu doped ZnO nanostructured thin films for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poornima, K.; Gopala Krishnan, K.; Lalitha, B.; Raja, M.

    2015-07-01

    ZnO nanorods and Cu doped ZnO nanorods thin films have been prepared by simple hydrothermal method. CdS quantum dots are sensitized with Cu doped ZnO nanorod thin films using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that ZnO nanorods, and CdS quantum dot sensitized Cu doped ZnO nanorods exhibit hexagonal structure. The scanning electron microscope image shows the presence of ZnO nanorods. The average diameter and length of the aligned nanorod is 300 nm and 1.5 μm respectively. The absorption spectra shows that the absorption edge of CdS quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanorod thin film is shifted toward longer wavelength region when compared to the absorption edge of ZnO nanorods film. The conversion efficiency of the CdS quantum dot sensitized Cu doped ZnO nanorod thin film solar cell is 1.5%.

  17. Photoelectrochemical water splitting strongly enhanced in fast-grown ZnO nanotree and nanocluster structures† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ta02788a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sangle, Abhijeet; Zhang, Siyuan; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Shi, Liyi; Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Cho, Seungho; Li, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate selective growth of ZnO branched nanostructures: from nanorod clusters (with branches parallel to parent rods) to nanotrees (with branches perpendicular to parent rods). The growth of these structures was realized using a three-step approach: electrodeposition of nanorods (NRs), followed by the sputtering of ZnO seed layers, followed by the growth of branched arms using hydrothermal growth. The density, size and direction of the branches were tailored by tuning the deposition parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of control of branch direction. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of the ZnO nanostructures follows the order: nanotrees (NTs) > nanorod clusters (NCs) > parent NRs. The NT structure with the best PEC performance also possesses the shortest fabrication period which had never been reported before. The photocurrent of the NT and NC photoelectrodes is 0.67 and 0.56 mA cm–2 at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, an enhancement of 139% and 100% when compared to the ZnO NR structures. The key reason for the improved performance is shown to be the very large surface-to-volume ratios in the branched nanostructures, which gives rise to enhanced light absorption, improved charge transfer across the nanostructure/electrolyte interfaces to the electrolyte and efficient charge transport within the material. PMID:27774147

  18. Biodiagnostics using oriented and aligned inorganic semiconductor nanotubes and nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kar, Piyush; Shankar, Karthik

    2013-07-01

    The simplicity of synthesis of deterministically positioned inorganic semiconductor nanorods (NRs) and nanotubes (NTs) coupled with their chemical stability, high surface area, controllable optical properties and tunable surface functionality, have sparked worldwide research efforts towards biodiagnostic applications. Biosensors based on oriented and aligned one-dimensional (1-D) inorganic semiconductor nanostructures have demonstrated remarkable detection sensitivity, high throughput and label-free operability. In comparison to suspensions of nanoparticles and discrete randomly oriented nanowires, nanowire (NW) and nanotube arrays offer continuous charge transport pathways, a major advantage for all-electrical detection and in exploiting electrokinetic effects. We review highly sensitive biosensors based on oriented and aligned NTs/NRs/NWs employing conventional detection methods, inclusive of fluorescence, electrochemistry and electromechanical sensing as well as detection methods unique to nanowires such as field-effect transistors. Entirely new types of sensing applications such as the impaling of living cells to monitor cellular events in situ, and substrates with electrically controlled wetting for surface-assisted laser desorption and ionization are emerging to take advantage of the unique properties of nanowire arrays. Concurrently, we explain the semiconductor materials and architectures employed, and the functionalization procedures used to construct the biosensors. Aligned semiconductor array-based approaches are critically examined in relation to prevailing technologies to get a sense of the exclusive niches that nanotube/nanorod array biosensors inhabit. The versatility of the detection principles that nanowire/nanotube arrays are compatible with are enabling hybrid approaches where combinations of detection methods are used. Such advantages offset the complexity associated with changing the status quo with respect to the current state-of-the-art in

  19. Selective growth of hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on the graphene nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Lan; Li, Jinliang; Mo, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    We report directly selective-area grown (SAG) high-quality hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on the graphene nanosheets without invoking damage or introducing a catalyst. The SAG behavior in the non-catalytic growth mechanism is attributed to dangling bonds on the boundary edges of graphene nanosheets, which serve as the preferential adsorption and nucleation sites of ZnO nanorod. High densities of hierarchical ZnO nanorods show single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure and are vertically well-aligned on the graphene nanosheets, with the diameter and the density strongly dependent on the growth temperature. Furthermore, no carbon impurity can be seen in the tips of the ZnO nanorods and also no carbon-related defect peak in the 10 K PL spectrum of ZnO nanorods. Our approach using a graphene-nanosheet substrate provides an efficient route for the growth of high-quality ZnO with a one-dimensional (1D) hierarchical nanostructure, which is highly desirable for fabricating 1D ZnO hybrid optoelectronic devices, particularly for a fast-response UV photodetector and highly-sensitive gas sensor.

  20. Impurity induced crystallinity and optical emissions in ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, N. R.; Acharya, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth of ZnO nanocrystallites doped with impurities such as B, N and S by green chemistry route using ultrasound. The effect of intrinsic defects and impurity doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures has been studied and discussed. Characterization studies carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the change in lattice parameters and crystallinity of ZnO in the presence of dopant. This has been explained on the basis of the dopant substitution at regular anion and interstitial sites. Study on surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) shows a change from particle-like structure to aligned nanorods nucleated at definite sites. Elemental analysis such as x-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) has been carried out to ascertain the dopant configuration in ZnO. This has been corroborated by the results obtained from FTIR and Raman studies. UV-vis light absorption and PL studies show an expansion of the band gap which has been explained on the basis of Moss-Burstein shift in the electronic band gap of ZnO by impurity incorporation. The optical emissions corresponding to excitonic transition and defect centres present in the band gap of ZnO is found to shift towards lower/higher wavelength sides. New PL bands observed have been assigned to the transitions related to the impurity states present in the band gap of ZnO along with intrinsic defects.

  1. Synthesis and field emission properties of different ZnO nanostructure arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this article, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures of different shapes were fabricated on silicon substrate. Well-aligned and long ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays, as well as leaf-like ZnO nanostructures (which consist of modulated and single-phase structures), were fabricated by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method without the assistance of a catalyst. On the other hand, needle-like ZnO NW arrays were first fabricated with the CVD process followed by chemical etching of the NW arrays. The use of chemical etching provides a low-cost and convenient method of obtaining the needle-like arrays. In addition, the field emission properties of the different ZnO NW arrays were also investigated where some differences in the turn-on field and the field-enhancement factors were observed for the ZnO nanostructures of different lengths and shapes. It was experimentally observed that the leaf-like ZnO nanostructure is most suitable for field emission due to its lowest turn-on and threshold field as well as its high field-enhancement factor among the different synthesized nanostructures. PMID:22444723

  2. Thiol-capped ZnO nanowire/nanotube arrays with tunable magnetic properties at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Deng, Su-Zi; Fan, Hai-Ming; Wang, Miao; Zheng, Min-Rui; Yi, Jia-Bao; Wu, Rong-Qin; Tan, Hui-Ru; Sow, Chorng-Haur; Ding, Jun; Feng, Yuan-Ping; Loh, Kian-Ping

    2010-01-26

    The present study reports room-temperature ferromagnetic behaviors in three-dimensional (3D)-aligned thiol-capped single-crystalline ZnO nanowire (NW) and nanotube (NT) arrays as well as polycrystalline ZnO NT arrays. Besides the observation of height-dependent saturation magnetization, a much higher M(s) of 166 microemu cm(-2) has been found in NTs compared to NWs (36 microemu cm(-2)) due to larger surface area in ZnO NTs, indicating morphology-dependent magnetic properties in ZnO NW/NT systems. Density functional calculations have revealed that the origin of ferromagnetism is mainly attributed to spin-polarized 3p electrons in S sites and, therefore, has a strong correlation with Zn-S bond anisotropy. The preferential magnetization direction of both single-crystalline NTs and NWs lies perpendicular to the tube/wire axis due to the aligned high anisotropy orientation of the Zn-S bonds on the lateral (100) face of ZnO NWs and NTs. Polycrystalline ZnO NTs, however, exhibit a preferential magnetization direction parallel to the tube axis which is ascribed to shape anisotropy dominating the magnetic response. Our results demonstrate the interplay of morphology, dimensions, and crystallinity on spin alignment and magnetic anisotropy in a 3D semiconductor nanosystem with interfacial magnetism.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of silicon wire solar cells having ZnO nanorod antireflection coating on Al-doped ZnO seed layer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated and characterized the silicon [Si] wire solar cells with conformal ZnO nanorod antireflection coating [ARC] grown on a Al-doped ZnO [AZO] seed layer. Vertically aligned Si wire arrays were fabricated by electrochemical etching and, the p-n junction was prepared by spin-on dopant diffusion method. Hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorods was followed by AZO film deposition on high aspect ratio Si microwire arrays by atomic layer deposition [ALD]. The introduction of an ALD-deposited AZO film on Si wire arrays not only helps to create the ZnO nanorod arrays, but also has a strong impact on the reduction of surface recombination. The reflectance spectra show that ZnO nanorods were used as an efficient ARC to enhance light absorption by multiple scattering. Also, from the current-voltage results, we found that the combination of the AZO film and ZnO nanorods on Si wire solar cells leads to an increased power conversion efficiency by more than 27% compared to the cells without it. PMID:22222067

  4. Fabrication and characterization of silicon wire solar cells having ZnO nanorod antireflection coating on Al-doped ZnO seed layer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Noh, Bum-Young; Park, Il-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-05

    In this study, we have fabricated and characterized the silicon [Si] wire solar cells with conformal ZnO nanorod antireflection coating [ARC] grown on a Al-doped ZnO [AZO] seed layer. Vertically aligned Si wire arrays were fabricated by electrochemical etching and, the p-n junction was prepared by spin-on dopant diffusion method. Hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanorods was followed by AZO film deposition on high aspect ratio Si microwire arrays by atomic layer deposition [ALD]. The introduction of an ALD-deposited AZO film on Si wire arrays not only helps to create the ZnO nanorod arrays, but also has a strong impact on the reduction of surface recombination. The reflectance spectra show that ZnO nanorods were used as an efficient ARC to enhance light absorption by multiple scattering. Also, from the current-voltage results, we found that the combination of the AZO film and ZnO nanorods on Si wire solar cells leads to an increased power conversion efficiency by more than 27% compared to the cells without it.

  5. Depth resolved luminescence from oriented ZnO nanowires.

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R. A.; Abu Haija, M.; Vijayalakshmi, K.; Zhou, J.; Xu, S.; Wang, Z. L.; Georgia Inst. of Tech.

    2009-12-14

    We have utilized the limited penetration depth of x-rays to study the near-surface properties of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires. For an energy of 600 eV the penetration depth varies between 3 and 132 nm as the incidence angle changes from 2{sup o} to 33{sup o}. Thus, by obtaining optical luminescence spectra as a function of incidence angle, it is possible to probe the near-surface region with nanometer-scale resolution. We will present angle dependent optical luminescence data from oriented ZnO nanowires. By fitting the results to a simple model, we extract a depth for the surface defect regions of -14 nm.

  6. Effect of the H2 plasma treatment of a seed layer on the synthesis of ZnO nanorods using a microwave hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Horng-Show; Lin, Ching-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Ju; Peng, Cheng-Hsiung; Chen, Mi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of H2 plasma treatment of a seed layer on the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods is determined. Using an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film as a seed layer, well-aligned ZnO nanorods are rapidly grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate using a microwave hydrothermal method. The deposited AZO substrate was previously treated with H2 plasma. The effect of H2 plasma treatment of the seed layer on the alignment, growth rate, and crystallinity of the ZnO nanorods is determined. It is shown that the alignment and growth rate of the ZnO nanorods depend on the characteristics and roughness of the seed layer, which are improved by H2 plasma treatment. Various characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), cathodoluminescence (CL), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) are used to determine the characteristic quality of the ZnO nanorods. A fundamental model of the effect of H2 plasma treatment on the seed layer and ZnO growth using a microwave hydrothermal process is also presented.

  7. Efficient Z-scheme charge separation in novel vertically aligned ZnO/CdSSe nanotrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengxin; Nieto-Pescador, Jesus; Carson, Alexander J.; Blake, Jolie C.; Gundlach, Lars

    2016-04-01

    A new tree-like ZnO/CdSSe nanocomposite with CdSSe branches grown on ZnO nanowires prepared via a two-step chemical vapor deposition is presented. The nanotrees (NTs) are vertically aligned on a substrate. The CdSSe branches result in strong visible light absorption and form a type-II heterojunction with the ZnO stem that facilitates efficient electron transfer. A combination of photoluminescence spectroscopy and lifetime measurements indicates that the NTs are promising materials for applications that benefit from a Z-scheme charge transfer mechanism. Vertically aligned branched ZnO nanowires can provide direct electron transport pathways to substrates and allow for efficient charge separation. These advantages of nanoscale hierarchical heterostructures make ZnO/CdSSe NTs a promising semiconductor material for solar cells, and other opto-electronic devices.

  8. MP-Align: alignment of metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparing the metabolic pathways of different species is useful for understanding metabolic functions and can help in studying diseases and engineering drugs. Several comparison techniques for metabolic pathways have been introduced in the literature as a first attempt in this direction. The approaches are based on some simplified representation of metabolic pathways and on a related definition of a similarity score (or distance measure) between two pathways. More recent comparative research focuses on alignment techniques that can identify similar parts between pathways. Results We propose a methodology for the pairwise comparison and alignment of metabolic pathways that aims at providing the largest conserved substructure of the pathways under consideration. The proposed methodology has been implemented in a tool called MP-Align, which has been used to perform several validation tests. The results showed that our similarity score makes it possible to discriminate between different domains and to reconstruct a meaningful phylogeny from metabolic data. The results further demonstrate that our alignment algorithm correctly identifies subpathways sharing a common biological function. Conclusion The results of the validation tests performed with MP-Align are encouraging. A comparison with another proposal in the literature showed that our alignment algorithm is particularly well-suited to finding the largest conserved subpathway of the pathways under examination. PMID:24886436

  9. Girder Alignment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  10. Position controlled and seed/catalyst free growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Jinliang; Li, Lan; Mo, Zhaojun

    2016-09-01

    A new type of seed/catalyst-free and selective-growth process is developed for in situ grown vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets. The dense and single-crystalline ZnO nanorods have been successfully grow on rGO nanosheets with the position- and size-controlled. The effect of rGO layer on the ZnO nanorods and the growth mechanism were investigated. The position of ZnO nanorod arrays correlates well with the size and position of rGO nanosheets, which is determined by dangling bonds such as oxygen-containing groups on rGO surface. Meanwhile, ZnO nanorods could grow laterally to form a continuous arrays with a large coverage on rGO substrates, which is mainly due to the step edges in rGO boundaries. The diameter and density of ZnO nanorods were readily determined by the growth temperature, and the length was easily controlled by the growth time. The absorption and PL spectrums suggest that ZnO nanorods/rGO have a strong UV absorption ranging from 330 to 375 nm and no obvious UV PL emission at room temperature, which indicates that the ZnO nanorods/rGO nanohybrids could be an excellent candidate for application in UV photodetectors. This work represents the success in seed/catalyst-free fabrication of aligned ZnO nanorod arrays directly on rGO nanosheets and the process can be readily scaled up for industrial applications of optoelectronic devices.

  11. ZnO nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; van Vugt, Lambert K

    2011-07-01

    The pathway towards the realization of optical solid-state lasers was gradual and slow. After Einstein's paper on absorption and stimulated emission of light in 1917 it took until 1960 for the first solid state laser device to see the light. Not much later, the first semiconductor laser was demonstrated and lasing in the near UV spectral range from ZnO was reported as early as 1966. The research on the optical properties of ZnO showed a remarkable revival since 1995 with the demonstration of room temperature lasing, which was further enhanced by the first report of lasing by a single nanowire in 2001. Since then, the research focussed increasingly on one-dimensional nanowires of ZnO. We start this review with a brief description of the opto-electronic properties of ZnO that are related to the wurtzite crystal structure. How these properties are modified by the nanowire geometry is discussed in the subsequent sections, in which we present the confined photon and/or polariton modes and how these can be investigated experimentally. Next, we review experimental studies of laser emission from single ZnO nanowires under different experimental conditions. We emphasize the special features resulting from the sub-wavelength dimensions by presenting our results on single ZnO nanowires lying on a substrate. At present, the mechanism of lasing in ZnO (nanowires) is the subject of a strong debate that is considered at the end of this review.

  12. Solution synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanomaterials and their applications.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhengzhi; Li, Yinhua; Deng, Yulin

    2010-09-01

    Recently, one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanomaterials (NMs) have been extensively studied because both their functional properties and highly controllable morphology make them important building blocks for understanding nanoscale phenomena and realizing nanoscale devices. Compared with high temperature (>450 degrees C) vapor phase methods, solution-based synthesis methods can be conducted at low temperatures (25-200 degrees C) allowing for compatibility with many organic substrate materials and offer additional advantages such as straightforward processing, low cost, and ease of scale up. Although there exist several review articles in the literature regarding the synthesis and applications of 1D ZnO NMs, those focusing on solution-based synthesis methods are lacking. Thus, this review focuses mainly on 1D ZnO NMs synthesized by solution-based processing. Firstly, 1D ZnO non-patterned, nanoparticle-seeded synthesis and its associated solution growth kinetics are discussed. Next, synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with controlled pattern and density on various substrates is reviewed. Finally, important applications of 1D ZnO NMs are highlighted including sensors, field emission devices, photodetectors, optical switches, and solar cells.

  13. Synthesis of ZnO nanopencils using wet chemical method and its investigation as LPG sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimpi, Navinchandra G.; Jain, Shilpa; Karmakar, Narayan; Shah, Akshara; Kothari, D. C.; Mishra, Satyendra

    2016-12-01

    ZnO nanopencils (NPCs) were prepared by a novel wet chemical process, using triethanolamine (TEA) as a mild base, which is relatively simple and cost effective method as compared to hydrothermal method. ZnO NPCs were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy in mid-IR and far-IR regions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). ZnO NPCs obtained, were highly pure, uniform and monodispersed.XRD pattern indicated hexagonal unit cell structure with preferred orientation along the c-axis. Sensing behaviour of ZnO NPCs was studied towards Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) at different operating temperatures. The study shows that ZnO NPCs were most sensitive and promising candidate for detection of LPG at 250 °C with gas sensitivity > 60%. The high response towards LPG is due to high surface area of ZnO NPCs and their parallel alignment.

  14. Effect of Metallic Au Seed Layer Annealing on the Properties of Electrodeposited ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngbin; Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Byunggu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the effect of annealing the Au seed layer (ASL) on the structural and optical properties of electrodeposited ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods were fabricated in a three-step approach. In the first step, ASLs were deposited using an ion sputter technique. In the second step, layers were annealed in air at various temperatures ranging from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C. Finally, ZnO nanorods were grown using an electrodeposition method. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that better aligned ZnO nanorods are fabricated on the annealed ASL compared with non-annealed ASL The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a notable improvement in directional growth along the (002) crystallographic plane when ZnO nanorods were grown on the annealed ASL. The photoluminescence analysis showed that the UV emission peak of ZnO nanorods on the annealed ASL at 400 degrees C was blue-shifted and increased.

  15. Growth of isotopically enriched ZnO nanorods of excellent optical quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Ciarán; Cullen, Joseph; Byrne, Conor; Hughes, Greg; Buyanova, Irina; Chen, Weimin; Henry, Martin O.; McGlynn, Enda

    2015-11-01

    We have produced isotopically enriched ZnO nanorods using Zn-enriched ZnO source powder by vapour phase transport on silicon substrates buffer-coated with unenriched ZnO seed layers. SEM and XRD data confirm successful growth of high quality, dense, c-axis aligned nanorods over a substantial surface area. Raman data show a shift of >1 cm-1 in the peak position of the Raman scattered peaks due to the E2low and E2high phonon modes when the Zn isotope is changed from 64Zn to 68Zn, consistent with previous work, thus confirming successful isotopic enrichment. SIMS data provides additional confirmation of enrichment. The optical quality (as determined by photoluminescence feature intensity and line width) is excellent. Samples with Zn isotopic enrichment ranging from 64ZnO to 68ZnO display a shift in recombination energy of the bound excitons at the band edge (3.34-3.37 eV) of ~0.6 meV. This blue-shift is also consistent with previously published data, further confirming both the excellent optical quality and successful isotopic substitution of ZnO nanorods using this relatively simple growth method.

  16. Enhanced field emission from ZnO nanowire arrays utilizing MgO buffer between seed layer and silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Si; Chen, Jiangtao; Liu, Jianlin; Qi, Jing; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-11-01

    Field emitters based on ZnO nanowires and other nanomaterials are promising high-brightness electron sources for field emission display, microscopy and other applications. The performance of a ZnO nanowire field emitter is linked to the quality, conductivity and alignment of the nanowires on a substrate, therefore requiring ways to improve these parameters. Here, ZnO nanowire arrays were grown on ZnO seed layer on silicon substrate with MgO buffer between the seed layer and Si. The turn-on field and enhancement factor of these nanowire arrays are 3.79 V/μm and 3754, respectively. These properties are improved greatly compared to those of ZnO nanowire arrays grown on ZnO seed layer without MgO buffer, which are 5.06 V/μm and 1697, respectively. The enhanced field emission properties can be attributed to better electron transport in seed layer, and better nanowire alignment because of MgO buffer.

  17. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  18. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used 'nonlinear alignment model,' finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the 'GI' term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  19. A flexible field-limited ordered ZnO nanorod-based self-powered tactile sensor array for electronic skin.

    PubMed

    Deng, W; Jin, L; Zhang, B; Chen, Y; Mao, L; Zhang, H; Yang, W

    2016-09-15

    A tactile sensor is an essential component for realizing biomimetic robots, while the flexibility of the tactile sensor is a pivotal feature for its application, especially for electronic skin. In this work, a flexible self-powered tactile sensor array was designed based on the piezoelectricity of ZnO nanorods (NRs). The field-limited ordered ZnO NRs were synthesized on a flexible Kapton substrate to serve as the functional layer of the tactile sensor. The electrical output performances of the as-fabricated tactile sensor were measured under pressing and bending forces. Moreover, we measured the human-finger pressure detection performance of the tactile sensor array, suggesting that the corresponding mapping figure of finger pressure could be displayed on the monitor of a personal computer (PC) in the form of lighted LED and color density through a LabVIEW system. This as-grown sensory feedback system should be of potential valuable assistance for the users of hand prostheses to reduce the risk and obtain a greater feeling of using the prostheses.

  20. The effect of modified layers on the performance of inverted ZnO nanorods/MEH-PPV solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yue; Zhao, SuLing; Xu, Zheng; Wei, Gong; Wang, LiHui

    2011-03-01

    We fabricate inverted organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on vertically oriented ZnO nanorods and polymer MEH-PPV. The morphology of ZnO nanorods and ZnO nanorods/MEH-PPV hybrid structure is depicted by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. It is observed that ZnO nanorods array grows primarily aligned along the perpendicular direction of the ITO substrate. The MEH-PPV molecule does not enter the interspace between ZnO nanorods completely according to SEM picture. It results in the small and bad contact area between ZnO nanorods and MEH-PPV. To improve the photovoltaic performance, we also fabricate another kind of photovoltaic (PV) device modified by N719 dye, and exploit the effect of N719. After the modification of ZnO nanorods by N719, not only J sc increases from 0.257 mA/cm2 to 0.42 mA/cm2, but also V oc enhances from 0.37 V to 0.42 V. Insert LiF buffer layer between MEH-PPV and anode, J sc of 1.05 mA/cm2 is obtained, and it is 2.5 times that the device without LiF.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of ZnO nanowires grown on Ti substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Gang; Fang, Xiaodong; Tao, Ruhua; Dong, Weiwei; Deng, Zanhong; Zhou, Shu

    2009-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) with a wide band gap of 3.37 eV, and a large exciton binding energy of 60 mV at room temperature, is one of the most important n-type semiconductor, that has potential applications in the area of short-wavelength optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, solar cells, and field emitters. Some advanced nanodevices based on one-dimensional (1-D) ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully demonstrated in the past few years. The types of substrate have a great influence on the properties of ZnO nanostrctural devices. Semiconductor substrates such as Si and Al2O3 were widely used for the collection or epitaxial growth of ZnO nanostructures, for metal substrate, Fe and Cu foil has also been used as substrate, there are few reports on ZnO nanowires grown on Ti foil, Ti is an important electrode metal that ohmic contact can be appropriately achieved, which is critical for semiconductor device application. Besides, both Ti and ZnO show good biocompatibility, it is expected that ZnO nanowires/ Ti show good performance on bio-sensors. In this paper, 1-D ZnO nanostructures have been successfully fabricated on the conductive Ti substrate via a vapor phase transport (VPT) method by carbothermal reduction of ZnO and graphite powder mixture in a tube furnace at 850°C. The final products were characterized by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-solution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) (equipped with selected area electron diffraction, SAED), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. FE SEM results show that dense, ultra-long (>10μm), and locally aligned ZnO nanowire arrays were grown on the Ti foil. The diameter of nanowires exhibits a wide range from 150 nm to about 500nm. Structural characterizations (XRD, SAED, HRTEM) indicate the as synthesized nanostructures have a ZnO wurtzite structure and are perfect single crystalline without any defects or impurities. The growth direction is [0001]. Optical

  2. Isolation of two physiologically induced variant strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a and characterization of their S-layer lattices.

    PubMed Central

    Sára, M; Pum, D; Küpcü, S; Messner, P; Sleytr, U B

    1994-01-01

    During growth of Bacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a in continuous culture on complex medium, the chemical properties of the S-layer glycoprotein and the characteristic oblique lattice were maintained only if glucose was used as the sole carbon source. With increased aeration, amino acids were also metabolized, accompanied by liberation of ammonium and by changes in the S-layer protein. Depending on the stage of fermentation at which oxygen limitation was relieved, two different variants, one with a more delicate oblique S-layer lattice (variant 3a/V1) and one with a square S-layer lattice (variant 3a/V2), were isolated. During the switch from the wild-type strain to a variant or from variant 3a/V2 to variant 3a/V1, monolayers of two types of S-layer lattices could be demonstrated on the surfaces of single cells. S-layer proteins from variants had different molecular sizes and a significantly lower carbohydrate content than S-layer proteins from the wild-type strain did. Although the S-layer lattices from the wild-type and variant strains showed quite different protein mass distributions in two- and three-dimensional reconstructions, neither the amino acid composition nor the pore size, as determined by permeability studies, was significantly changed. Peptide mapping and N-terminal sequencing results strongly indicated that the three S-layer proteins are encoded by different genes and are not derived from a universal precursor form. Images PMID:8300538

  3. Development and surface characterization of a glucose biosensor based on a nanocolumnar ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A.; Castegnaro, M. V.; Arguello, J.; Alves, M. C. M.; Morais, J.

    2017-04-01

    Highly oriented nanostructured ZnO films were grown on the surface of stainless steel plates (ZnO/SS) by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The films consisted of vertically aligned ZnO nanocolumns, ∼1 μm long and ∼80 nm wide, as observed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FIB (focused ion beam). XRD (X-ray diffraction) confirmed the c-axis preferred orientation of the ZnO columns, which were functionalized with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme into a biosensor of glucose. The electrochemical response studied by CV (cyclic voltammetry) proved that the biosensor was capable of detecting glucose from 1.5 up to 16 mM concentration range. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis, excited with synchrotron radiation, probed the atom specific chemical environment at the electrode's surface and shed some light on the nature of the ZnO-GOx interaction.

  4. Hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods on self-source substrate and their field emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. P.; Xu, C. X.; Zhu, G. P.; Li, X.; Cui, Y. P.; Yang, Y.; Sun, X. W.

    2007-04-01

    Vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays were grown directly using a zinc foil as both source and substrate in pure water at low temperature by a simple hydrothermal reaction. The morphology and crystal structure of the ZnO nanorod arrays were examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, respectively. The nanorods grew along the [0 0 0 1] direction and were 80 nm in diameter and almost 2 µm in length. Directly employing the zinc foil substrate as cathode, the field emission (FE) of the ZnO nanorods presented a two-stage slope behaviour in a ln(J/E2)-1/E plot according to the Fowler-Nordheim equation. The FE behaviour was investigated by considering the action of the defects in ZnO nanorods based on the measurement of the photoluminescence.

  5. Localized joule heating as a mask-free technique for the local synthesis of ZnO nanowires on silicon nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Lin, Y S; Sang, C H; Sheu, J-T

    2011-11-09

    We report a mask-free technique for the local synthesis of ZnO nanowires (NWs) on polysilicon nanobelts and polysilicon NW devices. First, we used localized joule heating to generate a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanotemplate, allowing the rapid and self-aligned ablation of PMMA within a short period of time (ca. 5 μs). Next, we used ion-beam sputtering to prepare an ultrathin Au film and a ZnO seed layer; a subsequent lift-off process left the seed layers selectively within the PMMA nanotemplate. Gold nanoparticles and ZnO NWs were formed selectively in the localized joule heating region.

  6. Indirect Determination of Mercury Ion by Inhibition of a Glucose Biosensor Based on ZnO Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Chey, Chan Oeurn; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    A potentiometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) on ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) has been developed for the indirect determination of environmental mercury ions. The ZnO-NRs were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) approach. Glucose oxidase in conjunction with a chitosan membrane and a glutaraldehyde (GA) were immobilized on the surface of the ZnO-NRs using a simple physical adsorption method and then used as a potentiometric working electrode. The potential response of the biosensor between the working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was measured in a 1mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The detection limit of the mercury ion sensor was found to be 0.5 nM. The experimental results provide two linear ranges of the inhibition from 0.5 × 10−6 mM to 0.5 × 10−4 mM, and from 0.5 × 10−4 mM to 20 mM of mercury ion for fixed 1 mM of glucose concentration in the solution. The linear range of the inhibition from 10−3 mM to 6 mM of mercury ion was also acquired for a fixed 10 mM of glucose concentration. The working electrode can be reactivated by more than 70% after inhibition by simply dipping the used electrode in a 10 mM PBS solution for 7 min. The electrodes retained their original enzyme activity by about 90% for more than three weeks. The response to mercury ions was highly sensitive, selective, stable, reproducible, and interference resistant, and exhibits a fast response time. The developed glucose biosensor has a great potential for detection of mercury with several advantages such as being inexpensive, requiring minimum hardware and being suitable for unskilled users. PMID:23202200

  7. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  8. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Nelson E.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

  9. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  10. Alignment of CEBAF cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, W.J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Fischer, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, when completed, will house a 4 GeV recirculating accelerator. Each of the accelerator`s two linacs contains 160 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) 1497 MHz niobium cavities in 20 cryomodules. Alignments of the cavities within the cryomodule with respect to beam axis is critical to achieving the optimum accelerator performance. This paper discusses the rationale for the current specification on cavity mechanical alignment: 2 mrad (rms) applied to the 0.5 m active length cavities. We describe the tooling that was developed to achieve the tolerance at the time of cavity pair assembly, to preserve and integrate alignment during cryomodule assembly, and to translate alignment to appropriate installation in the beam line.

  11. Enhanced field emission properties from well-aligned zinc oxide nanoneedles grown on the Au/Ti/n-Si substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chan Jun; Choi, Duck-Kyun; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2007-02-19

    The authors investigated the field emission from vertically well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoneedles grown on the Au/Ti/n-Si (100) substrate using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The turn-on field of ZnO nanoneedles was about 0.85 V/{mu}m at the current density of 0.1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, and the emission current density of 1 mA/cm{sup 2} was achieved at the applied electric field of 5.0 V/{mu}m. The low turn-on field of the ZnO nanoneedles was attributed to very sharp tip morphology, and the high emission current density was mainly caused by the formation of the stable Ohmic contact between the ZnO nanoneedles and Au film.

  12. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Daily, PNNL

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  13. ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by chemical bath deposition combined with rapid thermal annealing: structural, photoluminescence and field emission characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hung-Wei; Yang, Hsi-Wen; He, Hsin-Min; Lee, Yi-Mu

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared by low temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) combined with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under different ambient conditions. The structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO have been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained ZnO samples are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite phase and also display well-aligned array structure. A pronounced effect on increased nanorod length was found for the RTA-treated ZnO as compared to the as-grown ZnO. Analysis of XRD indicates that the (0 0 2) feature peak of the as-grown ZnO was shifted towards a lower angle as compared to the peaks of RTA-treated ZnO samples due to the reduction of tensile strain along the c-axis by RTA. Photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that the ZnO nanorod arrays receiving RTA in an O2 environment have the sharpest UV emission band and greatest intensity ratio of near band-edge emission (NBE) to deep level emission (DLE). Additionally, the effects of RTA on the field emission properties were evaluated. The results demonstrate that RTA an O2 environment can lower the turn-on field and improve the field enhancement factor. The stability of the field emission current was also tested for 4 h.

  14. Comparative study of ultraviolet detectors based on ZnO nanostructures grown on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulgafour, H. I.; Hassan, Z.; Ahmed, N. M.; Yam, F. K.

    2012-10-01

    Pd/ZnO/Pd metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors have been successfully fabricated using a variety of high-quality ZnO nanostructures. The nanostructures used included well-aligned nanorods, tetrapod-like nanorods, and hair-like nanowires and were synthesized on Si (100), porous silicon (PS/Si), and quartz substrates, respectively, using a catalyst-free vapor-solid mechanism for comparison. The morphological, structural, and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated. Upon illumination with ultraviolet light (365 nm), the responsivity values of the fabricated photodetectors on PS/Si, Si, and quartz substrates were 0.22, 0.073, and 0.053 A/W, which correspond to quantum efficiencies of 85%, 28%, and 20%, respectively, at an applied bias of 5 V. The present study demonstrated that ZnO nanowires/PS exhibited a relatively fast photoresponse, with a rise time of 0.089 s and fall time of 0.085 s. The ZnO nanorods/Si and ZnO nanotetrapods/quartz exhibited a slow response, with rise times of 0.128 and 0.194 s and fall times of 0.362 and 0.4 s, respectively. The study suggests that the response time of the ZnO nanostructures to ultraviolet exposure is dependent on the type of substrate used. Results show that these nanostructures are suitable for sensing applications.

  15. Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell based on Vertical ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Sheng; Li, Dongdong; Chang, Pai-Chun; Lu, Jia Grace

    2010-09-26

    Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays that are transferred onto ITO-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates using a simple peel-off process. The solar cells demonstrate an energy conversion efficiency of 0.44% with good bending tolerance. This technique paves a new route for building large-scale cost-effective flexible photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

  16. Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Vertical ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays that are transferred onto ITO-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates using a simple peel-off process. The solar cells demonstrate an energy conversion efficiency of 0.44% with good bending tolerance. This technique paves a new route for building large-scale cost-effective flexible photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:27502660

  17. Radiative mechanism and surface modification of four visible deep level defect states in ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagiovanni, E. G.; Reitano, R.; Franzò, G.; Strano, V.; Terrasi, A.; Mirabella, S.

    2015-12-01

    Visible luminescence from ZnO nanorods (NRs) is attracting large scientific interest for light emission and sensing applications. We study visible luminescent defects in ZnO NRs as a function of post growth thermal treatments, and find four distinct visible deep level defect states (VDLSs): blue (2.52 eV), green (2.23 eV), orange (2.03 eV), and red (1.92 eV). Photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal a distinct modification in the UV (3.25 eV) emission intensity and a shift in the visible spectra after annealing. Annealing at 600 °C in Ar (Ar600) and O2 (O600) causes a blue and red-shift in the visible emission band, respectively. All samples demonstrate orange emission from the core of the NR, with an additional surface related green, blue, and red emission in the As-Prep, Ar600, and O600 samples, respectively. From PL excitation (PLE) measurements we determine the onset energy for population of the various VDLSs, and relate it to the presence of an Urbach tail below the conduction band due to a presence of ionized Zni or Zni complexes. We measured an onset energy of 3.25 eV for the as prepared sample. The onset energy red-shifts in the annealed samples by about 0.05 to 0.1 eV indicating a change in the defect structure, which we relate to the shift in the visible emission. We then used X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) to understand changes in the surface structure, and H content, respectively. The results of the XPS and ERDA analysis explain how the chemical states are modified due to annealing. We summarize our results by correlating our VDLSs with specific intrinsic defect states to build a model for PL emission in ZnO NRs. These results are important for understanding how to control defect related visible emission for sensing and electroluminescence applications.Visible luminescence from ZnO nanorods (NRs) is attracting large scientific interest for light emission and sensing applications. We study visible

  18. Morphological driven photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Khaldoon N.; Bidin, Noriah

    2017-02-01

    Using a simple combination of pulse laser ablation in liquid and hydrothermal (PLAL-H) approaches, we control the morphology of ZnO nanostructures (ZNSs) to determine the feasibility of their photocatalytic efficacy. These ZNSs are deposited on Si (100) substrates and two different morphologies are achieved. In this synergistic approach, PLAL synthesized NSs are used as a nutrient solution with different pH for further hydrothermal treatment at 110 °C under varying growth time (5, 30 and 60 min). Surface morphology, structure, composition, and optical characteristics of the prepared ZNSs are determined using FESEM, XRD, FTIR and Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-vis absorption measurements. The morphology revealed remarkable transformation from nanorods (NRs)/nanoflowers (NFs) (at pH 7.6) to nanoparticles (NPs)-like (at pH 10.5) structure. XRD patterns showed better polycrystallinity for NPs with enlarged band gap than NR/NF-like structures. Both PL and UV-vis spectral analysis of ZNPs exhibited higher surface area and deep level defects density dependent morphology, where the nutrient pH and growth time variation are found to play a significant role towards structural evolution. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities of, such ZNSs are evaluated via sunlight driven photo-degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. The photocatalytic efficiency of ZNPs is demonstrated to be much superior (97.4%) than ZNRs/ZNFs-like morphology (86%). Such enhanced photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized ZNPs is attributed to the synergism of the improved surface area and defects density, which is useful for promoting the adsorption of the MB dye and suppressed surface recombination of photo-generated charge carriers.

  19. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  20. Optical and piezoelectric properties of p-type ZnO nanowires on transparent flexible substrate for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guocheng; Tam, Man Chun; Hu, Lilei; EI-Rayes, Karim; Guo, Qiuquan; Yang, Jun; Mrad, Nezih; Ban, Dayan

    2014-09-01

    High quality, controlled-structure nanowires (NWs), grown on a transparent flexible substrate, have attracted great interest as a mean of harvesting solar and mechanical energy. Clarifying their optical and piezoelectric properties is essential for this application. In this paper, vertically aligned lithium (Li) doped p-type ZnO NWs were grown, on a micro-patterned transparent flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate, by electrochemical deposition at 88 °C. The substrate was coated with aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) thin layer, which served as a good seed layer and a transparent conductive oxide layer. Varying the seed layer thickness gave control of the individual NWs' diameter, density and alignment. The effect of doping on the optical band-gap, crystalline quality and Schottky barrier were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and piezoelectric characterization. The piezoelectric polarization induced piezo-potential in strained ZnO NWs can drive the flow of electrons without an applied electric bias, thus can be used to harvest mechanical energy and convert it into electricity. To prove this concept, flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters based on an array of ZnO NWs were fabricated. Results show that the patterned p-type NW-based energy harvester produces 26-fold output voltage and 19-fold current compared to the conventional un-doped ZnO NW energy harvester from the same acceleration input.

  1. A Comparison of ZnO and ZnO(-)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations are performed to support and to help interpret the experimental work reported in the proceeding manuscript. The CCSD(T) approach, in conjunction with a large basis set, is used to compute spectroscopic constants for the X(exp 1)Epsilon(+) and (3)II states of ZnO and the X(exp 2)Epsilon(+) state of ZnO(-). The spectroscopic constants, including the electron affinity, are in good agreement with experiment. The ZnO EA is significantly larger than that of O, thus relative to the atomic ground state asymptotes, ZnO(-) has a larger D(sub o) than the (1)Epsilon(+) state, despite the fact that the extra electron goes into an antibonding orbital. The changes in spectroscopic constants can be understood in terms of the X(exp 1)Epsilon(+) formally dissociating to Zn (1)S + O (1)D while the (3)II and (2)Epsilon(+) states dissociate to Zn (1)S + O (3)P and Zn (1) and O(-) (2)P, respectively.

  2. Template-Assisted Hydrothermal Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A flexible and robust piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) based on a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite structure has been successfully fabricated via a cost-effective and scalable template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method. Vertically aligned arrays of dense and uniform zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with high aspect ratio (diameter ∼250 nm, length ∼12 μm) were grown within nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) templates. The energy conversion efficiency was found to be ∼4.2%, which is comparable to previously reported values for ZnO NWs. The resulting NG is found to have excellent fatigue performance, being relatively immune to detrimental environmental factors and mechanical failure, as the constituent ZnO NWs remain embedded and protected inside the polymer matrix. PMID:27172933

  3. Growth and properties of ultra-violet emitting aligned zinc oxide nanocones with hexagonal caps.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Al Hajry, A; Al-Ghamdi, A A; Al-Heniti, S

    2010-10-01

    Ultraviolet-emitting, single-crystalline aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocones with hexagonal caps were grown on silicon substrate via simple non-catalytic thermal evaporation process. High-purity metallic zinc powder and oxygen were used as source materials for zinc and oxygen, respectively. The detailed structural characterizations confirmed that the formed products are single-crystalline, possess a wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown along the c-axis direction. Raman-active optical-phonon E2(high) mode at 437 cm(-1) with sharp and strong UV emission at 385 nm in room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum demonstrated that the as-grown ZnO nanocones with hexagonal caps possess good-crystal quality with the excellent optical properties. Finally, a plausible growth mechanism for the formation of as-grown ZnO nanocones with hexagonal caps was also proposed.

  4. Photoactive area modification in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using optimization of electrochemically synthesized ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Ahmadi; Sajjad Rashidi, Dafeh

    2015-11-01

    In this work, ZnO nanorod arrays grown by an electrochemical deposition method are investigated. The crucial parameters of length, diameter, and density of the nanorods are optimized over the synthesize process and nanorods growth time. Crystalline structure, morphologies, and optical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays are studied by different techniques such as x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and UV-visible transmission spectra. The ZnO nanorod arrays are employed in an inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cell of Poly (3-hexylthiophene):[6-6] Phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester to introduce more surface contact between the electron transporter layer and the active layer. Our results show that the deposition time is a very important factor to achieve the aligned and uniform ZnO nanorods with suitable surface density which is required for effective infiltration of active area into the ZnO nanorod spacing and make a maximum interfacial surface contact for electron collection, as overgrowing causes nanorods to be too dense and thick and results in high resistance and lower visible light transmittance. By optimizing the thickness of the active layer on top of ZnO nanorods, an improved efficiency of 3.17% with a high FF beyond 60% was achieved.

  5. Acceptors in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Mccluskey, Matthew D.; Corolewski, Caleb; Lv, Jinpeng; Tarun, Marianne C.; Teklemichael, Samuel T.; Walter, Eric D.; Norton, M. G.; Harrison, Kale W.; Ha, Su Y.

    2015-03-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential for a range of applications in the area of optoelectronics. The quest for p-type ZnO has focused much attention on acceptors. In this paper, Cu, N, and Li acceptor impurities are discussed. Experimental evidence shows that these point defects have acceptor levels 3.2, 1.5, and 0.8 eV above the valence-band maximum, respectively. The levels are deep because the ZnO valence band is quite low compared to conventional, non-oxide semiconductors. Using MoO2 contacts, the electrical resistivity of ZnO:Li was measured and showed behavior consistent with bulk hole conduction for temperatures above 400 K. A photoluminescence peak in ZnO nanocrystals has been attributed to an acceptor, which may involve a zinc vacancy. High field (W-band) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the nanocrystals revealed an axial center with g = 2.0033 and g = 2.0075, along with an isotropic center at g = 2.0053.

  6. Acceptors in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    McCluskey, Matthew D. Corolewski, Caleb D.; Lv, Jinpeng; Tarun, Marianne C.; Teklemichael, Samuel T.; Walter, Eric D.; Norton, M. Grant; Harrison, Kale W.; Ha, Su

    2015-03-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential for a range of applications in the area of optoelectronics. The quest for p-type ZnO has focused much attention on acceptors. In this paper, Cu, N, and Li acceptor impurities are discussed. Experimental evidence indicates these point defects have acceptor levels 3.2, 1.4, and 0.8 eV above the valence-band maximum, respectively. The levels are deep because the ZnO valence band is quite low compared to conventional, non-oxide semiconductors. Using MoO{sub 2} contacts, the electrical resistivity of ZnO:Li was measured and showed behavior consistent with bulk hole conduction for temperatures above 400 K. A photoluminescence peak in ZnO nanocrystals is attributed to an acceptor, which may involve a Zn vacancy. High field (W-band) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the nanocrystals revealed an axial center with g{sub ⊥} = 2.0015 and g{sub //} = 2.0056, along with an isotropic center at g = 2.0035.

  7. Magnetically Aligned Supramolecular Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Matthew; Cardoso, Andre Zamith; Frith, William J; Iggo, Jonathan A; Adams, Dave J

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic-field-induced alignment of the fibrillar structures present in an aqueous solution of a dipeptide gelator, and the subsequent retention of this alignment upon transformation to a hydrogel upon the addition of CaCl2 or upon a reduction in solution pH is reported. Utilising the switchable nature of the magnetic field coupled with the slow diffusion of CaCl2, it is possible to precisely control the extent of anisotropy across a hydrogel, something that is generally very difficult to do using alternative methods. The approach is readily extended to other compounds that form viscous solutions at high pH. It is expected that this work will greatly expand the utility of such low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWG) in areas where alignment is key. PMID:25345918

  8. Improved docking alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Improved techniques are provided for the alignment of two objects. The present invention is particularly suited for 3-D translation and 3-D rotational alignment of objects in outer space. A camera is affixed to one object, such as a remote manipulator arm of the spacecraft, while the planar reflective surface is affixed to the other object, such as a grapple fixture. A monitor displays in real-time images from the camera such that the monitor displays both the reflected image of the camera and visible marking on the planar reflective surface when the objects are in proper alignment. The monitor may thus be viewed by the operator and the arm manipulated so that the reflective surface is perpendicular to the optical axis of the camera, the roll of the reflective surface is at a selected angle with respect to the camera, and the camera is spaced a pre-selected distance from the reflective surface.

  9. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  10. Homoepitaxial ZnO Film Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, C-H; Lehoczky, S. L.; Harris, M. T.; Callahan, M. J.; McCarty, P.; George, M. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    ZnO films have high potential for many applications, such as surface acoustic wave filters, UV detectors, and light emitting devices due to its structural, electrical, and optical properties. High quality epitaxial films are required for these applications. The Al2O3 substrate is commonly used for ZnO heteroepitaxial growth. Recently, high quality ZnO single crystals are available for grow homoepitaxial films. Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on the two polar surfaces (O-face and Zn-face) of (0001) ZnO single crystal substrates using off-axis magnetron sputtering deposition. As a comparison, films were also deposited on (0001) Al2O3 substrates. It was found that the two polar ZnO surfaces have different photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, surface structure and morphology, which strongly influence the epitaxial film growth. The morphology and structure of homoepitaxial films grown on the ZnO substrates were different from heteroepitaxial films grown on the Al2O3. An interesting result shows that high temperature annealing of ZnO single crystals will improve the surface structure on the O-face surface rather than the opposite surface. The measurements of PL, low-angle incident x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy of ZnO films indicate that the O-terminated surface is better for ZnO epitaxial film growth.

  11. Synthesis of high crystallinity ZnO nanowire array on polymer substrate and flexible fiber-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinmei; Wu, Weiwei; Bai, Suo; Qin, Yong

    2011-11-01

    Well aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays are grown on Kevlar fiber and Kapton film via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. These NWs have better crystallinity than those synthesized through the low-temperature hydrothermal method. The average length and diameter of ZnO NWs grown on Kevlar fiber can be controlled from 0.5 to 2.76 μm and 30 to 300 nm, respectively. A flexible ultraviolet (UV) sensor based on Kevlar fiber/ZnO NWs hybrid structure is made to detect UV illumination quantificationally.

  12. PILOT optical alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longval, Y.; Mot, B.; Ade, P.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Baustista, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bray, N.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Charra, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J.-P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Gélot, P.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P..; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Misawa, R.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J.-M.; Pajot, F.; Parot, G.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tapie, P.; Tauber, J.; Torre, J.-P.; Tucker, C.

    2016-07-01

    PILOT is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the polarization of dust emission in the diffuse interstellar medium in our Galaxy at wavelengths 240 μm with an angular resolution about two arcminutes. Pilot optics is composed an off-axis Gregorian type telescope and a refractive re-imager system. All optical elements, except the primary mirror, are in a cryostat cooled to 3K. We combined the optical, 3D dimensional measurement methods and thermo-elastic modeling to perform the optical alignment. The talk describes the system analysis, the alignment procedure, and finally the performances obtained during the first flight in September 2015.

  13. Preparation of new morphological ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Chelouche, A.; Djouadi, D.; Aksas, A.

    2013-12-16

    ZnO micro-tori and cerium doped hexangulars ZnO have been prepared by the sol-gel method under methanol hypercritical conditions of temperature and pressure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement has revealed the high crystalline quality and the nanometric size of the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown that the ZnO powder has a torus-like shape while that of ZnO:Ce has a hexangular-like shape, either standing free or inserted into the cores of ZnO tori. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has revealed that the ZnO particles have sizes between 25 and 30 nm while Ce-doped ZnO grains have diameters ranging from 75 nm to 100 nm. Photoluminescence spectra at room temperature of the samples have revealed that the introduction of cerium in ZnO reduces the emission intensity lines, particularly the ZnO red and green ones.

  14. Aligned-or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Jo Ellen; Koppal, Mary

    2015-01-01

    When state leaders and national partners in the development of the Next Generation Science Standards met to consider implementation strategies, states and school districts wanted to know which materials were aligned to the new standards. The answer from the developers was short but not sweet: You won't find much now, and it's going to…

  15. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  16. Curriculum Alignment: Establishing Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagné, Philippe; Dumont, Laurence; Brunet, Sabine; Boucher, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a step-by-step guide to implement a curricular alignment project, directed at professional development and student support, and developed in a higher education French as a second language department. We outline best practices and preliminary results from our experience and provide ways to adapt our experience to other…

  17. Growth of 18O isotopically enriched ZnO nanorods by two novel VPT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Ciarán; Trefflich, Lukas; Röder, Robert; Ronning, Carsten; Henry, Martin O.; McGlynn, Enda

    2017-02-01

    We have developed two novel vapour phase transport methods to grow ZnO nanorod arrays isotopically enriched with 18O. Firstly, a three-step process used to grow natural and Zn-enriched ZnO nanorods has been further modified, by replacing the atmospheric O2 with enriched 18O2, in order to grow 18O-enriched ZnO nanorods using this vapour-solid method on chemical bath deposited buffer layers. In addition, 18O-enriched ZnO nanorods were successfully grown using 18O isotopically enriched ZnO source powders in a vapour-liquid-solid growth method. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed the success of both growth methods in terms of nanorod morphology, although in the case of the vapour-liquid-solid samples, the nanorods' c-axes were not vertically aligned due to the use of a non-epitaxial substrate. Raman and PL studies indicated clearly that O-enrichment was successful in both cases, although the results indicate that the enrichment is at a lower level in our samples compared to previous reports with the same nominal enrichment levels. The results of our studies also allow us to comment on both levels of enrichment achieved and on novel effects of the high temperature growth environment on the nanorod growth, as well as suggesting possible mechanisms for such effects. Very narrow photoluminescence line widths, far narrower than those reported previously in the literature for isotopically enriched bulk ZnO, are seen in both the vapour-solid and vapour-liquid-solid nanorod samples demonstrating their excellent optical quality and their potential for use in detailed optical studies of defects and impurities using low temperature photoluminescence.

  18. Synthesis and conductivity enhancement of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin films.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2010-07-16

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanorod array thin films with various Al/Zn molar ratios were synthesized by chemical bath deposition. The resultant AZO nanorods were well-aligned at the glass substrate, growing vertically along the c-axis [001] direction. In addition, they had an average diameter of 64.7 +/- 16.8 nm and an average length of about 1.0 microm with the structure of wurtzite-type ZnO. Analyses of energy dispersive x-ray spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectra indicated that Al atoms had been doped into the ZnO crystal lattice. The doping of Al atoms did not result in significant changes in the structure and crystal orientation, but the electrical resistivity was found to increase first and then decrease with increasing Al content owing to the increase of carrier concentration and the decrease of mobility. In addition, the transmission in the visible region increased but the increase was reduced at higher Al doping levels. After hydrogen treatment, the morphology of the AZO nanorod array thin films remained unchanged. However, the electrical resistivity decreased significantly due to the formation of oxygen vacancies and interstitial hydrogen atoms. When the real Al/Zn molar ratio was about 3.7%, the conductivity was enhanced about 1000 times and a minimum electrical resistivity of 6.4 x 10( - 4) Omega cm was obtained. In addition, the transmission of the ZnO nanorod array thin film in the visible region was significantly increased but the increase was less significant for the AZO nanorod array thin film, particularly at higher Al doping levels. In addition, the current-voltage curves of the thin film devices with ZnO or AZO nanorod arrays revealed that AZO had a higher current response than ZnO and hydrogen treatment led to a more significant enhancement of current responses (about 100-fold).

  19. Evaluation of the interface of thin GaN layers on c- and m-plane ZnO substrates by Rutherford backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    Izawa, Y.; Oga, T.; Ida, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Hashimoto, A.; Kotake, H.; Kamijoh, T.

    2011-07-11

    Lattice distortion at the interfaces between thin GaN layers with {approx}400 nm in thickness and ZnO substrates with non-polar m-plane (10-10) and polar c-plane (0001) is studied using Rutherford backscattering/ion channeling techniques. The interface between GaN/m-plane ZnO is aligned clearly to m-axis, indicating no lattice distortion, while between GaN/c-plane ZnO causes the lattice distortion in the GaN layer due to the piezoelectric field. The range of distortion exceeds {approx}90 nm from the interface of GaN/c-plane ZnO. These results are confirmed by x-ray diffraction and reflection high energy electron diffraction studies.

  20. ZnO nanosheets decorated with CdSe and TiO2 for the architecture of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Tae; Park, Mi Yeong; Choi, Kang Ho; Tai, Wei Sheng; Shim, Won Hyun; Park, Sun-Young; Kang, Jae-Wook; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Jeong, Yongsoo; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan

    2011-03-01

    Pure and TiO2- and CdSe-deposited ZnO nanosheets aligned vertically to the surface of ITO (Indium tin oxide) are prepared using electrodeposition, which is used for building blocks of dye sensitized solar cell. A significant improvement in the photovoltaic efficiency can be obtained by depositing TiO2 or CdSe on ZnO. Photoluminescence spectra show that the TiO2 and CdSe nanostructures suppress the recombination of the electron-hole pair of ZnO. We suggest that the interface charge transfer at TiO2-ZnO and CdSe-ZnO should be responsible for the suppression of the electron-hole pair recombination and enhanced solar cell efficiency by TiO2 and CdSe nanostructures.

  1. One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jayadevan, K P; Tseng, T Y

    2012-06-01

    The wide-gap semiconductor ZnO with nanostructures such as nanoparticle, nanorod, nanowire, nanobelt, nanotube has high potential for a variety of applications. This article reviews the fundamentals of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including processing, structure, property, application and their processing-microstructure-property correlation. Various fabrication methods of the ZnO nanostructures including vapor-liquid-solid process, vapor-solid growth, solution growth, solvothermal growth, template-assisted growth and self-assembly are introduced. The characterization and properties of the ZnO nanostructures are described. The possible applications of these nanostructures are also discussed.

  2. Confined Formation of Ultrathin ZnO Nanorods/Reduced Graphene Oxide Mesoporous Nanocomposites for High-Performance Room-Temperature NO2 Sensors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yi; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jian-Long; Li, Xian; Xie, Dan; Xiang, Lan; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2016-12-28

    Here we demonstrate high-performance room-temperature NO2 sensors based on ultrathin ZnO nanorods/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) mesoporous nanocomposites. Ultrathin ZnO nanorods were loaded on rGO nanosheets by a facile two-step additive-free solution synthesis involving anchored seeding followed by oriented growth. The ZnO nanorod diameters were simply controlled by the seed diameters associated with the spatial confinement effects of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. Compared to the solely ZnO nanorods and rGO-based sensors, the optimal sensor based on ultrathin ZnO nanorods/rGO nanocomposites exhibited higher sensitivity and quicker p-type response to parts per million level of NO2 at room temperature, and the sensitivity to 1 ppm of NO2 was 119% with the response and recovery time being 75 and 132 s. Moreover, the sensor exhibited full reversibility, excellent selectivity, and a low detection limit (50 ppb) to NO2 at room temperature. In addition to the high transport capability of rGO as well as excellent NO2 adsorption ability derived from ultrathin ZnO nanorods and mesoporous structures, the superior sensing performance of the nanocomposites was attributed to the synergetic effect of ZnO and rGO, which was realized by the electron transfer across the ZnO-rGO interfaces through band energy alignment.

  3. Synthesis of ZnO nanowire arrays/3D graphene foam and application for determination of levodopa in the presence of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hong Yan; Zhang, Hong; Huang, Shuo; Lin, Xuan Yu; Gao, Xin; Chang, Jing; Yao, Long Hui; Guo, Er Jun

    2017-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam (GF) was prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using nickel foam as the template. ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO NWAs) were vertically grown on the 3D GF by hydrothermal synthesis to prepare ZnO NWAs/GF. This hybrid combines the properties of ZnO NWAs and 3D GF, which has favorable electrocatalysis and outstanding electrical conductivity. The vertically aligned ZnO NWAs grown on the GF enlarged the electroactive surface area, which was investigated from the Fe(CN)6(3-4+) redox kinetic study. The ZnO NWAs/GF was used as an electrochemical electrode for the determination of Levodopa (LD) in the presence of uric acid (UA). The electrochemical responses of the ZnO NWAs/GF electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The results show that the sensitivity of the electrode for LD is 3.15μAμM(-1) in the concentration range of 0.05-20μM and the measured detection limit of the electrode for LD is 50nM. The electrode also shows good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The proposed electrode is succsefully used to determine LD in human plasma samples and it is potential for use in clinical research.

  4. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success

  5. Inflation by alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.P.; Roest, Diederik

    2015-06-08

    Pseudo-Goldstone bosons (pGBs) can provide technically natural inflatons, as has been comparatively well-explored in the simplest axion examples. Although inflationary success requires trans-Planckian decay constants, f≳M{sub p}, several mechanisms have been proposed to obtain this, relying on (mis-)alignments between potential and kinetic energies in multiple-field models. We extend these mechanisms to a broader class of inflationary models, including in particular the exponential potentials that arise for pGB potentials based on noncompact groups (and so which might apply to moduli in an extra-dimensional setting). The resulting potentials provide natural large-field inflationary models and can predict a larger primordial tensor signal than is true for simpler single-field versions of these models. In so doing we provide a unified treatment of several alignment mechanisms, showing how each emerges as a limit of the more general setup.

  6. Atomic scattering spectroscopy for determination of the polarity of semipolar AlN grown on ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Ueno, Kohei; Oshima, Masaharu; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2013-11-04

    Determination of the polarity of insulating semipolar AlN layers was achieved via atomic scattering spectroscopy. The back scattering of neutralized He atoms on AlN surfaces revealed the atomic alignment of the topmost layers of semipolar AlN and the ZnO substrate. Pole figures of the scattering intensity were used to readily determine the polarity of these wurtzite-type semipolar materials. In addition, we found that +R-plane AlN epitaxially grows on −R-plane ZnO, indicating that the polarity flips at the semipolar AlN/ZnO interface. This polarity flipping is possibly explained by the appearance of −c and m-faces on the −R ZnO surfaces, which was also revealed by atomic scattering spectroscopy.

  7. Plasmon-enhanced Electrically Light-emitting from ZnO Nanorod Arrays/p-GaN Heterostructure Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junfeng; Shi, Zengliang; Wang, Yueyue; Lin, Yi; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Tian, Zhengshan; Dai, Jun; Wang, Shufeng; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Effective and bright light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad interests in fundamental research and industrial application, especially on short wavelength LEDs. In this paper, a well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructured light-emitting diode and Al nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated to improve the electroluminescence performance. More than 30-folds enhancement of the electroluminescence intensity was obtained compared with the device without Al NPs decoration. The investigation on the stable and transient photoluminescence spectraof the ZnO nanorod arrays before and after Al NPs decoration demonstrated that the metal surface plasmon resonance coupling with excitons of ZnO leads to the enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Our results provide aneffective approach to design novel optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and plasmonic nanolasers. PMID:27181337

  8. Automatic Word Alignment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    strategy was evalu­ ated in the context of English -to-Pashto (E2P) and Pashto-to- English (P2E), a low-resource language pair. For E2P, the training and...improves the quality of automatic word alignment, for example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT...example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY

  9. Optimization of processing parameters on the controlled growth of ZnO nanorod arrays for the performance improvement of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yi-Mu; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2011-03-15

    High-transparency and high quality ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on the ITO substrates by a two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The effects of processing parameters including reaction temperature (25-95 {sup o}C) and solution concentration (0.01-0.1 M) on the crystal growth, alignment, optical and electrical properties were systematically investigated. It has been found that these process parameters are critical for the growth, orientation and aspect ratio of the nanorod arrays, showing different structural and optical properties. Experimental results reveal that the hexagonal ZnO nanorod arrays prepared under reaction temperature of 95 {sup o}C and solution concentration of 0.03 M possess highest aspect ratio of {approx}21, and show the well-aligned orientation and optimum optical properties. Moreover the ZnO nanorod arrays based heterojunction electrodes and the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSSCs) were fabricated with an improved optoelectrical performance. -- Graphical abstract: The ZnO nanorod arrays demonstrate well-alignment, high aspect ratio (L/D{approx}21) and excellent optical transmittance by low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD). Display Omitted Research highlights: > Investigate the processing parameters of CBD on the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays. > Optimization of CBD process parameters: 0.03 M solution concentration and reaction temperature of 95 {sup o}C. > The prepared ZnO samples possess well-alignment and high aspect ratio (L/D{approx}21). > An n-ZnO/p-NiO heterojunction: great rectifying behavior and low leakage current. > SS-DSSC has J{sub SC} of 0.31 mA/cm{sup 2} and V{sub OC} of 590 mV, and an improved {eta} of 0.059%.

  10. Orbit IMU alignment: Error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and software systems to: (1) determine the expected Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) manual mode IMU alignment accuracy; (2) investigate the accuracy of alignments in later shuttle flights when the automatic mode of star acquisition may be used; and (3) verify that an analytical model previously used for estimating the alignment error is a valid model. The analysis results do not differ significantly from expectations. The standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 alignments was determined to the 68 arc seconds per axis. This corresponds to a 99.7% probability that the magnitude of the total alignment error is less than 258 arc seconds.

  11. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  12. Multiple protein structure alignment.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. R.; Flores, T. P.; Orengo, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    A method was developed to compare protein structures and to combine them into a multiple structure consensus. Previous methods of multiple structure comparison have only concatenated pairwise alignments or produced a consensus structure by averaging coordinate sets. The current method is a fusion of the fast structure comparison program SSAP and the multiple sequence alignment program MULTAL. As in MULTAL, structures are progressively combined, producing intermediate consensus structures that are compared directly to each other and all remaining single structures. This leads to a hierarchic "condensation," continually evaluated in the light of the emerging conserved core regions. Following the SSAP approach, all interatomic vectors were retained with well-conserved regions distinguished by coherent vector bundles (the structural equivalent of a conserved sequence position). Each bundle of vectors is summarized by a resultant, whereas vector coherence is captured in an error term, which is the only distinction between conserved and variable positions. Resultant vectors are used directly in the comparison, which is weighted by their error values, giving greater importance to the matching of conserved positions. The resultant vectors and their errors can also be used directly in molecular modeling. Applications of the method were assessed by the quality of the resulting sequence alignments, phylogenetic tree construction, and databank scanning with the consensus. Visual assessment of the structural superpositions and consensus structure for various well-characterized families confirmed that the consensus had identified a reasonable core. PMID:7849601

  13. Dynamic Alignment at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2003-04-23

    The relative alignment of components in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) is guaranteed by mechanical means. The magnets are rigidly fixed to 48 girders by means of alignment rails with tolerances of less than {+-}15 {micro}m. The bending magnets, supported by 3 point ball bearings, overlap adjacent girders and thus establish virtual train links between the girders, located near the bending magnet centres. Keeping the distortion of the storage ring geometry within a tolerance of {+-}100 {micro}m in order to guarantee sufficient dynamic apertures, requires continuous monitoring and correction of the girder locations. Two monitoring systems for the horizontal and the vertical direction will be installed to measure displacements of the train link between girders, which are due to ground settings and temperature effects: The hydrostatic levelling system (HLS) gives an absolute vertical reference, while the horizontal positioning system (HPS), which employs low cost linear encoders with sub-micron resolution, measures relative horizontal movements. The girder mover system based on five DC motors per girder allows a dynamic realignment of the storage ring within a working window of more than {+-}1 mm for girder translations and {+-}1 mrad for rotations. We will describe both monitoring systems (HLS and HPS) as well as the applied correction scheme based on the girder movers. We also show simulations indicating that beam based girder alignment takes care of most of the static closed orbit correction.

  14. The mechanism of growth of ZnO nanorods by reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, R.; Major, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    DC reactive magnetron sputtering of zinc target in argon-oxygen sputtering atmosphere has been used to grow ZnO thin films/nanorods on Si in a wide substrate temperature range of 300-750 °C and under different sputtering conditions, namely, DC power, sputtering pressure and oxygen percentage in the sputtering atmosphere. Powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and a combination of top-down and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy studies of ZnO films and nanorods grown under different conditions, have shown that substrate temperature critically controls their growth behavior and morphology, eventually resulting in the growth of vertically c-axis oriented, highly aligned and separated ZnO nanorods at substrate temperatures of 700-750 °C. The strongly substrate temperature dependent growth of nanorods is explained by considering that the growth above 600 °C, takes place in the 'desorption regime', in which, the surface diffusion length decreases exponentially with temperature. The diameter of nanorods increases with increase of DC power or decrease of sputtering pressure, which is attributed to the increase of surface diffusion length at higher deposition flux. The morphology of ZnO nanorods is not significantly affected by oxygen percentage in the sputtering atmosphere, since it does not influence the deposition flux.

  15. ZnO nano-array-based EGFET biosensor for glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Huihui; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Minxuan; Zhang, Yue

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are normally based on enzymatic catalysis of a reaction that produces or consumes electrons and the sensing membranes dominate the performance. In this work, ZnO nano-array-based EGFETs were fabricated for pH and glucose detection. The ZnO nano-arrays prepared via low-temperature hydrothermal method were well-aligned, with an average length of 2 μm and diameter of 100-150 nm, and have a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure. The sensor performed with a sensitivity of 45 mV/pH and response time of about 6-7 s from pH = 4-12. UV irradiation can improve the Vref response as a result of the formation of a depletion region at the surface of ZnO nanomaterials. Due to its high specific surface area, the ZnO nano-array EGFET sensor showed a sensitivity of -0.395 mV/μM to the glucose detection in a concentration range between 20 and 100 μM. These EGFET glucose biosensors demonstrate a low detectable concentration (20 μM) with good linearity, therefore may be used to detect glucose in saliva and tears at much lower concentrations than that in blood.

  16. Thin film epitaxy and structure property correlations for non-polar ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Punam; Budai, John D; Aggarwal, R; Narayan, Roger; Narayan, Jagdish

    2009-01-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth and strain relaxation were investigated in non-polar a-plane (11-20)ZnO films grown on r-plane (10-12)sapphire substrates in the temperature range 200-700 C by pulsed laser deposition. The lattice misfit in the plane of the film for this orientation varied from -1.26% in [0001] to ?18.52% in the [-1100] direction. The alignment of (11-20)ZnO planes parallel to (10-12)sapphire planes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction {theta}-2{theta} scans over the entire temperature range. X-ray {psi}-scans revealed the epitaxial relationship:[0001]ZnO[-1101]sap; [-1100]ZnO[-1-120]sap. Depending on the growth temperature, variations in the structural, optical and electrical properties were observed in the grown films. Room temperature photoluminescence for films grown at 700 C shows a strong band-edge emission. The ratio of the band-edge emission to green band emission is 135:1, indicating reduced defects and excellent optical quality of the films. The resistivity data for the films grown at 700 C shows semiconducting behavior with room temperature resistivity of 2.2 x 10{sup -3} {Omega}-cm.

  17. Non-enzymatic Fluorescent Biosensor for Glucose Sensing Based on ZnO Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Hong Hanh; Pham, Van Thanh; Nguyen, Viet Tuyen; Sai, Cong Doanh; Hoang, Chi Hieu; Nguyen, The Binh

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a non-enzymatic fluorescent biosensor for glucose sensing based on ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods of high density, high crystallinity, and good alignment were grown on low-cost industrial copper substrates at low temperature. To grow them directly on the substrates without using a seed layer, we utilized a simple one-step seedless hydrothermal method, which is based on galvanic cell structure. Herein, the glucose-treated ZnO nanorods together with the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the sample during the photoluminescent measurement played the role of a catalyst. They decomposed glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid, which is similar to the glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx) used in enzymatic sensors. Due to the formation of H2O2, the photoluminescence intensity of the UV emission peak of ZnO nanorods decreased as the glucose concentration increased from 1 mM to 100 mM. In comparison with glucose concentration of a normal human serum, which is in the range of 4.4-6.6 mM, the obtained results show potential of non-enzymatic fluorescent biosensors in medical applications.

  18. Power generation from base excitation of a Kevlar composite beam with ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-04-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes with piezoelectric properties have gained interest in the fabrication of small scale power harvesting systems. However, the practical applications of the nanoscale materials in structures with true mechanical strengths have not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, piezoelectric ZnO nanowires are integrated into the fiber reinforced polymer composites serving as an active phase to convert the induced strain energy from ambient vibration into electrical energy. Arrays of ZnO nanowires are grown vertically aligned on aramid fibers through a low-cost hydrothermal process. The modified fabrics with ZnO nanowires whiskers are then placed between two carbon fabrics as the top and the bottom electrodes. Finally, vacuum resin transfer molding technique is utilized to fabricate these multiscale composites. The fabricated composites are subjected to a base excitation using a shaker to generate charge due to the direct piezoelectric effect of ZnO nanowires. Measuring the generated potential difference between the two electrodes showed the energy harvesting application of these multiscale composites in addition to their superior mechanical properties. These results propose a new generation of power harvesting systems with enhanced mechanical properties.

  19. Method for alignment of microwires

    DOEpatents

    Beardslee, Joseph A.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Sadtler, Bryce

    2017-01-24

    A method of aligning microwires includes modifying the microwires so they are more responsive to a magnetic field. The method also includes using a magnetic field so as to magnetically align the microwires. The method can further include capturing the microwires in a solid support structure that retains the longitudinal alignment of the microwires when the magnetic field is not applied to the microwires.

  20. Alignment as a Teacher Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John; Blank, Rolf; Zeidner, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of the procedures developed by Porter and colleagues (Porter, 2002), other methods of defining and measuring alignment are essentially limited to alignment between tests and standards. Porter's procedures have been generalized to investigating the alignment between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom…

  1. Development of multifunctional fiber reinforced polymer composites through ZnO nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Patterson, Brendan A.; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Sodano, Henry A.

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectric nanowires, in particular zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, have been vastly used in the fabrication of electromechanical devices to convert wasted mechanical energy into useful electrical energy. Over recent years, the growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on various structural fibers has led to the development of fiber-based nanostructured energy harvesting devices. However, the development of more realistic energy harvesters that are capable of continuous power generation requires a sufficient mechanical strength to withstand typical structural loading conditions. Yet, a durable, multifunctional material system has not been developed thoroughly enough to generate electrical power without deteriorating the mechanical performance. Here, a hybrid composite energy harvester is fabricated in a hierarchical design that provides both efficient power generating capabilities while enhancing the structural properties of the fiber reinforced polymer composite. Through a simple and low-cost process, a modified aramid fabric with vertically aligned ZnO nanowires grown on the fiber surface is embedded between woven carbon fabrics, which serve as the structural reinforcement as well as the top and the bottom electrodes of the nanowire arrays. The performance of the developed multifunctional composite is characterized through direct vibration excitation and tensile strength examination.

  2. Precision alignment and mounting apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alignment and mounting apparatus for mounting two modules (10,12) includes a first portion having a cylindrical alignment pin (16) projecting normal to a module surface, a second portion having a three-stage alignment guide (18) including a shoehorn flange (34), a Y-slot (42) and a V-block (22) which sequentially guide the alignment pin (16) with successively finer precision and a third portion in the form of a spring-loaded captive fastener (20) for connecting the two modules after alignment is achieved.

  3. Nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO grown on p-type GaN and Si by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, S. C.; Huang, P. J.; Chan, C. E.; Uen, W. Y.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Yang, T. N.; Chiang, C. C.; Lan, S. M.; Chi, G. C.

    2008-12-01

    The surface morphology of ZnO grown on p-GaN templates and p-Si (1 1 1) substrates at various temperatures by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in a vertical reactor at atmospheric pressure is reported. A low temperature ZnO buffer was deposited initially at 200 °C for 15 min as a nucleation layer. Epitaxial ZnO was grown at 500 °C, 550 °C, 600 °C for 40 min, respectively. Uniformly distributed and well-aligned ZnO nanorods with diameter in the range 80-120 nm and length ˜0.7 μm were observed for deposition on p-GaN template. By contrast, the morphology of ZnO epilayers grown on p-Si (1 1 1) transitioned from 2D to 3D with increasing growth temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed all the ZnO epilayers had the hexagonal wurtzite structure but different preferred orientation. PL spectra showed only free-exciton emission at 378 nm (˜3.28 eV) with a full width at half maximum of 13 nm without defect-related green emission in the epitaxial ZnO grown at 550 °C and 600 °C. The epitaxial ZnO layers grown on p-GaN and p-Si at the same temperature have similar PL spectra. The PL measurement also exhibits strong exciton-related emission without defect peak, which showed that the ZnO nanostructures grown at 550 °C and 600 °C have good optical properties with excellent crystal quality.

  4. Engineering cell alignment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhui; Huang, Guoyou; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Du, Yanan; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Cell alignment plays a critical role in various cell behaviors including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane protein relocation, nucleus gene expression, and ECM remodeling. Cell alignment is also known to exert significant effects on tissue regeneration (e.g., neuron) and modulate mechanical properties of tissues including skeleton, cardiac muscle and tendon. Therefore, it is essential to engineer cell alignment in vitro for biomechanics, cell biology, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. With advances in nano- and micro-scale technologies, a variety of approaches have been developed to engineer cell alignment in vitro, including mechanical loading, topographical patterning, and surface chemical treatment. In this review, we first present alignments of various cell types and their functionality in different tissues in vivo including muscle and nerve tissues. Then, we provide an overview of recent approaches for engineering cell alignment in vitro. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are addressed for future improvement of engineering cell alignment.

  5. TSGC and JSC Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

  6. Controlled hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanostructures by sequestering the Zn metal ions with the chelating agent EDTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, S. D. Gopal; Ravi, G.; Manikandan, MR.; Mahalingam, T.; Anbu Kulandainathan, M.

    2011-10-01

    In the present work, a controlled growth of ZnO nanostructures by manipulating Zn metal ion concentration by the chelating action of ethylene diaminetetra acetic acid in hydrothermal method is studied. EDTA produces metal-chelate complex by the formation of bidentate ligand with Zn 2+ in the solution and diminishes the reactivity of Zn metal cations. Concentration of EDTA in the mother solution was varied in different ranges like 3, 5 and 10 mM while retaining the zinc metal salt and the NaOH concentration the same. Three different morphologies of wurtzite structured ZnO nanostructures such as nanorods-bunch, separate/discrete uniformly sized hexagonal nanorods and tapered flower petals like shapes are achieved by 3, 5 and 10 mM strengths of EDTA, respectively. The medium concentration 5 mM of EDTA is found to have moderate control over producing ZnO nanostructures of uniform diameter and a high aspect (length to diameter) ratio. An array of vertically aligned free standing ZnO nanorods with uniform spacing is successfully achieved by the addition of 5 mM of EDTA in the mother solution and the same is studied for its fluorescence property at an excitation of 325 nm and it has exhibited a characteristic UV emission of ZnO around 383 nm.

  7. On the Synthesis and characterization of Rhodamine 6G doped ZnO Nanorod Arrays for Solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Fozia Z.; Shastri, Lokesh; Pandey, Krishna S.; Husain, Mushahid

    2010-03-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using ZnO nanoparticles provides a technically and economically credible alternative concept to present day p-n junction photovoltic device. The conventional systems where the semiconductors assume both the task of light absorption and charge carrier transport the two junctions are seprated here. In DSSC the light is absorbed by a sensitizer. In our investigation the DSSC consist of Zno nanoparticles that have a large surface area are used to harvest sunlight. Firstly the ZnO nanoparticals were grown on FTO substrate and then this nanoparticals were used as seed layers to grow aligned nanorods and used them as the wide band gap semiconductor electrod for solar cell. ZnO electrodes were sensitized by Rhodamine 6G dye. ZnO nanoparticles and nanorods were observed through SEM and their crystallinity were investigated using XRD. The higher efficiency in DSSC is possible due to the increased surface area from the nanoparticles facilitating the fast electron transport through the nanowires.

  8. Scalable ZnO nanotube arrays grown on CVD-graphene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. B.; Oh, H.; Park, J.; Kim, N.-J.; Yoon, H.; Yi, G.-C.

    2016-10-01

    We report the growth of wafer-scale arrays of individually position-controlled and vertically aligned ZnO nanotube arrays on graphene deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD-graphene). Introducing two-dimensional layered materials such as graphene as a growth buffer has recently been suggested for growing nanomaterials on traditionally incompatible substrates. However, their growth has been restricted to small areas or had limited controllability. Here, we study the distinct growth behavior of ZnO on CVD-graphene that makes the selective area growth of individual nanostructures on its surface difficult, and propose a set of methods to overcome this. The resulting nanotube arrays, as examined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, exhibited uniform morphologies and high structural quality over a large area and could be prepared on a broad variety of substrates, including amorphous, metallic, or flexible substrates.

  9. An optimal thermal evaporation synthesis of c-axis oriented ZnO nanowires with excellent UV sensing and emission characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Tridib; Achath Mohanan, Ajay; Swamy, Varghese; Guo, Ningqun; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • c-Axis alignment of ZnO nanowires was optimized using self-seeding thermal evaporation method. • Influence of purified air on the morphology and optoelectronic properties were studied. • Nanowires grown under optimal conditions exhibit strong UV emission peak in PL spectrum. • Optimized growth condition establish nanowires of excellent UV sensing characteristics - Abstract: Well-aligned (c-axis oriented) ZnO nanowire arrays were successfully synthesized on Si (1 0 0) substrates through an optimized self-seeding thermal evaporation method. An open-ended chemical vapor deposition (CVD) setup was used in the experiment, with argon and purified air as reaction gases. Epitaxial growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanowires was observed for 5 sccm flow rate of purified air, whereas Zn/Zn suboxide layers and multiple polycrystalline layers of ZnO were obtained for absence and excess of purified air, respectively. Ultraviolet (UV) sensing and emission properties of the as-grown ZnO nanostructures were investigated through the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the nanowires under UV (λ = 365 nm) illumination of 8 mW/cm{sup 2} and using photoluminescence spectra. Nanowires grown under optimum flow of air emitted four times higher intensity of 380 nm UV light as well as exhibited 34 times higher UV radiation sensitivity compared to that of other nanostructures synthesized in this study.

  10. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  11. Nova laser alignment control system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-03-29

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system.

  12. Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2009-11-10

    An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

  13. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanowires and Their Application as a Photocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiong; Wen, John Z.; Zhao, Pei; Anderson, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were hydrothermally synthesized on a glass substrate with the assistance of a pre-coated ZnO seeding layer. The crystalline structure, morphology and transmission spectrum of the as-synthesized sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, respectively, indicating a wurzite ZnO material of approximately 100 nm wire diameter and absorbance at 425 nm and lower wavelengths. The photocatalytic activity of the sample was tested via the degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV-A irradiation. The synthesized nanowires showed a high photocatalytic activity, which increased up to 90% degradation in 2 h as pH was increased to 12. It was shown that the photocatalytic activity of the nanowires was proportional to the length to diameter ratio of the nanowires, which was in turn controlled by the growth time and grain size of the seed layer. Estimates suggest that diffusion into the regions between nanowires may be significantly hindered. Finally, the reusability of the prepared ZnO nanowire samples was also investigated, with results showing that the nanowires still showed 97% of its original photoactivity after ten cycles of use. PMID:28336843

  14. Aligned Defrosting Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    17 August 2004 This July 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of aligned barchan sand dunes in the martian north polar region. At the time, the dunes were covered with seasonal frost, but the frost had begun to sublime away, leaving dark spots and dark outlines around the dunes. The surrounding plains exhibit small, diffuse spots that are also the result of subliming seasonal frost. This northern spring image, acquired on a descending ground track (as MGS was moving north to south on the 'night' side of Mars) is located near 78.8oN, 34.8oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  15. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  16. The alignment strategy of HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechenova, O.; Pechenov, V.; Galatyuk, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Kornakov, G.; Markert, J.; Müntz, C.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Stroth, J.

    2015-06-01

    The global as well as intrinsic alignment of any spectrometer impacts directly on its performance and the quality of the achievable physics results. An overview of the current alignment procedure of the DiElectron Spectrometer HADES is presented with an emphasis on its main features and its accuracy. The sequence of all steps and procedures is given, including details on photogrammetric and track-based alignment.

  17. Alignment of Helical Membrane Protein Sequences Using AlignMe

    PubMed Central

    Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2013-01-01

    Few sequence alignment methods have been designed specifically for integral membrane proteins, even though these important proteins have distinct evolutionary and structural properties that might affect their alignments. Existing approaches typically consider membrane-related information either by using membrane-specific substitution matrices or by assigning distinct penalties for gap creation in transmembrane and non-transmembrane regions. Here, we ask whether favoring matching of predicted transmembrane segments within a standard dynamic programming algorithm can improve the accuracy of pairwise membrane protein sequence alignments. We tested various strategies using a specifically designed program called AlignMe. An updated set of homologous membrane protein structures, called HOMEP2, was used as a reference for optimizing the gap penalties. The best of the membrane-protein optimized approaches were then tested on an independent reference set of membrane protein sequence alignments from the BAliBASE collection. When secondary structure (S) matching was combined with evolutionary information (using a position-specific substitution matrix (P)), in an approach we called AlignMePS, the resultant pairwise alignments were typically among the most accurate over a broad range of sequence similarities when compared to available methods. Matching transmembrane predictions (T), in addition to evolutionary information, and secondary-structure predictions, in an approach called AlignMePST, generally reduces the accuracy of the alignments of closely-related proteins in the BAliBASE set relative to AlignMePS, but may be useful in cases of extremely distantly related proteins for which sequence information is less informative. The open source AlignMe code is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/alignme/, and at http://www.forrestlab.org, along with an online server and the HOMEP2 data set. PMID:23469223

  18. Ammonia plasma modification towards a rapid and low temperature approach for tuning electrical conductivity of ZnO nanowires on flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wei Li; Zhang, Chun; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2011-10-05

    Though the fabrication of ZnO nanostructures is economical and low temperature, the lack of a facile, reliable and low temperature methodology to tune its electrical conductivity has prevented it from competing with other semiconductors. Here, we carried out surface modification of ZnO nanowires using ammonia plasma with no heat treatment, and studied their electrical properties over an extended time frame of more than a year. The fabrication of flexible devices was demonstrated via various methods of transferring and aligning as-synthesized ZnO nanowires onto plastic substrates. Hall measurements of the plasma modified ZnO nanowires revealed p-type conductivity. The N1s peak was present in the X-ray photoelectron spectrum of the surface modified ZnO, showing the presence of ammonia complexes. Low temperature photoluminescence showed evidence of acceptor-bound exciton emission. The resulting electrical devices, a chemical sensor and p-n homojunction, show the tunable electrical response of the surface modified ZnO nanowires.

  19. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution’s molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time.

  20. Studies on the structural and optical properties of zinc oxide nanobushes and Co-doped ZnO self-aggregated nanorods synthesized by simple thermal decomposition route

    SciTech Connect

    Freedsman, Joseph J.; Kennedy, L. John; Kumar, R. Thinesh; Sekaran, G.; Vijaya, J. Judith

    2010-10-15

    Pure and Co-doped zinc oxide nanomaterials were prepared by a simple low temperature synthesis and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. The results showed the formation of nanobushes that consists of several nanowires for pure ZnO and the nanorods formed by self-aggregation for Co-doped ZnO. The presence of Co{sup 2+} ions replacing some of the Zn{sup 2+} in the ZnO lattice was confirmed by EPR and DRS studies. The mechanism for the formation of self-aggregated and self-aligned ZnO rods after the incorporation of cobalt in the lattice by the building block units is discussed in this study. Morphological studies were carried out using SEM and HR-TEM, which supports the validity of the proposed mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanobushes and Co-doped ZnO nanorods. The synthesized nanomaterials were found to have good optoelectronic properties.

  1. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Abu ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution’s molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time. PMID:27103612

  2. Three-dimensional mesoscale heterostructures of ZnO nanowire arrays epitaxially grown on CuGaO2 nanoplates as individual diodes.

    PubMed

    Forticaux, Audrey; Hacialioglu, Salih; DeGrave, John P; Dziedzic, Rafal; Jin, Song

    2013-09-24

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale heterostructure composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanowire (NW) arrays epitaxially grown on two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates. Specifically, three facile syntheses are developed to assemble vertical ZnO NWs on CuGaO2 (CGO) nanoplates in mild aqueous solution conditions. The key to the successful 3D mesoscale integration is the preferential nucleation and heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO NWs on the CGO nanoplates. Using transmission electron microscopy, heteroepitaxy was found between the basal planes of CGO nanoplates and ZnO NWs, which are their respective (001) crystallographic planes, by the observation of a hexagonal Moiré fringes pattern resulting from the slight mismatch between the c planes of ZnO and CGO. Careful analysis shows that this pattern can be described by a hexagonal supercell with a lattice parameter of almost exactly 11 and 12 times the a lattice constants for ZnO and CGO, respectively. The electrical properties of the individual CGO-ZnO mesoscale heterostructures were measured using a current-sensing atomic force microscopy setup to confirm the rectifying p-n diode behavior expected from the band alignment of p-type CGO and n-type ZnO wide band gap semiconductors. These 3D mesoscale heterostructures represent a new motif in nanoassembly for the integration of nanomaterials into functional devices with potential applications in electronics, photonics, and energy.

  3. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-04-22

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution's molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time.

  4. ZnO based light emitting diodes growth and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, M.; Rondon, R.; Cloud, J.; Rengarajan, V.; Nemeth, W.; Valencia, A.; Gomez, J.; Spencer, N.; Nause, J.

    2006-02-01

    ZnO and N-doped ZnO thin films were grown by MOCVD on sapphire and ZnO substrates. Diethyl zinc and O II were used as sources for Zn and O, respectively. A specially designed plasma system was employed to produce atomic N dopant for in-situ doping. Proper disk rotation speeds were found for ZnO growth on different size wafers. High crystal quality N-doped ZnO films were grown based on optimized growth conditions. Wet chemical etch of ZnO was investigated by using NH 4Cl, and etch activation energy was calculated to be 463meV. Ohmic contact on N-doped ZnO film was achieved by using Ni/Au/Al multiple layers. ZnO based p-n junction has demonstrated rectification. Electroluminescence at about 384nm was obtained from ZnO based LED.

  5. Direct determination of the band alignment at the (Zn,Mg)O/CISSe interface

    SciTech Connect

    Erfurth, F.; Reinert, F.; Weinhardt, L.; Grimm, A.; Palm, J.; Niesen, T. P.; Umbach, E.

    2011-04-04

    The electronic and chemical properties of the (Zn{sub 1-x},Mg{sub x})O/CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} interface, prepared by sputtering of thin (Zn,Mg)O layers, were investigated with direct and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy on in situ prepared samples. With the combination of both techniques we have determined the band alignment at this interface as a function of Mg-content in the range 0{<=}x{<=}0.30. We find that the band alignment at the interface can be tailored between a ''cliff'' (downward step) in the conduction band for pure ZnO and a 'spike' (upward step) for high Mg-contents. A direct influence of the band alignment modifications on the solar cell parameters is found.

  6. Enhanced photoelectric performance in self-powered UV detectors based on ZnO nanowires with plasmonic Au nanoparticles scattered electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yiyu; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Bin; Dai, Wei; Pan, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a fluorine-doped tin-oxide-coated glass substrate by a hydrothermal method. Au nanoparticles were well dispersed in the mixed solution of ethanol and deionized water. A simple self-powered ultraviolet detector based on solid-liquid heterojunction was fabricated, utilizing ZnO NWs as active photoanode and such prepared mixed solution as electrolyte. The introduction of Au nanoparticles results in considerable improvements in the responsivity and sensitivity of the device compared with the one using deionized water as electrolyte, which is attributed to the enhanced light harvesting by Au nanoparticles.

  7. GS-align for glycan structure alignment and similarity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Sun; Jo, Sunhwan; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Park, Sang-Jun; Skolnick, Jeffrey; Lee, Jooyoung; Im, Wonpil

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Glycans play critical roles in many biological processes, and their structural diversity is key for specific protein-glycan recognition. Comparative structural studies of biological molecules provide useful insight into their biological relationships. However, most computational tools are designed for protein structure, and despite their importance, there is no currently available tool for comparing glycan structures in a sequence order- and size-independent manner. Results: A novel method, GS-align, is developed for glycan structure alignment and similarity measurement. GS-align generates possible alignments between two glycan structures through iterative maximum clique search and fragment superposition. The optimal alignment is then determined by the maximum structural similarity score, GS-score, which is size-independent. Benchmark tests against the Protein Data Bank (PDB) N-linked glycan library and PDB homologous/non-homologous N-glycoprotein sets indicate that GS-align is a robust computational tool to align glycan structures and quantify their structural similarity. GS-align is also applied to template-based glycan structure prediction and monosaccharide substitution matrix generation to illustrate its utility. Availability and implementation: http://www.glycanstructure.org/gsalign. Contact: wonpil@ku.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25857669

  8. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  9. Paper-based, sound driven piezoelectric ZnO nanowire devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ian Yi-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays on the paper substrate are integrated into a novel, sound-driven, piezoelectric nanogenerator device. The intrinsic impedance of the circuit causes phase differences between the input and output signals. For the input sound of around 40 db, an AC output voltage of about 5 mV is achieved. Because of the paper substrate allows the acoustic energy to dissipate, the fabricated device has detected a 4.88 db loss in the input sound signal.

  10. ZnO nanorod array-coated mesh film for the separation of water and oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Li, Yushan; Liu, Qinzhuang

    2013-04-20

    Dense and vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with a large area have been fabricated successfully on the stainless steel mesh by a simple chemical vapor deposition method. The coated mesh exhibited both superoleophilic and superhydrophobic properties, even if it was not modified by low surface energy materials. The separation efficiencies were more than 97% in the filtration of water and oil. Besides, the wettability of the coated mesh was still stable after it was soaked in the corrosive solutions for 1 h. A detailed investigation showed that the coated mesh has the best superhydrophobic property when the stainless steel mesh pore size was about 75 μm.

  11. ZnO nanorod array-coated mesh film for the separation of water and oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Li, Yushan; Liu, Qinzhuang

    2013-04-01

    Dense and vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with a large area have been fabricated successfully on the stainless steel mesh by a simple chemical vapor deposition method. The coated mesh exhibited both superoleophilic and superhydrophobic properties, even if it was not modified by low surface energy materials. The separation efficiencies were more than 97% in the filtration of water and oil. Besides, the wettability of the coated mesh was still stable after it was soaked in the corrosive solutions for 1 h. A detailed investigation showed that the coated mesh has the best superhydrophobic property when the stainless steel mesh pore size was about 75 μm.

  12. Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Djurisić, Aleksandra B; Leung, Yu Hang

    2006-08-01

    We present a review of current research on the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures. We provide a brief introduction to different fabrication methods for various ZnO nanostructures and some general guidelines on how fabrication parameters (temperature, vapor-phase versus solution-phase deposition, etc.) affect their properties. A detailed discussion of photoluminescence, both in the UV region and in the visible spectral range, is provided. In addition, different gain (excitonic versus electron hole plasma) and feedback (random lasing versus individual nanostructures functioning as Fabry-Perot resonators) mechanisms for achieving stimulated emission are described. The factors affecting the achievement of stimulated emission are discussed, and the results of time-resolved studies of stimulated emission are summarized. Then, results of nonlinear optical studies, such as second-harmonic generation, are presented. Optical properties of doped ZnO nanostructures are also discussed, along with a concluding outlook for research into the optical properties of ZnO.

  13. Lexical alignment in triadic communication

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one’s interlocutor’s lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants’ lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  14. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  15. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    PubMed

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow.

  16. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  17. First-principles approach to calculating energy level alignment at aqueous semiconductor interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-10-21

    A first-principles approach is demonstrated for calculating the relationship between an aqueous semiconductor interface structure and energy level alignment. The physical interface structure is sampled using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, yielding the interface electrostatic dipole. The GW approach from many-body perturbation theory is used to place the electronic band edge energies of the semiconductor relative to the occupied 1b₁ energy level in water. The application to the specific cases of nonpolar (101¯0 ) facets of GaN and ZnO reveals a significant role for the structural motifs at the interface, including the degree of interface water dissociation and themore » dynamical fluctuations in the interface Zn-O and O-H bond orientations. As a result, these effects contribute up to 0.5 eV.« less

  18. First-principles approach to calculating energy level alignment at aqueous semiconductor interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-10-21

    A first-principles approach is demonstrated for calculating the relationship between an aqueous semiconductor interface structure and energy level alignment. The physical interface structure is sampled using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, yielding the interface electrostatic dipole. The GW approach from many-body perturbation theory is used to place the electronic band edge energies of the semiconductor relative to the occupied 1b₁ energy level in water. The application to the specific cases of nonpolar (101¯0 ) facets of GaN and ZnO reveals a significant role for the structural motifs at the interface, including the degree of interface water dissociation and the dynamical fluctuations in the interface Zn-O and O-H bond orientations. As a result, these effects contribute up to 0.5 eV.

  19. Coating and enhanced photocurrent of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowire arrays with metal sulfide materials.

    PubMed

    Volokh, Michael; Diab, Mahmud; Magen, Osnat; Jen-La Plante, Ilan; Flomin, Kobi; Rukenstein, Pazit; Tessler, Nir; Mokari, Taleb

    2014-08-27

    Hybrid nanostructures combining zinc oxide (ZnO) and a metal sulfide (MS) semiconductor are highly important for energy-related applications. Controlled filling and coating of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with different MS materials was achieved via the thermal decomposition approach of single-source precursors in the gas phase by using a simple atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. Using different precursors allowed us to synthesize multicomponent structures such as nanowires coated with alloy shell or multishell structures. Herein, we present the synthesis and structural characterization of the different structures, as well as an electrochemical characterization and a photovoltaic response of the ZnO-CdS system, in which the resulting photocurrent upon illumination indicates charge separation at the interface.

  20. Enhanced photoelectrochemical activity of vertically aligned ZnO-coated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hua; Yang, Qin; You, Qinghu; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada; Hu, Zhigao; Duan, Zhihua

    2014-02-03

    Vertically aligned ZnO-TiO{sub 2} hetero-nanostructures constructed of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs) and wurtzite ZnO coatings are fabricated by atomic layer deposition of ZnO coatings on electrochemical anodization formed TiO{sub 2} NTs, and their photoelectrochemical activities are studied through photoelectrochemical and electrochemical characterization. Compared with bare TiO{sub 2} NTs, the transient photocurrent increases to over 1.5-fold for the annealed ZnO-coated TiO{sub 2} NTs under visible illumination. The ZnO-coated TiO{sub 2} NTs also show a longer electron lifetime, a lower charge-transfer resistance and a more negative flat-band potential than the bare TiO{sub 2} NTs, confirming the improved photoelectrochemical activity due to the enhanced charge separation.

  1. Photoelectron spectroscopic study of band alignment of polymer/ZnO photovoltaic device structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, T.; Chikyow, T.; Oh, S.; Wakayama, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Ikeno, N.

    2013-01-28

    Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we investigated the band alignment of a Ag/poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/ZnO photovoltaic structure. At the P3HT/ZnO interface, a band bending of P3HT and a short surface depletion layer of ZnO were observed. The offset between the highest occupied molecular orbital of P3HT and the conduction band minimum of ZnO at the interface contributed to the open circuit voltage (Voc) was estimated to be approximately 1.5 {+-} 0.1 eV, which was bigger than that of the electrically measured effective Voc of P3HT/ZnO photovoltaic devices, meaning that the P3HT/ZnO photovoltaic structure has the potential to provide improved photovoltaic properties.

  2. First-Principles Approach to Calculating Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous Semiconductor Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-10-01

    A first-principles approach is demonstrated for calculating the relationship between an aqueous semiconductor interface structure and energy level alignment. The physical interface structure is sampled using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, yielding the interface electrostatic dipole. The GW approach from many-body perturbation theory is used to place the electronic band edge energies of the semiconductor relative to the occupied 1b1 energy level in water. The application to the specific cases of nonpolar (101 ¯0) facets of GaN and ZnO reveals a significant role for the structural motifs at the interface, including the degree of interface water dissociation and the dynamical fluctuations in the interface Zn-O and O-H bond orientations. These effects contribute up to 0.5 eV.

  3. Alignment of the MINOS FD

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.; Boehnlein, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    The results and procedure of the alignment of the MINOS Far Detector are presented. The far detector has independent alignments of SM1 and SM2. The misalignments have an estimated uncertainty of {approx}850 {micro}m for SM1 and {approx}750 {micro}m for SM2. The alignment has as inputs the average rotations of U and V as determined by optical survey and strip positions within modules measured from the module mapper. The output of this is a module-module correction for transverse mis-alignments. These results were verified by examining an independent set of data. These alignment constants on average contribute much less then 1% to the total uncertainty in the transverse strip position.

  4. Magnetic alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, L. V.; Schenz, R. F.; Sommargren, G. E.

    1990-08-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This article begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100-μm accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The 100-μm accuracy is an error circle about an ideal axis for 300 m or more. The article describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axes of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development of a straight-line reference based on the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. The Poisson alignment reference system should be accurate to 25 μm over 300 m, which is believed to be a factor-of-4 improvement over earlier techniques. An error budget shows that only 25% of the total budgeted tolerance is used for the alignment reference system, so the remaining tolerances should fall within the allowable range for FEL alignment.

  5. Testing the tidal alignment model of galaxy intrinsic alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; McQuinn, Matthew E-mail: mmcquinn@berkeley.edu

    2011-05-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of large-scale structure and cosmological parameters. Precision weak lensing measurements require an understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxy ellipticities, which can in turn inform models of galaxy formation. It is hypothesized that elliptical galaxies align with the background tidal field and that this alignment mechanism dominates the correlation between ellipticities on cosmological scales (in the absence of lensing). We use recent large-scale structure measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to test this picture with several statistics: (1) the correlation between ellipticity and galaxy overdensity, w{sub g+}; (2) the intrinsic alignment auto-correlation functions; (3) the correlation functions of curl-free, E, and divergence-free, B, modes, the latter of which is zero in the linear tidal alignment theory; (4) the alignment correlation function, w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ), a recently developed statistic that generalizes the galaxy correlation function to account for the angle between the galaxy separation vector and the principle axis of ellipticity. We show that recent measurements are largely consistent with the tidal alignment model and discuss dependence on galaxy luminosity. In addition, we show that at linear order the tidal alignment model predicts that the angular dependence of w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ) is simply w{sub g+}(r{sub p})cos (2θ) and that this dependence is consistent with recent measurements. We also study how stochastic nonlinear contributions to galaxy ellipticity impact these statistics. We find that a significant fraction of the observed LRG ellipticity can be explained by alignment with the tidal field on scales ∼> 10 \\hMpc. These considerations are relevant to galaxy formation and evolution.

  6. Influence of water content in mixed solvent on surface morphology, wettability, and photoconductivity of ZnO thin films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ZnO thin films have been synthesized by means of a simple hydrothermal method with different solvents. The effect of deionized water content in the mixed solvents on the surface morphology, crystal structure, and optical property has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A large number of compact and well-aligned hexagonal ZnO nanorods and the maximal texture coefficient have been observed in the thin film, which is grown in the mixed solvent with x = 40%. A lot of sparse, diagonal, and pointed nanorods can be seen in the ZnO thin film, which is grown in the 40-mL DI water solution. The optical band gap decreases firstly and then increases with the increase of x. Reversible wettability of ZnO thin films were studied by home-made water contact angle apparatus. Reversible transition between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity may be attributed to the change of surface chemical composition, surface roughness and the proportion of nonpolar planes on the surface of ZnO thin films. Photocurrent response of ZnO thin films grown at different solvents were measured in air. The response duration of the thin film, which is grown in the solvent with x = 40%, exhibits a fast growth in the beginning but cannot approach the saturate current value within 100 s. The theoretical mechanism for the slower growth or decay duration of the photocurrent has been discussed in detail. PMID:25249823

  7. Influence of water content in mixed solvent on surface morphology, wettability, and photoconductivity of ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Shang, Fengjiao; Lv, Jianguo; Song, Ying; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Zhitao; He, Gang; Zhang, Miao; Song, Xueping; Sun, Zhaoqi; Wei, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2014-01-01

    ZnO thin films have been synthesized by means of a simple hydrothermal method with different solvents. The effect of deionized water content in the mixed solvents on the surface morphology, crystal structure, and optical property has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A large number of compact and well-aligned hexagonal ZnO nanorods and the maximal texture coefficient have been observed in the thin film, which is grown in the mixed solvent with x = 40%. A lot of sparse, diagonal, and pointed nanorods can be seen in the ZnO thin film, which is grown in the 40-mL DI water solution. The optical band gap decreases firstly and then increases with the increase of x. Reversible wettability of ZnO thin films were studied by home-made water contact angle apparatus. Reversible transition between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity may be attributed to the change of surface chemical composition, surface roughness and the proportion of nonpolar planes on the surface of ZnO thin films. Photocurrent response of ZnO thin films grown at different solvents were measured in air. The response duration of the thin film, which is grown in the solvent with x = 40%, exhibits a fast growth in the beginning but cannot approach the saturate current value within 100 s. The theoretical mechanism for the slower growth or decay duration of the photocurrent has been discussed in detail.

  8. Electrosynthesis of ZnO nanorods and nanotowers: Morphology and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigircik, Gokmen; Erken, Ozge; Tuken, Tunc; Gumus, Cebrail; Ozkendir, Osman M.; Ufuktepe, Yuksel

    2015-06-01

    Deposition mechanism of nano-structured ZnO films has been investigated in the absence and presence of chloride ions from aqueous solution. The resulting opto-electronic properties were interpreted extensively, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and four probe techniques. The ZnO deposition is mass transport controlled process and the interaction of chloride ions with the surface has great influence on diffusion kinetics, considering the substantial species (Zn2+ and OH-) involved in the construction of ZnO film. This effect does not change major lattice parameters, as shown with detailed analysis of XRD data. However, the texture coefficient (Tc) (0 0 2) value is higher in presence of chloride ions containing synthesis solution which gave vertically aligned, well defined and uniformly dispersed nanorods structure. The calculated Eg values are in the range 3.28-3.41 eV and 3.22-3.31 eV for ZnO nanorods and nanotowers synthesized at different deposition periods, respectively. Furthermore, the charge mobility values regarding the deposition periods were measured to be in the ranges from 130.4 to 449.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 126.2 to 204.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 for nanorods and nanotowers, respectively. From XANES results, it was shown that the Zn K-edge spectrum is dominated by the transition of Zn 1s core electrons into the unoccupied Zn 4p states of the conduction band. Comparing the rod and tower nano-structured ZnO thin films, the excitation behavior of valence band electrons is different. Moreover, the density states of Zn 4p are higher for ZnO nanorods.

  9. Plasmon enhanced CdS-quantum dot sensitized solar cell using ZnO nanorods array deposited with Ag nanoparticles as photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, M.; Ahmadi, V.; Yousefi rad, M.; Kohnehpoushi, S.

    2015-04-01

    CdS-quantum dot sensitized solar cell using ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array deposited with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as photoanode was fabricated. Light absorption effect of Ag NPs on improvement of the cell performance was investigated. Performance improvement of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) was controlled by the structure design and architecture. Different decorations and densities of Ag NPs were utilized on the photoanode. Results showed that using 5% Ag NPs in the photoanode results in the increased efficiency, fill factor, and circuit current density from 0.28% to 0.60%, 0.22 to 0.29, and 2.18 mA/cm2 to 3.25 mA/cm2, respectively. Also, incident photon-to-current efficiencies (IPCE) results showed that cell performance improvement is related to enhanced absorption in the photoanode, which is because of the surface plasmonic resonance and light scattering of Ag NPs in the photoanode. Measurements of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that hole transfer kinetics increases with introduction of Ag NPs into photoanode. Also, it is shown that chemical capacitance increases with introduction of Ag NPs. Such increase can be attributed to the surface palsmonic resonance of Ag NPs which leads to absorption of more light in the photoanode and generation of more photoelectron in the photoanode.

  10. BAYESIAN PROTEIN STRUCTURE ALIGNMENT1

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUEZ, ABEL; SCHMIDLER, SCOTT C.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the three-dimensional structure of proteins is an important topic in molecular biochemistry. Structure plays a critical role in defining the function of proteins and is more strongly conserved than amino acid sequence over evolutionary timescales. A key challenge is the identification and evaluation of structural similarity between proteins; such analysis can aid in understanding the role of newly discovered proteins and help elucidate evolutionary relationships between organisms. Computational biologists have developed many clever algorithmic techniques for comparing protein structures, however, all are based on heuristic optimization criteria, making statistical interpretation somewhat difficult. Here we present a fully probabilistic framework for pairwise structural alignment of proteins. Our approach has several advantages, including the ability to capture alignment uncertainty and to estimate key “gap” parameters which critically affect the quality of the alignment. We show that several existing alignment methods arise as maximum a posteriori estimates under specific choices of prior distributions and error models. Our probabilistic framework is also easily extended to incorporate additional information, which we demonstrate by including primary sequence information to generate simultaneous sequence–structure alignments that can resolve ambiguities obtained using structure alone. This combined model also provides a natural approach for the difficult task of estimating evolutionary distance based on structural alignments. The model is illustrated by comparison with well-established methods on several challenging protein alignment examples. PMID:26925188

  11. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  12. Photovoltaic performance of Gallium-doped ZnO thin film/Si nanowires heterojunction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Guvenc; Aksoy Akgul, Funda; Emrah Unalan, Husnu; Turan, Rasit

    2016-04-01

    In this work, photovoltaic performance of Ga-doped ZnO thin film/Si NWs heterojunction diodes was investigated. Highly dense and vertically well-aligned Si NW arrays were successfully synthesised on a p-type (1 0 0)-oriented Si wafer through cost-effective metal-assisted chemical etching technique. Ga-doped ZnO thin films were deposited onto Si NWs via radio frequency magnetron sputtering to construct three-dimensional heterostructures. Photovoltaic characteristics of the fabricated diodes were determined with current density (J)-voltage (V) measurements under simulated solar irradiation of AM 1.5 G. The optimal open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor and power conversion efficiency were found to be 0.37 V, 3.30 mA cm-2, 39.00 and 0.62%, respectively. Moreover, photovoltaic diodes exhibited relatively high external quantum efficiency over the broadband wavelengths between 350 and 1100 nm interval of the spectrum. The observed photovoltaic performance in this study clearly indicates that the investigated device structure composed of Ga-doped ZnO thin film/Si NWs heterojunctions could facilitate an alternative pathway for optoelectronic applications in future, and be a promising alternative candidate for high-performance low-cost new-generation photovoltaic diodes.

  13. Nanoscale piezoelectric response of ZnO nanowires measured using a nanoindentation technique.

    PubMed

    Broitman, Esteban; Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf; Lu, Jun; Willander, Magnus; Hultman, Lars

    2013-07-14

    We report the piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanowires (NWs) obtained by using a nanoindenter with a conductive boron-doped diamond tip. The direct piezoelectric effect was measured by performing nanoindentations under load control, and the generated piezoelectric voltage was characterized as a function of the applied loads in the range 0.2-6 mN. The converse piezoelectric effect was measured by applying a DC voltage to the sample while there was a low applied force to allow the tip being always in physical contact with the NWs. Vertically aligned ZnO NWs were grown on inexpensive, flexible, and disposable paper substrates using a template-free low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. When using the nanoindenter to measure the direct piezoelectric effect, piezopotential values of up to 26 mV were generated. Corresponding measurement of the converse piezoelectric effect gave an effective piezoelectric coefficient d33(eff) of ∼9.2 pm V(-1). The ZnO NWs were also characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The new nanoindentation approach provides a straightforward method to characterize piezoelectric material deposited on flexible and disposable substrates for the next generation of nanodevices.

  14. Enhanced power efficiency of ZnO based organic/inorganic solar cells by surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shuangshuang; Tang, Ning; Meng, Xiuqing; Huang, Shihua; Hao, Yafei

    2016-09-01

    We present series of strategies to enhance efficiency of ZnO nanorods based organic/inorganic solar cells with spin-coated P3HT:PCBM blend as active layer. The performance of the as-fabricated devices is improved by controlling the size of ZnO nanorods, annealing temperature and time of active layer, surface modification of ZnO with PSBTBT. Optimized device of ITO/ZnO nanorod/P3HT:PCBM/Ag device with PSBTBT surface modification and air exposure reaches an efficiency of 2.02% with a short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.23 mA cm-2, 0.547 V and 28%, respectively, under AM 1.5 irradiation of 100 mW m-2, the increase in efficiency is 7-fold of the PSBTBT surface modified ITO/ZnO nanorods/P3HT:PCBM/Ag device compared with the unmodified one, which is own to the increased interface contact, expanded light absorption, tailored band alignment attributed to PSBTBT. We found exposure to air and surface modification is crucial to improve the device performance, and we discussed the mechanisms that affect the performance of the devices in detail.

  15. Continuous wet-process growth of ZnO nanoarrays for wire-shaped photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Tao, Pan; Guo, Wanwan; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan; Qing, Shenglan; Fan, Xing

    2016-09-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays have been grown on metal-plated polymer fiber via a mild wet process in a newly-designed continuous reactor, aiming to provide wire-shaped photoanodes for wearable dye-sensitized solar cells. The growth conditions were systematically optimized with the help of computational flow-field simulation. The flow field in the reactor will not only affect the morphology of the ZnO nanorod⧹nanowire but also affect the pattern distribution of nanoarray on the electrode surface. Unlike the sectional structure from the traditional batch-type reactor, ZnO nanorods with finely-controlled length and uniform morphology could be grown from the continuous reactor. After optimization, the wire-shaped ZnO-type photoanode grown from the continuous reactor exhibited better photovoltaic performance than that from the traditional batch-type reactor.

  16. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  17. Morphology engineering of ZnO nanostructures for high performance supercapacitors: Enhanced electrochemistry of ZnO nanocones compared to ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoli; Yoo, Joung; Lee, Min; Bae, Joonho

    2017-04-06

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures is engineered to demonstrate enhanced supercapacitor characteristics of ZnO nanocones (NCs) compared to ZnO nanowires (NWs). ZnO NCs are obtained by chemically etching ZnO NWs. Electrochemical characteristics of ZnO NCs and NWs are extensively investigated to demonstrate morphology dependent capacitive performance of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these two kind of electrodes in three electrode cell confirms that ZnO NCs exhibit high specific capacitance of 378.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, which is almost twice that of ZnO NWs (191.5 F g-1). The charge-discharge and EIS measurements also clearly results in enhanced capacitive performance of NCs as evidenced by higher specific capacitances and lower internal resistance. Asymmetric spuercapacitors are fabricated using activated carbon (AC) as negative electrode and ZnO NWs and NCs as positive electrodes. The ZnO NC//AC can deliver a maximum specific capacitance of 126 F g-1 at a current density of 1.33 A g-1 with an energy density of 25.2 W h kg-1 at the power density of 896.44 W kg-1. In contrast, ZnO NW//AC displays 63% of capacitance obtained from ZnO NC//AC supercapacitor. The enhanced performances of NCs are attributed to higher surface area of ZnO nanostructures after the morphology is altered from NWs to NCs.

  18. Magnetic axis alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Lee V.; Schenz, Richard F.; Sommargren, Gary E.

    1989-01-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This paper begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100 micrometer accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The paper describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axis of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development and use of the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. An error budget shows that the Poisson alignment reference system will make it possible to meet the alignment tolerances for an FEL.

  19. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, C.R.; Hammond, R.B.

    The disclosure related to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  20. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, Charles R.; Hammond, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  1. Theory of grain alignment in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Wayne G.

    1993-01-01

    Research accomplishments are presented and include the following: (1) mathematical theory of grain alignment; (2) super-paramagnetic alignment of molecular cloud grains; and (3) theory of grain alignment by ambipolar diffusion.

  2. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  3. Stellar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Fortuitous stellar alignments can be fitted to structural orientations with relative ease by the unwary. Nonetheless, cautious approaches taking into account a broader range of cultural evidence, as well as paying due attention to potential methodological pitfalls, have been successful in identifying credible stellar alignments—and constructing plausible assessments of their cultural significance—in a variety of circumstances. These range from single instances of alignments upon particular asterisms where the corroborating historical or ethnographic evidence is strong to repeated instances of oriented structures with only limited independent cultural information but where systematic, data-driven approaches can be productive. In the majority of cases, the identification and interpretation of putative stellar alignments relates to groups of similar monuments or complex single sites and involves a balance between systematic studies of the alignments themselves, backed up by statistical analysis where appropriate, and the consideration of a range of contextual evidence, either derived from the archaeological record alone or from other relevant sources.

  4. RF Jitter Modulation Alignment Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, L. F.; Fulda, P.; Diaz-Ortiz, M.; Perez Sanchez, G.; Ciani, G.; Voss, D.; Mueller, G.; Tanner, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will present the numerical and experimental results of a new alignment sensing scheme which can reduce the complexity of alignment sensing systems currently used, while maintaining the same shot noise limited sensitivity. This scheme relies on the ability of electro-optic beam deflectors to create angular modulation sidebands in radio frequency, and needs only a single-element photodiode and IQ demodulation to generate error signals for tilt and translation degrees of freedom in one dimension. It distances itself from current techniques by eliminating the need for beam centering servo systems, quadrant photodetectors and Gouy phase telescopes. RF Jitter alignment sensing can be used to reduce the complexity in the alignment systems of many laser optical experiments, including LIGO and the ALPS experiment.

  5. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  6. The Rigors of Aligning Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    bearing in mind customer perceptions. Recommendations include employee training centered on goal alignment, which is vital to highlight the...appeared to be lacking in some areas when bearing in mind customer perceptions. Recommendations include employee training centered on goal alignment...through the strategic plan and CONOPS. However, the extent of goal accomplishment appears to be lacking in some areas when bearing in mind the

  7. National Ignition Facility system alignment.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, S C; Bliss, E; Di Nicola, P; Kalantar, D; Lowe-Webb, R; McCarville, T; Nelson, D; Salmon, T; Schindler, T; Villanueva, J; Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-03-10

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest optical instrument, comprising 192 37 cm square beams, each generating up to 9.6 kJ of 351 nm laser light in a 20 ns beam precisely tailored in time and spectrum. The Facility houses a massive (10 m diameter) target chamber within which the beams converge onto an ∼1 cm size target for the purpose of creating the conditions needed for deuterium/tritium nuclear fusion in a laboratory setting. A formidable challenge was building NIF to the precise requirements for beam propagation, commissioning the beam lines, and engineering systems to reliably and safely align 192 beams within the confines of a multihour shot cycle. Designing the facility to minimize drift and vibration, placing the optical components in their design locations, commissioning beam alignment, and performing precise system alignment are the key alignment accomplishments over the decade of work described herein. The design and positioning phases placed more than 3000 large (2.5 m×2 m×1 m) line-replaceable optics assemblies to within ±1 mm of design requirement. The commissioning and alignment phases validated clear apertures (no clipping) for all beam lines, and demonstrated automated laser alignment within 10 min and alignment to target chamber center within 44 min. Pointing validation system shots to flat gold-plated x-ray emitting targets showed NIF met its design requirement of ±50 μm rms beam pointing to target chamber. Finally, this paper describes the major alignment challenges faced by the NIF Project from inception to present, and how these challenges were met and solved by the NIF design and commissioning teams.

  8. Binocular collimation vs conditional alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, William J.

    2012-10-01

    As binocular enthusiasts share their passion, topics related to collimation abound. Typically, we find how observers, armed only with a jeweler's screwdriver, can "perfectly collimate" his or her binocular, make it "spot on," or other verbiage of similar connotation. Unfortunately, what most are addressing is a form of pseudo-collimation I have referred to since the mid-1970s as "Conditional Alignment." Ignoring the importance of the mechanical axis (hinge) in the alignment process, this "condition," while having the potential to make alignment serviceable, or even outstanding—within a small range of IPD (Interpupillary Distance) settings relative to the user's spatial accommodation (the ability to accept small errors in parallelism of the optical axes)—may take the instrument farther from the 3-axis collimation conscientious manufacturers seek to implement. Becoming more optically savvy—and especially with so many mechanically inferior binoculars entering the marketplace— the consumer contemplating self-repair and alignment has a need to understand the difference between clinical, 3-axis "collimation" (meaning both optical axes are parallel with the axis of the hinge) and "conditional alignment," as differentiated in this paper. Furthermore, I believe there has been a long-standing need for the term "Conditional Alignment," or some equivalent, to be accepted as part of the vernacular of those who use binoculars extensively, whether for professional or recreational activities. Achieving that acceptance is the aim of this paper.

  9. Projection-Based Volume Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingbo; Snapp, Robert R.; Ruiz, Teresa; Radermacher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    When heterogeneous samples of macromolecular assemblies are being examined by 3D electron microscopy (3DEM), often multiple reconstructions are obtained. For example, subtomograms of individual particles can be acquired from tomography, or volumes of multiple 2D classes can be obtained by random conical tilt reconstruction. Of these, similar volumes can be averaged to achieve higher resolution. Volume alignment is an essential step before 3D classification and averaging. Here we present a projection-based volume alignment (PBVA) algorithm. We select a set of projections to represent the reference volume and align them to a second volume. Projection alignment is achieved by maximizing the cross-correlation function with respect to rotation and translation parameters. If data are missing, the cross-correlation functions are normalized accordingly. Accurate alignments are obtained by averaging and quadratic interpolation of the cross-correlation maximum. Comparisons of the computation time between PBVA and traditional 3D cross-correlation methods demonstrate that PBVA outperforms the traditional methods. Performance tests were carried out with different signal-to-noise ratios using modeled noise and with different percentages of missing data using a cryo-EM dataset. All tests show that the algorithm is robust and highly accurate. PBVA was applied to align the reconstructions of a subcomplex of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, followed by classification and averaging. PMID:23410725

  10. In-plane trapping and manipulation of ZnO nanowires by a hybrid plasmonic field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lichao; Dou, Xiujie; Min, Changjun; Zhang, Yuquan; Du, Luping; Xie, Zhenwei; Shen, Junfeng; Zeng, Yujia; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2016-05-14

    In general, when a semiconductor nanowire is trapped by conventional laser beam tweezers, it tends to be aligned with the trapping beam axis rather than confined in the horizontal plane, and this limits the application of these nanowires in many in-plane nanoscale optoelectronic devices. In this work, we achieve the in-plane trapping and manipulation of a single ZnO nanowire by a hybrid plasmonic tweezer system on a flat metal surface. The gap between the nanowire and the metallic substrate leads to an enhanced gradient force caused by deep subwavelength optical energy confinement. As a result, the nanowire can be securely trapped in-plane at the center of the excited surface plasmon polariton field, and can also be dynamically moved and rotated by varying the position and polarization direction of the incident laser beam, which cannot be performed using conventional optical tweezers. The theoretical results show that the focused plasmonic field induces a strong in-plane trapping force and a high rotational torque on the nanowire, while the focused optical field produces a vertical trapping force to produce the upright alignment of the nanowire; this is in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, some typical ZnO nanowire structures are built based on this technique, which thus further confirms the potential of this method for precise manipulation of components during the production of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices.

  11. Low-temperature growth and characterization of single crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays using a catalyst-free inductively coupled plasma-metal organic chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang-Hun; Lee, Chang-Bae; Moon, Won-Jin; Song, Ho-Jun

    2008-10-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays have been synthesized on c-plane sapphires at a low temperature of 400 degrees C using catalyst-free inductively coupled plasma (ICP) metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique by varying the ICP powers. Diameters of the ZnO nanorods changed from 200 nm to 400 nm as the ICP power increased from 200 to 400 Watt. TEM and XRD investigations indicated that the ZnO nanorod arrays grown at ICP powers above 200 Watt had a homogeneous in-plane alignment and single crystalline nature. PL study at room temperature (RT) and 6 K confirmed that the ZnO nanorod arrays in the present study are of high optical quality as well as good crystalline quality, showing only exciton-related emission peaks without any trace of defect-related deep level emissions in visible range. The blueshift of exciton emission peak in RTPL spectra was also found as rod diameter decreased and it is deduced that this shift in emission energy may be due to the surface resonance effect resulted from the increased surface-to-volume ratio, based on the observation and behavior of the surface exciton (SX) emission in the high-resolution 6 K PL spectra.

  12. Dye-Sensitization Of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ajimsha, R. S.; Tyagi, M.; Das, A. K.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Nannocrystalline and nanoporus thin films of ZnO were synthesized on glass substrates by using wet chemical drop casting method. X-ray diffraction measurements on these samples confirmed the formation of ZnO nanocrystallites in hexagonal wurtzite phase with mean size of {approx}20 nm. Photo sensitization of these nanostructured ZnO thin films was carried out using three types of dyes Rhodamine 6 G, Chlorophyll and cocktail of Rhodamine 6 G and Chlorophyll in 1:1 ratio. Dye sensitized ZnO thin films showed enhanced optical absorption in visible spectral region compared to the pristine ZnO thin films.

  13. The growth of ubiquitous ZnO rods on PMMA-coated substrate by solution-immersion method at different annealing temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aadila, A.; Asib, N. A. M.; Afaah, A. N.; Husairi, F. S.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, solution-immersion method was used to grow ZnO rods on PMMA-coated substrate. For this purpose, 0.15 M of zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2.6H2O) and hexamethylenetetramine (C6H12N4) were used to growth of ZnO films at different annealing temperatures (room temperature, 80, 100, 120 and 140 °C). The morphology of the films was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and optical properties were studied by Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed ubiquitous growth of ZnO rods that became better aligned and more closely-packed as the annealing temperature increased. As the annealing temperature exceeds 100 °C, the rods tend to merge to adjacent particles and the UV absorption decreased for the sample at higher temperatures (120 °C and 140 °C). Good absorption and better orientation of ZnO was obtained for the sample annealed at 100 °C due to the film possess better distribution and these improved orientation of particles caused the light to be effectively scattered on the sample. Both surface morphology and UV was significantly affected by the change in annealing temperatures thus thermal effect played a dominant role in shaping and improving the orientation of ZnO rods on PMMA-coated and its UV absorption.

  14. Systematic synthesis of ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wang, Dingsheng; Wei, Zhe; Peng, Qing; Li, Yadong

    2013-03-11

    In this study, we report a simple solution-phase method to prepare ZnO nanostructures with controllable morphologies. By using oleylamine (OAm) and dodecanol (DDL) as solvents, zinc oxide nanocrystals with tunable sizes and diverse shapes (hexagonal pyramids, bulletlike, and pencil-like shapes) have been obtained under mild conditions. At the same time, the introduction of presynthesized gold nanocrystals can also lead to the hybrid nanostructures of gold-zinc oxide hexagonal nanopyramids. In addition, the possible formation mechanism of the as-prepared ZnO nanostructures has been investigated. Notably, the unique optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures with different sizes and shapes have also been discussed. We hope that this strategy will be a general and effective method for fabricating other metal oxide nanocrystals.

  15. Carbon dioxide adsorption on a ZnO(101[combining macron]0) substrate studied by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Maria; Weidler, Peter G; Bebensee, Fabian; Nefedov, Alexei; Wöll, Christof

    2014-01-28

    The adsorption of carbon dioxide on the mixed-terminated ZnO(101[combining macron]0) surface of a bulk single crystal was studied by UHV Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS). In contrast to metals, the classic surface selection rule for IRRAS does not apply to bulk oxide crystals, and hence vibrational bands can also be observed for s-polarized light. Although this fact substantially complicates data interpretation, a careful analysis allows for a direct determination of the adsorbate geometry. Here, we demonstrate the huge potential of IR-spectroscopy for investigations on oxide single crystal surfaces by considering all three components of the incident polarized light separately. We find that the tridentate (surface) carbonate is aligned along the [0001] direction. A comparison to data reported previously for CO2 adsorbed on the surfaces of ZnO nanoparticles provides important insight into the role of defects in the surface chemistry of powder particles.

  16. Nanofabrication on ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan Jinhua; Bando, Yoshio; Hu, Junqing; Golberg, Dmitri

    2006-12-11

    ZnO nanowires were subjected to convergent electron beam irradiation in a 300 kV transmission electron microscope. The size of perforated hexagonal pores generated by irradiation can vary with the beam size. An irradiated area is denuded layer by layer via removal of Zn and O atoms. The polar ZnO surfaces have a higher resistance to irradiation than the unpolar ones. Ultrathin nanobridges, {approx}1 nm thick or less, were generated through deliberate removal of Zn and O atomic monolayers.

  17. Magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M A; Merino, J M; Fernández Pinel, E; Quesada, A; de la Venta, J; Ruíz González, M L; Castro, G R; Crespo, P; Llopis, J; González-Calbet, J M; Hernando, A

    2007-06-01

    We experimentally show that it is possible to induce room-temperature ferromagnetic-like behavior in ZnO nanoparticles without doping with magnetic impurities but simply inducing an alteration of their electronic configuration. Capping ZnO nanoparticles ( approximately 10 nm size) with different organic molecules produces an alteration of their electronic configuration that depends on the particular molecule, as evidenced by photoluminescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies and altering their magnetic properties that varies from diamagnetic to ferromagnetic-like behavior.

  18. Superhydrophobicity of Hierarchical and ZNO Nanowire Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    constructed by growing various lengths of ZnO nanowires on micro- scale Si pyramids produced by chemical etching. The nano-size effect on wettability of...Chemistry A PAPER Pu bl is he d on 1 8 D ec em be r 20 13 . D ow nl oa de d by A ir F or ce B as e R es ea rc h L ab or at or y (A FR L ) D...The nano-size effect on wettability of nano/micro complex structures has been investigated by adjusting the ZnO nanowire length. As the nanowire

  19. Cavity alignment using fringe scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkunaite, Laura Paulina; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael

    2017-01-01

    LIGO employs two 4-km long Fabry-Pérot arm cavities, which need to be aligned in order for an interferometer to be locked on a TEM00 mode. Once the cavity is locked, alignment signals can be derived from wave-front sensors which measure the TEM01 mode content. However, the alignment state is not always good enough for locking on TEM00. Even when this is the case, the alignment can be evaluated using a free swinging cavity, that shows flashes when higher-order modes become resonant. By moving test masses, small changes are made to the mirror orientation, and hence the TEM00 mode can be optimized iteratively. Currently, this is a manual procedure, and thus it is very time-consuming. Therefore, this project is aimed to study another possible way to lock the cavity on the TEM00 mode. Misalignment information can also be extracted from the power of the higher-order modes transmitted through the cavity. This talk will present an algorithm for this alternative and faster way to derive the alignment state of the arm cavities. Supported by APS FIP, NSF, and Caltech SFP.

  20. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Das, Suman; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Dajun; Guo, Rui; Wei, Yaguang; Wu, Wenzhuo

    2013-02-05

    In a method for growing a nanowire array, a photoresist layer is placed onto a nanowire growth layer configured for growing nanowires therefrom. The photoresist layer is exposed to a coherent light interference pattern that includes periodically alternately spaced dark bands and light bands along a first orientation. The photoresist layer exposed to the coherent light interference pattern along a second orientation, transverse to the first orientation. The photoresist layer developed so as to remove photoresist from areas corresponding to areas of intersection of the dark bands of the interference pattern along the first orientation and the dark bands of the interference pattern along the second orientation, thereby leaving an ordered array of holes passing through the photoresist layer. The photoresist layer and the nanowire growth layer are placed into a nanowire growth environment, thereby growing nanowires from the nanowire growth layer through the array of holes.

  1. ZnO wide bandgap semiconductors preparation for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramelan, A. H.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Munawaroh, H.; Narayan, R.

    2017-02-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. According to unique structural and optical properties of ZnO semiconductor material, there are many potential important applications based on that material, including as an anti-reflection coating (ARC) in solar cells. Antireflective coatings (ARC) made of ZnO on top to improve the optical properties of the coating. TiO2 layer have been coated on a ZnO nanoparticle layer. ZnO nanoparticle was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. ZnO annealed at a temperature of 600 °C have the greatest crystalinity and crystal size than that at a temperature of 400 °C and 500 °C. SEM images of ZnO shown agglomeration and grain size increases with increasing annealed temperature. While, the optical properties of ZnO increase with increasing annealed temperature. The optical transmittance spectra of the ZnO are shown that the increasing annealing temperature had effectively improved the optical transmittance of the films. While, reflectance (%R) properties shows that, the higher annealing temperature of ZnO preparations can decrease of %R value of ZnO thin layer. The difference properties of ZnO are due to differences of light scattering resulting from the crystal size effect. The ZnO prepared by annealed at 600 °C gain a good performance of the lowest reflectance value and highest size crystal. By the addition of ARC ZnO 600 °C we have been capable improve cell performance so that that cells achieve an efficiency of 0.27%.

  2. A Nonlinear Observer for Gyro Alignment Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, J.; Sanner, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear observer for gyro alignment estimation is presented. The observer is composed of two error terms, an attitude error and an alignment error. The observer is globally stable with exponential convergence of the attitude errors. The gyro alignment estimate converges to the true alignment when the system is completely observable.

  3. Intrinsic and extrinsic doping of ZnO and ZnO alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellmer, Klaus; Bikowski, André

    2016-10-01

    In this article the doping of the oxidic compound semiconductor ZnO is reviewed with special emphasis on n-type doping. ZnO naturally exhibits n-type conductivity, which is used in the application of highly doped n-type ZnO as a transparent electrode, for instance in thin film solar cells. For prospective application of ZnO in other electronic devices (LEDs, UV photodetectors or power devices) p-type doping is required, which has been reported only minimally. Highly n-type doped ZnO can be prepared by doping with the group IIIB elements B, Al, Ga, and In, which act as shallow donors according to the simple hydrogen-like substitutional donor model of Bethe (1942 Theory of the Boundary Layer of Crystal Rectifiers (Boston, MA: MIT Rad Lab.)). Group IIIA elements (Sc, Y, La etc) are also known to act as shallow donors in ZnO, similarly explainable by the shallow donor model of Bethe. Some reports showed that even group IVA (Ti, Zr, Hf) and IVB (Si, Ge) elements can be used to prepare highly doped ZnO films—which, however, can no longer be explained by the simple hydrogen-like substitutional donor model. More probably, these elements form defect complexes that act as shallow donors in ZnO. On the other hand, group V elements on oxygen lattice sites (N, P, As, and Sb), which were viewed for a long time as typical shallow acceptors, behave instead as deep acceptors, preventing high hole concentrations in ZnO at room temperature. Also, ‘self’-compensation, i.e. the formation of a large number of intrinsic donors at high acceptor concentrations seems to counteract the p-type doping of ZnO. At donor concentrations above about 1020 cm-3, the electrical activation of the dopant elements is often less than 100%, especially in polycrystalline thin films. Reasons for the electrical deactivation of the dopant atoms are (i) the formation of dopant-defect complexes, (ii) the compensation of the electrons by acceptors (Oi, VZn) or (iii) the formation of secondary phases, for

  4. Electrical and gas sensing properties of self-aligned copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sonawane, Yogesh S.; Kanade, K.G.; Kale, B.B. Aiyer, R.C.

    2008-10-02

    Electrical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline ZnO:Cu, having Cu X wt% (X = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) in ZnO, in the form of pellet were investigated. Copper chloride and zinc acetate were used as precursors along with oxalic acid as a precipitating reagent in methanol. Material characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and inductive coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). FE-SEM showed the self-aligned Cu-doped ZnO nano-clusters with particles in the range of 40-45 nm. The doping of 0.5% of copper changes the electrical conductivity by an order of magnitude whereas the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) reduces with increase in copper wt% in ZnO. The material has shown an excellent sensitivity for the H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases with limited temperature selectivity through the optimized operating temperature of 130, 190 and 220 deg. C for H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases, respectively at 625 ppm gas concentration. The %SF was observed to be 1460 for H{sub 2} at 1% Cu doping whereas the 0.5% Cu doping offered %SF of 950 and 520 for CO and LPG, respectively. The response and recovery time was found to be 6 to 8 s and 16 s, respectively.

  5. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  6. An introduction to the Lagan alignment toolkit.

    PubMed

    Brudno, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Lagan Toolkit is a software package for comparison of genomic sequences. It includes the CHAOS local alignment program, LAGAN global alignment program for two, or more sequences and Shuffle-LAGAN, a "glocal" alignment method that handles genomic rearrangements in a global alignment framework. The alignment programs included in the Lagan Toolkit have been widely used to compare genomes of many organisms, from bacteria to large mammalian genomes. This chapter provides an overview of the algorithms used by the LAGAN programs to construct genomic alignments, explains how to build alignments using either the standalone program or the web server, and discusses some of the common pitfalls users encounter when using the toolkit.

  7. Combining Multiple Pairwise Structure-based Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    CombAlign is a new Python code that generates a gapped, one-to-many, multiple structure-based sequence alignment(MSSA) given a set of pairwise structure-based alignments. In order to better define regions of similarity among related protein structures, it is useful to detect the residue-residue correspondences among a set of pairwise structure alignments. Few codes exist for constructing a one-to-many, multiple sequence alignment derived from a set of structure alignments, and we perceived a need for creating a new tool for combing pairwise structure alignments that would allow for insertion of gaps in the reference structure.

  8. Orientation dependent band alignment for p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, M. J.; Lu, B.; Zhou, T. T.; Ye, Z. Z.; Lu, J. G.; Pan, X. H.

    2013-04-28

    Nonpolor a-plane and polar c-plane ZnO thin films were prepared on r-plane sapphire and quartz substrates, respectively. The electronic structure of the interface between subsequently fabricated NiO/ZnO heterojunctions has been investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and the band offsets are determined together with information yielded from UV-vis transition spectra. It is found that a type-II band alignment forms at the interface for both the samples. The revealed ZnO-orientation dependent band offsets are analyzed and are attributed mainly due to the variations in internal electric field arose from spontaneous polarization effect. The accurate determination of the band alignment is important for the design and application of NiO/ZnO based hybrid devices.

  9. Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering.

    PubMed Central

    Corpet, F

    1988-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the multiple alignment of sequences, either proteins or nucleic acids, that is both accurate and easy to use on microcomputers. The approach is based on the conventional dynamic-programming method of pairwise alignment. Initially, a hierarchical clustering of the sequences is performed using the matrix of the pairwise alignment scores. The closest sequences are aligned creating groups of aligned sequences. Then close groups are aligned until all sequences are aligned in one group. The pairwise alignments included in the multiple alignment form a new matrix that is used to produce a hierarchical clustering. If it is different from the first one, iteration of the process can be performed. The method is illustrated by an example: a global alignment of 39 sequences of cytochrome c. PMID:2849754

  10. Importance of Plasmonic Heating on Visible Light Driven Photocatalysis of Gold Nanoparticle Decorated Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Tanujjal; Zoepfl, David; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-01-01

    Herein we explore the role of localized plasmonic heat generated by resonantly excited gold (Au) NPs on visible light driven photocatalysis process. Au NPs are deposited on the surface of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs). The localized heat generated by Au NPs under 532 nm continuous laser excitation (SPR excitation) was experimentally probed using Raman spectroscopy by following the phonon modes of ZnO. Under the resonant excitation the temperature at the surface of the Au-ZnO NRs reaches up to about 300 °C, resulting in almost 6 times higher apparent quantum yield (AQY) for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) compared to the bare ZnO NRs. Under solar light irradiation the Au-ZnO NRs demonstrated visible light photocatalytic activity twice that of what was achieved with bare ZnO NRs, while significantly reduced the activation energy required for the photocatalytic reactions allowing the reactions to occur at a faster rate. PMID:27242172

  11. Application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon for ultrasonic assisted dyes removal: Experimental design and derivative spectrophotometry method.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fatemeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Asfaram, Arash

    2016-11-01

    A method based on application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NRs-AC) for adsorption of Bromocresol Green (BCG) and Eosin Y (EY) accelerated by ultrasound was described. The present material was synthesized under ultrasound assisted wet-chemical method and subsequently was characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, BET and XRD analysis. The extent of contribution of conventional variables like pH (2.0-10.0), BCG concentration (4-20mgL(-1)), EY concentration (3-23mgL(-1)), adsorbent dosage (0.01-0.03g), sonication time (1-5min) and centrifuge time (2-6min) as main and interaction part were investigated by central composite design under response surface methodology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adapted to experimental data and guide the best operational conditions mass by set at 6.0, 9mgL(-1), 10mgL(-1), 0.02g, 4 and 4min for pH, BCG concentration, EY concentration, adsorbent dosage, sonication and centrifuge time, respectively. At these specified conditions dye adsorption efficiency was higher than 99.5%. The suitability and well prediction of optimum point was tested by conducting five experiments and respective results revel that RSD% was lower than 3% and high quality of fitting was confirmed by t-test. The experimental data were best fitted in Langmuir isotherm equation and the removal followed pseudo second order kinetics. The experimentally obtained maximum adsorption capacities were estimated as 57.80 and 61.73mgg(-1) of ZnO-NRs-AC for BCG and EY respectively from binary dye solutions. The mechanism of removal was explained by boundary layer diffusion via intraparticle diffusion.

  12. The alignment-distribution graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment-distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  13. The alignment-distribution graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  14. Alignment Tool For Inertia Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, easy-to-use tool aligns drive bar of inertia welder over hole in stub. Ensures drive bar concentric to hole within 0.002 in. (0.051 mm.). Holds two batteries and light bulb. Electrical circuit completed, providing current to bulb when pin in contact with post. When pin centered in post hole, it does not touch post, and lamp turns off. Built for use in making repair welds on liquid-oxygen-injector posts in Space Shuttle main engine. Version having suitably modified dimensions used to facilitate alignment in other forests of post.

  15. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  16. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  17. ALIGN_MTX--an optimal pairwise textual sequence alignment program, adapted for using in sequence-structure alignment.

    PubMed

    Vishnepolsky, Boris; Pirtskhalava, Malak

    2009-06-01

    The presented program ALIGN_MTX makes alignment of two textual sequences with an opportunity to use any several characters for the designation of sequence elements and arbitrary user substitution matrices. It can be used not only for the alignment of amino acid and nucleotide sequences but also for sequence-structure alignment used in threading, amino acid sequence alignment, using preliminary known PSSM matrix, and in other cases when alignment of biological or non-biological textual sequences is required. This distinguishes it from the majority of similar alignment programs that make, as a rule, alignment only of amino acid or nucleotide sequences represented as a sequence of single alphabetic characters. ALIGN_MTX is presented as downloadable zip archive at http://www.imbbp.org/software/ALIGN_MTX/ and available for free use. As application of using the program, the results of comparison of different types of substitution matrix for alignment quality in distantly related protein pair sets were presented. Threading matrix SORDIS, based on side-chain orientation in relation to hydrophobic core centers with evolutionary change-based substitution matrix BLOSUM and using multiple sequence alignment information position-specific score matrices (PSSM) were taken for test alignment accuracy. The best performance shows PSSM matrix, but in the reduced set with lower sequence similarity threading matrix SORDIS shows the same performance and it was shown that combined potential with SORDIS and PSSM can improve alignment quality in evolutionary distantly related protein pairs.

  18. Conducting properties of nearly depleted ZnO nanowire UV sensors fabricated by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    García Núñez, C; García Marín, A; Nanterne, P; Piqueras, J; Kung, P; Pau, J L

    2013-10-18

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) with different radii (rNW) have been aligned between pre-patterned electrodes using dielectrophoresis (DEP) for the fabrication of high gain UV sensors. The DEP conditions (voltage amplitude and frequency) and electrode material, geometry and size were optimized to enhance the efficiency during the DEP process. To understand the alignment mechanism of the ZnO NWs, the dielectrophoretic force (FDEP) was analyzed as a function of the DEP conditions and NW dimensions. These studies showed that the DEP alignment process tends to trap NWs with a smaller radius. The effects of NW size on device performance were analyzed by means of I-V measurements in darkness and under illumination (200 nm < λ < 600 nm). In darkness, the NW resistance increases as rNW decreases due to the reduction of the conduction volume, until saturation is reached for rNW < 65 nm. On the other hand, the NW spectral photoresponse shows high values around 10(8) A W(-1) (measured at 5 V and λ < 370 nm) and follows a linear trend as a function of the NW cross section. In addition, the cut-off wavelength depends on rNW, presenting a clear blue-shift for NWs with a lower radius (rNW < 50 nm). Transient photoresponse studies show that NWs with lower radii have longer rise times and shorter decay times mainly due to surface trapping effects. Regardless of NW size, passivation of the surface using a dielectric capping layer of SiO2 reduces the dynamic range of the photoresponse due to a strong increase of the dark current.

  19. Improving pairwise sequence alignment accuracy using near-optimal protein sequence alignments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While the pairwise alignments produced by sequence similarity searches are a powerful tool for identifying homologous proteins - proteins that share a common ancestor and a similar structure; pairwise sequence alignments often fail to represent accurately the structural alignments inferred from three-dimensional coordinates. Since sequence alignment algorithms produce optimal alignments, the best structural alignments must reflect suboptimal sequence alignment scores. Thus, we have examined a range of suboptimal sequence alignments and a range of scoring parameters to understand better which sequence alignments are likely to be more structurally accurate. Results We compared near-optimal protein sequence alignments produced by the Zuker algorithm and a set of probabilistic alignments produced by the probA program with structural alignments produced by four different structure alignment algorithms. There is significant overlap between the solution spaces of structural alignments and both the near-optimal sequence alignments produced by commonly used scoring parameters for sequences that share significant sequence similarity (E-values < 10-5) and the ensemble of probA alignments. We constructed a logistic regression model incorporating three input variables derived from sets of near-optimal alignments: robustness, edge frequency, and maximum bits-per-position. A ROC analysis shows that this model more accurately classifies amino acid pairs (edges in the alignment path graph) according to the likelihood of appearance in structural alignments than the robustness score alone. We investigated various trimming protocols for removing incorrect edges from the optimal sequence alignment; the most effective protocol is to remove matches from the semi-global optimal alignment that are outside the boundaries of the local alignment, although trimming according to the model-generated probabilities achieves a similar level of improvement. The model can also be used to

  20. Tonal Alignment in Irish Dialects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Martha; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the contour alignment of nuclear and initial prenuclear accents was carried out for the Irish dialects of Gaoth Dobhair in Ulster (GD-U) and Cois Fharraige in Connaught (CF-C). This was done across conditions where the number of unstressed syllables following the nuclear and preceding the initial prenuclear accents was varied from…

  1. Alignment in Second Language Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Pickering, Martin; Sorace, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the nature of second language dialogues, involving at least one non-native (L2) speaker. We assume that dialogue is characterised by a process in which interlocutors develop similar mental states to each other (Pickering & Garrod, 2004). We first consider various means in which interlocutors align their mental states, and…

  2. Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…

  3. Laser-optic instruments improve machinery alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1987-10-12

    Laser-optic alignment systems are fast becoming cost-effective devices that improve the accuracy and speed of machinery shaft alignment. Because of the difficulty, if not impossibility, of aligning operating machinery, cold alignment specifications must be determined to compensate for thermal growth so that the shaft alignment remains within tolerances when the machine reaches normal operating temperature. Some methods for accomplishing this are reviewed here. Three years' field experience with laser-optic alignment systems shows that many of these limitations can be eliminated, resulting in a more accurate alignment in less time. Some actual field alignments are given as examples of the improvement achieved by the use of laser equipment, and a procedure is given that shows how the laser-optic system may be used to determine running alignment changes caused by thermal growth.

  4. Progressive multiple sequence alignments from triplets

    PubMed Central

    Kruspe, Matthias; Stadler, Peter F

    2007-01-01

    Background The quality of progressive sequence alignments strongly depends on the accuracy of the individual pairwise alignment steps since gaps that are introduced at one step cannot be removed at later aggregation steps. Adjacent insertions and deletions necessarily appear in arbitrary order in pairwise alignments and hence form an unavoidable source of errors. Research Here we present a modified variant of progressive sequence alignments that addresses both issues. Instead of pairwise alignments we use exact dynamic programming to align sequence or profile triples. This avoids a large fractions of the ambiguities arising in pairwise alignments. In the subsequent aggregation steps we follow the logic of the Neighbor-Net algorithm, which constructs a phylogenetic network by step-wisely replacing triples by pairs instead of combining pairs to singletons. To this end the three-way alignments are subdivided into two partial alignments, at which stage all-gap columns are naturally removed. This alleviates the "once a gap, always a gap" problem of progressive alignment procedures. Conclusion The three-way Neighbor-Net based alignment program aln3nn is shown to compare favorably on both protein sequences and nucleic acids sequences to other progressive alignment tools. In the latter case one easily can include scoring terms that consider secondary structure features. Overall, the quality of resulting alignments in general exceeds that of clustalw or other multiple alignments tools even though our software does not included heuristics for context dependent (mis)match scores. PMID:17631683

  5. Hierarchically assembled ZnO nanoparticles on high diffusion coefficient ZnO nanowire arrays for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Yih; Yin, Yu-Tung

    2013-03-07

    In this study, ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were conformally covered on the surfaces of ZnO nanowires (ZnO NWs) with high diffusion coefficient (1.2 × 10(-2) cm(2) s(-1)) to make a composite photoanode. By using N719 to sensitize the composite photoanode, the conversion efficiency can reach 7.14%.

  6. Highly stable precursor solution containing ZnO nanoparticles for the preparation of ZnO thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Heh-Chang; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2010-07-23

    ZnO particles with an average size of about 5 nm were prepared via a sol-gel chemical route and the silane coupling agent, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane (GPTS), was adopted to enhance the dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in ethyl glycol (EG) solution. A ZnO surface potential as high as 66 mV was observed and a sedimentation test showed that the ZnO precursor solution remains transparent for six months of storage, elucidating the success of surface modification on ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO thin films were then prepared by spin coating the precursor solution on a Si wafer and annealing treatments at temperatures up to 500 degrees C were performed for subsequent preparation of ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs). Microstructure characterization revealed that the coalescence of ZnO nanoparticles occurs at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C to result in a highly uniform, nearly pore-free layer. However, annealing at higher temperatures was required to remove organic residues in the ZnO layer for satisfactory device performance. The 500 degrees C-annealed ZnO TFT sample exhibited the best electrical properties with on/off ratio = 10(5), threshold voltage = 17.1 V and mobility (micro) = 0.104 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  7. ZnO quantum dots-decorated ZnO nanowires for the enhancement of antibacterial and photocatalytic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jyh Ming; Tsay, Li-Yi

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate highly antibacterial activities for killing off Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using ZnO nanowires decorated with ZnO quantum dots (so-called ZnO QDs/NWs) under visible-light irradiation and dark conditions. The average size of the ZnO QDs is in the range of 3-5 nm; these were uniformly dispersed on the ZnO nanowires’ surface to form the ZnO QDs/NWs. A significant blue-shift effect was observed using photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The size of the ZnO QDs is strongly dependent on the material’s synthesis time. The ZnO QDs/NWs exhibited an excellent photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. The ZnO QDs’ active sites (i.e. the O-H bond and Zn2+) accelerate the photogenerated-carrier migration from the QDs to the NWs. As a consequence, the electrons reacted with the dissolved oxygen to form oxygen ions and produced hydroperoxyl radicals to enhance photocatalytic activity. The antibacterial activities (as indicated by R-factor-inhibiting activity) of the ZnO QDs/NWs for killing off Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is around 4.9 and 5.5 under visible-light irradiation and dark conditions, respectively. The hydroxyl radicals served as an efficient oxidized agent for decomposing the organic dye and microorganism species. The antibacterial activities of the ZnO QDs/NWs in the dark may be attributed to the Zn2+ ions that were released from the ZnO QDs and infused into the microbial solution against the growth of bacteria thus disrupting the microorganism. The highly antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of the ZnO QDs/NWs can be well implanted on a screen window, thus offering a promising solution to inhibit the spread of germs under visible-light and dark conditions.

  8. Growth of a Novel Nanostructured ZnO Urchin: Control of Cytotoxicity and Dissolution of the ZnO Urchin.

    PubMed

    Imani, Roghayeh; Drašler, Barbara; Kononenko, Veno; Romih, Tea; Eleršič, Kristina; Jelenc, Janez; Junkar, Ita; Remškar, Maja; Drobne, Damjana; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš

    2015-12-01

    The applications of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) in implantable wireless devices, such as diagnostic nanobiosensors and nanobiogenerators, have recently attracted enormous attention due to their unique properties. However, for these implantable nanodevices, the biocompatibility and the ability to control the behaviour of cells in contact with ZnO NWs are demanded for the success of these implantable devices, but to date, only a few contrasting results from their biocompatibility can be found. There is a need for more research about the biocompatibility of ZnO nanostructures and the adhesion and viability of cells on the surface of ZnO nanostructures. Here, we introduce synthesis of a new nature-inspired nanostructured ZnO urchin, with the dimensions of the ZnO urchin's acicula being controllable. To examine the biocompatibility and behaviour of cells in contact with the ZnO urchin, the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell line was chosen as an in vitro experimental model. The results of the viability assay indicated that, compared to control, the number of viable cells attached to the surface of the ZnO urchin and its surrounding area were reduced. The measurements of the Zn contents of cell media confirmed ZnO dissolution, which suggests that the ZnO dissolution in cell culture medium could lead to cytotoxicity. A purposeful reduction of ZnO cytotoxicity was achieved by surface coating of the ZnO urchin with poly(vinylidene fluorid-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), which changed the material matrix to slow the Zn ion release and consequently reduce the cytotoxicity of the ZnO urchin without reducing its functionality.

  9. Unraveling the resistive switching effect in ZnO/0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. P. B.; Vorokhta, M.; Dvořák, F.; Sekhar, K. C.; Matolín, V.; Moreira, J. Agostinho; Pereira, M.; Gomes, M. J. M.

    2017-04-01

    This work reports the effect of partial oxygen pressure, used in the deposition of the ZnO layer, on the band alignment at ZnO - 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (0.5BZT-0.5BCT) interface and on the resistive switching (RS) behavior of pulsed laser deposited ZnO/0.5BZT-0.5BCT heterostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been employed to measure the valence band offset and the conduction band offset of the ZnO/0.5BZT-0.5BCT heterojunctions. The valence and conduction band offsets of the ZnO/0.5BZT-0.5BCT heterostucture with ZnO deposited at 10-2 mbar of partial oxygen pressure were found to be 0.27 and 0.80 eV, respectively. The RS effect in heterostructures is explained on the base of the charge coupling between the switchable polarization of ferroelectric layer and the non-switchable polarization of semiconductor layer. The heterostructure with ZnO deposited at 10-2 mbar of partial oxygen pressure displays optimum RS characteristics, with a switching ratio ≥ 104 and excellent retention and endurance characteristics. The optimum RS characteristics are attributed to a good interface quality with enough carrier concentration in ZnO, as evidenced by XPS.

  10. An efficient method for multiple sequence alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Pramanik, S.

    1994-12-31

    Multiple sequence alignment has been a useful method in the study of molecular evolution and sequence-structure relationships. This paper presents a new method for multiple sequence alignment based on simulated annealing technique. Dynamic programming has been widely used to find an optimal alignment. However, dynamic programming has several limitations to obtain optimal alignment. It requires long computation time and cannot apply certain types of cost functions. We describe detail mechanisms of simulated annealing for multiple sequence alignment problem. It is shown that simulated annealing can be an effective approach to overcome the limitations of dynamic programming in multiple sequence alignment problem.

  11. Bokeh mirror alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, S. A.; Adam, J.; Ahnen, M. L.; Baack, D.; Balbo, M.; Bergmann, M.; Biland, A.; Blank, M.; Bretz, T.; Bruegge, K. A.; Buss, J.; Dmytriiev, A.; Dorner, D.; Einecke, S.; Hempfling, C.; Hildebrand, D.; Hughes, G.; Linhoff, L.; Mannheim, K.; Neise, D.; Neronov, A.; Noethe, M.; Paravac, A.; Pauss, F.; Rhode, W.; Shukla, A.; Temme, F.; Thaele, J.; Walter, R.

    2016-08-01

    Segmented imaging reflectors are a great choice for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). However, the alignment of the individual mirror facets is challenging. We align a segmented reflector by observing and optimizing its Bokeh function. Bokeh alignment can already be done with very little resources and little preparation time. Further, Bokeh alignment can be done anytime, even during the day. We present a first usage of Bokeh alignment on FACT, a 4m IACT on Canary Island La Palma, Spain and further a first Bokeh alignment test on the CTA MST IACT prototype in Brelin Adlershof.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar T., S.; Girija M., L.; Venkatesh, J.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) Thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Spin coating method. Zinc acetate dehydrate, Carbinol and Mono-ethanolamine were used as the precursor, solvent and stabilizer respectively to prepare ZnO Thin-films. The molar ratio of Monoethanolamine to Zinc acetate was maintained as approximately 1. The thickness of the films was determined by Interference technique. The optical properties of the films were studied by UV Vis-Spectrophotometer. From transmittance and absorbance curve, the energy band gap of ZnO is found out. Electrical Conductivity measurements of ZnO are carried out by two probe method and Activation energy for the electrical conductivity of ZnO are found out. The crystal structure and orientation of the films were analyzed by XRD. The XRD patterns show that the ZnO films are polycrystalline with wurtzite hexagonal structure.

  13. Growing ZnO crystals on magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Turgeman, Rachel; Tirosh, Shay; Gedanken, Aharon

    2004-04-02

    We report herein on the oriented growth of ZnO crystals on magnetite nanoparticles. The ZnO crystals were grown by hydrolyzing a supersaturated aqueous solution of zinc nitrate. The seeds for the growth were magnetite nanoparticles with a diameter of 5.7 nm and a narrow size distribution. Hollowed ZnO hexagons of 0.15 microm width and 0.5 microm length filled with Fe(3)O(4) particles were obtained. HR-TEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy) and selected-area EDS (energy-dispersive spectroscopy) show that the nanoparticles are homogenously spread in the ZnO tubes. Zeta potential measurements were employed to understand the relationship between the nanoparticles and the oriented growth of the ZnO crystals. The results show that the surfactants induced the directional growth of the ZnO crystals.

  14. Work-Function and Surface Energy Tunable Cyanoacrylic Acid Small-Molecule Derivative Interlayer on Planar ZnO Nanorods for Improved Organic Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Bagde, Sushil S; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-12-28

    The issue of work-function and surface energy is fundamental to "decode" the critical inorganic/organic interface in hybrid organic photovoltaics, which influences important photovoltaic events like exciton dissociation, charge transfer, photocurrent (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), etc. We demonstrate that by incorporating an interlayer of cyanoacrylic acid small molecular layer (SML) on solution-processed, spin-coated, planar ZnO nanorods (P-ZnO NRs), higher photovoltaic (PV) performances were achieved in both inverted organic photovoltaic (iOPV) and hybrid organic photovoltaic (HOPV) devices, where ZnO acts as an "electron-transporting layer" and as an "electron acceptor", respectively. For the tuned range of surface energy from 52.5 to 33 mN/m, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) iOPVs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) increases from 3.16% to 3.68%, and that based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl)] (PTB7:Th):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) photoactive BHJ increases from 6.55% to 8.0%, respectively. The improved PV performance in iOPV devices is majorly attributed to enhanced photocurrents achieved as a result of reduced surface energy and greater electron affinity from the covalent attachment of the strong electron-withdrawing cyano moiety, while that in HOPV devices, where PCE increases from 0.21% to 0.79% for SML-modified devices, is ascribed to a large increase in Voc benefitted due to reduced work function effected from the presence of strong dipole moment in SML that points away from P-ZnO NRs.

  15. Low-Temperature Preparation of Ag-Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays, DFT Study, and Application to Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Zhang, Jie; Tugsuz, Tugba; Ciofini, Ilaria; Labat, Frédéric; Viana, Bruno

    2015-06-10

    Doping ZnO nanowires (NWs) by group IB elements is an important challenge for integrating nanostructures into functional devices with better and tuned performances. The growth of Ag-doped ZnO NWs by electrodeposition at 90 °C using a chloride bath and molecular oxygen precursor is reported. Ag acts as an electrocatalyst for the deposition and influences the nucleation and growth of the structures. The silver atomic concentration in the wires is controlled by the additive concentration in the deposition bath and a content up to 3.7 atomic % is reported. XRD analysis shows that the integration of silver enlarges the lattice parameters of ZnO. The optical measurements also show that the direct optical bandgap of ZnO is reduced by silver doping. The bandgap shift and lattice expansion are explained by first principle calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) on the silver impurity integration as an interstitial (Ag(i)) and as a substitute of zinc atom (Ag(Zn)) in the crystal lattice. They notably indicate that Ag(Zn) doping forms an impurity band because of Ag 4d and O 2p orbital interactions, shifting the Fermi level toward the valence band. At least, Ag-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanowire arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN(001) substrate. The heterostructure has been inserted in a light emitting device. UV-blue light emission has been achieved with a low emission threshold of 5 V and a tunable red-shifted emission spectrum related to the bandgap reduction induced by silver doping of the ZnO emitter material.

  16. Substrate Preparations in Epitaxial ZnO Film Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Harris, M. T.; Callahan, M. J.; George, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on the two polar surfaces (O-face and Zn-face) of (0001) ZnO single crystal substrates using off-axis magnetron sputtering deposition. Annealing-temperature dependence of ZnO substrates was studied. ZnO films grown on sapphire substrates have also been investigated for comparison purposes and the annealing temperature of A1203 substrates is 1000 C. Substrates and films were characterized using photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, energy dispersive spectrum, and electric transport measurements. It has been found that the ZnO film properties were different when films were grown on the two polarity surfaces of ZnO substrates and the A1203 substrates. An interesting result shows that high temperature annealing of ZnO single crystals will improve the surface structure on the O-face surface rather than the opposite surface. The measurements of homoepitaxial ZnO films indicate that the O-terminated surface is better for ZnO epitaxial film growth.

  17. Development of latent fingerprint by ZnO deposition.

    PubMed

    Yu, I-Heng; Jou, Shyankay; Chen, Chin-Min; Wang, Kuang-Chuan; Pang, Lei-Jang; Liao, Jeh Shane

    2011-04-15

    Vacuum metal deposition (VMD) utilizing sequential Au and Zn depositions has been an effective technique to develop latent fingerprint on plastic surfaces. A simplified vacuum deposition process was conducted to develop fingerprint in this study. While pure ZnO was thermally evaporated in a vacuum system, ZnO could condense on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. Direct deposition of ZnO, without applying Au seeding, yielded normal development of latent fingerprint. The development of aged fingerprint by ZnO deposition was more effective than that by Au/Zn VMD.

  18. Enhanced thermoelectric performance in graphitic ZnO (0001) nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Li; Fan, Zheyong; Zheng, Jin-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the thermoelectric properties of ultrathin graphitic ZnO (0001) nanofilms based on first-principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. Staircase-like densities of states induced by quantum confinement in the nanofilms give rise to improved Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities. The optimized figure of merit for the single-layer graphitic ZnO (0001) nanofilm is estimated to be 0.6 at 300 K, which is about 120 times larger than that of bulk ZnO (0.005). Our results suggest that the graphitic ZnO (0001) nanofilms can be designed for high performance thermoelectric applications.

  19. Photophysics and photochemistry of quantized ZnO colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, P.V.; Patrick, B.

    1992-08-06

    The photophysical and photochemical behavior of quantized ZnO colloids in ethanol has been investigated by time-resolved transient absorption and emission measurements. Trapping of electrons at the ZnO surface resulted in broad absorption in the red region. The green emission of ZnO colloids was readily quenched by hole scavengers such as SCN{sup -} and I{sup -}. The photoinduced charge transfer to these hole scavengers was studied by laser flash photolysis. The yield of oxidized product increased considerably when ZnO colloids were coupled with ZnSe. 36 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Strong circular photogalvanic effect in ZnO epitaxial films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Wang, X. Q.; Yin, C. M.; Shen, B.; Chen, Y. H.; Chang, K.; Ge, W. K.

    2011-12-23

    A strong circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) in ZnO epitaxial films was reported under interband excitation. It was observed that CPGE current is as large as 100 nA/W in ZnO, which is about one order in magnitude higher than that in InN film while the CPGE currents in GaN films are not detectable. The possible reasons for the above observations are the strong spin orbit coupling in ZnO or the inversed valence band structure of ZnO.

  1. Strong circular photogalvanic effect in ZnO epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Wang, X. Q.; Yin, C. M.; Shen, B.; Chen, Y. H.; Chang, K.; Ge, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    A strong circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) in ZnO epitaxial films was reported under interband excitation. It was observed that CPGE current is as large as 100 nA/W in ZnO, which is about one order in magnitude higher than that in InN film while the CPGE currents in GaN films are not detectable. The possible reasons for the above observations are the strong spin orbit coupling in ZnO or the inversed valence band structure of ZnO.

  2. Strong circular photogalvanic effect in ZnO epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Wang, X. Q.; Yin, C. M.; Xu, F. J.; Tang, N.; Shen, B.; Chen, Y. H.; Chang, K.; Ge, W. K.; Ishitani, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2010-07-01

    We report a strong circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) in ZnO epitaxial films under interband excitation. It is observed that CPGE current is as large as 100 nA/W in ZnO, which is about one order in magnitude higher than that in InN film while the CPGE currents in GaN films are not detectable. The possible reasons for the above observations are the strong spin orbit coupling in ZnO or the inversed valence band structure of ZnO.

  3. UV response of cellulose ZnO hybrid nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Min, Seung-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Chan; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-04-01

    ZnO nanorods grown cellulose film is a fascinating inorganic-organic hybrid nanocomposite in terms of synergistic properties with semiconductive functionality of ZnO and renewability and flexibility of cellulose film. This paper reports the fabrication and evaluation of cellulose ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (CEZOHN). ZnO nanorod is well grown on a cellulose film by simple chemical reaction with direct seeding and hydrothermal growing. CEZOHN has unique electric, electro-mechanical and photo-electrical behaviors. The performance of CEZOHN is estimated by measuring induced photocurrent under UV exposure. Mechanism of UV sensing and its possible applications for flexible and wearable UV sensor are addressed.

  4. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  5. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  6. Aligned mesoporous architectures and devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng

    2011-03-01

    This is the final report for the Presidential Early Career Award for Science and Engineering - PECASE (LDRD projects 93369 and 118841) awarded to Professor Yunfeng Lu (Tulane University and University of California-Los Angeles). During the last decade, mesoporous materials with tunable periodic pores have been synthesized using surfactant liquid crystalline as templates, opening a new avenue for a wide spectrum of applications. However, the applications are somewhat limited by the unfavorabe pore orientation of these materials. Although substantial effort has been devoted to align the pore channels, fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicular pore channels remains challenging. This project focused on fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicularly aligned pore channels. We demonstrated structures for use in water purification, separation, sensors, templated synthesis, microelectronics, optics, controlled release, and highly selective catalysts.

  7. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives.

  8. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

    1997-08-19

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

  9. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Warren, Mial Evans; Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton; Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe; Word, V., James Cole

    1997-01-01

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

  10. Threaded pilot insures cutting tool alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, R.; Schneider, W. E.

    1966-01-01

    Threaded pilot allows machining of a port component, or boss, after the reciprocating hole has been threaded. It is used to align cutting surfaces with the boss threads, thus insuring precision alignment.

  11. Aligning Plasma-Arc Welding Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeff; Fairley, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Tool aids in alignment of oscillator probe on variable-polarity plasma-arc welding torch. Probe magnetically pulls arc from side to side as it moves along joint. Tensile strength of joint depends on alignment of weld bead and on alignment of probe. Operator installs new tool on front of torch body, levels it with built-in bubble glass, inserts probe in slot on tool, and locks probe in place. Procedure faster and easier and resulting alignment more accurate and repeatable.

  12. Use laser-optics for machinery alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1987-10-01

    Many sources attribute most bearing overload and destructive vibration in industrial machinery to shaft misalignment. There is considerable disagreement as to the alignment quality required. There is also little agreement on suitable calculation methods and achievable accuracy for anticipated thermal growth of machinery (necessary if running alignment is to remain acceptable). This article examines existing alignment quality guidelines for relevance and consistency, and reviews the application of laser-optic alignment systems based on three years of field experience.

  13. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, N. S. Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-12

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1–3.5) × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a Na{sub Zn} level at ∼(220–270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4–5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  14. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R. Raj; Rajendran, K.; Sambath, K.

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  15. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, R. Raj; Rajendran, K.; Sambath, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  16. ZnO ratio-induced photocatalytic behavior of TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jlassi, M.; Chorfi, H.; Saadoun, M.; Bessaïs, B.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 (P25)-ZnO nanocomposite. The precursors of the TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite were deposited on a low cost ceramic substrate using the simple roll-coating method. We seek to improve the photocatalytic performance and the mechanical adherence of the TiO2 nanoparticles by adding ZnO. The photocatalytic properties of the nanocomposite were tested through the bleaching of polluted water. These properties were optimized by varying the composition of the nanocomposite precursors, deposition conditions and temperature annealing. A systematic study of the nanocomposites was made using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These characterizations allowed us to establish a relationship between the photocatalytic performances and the ZnO ratio using an azo-dye (methyl orange). It was found that the kinetic degradation increases with the increasing of the ZnO ratio. The Photodegradation of the dye using the sole ZnO was found to be more efficient than the P25 TiO2 and the TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite itself. The discussions were based on the mobility and lifetime of the charge carriers generated in the ZnO or in TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite.

  17. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  18. Ultrafast electron diffraction from aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Centurion, Martin

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this project was to record time-resolved electron diffraction patterns of aligned molecules and to reconstruct the 3D molecular structure. The molecules are aligned non-adiabatically using a femtosecond laser pulse. A femtosecond electron pulse then records a diffraction pattern while the molecules are aligned. The diffraction patterns are then be processed to obtain the molecular structure.

  19. Wettability behavior of special microscale ZnO nail-coated mesh films for oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Huang, Xing; Li, Xiaoyu; Meng, Xiangmin; Yao, Lin; He, Junhui; Huang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-11-15

    The surface free energy and geometrical structure are two important factors to govern the surface wettability. However, the design and simple synthesis of materials with specific surface free energy and geometrical structure, and their elaborate regulations are still a key challenge. Herein, through one-step thermal evaporation method, we successfully synthesized aligned arrays of highly crystallized ZnO with modulated nail structures on the stainless steel meshes for the first time. Owing to the decoration of [0001] oriented nail structures, the wire surface of meshes were indeed enclosed by the ZnO (0002) facets, which had the lowest surface energy in wurtzite structure. Under no any further modifications, just by regulating the nail structure and density as well as the mesh pore sizes, we not only obtained ZnO nail-coated mesh with hydrophobic, oleophilic (oil penetration), and underwater oleophilic properties, but also fabricated one with hydrophilic (water penetration), oleophilic (oil penetration), and underwater superoleophobic properties. Furthermore, interestingly, the separation of oil and water mixture was realized by utilizing two ZnO-nail coated meshes with different wettability. The underlying mechanism was investigated and discussed in the work. Therefore, our study provides interesting insight into the design of novel functional films with desired surface wettability for the separation of oil-water mixture.

  20. Catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Woong; Jeong, Min-Chang; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2004-08-02

    ZnO nanowires were grown on GaAs(0 0 2) substrates using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and on Si(0 0 1) substrates using thermal evaporation of source powders, respectively. It was demonstrated that well-aligned single crystalline nanowires could be grown with controlled sizes using a typical thin film deposition technique without catalysts. Arsenic doping of the ZnO nanowires grown on GaAs substrate was possible using post-growth heat-treatment, proposing a possible way of producing p-type ZnO nanowires. It was also shown that simplified process of carrier-free thermal evaporation without catalyst could be employed to grow nanowires with high yield while maintaining good crystalline and optical properties. Application potential of the nanowires as probes of atomic force microscopes (AFMs) was discussed by predicting their structural compatibility with AFM cantilevers based on continuum elasticity. It was predicted that the nanowires fabricated herein are structurally compatible with typical AFM cantilevers suggesting that they are promising candidates for high aspect ratio probes.

  1. Cobalt(II/III) redox electrolyte in ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiandong; Hao, Yan; Cabot, Andreu; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we explore the use of cobalt complex redox shuttles in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on ZnO nanowires (NWs). Arrays of vertically aligned ZnO NWs produced by a low-cost hydrothermal method are used to fabricate DSCs with [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+) as electrolyte. A direct comparison of the performance of [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+)-based ZnO DSC with I(-)/I3(-)-based ones demonstrates the higher suitability of the cobalt complex, both in terms of a larger open circuit voltage (VOC) and a higher photocurrent. The [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+) electrolyte results in VOC enhancements above 200 mV. This VOC increase is associated to the better match between the cobalt complex redox potential and the oxidation potential of the dye. The incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) enhancement is attributed to a less competitive visible light absorption of the cobalt redox couple. Thus the present study opens new opportunities to improve energy conversion efficiency in ZnO-based DSCs.

  2. Highly Ordered Vertical Arrays of TiO2/ZnO Hybrid Nanowires: Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization.

    PubMed

    Gujarati, Tanvi P; Ashish, Ajithan G; Rai, Maniratnam; Shaijumon, Manikoth M

    2015-08-01

    We report the fabrication of vertically aligned hierarchical arrays of TiO2/ZnO hybrid nanowires, consisting of ZnO nanowires grown directly from within the pores of TiO2 nanotubes, through a combination of electrochemical anodization and hydrothermal techniques. These novel nano-architectured hybrid nanowires with its unique properties show promise as high performance supercapacitor electrodes. The electrochemical behaviour of these hybrid nanowires has been studied using Cyclic voltammetry, Galvanostatic charge-discharge and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements using 1.5 M tetraethylammoniumtetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile as the electrolyte. Excellent electrochemical performances with a maximum specific capacitance of 2.6 mF cm-2 at a current density of 10 µA cm-2, along with exceptional cyclic stability, have been obtained for TiO2/ZnO-1 h hybrid material. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of fabricating new geometrical architectures of inorganic hybrid nanowires with well adhered interfaces for the development of hybrid energy devices.

  3. Crystal synthesis and effects of epitaxial perovskite manganite underlayer conditions on characteristics of ZnO nanostructured heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan-Chang; Hu, Chia-Yen; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Jyh-Liang

    2013-03-21

    This study presents the synthesis of high-density aligned wurtzite ZnO nanostructures using thermal evaporation on perovskite (La,Sr)MnO3(LSMO) epitaxy to form a heterostructure without the assistance of metallic catalysis. LSMO epitaxial films are RF-sputtered with various crystal qualities to examine the correlation between the interface and electrical characteristics of the heterostructures. The ZnO nanostructures-LSMO epitaxial heterostructures show electrical rectifying behavior without inserting an ultrathin insulating layer at the hetero-interface. Misfit strain, intrinsic strain, and crystal defects are major factors in causing a phase separation in the as-prepared manganite LSMO epitaxial films. The coexistence of a charge-ordered insulating domain and a ferromagnetic metallic domain causes inhomogeneous electrical contact at the ZnO-LSMO heterointerfaces, further deteriorating the junction characteristics. A high-temperature annealing procedure and moderate LSMO epitaxy film thickness are required for the construction of an efficient ZnO nanostructures-LSMO epitaxy junction.

  4. Structural and optical investigations on seed layer assisted hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods on flat and textured substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayerfrancis, Arokiyadoss; Balaji Bhargav, P.; Ahmed, Nafis; Balaji, C.; Dhara, Sandip

    2016-12-01

    In this article we report the synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on plain as well as textured fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate using hydrothermal method. Prior to hydrothermal method, AZO seed layer of thickness 5, 10 and 15 nm were deposited on the chosen substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. The as-grown nanorods were annealed at 450 °C for 3 h to improve the crystallinity. Morphology and structure of the nanorods was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The formation of wurtzite structure was confirmed through x-ray diffraction studies. The optical mode of ZnO, E2 (high) at 434 cm-1 present in the samples was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The seed layer assisted growth of ZnO nanorods were defect free, which is confirmed from the photoluminescence spectra, and the intensity of band to band emission is much greater than the emission from the defects at the deep level.

  5. Photoluminescence lineshape of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Bruno; Singh, Akhilesh K.; Bhowmick, Mithun; Barik, Puspendu; Ariza-Flores, David; Xi, Haowen; Tomm, Jens W.

    2014-12-01

    The merger of the absorption coefficient dispersion, retrieved from transmission by the modified Urbach rule introduced by Ullrich and Bouchenaki [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1285, 1991], with the extended Roosbroeck-Shockley relation reveals that the optical absorption in ZnO distinctively determines the photoluminescence lineshape. Additionally, the ab initio principles employed enable the accurate determination of the carrier lifetime without further specific probing techniques.

  6. Structural characterization of self-assembled ZnO nanoparticles obtained by the sol-gel method from Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O.

    PubMed

    Luković Golić, D; Branković, G; Počuča Nešić, M; Vojisavljević, K; Rečnik, A; Daneu, N; Bernik, S; Sćepanović, M; Poleti, D; Branković, Z

    2011-09-30

    Zinc oxide nanopowders were synthesized by the sol-gel method from an ethanol solution of zinc acetate dihydrate. Detailed structural and microstructural investigations were carried out using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses, as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The intermediate compound of the reaction was layered zinc hydroxide acetate that further transforms into hexagonally shaped ZnO crystalline nanoplates (d(m) = 4 nm), which aggregate into larger spherical particles. According to the TEM analysis the ZnO nanoparticles were self-assembled into larger particles with the same orientation, i.e. aligned lattice planes of the particles. A further solvothermal treatment resulted in hexagonal, prismatic ZnO mesocrystals.

  7. Nanostructured ZnO films in forms of rod, plate and flower: Electrodeposition mechanisms and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıcır, Nur; Tüken, Tunç; Erken, Ozge; Gumus, Cebrail; Ufuktepe, Yuksel

    2016-07-01

    Uniformity and reproducibility of well-defined ZnO nanostructures are particularly important issues for fabrication and applications of these nanomaterials. In present study, we report selective morphology control during electrodeposition, by adjusting the hydroxyl generation rate and Zn(OH)2 deposition. In presence of remarkably high chloride concentration (0.3 M) and -1.0 V deposition potential, slow precipitation conditions were provided in 5 mM Zn(NO3)2 solution. By doing so, we have obtained highly ordered, vertically aligned and uniformly spaced hexagon shaped nanoplates, on ITO surface. We have also investigated the mechanism for shifting the morphology from rod/plate to flower like structure of ZnO, for better understanding the reproducibility. For this reason, the influence of various supporting electrolytes (sodium/ammonium salts of acetate) has been investigated for interpretation of the influence of OH- concentration nearby the surface. From rod to plate and flower nanostructures, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were realized for characterization, also the optical properties were studied.

  8. Solution phase van der Waals epitaxy of ZnO wire arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue; Zhou, Yong; Utama, Muhammad Iqbal Bakti; de la Mata, María; Zhao, Yanyuan; Zhang, Qing; Peng, Bo; Magen, Cesar; Arbiol, Jordi; Xiong, Qihua

    2013-08-21

    As an incommensurate epitaxy, van der Waals epitaxy allows defect-free crystals to grow on substrates even with a large lattice mismatch. Furthermore, van der Waals epitaxy is proposed as a universal platform where heteroepitaxy can be achieved irrespective of the nature of the overlayer material and the method of crystallization. Here we demonstrate van der Waals epitaxy in solution phase synthesis for seedless and catalyst-free growth of ZnO wire arrays on phlogopite mica at low temperature. A unique incommensurate interface is observed even with the incomplete initial wetting of ZnO onto the substrate. Interestingly, the imperfect contacting layer does not affect the crystalline and optical properties of other parts of the wires. In addition, we present patterned growth of a well-ordered array with hexagonal facets and in-plane alignment. We expect our seedless and catalyst-free solution phase van der Waals epitaxy synthesis to be widely applicable in other materials and structures.

  9. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Gd implanted ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, P. P.; Mendelsberg, R. J.; Kennedy, J.; Carder, D. A.; Ruck, B. J.; Markwitz, A.; Reeves, R. J.; Malar, P.; Osipowicz, T.

    2011-08-01

    We present the structural and photoluminescence properties of 30 keV gadolinium implanted and subsequently annealed zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystals. Rutherford backscattering and channeling results reveal a low surface region defect density which was reduced further upon annealing. For low implantation fluence, around 85% of the Gd atoms are estimated to be in sites aligned with the ZnO lattice, while for higher fluences the Gd is largely disordered and likely forms precipitates. The Raman spectra of the implanted samples show defect-induced modes, which match the one-phonon density of states for the most heavily implanted samples. Annealing eliminates these features implying the removal of Gd-associated lattice disorder. Low temperature photoluminescence spectra revealed a red-shift in the defect emission, from green to orange/yellow, indicating the suppression of a deep level, which is thought to be due to oxygen vacancies. It is suggested that the orange/yellow emission is unmasked when the green emission is quenched by the presence of the implanted Gd atoms.

  10. Integration of ZnO nanoparticle transistors on freestanding flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidor, Fábio F.; Meyers, Thorsten; Hilleringmann, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays, thin-film transistors (TFTs) are being actively researched not only by the scientific community but also by the industry. They are the crucial elements for the driving currents in flexible displays, radio frequency identification tags and wearable electronic skins. In this study, we present a low-cost integration process of ZnO nanoparticle TFTs on flexible substrates with a maximum process temperature limited to 115 °C. As gate dielectric a high-k resin filled with TiO2 nanoparticle was used. This nanocomposite combines the mechanical flexibility of organic compounds with the high dielectric permittivity of inorganic materials. For the stabilization of the nanoparticulated ZnO film, a high humidity treatment was performed subsequent to an ultra-violet irradiation step in order to prevent the adsorption of oxygen molecules by the nanoparticles. The transistor integration process was performed on a freestanding polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. This technique enables a more realistic scenario for a later large-scale production and avails adequate photolithographic resolution and accurate alignment between different mask levels. Additionally, in order to improve the electrical properties of the nanoparticulated semiconducting film, the nanoparticles were deposited using either spin-coating or spray-coating techniques; furthermore, different surface pretreatments were executed.

  11. Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted laser ablation deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Guo, R.; Nishimura, J.; Matsumoto, M.; Higashihata, M.; Nakamura, D.

    2008-02-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires have been successfully synthesized on c-cut sapphire substrates by a catalyst-free nanoparticle-assisted pulsed-laser ablation deposition (NAPLD) in Ar and N II background gases. In NAPLD, the nanoparticles formed in a background gas by laser ablation are used as a starting material for the growth of the nanowires. The surface density of the nanowires can be controlled by varying the density of nanoparticles, which are accomplished by changing the energy of the ablation laser, the repetition rate of the laser and so on. When single ZnO nanowire synthesized in a N II background gas was excited by 355 nm laser-pulse with a pulse-width of 8 ns, stimulated emission was clearly observed, indicating high quality of the nanowire. These nanowires were used as building blocks for an ultraviolet light emitting diode with a structure of n-ZnO/ZnO nanowire/p-GaN.

  12. Structured ZnO films: Effect of copper nitrate addition to precursor solution on topography, band gap energy and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Kaleva, A.; Hyvärinen, L.; Levänen, E.

    2017-02-01

    ZnO is a widely studied semiconductor material with interesting properties such as photocatalytic activity leading to wide range of applications, for example in the field of opto-electronics and self-cleaning and antimicrobial applications. Doping of photocatalytic semiconductor materials has been shown to introduce variation in the band gap energy of the material. In this work, ZnO rods were grown on a stainless steel substrates using hydrothermal method introducing copper nitrate into the precursor solution. Zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine were used as precursor materials and the growth was conducted at 90 °C for 2 h in order to achieve a well-aligned evenly distributed rod structure. Copper was introduced as copper nitrate that was added in the precursor solution in the beginning of the growth. The as-prepared films were then heat-treated at 350 °C and band gap measurements were performed for prepared films. It was found that increase in the copper concentration in the precursor solution decreased the band gap of the ZnO film. Methylene blue discolouration tests were then performed in order to study the effect of the copper nitrate addition to precursor solution on photocatalytic activity of the structured ZnO films.

  13. Room temperature sputter deposited catalyst-free nanowires with wurtzite/zinc blende ZnO superstructure and their application in electromechanical nanogenerators on polymer and paper substrates.

    PubMed

    Borysiewicz, M A; Gryglas-Borysiewicz, M; Masłyk, M; Wojciechowski, T; Wzorek, M; Kaczmarski, J; Wojtowicz, T; Kamińska, E

    2017-02-24

    Catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires using reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature is reported. We discuss the growth of the nanowires using reactive magnetron sputtering as a function of argon and oxygen flow values changing at a set ratio of 10:2. A transition from nanostructured Zn to nanowire ZnO growth is observed at 20 sccm Ar and 4 sccm O2. Densification and improved alignment of the nanowires is visible for increasing flow values up to 50 sccm Ar and 10 sccm O2. Nanowires exhibit stacking fault regions of zinc blende ZnO in wurtzite ZnO. The regions encompass the whole width of the nanowires and their quantum well behavior is manifested in the photoluminescence spectra. The nanowires were subsequently deposited on paper and PET substrates and electromechanical nanogenerators were fabricated. Manual pressing and depressing of the devices induced voltages of 50 μV and 2 μV for the devices on PET and paper substrates, respectively.

  14. Room temperature sputter deposited catalyst-free nanowires with wurtzite/zinc blende ZnO superstructure and their application in electromechanical nanogenerators on polymer and paper substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysiewicz, M. A.; Gryglas-Borysiewicz, M.; Masłyk, M.; Wojciechowski, T.; Wzorek, M.; Kaczmarski, J.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kamińska, E.

    2017-02-01

    Catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires using reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature is reported. We discuss the growth of the nanowires using reactive magnetron sputtering as a function of argon and oxygen flow values changing at a set ratio of 10:2. A transition from nanostructured Zn to nanowire ZnO growth is observed at 20 sccm Ar and 4 sccm O2. Densification and improved alignment of the nanowires is visible for increasing flow values up to 50 sccm Ar and 10 sccm O2. Nanowires exhibit stacking fault regions of zinc blende ZnO in wurtzite ZnO. The regions encompass the whole width of the nanowires and their quantum well behavior is manifested in the photoluminescence spectra. The nanowires were subsequently deposited on paper and PET substrates and electromechanical nanogenerators were fabricated. Manual pressing and depressing of the devices induced voltages of 50 μV and 2 μV for the devices on PET and paper substrates, respectively.

  15. Electron and hole stability in GaN and ZnO.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Aron; Catlow, C Richard A; Miskufova, Martina; Sokol, Alexey A

    2011-08-24

    We assess the thermodynamic doping limits of GaN and ZnO on the basis of point defect calculations performed using the embedded cluster approach and employing a hybrid non-local density functional for the quantum mechanical region. Within this approach we have calculated a staggered (type-II) valence band alignment between the two materials, with the N 2p states contributing to the lower ionization potential of GaN. With respect to the stability of free electron and hole carriers, redox reactions resulting in charge compensation by ionic defects are found to be largely endothermic (unfavourable) for electrons and exothermic (favourable) for holes, which is consistent with the efficacy of electron conduction in these materials. Approaches for overcoming these fundamental thermodynamic limits are discussed.

  16. Photocontrollable water permeation on the micro/nanoscale hierarchical structured ZnO mesh films.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dongliang; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhai, Jin; Jiang, Lei

    2011-04-05

    Most research of responsive surfaces mainly focus on the wettability transition on different solid substrate surfaces, but the dynamic properties of the micro/nanostructure-enhanced responsive wettability on microscale pore arrays are lacking and still remain a challenge. Here we report the photocontrollable water permeation on micro/nanoscale hierarchical structured ZnO-coated stainless steel mesh films. Especially, for aligned ZnO nanorod array-coated stainless steel mesh film, the film shows good water permeability under irradiation, while it is impermeable to water after dark storage. A detailed investigation indicates that the special nanostructure and the appropriate size of the microscale mesh pores play a crucial role in the excellent controllability over water permeation. The excellent controllability of water permeation on this film is promising in various important applications such as filtration, microreactor, and micro/nano fluidic devices. This work may provide interesting insight into the design of novel functional devices that are relevant to surface wettability.

  17. Two-step epitaxial synthesis and layered growth mechanism of bisectional ZnO nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenduo; Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Qingliang; Yu, Tong; Shen, Yanwei; Li, Peifeng; Huang, Yunhua; Zhang, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Here a two-step epitaxial synthesis method of bisectional ZnO nanowire arrays (ZNWAs) on silicon substrates has been demonstrated incorporating hydrothermal growth (HG) and CVD process. The as-received well-aligned ZNWAs are confirmed to be single-crystal and growing along <001> direction, normal to the substrate. Interestingly, they show significant tapering behavior at the conjunctions, which is consistent with theoretical predictions. Therefore a layered growth mechanism is promoted involving the classical two-dimensional nucleation theory. In the proposed mechanism, the HG ZNWA provides nucleation sites for successive growth. The growth mechanism is verified by complementary investigation into conjunction morphology, which is dependent on regional Zn vapor pressure (ZVP) in the CVD process. Three types of conjunction morphologies are differentiated and the difference is explained with the growth model.

  18. Spectroscopy and control of near-surface defects in conductive thin film ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Leah L.; Racke, David A.; Schulz, Philip; Li, Hong; Winget, Paul; Kim, Hyungchul; Ndione, Paul; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Berry, Joseph J.; Graham, Samuel; Monti, Oliver L. A.

    2016-03-01

    The electronic structure of inorganic semiconductor interfaces functionalized with extended π-conjugated organic molecules can be strongly influenced by localized gap states or point defects, often present at low concentrations and hard to identify spectroscopically. At the same time, in transparent conductive oxides such as ZnO, the presence of these gap states conveys the desirable high conductivity necessary for function as electron-selective interlayer or electron collection electrode in organic optoelectronic devices. Here, we report on the direct spectroscopic detection of a donor state within the band gap of highly conductive zinc oxide by two-photon photoemission spectroscopy. We show that adsorption of the prototypical organic acceptor C60 quenches this state by ground-state charge transfer, with immediate consequences on the interfacial energy level alignment. Comparison with computational results suggests the identity of the gap state as a near-surface-confined oxygen vacancy.

  19. Aligning Two Genomic Sequences That Contain Duplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Minmei; Riemer, Cathy; Berman, Piotr; Hardison, Ross C.; Miller, Webb

    It is difficult to properly align genomic sequences that contain intra-species duplications. With this goal in mind, we have developed a tool, called TOAST (two-way orthologous alignment selection tool), for predicting whether two aligned regions from different species are orthologous, i.e., separated by a speciation event, as opposed to a duplication event. The advantage of restricting alignment to orthologous pairs is that they constitute the aligning regions that are most likely to share the same biological function, and most easily analyzed for evidence of selection. We evaluate TOAST on 12 human/mouse gene clusters.

  20. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  1. ZnO - Defects and Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Detlev M.

    2002-03-01

    Due to its large (3.37 eV) and direct bandgap ZnO is a potential competitor for up to now GaN-based light-emitting devices in the blue spectral range. However, like for other wide bandgap semiconductors controlled p-type doping is a problem, as grown undoped ZnO is n-type conducting. To achieve the desired p-type conduction requires to suppress the residual donors and to avoid any deep level defects which hinder the activity of the potential p-type dopants. On this way a clear atomistic identification of the electrical active species in the material is helpful. In the past Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy were used successfully to identify shallow donor dopants such as Indium in ZnO. Our recent investigations show that also unintentionally present Hydrogen forms a shallow donor with a thermal activation energy of 35 meV, i.e. it is smaller than the effective mass value of about 50 meV. Annealing experiments give evidence that the H-donors can be removed from the material in the temperature range from 850 K to 1050 K which is accompanied by a destruction of the I4 excitons at 3.364 eV. The presence of deep level defects in ZnO is evident from broad unstructured emission bands located in the visible spectral range (2.75 eV - 2.25 eV). With the help of the Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) we are able to separate these frequently superimposed recombinations and to distinguish between the bands originating from Cu, Oxygen-vacancies, and Li and Na related defects. As potential p-type dopant Nitrogen is in the discussion. The observation of N-related local vibrational modes by Raman spectroscopy confirms that nitrogen can be incorporated in the lattice of ZnO. However, a strong correlation to unintentionally present Hydrogen is found, which suggests a passivation of the N-acceptors.

  2. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO/sub 2/ fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO/sub 2/ alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence.

  3. FOGSAA: Fast Optimal Global Sequence Alignment Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Angana; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2013-04-01

    In this article we propose a Fast Optimal Global Sequence Alignment Algorithm, FOGSAA, which aligns a pair of nucleotide/protein sequences faster than any optimal global alignment method including the widely used Needleman-Wunsch (NW) algorithm. FOGSAA is applicable for all types of sequences, with any scoring scheme, and with or without affine gap penalty. Compared to NW, FOGSAA achieves a time gain of (70-90)% for highly similar nucleotide sequences (> 80% similarity), and (54-70)% for sequences having (30-80)% similarity. For other sequences, it terminates with an approximate score. For protein sequences, the average time gain is between (25-40)%. Compared to three heuristic global alignment methods, the quality of alignment is improved by about 23%-53%. FOGSAA is, in general, suitable for aligning any two sequences defined over a finite alphabet set, where the quality of the global alignment is of supreme importance.

  4. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  5. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on ZnO and M13 Bacteriophage nanostructures (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong-Myeong; Kim, Kyujungg; Hong, Suck Won; Oh, Jin-Woo; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the portable and wearable electronic devices, operated in the power range of microwatt to miliwatt, become available thank to the nanotechnology development and become an essential element for a comfortable life. Our recent research interest mainly focuses on the fabrication of piezoelectric nanogenerators based on smart nanomaterials such as zinc oxide novel nanostructure, M13 bacteriophage. In this talk, we present a simple strategy for fabricating the freestanding ZnO nanorods/graphene/ZnO nanorods double sided heterostructures. The characterization of the double sided heterostructures by using SEM, and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveals the key process and working mechanism of a formation of the heterostructure. The mechanism is discussed in detail in term of the decomposed seed layer and the vacancy defect of graphene. The approach consists of a facile one-step fabrication process and could achieve ZnO coverage with a higher number density than that of the epitaxial single heterostructure. The resulting improvement in the number density of nanorods has a direct beneficial effect on the double side heterostructured nanogenerator performance. The total output voltage and current density are improved up to 2 times compared to those of a single heterostructure due to the coupling of the piezoelectric effects from both upward and downward grown nanorods. The facile one-step fabrication process suggests that double sided heterostructures would improve the performance of electrical and optoelectrical device, such as touch pad, pressure sensor, biosensor and dye-sensitized solar cells. Further, ioinspired nanogenerators based on vertically aligned phage nanopillars are inceptively demonstrated. Vertically aligned phage nanopillars enable not only a high piezoelectric response but also a tuneable piezoelectricity. Piezoelectricity is also modulated by tuning of the protein's dipoles in each phage. The sufficient electrical power from phage nanopillars thus

  6. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  7. MEANS FOR DETERMINING CENTRIFUGE ALIGNMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, W.Q.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for remotely determining the alignment of a centrifuge. The centrifage shaft is provided with a shoulder, upon which two followers ride, one for detecting radial movements, and one upon the shoulder face for determining the axial motion. The followers are attached to separate liquid filled bellows, and a tube connects each bellows to its respective indicating gage at a remote location. Vibrations produced by misalignment of the centrifuge shaft are transmitted to the bellows, and tbence through the tubing to the indicator gage. This apparatus is particularly useful for operation in a hot cell where the materials handled are dangerous to the operating personnel.

  8. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-15

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  9. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOEpatents

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  10. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots.

  11. Magnetism in dopant-free ZnO nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung-Il; Choi, Jiil; Jang, Seung Soon; Gu, Jiyeong; Chang, Yangling; Wortman, Gregory; Snyder, Robert L; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-02-08

    It is known that bulk ZnO is a nonmagnetic material. However, the electronic band structure of ZnO is severely distorted when the ZnO is in the shape of a very thin plate with its dimension along the c-axis reduced to a few nanometers while keeping the bulk scale sizes in the other two dimensions. We found that the chemically synthesized ZnO nanoplates exhibit magnetism even at room temperature. First-principles calculations show a growing asymmetry in the spin distribution within the distorted bands formed from Zn (3d) and O (2p) orbitals with the reduction of thickness of the ZnO nanoplates, which is suggested to be responsible for the observed magnetism. In contrast, reducing the dimension along the a- or b-axes of a ZnO crystal does not yield any magnetism for ZnO nanowires that grow along c-axis, suggesting that the internal electric field produced by the large {0001} polar surfaces of the nanoplates may be responsible for the distorted electronic band structures of thin ZnO nanoplates.

  12. Strategies for active alignment of lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehanenberg, Patrik; Heinisch, Josef; Wilde, Chrisitan; Hahne, Felix; Lüerß, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    Today's optical systems require up-to-date assembly and joining technology. The trend of keeping dimensions as small as possible while maintaining or increasing optical imaging performance leaves little to no room for mechanical lens adjustment equipment that may remain in the final product. In this context active alignment of optical elements opens up possibilities for the fast and cost-economic manufacturing of lenses and lens assemblies with highest optical performance. Active alignment for lens manufacturing is the precise alignment of the optical axis of a lens with respect to an optical or mechanical reference axis (e.g. housing) including subsequent fixation by glue. In this contribution we will describe different approaches for active alignment and outline strengths and limitations of the different methods. Using the SmartAlign principle, highest quality cemented lenses can be manufactured without the need for high precision prealignment, while the reduction to a single alignment step greatly reduces the cycle time. The same strategies can also be applied to bonding processes. Lenses and lens groups can be aligned to both mechanical and optical axes to maximize the optical performance of a given assembly. In hybrid assemblies using both mechanical tolerances and active alignment, SmartAlign can be used to align critical lens elements anywhere inside the system for optimized total performance. Since all geometrical parameters are re-measured before each alignment, this process is especially suited for complex and time-consuming production processes where the stability of the reference axis would otherwise be critical. For highest performance, lenses can be actively aligned using up to five degrees of freedom. In this way, SmartAlign enables the production of ultra-precise mounted lenses with an alignment precision below 1 μm.

  13. Ultrasonic synthesis of fern-like ZnO nanoleaves and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qing Lan; Xiong, Rui; Zhai, Bao-gai; Huang, Yuan Ming

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating zinc microcrystals in water. The morphology, crystal structure, optical property and photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that one fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is composed of one ZnO nanorod as the central trunk and a number of ZnO nanoplates as the side branches in opposite pairs along the central ZnO nanorod. The central ZnO nanorod in the fern-like nanoleaves is about 1 μm long while the side-branching ZnO nanoplates are about 100 nm long and 20 nm wide. Further analysis has revealed that ZnO nanocrystals are the building blocks of the central ZnO nanorod and the side-branching ZnO nanoplates. Under identical conditions, fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit higher photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methyl orange in aqueous solution than spherical ZnO nanocrystals. The first-order photocatalytic rate constant of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves is about four times as large as that of the ZnO nanoparticles. The branched architecture of the hierarchical nanoleaves is suggested be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves.

  14. Effect of annealing on the structural and optical properties of heavily carbon-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Deng, Z. W.; Li, D. C.; Barbir, E.; Y Jiang, W.; Chen, M. X.; Kavanagh, K. L.; Mooney, P. M.; Watkins, S. P.

    2010-04-01

    ZnO films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) at low temperatures (~500 °C) exhibit very high levels of carbon incorporation in the range of up to several percent. Such large levels of carbon incorporation significantly affect the structural properties of the thin films resulting in broadening of symmetric (0 0 2) rocking curves as well as broadened (1 0 1) pole figures compared with films grown at high temperature. Annealing of the films under air ambient at temperatures between 800 and 1100 °C results in dramatic sharpening of symmetric (0 0 2) rocking curves, indicating improved crystal alignment along the c-axes. (1 0 1) pole figure scans also show significant sharpening in the azimuthal axis, indicating similar improvements in the in-plane crystal alignment perpendicular to the c-axis. Raman spectra for as-grown ZnO at 500 °C show strong D and G peaks at 1381 and 1578 cm-1 due to sp2 carbon clusters. Annealing at 1000 °C results in the elimination of these bands, indicating that post-growth annealing treatment is a useful method to reduce the concentration of sp2 carbon clusters.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of ZnO: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynell, Tommi; Karppinen, Maarit

    2014-04-01

    Due to the unique set of properties possessed by ZnO, thin films of ZnO have received more and more interest in the last 20 years as a potential material for applications such as thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes and gas sensors. At the same time, the increasingly stringent requirements of the microelectronics industry, among other factors, have led to a dramatic increase in the use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique in various thin-film applications. During this time, the research on ALD-grown ZnO thin films has developed from relatively simple deposition studies to the fabrication of increasingly intricate nanostructures and an understanding of the factors affecting the fundamental properties of the films. In this review, we give an overview of the current state of ZnO ALD research including the applications that are being considered for ZnO thin films.

  16. Humidity sensors based on ZnO Colloidal nanocrystal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Shufeng; Li, Shuo; Ming, Zhengqiu; Jin, Linpei

    2010-06-01

    High pure ZnO Colloidal nanocrystal clusters (CNCs) were synthesized by a modified hydrolyzation method. The diameters of as-prepared ZnO crystalline were between 20 and 40 nm, however, the ZnO CNCs arrived at 400-800 nm. The ZnO CNCs sensor were found to have high sensitivity and fast response/recovery time to humidity, and their resistance changed approximately three orders of magnitude from about 1.58 × 10 9 Ω in dry air (10 RH%) to 1.65 × 10 6 Ω in 93 RH% air. Furthermore, the ZnO CNCs sensors were relatively stable to humidity for a long time.

  17. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanotetrapods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Q.; Wang, T. H.; Zhao, J. C.

    2005-08-01

    The photocatalytic characteristics of the tetrapod-branched ZnO nanostructures synthesized by thermal evaporation method are investigated. The fitting of absorbance maximum plot versus time indicates an exponential decay, suggesting the photodegradation of Rhodamine B catalyzed by the ZnO nanotetrapod is a pseudo first-order reaction. These results demonstrate that the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanotetrapod is much better than that of P25 TiO2 and ZnO powders. The slow electron/hole recombine rate due to the abundant surface states, as well as the high surface-to-volume ratio will effectively enhance the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO nanotetrapod.

  18. Strain sensor based on cellulose ZnO hybrid nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hyun-U.; Yun, Gyu-Young; Kim, Joo Hyung; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    ZnO is well known semiconductor material with high band gap as well as piezoelectricity. Because of its high performance of electromechanical behavior, ZnO based piezoelectric devices have taken great attention from many research groups. However, ZnO should be grown on a flexible substrate so as to allow its flexibility. Since cellulose is renewable, flexible and biocompatible, ZnO is grown on cellulose by hydrothermal process, then a novel flexible piezoelectric material. We report the fabrication and strain sensor behavior of cellulose ZnO hybrid nanocomposite(CEZOHN) In this research, simple piezoelectric strain sensor based on CEZOHN is made by directly stretching it and by boding it on a cantilever. Its performance is measured in terms of longitudinal and bending strain. This strain sensor shows a good linearity.

  19. Low temperature synthesis of fluorescent ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yaqoob; Durrani, S. K.; Mehmood, Mazhar; Ahmad, Jamil; Khan, M. Riaz; Firdous, Shamraz

    2010-12-01

    Fluorescent ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate and ammonium carbonate in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant, Tween-80. Increased concentrations of the surfactant were found to affect both the morphology and purity of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. XRD, SEM, FTIR, TGA and Confocal laser scanning microscopy were employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. ZnO nanoparticles ranging in particle size from 11 to 15 nm were formed at the reaction temperature of 70-80 °C. The results of FTIR and TGA analysis indicate the self assembly of Tween molecules on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. A bright emission in the visible region from the as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles was recorded using confocal laser scanning microscopy. This property of the as-prepared nanoparticles may find potential application in bio-imaging.

  20. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOEpatents

    Scavone, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  1. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.

    1993-09-28

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.

  2. Facile construction of vertically aligned EuS-ZnO hybrid core shell nanorod arrays for visible light driven photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjith, K. S.; Kumar, D. Ranjith; Kumar, R. T. Rajendra

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrated the development of coupled semiconductor in the form of hybrid heterostructures for significant advancement in catalytic functional materials. In this article, we report the preparation of vertically aligned core shell ZnO-EuS nanorod photocatalyst arrays by a simple chemical solution process followed by sulfudation process. The XRD pattern confirmed formation of the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and cubic nature of the EuS. Cross sectional FESEM images show vertical rod array structure, and the size of the nanorods ranges from 80 to 120 nm. UV-Vis DRS spectra showed that the optical absorption of ZnO was significantly enhanced to the visible region by modification with EuS surfaces. TEM study confirmed that the surface of ZnO was drastically improved by the modification with EuS nanoparticle. The catalytic activity of EuS−ZnO core shell nanorod arrays were evaluated by the photodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye under visible irradiation. The results revealed that the photocatalytic activity of EuS−ZnO was much higher than that of ZnO under natural sunlight. EuS−ZnO was found to be stable and reusable without appreciable loss of catalytic activity up to four consecutive cycles.

  3. The Alignment of Galaxy Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacka, M.; Panko, E.; Bajan, K.; Godłowski, W.; Flin, P.

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the orientation of the sample of ACO galaxy clusters. We examined the alignment in a subsample of 1056 galaxy structures taken from the Panko-Flin (2006) Catalog with known BM morphological types. We were looking for a correlation between the orientation of the cluster and the positions of neighboring clusters. The Binggeli effect (the excess of small values of the Δθ angles between the direction toward neighboring clusters and the cluster position angle) is observed, having a range up to about 45 h-1 Mpc. The strongest effect was found for elongated BM type I clusters. This is probably connected with the origins of the supergiant galaxy and with cluster formation along a long filament or plane in a supercluster.

  4. AIMFAST: Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    AIMFAST is a software code used to align facets on a dish concentrator to a specific aimpoint strategy to minimize peak fluxes and maximize system optical performance. AIMFAST uses a large monitor or projections screen to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject dish mirrors. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. This fitted comparison is then used to develop a single vector representing the orientation of the facets relative to the design orientation, and provide near-real-time adjustment information to a communicating computer. The communicating computer can display adjustments or directly interface with adjustment tools. The software for the communicating computer is specific to the implementation and is not a part of AIMFAST.

  5. IAIMFAST: Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, Charles E.

    2013-08-29

    AIMFAST is a software code used to align facets on a dish concentrator to a specific aimpoint strategy to minimize peak fluxes and maximize system optical performance. AIM FAST uses a large monitor to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject dish mirrors. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. This fitted comparison is then used to develop a single vector representing the orientation of the facets relative to the design orientation, and provide near-real-time adjustment information to a communicating computer. The communicating computer can display adjustments or directly interface with adjustment tools.

  6. Tonal alignment in Irish dialects.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Martha; Chasaide, Ailbhe Ní

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the contour alignment of nuclear and initial prenuclear accents was carried out for the Irish dialects of Gaoth Dobhair in Ulster (GD-U) and Cois Fharraige in Connaught (CF-C). This was done across conditions where the number of unstressed syllables following the nuclear and preceding the initial prenuclear accents was varied from 2-0. This tests a variable peak hypothesis prompted by findings for other languages, that peak timing drifts as a function of the number of syllables preceding (the prenuclear) and following (the nuclear) accent. These data also test a second hypothesis that the L*+H dominant accent of GD-U might be viewed as being underlyingly the same as the dominant H* or H*+L accent of the CF-C dialect. According to this realignment hypothesis, the difference between these Ulster and Connaught dialects lies in the way that the melodic tier is aligned to the segmental tier: GD-U would be viewed as having a delayed realization of the peak relative to the Connaught dialect. Results do not support the variable peak hypothesis for Irish, as in either dialect, the peak appeared to be rather fixed across the three conditions examined (though not necessarily identical for prenuclear and nuclear positions). The results also militate against the realignment hypothesis, which rather than providing a more simple unifying account, would greatly complicate it. One reason is that there is a peak timing difference between the nuclear and prenuclear accents of CF-C, not mirrored in GD-U. Furthermore, even if one were to limit consideration to a single (e.g., prenuclear) context, a simple realignment of the accents in one dialect does not generate the appropriate contour in the other.

  7. DNAAlignEditor: DNA alignment editor tool

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Villeda, Hector; Schroeder, Steven; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Guill, Katherine E; Yamasaki, Masanori; McMullen, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background With advances in DNA re-sequencing methods and Next-Generation parallel sequencing approaches, there has been a large increase in genomic efforts to define and analyze the sequence variability present among individuals within a species. For very polymorphic species such as maize, this has lead to a need for intuitive, user-friendly software that aids the biologist, often with naïve programming capability, in tracking, editing, displaying, and exporting multiple individual sequence alignments. To fill this need we have developed a novel DNA alignment editor. Results We have generated a nucleotide sequence alignment editor (DNAAlignEditor) that provides an intuitive, user-friendly interface for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments with functions for input, editing, and output of sequence alignments. The color-coding of nucleotide identity and the display of associated quality score aids in the manual alignment editing process. DNAAlignEditor works as a client/server tool having two main components: a relational database that collects the processed alignments and a user interface connected to database through universal data access connectivity drivers. DNAAlignEditor can be used either as a stand-alone application or as a network application with multiple users concurrently connected. Conclusion We anticipate that this software will be of general interest to biologists and population genetics in editing DNA sequence alignments and analyzing natural sequence variation regardless of species, and will be particularly useful for manual alignment editing of sequences in species with high levels of polymorphism. PMID:18366684

  8. Free-space optical communication alignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariola, M.; Petruccione, F.

    2016-10-01

    Optical communication systems in free space require a coarse and fine alignment system to align the receiver and transmitter. In general a coarse alignment is not entirely accurate to transmit the laser beacon in the exact direction of the visible field of the camera. During this process, some algorithms such as the raster, spiral and raster spiral scan algorithm can be used to find the spot of the laser beacon. Applications that require to transmit data in form of polarization signals, such as quantum cryptography, requires a polarisation bases alignment system to transmit and receive the photons. In this paper we present a fine alignment system using a polarised laser beacon. The system proposed was subdivided into a coarse and fine alignment system. The coarse alignment was implemented by using the GPS to acquire the geographical position of the transmitter, receiver and a reference point. The fine alignment was achieved by using a polarised laser beacon from the receiver to the transmitter and a camera located on the transmitter side. The algorithm presented was capable of excluding the background noise. Furthermore the polarisation of the laser beacon was used to align the polarisation bases of the transmitter and the receiver.

  9. Some aspects of SR beamline alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaponov, Yu. A.; Cerenius, Y.; Nygaard, J.; Ursby, T.; Larsson, K.

    2011-09-01

    Based on the Synchrotron Radiation (SR) beamline optical element-by-element alignment with analysis of the alignment results an optimized beamline alignment algorithm has been designed and developed. The alignment procedures have been designed and developed for the MAX-lab I911-4 fixed energy beamline. It has been shown that the intermediate information received during the monochromator alignment stage can be used for the correction of both monochromator and mirror without the next stages of alignment of mirror, slits, sample holder, etc. Such an optimization of the beamline alignment procedures decreases the time necessary for the alignment and becomes useful and helpful in the case of any instability of the beamline optical elements, storage ring electron orbit or the wiggler insertion device, which could result in the instability of angular and positional parameters of the SR beam. A general purpose software package for manual, semi-automatic and automatic SR beamline alignment has been designed and developed using the developed algorithm. The TANGO control system is used as the middle-ware between the stand-alone beamline control applications BLTools, BPMonitor and the beamline equipment.

  10. VIRUS spectrograph assembly and alignment procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Boster, Emily; DePoy, D. L.; Herbig, Benjamin; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martin, Emily C.; Meador, William; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the mechanical assembly and optical alignment processes used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the instrument's manufacturing constraints, a production line will be set up to build subassemblies in parallel. To aid in the instrument's assembly and alignment, specialized fixtures and adjustment apparatuses have been developed. We describe the design and operations of the various optics alignment apparatuses, as well as the mirrors' alignment and bonding fixtures.

  11. Optimizing femorotibial alignment in high tibial osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, John; Harrison, Mark; Simurda, Michael A

    Objective To study factors that affect femorotibial (F-T) alignment after valgus closing wedge tibial osteotomy. Study design A review of standardized standing radiographs. Femorotibial alignment was measured 1 year postoperatively for over- and under-correction. Changes in F–T alignment and in tibial plateau angle were measured. Setting An urban hospital and orthopedic clinic. Patients Eighty-two patients with osteoarthritis and varus femorotibial alignment underwent valgus closing wedge tibial osteotomy. Patients having a diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis or a prior osteotomy about the knee were excluded. Results A 1° wedge removed from the tibia resulted in an average correction of F–T alignment of 1.2°. A knee that had increased valgus orientation of the distal femur had a greater degree of correction, averaging 1.46° in F–T alignment per degree of tibial wedge. This resulted in excessive postoperative valgus alignment for some patients who had increased valgus tilt of the distal femur. Optimal F–T alignment of 6° to 14° of valgus occurred when the postoperative tibial inclination was 4° to 8° of valgus. Conclusions There was a trend for knees with increased valgus orientation of the distal femur to have greater correction in F–T alignment after tibial osteotomy, likely because of a greater opening up of the medial joint space during stance. Surgeons need to account for this in their preoperative planning. PMID:10526522

  12. Growth of Homoepitaxial ZnO Semiconducting Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Harris, M. T.; George, Michael A.; McCarty, P.

    1999-01-01

    As a high temperature semiconductor, ZnO has been used for many applications such as wave-guide, solar cells, and surface acoustic wave devices. Since the ZnO material has an energy gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature and an excitonic binding energy (60 meV) that is possible to make excitonic lasering at room temperature a recent surge of interest is to synthesize ZnO films for electro-optical devices. These applications require films with a smooth surface, good crystal quality, and low defect density. Homoepitaxial films have been studied in terms of morphology, crystal structure, and electrical and optical properties. ZnO single crystals are grown by the hydrothermal method. Substrates are mechanically polished and annealed in air for four hours before deposited films. The annealing temperature-dependence of ZnO substrates is studied. Films are synthesized by the off-axis reactive sputtering deposition. The films have very smooth surface with a roughness ZnO films grown of (0001) ZnO and (0001) sapphire substrates will be also compared and discussed in the presentation.

  13. Self-standing particle-binding ZnO film.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yoshitake; Kato, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    Self-standing particle-binding ZnO film was fabricated by combination of crystallization in aqueous solution and annealing on FTO (SnO2:F) coated glass substrate. Multi-needle ZnO particles crystallized in a solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and ethylenediamine at 60 degrees C. Crystalline particles having an ultrafine surface relief structure were gradually deposited on the substrate to form thick particulate film. The film was then annealed at 950 degrees C for 1 h in air. The ZnO particles formed necks to connect to each other. The glass substrate deformed into a dome shape generating stress between the ZnO film and substrate; on the other hand, FTO layers retained their uneven surface during annealing. ZnO particulate film was successfully peeled off from the substrate as self-standing film. Deformation of glass substrate and FTO joint-insulating layer supported peeling-off of the film. The connected ZnO particles formed continuous white porous film having many spaces and continuous open pores surrounded by multi-needle ZnO particles. The film can be used as self-standing film and be pasted on substrate such as polymer film, metal or paper for application to flexible lightweight devices.

  14. Superhydrophobic ZnO networks with high water adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ZnO structures were deposited using a simple chemical bath deposition technique onto interdigitated electrodes fabricated by a conventional photolithography method on SiO2/Si substrates. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO samples have a hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy observations prove that the substrates are uniformly covered by ZnO networks formed by monodisperse rods. The ZnO rod average diameter and length were tuned by controlling reactants' concentration and reaction time. Optical spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that all the samples display bandgap values and emission bands typical for ZnO. The electrical measurements reveal percolating networks which are highly sensitive when the samples are exposed to ammonia vapors, a variation in their resistance with the exposure time being evidenced. Other important characteristics are that the ZnO rod networks exhibit superhydrophobicity, with water contact angles exceeding 150° and a high water droplet adhesion. Reproducible, easily scalable, and low-cost chemical bath deposition and photolithography techniques could provide a facile approach to fabricate such ZnO networks and devices based on them for a wide range of applications where multifunctionality, i.e., sensing and superhydrophobicity, properties are required. PACS 81.07.-b; 81.05.Dz; 68.08.Bc PMID:25136286

  15. Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, Shahin; Gleich, David F.; Kolda, Tamara G.; Grama, Ananth

    2015-11-01

    Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.

  16. The effects of alignment error and alignment filtering on the sitewise detection of positive selection.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gregory; Goldman, Nick

    2012-04-01

    When detecting positive selection in proteins, the prevalence of errors resulting from misalignment and the ability of alignment filters to mitigate such errors are not well understood, but filters are commonly applied to try to avoid false positive results. Focusing on the sitewise detection of positive selection across a wide range of divergence levels and indel rates, we performed simulation experiments to quantify the false positives and false negatives introduced by alignment error and the ability of alignment filters to improve performance. We found that some aligners led to many false positives, whereas others resulted in very few. False negatives were a problem for all aligners, increasing with sequence divergence. Of the aligners tested, PRANK's codon-based alignments consistently performed the best and ClustalW performed the worst. Of the filters tested, GUIDANCE performed the best and Gblocks performed the worst. Although some filters showed good ability to reduce the error rates from ClustalW and MAFFT alignments, none were found to substantially improve the performance of PRANK alignments under most conditions. Our results revealed distinct trends in error rates and power levels for aligners and filters within a biologically plausible parameter space. With the best aligner, a low false positive rate was maintained even with extremely divergent indel-prone sequences. Controls using the true alignment and an optimal filtering method suggested that performance improvements could be gained by improving aligners or filters to reduce the prevalence of false negatives, especially at higher divergence levels and indel rates.

  17. Construction and evaluation of high-quality n-ZnO nanorod/p-diamond heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, C D; Jha, S K; Chen, Z H; Ng, T W; Liu, Y K; Yuen, M F; Lu, Z Z; Kwok, S Y; Zapien, J A; Bello, I; Lee, C S; Zhang, W J

    2012-06-01

    Vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) arrays were synthesized by a low-temperature solution method on boron-doped diamond (BDD) films. The morphology, growth direction, and crystallinity of the ZnO NRs were studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and cathodoluminescence. Electrical characterization of the ZnO NR/BBD heterostructures revealed characteristic p-n junction properties with an on/off ratio of about 50 at +/- 4 V and a small reverse leakage current approximately 1 microA. Moreover, the junctions showed an ideality factor around 1.0 at a low forward voltage from 0 to 0.3 V and about 2.1 for an increased voltage ranging from 1.2 to 3.0 V, being consistent with that of an ideal diode according to the Sah-Noyce-Shockley theory.

  18. Scintillation of Un-doped ZnO Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Colosimo, A. M.; Ji, Jianfeng; Stepanov, P. S.; Boatner, L. A.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-07

    In this paper, scintillation properties are often studied by photo-luminescence (PL) and scintillation measurements. In this work, we combine X-ray-induced luminescence (XRIL) spectroscopy [Review of Scientific Instruments 83, 103112 (2012)] with PL and standard scintillation measurements to give insight into the scintillation properties of un-doped ZnO single crystals. XRIL revealed that ZnO luminescence proportionally increases with X-ray power and exhibits excellent linearity - indicating the possibility of developing radiation detectors with good energy resolution. Finally, by coupling ZnO crystals to fast photomultiplier tubes and monitoring the anode signal, rise times as fast as 0.9 ns were measured.

  19. High pressure and high temperature behaviour of ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Thakar, Nilesh A.; Bhatt, Apoorva D.; Pandya, Tushar C.

    2014-04-24

    The thermodynamic properties with the wurtzite (B4) and rocksalt (B1) phases of ZnO under high pressures and high temperatures have been investigated using Tait's Equation of state (EOS). The effects of pressures and temperatures on thermodynamic properties such as bulk modulus, thermal expansivity and thermal pressure are explored for both two structures. It is found that ZnO material gradually softens with increase of temperature while it hardens with the increment of the pressure. Our predicted results of thermodynamics properties for both the phases of ZnO are in overall agreement with the available data in the literature.

  20. Surface-diffusion induced growth of ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. S.; Gösele, U.; Zacharias, M.

    2009-05-01

    The growth rate of ZnO nanowires grown epitaxially on GaN/sapphire substrates is studied. An inverse proportional relation between diameter and length of the nanowires is observed, i.e., nanowires with smaller diameters grow faster than larger ones. This unexpected result is attributed to surface diffusion of ZnO admolecules along the sidewalls of the nanowires. In addition, the unique c-axis growth of ZnO nanowires, which does not require a catalytic particle at the tip of the growing nanowires is discussed by taking into account polarity, surface free energy, and ionicity. Activation energies of the nanowire growth are determined as well.

  1. Hierarchical structures of ZnO spherical particles synthesized solvothermally

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Noriko; Haneda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    We review the solvothermal synthesis, using a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as the solvent, of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles having spherical and flower-like shapes and hierarchical nanostructures. The preparation conditions of the ZnO particles and the microscopic characterization of the morphology are summarized. We found the following three effects of the ratio of EG to water on the formation of hierarchical structures: (i) EG restricts the growth of ZnO microcrystals, (ii) EG promotes the self-assembly of small crystallites into spheroidal particles and (iii) the high water content of EG results in hollow spheres. PMID:27877457

  2. Hierarchical structures of ZnO spherical particles synthesized solvothermally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Noriko; Haneda, Hajime

    2011-12-01

    We review the solvothermal synthesis, using a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as the solvent, of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles having spherical and flower-like shapes and hierarchical nanostructures. The preparation conditions of the ZnO particles and the microscopic characterization of the morphology are summarized. We found the following three effects of the ratio of EG to water on the formation of hierarchical structures: (i) EG restricts the growth of ZnO microcrystals, (ii) EG promotes the self-assembly of small crystallites into spheroidal particles and (iii) the high water content of EG results in hollow spheres.

  3. Green emission in carbon doped ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, L. T.; Yi, J. B. Zhang, X. Y.; Xing, G. Z.; Luo, X.; Li, S.; Fan, H. M.; Herng, T. S.; Ding, J.; Ionescu, M.

    2014-06-15

    The emission behavior of C-doped ZnO films, which were prepared by implantation of carbon into ZnO films, is investigated. Orange/red emission is observed for the films with the thickness of 60–100 nm. However, the film with thickness of 200 nm shows strong green emission. Further investigations by annealing bulk ZnO single crystals under different environments, i.e. Ar, Zn or C vapor, indicated that the complex defects based on Zn interstitials are responsible for the strong green emission. The existence of complex defects was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

  4. Shear alignment of a disordered lamellar mesophase.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, V; Raman, D S S

    2011-03-01

    The shear alignment of an initially disordered lamellar phase is examined using lattice Boltzmann simulations of a mesoscopic model based on a free-energy functional for the concentration modulation. For a small shear cell of width 8λ, the qualitative features of the alignment process are strongly dependent on the Schmidt number Sc=ν/D (ratio of kinematic viscosity and mass diffusion coefficient). Here, λ is the wavelength of the concentration modulation. At low Schmidt number, it is found that there is a significant initial increase in the viscosity, coinciding with the alignment of layers along the extensional axis, followed by a decrease at long times due to the alignment along the flow direction. At high Schmidt number, alignment takes place due to the breakage and reformation of layers because diffusion is slow compared to shear deformation; this results in faster alignment. The system size has a strong effect on the alignment process; perfect alignment takes place for a small systems of width 8λ and 16λ, while a larger system of width 32λ does not align completely even at long times. In the larger system, there appears to be a dynamical steady state in which the layers are not perfectly aligned--where there is a balance between the annealing of defects due to shear and the creation due to an instability of the aligned lamellar phase under shear. We observe two types of defect creation mechanisms: the buckling instability under dilation, which was reported earlier, as well as a second mechanism due to layer compression.

  5. Global and local aspects of the surface potential landscape for energy level alignment at organic-ZnO interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähler, Julia; Rinke, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid systems of organic and inorganic semiconductors are a promising route for the development of novel opto-electronic and light-harvesting devices. A key ingredient for achieving a superior functionality by means of a hybrid system is the right relative position of energy levels at the interfaces of the two material classes. In this Perspective, we address the sensitivity of the potential energy landscape at various ZnO surfaces, a key ingredient for interfacial energy level alignment, by combining one- and two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy with density-functional theory calculations (DFT). We show that even very large work function changes (>2.5 eV) do not necessarily have to be accompanied by surface band bending in ZnO. Band bending - if it does occur - may be localized to few Å or extend over hundreds of nanometers with very different results for the surface work function and energy level alignment. Managing the delicate balance of different interface manipulation mechanisms in organic-inorganic hybrid systems will be a major challenge towards future applications.

  6. Flexible high-output nanogenerator based on lateral ZnO nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Wang, Sihong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-08-11

    We report here a simple and effective approach, named scalable sweeping-printing-method, for fabricating flexible high-output nanogenerator (HONG) that can effectively harvesting mechanical energy for driving a small commercial electronic component. The technique consists of two main steps. In the first step, the vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) are transferred to a receiving substrate to form horizontally aligned arrays. Then, parallel stripe type of electrodes are deposited to connect all of the NWs together. Using a single layer of HONG structure, an open-circuit voltage of up to 2.03 V and a peak output power density of approximately 11 mW/cm(3) have been achieved. The generated electric energy was effectively stored by utilizing capacitors, and it was successfully used to light up a commercial light-emitting diode (LED), which is a landmark progress toward building self-powered devices by harvesting energy from the environment. This research opens up the path for practical applications of nanowire-based piezoelectric nanogeneragtors for self-powered nanosystems.

  7. Implementation of two-state alignment system into CXrL aligner (Poster Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guan-Jye; Bodoh, D.; Wallace, John P.; Anderson, Paul D.; Reilly, Michael T.; Nachman, Ramez; Cerrina, Franco

    1992-07-01

    We describe the implementation of the two-state alignment system into the CXrL aligner, which is developed at our Center for X-ray Lithography. The CXrL aligner is designed to expose sub 0.25 μm feature size integrated circuits. The aligner consists of a three-axes two-state alignment system for alignment error detection and a piezo based precision mechanical stage for alignment error correction. The wafer is held by a precision vacuum chuck, while the mask is held by three vacuum suction cups located around the glass ring. In the prototype, the mask to wafer relative positioning is achieved by 3 motorized stages (for gap setting) and 3 piezo-actuators (for lateral alignment). Since the optical system is designed to be located outside of the synchrotron radiation path, alignment can be performed during exposure. We present the results of the alignment system performance, such as noise equivalent displacement and alignment signal response time. An alignment signal repeatibility of much better than 3σ = 0.07μm is achieved. We also briefly describe the future evaluation of the system, such as overlay measurement of the system using verniers and SEM inspection of some specially designed patterns.

  8. Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

    1999-08-15

    Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

  9. Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

  10. Instructional Alignment under No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of instruction with the content of standards and assessments is the key mediating variable separating the policy of standards-based reform (SBR) from the outcome of improved student achievement. Few studies have investigated SBR's effects on instructional alignment, and most have serious methodological limitations. This research uses…

  11. Probabilistic sequence alignment of stratigraphic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Luan; Khider, Deborah; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lawrence, Charles E.

    2014-10-01

    The assessment of age uncertainty in stratigraphically aligned records is a pressing need in paleoceanographic research. The alignment of ocean sediment cores is used to develop mutually consistent age models for climate proxies and is often based on the δ18O of calcite from benthic foraminifera, which records a global ice volume and deep water temperature signal. To date, δ18O alignment has been performed by manual, qualitative comparison or by deterministic algorithms. Here we present a hidden Markov model (HMM) probabilistic algorithm to find 95% confidence bands for δ18O alignment. This model considers the probability of every possible alignment based on its fit to the δ18O data and transition probabilities for sedimentation rate changes obtained from radiocarbon-based estimates for 37 cores. Uncertainty is assessed using a stochastic back trace recursion to sample alignments in exact proportion to their probability. We applied the algorithm to align 35 late Pleistocene records to a global benthic δ18O stack and found that the mean width of 95% confidence intervals varies between 3 and 23 kyr depending on the resolution and noisiness of the record's δ18O signal. Confidence bands within individual cores also vary greatly, ranging from ~0 to >40 kyr. These alignment uncertainty estimates will allow researchers to examine the robustness of their conclusions, including the statistical evaluation of lead-lag relationships between events observed in different cores.

  12. Galaxy Alignments: Observations and Impact on Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Donnacha; Brown, Michael L.; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kitching, Thomas D.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Cacciato, Marcello; Choi, Ami; Kiessling, Alina; Leonard, Adrienne; Rassat, Anais; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2015-11-01

    Galaxy shapes are not randomly oriented, rather they are statistically aligned in a way that can depend on formation environment, history and galaxy type. Studying the alignment of galaxies can therefore deliver important information about the physics of galaxy formation and evolution as well as the growth of structure in the Universe. In this review paper we summarise key measurements of galaxy alignments, divided by galaxy type, scale and environment. We also cover the statistics and formalism necessary to understand the observations in the literature. With the emergence of weak gravitational lensing as a precision probe of cosmology, galaxy alignments have taken on an added importance because they can mimic cosmic shear, the effect of gravitational lensing by large-scale structure on observed galaxy shapes. This makes galaxy alignments, commonly referred to as intrinsic alignments, an important systematic effect in weak lensing studies. We quantify the impact of intrinsic alignments on cosmic shear surveys and finish by reviewing practical mitigation techniques which attempt to remove contamination by intrinsic alignments.

  13. The GEM Detector projective alignment simulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.; Belser, F.C.; Holdener, F.R.; Roeben, M.D.; Paradiso, J.A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pier-Amory, J.

    1993-07-09

    Precision position knowledge (< 25 microns RMS) of the GEM Detector muon system at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is an important physics requirement necessary to minimize sagitta error in detecting and tracking high energy muons that are deflected by the magnetic field within the GEM Detector. To validate the concept of the sagitta correction function determined by projective alignment of the muon detectors (Cathode Strip Chambers or CSCs), the basis of the proposed GEM alignment scheme, a facility, called the ``Alignment Test Stand`` (ATS), is being constructed. This system simulates the environment that the CSCs and chamber alignment systems are expected to experience in the GEM Detector, albeit without the 0.8 T magnetic field and radiation environment. The ATS experimental program will allow systematic study and characterization of the projective alignment approach, as well as general mechanical engineering of muon chamber mounting concepts, positioning systems and study of the mechanical behavior of the proposed 6 layer CSCs. The ATS will consist of a stable local coordinate system in which mock-ups of muon chambers (i.e., non-working mechanical analogs, representing the three superlayers of a selected barrel and endcap alignment tower) are implemented, together with a sufficient number of alignment monitors to overdetermine the sagitta correction function, providing a self-consistency check. This paper describes the approach to be used for the alignment of the GEM muon system, the design of the ATS, and the experiments to be conducted using the ATS.

  14. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  15. Overlay improvement by zone alignment strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lee, Ai-Yi; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Yang, Richer; Yuan, Michael; Chen, Henry; Chang, Ray

    2008-03-01

    It is evident that DRAM ground rule continues to shrink down to 90nm and beyond, overlay performance has become more and more critical and important. Wafer edge shows different behavior from center by processes, e.g. a tremendous misalignment at wafer edge makes yield loss . When a conventional linear model is used for alignment correction, higher uncorrectable overlay residuals mostly happen at wafer edge. Therefore, it's obviously necessary to introduce an innovational alignment correction methdology to reduce unwanted wafer edge effect. In this study, we demonstrate the achievement of moderating poor overlay in wafer edge area by a novel zone-dependent alignment strategy, the so-called "Zone Alignment (ZA)". The main difference between the conventional linear model and zone alignment strategy is that the latter compensates an improper averaging effect from first modeling through weighting all surrounding marks with a nonlinear model. In addition, the effects of mark quantity and sampling distribution from "Zone Alignment" are also introduced in this paper. The results of this study indicate that ZA can reduce uncorrectable overlay residual and improve wafer-to-wafer variation significantly. Furthermore, obvious yield improvement is verified by ZA strategy. In conclusion, Zone alignment is the noteworthy strategy for overlay improvement. Moreover, suitable alignment map and mark numbers should be taken into consideration carefully when ZA is applied for further technology node.

  16. Alignment of Developments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, John; George, Judith W.; Pinheiro-Torres, Andreia

    2004-01-01

    This study builds upon the concept of alignment within the curriculum (due to Biggs) and suggests, in the context of two current examples, an integrated methodology for effectively aligned development activities within universities. Higher Education institutions face important challenges. Firstly, quality enhancement of the curriculum is now an…

  17. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  18. Optical alignment of a pupil imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horchem, Stephen D.; Kohrman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The GOES Sounder is a 19-channel discrete filter spectrometer with an additional channel for star sensing. This paper presents the GOES Sounder's instrument optics and compensations, alignment rationale, and alignment mechanism and sensitivities. The results of a line of sight tolerance analysis of the instrument are described, and the prealignment and instrument coregistration are addressed.

  19. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  20. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  1. Evaluating Content Alignment in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Webb, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do…

  2. Alignment-free phylogenetics and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Haubold, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Phylogenetics and population genetics are central disciplines in evolutionary biology. Both are based on comparative data, today usually DNA sequences. These have become so plentiful that alignment-free sequence comparison is of growing importance in the race between scientists and sequencing machines. In phylogenetics, efficient distance computation is the major contribution of alignment-free methods. A distance measure should reflect the number of substitutions per site, which underlies classical alignment-based phylogeny reconstruction. Alignment-free distance measures are either based on word counts or on match lengths, and I apply examples of both approaches to simulated and real data to assess their accuracy and efficiency. While phylogeny reconstruction is based on the number of substitutions, in population genetics, the distribution of mutations along a sequence is also considered. This distribution can be explored by match lengths, thus opening the prospect of alignment-free population genomics.

  3. Vane segment support and alignment device

    DOEpatents

    McLaurin, L.D.; Sizemore, J.D.

    1999-07-13

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position. 5 figs.

  4. Vane segment support and alignment device

    SciTech Connect

    McLaurin, Leroy Dixon; Sizemore, John Derek

    1999-01-01

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position.

  5. Aligning Greek-English parallel texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiotou, Eleni; Koronakis, George; Lazari, Vassiliki

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss issues concerning the alignment of parallel texts written in languages with different alphabets based on an experiment of aligning texts from the proceedings of the European Parliament in Greek and English. First, we describe our implementation of the k-vec algorithm and its application to the bilingual corpus. Then the output of the algorithm is used as a starting point for an alignment procedure at a sentence level which also takes into account mark-ups of meta-information. The results of the implementation are compared to those of the application of the Church and Gale alignment algorithm on the Europarl corpus. The conclusions of this comparison can give useful insights as for the efficiency of alignment algorithms when applied to the particular bilingual corpus.

  6. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L. Curtis

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aigning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront.

  7. Array tomography: semiautomated image alignment.

    PubMed

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time-consuming and require some practice to perfect. Successful array tomography requires that the captured images be properly stacked and aligned, and the software to achieve these ends is freely available. This protocol describes the construction of volumetric image stacks from images of fluorescently labeled arrays for three-dimensional image visualization, analysis, and archiving.

  8. Recursions for statistical multiple alignment

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Jotun; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2003-01-01

    Algorithms are presented that allow the calculation of the probability of a set of sequences related by a binary tree that have evolved according to the Thorne–Kishino–Felsenstein model for a fixed set of parameters. The algorithms are based on a Markov chain generating sequences and their alignment at nodes in a tree. Depending on whether the complete realization of this Markov chain is decomposed into the first transition and the rest of the realization or the last transition and the first part of the realization, two kinds of recursions are obtained that are computationally similar but probabilistically different. The running time of the algorithms is \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}O({\\Pi}_{i}^{d}=1~L_{i})\\end{equation*}\\end{document}, where Li is the length of the ith observed sequences and d is the number of sequences. An alternative recursion is also formulated that uses only a Markov chain involving the inner nodes of a tree. PMID:14657378

  9. Spectroscopic studies on photoelectron transfer from 2-(furan-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole to ZnO, Cu-doped ZnO and Ag-doped ZnO.

    PubMed

    Thanikachalam, V; Arunpandiyan, A; Jayabharathi, J; Karunakaran, C; Ramanathan, P

    2014-09-01

    The 2-(furan-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole [FPI] has been designed and synthesized as fluorescent sensor for nanoparticulate ZnO. The present work investigates the photoelectron transfer (PET) from FPI to ZnO, Cu-doped ZnO and Ag- doped ZnO nanoparticles using electronic and life time spectral measurements. Broad absorption along with red shift indicates the formation of charge-transfer complex [FPI-Nanoparticles]. The photophysical studies indicate lowering of HOMO and LUMO energy levels of FPI on adsorption on ZnO due to FPI- ZnO interaction. The obtained binding constant implies that the binding of FPI with nanoparticles was influenced by the surface modification of ZnO nanoparticles with Cu and Ag.

  10. Algorithms for Automatic Alignment of Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Oliker, Leonid; Schreiber, Robert; Sheffler, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    Aggregate data objects (such as arrays) are distributed across the processor memories when compiling a data-parallel language for a distributed-memory machine. The mapping determines the amount of communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. A common approach is to break the mapping into two stages: an alignment that maps all the objects to an abstract template, followed by a distribution that maps the template to the processors. This paper describes algorithms for solving the various facets of the alignment problem: axis and stride alignment, static and mobile offset alignment, and replication labeling. We show that optimal axis and stride alignment is NP-complete for general program graphs, and give a heuristic method that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. We also show how local graph contractions can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. We show how to model the static offset alignment problem using linear programming, and we show that loop-dependent mobile offset alignment is sometimes necessary for optimum performance. We describe an algorithm with for determining mobile alignments for objects within do loops. We also identify situations in which replicated alignment is either required by the program itself or can be used to improve performance. We describe an algorithm based on network flow that replicates objects so as to minimize the total amount of broadcast communication in replication.

  11. Direct observation of voltage barriers in ZnO varistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, O. L.; Williams, P.; Lin, Y.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Voltage barriers in a ZnO varistor have been imaged by voltage-contrast scanning electron microscopy. They are due to grain boundaries and are capable of supporting voltage differences of up to about 4 V.

  12. Inverter Circuits using Pentacene and ZnO Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iechi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yasuyuki; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2007-04-01

    We report two types of integrated circuits based on a pentacene static-induction transistor (SIT), a pentacene thin-film transistor (TFT) and a zinc oxide (ZnO) TFT. The operating characteristics of a p-p inverter using pentacene SITs and a complementary inverter using a p-channel pentacene TFT and an n-channel ZnO TFT are described. The basic operation of logic circuits at a low voltage was achieved for the first time using the pentacene SIT inverter and complementary circuits with hybrid inorganic and organic materials. Furthermore, we describe the electrical properties of the ZnO films depending on sputtering conditions, and the complementary circuits using ZnO and pentacene TFTs.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and green luminescence in ZnO nanocages.

    PubMed

    Snure, Michael; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterization and observation of green luminescence in ZnO nanocages. A novel low temperature solution-based technique has been developed for growing highly porous ZnO nano-cages from coarse ZnO precursor powders. Various samples, prepared in this study, were characterized using several different characterization tools such as X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Raman, Photoluminescence and Optical Transmission Spectroscopy. It has been shown that ZnO nanocages exhibit green luminescence, with PL data showing a broad green peak at 510 nm. The shift and broadening in the luminescence peaks are understood to arise because of the onset of deep level defects in the system.

  14. Pressure-dependent photoluminescence study of ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Yu, K.M.; Zhang, Y.; Mao, S.S.; Kling, R.

    2004-09-13

    The pressure dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) transition associated with the fundamental band gap of ZnO nanowires has been studied at pressures up to 15 GPa. ZnO nanowires are found to have a higher structural phase transition pressure around 12 GPa as compared to 9.0 GPa for bulk ZnO. The pressure-induced energy shift of the near band-edge luminescence emission yields a linear pressure coefficient of 29.6 meV/GPa with a small sublinear term of -0.43 meV/GPa{sup 2}. An effective hydrostatic deformation potential -3.97 eV for the direct band gap of the ZnO nanowires is derived from the result.

  15. Li doped ZnO thin films for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Serrao, F. J.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    We have prepared undoped (ZnO) and Li doped ZnO (LZO) thin films using cost effective sol gel spin coating method.The structural properties were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and it showed that Li ions occupied interstitial positions in the LZO film. The optical properties like band bending effect, absorption length, band edge sharpness, which have direct impact on solar cell performance has been calculated. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the films showed dominant blue emission with CIE coordinate numbers (0.1384, 0.0836) for ZnO and (0.1356, 0.0910) for LZO. The dominating wavelength of the blue emission is present at 470.9 nm and 472.3 nm for ZnO and LZO films respectively. The structural and optical parameters determined in the present study could be used in LED applications.

  16. Nanostructured ZnO Films for Room Temperature Ammonia Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivya Ponnusamy; Sridharan Madanagurusamy

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique onto a thoroughly cleaned glass substrate at room temperature. X-ray diffraction revealed that the deposited film was polycrystalline in nature. The field emission scanning electron micrograph (FE-SEM) showed the uniform formation of a rugby ball-shaped ZnO nanostructure. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) confirmed that the film was stoichiometric and the direct band gap of the film, determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, was 3.29 eV. The ZnO nanostructured film exhibited better sensing towards ammonia (NH3) at room temperature (˜30°C). The fabricated ZnO film based sensor was capable of detecting NH3 at as low as 5 ppm, and its parameters, such as response, selectivity, stability, and response/recovery time, were also investigated.

  17. First-Principles Approach to Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous Semiconductor Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hybertsen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a first principles method to calculate the energy level alignment between semiconductor band edges and reference energy levels at aqueous interfaces. This alignment is fundamental to understand the electrochemical characteristics of any semiconductor electrode in general and the potential for photocatalytic activity in particular. For example, in the search for new photo-catalytic materials, viable candidates must demonstrate both efficient absorption of the solar spectrum and an appropriate alignment of the band edge levels in the semiconductor to the redox levels for the target reactions. In our approach, the interface-specific contribution to the electrostatic step across the interface is evaluated using density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics to sample the physical interface structure and the corresponding change in the electrostatic potential at the interface. The reference electronic levels in the semiconductor and in the water are calculated using the GW approach, which naturally corrects for errors inherent in the use of Kohn-Sham energy eigenvalues to approximate the electronic excitation energies in each material. Taken together, our calculations provide the alignment of the semiconductor valence band edge to the centroid of the highest occupied 1b1 level in water. The known relationship of the 1b1 level to the normal hydrogen electrode completes the connection to electrochemical levels. We discuss specific results for GaN, ZnO, and TiO2. The effect of interface structural motifs, such as different degrees of water dissociation, and of dynamical characteristics, will be presented together with available experimental data. Work supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  18. Vapor Transport of ZnO in Closed Ampoules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, Witold

    2005-01-01

    Vapor transport of ZnO by PVT and CVT using carbon, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen as the transport agents was studied. Theoretical calculations of the mass flux were based on equilibrium thermodynamics and 1-D diffusional mass transport. Experimental results were found to be consistent with theoretical predictions. NO apparent kinetic limitations to sublimation were observed. Slow reaction of carbon with ZnO source was found.

  19. Photoluminescence of sequential infiltration synthesized ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Gosztola, David J.; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Suh, Hyo-Seon; Connolly, Aine

    2016-02-01

    For the past several years there have been ongoing efforts to incorporate zinc oxide (ZnO) inside polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), in the form of nanoparticles or quantum dots, to combine their optical properties for multiple applications. We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside the polymer. PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid oxide material with enhanced photonic, or sensing, properties. This is much easier than micromachining films of ZnO or other similar oxides because they are difficult to etch. The amount of ZnO formed inside the polymer film is magnitudes higher than equivalent amount deposited on a flat 2D surface, and the intensity of the photoemission suggests there is an enhancement created by the polymer-ZnO interaction. Photoemission from thin films exhibit photoemission similar to intrinsic ZnO with oxygen vacancies. These vacancies can be removed by annealing the sample at 500°C in an oxygen rich environment. SiS ZnO exhibits unusual photoemission properties for thick polymer films, emitting at excitations wavelengths not found in bulk or standard ZnO. Finally we have shown that patterning the polymer and then doing SiS ZnO treatment afterwards allows modifying or manipulating the photoemission spectra. This opens the doors to novel photonic applications.

  20. Beam and target alignment at the National Ignition Facility using the Target Alignment Sensor (TAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nicola, P.; Kalantar, D.; McCarville, T.; Klingmann, J.; Alvarez, S.; Lowe-Webb, R.; Lawson, J.; Datte, P.; Danforth, P.; Schneider, M.; Di Nicola, J.-M.; Jackson, J.; Orth, C.; Azevedo, S.; Tommasini, R.; Manuel, A.; Wallace, R.

    2012-10-01

    The requirements for beam and target alignment for successful ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are stringent: the average of beams to the target must be within 25 μm. Beam and target alignment are achieved with the Target Alignment Sensor (TAS). The TAS is a precision optical device that is inserted into target chamber center to facilitate both beam and target alignment. It incorporates two camera views (upper/lower and side) mounted on each of two stage assemblies (jaws) to view and align the target. It also incorporates a large mirror on each of the two assemblies to reflect the alignment beams onto the upper/lower cameras for beam alignment. The TAS is located in the chamber using reference features by viewing it with two external telescope views. The two jaws are adjusted in elevation to match the desired beam and target alignment locations. For some shot setups, a sequence of TAS positions is required to achieve the full setup and alignment. In this paper we describe the TAS, the characterization of the TAS coordinates for beam and target alignment, and summarize pointing shots that demonstrate the accuracy of beam-target alignment.