Examining Alignment between State Performance Assessment and Mathematics Classroom Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parke, Carol S.; Lane, Suzanne
2008-01-01
The authors describe research on the extent to which mathematics classroom activities in Maryland were aligned with Maryland learning outcomes and the Maryland School Performance Assessment Program (MSPAP; Maryland State Department of Education, 1995, 2000). The study was part of a larger research project (S. Lane, C. S. Parke, & C. A. Stone,…
Alignment of Content and Effectiveness of Mathematics Assessment Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kulm, Gerald; Dager Wilson, Linda; Kitchen, Richard
2005-01-01
Alignment has taken on increased importance given the current high-stakes nature of assessment. To make well-informed decisions about student learning on the basis of test results, assessment items need to be well aligned with standards. Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has developed a procedure for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica
2008-01-01
This technical brief examines the current alignment between Oklahoma Core Curriculum Tests (OCT) and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAPE) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAPE assessments will be based. Applying the methodology used by…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leffler, James
2004-01-01
The process used for this alignment was an abbreviated version of the alignment work and models developed by Norman L. Webb (1997, 1999, 2001, and 2002), and used in alignment studies of the Idaho state assessment system. While the full Webb alignment includes four dimensions, this study only considers two of the dimensions -- Depth of Knowledge…
Alignment of Mathematics State-Level Standards and Assessments: The Role of Reviewer Agreement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Webb, Noreen M.; Herman, Joan L.; Webb, Norman L.
2007-01-01
This article examines the role of reviewer agreement in judgments about alignment between tests and standards. We used case data from three state alignment studies to explore how different approaches to incorporating reviewer agreement changes alignment conclusions. The three case studies showed varying degrees of reviewer agreement about…
Designing Assessment for Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Depka, Eileen
2007-01-01
Teaching mathematics in today's world requires practices and procedures integrated with performance tasks that actively involve students. In this second edition of Designing Rubrics for Mathematics, Eileen Depka clarifies the purpose of rubrics in math instruction and illustrates the relationship between assessment, rubrics, and the National…
Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather
2015-01-01
Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…
Assessing Students Beliefs about Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spangler, Denise A.
1992-01-01
Presents 11 open-ended questions that can be presented to students and teachers at all educational levels in various formats to assess mathematical beliefs. Questions investigate beliefs toward mathematics, the problem-solving process, mathematicians, and mathematical applications. (MDH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newton, Jill A.; Kasten, Sarah E.
2013-01-01
The release of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and their adoption across the United States calls for careful attention to the alignment between mathematics standards and assessments. This study investigates 2 models that measure alignment between standards and assessments, the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) and the Webb…
Assessment and Learning of Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leder, Gilah C., Ed.
This book addresses the link between student learning of mathematics, the teaching method adopted in the mathematics classroom, and the assessment procedures used to determine and measure student knowledge. Fifteen chapters address issues that include a review of different models of mathematics learning and assessment practices, three contrasting…
Promoting and Assessing Mathematical Generalising
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Tiffany; Lannin, John; van Garderen, Delinda
2015-01-01
Helping students generalise mathematical ideas is an essential component of teaching and learning of mathematics (Lannin, Ellis, Elliott & Zbiek, 2011). However, it can be challenging for primary teachers to assess and promote generalisation. Because generalisation is an essential part of mathematics instruction, the authors highlight the…
Evaluating Alignment between Curriculum, Assessment, and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martone, Andrea; Sireci, Stephen G.
2009-01-01
The authors (a) discuss the importance of alignment for facilitating proper assessment and instruction, (b) describe the three most common methods for evaluating the alignment between state content standards and assessments, (c) discuss the relative strengths and limitations of these methods, and (d) discuss examples of applications of each…
Assessment Mathematics Teacher's Competencies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alnoor, A. G.; Yuanxiang, Guo; Abudhuim, F. S.
2007-01-01
This paper aimed to identifying the professional efficiencies for the intermediate schools mathematics teachers and tries to know at what level the math teachers experience those competencies. The researcher used a descriptive research approach, the study data collected from specialist educators and teacher's experts and previous studies to…
Supporting Assessment in Undergraduate Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steen, Lynn Arthur, Ed.
2006-01-01
This publication contains 29 case studies offering lessons learned during a four year NSF-supported MAA project designed to support mathematicians and mathematics departments in the increasingly important challenge of assessing student learning. Three introductory essays set assessment in broader academic and national contexts; an appendix…
Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui
2013-01-01
We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…
Integrating Mathematics across the Curriculum. NCTM-Aligned Activities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Hope
An effective curriculum gives students the opportunity to perceive relationships among different topics in mathematics, use mathematics in their everyday lives, and apply mathematical thinking and problem solving to other curriculum areas. This book contains fun and creative ways to integrate mathematics across the curriculum with a diversity of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaufman, Julia Heath; Stein, Mary Kay; Junker, Brian
2016-01-01
We investigated the alignment between a teacher survey self-report measure and classroom observation measure of ambitious mathematics instructional practice among teachers in two urban school districts using two different standards-based mathematics curricula. Survey reports suggested mild differences in teachers' instructional practices between…
Evaluation of mathematical algorithms for automatic patient alignment in radiosurgery.
Williams, Kenneth M; Schulte, Reinhard W; Schubert, Keith E; Wroe, Andrew J
2015-06-01
Image registration techniques based on anatomical features can serve to automate patient alignment for intracranial radiosurgery procedures in an effort to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the alignment process as well as potentially eliminate the need for implanted fiducial markers. To explore this option, four two-dimensional (2D) image registration algorithms were analyzed: the phase correlation technique, mutual information (MI) maximization, enhanced correlation coefficient (ECC) maximization, and the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. Digitally reconstructed radiographs from the treatment planning computed tomography scan of a human skull were used as the reference images, while orthogonal digital x-ray images taken in the treatment room were used as the captured images to be aligned. The accuracy of aligning the skull with each algorithm was compared to the alignment of the currently practiced procedure, which is based on a manual process of selecting common landmarks, including implanted fiducials and anatomical skull features. Of the four algorithms, three (phase correlation, MI maximization, and ECC maximization) demonstrated clinically adequate (ie, comparable to the standard alignment technique) translational accuracy and improvements in speed compared to the interactive, user-guided technique; however, the ICP algorithm failed to give clinically acceptable results. The results of this work suggest that a combination of different algorithms may provide the best registration results. This research serves as the initial groundwork for the translation of automated, anatomy-based 2D algorithms into a real-world system for 2D-to-2D image registration and alignment for intracranial radiosurgery. This may obviate the need for invasive implantation of fiducial markers into the skull and may improve treatment room efficiency and accuracy. PMID:25782189
Assessing Innovative Proposals in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ediger, Marlow
Mathematics is at the apex in priorities pertaining to state-mandated testing of students. With 49 out of 50 states having mandated the testing of students, all of these have mathematics in the testing format. This paper discusses the modern school mathematics movement, recent approaches in improving the teaching of mathematics, and specific…
Alignment of Standards and Assessment: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Methods for Alignment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nasstrom, Gunilla; Henriksson, Widar
2008-01-01
Introduction: In a standards-based school-system alignment of policy documents with standards and assessment is important. To be able to evaluate whether schools and students have reached the standards, the assessment should focus on the standards. Different models and methods can be used for measuring alignment, i.e. the correspondence between…
Educational assessment of mathematics skills and abilities.
Bryant, B R; Rivera, D P
1997-01-01
Mathematics assessments play a valuable role in identifying students' strengths and weaknesses and in developing and monitoring instructional practice. Over the last century, mathematics assessment has been refined as math content has changed as a result of curriculum reform. Today, researchers and practitioners use various assessment techniques to (a) identify students who have mathematics learning disabilities (LD), (b) target individual strengths and weaknesses across mathematics areas, (c) document the effects of mathematics instruction in a remedial or special program, (d) identify strategies that students employ during math activities, (e) conduct research about the characteristics of students with math LD, and (f) examine the technical characteristics of mathematics tests. This article provides an historical overview of the development of mathematics assessment and a description of specific strategies for conducting math evaluations. PMID:9009875
Clinical Assessment in Mathematics: Learning the Craft.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hunting, Robert P.; Doig, Brian A.
1997-01-01
Discusses a professional development program called Clinical Approaches to Mathematics Assessment. Argues for the advanced training of mathematics teachers who understand knowledge construction processes of students; can use clinical tools for evaluating a student's unique mathematical "fingerprint"; and can create or adapt problems, tasks, or…
Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.
2012-01-01
In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…
Assessing Higher Order Thinking in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kulm, Gerald, Ed.
This book explores current theory, research, practice, and policy in the assessment of higher order thinking in mathematics, focusing on the elementary and secondary grades. Current knowledge and research on mathematics learning and testing is synthesized. Examples of innovative test items for classroom use and state assessment programs are…
Critical Alignment in Inquiry-Based Practice in Developing Mathematics Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodchild, Simon; Fuglestad, Anne Berit; Jaworski, Barbara
2013-01-01
This paper reports a case study from a mathematics teaching developmental research project. The theoretical foundation for the research comprises "communities of inquiry" and "critical alignment," with which the developmental methodology has a particular synergy. This synergy is the main focus of the paper. The paper elaborates…
Assessing Students' Beliefs about Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spangler, Denise A.
1992-01-01
Presents eleven open-ended questions used to address students' beliefs about mathematics that were culled from a wide variety of mathematics education populations. Each question is followed by a summary of typical responses from those populations that can help teachers plan instruction and structure the classroom environment. (JJK)
The Assessment of Mathematical Abilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osborn, Herbert H.
1983-01-01
A test was given to 322 secondary students to develop a profile of mathematical ability based on four components: computation, pattern recognition, logical reasoning, and symbolic manipulation. These profiles were compared to mathematics test scores; the results verified hypotheses about individual differences in mental processes and knowledge…
Judging Alignment of Curriculum-Based Measures in Mathematics and Common Core Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morton, Christopher
2013-01-01
Measurement literature supports the utility of alignment models for application with state standards and large-scale assessments. However, the literature is lacking in the application of these models to curriculum-based measures (CBMs) and common core standards. In this study, I investigate the alignment of CBMs and standards, with specific…
The Myth of Objectivity in Mathematics Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romagnano, Lew
2001-01-01
Investigates meaningful assessment to give teachers information on students' understanding of mathematical ideas and how their understanding changes over time. Presents examples collected from a teacher-made quiz, the Advanced Placement calculus test, and the SAT-I Mathematics test. Illustrates both the inherent subjectivity of these methods and…
Teachers' Assessments of Students' Learning of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buhagiar, Michael A.; Murphy, Roger
2008-01-01
This paper reports a study of the classroom assessment practices of 12 sixth form college mathematics teachers in Malta. It explores the extent to which these teachers are knowledgeable about their students' learning of mathematics and the implications that this has for their classroom practices. It reveals that these teachers' knowledge of their…
Self and Peer Assessment of Mathematical Processes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Onion, Alice; Javaheri, Elnaz
2011-01-01
This article explores using Bowland assessment tasks and Nuffield Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP) activities as part of a scheme of work. The Bowland tasks and Nuffield AMP activities are designed to develop students' mathematical thinking; they are focused on key processes. Unfamiliar demands are made on the students and they are challenged…
The Summative Assessment Diet: How We Assess in Mathematics Degrees
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian
2011-01-01
Much research and many papers on mathematics pedagogy have discussed assessment and, in particular, the need to provide a varied diet of methods by which students are assessed for the award of their degree. In this article, we explore the mix of assessment methods provided across a range of UK university mathematics departments. We examine the…
Alignathon: a competitive assessment of whole-genome alignment methods.
Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Harris, Robert S; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Beal, Kathryn; Seledtsov, Igor; Molodtsov, Vladimir; Raney, Brian J; Clawson, Hiram; Kim, Jaebum; Kemena, Carsten; Chang, Jia-Ming; Erb, Ionas; Poliakov, Alexander; Hou, Minmei; Herrero, Javier; Kent, William James; Solovyev, Victor; Darling, Aaron E; Ma, Jian; Notredame, Cedric; Brudno, Michael; Dubchak, Inna; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict
2014-12-01
Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are a prerequisite for a wide variety of evolutionary analyses. Published assessments and benchmark data sets for protein and, to a lesser extent, global nucleotide MSAs are available, but less effort has been made to establish benchmarks in the more general problem of whole-genome alignment (WGA). Using the same model as the successful Assemblathon competitions, we organized a competitive evaluation in which teams submitted their alignments and then assessments were performed collectively after all the submissions were received. Three data sets were used: Two were simulated and based on primate and mammalian phylogenies, and one was comprised of 20 real fly genomes. In total, 35 submissions were assessed, submitted by 10 teams using 12 different alignment pipelines. We found agreement between independent simulation-based and statistical assessments, indicating that there are substantial accuracy differences between contemporary alignment tools. We saw considerable differences in the alignment quality of differently annotated regions and found that few tools aligned the duplications analyzed. We found that many tools worked well at shorter evolutionary distances, but fewer performed competitively at longer distances. We provide all data sets, submissions, and assessment programs for further study and provide, as a resource for future benchmarking, a convenient repository of code and data for reproducing the simulation assessments. PMID:25273068
Alignathon: a competitive assessment of whole-genome alignment methods
Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Harris, Robert S.; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Beal, Kathryn; Seledtsov, Igor; Molodtsov, Vladimir; Raney, Brian J.; Clawson, Hiram; Kim, Jaebum; Kemena, Carsten; Chang, Jia-Ming; Erb, Ionas; Poliakov, Alexander; Hou, Minmei; Herrero, Javier; Kent, William James; Solovyev, Victor; Darling, Aaron E.; Ma, Jian; Notredame, Cedric; Brudno, Michael; Dubchak, Inna; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict
2014-01-01
Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are a prerequisite for a wide variety of evolutionary analyses. Published assessments and benchmark data sets for protein and, to a lesser extent, global nucleotide MSAs are available, but less effort has been made to establish benchmarks in the more general problem of whole-genome alignment (WGA). Using the same model as the successful Assemblathon competitions, we organized a competitive evaluation in which teams submitted their alignments and then assessments were performed collectively after all the submissions were received. Three data sets were used: Two were simulated and based on primate and mammalian phylogenies, and one was comprised of 20 real fly genomes. In total, 35 submissions were assessed, submitted by 10 teams using 12 different alignment pipelines. We found agreement between independent simulation-based and statistical assessments, indicating that there are substantial accuracy differences between contemporary alignment tools. We saw considerable differences in the alignment quality of differently annotated regions and found that few tools aligned the duplications analyzed. We found that many tools worked well at shorter evolutionary distances, but fewer performed competitively at longer distances. We provide all data sets, submissions, and assessment programs for further study and provide, as a resource for future benchmarking, a convenient repository of code and data for reproducing the simulation assessments. PMID:25273068
Engineering Mathematics Assessment Using "MapleTA"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian S.
2008-01-01
The assessment of degree level engineering mathematics students using the computer-aided assessment package MapleTA is discussed. Experience of academic and practical issues for both online coursework and examination assessments is presented, hopefully benefiting other academics in this novel area of activity. (Contains 6 figures and 1 table.)
Students' Perceptions of Assessment in Undergraduate Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian
2013-01-01
A consistent message emerges from research on undergraduate students' perceptions of assessment which describes traditional assessment as detrimental to learning. However this literature has not included students in the pure sciences. Mathematics education literature advocates the introduction of innovative assessment at university. In this…
When Mathematics and Statistics Collide in Assessment Tasks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bargagliotti, Anna; Groth, Randall
2016-01-01
Because the disciplines of mathematics and statistics are naturally intertwined, designing assessment questions that disentangle mathematical and statistical reasoning can be challenging. We explore the writing statistics assessment tasks that take into consideration potential mathematical reasoning they may inadvertently activate.
Screencasts: Formative Assessment for Mathematical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soto, Melissa; Ambrose, Rebecca
2016-01-01
Increased attention to reasoning and justification in mathematics classrooms requires the use of more authentic assessment methods. Particularly important are tools that allow teachers and students opportunities to engage in formative assessment practices such as gathering data, interpreting understanding, and revising thinking or instruction.…
Students' Preferences in Undergraduate Mathematics Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.
2015-01-01
Existing research into students' preferences for assessment methods has been developed from a restricted sample: in particular, the voice of students in the 'hard-pure sciences' has rarely been heard. We conducted a mixed method study to explore mathematics students' preferences of assessment methods. In contrast to the message from the general…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lang, Laura B.; Schoen, Robert R.; LaVenia, Mark; Oberlin, Maureen
2014-01-01
The Florida Center for Research in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (FCR-STEM) was awarded a grant by the Florida Department of Education to develop a Mathematics Formative Assessment System (MFAS) aligned with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Intended for both teachers and students, formative assessment is a process that…
Aligning Assessment with Curriculum and Pedagogy in Applied Information Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newhouse, Paul
2010-01-01
This paper reports on one part of the first year of a three-year study into the feasibility of using digital technologies to represent the output from practical assessment tasks in senior secondary courses. The aim was to improve the alignment of assessment with pedagogy and curriculum. Students in seven classes studying the "Applied Information…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roach, Andrew T.; McGrath, Dawn; Wixson, Corinne; Talapatra, Devadrita
2010-01-01
This article describes an alignment study conducted to evaluate the alignment between Indiana's Kindergarten content standards and items on the Indiana Standards Tool for Alternate Reporting. Alignment is the extent to which standards and assessments are in agreement, working together to guide educators' efforts to support children's learning and…
Towards Alignment Independent Quantitative Assessment of Homology Detection
Kliger, Yossef
2006-01-01
Identification of homologous proteins provides a basis for protein annotation. Sequence alignment tools reliably identify homologs sharing high sequence similarity. However, identification of homologs that share low sequence similarity remains a challenge. Lowering the cutoff value could enable the identification of diverged homologs, but also introduces numerous false hits. Methods are being continuously developed to minimize this problem. Estimation of the fraction of homologs in a set of protein alignments can help in the assessment and development of such methods, and provides the users with intuitive quantitative assessment of protein alignment results. Herein, we present a computational approach that estimates the amount of homologs in a set of protein pairs. The method requires a prevalent and detectable protein feature that is conserved between homologs. By analyzing the feature prevalence in a set of pairwise protein alignments, the method can estimate the number of homolog pairs in the set independently of the alignments' quality. Using the HomoloGene database as a standard of truth, we implemented this approach in a proteome-wide analysis. The results revealed that this approach, which is independent of the alignments themselves, works well for estimating the number of homologous proteins in a wide range of homology values. In summary, the presented method can accompany homology searches and method development, provides validation to search results, and allows tuning of tools and methods. PMID:17205117
The Fantastic Four of Mathematics Assessment Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenlees, Jane
2011-01-01
In this article, the author makes reference to four comic book characters to make the point that together they are a formidable team, but on their own they are vulnerable. She examines the four components of mathematics assessment items and the need for implicit instruction within the classroom for student success. Just like the "Fantastic Four"…
The Challenge of Maintaining the Integrity of Reform Mathematics in Large-Scale Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suurtamm, Christine; Lawson, Alex; Koch, Martha
2008-01-01
This article examines the complex task of designing a large-scale assessment to align with a reform-oriented view of mathematics teaching and learning. Specifically, we address this issue through the case of the province of Ontario that has a reform-oriented curriculum and support for its implementation. The province also has a mandate to assess…
Next-Generation Assessments Aligned to the Common Core
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Willhoft, Joseph L.
2012-01-01
Through the Common Core State Standards and the development of new assessments aligned to the standards, the public education system is undergoing a transformation--and administrators can help make this vision a reality. Today, more than 45 states and the District of Columbia have adopted the Common Core State Standards. The standards, however,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.
2016-01-01
Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…
Aligning Objectives and Assessment in Responsible Conduct of Research Instruction
Antes, Alison L.; DuBois, James M.
2014-01-01
Efforts to advance research integrity in light of concerns about misbehavior in research rely heavily on education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). However, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of RCR instruction as a remedy. Assessment is essential in RCR education if the research community wishes to expend the effort of instructors, students, and trainees wisely. This article presents key considerations that instructors and course directors must consider in aligning learning objectives with instructional methods and assessment measures, and it provides illustrative examples. Above all, in order for RCR educators to assess outcomes more effectively, they must align assessment to their learning objectives and attend to the validity of the measures used. PMID:25574258
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bargagliotti, Anna E.
2012-01-01
Statistics and probability have become an integral part of mathematics education. Therefore it is important to understand whether curricular materials adequately represent statistical ideas. The "Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education" (GAISE) report (Franklin, Kader, Mewborn, Moreno, Peck, Perry, & Scheaffer, 2007),…
Protalign: a 3-dimensional protein alignment assessment tool.
Meads, D; Hansen, M D; Pang, A
1999-01-01
Protein fold recognition (sometimes called threading) is the prediction of a protein's 3-dimensional shape based on its similarity to a protein of known structure. Fold predictions are low resolution; that is, no effort is made to rotate the protein's component amino acid side chains into their correct spatial orientations. The goal is simply to recognize the protein family member that most closely resembles the target sequence of unknown structure and to create a sensible alignment of the target to the known structure (i.e., a structure-sequence alignment). To facilitate this type of structure prediction, we have designed a low resolution molecular graphics tool. ProtAlign introduces the ability to interact with and edit alignments directly in the 3-dimensional structure as well as in the usual 2-dimensional layout. It also contains several functions and features to help the user assess areas within the alignment. ProtAlign implements an open pipe architecture to allow other programs to access its molecular graphics capabilities. In addition, it is capable of "driving" other programs. Because amino acid side chain orientation is not relevant in fold recognition, we represent amino acid residues as abstract shapes or glyphs much like Lego (tm) blocks and we borrow techniques from comparative flow visualization using streamlines to provide clean depictions of the entire protein model. By creating a low resolution representation of protein structure, we are able to at least double the amount of information on the screen. At the same time, we create a view that is not as busy as the corresponding representations using traditional high resolution visualization methods which show detailed atomic structure. This eliminates distracting and possibly misleading visual clutter resulting from the mapping of protein alignment information onto a high resolution display of the known structure. This molecular graphics program is implemented in Open GL to facilitate porting to
Assessing Mathematics: 1. APU Framework and Modes of Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foxman, Derek; Mitchell, Peter
1983-01-01
The "what" and "how" of the Assessment of Performance Unit surveys of the mathematics performance of 11- and 15-year-olds in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland are explained. The framework and forms of assessment are detailed, and the experience of the testers noted. (MNS)
Mathematics Assessment and Evaluation: Imperatives for Mathematics Educators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.
This books contains papers written on issues related to externally mandated mathematics tests and their influence on school mathematics. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the book, including brief abstracts of each chapter. Chapter 2 presents a summary of the overall problems associated with the need for valid information. Remaining chapters…
Spacer process and alignment assessment for SADP process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lattard, L.; McCallum, M.; Morton, R.; Fujiwara, T.; Makino, K.; Tokui, A.; Takahashi, N.; Sasamoto, S.
2012-03-01
Self Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) is now widely accepted as a viable technology for the further extension of 193nm immersion lithography towards the 22nm /18nm technology nodes. SADP was primary introduced for the manufacturing of flash memory due to its 1D design geometry. However, SADP is now becoming a main stream technology for advanced technology nodes for logic product. SADP results in alignment marks with reduced image contrast after completion of spacer patterning. Consequently there is an elevated risk that the alignment performance of the cut lithography layer on the spacer [1] may be negatively impacted. Initial studies indicate that it may be necessary to consider new mark designs. In this paper, we will evaluate different types of SADP processes with the alignment system of the Nikon S620D and S621D immersion scanner. We will discuss the performances and the differences observed due to the SADP materials. Included in this study is an intensive characterization of the morphology of the spacer after SADP process. We will use for this a 3D-AFM from Insight, and characterize the spacer profile of the spacer. Using a standard AFM microscope, we can characterize the surface roughness in the inner and the outer part of the wafer. The self aligned spacer process results in asymmetric spacers. Two types of surface (inside and outside) of the spacer are formed. The impact of this asymmetry is also assessed. The roughness difference, between the two parts, will play an important roll in the alignment contrast.
Assessing Middle and High School Mathematics & Science: Differentiating Formative Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waterman, Sheryn Spencer
2010-01-01
For middle and high school teachers of mathematics and science, this book is filled with examples of instructional strategies that address students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. It shows teachers how to formatively assess their students by addressing differentiated learning targets. Included are detailed examples of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tran, Dung
2016-01-01
This study examined the alignment of three selected U.S. high school textbooks series with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) regarding the treatment of statistical association. A framework grounded in the literature for inclusion and exclusion of reasoning about association topics was developed, and textbook entries were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Felicia Moss
This study involved over 4,000 third grade students in a large (90,000+) suburban-emerging-urban school district. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of curriculum alignment on student achievement in mathematics as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (IOWA) after one year of implementation in the DeKalb County School…
Assessing Mathematics 4. Problem Solving: The APU Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foxman, Derek; And Others
1984-01-01
Presented are examples of problem-solving items from practical and written mathematics tests. These tests are part of an English survey designed to assess the mathematics achievement of students aged 11 and 15. (JN)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiland, Christina; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Hurwitz, Michael D.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie H.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
2012-01-01
In recent years, there has been increased interest in improving early mathematics curricula and instruction. Subsequently, there has also been a rise in demand for better early mathematics assessments, as most current measures are limited in their content and/or their sensitivity to detect differences in early mathematics development among young…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lacher, S. R.; Torgeson, Ronald M.
In response to citizens' need and right to know about how North Dakota students perform in mathematics, the Department of Public Instruction and the North Dakota Council of Teachers of Mathematics administered a criterion-referenced mathematics assessment in grades 4 (1,298 students) and 8 (1,475 students). Also included were items from the…
Rethinking Program Assessment through the Use of Program Alignment Mapping Technique
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Min; Wrobbel, Duff; Blankson, Isaac
2010-01-01
Curriculum mapping is a well-known assessment tool used to articulate and align a curriculum. The authors present an improved method of curriculum alignment that combines the traditional curriculum mapping with what is often called prerequisite mapping. This improved method of curriculum alignment mapping we label Program Alignment Mapping (PAM)…
Assessing Understanding through Reading and Writing in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna
2010-01-01
The mathematics education community recognizes the integrality of reading and writing in learning and communicating mathematics knowledge. Unfortunately, many students have yet to significantly experience this integrality in their mathematics classrooms despite the power these tools offer teachers for assessing student knowledge. This paper…
A Pilot Mathematics Assessment of Arizona Sixth-Grade Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.
Student achievement in mathematics at the sixth-grade level was assessed in this study. A sample of 4,047 students under 160 teachers in 114 schools, 26 school districts, and 10 counties are given a criterion-referenced mathematics test. The McGraw-Hill Prescriptive Mathematics Inventory (PMI-Aqua Level) was selected for use in this pilot program.…
Sixth Grade Mathematics. A Needs Assessment Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Program Planning and Needs Assessment.
The Prescriptive Mathematics Inventory (PMI)-Level B and a Pupil identification Form (PID) were administered to 22,055 sixth graders in Texas. Results from the PMI are reported in terms of the percentage of students marking the correct response for each of 209 objectives. Panels of mathematics teachers and of mathematics experts rated 40 of these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.
2013-01-01
The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mohamud, Abdinur; Fleck, Dan
2010-01-01
The purpose of this article is to describe the process and development of English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards and assessment in Ohio and to discuss issues related to alignment. The article addresses the importance of alignment among standards, instruction, and assessment, as well as the effect of alignment on students' academic…
When Teachers Know What Students Know: Integrating Mathematics Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gearhart, Maryl; Saxe, Geoffrey B.
2004-01-01
The premise of this article is that excellent teaching requires ongoing assessment of student understanding--a commitment to knowing what students know. The Integrating Mathematics Assessment (IMA) program provides a well-researched example of professional development that helps teachers interpret children's mathematical thinking and guide…
Eighth Grade Assessment of Mathematics and Reading. 1989 Summary Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.
In February 1989, statewide assessment tests in reading, mathematics, and writing were given to a sample of eighth graders throughout Oregon. The results and analyses of reading and mathematics assessments are presented. Important trends are described based on the analysis of data from 1985, 1987, and 1989. The 1989 information provides the first…
An Assessment Model for Proof Comprehension in Undergraduate Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Fuller, Evan; Weber, Keith; Rhoads, Kathryn; Samkoff, Aron
2012-01-01
Although proof comprehension is fundamental in advanced undergraduate mathematics courses, there has been limited research on what it means to understand a mathematical proof at this level and how such understanding can be assessed. In this paper, we address these issues by presenting a multidimensional model for assessing proof comprehension in…
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…
Core Skills Assessment to Improve Mathematical Competency
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carr, Michael; Bowe, Brian; Ní Fhloinn, Eabhnat
2013-01-01
Many engineering undergraduates begin third-level education with significant deficiencies in their core mathematical skills. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology, a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students, consistently revealing problems in basic mathematics. It is difficult to motivate students to address these…
Assessing Students' Conceptions of Reform Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Star, Jon R.; Hoffmann, Amanda J.
As the use of National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored, reform- oriented mathematics curricula has become more prevalent across the U.S., an increasing number of researchers are attempting to study the "impact" of reform. In particular, mathematics educators are interested in determining whether reforms are having the desired effects on…
Mathematical Knowledge and Skills: Selected Results from the Second Assessment of Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahl, Stuart
This is one of a series of reports summarizing the results of the second mathematics assessment conducted by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Nine, 13- and 17-year-olds were assessed during the 1977-78 school year. The assessment measured achievement in various content areas at four levels of cognitive processes (knowledge,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fulmer, Gavin W.; Polikoff, Morgan S.
2014-01-01
An essential component in school accountability efforts is for assessments to be well-aligned with the standards or curriculum they are intended to measure. However, relatively little prior research has explored methods to determine statistical significance of alignment or misalignment. This study explores analyses of alignment as a special case…
How Well Aligned Are Textbooks to the Common Core Standards in Mathematics?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polikoff, Morgan S.
2015-01-01
Research has identified a number of problems limiting the implementation of content standards in the classroom. Curriculum materials may be among the most important influences on teachers' instruction. As new standards roll out, there is skepticism about the alignment of "Common Core--aligned" curriculum materials to the standards. This…
Assessment of a field-aligned ICRF antenna
Wukitch, S. J.; Brunner, D.; Ennever, P.; Garrett, M. L.; Hubbard, A.; Labombard, B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Miller, D.; Ochoukov, R.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.
2014-02-12
Impurity contamination and localized heat loads associated with ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna operation are among the most challenging issues for ICRF utilization.. Another challenge is maintaining maximum coupled power through plasma variations including edge localized modes (ELMs) and confinement transitions. Here, we report on an experimental assessment of a field aligned (FA) antenna with respect to impurity contamination, impurity sources, RF enhanced heat flux and load tolerance. In addition, we compare the modification of the scrape of layer (SOL) plasma potential of the FA antenna to a conventional, toroidally aligned (TA) antenna, in order to explore the underlying physics governing impurity contamination linked to ICRF heating. The FA antenna is a 4-strap ICRF antenna where the current straps and antenna enclosure sides are perpendicular to and the Faraday screen rods are parallel to the total magnetic field. In principle, alignment with respect to the total magnetic field minimizes integrated E∥ (electric field along a magnetic field line) via symmetry. Consistent with expectations, we observed that the impurity contamination and impurity source at the FA antenna are reduced compared to the TA antenna. In both L and H-mode discharges, the radiated power is 20–30% lower for a FA-antenna heated discharge than a discharge heated with the TA-antennas. Further we observe that the fraction of RF energy deposited upon the antenna is less than 0.4 % of the total injected RF energy in dipole phasing. The total deposited energy increases significantly when the FA antenna is operated in monopole phasing. The FA antenna also exhibits an unexpected load tolerance for ELMs and confinement transitions compared to the TA antennas. However, inconsistent with expectations, we observe RF induced plasma potentials to be nearly identical for FA and TA antennas when operated in dipole phasing. In monopole phasing, the FA antenna has the highest plasma
The Mathematics Assessment Collaborative: Performance Testing to Improve Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foster, David; Noyce, Pendred
2004-01-01
In this article, the authors describe a collaborative effort involving 30 school districts in California's Silicon Valley that are seeking to overcome the ill effects of mandatory high-stakes standardized testing in mathematics. These districts administer, score, and analyze a common set of performance assessments in mathematics in a way that…
Exploring Crossing Differential Item Functioning by Gender in Mathematics Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ong, Yoke Mooi; Williams, Julian; Lamprianou, Iasonas
2015-01-01
The purpose of this article is to explore crossing differential item functioning (DIF) in a test drawn from a national examination of mathematics for 11-year-old pupils in England. An empirical dataset was analyzed to explore DIF by gender in a mathematics assessment. A two-step process involving the logistic regression (LR) procedure for…
Student Teachers' Views about Assessment and Evaluation Methods in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dogan, Mustafa
2011-01-01
This study aimed to find out assessment and evaluation approaches in a Mathematics Teacher Training Department based on the views and experiences of student teachers. The study used a descriptive survey method, with the research sample consisting of 150 third- and fourth-year Primary Mathematics student teachers. Data were collected using a…
4th Grade Direct Mathematics Assessment Toolkit. Revised 2000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Dept. of Public Instruction.
The purpose of the Idaho Direct Mathematics Assessment (DMA) is to measure Idaho students' mathematical problem-solving skills, including their ability to apply basic skills to problem-solving situations as stated in the Idaho Achievement Standards document. Problem solving is valued as an essential tool for success in a complex, modern world. The…
8th Grade Direct Mathematics Assessment Toolkit. Revised 2000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Dept. of Public Instruction.
The purpose of the Idaho Direct Mathematics Assessment (DMA) is to measure Idaho students' mathematical problem-solving skills, including their ability to apply basic skills to problem-solving situations as stated in the Idaho Achievement Standards document. Problem solving is valued as an essential tool for success in a complex, modern world. The…
Assessing the Potential of Mathematics Textbooks to Promote Deep Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shield, Malcolm; Dole, Shelley
2013-01-01
Curriculum documents for mathematics emphasise the importance of promoting depth of knowledge rather than shallow coverage of the curriculum. In this paper, we report on a study that explored the analysis of junior secondary mathematics textbooks to assess their potential to assist in teaching and learning aimed at building and applying deep…
Using Problem Solving to Assess Young Children's Mathematics Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.
2012-01-01
Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Achieve, Inc., 2006
2006-01-01
For the past two years, Achieve, Inc. has worked with the Transition Mathematics Project (TMP), a collaborative project of K-12 schools, community and technical colleges, and baccalaureate institutions within the state of Washington, as it developed mathematics standards that "define the core knowledge and skills expected of students entering…
Assessing Mathematics 5. Attitudes and Sex Differences: Some APU Findings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joffe, Lynn; Foxman, Derek
1984-01-01
From the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) in Britain, illustrative comments of 11- and 15-year-olds concerning mathematics are presented. Sex differences in attitudes and in test performance are also given. (MNS)
Core skills assessment to improve mathematical competency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Michael; Bowe, Brian; Fhloinn, Eabhnat Ní
2013-12-01
Many engineering undergraduates begin third-level education with significant deficiencies in their core mathematical skills. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology, a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students, consistently revealing problems in basic mathematics. It is difficult to motivate students to address these problems; instead, they struggle through their degree, carrying a serious handicap of poor core mathematical skills, as confirmed by exploratory testing of final year students. In order to improve these skills, a pilot project was set up in which a 'module' in core mathematics was developed. The course material was basic, but 90% or higher was required to pass. Students were allowed to repeat this module throughout the year by completing an automated examination on WebCT populated by a question bank. Subsequent to the success of this pilot with third-year mechanical engineering students, the project was extended to five different engineering programmes, across three different year-groups. Full results and analysis of this project are presented, including responses to interviews carried out with a selection of the students involved.
Psychological Perspectives in Assessing Mathematics Learning Needs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Augustyniak, Kristine; Murphy, Jacqueline; Phillips, Donna Kester
2005-01-01
While the definition of learning disabilities has been the subject of controversy for decades, the current federal classification system identifies three specific areas of deficit: reading, written language, and mathematics and maintains the presumption that the disabilities are a result of a central nervous system dysfunction. In contrast to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osta, Iman
2007-01-01
This research aimed at developing a methodological framework to investigate the alignment of the Lebanese national math exam tests with the curriculum at the middle school level, during the transitory period of a major curricular reform. The focus is on exploring the characteristics of an "assessment culture" set by the national exams during the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephens, Max, Ed.; Izard, John, Ed.
The purpose of the Australian conference on mathematical assessment was to address the challenges to traditional methods of assessment that have resulted as part of the call for reform in the mathematics curriculum. The 28 papers presented were: "Who Assesses Whom and To What Purpose?" (Leone Burton; "Assessment of the Learned Structure in…
Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel
2015-09-01
Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.
Dynamic Assessment, Potential Giftedness and Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Popa, Nicoleta Laura; Pauc, Ramona Loredana
2015-01-01
Dynamic assessment is currently discussed in educational literature as one of the most promising practices in stimulating learning among various groups of students, including gifted and potentially gifted students. The present study investigates effects of dynamic assessment on mathematics achievement among elementary school students, with…
New Approaches to Assessment in Science and Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crow, Tracy, Ed.
1997-01-01
This issue of ENC Focus serves as a guide to 29 instructional materials that utilize some form of alternative assessment. These materials focus on mathematics, science, and integrated topics. The products included utilize one or more of the following means of student assessment: (1) portfolios; (2) journals; (3) interviews; (4) surveys; (5)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Achieve, Inc., 2014
2014-01-01
In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Achieve, Inc., 2014
2014-01-01
In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards. The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the CCSS; each…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeley, Page; Tobey, Cheryl Rose
2011-01-01
Award-winning author Page Keeley and mathematics expert Cheryl Rose Tobey apply the successful format of Keeley's best-selling "Science Formative Assessment" to mathematics. They provide 75 formative assessment strategies and show teachers how to use them to inform instructional planning and better meet the needs of all students. Research shows…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norton, Anderson; McCloskey, Andrea; Hudson, Rick A.
2011-01-01
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental elementary mathematics field experience course, we have designed a new assessment instrument. These video-based prediction assessments engage prospective teachers in a video analysis of a child solving mathematical tasks. The prospective teachers build a model of that child's mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesh, Richard, Ed.; Lamon, Susan J., Ed.
This book grew out of a conference sponsored by the Educational Testing Service and the University of Wisconsin's National Center for Research in Mathematical Science Education that focused on assessment issues in mathematics education. The book's 16 chapters focus on clarifying and articulating the goals of assessment and instruction. They are…
Language, Diversity, and Assessment in Mathematics Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berenson, Sarah B.
1997-01-01
Examines the theoretical framework of psychologist Lev Vygotsky with regard to communication tools, cognition, and socio-cultural effects on these tools. Reports the results of several studies of students' word meanings of division by adapting Luria's instruments for alternative assessments. Discusses the implications of socio-cultural diversity,…
Generalizability and Validity of a Mathematics Performance Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Suzanne; And Others
1996-01-01
Evidence from test results of 3,604 sixth and seventh graders is provided for the generalizability and validity of the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) Cognitive Assessment Instrument, which is designed to measure program outcomes and growth in mathematics. (SLD)
Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Subject Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryan, Julie; McCrae, Barry
2006-01-01
We report the development of an assessment instrument that provides a profile of the attainment and the errors of pre-service primary teachers across the mathematics curriculum. We describe test development, analyses and test validation involving a sample of 426 pre-service teachers in the first year of their training in primary education courses…
Assessing and Improving the Psychosocial Environment of Mathematics Classrooms.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fraser, Barry J.; And Others
1989-01-01
Describes the development and validation of a short form of the My Class Inventory (MCI) assessing classroom psychosocial environment. Reports a case study involving the use of the short form of MCI in attempts to improve a sixth-grade mathematics class. Provides all 25 items of the short version of MCI. (YP)
Assessing Academic Language in an Elementary Mathematics Teacher Licensure Exam
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castellano, Katherine E.; Duckor, Brent; Wihardini, Diah; Telléz, Kip; Wilson, Mark
2016-01-01
With the adoption by most states of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English language arts and literacy and for mathematics (CCSS Initiative, 2010a, 2010b) comes major changes in public education that will affect instructional practice, curriculum, and assessment across the nation. Heritage, Walqui, and Linquanti (2015) argued that the…
Assessing Readiness for Geometry in Mathematically Talented Middle School Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Marguerite M.; Moore, Sara Delano
1997-01-01
Based on research on the geometric understanding of regular and gifted middle school students, this article describes a procedure for assessing geometry readiness in mathematically able middle school students. The procedure utilizes the vanHiele model of stages of geometric understanding and distinguishes between readiness for algebra and…
Assessing Mathematics Automatically Using Computer Algebra and the Internet
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sangwin, Chris
2004-01-01
This paper reports some recent developments in mathematical computer-aided assessment which employs computer algebra to evaluate students' work using the Internet. Technical and educational issues raised by this use of computer algebra are addressed. Working examples from core calculus and algebra which have been used with first year university…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sandlin, Benjamin; Harshman, Jordan; Yezierski, Ellen
2015-01-01
A 2011 report by the Department of Education states that understanding how teachers use results from formative assessments to guide their practice is necessary to improve instruction. Chemistry teachers have goals for items in their formative assessments, but the degree of alignment between what is assessed by these items and the teachers' goals…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian
2015-01-01
This paper explores the views of a group of students who took an oral performance assessment in a first-year mathematics module. Such assessments are unusual for most subjects in the UK, but particularly within the generally homogenous assessment diet of undergraduate mathematics. The evidence presented here resonates with some, but not all, of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimarez, Teresa
Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wallace, Matt; White, Tobin
2015-01-01
Over the past two decades, mathematics education reformers have increasingly called for new approaches to assessment. This call urges mathematics teachers to merge their assessment with pedagogy, to employ assessments that engage students in the process of "doing mathematics," and to exploit assessment to support learning. This paper…
Effects of Aligning Self-Management Interventions with Functional Behavioral Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.
2009-01-01
The differential effects of interventions aligned with indicated and non-indicated behavioral function were studied. Disruptive behavior of a fourth grade child at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) was assessed through functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures. Following the FBA, three interventions were designed, only one…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roach, Andrew T.; Elliott, Stephen N.
2004-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the methods and results of alignment analyses and standard-setting procedures used in investigations conducted during the development of alternate assessments in two states: Wisconsin and Idaho. To meet the assessment and accountability mandates contained in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act…
Primary School Teachers’ Assessment Profiles in Mathematics Education
Veldhuis, Michiel; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to contribute to knowledge about classroom assessment by identifying profiles of teachers’ assessment of their students’ understanding of mathematics. For carrying out this study we used data of a nationwide teacher survey (N = 960) in the Netherlands. The data were collected by an online questionnaire. Through exploratory factor analyses the underlying structure of what is measured by this questionnaire was uncovered as consisting of five factors: Goal centeredness of assessment, Authentic nature of assessment, Perceived usefulness of assessment, Diversity of assessment problem format, and Allocated importance of assessing skills and knowledge. By using a latent class analysis four different assessment profiles of teachers were identified: Enthusiastic assessors, Mainstream assessors, Non-enthusiastic assessors, and Alternative assessors. The findings suggest that teachers with particular assessment profiles have qualitatively different assessment practices. The paper concludes with discussing theoretical implications of these assessment profiles and indications these profiles can offer both for designing material for professional development in classroom assessment and for evaluating changes in teachers’ classroom assessment practice. PMID:24466255
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flowers, Claudia; Wakeman, Shawnee; Browder, Diane M.; Karvonen, Meagan
2009-01-01
This article describes an alignment procedure, called Links for Academic Learning (LAL), for examining the degree of alignment of alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) to grade-level content standards and instruction. Although some of the alignment criteria are similar to those used in general education…
Biochemical Visual Literacy with Constructive Alignment: Outcomes, Assessment, and Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herraez, Angel; Costa, Manuel Joao
2013-01-01
Several contributions in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education" have highlighted the role of visualization tools and the importance of developing students' visual literacy in biochemistry education. In this forum, the authors suggest that more focus is needed on the assessment of student learning, and they advance…
Building Assessment Tools Aligned with Grade-Level Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Caryl; Horton, Mel L.; Tarr, Susan J.
2015-01-01
This article focuses on the development of assessment tools to enhance the acquisition of the grade-level outcomes developed in the K-12 curriculum. Physical education is one of the few educational programs that does not have a multitude of available state and national tests to measure student progress. This distinction has been both a strength…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Platas, Linda M.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Sitabkhan, Yasmin
2016-01-01
This paper describes the development and intended uses of the Early Grades Mathematics Assessment (EGMA), which measures essential early mathematical knowledge and skills that are foundational to more sophisticated mathematical abilities, predictive of later achievement, and teachable. Administering the EGMA can provide policy makers,…
Holt, Emily A.; Young, Craig; Keetch, Jared; Larsen, Skylar; Mollner, Brayden
2015-01-01
Critical thinking is often considered an essential learning outcome of institutions in higher education. Previous work has proposed three pedagogical strategies to address this goal: more active, student-centered in-class instruction, assessments which contain higher-order cognitive questions, and greater alignment within a classroom (i.e., high agreement of the cognitive level of learning objectives, assessments, and in-class instruction). Our goals were to determine which of these factors, individually or the interactions therein, contributed most to improvements in university students’ critical thinking. We assessed students’ higher-order cognitive skills in introductory non-majors biology courses the first and last week of instruction. For each of the fifteen sections observed, we also measured the cognitive level of assessments and learning objectives, evaluated the learner-centeredness of each classroom, and calculated an alignment score for each class. The best model to explain improvements in students’ high-order cognitive skills contained the measure of learner-centeredness of the class and pre-quiz scores as a covariate. The cognitive level of assessments, learning objectives, nor alignment explained improvements in students’ critical thinking. In accordance with much of the current literature, our findings support that more student-centered classes had greater improvements in student learning. However, more research is needed to clarify the role of assessment and alignment in student learning. PMID:26340659
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asturias, Harold
1994-01-01
Portfolios inform teachers and students of progress toward established goals. Offers tips for helping students create their own portfolios and suggests criteria for assessment and self-assessment. (MKR/SW)
Assessment of the Assessment Tool: Analysis of Items in a Non-MCQ Mathematics Exam
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Rashid, Saima
2016-01-01
Assessment is one of the vital steps in the teaching and learning process. The reported action research examines the effectiveness of an assessment process and inspects the validity of exam questions used for the assessment purpose. The instructors of a college-level mathematics course studied questions used in the final exams during the academic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timms, Michael; Schneider, Steven; Lee, Cindy; Rolfhus, Eric
2007-01-01
This policy research document is intended for New Mexico policymakers to use when examining possible changes to the state assessment's alignment with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The 2009 NAEP test is not yet in existence, so the purpose of this report is to give policymakers a head start in determining where they might,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timms, Michael; Schneider, Steven; Lee, Cindy; Rolfhus, Eric
2007-01-01
This policy research document is intended for Oklahoma policymakers to use when examining possible changes to the state assessment's alignment with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The 2009 NAEP test is not yet in existence, so the purpose of this report is to give policymakers a head start in determining where they might,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timms, Michael; Schneider, Steven; Lee, Cindy; Rolfhus, Eric
2007-01-01
This policy research document is intended for Louisiana policymakers to use when examining possible changes to the state assessment's alignment with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The 2009 NAEP test is not yet in existence, so the purpose of this report is to give policymakers a head start in determining where they might,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timms, Michael; Schneider, Steven; Lee, Cindy; Rolfhus, Eric
2007-01-01
This policy research document is intended for policymakers to use when examining possible changes to the state assessment's alignment with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The 2009 NAEP test is not yet in existence, so the purpose of this report is to give policymakers a headstart in determining where they might, if they so…
Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.
Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie
2015-10-20
The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis. PMID:26392153
Public School Finance Assessment Project Aligned with ELCC Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Risen, D. Michael
2008-01-01
This is a detailed description of an assessment that can be used in a graduate level of study in the area of public school finance. This has been approved by NCATE as meeting all of the stipulated ELCC standards for which it is designed (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3.). This course of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oktiningrum, Wuli; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf
2016-01-01
The aim of this research is produce a set of PISA-like mathematics task with Indonesia natural and cultural heritage as context which are valid, practical, to assess students' mathematics literacy. This is design research using type of development research with formative evaluation. A total of 20 students of SMP Negeri 1 Palembang. Beside, 10…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Serin, Gökhan
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore alignment between reform-based Turkish primary science curriculum and alternative assessment practices of a classroom teacher. Observational case study approach was utilized. A classroom teacher with 32 years of experience and his 31 students participated in the study. The data were collected during one…
Challenges Associated with Curriculum Alignment, Change and Assessment Reforms in Namibia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iipinge, Sakaria M.; Kasanda, Choshi D.
2013-01-01
Aligning curriculum change and assessment reforms has been a topic of great concern in Namibia for over the past 23 years. This is because during the pre-colonial period and continuing in post-independence Namibia, national examinations have been used mainly for the certification and selection of learners at Junior and Senior secondary school…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogerson-Revell, Pamela
2015-01-01
This paper reports on an action research study investigating the use of online learning activities or "e-tivities" to enhance the learning and assessment experience of students on a distance master's programme. The study suggests that to be successfully integrated in a programme, such activities need to be carefully aligned with learning…
Assessing effects of technology usage on mathematics learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lynch, Julianne
2006-12-01
Computer-based technologies are now commonplace in classrooms, and the integration of these media into the teaching and learning of mathematics is supported by government policy in most developed countries. However, many questions about the impact of computer-based technologies on classroom mathematics learning remain unanswered, and debates about when and how they ought to be used continue. An increasing number of studies seek to identify the effects of technology usage on classroom learning, and at a time when governments are calling for `evidence-based' policy development, many studies applying quasi-scientific methodologies to this field of practice are emerging. By analysing a series of conceptual frameworks for assessing the use of computer-based technologies to support school learning, this article emphasises the value of research into the relationship between technical and conceptual aspects of technology use in mathematics education and beyond, and challenges the usefulness of large-scale, quasi-scientific studies that focus on educational inputs and outputs.
iTest: Online Assessment and Self-Assessment in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joglar, Nuria; Martin, Diego; Colmenar, J. Manuel; Martinez, Ivan; Hidalgo, J. Ignacio
2010-01-01
Purpose: This paper aims to describe the activities designed and conducted with primary school, secondary school and university students to study the integration of alternative assessment and self-assessment online tools in mathematics courses using iTest. iTest is an educational software tool born to support the continuous evaluation system…
Results from the Sixth Mathematics Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kenney, Patricia Ann, Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) provides data about what children know and can do with the goal of using this information to improve education. This book contains interpretive reports based on results from the mathematics assessments conducted by the NAEP regarding: (1) the cognitive performance of students at grades 4, 8,…
Kwan, Mei-Po; Xiao, Ningchuan; Ding, Guoxiang
2015-01-01
Due to the complexity and multidimensional characteristics of human activities, assessing the similarity of human activity patterns and classifying individuals with similar patterns remains highly challenging. This paper presents a new and unique methodology for evaluating the similarity among individual activity patterns. It conceptualizes multidimensional sequence alignment (MDSA) as a multiobjective optimization problem, and solves this problem with an evolutionary algorithm. The study utilizes sequence alignment to code multiple facets of human activities into multidimensional sequences, and to treat similarity assessment as a multiobjective optimization problem that aims to minimize the alignment cost for all dimensions simultaneously. A multiobjective optimization evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) is used to generate a diverse set of optimal or near-optimal alignment solutions. Evolutionary operators are specifically designed for this problem, and a local search method also is incorporated to improve the search ability of the algorithm. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by comparing it with a popular existing method called ClustalG using a set of 50 sequences. The results indicate that our method outperforms the existing method for most of our selected cases. The multiobjective evolutionary algorithm presented in this paper provides an effective approach for assessing activity pattern similarity, and a foundation for identifying distinctive groups of individuals with similar activity patterns. PMID:26190858
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Costa-Guerra, Boris
2012-01-01
The study sought to understand whether MAPs computer based assessment of math and language skills using MAPs reading scores can predict student scores on the NMSBA. A key question was whether or not the prediction can be improved by including student language skill scores. The study explored the effectiveness of computer based preview assessments…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rieder, Christian; Wirtz, Stefan; Strehlow, Jan; Zidowitz, Stephan; Bruners, Philipp; Isfort, Peter; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto
2012-02-01
Image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is becoming a standard procedure for minimally invasive tumor treatment in clinical practice. To verify the treatment success of the therapy, reliable post-interventional assessment of the ablation zone (coagulation) is essential. Typically, pre- and post-interventional CT images have to be aligned to compare the shape, size, and position of tumor and coagulation zone. In this work, we present an automatic workflow for masking liver tissue, enabling a rigid registration algorithm to perform at least as accurate as experienced medical experts. To minimize the effect of global liver deformations, the registration is computed in a local region of interest around the pre-interventional lesion and post-interventional coagulation necrosis. A registration mask excluding lesions and neighboring organs is calculated to prevent the registration algorithm from matching both lesion shapes instead of the surrounding liver anatomy. As an initial registration step, the centers of gravity from both lesions are aligned automatically. The subsequent rigid registration method is based on the Local Cross Correlation (LCC) similarity measure and Newton-type optimization. To assess the accuracy of our method, 41 RFA cases are registered and compared with the manually aligned cases from four medical experts. Furthermore, the registration results are compared with ground truth transformations based on averaged anatomical landmark pairs. In the evaluation, we show that our method allows to automatic alignment of the data sets with equal accuracy as medical experts, but requiring significancy less time consumption and variability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, L. L.; Tso, T. -Y.; Lin, F. L.
2009-01-01
This article reports the attitudes of students towards mathematics after they had participated in an applied mathematical modelling project that was part of an Applied Mathematics course. The students were majoring in Earth Science at the National Taiwan Normal University. Twenty-six students took part in the project. It was the first time a…
Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaechi, Bennett T.
2009-02-01
It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.
Soft Mathematical Aggregation in Safety Assessment and Decision Analysis
Cooper, J. Arlin
1999-06-10
This paper improves on some of the limitations of conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. It develops a top-down mathematical method for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers and shows how they may be combined (aggregated) into an overall metric, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. Both positively contributing and negatively contributing factors are included. Metrics are weighted according to significance of the attribute and evaluated as to contribution toward the attribute. Aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed soft mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on overlap of the factors and by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to add important information to the decision process. The methodology has been implemented in software.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lein, Amy E.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Starosta, Kristin M.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Hughes-Reid, Cheyenne L.; Star, Jon R.
2016-01-01
In this study, the authors assessed the contribution of engagement (on-task behavior) to the mathematics problem-solving performance of seventh-grade students after accounting for prior mathematics achievement. A subsample of seventh-grade students in four mathematics classrooms (one high-, two average-, and one low-achieving) from a larger…
Examining the Relationship between Gender DIF and Language Complexity in Mathematics Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kan, Adnan; Bulut, Okan
2014-01-01
This study investigated whether the linguistic complexity of items leads to gender differential item functioning (DIF) on mathematics assessments. Two forms of a mathematics test were developed. The first form consisted of algebra items based on mathematical expressions, terms, and equations. In the second form, the same items were written as word…
Classroom Experience about Cartooning as Assessment in Pre-Service Mathematics Content Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cho, Hoyun; Osborne, Carolyn; Sanders, Tobie
2015-01-01
Elementary Education pre-service teachers are noted for disliking and even fearing mathematics, so a teaching strategy that increases their enjoyment of mathematics learning must be a powerful one, indeed. When the same strategy can also support problem posing and assess mathematical knowledge and reasoning, providing an occasional alternative to…
Accuracy of sequence alignment and fold assessment using reduced amino acid alphabets.
Melo, Francisco; Marti-Renom, Marc A
2006-06-01
Reduced or simplified amino acid alphabets group the 20 naturally occurring amino acids into a smaller number of representative protein residues. To date, several reduced amino acid alphabets have been proposed, which have been derived and optimized by a variety of methods. The resulting reduced amino acid alphabets have been applied to pattern recognition, generation of consensus sequences from multiple alignments, protein folding, and protein structure prediction. In this work, amino acid substitution matrices and statistical potentials were derived based on several reduced amino acid alphabets and their performance assessed in a large benchmark for the tasks of sequence alignment and fold assessment of protein structure models, using as a reference frame the standard alphabet of 20 amino acids. The results showed that a large reduction in the total number of residue types does not necessarily translate into a significant loss of discriminative power for sequence alignment and fold assessment. Therefore, some definitions of a few residue types are able to encode most of the relevant sequence/structure information that is present in the 20 standard amino acids. Based on these results, we suggest that the use of reduced amino acid alphabets may allow to increasing the accuracy of current substitution matrices and statistical potentials for the prediction of protein structure of remote homologs. PMID:16506243
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reese, Clyde M.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the only nationally representative and continuing assessment of what students in the United States know and can do in various academic subjects. The 1996 NAEP in mathematics assessed the current level of mathematical achievement as a mechanism for informing education reform. In 1996, 44…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellis, Arthur K.; Denton, David W.
2010-01-01
This book offers easy-to-use classroom strategies for middle and high school Mathematics and Science classrooms. They demonstrate how teaching, learning, and assessment are inseparable and seamless. Each strategy will engage your students in activity and reflection, consuming little class time, costing nothing, and uniting the three dimensions of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaufman, Julia; Junker, Brian
2011-01-01
Research on whether teachers can give accurate self-reports in surveys about their mathematics instruction is fairly mixed. Some of that research indicates that teachers can provide some general approximation of their mathematics instruction in survey self-reports, while other studies find very little correlation between teachers' survey responses…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Finch, Maida A.
2013-01-01
Kindergarten mathematics skills are important for subsequent achievement, yet mathematics is underemphasized in kindergarten classrooms. Using nationally representative data, this study explored the relationship between students' school-entry math skills, classroom content coverage, and end-of-kindergarten math achievement. Although the vast…
Assessment of Primary 5 Students' Mathematical Modelling Competencies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chan, Chun Ming Eric; Ng, Kit Ee Dawn; Widjaja, Wanty; Seto, Cynthia
2012-01-01
Mathematical modelling is increasingly becoming part of an instructional approach deemed to develop students with competencies to function as 21st century learners and problem solvers. As mathematical modelling is a relatively new domain in the Singapore primary school mathematics curriculum, many teachers may not be aware of the learning outcomes…
Assessment of toxicity using dehydrogenases activity and mathematical modeling.
Matyja, Konrad; Małachowska-Jutsz, Anna; Mazur, Anna K; Grabas, Kazimierz
2016-07-01
Dehydrogenase activity is frequently used to assess the general condition of microorganisms in soil and activated sludge. Many studies have investigated the inhibition of dehydrogenase activity by various compounds, including heavy metal ions. However, the time after which the measurements are carried out is often chosen arbitrarily. Thus, it can be difficult to estimate how the toxic effects of compounds vary during the reaction and when the maximum of the effect would be reached. Hence, the aim of this study was to create simple and useful mathematical model describing changes in dehydrogenase activity during exposure to substances that inactivate enzymes. Our model is based on the Lagergrens pseudo-first-order equation, the rate of chemical reactions, enzyme activity, and inactivation and was created to describe short-term changes in dehydrogenase activity. The main assumption of our model is that toxic substances cause irreversible inactivation of enzyme units. The model is able to predict the maximum direct toxic effect (MDTE) and the time to reach this maximum (TMDTE). In order to validate our model, we present two examples: inactivation of dehydrogenase in microorganisms in soil and activated sludge. The model was applied successfully for cadmium and copper ions. Our results indicate that the predicted MDTE and TMDTE are more appropriate than EC50 and IC50 for toxicity assessments, except for long exposure times. PMID:27021434
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kloosterman, Peter, Ed.; Lester, Frank K., Jr., Ed.
2004-01-01
Often referred to as "The Nation's Report Card," the mathematics assessments of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) have come to be regarded by many policymakers as the primary yardstick by which to judge our schools' success in meeting national expectations. This monograph reports and interprets trends in NAEP mathematics data…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Phelan, Julia; Choi, Kilchan; Vendlinski, Terry; Baker, Eva; Herman, Joan
2011-01-01
The authors describe results from a study of a middle school mathematics formative assessment strategy. They employed a randomized, controlled design to address the following question: Does using our strategy improve student performance on assessments of key mathematical ideas relative to a comparison group? Eighty-five teachers and 4,091 students…
Testing Technology: Administrating Formative Mathematics Assessments in Kindergarten and First Grade
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill-Cunningham, Pamela Renee
2012-01-01
Research was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the use of handheld technology to administer mathematics assessments in kindergarten and 1 st grade classes in North Carolina. This research was a review of secondary data from the first year of implementation of the Mathematics Assessment Pilot Project conducted by the North Carolina…
What Is the Basis for Self-Assessment of Comprehension When Reading Mathematical Expository Texts?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Österholm, Magnus
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to characterize students' self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text, they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prokop, Kristie L.
2011-01-01
On assessments such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) (Stigler & Hiebert, 1999) and Program for International Assessment (PISA) ("PISA 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World", 2007) students in the United States have not been performing as well in mathematics as students in other countries. In order for the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Papic, Marina
2015-01-01
This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trenholm, Sven; Alcock, Lara; Robinson, Carol
2015-01-01
Research suggests it is difficult to learn mathematics in the fully asynchronous online (FAO) instructional modality, yet little is known about associated teaching and assessment practices. In this study, we investigate FAO mathematics assessment and feedback practices in particular consideration of both claims and findings that these practices…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2011
2011-01-01
Wisconsin's adoption of the Common Core State Standards provides an excellent opportunity for Wisconsin school districts and communities to define expectations from birth through preparation for college and work. By aligning the existing Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards with the Wisconsin Common Core State Standards, expectations can be…
Mathematical Reasoning Requirements in Swedish Upper Secondary Level Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palm, Torulf; Boesen, Jesper; Lithner, Johan
2011-01-01
We investigate the mathematical reasoning required to solve the tasks in the Swedish national tests and a random selection of Swedish teacher-made tests. The results show that only a small proportion of the tasks in the teacher-made tests require the students to produce new reasoning and to consider the intrinsic mathematical properties involved…
Assessing Attitudes toward Mathematics across Teacher Education Contexts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jong, Cindy; Hodges, Thomas E.
2015-01-01
This article reports on the development of attitudes toward mathematics among pre-service elementary teachers (n = 146) in relation to their experiences as K-12 learners of mathematics and experiences within a teacher education program. Using a combination of the Rasch Rating Scale Model and traditional parametric analyses, results indicate that…
Planning, Teaching and Assessing Mathematics Learning for Real!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Youdale, Leonie
2010-01-01
As a final year Bachelor of Education student at the University of Tasmania, this author recently participated in an innovative program for improving mathematics learning outcomes for primary school students and the mathematics teaching development of pre-service teachers. As a participant in the program, she was required to plan, teach, and…
Enhancing Mathematics by Online Assessments: Two Cases of Remedial Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brouwer, Natasa; Ekimova, Lilia; Jasinska, Magdalena; van Gastel, Leendert; Virgailaite-Meckauskaite, Egle
2009-01-01
There is growing concern in Europe that some students are not well-equipped to start a Bachelor's or Master's programme, especially when the programme has a strong mathematical focus. In particular, attention is drawn to problems with mathematics in the transition from secondary to higher education. Higher education expects a certain level of…
Oral Examination in College Mathematics: An Alternative Assessment Technique
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Odafe, Victor U.
2006-01-01
Preparing for an oral examination is an alternative way for students to learn mathematics by working cooperatively in small teams to solve problems. Reformed college mathematics courses are emphasizing the ability to communicate ideas clearly, both orally and in writing. The instructor is able to ask probing questions that are not usually possible…
Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics: 25 Formative Assessment Probes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rose, Cheryl M.; Minton, Leslie; Arline, Carolyn B.
2006-01-01
Students learn at varying rates, and if a misconception in mathematics develops early, it may be carried from year to year and obstruct a student's progress. To identify fallacies in students' preconceived ideas, "Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics" offers educators a powerful diagnostic technique in the form of field-tested assessment…
Assessing Effects of Technology Usage on Mathematics Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynch, Julianne
2006-01-01
Computer-based technologies are now commonplace in classrooms, and the integration of these media into the teaching and learning of mathematics is supported by government policy in most developed countries. However, many questions about the impact of computer-based technologies on classroom mathematics learning remain unanswered, and debates about…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charles, Randall I., Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.
This document contains overviews of current research, insights from teachers and tutors, and considerations of such issues as metacognition, choice of operations, and the testing of problem-solving skills. Papers include: (1) "Historical Perspectives on Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum" (George M. A. Stanic and Jeremy Kilpatrick); (2)…
A Rubric to Self-Assess and Peer-Assess Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks of College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Egodawatte, Gunawardena
2010-01-01
Student involvement in their own assessment can add reflection and metacognition to the learning process. Based on this idea, an assessment instrument was developed to self-assess college students' mathematical problem solving tasks. The main objective of this exercise is to improve student learning. The assessment instrument contains three items:…
Classroom Assessment Practices in English and Mathematics at Years 5, 7, and 9.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunn, Karyn; Strafford, Ed; Marston, Chris
This study investigated current classroom assessment practices by surveying teachers in New Zealand at years 5, 7, and 9 on the assessments they use in the areas of English and mathematics, the purposes of the assessment, and the assessments that provide the most useful information. A total of 676 questionnaires were returned from 311 full…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohio Univ., Athens. Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics.
This statement abstracts the theoretical framework for the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM). ACCLAIM's mission is the cultivation of indigenous leadership capacity for the improvement of school mathematics in rural places. The mission addresses local organizational ability to (1)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Danhui; Orrill, Chandra; Campbell, Todd
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mixture Rasch models followed by qualitative item-by-item analysis of selected Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) mathematics and science items offered insight into knowledge students invoke in mathematics and science separately and combined. The researchers administered an…
Lecturers' Perspectives on the Use of a Mathematics-Based Computer-Aided Assessment System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Broughton, Stephen J.; Robinson, Carol L.; Hernandez-Martinez, Paul
2013-01-01
Computer-aided assessment (CAA) has been used at a university with one of the largest mathematics and engineering undergraduate cohorts in the UK for more than ten years. Lecturers teaching mathematics to first year students were asked about their current use of CAA in a questionnaire and in interviews. This article presents the issues that these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meng, Chew Cheng; Idris, Noraini; Eu, Leong Kwan
2014-01-01
The problems of the decreasing enrolment of science students at secondary school level as well as the lagging science and mathematics achievement and literacy of Malaysian secondary students in international assessment studies point to a serious challenge for the government to improve Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)…
Assessing the Quality of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara
2011-01-01
The authors comment on Porter, McMaken, Hwang, and Yang's recent analysis of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by critiquing their measures of the focus of the standards and the absence of an assessment of coherence. The authors then consider whether the standards are an improvement over most state mathematics standards by discussing…
Designing and Developing Assessments of Complex Thinking in Mathematics for the Middle Grades
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graf, Edith Aurora; Arieli-Attali, Meirav
2015-01-01
Designing an assessment system for complex thinking in mathematics involves decisions at every stage, from how to represent the target competencies to how to interpret evidence from student performances. Beyond learning to solve particular problems in a particular area, learning mathematics with understanding involves comprehending connections…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yin, Yue; Olson, Judith; Olson, Melfried; Solvin, Hannah; Brandon, Paul R.
2015-01-01
This study compared two versions of professional development (PD) designed for teachers using formative assessment (FA) in mathematics classrooms that were networked with Texas Instruments Navigator (NAV) technology. Thirty-two middle school mathematics teachers were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: FA-then-NAV group and FA-and-NAV…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santos, Leonor; Semana, Sílvia
2015-01-01
This study concerns expository writing in mathematics as well as the contribution of assessment strategies to the development of mathematics communication. We studied four 8th grade students (aged 12-13) working in a group, in order to perform three expository writing tasks, which were assisted by feedback and the use of supporting assessment…
Understanding Graphicacy: Students' Making Sense of Graphics in Mathematics Assessment Tasks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lowrie, Tom; Diezmann, Carmel M.; Logan, Tracy
2011-01-01
The ability to decode graphics is an increasingly important component of mathematics assessment and curricula. This study examined 50, 9- to 10-year-old students (23 male, 27 female), as they solved items from six distinct graphical languages (e.g., maps) that are commonly used to convey mathematical information. The results of the study revealed:…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Gerunda B.; Daro, Phil; Holtzman, Deborah; Middleton, Kyndra
2013-01-01
Introduction: For decades, prior to the inception of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) was the only vehicle through which states could assess the progress of their students using a common metric. Now, 45 states, 4 U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia have adopted the CCSS to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jideani, V. A.; Jideani, I. A.
2012-01-01
Nine food science and technology (FST) subjects were assessed for alignment between the learning outcomes and assessment using revised Bloom's taxonomy (RBT) of cognitive knowledge. Conjoint analysis was used to estimate the utilities of the levels of cognitive, knowledge, and the attribute importance (cognitive process and knowledge dimension)…
Estimating Critical Values for Strength of Alignment among Curriculum, Assessments, and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fulmer, Gavin W.
2011-01-01
School accountability decisions based on standardized tests hinge on the degree of alignment of the test with the state's standards documents. Yet, there exist no established criteria for judging strength of alignment. Previous measures of alignment among tests, standards, and teachers' instruction have yielded mixed results that are difficult to…
Estimating Critical Values for Strength of Alignment among Curriculum, Assessments, and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fulmer, Gavin W.
2010-01-01
School accountability decisions based on standardized tests hinge on the degree of alignment of the test with a state's standards. Yet no established criteria were available for judging strength of alignment. Previous studies of alignment among tests, standards, and teachers' instruction have yielded mixed results that are difficult to interpret…
Developing formal mathematical assessment for 4- to 8-year-olds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doig, Brian
2005-10-01
The assessment of children in their years before school and their first years of school has been, traditionally, informal. Further, assessment of children's mathematical skills at this level has been infrequent compared to social, emotional and physical assessments. However, there are contexts where reliable, valid, standardised data from assessment in mathematics are required. This paper outlines the development of two assessment tools for mathematics that were originally developed for such contexts. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses enabled the construction of assessment forms that address the range of abilities of 4- to 8-year-old children, and provided the scales used for constructing formative and summative reports of achievement. A description of the development of the assessment tools and the IRT analysis that provides the reporting formats are presented together with some research uses of the tools.
Assessment of murine lung mechanics outcome measures: alignment with those made in asthmatics
Walker, Julia K. L.; Kraft, Monica; Fisher, John T.
2013-01-01
Although asthma is characterized as an inflammatory disease, recent reports highlight the importance of pulmonary physiology outcome measures to the clinical assessment of asthma control and risk of asthma exacerbation. Murine models of allergic inflammatory airway disease have been widely used to gain mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of asthma; however, several aspects of murine models could benefit from improvement. This review focuses on aligning lung mechanics measures made in mice with those made in humans, with an eye toward improving the translational utility of these measures. A brief description of techniques available to measure murine lung mechanics is provided along with a methodological consideration of their utilization. How murine lung mechanics outcome measures relate to pulmonary physiology measures conducted in humans is discussed and we recommend that, like human studies, outcome measures be standardized for murine models of asthma. PMID:23408785
Theory of grain alignment in molecular clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberge, Wayne G.
1993-01-01
Research accomplishments are presented and include the following: (1) mathematical theory of grain alignment; (2) super-paramagnetic alignment of molecular cloud grains; and (3) theory of grain alignment by ambipolar diffusion.
NAEP 1992 Mathematics State Report for Hawaii. The Trial State Assessment Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment which, for the first time in the NAEP's history, made voluntary state-by-state assessments. This 1992 mathematics report marks the first attempt of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) to shift to standards-based reporting of National…
NAEP 1992 Mathematics State Report for South Carolina. The Trial State Assessment Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment which, for the first time in the NAEP's history, made voluntary state-by-state assessments. This 1992 mathematics report marks the first attempt of the National Center for Education Statistics to shift to standards-based reporting of National…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shorter, Nichole A.; Young, Cynthia Y.
2011-01-01
This experiment was designed to determine which assessment method: continuous assessment (in the form of daily in-class quizzes), cumulative assessment (in the form of online homework), or project-based learning, best predicted student learning (dependent upon post-test grades) in an undergraduate mathematics course. Participants included 117…
Using Formative Assessment to Drive Mathematics Instruction in Grades 3-5
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oberdorf, Christine; Taylor-Cox, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This book provides targeted mathematics instruction for every child. This book combines formative assessment with practical activities to differentiate the elementary classroom. The formative assessments include student work samples at varying levels. The authors: (1) Illustrate the distinction between a "traditional" assessment and an "enhanced"…
Using Formative Assessment to Drive Mathematics Instruction in Grades PreK-2
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oberdorf, Christine; Taylor-Cox, Jennifer
2012-01-01
Provide targeted mathematics instruction for every child. These books combine formative assessment with practical activities to differentiate the elementary classroom. The formative assessments include student work samples at varying levels. The authors: (1) Illustrate the distinction between a "traditional" assessment and an "enhanced"…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Al Duwairi, Ahmed
2013-01-01
This study aimed at investigating the extent to which secondary schools mathematics teachers practice to assessment models in their mathematics teaching and learning. Definitely, the study aimed at answering the following questions: (1) To what extent do secondary schools mathematics teachers practice each of the assessment models in their…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trenholm, Sven; Alcock, Lara; Robinson, Carol
2015-11-01
Research suggests it is difficult to learn mathematics in the fully asynchronous online (FAO) instructional modality, yet little is known about associated teaching and assessment practices. In this study, we investigate FAO mathematics assessment and feedback practices in particular consideration of both claims and findings that these practices have a powerful influence on learning. A survey questionnaire was constructed and completed by 70 FAO undergraduate mathematics instructors, mostly from the USA, who were each asked to detail their assessment and feedback practices in a single FAO mathematics course. Alongside these questions, participants also answered the 16-item version of the Approaches to Teaching Inventory. In addition, a novel feedback framework was also created and used to examine how feedback practices may be related to participants' approaches to teaching. Results show that assessment and feedback practices are varied and complex: in particular, we found there was not a simple emphasis on summative assessment instruments, nor a concomitant expectation these would always be invigilated. Though richer assessment feedback appears to be emphasized, evidence suggests this feedback may not be primarily directed at advancing student learning. Moreover, we found evidence of a reliance on computer--human interactions (e.g. via computer-assisted assessment systems) and further evidence of a decline in human interactions, suggesting a dynamic that is both consistent with current online learning theory and claims FAO mathematics courses are becoming commodified. Several avenues for further research are suggested.
Performance assessment of an algorithm for the alignment of fMRI time series.
Ciulla, Carlo; Deek, Fadi P
2002-01-01
This paper reports on performance assessment of an algorithm developed to align functional Magnetic Resonance Image (fMRI) time series. The algorithm is based on the assumption that the human brain is subject to rigid-body motion and has been devised by pipelining fiducial markers and tensor based registration methodologies. Feature extraction is performed on each fMRI volume to determine tensors of inertia and gradient image of the brain. A head coordinate system is determined on the basis of three fiducial markers found automatically at the head boundary by means of the tensors and is used to compute a point-based rigid matching transformation. Intensity correction is performed with sub-voxel accuracy by trilinear interpolation. Performance of the algorithm was preliminarily assessed by fMR brain images in which controlled motion has been simulated. Further experimentation has been conducted with real fMRI time series. Rigid-body transformations were retrieved automatically and the value of motion parameters compared to those obtained with the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99) and the Automatic Image Registration (AIR 3.08). Results indicate that the algorithm offers sub-voxel accuracy in performing both misalignment and intensity correction of fMRI time series. PMID:12137364
House, J Daniel
2005-12-01
A recent study (1) of undergraduate students in a precalculus course indicated that they expressed slightly positive attitudes toward mathematics. It is important, however, to examine relationships between students' initial attitudes and achievement outcomes. The present purpose was to assess the relationship between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a large national sample of students from the TIMSS 1999 international sample (eighth graders) from Japan. Several significant relationships between mathematics beliefs and test scores were noted. In addition, the overall multiple regression equation that assessed the joint significance of the complete set of self-belief variables was significant (F7.65 = 159.48, p < .001) and explained 20.6% of the variance in mathematics achievement test scores. PMID:16512286
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ringer, Catharina W.
2013-01-01
In today's mathematics education, there is an increasing emphasis on students' understanding of the mathematics set forth in standards documents such as the "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000) and, most recently, the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics"…
District Results for the 2013 Mathematics and Reading Assessments. Executive Summary
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
2013-01-01
NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) results in mathematics and reading are based on representative samples of 1,100 to 2,300 public school students at grade 4 and 900 to 2,100 public school students at grade 8 in each participating urban district in 2013. Twenty-one urban districts participated in the 2013 assessments. The assessments…
Gender-Related Differential Item Functioning on a Middle-School Mathematics Performance Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Suzanne; And Others
This study examined gender-related differential item functioning (DIF) using a mathematics performance assessment, the QUASAR Cognitive Assessment Instrument (QCAI), administered to middle school students. The QCAI was developed for the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reading (QUASAR) project, which focuses on…
Authentic Assessment of Young Children's Developing Concepts in Mathematics and Science.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McNair, Shannan; Thomson, Margaret; Williams, Ruth
Paper and pencil tests rarely assess children's developing mathematical and scientific concepts validly. There are, however, a number of authentic and meaningful ways to assess these processes. Anecdotal notes--recorded observations of children that concern what they say and do--reveal a considerable amount about these developing concepts.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill
2013-01-01
This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Karns, Kathy; Hamlett, Carol; Katzaroff, Michelle; Dutka, Suzanne
1998-01-01
Examined how well three measures, representing points on a traditional-alternative mathematics assessment continuum, discriminated fourth graders achieving above, at, and below grade level, and how cooperative testing affected performance assessment. Found strong discriminative validity for the more traditional measures but not for performance…
The Influence of Test Mode and Visuospatial Ability on Mathematics Assessment Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Logan, Tracy
2015-01-01
Mathematics assessment and testing are increasingly situated within digital environments with international tests moving to computer-based testing in the near future. This paper reports on a secondary data analysis which explored the influence the mode of assessment--computer-based (CBT) and pencil-and-paper based (PPT)--and visuospatial ability…
The Impact of Web-Based Assessment and Practice on Students' Mathematics Learning Attitudes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nguyen, Diem M.; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Allen, G. Donald
2006-01-01
This study investigates the effects of web-based assessment and practice on improving middle school students' mathematics learning attitudes. With the use of an experimental design and a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, the study compared and contrasted the attitude achievement of students, who used the web-based assessment and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Phillips, Alison; Guzey, S. Selcen; Moore, Tamara J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop, scale, and validate assessments in engineering, science, and mathematics with grade appropriate items that were sensitive to the curriculum developed by teachers. The use of item response theory to assess item functioning was a focus of the study. The work is part of a larger project focused on increasing…
Assessing Long-Term Effects of Inquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study from College Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kogan, Marina; Laursen, Sandra L.
2014-01-01
As student-centered approaches to teaching and learning are more widely applied, researchers must assess the outcomes of these interventions across a range of courses and institutions. As an example of such assessment, this study examined the impact of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in college mathematics on undergraduates' subsequent grades…
Alignment Between the Science Curriculum and Assessment in Selected NY State Regents Exams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiufeng; Fulmer, Gavin
2008-08-01
This article reports on an analysis of alignment between NY state core curricula and NY Regents tests in physics and chemistry. Both the curriculum and test were represented by a two dimensional table consisting of topics and cognitive demands. The cell values of the table were numbers of major understandings in the curriculum and points of test items in the test. The Porter alignment index was computed for each test. It was found that, overall, there was a high alignment between the NY core curriculum and the NY Regents test, and the alignment remained fairly stable from test to test. However, there were considerable discrepancies in emphases on different cognitive levels and topics between the core curriculum and the test. Issues related to the nature of alignment, and the nature and validity of content standards were raised, and implications for science curriculum and instructions were also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papic, Marina
2015-12-01
This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne
Recent reports on mathematics education reform have focused the attention of educational practitioners and policymakers on new goals for mathematics education and new descriptions of mathematical proficiency. QUASAR is a national project (Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning) designed to improve the mathematics…
Aligning Goals, Assessments, and Activities: An Approach to Teaching PCR and Gel Electrophoresis
Robertson, Amber L.; Batzli, Janet; Harris, Michelle; Miller, Sarah
2008-01-01
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis have become common techniques used in undergraduate molecular and cell biology labs. Although students enjoy learning these techniques, they often cannot fully comprehend and analyze the outcomes of their experiments because of a disconnect between concepts taught in lecture and experiments done in lab. Here we report the development and implementation of novel exercises that integrate the biological concepts of DNA structure and replication with the techniques of PCR and gel electrophoresis. Learning goals were defined based on concepts taught throughout the cell biology lab course and learning objectives specific to the PCR and gel electrophoresis lab. Exercises developed to promote critical thinking and target the underlying concepts of PCR, primer design, gel analysis, and troubleshooting were incorporated into an existing lab unit based on the detection of genetically modified organisms. Evaluative assessments for each exercise were aligned with the learning goals and used to measure student learning achievements. Our analysis found that the exercises were effective in enhancing student understanding of these concepts as shown by student performance across all learning goals. The new materials were particularly helpful in acquiring relevant knowledge, fostering critical-thinking skills, and uncovering prevalent misconceptions. PMID:18316813
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dupeyrat, Caroline; Escribe, Christian; Huet, Nathalie; Regner, Isabelle
2011-01-01
The study examined how biases in self-evaluations of math competence relate to achievement goals and progress in math achievement. It was expected that performance goals would be related to overestimation and mastery goals to accurate self-assessments. A sample of French high-school students completed a questionnaire measuring their math…
Dialogue and Feedback: Assessment in the Primary Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Callingham, Rosemary
2008-01-01
Educational assessment consists of two aspects. First, the "size" of the learning that has occurred in which summative assessment of learning aims to measure. Second, the "quality" of learning, which is better situated in the classroom, where teachers make judgements on a day-to-day basis about what their students know and can do. This kind of…
"Poems Look Like a Mathematical Equation": Assessment in Poetry Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xerri, Daniel
2016-01-01
This article considers the influence that assessment exerts on poetry education. By means of research conducted in a post-16 educational context in Malta, it shows that teachers' and students' practices in the poetry lesson are determined by the kind of examinations that candidates sit for. When the mode of assessment is constituted solely by the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.
2014-01-01
There is continuing interest in the identification of student and instructional factors associated with the mathematics achievement of students in Japan. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments have provided opportunities to examine factors associated with mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was…
Assessment of Galileo modal test results for mathematical model verification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trubert, M.
1984-01-01
The modal test program for the Galileo Spacecraft was completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the summer of 1983. The multiple sine dwell method was used for the baseline test. The Galileo Spacecraft is a rather complex 2433 kg structure made of a central core on which seven major appendages representing 30 percent of the total mass are attached, resulting in a high modal density structure. The test revealed a strong nonlinearity in several major modes. This nonlinearity discovered in the course of the test necessitated running additional tests at the unusually high response levels of up to about 21 g. The high levels of response were required to obtain a model verification valid at the level of loads for which the spacecraft was designed. Because of the high modal density and the nonlinearity, correlation between the dynamic mathematical model and the test results becomes a difficult task. Significant changes in the pre-test analytical model are necessary to establish confidence in the upgraded analytical model used for the final load verification. This verification, using a test verified model, is required by NASA to fly the Galileo Spacecraft on the Shuttle/Centaur launch vehicle in 1986.
Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph
2009-12-01
The objectives of this study were to comparatively assess the magnitude and direction of forces and moments generated from different bracket systems, during the initial levelling and alignment stage of orthodontic treatment. Three types of brackets were used: Orthos2 (Ormco), Damon2 (Ormco), and In-Ovation R (GAC). The brackets were bonded on resin replicas models of a patient's crowded mandibular arch, and a 0.014 inch Damon archform CuNiTi (Ormco) wire was inserted. The model was mounted on the Orthodontic Measurement and Simulation System (OMSS) and six static measurements were taken at the initial crowded state per bracket for the lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar. A total of 10 repetitions were performed for each measurement, with new brackets and archwires used for each trial. The forces and moments generated were registered directly on the OMSS software and were statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance separately for each dental arch location and force component. Group differences were further analyzed with Tukey's post hoc comparisons test at the 0.05 significance level. The lingually inclined, crowded lateral incisor presented an extrusive and buccal movement and showed the lowest force in the vertical direction, whereas the self-ligating group of brackets generated the highest force in the buccolingual direction. The moments applied by the three bracket systems followed the general trend shown for forces; in the vertical axis, the self-ligating brackets exerted lower forces than their conventional counterpart. This was modified in the buccolingual direction where, in most instances, the self-ligating appliances applied higher moments compared with the conventional bracket. In most cases, the magnitude of forces and moments ranged between 30-70 cN and 2-6 N mm, respectively. However, maximum forces and moments developed at the lateral incisor were almost four times higher than the average. PMID:19349418
Assessing Fidelity of Implementation of an Unprescribed, Diagnostic Mathematics Intervention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Munter, Charles; Wilhelm, Anne Garrison; Cobb, Paul; Cordray, David S.
2014-01-01
This article draws on previously employed methods for conducting fidelity studies and applies them to an evaluation of an unprescribed intervention. We document the process of assessing the fidelity of implementation of the Math Recovery first-grade tutoring program, an unprescribed, diagnostic intervention. We describe how we drew on recent…
Accommodation Practices for English Language Learners in States' Mathematics Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny C.; Rivera, Nichole M.; Chang, Sandy M.
2012-01-01
Background/Context: Testing accommodations have been widely utilized as a way of increasing the validity of content assessments for English language learner (ELL) students. However, concerns have also arisen regarding the appropriateness of accommodation use, including the accessibility and fairness of accommodations. While many states have…
Changing Mathematics Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment and Feedback
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dixon, Helen; Haigh, Mavis
2009-01-01
Informed by an amalgam of notions drawn from constructivist, socio-cultural, metacognitive and self-regulation theory, the discourse created to describe assessment to enhance learning has gone through a number of iterations or discursive shifts. As a result, the current discourse is both ambitious and complex with the roles and responsibilities…
Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Hoopes, B.L.; Walter, M.B.; Knight, R.L.; Brown, S.M.
1989-12-01
The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a methodology for assessing relative health impacts from the release of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials. MEPAS is an enhanced version of the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). This document, a supplement to the RAPS documentation, contains an overview of MEPAS followed by detailed discussions of enhancements. MEPAS provides outputs of health impact parameters for use in ranking and screening applications. Environmental contaminant concentrations are used to estimate potential health impacts based on major exposure pathways. Enhancements to the groundwater, surface water, overland, atmospheric, and exposure components are documented. These enhancements include a revision in the integration method for the waterborne pathway, a wetland component, a gaseous emission (volatilization) component, an atmospheric complex terrain component, mass budget formulations, and environmental decay of chemical constituents. Several new exposure components are described along with enhancements to the exposure pathways computations. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reilly, David; Neumann, David L.; Andrews, Glenda
2015-01-01
Gender gaps in the development of mathematical and scientific literacy have important implications for the general public's understanding of scientific issues and for the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math. We subjected data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress to a meta-analysis to examine…
Effective Computer-Aided Assessment of Mathematics; Principles, Practice and Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenhow, Martin
2015-01-01
This article outlines some key issues for writing effective computer-aided assessment (CAA) questions in subjects with substantial mathematical or statistical content, especially the importance of control of random parameters and the encoding of wrong methods of solution (mal-rules) commonly used by students. The pros and cons of using CAA and…
Implementing Computer Algebra Enabled Questions for the Assessment and Learning of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sangwin, Christopher J.; Naismith, Laura
2008-01-01
We present principles for the design of an online system to support computer algebra enabled questions for use within the teaching and learning of mathematics in higher education. The introduction of a computer algebra system (CAS) into a computer aided assessment (CAA) system affords sophisticated response processing of student provided answers.…
Computer-Aided Assessment Questions in Engineering Mathematics Using "MapleTA"[R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, I. S.
2008-01-01
The use of "MapleTA"[R] in the assessment of engineering mathematics at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is discussed with particular reference to the design of questions. Key aspects in the formulation and coding of questions are considered. Problems associated with the submission of symbolic answers, the use of randomly generated numbers…
Students' Learning Assessment Practices Used by Jordanian Teachers of Mathematics for Grades (1-6)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abed, Eman Rasmi; Abu Awwad, Ferial Mohammad
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the students' learning assessment practices used by Jordanian teachers of mathematics for grades (1-6) in Amman. The sample of the study consists of (402) teachers. A questionnaire of (72) items are developed on four domains, namely: questions, homework, exams, and alternative strategies. Validity and reliability are…
Validation of the Diagnostic Teacher Assessment of Mathematics and Science (DTAMS) Instrument
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saderholm, Jon; Ronau, Robert; Brown, E. Todd; Collins, Gary
2010-01-01
The Diagnostic Teacher Assessment in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS) was developed to measure the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of middle-school teachers. Its reliability and validity were initially established by reviewing national standards for content and use of expert question writing teams and reviewers. DTAMS was…
Mathematics Teachers, Reform, and Equity: Results from the Brazilian National Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Franco, Creso; Sztajn, Paola; Ramalho Ortigao, Maria Isabel
2007-01-01
The authors use data from a large-scale Brazilian national assessment to discuss the relation between reform teaching and equity in mathematics education. They study the dimensionality of teaching style to better qualify what reform teaching means. Full Description of the Continuous Variables Included in the Analysis are appended. (Contains 2…
On-Line Mathematics Assessment: The Impact of Mode on Performance and Question Answering Strategies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Martin; Green, Sylvia
2006-01-01
The transition from paper-based to computer-based assessment raises a number of important issues about how mode might affect children's performance and question answering strategies. In this project 104 eleven-year-olds were given two sets of matched mathematics questions, one set on-line and the other on paper. Facility values were analyzed to…
Detection of Gender-Based Differential Item Functioning in a Mathematics Performance Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Ning; Lane, Suzanne
This study used three different differential item functioning (DIF) procedures to examine the extent to which items in a mathematics performance assessment functioned differently for matched gender groups. In addition to examining the appropriateness of individual items in terms of DIF with respect to gender, an attempt was made to identify…
The Conceptual Framework for the Development of a Mathematics Performance Assessment Instrument.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Suzanne
1993-01-01
A conceptual framework is presented for the development of the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) Cognitive Assessment Instrument (QCAI) that focuses on the ability of middle-school students to problem solve, reason, and communicate mathematically. The instrument will provide programatic rather than…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenseid, Lija O.; Lawrenz, Frances
2011-01-01
This study explores the use of citation analysis methods to assess the influence of program evaluations conducted within the area of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Citation analysis is widely used within scientific research communities to measure the relative influence of scientific research enterprises and/or…
The Study of Constructed-Response Assessment of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Min Kyeong; Cho, Mi Kyung
2015-01-01
Recently, many countries have considered various assessment methods in order to measure multiple ways of students' thinking skills and problem solving ability. Recently, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology [MOEST] (2009) in Korea revised the mathematics curriculum, which now more focuses on enabling students to explain mathematically…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erickson, Dianne K.; Niess, Margaret L.; Gfeller, Mary K.
This paper describes the use of portfolios to assess the preservice teacher's knowledge growth in teaching mathematics during a one year graduate-level teacher preparation program at Oregon State University. Portfolios provided evidence of what the preservice teacher used to show development of competency in knowledge and skill of teaching.…
Assessing Language, Literacy, and Mathematics Skills with "Work Sampling for Head Start"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meisels, Samuel J.; Xue, Yange; Shamblott, Melissa
2008-01-01
Research Findings: We examined the reliability and validity of the language, literacy, and mathematics domains of "Work Sampling for Head Start" (WSHS), an observational assessment designed for 3- and 4-year-olds. Participants included 112 children who were enrolled over a two-year period in Head Start and a number of other programs sponsored by…
The Challenge of Formative Assessment in Mathematics Education: Children's Minds, Teachers' Minds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ginsburg, Herbert P.
2009-01-01
The developmental psychology of mathematical thinking and the clinical interview method can make major contributions to education by transforming the process of formative assessment--the attempt to use information concerning student performance, knowledge, learning potential, and motivation to inform instruction. The clinical interview is a…
An Assessment-for-Learning System in Mathematics for Individuals with Visual Impairments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, Eric G.; Shute, Valerie J.; Landau, Steven
2010-01-01
This study examined the usability of an assessment-for-learning (AfL) system that provides audio-tactile graphics for algebra content (geometric sequences) for individuals with visual impairments--two who are blind and two with low vision. It found that the system is generally usable as a mathematics AfL system. (Contains 4 tables.)
Incorporating Partial Credit in Computer-Aided Assessment of Mathematics in Secondary Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ashton, Helen S.; Beevers, Cliff E.; Korabinski, Athol A.; Youngson, Martin A.
2006-01-01
In a mathematical examination on paper, partial credit is normally awarded for an answer that is not correct, but, nevertheless, contains some of the correct working. Assessment on computer normally marks an incorrect answer wrong and awards no marks. This can lead to discrepancies between marks awarded for the same examination given in the two…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.
Included in Chapter 1 of this report are background information on the 1972-73 mathematics assessment; details of the computational formulas used in reporting results; and explanations of the technical documentation, exercise presentation, documentation pages, scoring guides, and data tables for released and unreleased exercises. The remainder of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ong, Yoke Mooi; Williams, Julian Scott; Lamprianou, Iasonas
2011-01-01
The aims of this study are (a) to examine the sources of differential functioning by gender via differential bundle functioning (DBF) in mathematics assessment and (b) to use DBF to explore whether the differential functioning displayed is construct-relevant or construct-irrelevant. Three qualitatively different areas, namely curriculum domains,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Tzu-Hua
2011-01-01
This research adopts the Graduated Prompting Assessment Module of the WATA system (GPAM-WATA) and applies it to the remedial teaching of junior high school mathematics. The theoretical basis of the development of GPAM-WATA is the idea of 'graduated prompt approach' proposed by Campione and Brown (1985; 1987, pp. 92-95). In GPAM-WATA, when…
A World of Differences. An International Assessment of Mathematics and Science.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lapointe, Archie E.; And Others
In February, 1988, random samples of students from five countries (Ireland, Korea, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and four Canadian provinces (British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, and Quebec) were given an assessment of mathematics and science achievement, and a questionnaire. This document summarizes the results of these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pantzare, Anna Lind
2012-01-01
Calculators with computer algebra systems (CAS) are powerful tools when working with equations and algebraic expressions in mathematics. When calculators are allowed to be used during assessments but are not available or provided to every student, they may cause bias. The CAS calculators may also have an impact on the trustworthiness of results.…
Gender and Achievement--Understanding Gender Differences and Similarities in Mathematics Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Liru; Manon, Jon
The primary objective of this study was to investigate overall patterns of gender differences and similarities of test performance in mathematics. To achieve that objective, observed test scores on the Delaware standards-based assessment were analyzed to examine: (1) gender differences and similarities across grades 3, 5, 8 and 10 over 2 years;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackman, Susan; Goldfinch, Judy; Searl, John
2001-01-01
Describes the introduction and evaluation of the effectiveness of a single group project given at a new university, and 10 individual tasks at an ancient university, to devise appropriate and relevant assessments for first-year service mathematics courses for science and engineering. Studies the effects of these tasks on attitudes toward…
The School-Tertiary Interface in Mathematics: Teaching Style and Assessment Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Michael O. J.; Klymchuk, Sergiy
2012-01-01
Issues arising in the transition from secondary school to tertiary mathematics study are increasingly coming under scrutiny. In this paper, we analyse two practical aspects of the school-tertiary interface: teaching style; and assessment. We present some of the findings arising from a 2-year national project in New Zealand titled "Analysing the…
Impact of Student Calculator Use on the 2013 NAEP Twelfth-Grade Mathematics Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klecker, Beverly M.; Klecker, Richard L.
2014-01-01
This descriptive research study examined 2013 NAEP 12th-grade mathematics scores by students' use of graphing calculators in math classes and the kind of calculator students used during NAEP assessment. NAEP Data Explorer analysis included two questions from Student Factors: How often do you use these different kinds of calculators in math…
Effects of the Classroom Assessment Environment on Achievement in Mathematics and Science.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brookhart, Susan M.
The effects of classroom assessment environment (CAE) variables on yearly achievement in mathematics and science in grades 7 through 12 were studied through the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), using cohorts of approximately 3,000 students each in the 7th and 10th grades who were followed for 4 years. While the LSAY did not include all…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robitaille, David F.
This document contains 15 papers selected from 47 papers presented at a theme group of the Sixth International Congress on Mathematical Education. The papers included have been divided into four groups. The first group consists of a survey paper, which discusses the history of assessment and evaluation. The second section consists of six papers…
Curriculum-Based Measurement in Mathematics: An Evidence-Based Formative Assessment Procedure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lembke, Erica S.; Stecker, Pamela M.
2007-01-01
One of the best methods of formative assessment in academic areas and a method that exemplifies the characteristics of good measures is Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM; Deno, 1985). Developed at the University of Minnesota in the early 1970's, CBM has been researched in academic areas including mathematics computation, concepts, and…
Carraccio, Carol; Englander, Robert; Holmboe, Eric S; Kogan, Jennifer R
2016-02-01
To address the long-standing challenge of meaningful trainee assessment, the authors reviewed and expanded on the Accountable Assessment for Quality Care and Supervision (AAQCS) equation. The equation proposes that care quality is the product of the interaction between trainee performance (measured by workplace assessment) and supervision (required level of intervention to ensure care quality) in the context of the environment where the care occurs: Trainee performance × Appropriate supervision = Safe, effective patient-centered care. Assessing trainee performance and matching that performance to "appropriate" supervision, however, is fraught with challenges. The authors suggest a unifying framework that integrates entrustable professional activities (EPAs), competencies, and milestones to inform trainee assessment and supervision, thereby enabling the practical application of the AAQCS equation in the workplace. Because the unit of measure for an EPA is the outcome of whether the trainee can safely and effectively perform the professional activity without supervision, the proposed unifying framework directly aligns with the dependent variable in the AAQCS equation: care quality.The value of applying a unifying framework that integrates EPAs, competencies, and milestones to the AAQCS equation in the clinical learning environment lies in its ability to provide supervisors with a shared mental model of performance expectations for trainees, reducing unwanted variability and improving assessment accuracy; guidance for aligning performance milestones of trainees with the needed level of supervisor intervention to ensure care quality; and substrate for specific feedback to improve the trainee's professional development as a way to ensure future care quality. PMID:26509601
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hudesman, John; Crosby, Sara; Ziehmke, Niesha; Everson, Howard; Issac, Sharlene; Flugman, Bert; Zimmerman, Barry; Moylan, Adam
2014-01-01
The authors describe an Enhanced Formative Assessment and Self-Regulated Learning (EFA-SRL) program designed to improve the achievement of community college students enrolled in developmental mathematics courses. Their model includes the use of specially formatted quizzes designed to assess both the students' mathematics and metacognitive…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perkin, Glynis; Beacham, Nigel; Croft, Anthony
2007-01-01
This paper opens up a debate about policy and practice in computer-assisted assessment (CAA) of mathematics for undergraduates with specific learning difficulties e.g. dyslexia. Guidelines for designing assessments for such students are emerging and some may be transferable to CAA. Whether mathematics brings with it particular issues is unclear.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Contino, Julie
2013-01-01
In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Villarreal, Alyssa
2013-01-01
This article peers through the lens of one district's journey of World Languages program refinement, and identifies a blueprint for success by aligning targets. The author begins by proposing the following questions: (1) Is your program where you want it to be? (2) Is it producing desired results? and (3) Are students yielding the greatest results…
Alignment between the Science Curriculum and Assessment in Selected NY State Regents Exams
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Xiufeng; Fulmer, Gavin
2008-01-01
This article reports on an analysis of alignment between NY state core curricula and NY Regents tests in physics and chemistry. Both the curriculum and test were represented by a two dimensional table consisting of topics and cognitive demands. The cell values of the table were numbers of major understandings in the curriculum and points of test…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Michael F.
2011-01-01
Fiscal challenges are forcing institutions of higher education to do more with less, while retaining the quality of service that the institution has established. The net result is that these institutions need to prepare themselves to achieve a sustained competitive advantage. In business, the focus has been on strategic alignment of IT to provide…
Curricula Alignment and Its Impact on End of Course Assessment Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burti, Neil, Jr.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the alignment of the written, enacted, and tested Algebra I curricula in the Cherry Hill (NJ) Public School District. Furthermore, this QUAN-QUAL study sought to determine the impact of course selection (Algebra I, Enriched Algebra) on achievement as measured by the Algebra I End of Course…
A mathematically guided strategy for risk assessment and management.
Cooper, James Arlin
2005-03-01
Strategies for risk assessment and management of high consequence operations are often based on factors such as physical analysis, analysis of software and other logical processing, and analysis of statistically determined human actions. Conventional analysis methods work well for processing objective information. However, in practical situations, much or most of the data available are subjective. Also, there are potential resultant pitfalls where conventional analysis might be unrealistic, such as improperly using event tree and fault tree failure descriptions where failures or events are soft (partial) rather than crisp (binary), neglecting or misinterpreting dependence (positive, negative, correlation), and aggregating nonlinear contributions linearly. There are also personnel issues that transcend basic human factors statistics. For example, sustained productivity and safety in critical operations can depend on the morale of involved personnel. In addition, motivation is significantly influenced by 'latent effects', which are pre-occurring influences. This paper addresses these challenges and proposes techniques for subjective risk analysis, latent effects risk analysis and a hybrid analysis that also includes objective risk analysis. The goal is an improved strategy for risk management.
Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L
2011-01-01
This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse. PMID:21965254
McDougall, Catherine J; Gallie, Price; Whitehouse, Sarah L
2016-12-01
This MRI study explores the individual variation of the rotational axes of the distal femur, and investigate the relationship of this variation with overall coronal alignment in the osteoarthritic knee,The mean surgical epicondylar axis (SEA) was 1.7°, anatomical epicondylar axis (AEA) 5.6° and AP trochlea axis (APA) 94.3° external rotation, compared to the posterior condylar line. Investigating this relationship between different coronal alignment groups, there were statistically significant differences between excessive varus and excessive valgus knees for SEA (0.9:3.0 p < 0.001) and AEA (4.7:7.0 p < 0.001). There was no statistical difference for APA (93.9:95.3 p = 0.238). PMID:27408506
Dargel, Jens; Oppermann, Johannes; Eysel, Peer; Penning, Lenhard
2016-01-01
Aims and Objectives: Restoration of the coronal alignment of the knee is known to be one of the major criteria of a successful total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It therefore appears to be mandatory to routinely assess the postoperative limb alignment using hip-ankle radiographs and to identify implants that may be at risk of premature failure. However, there is no clear consensus whether weight-bearing hip-ankle radiographs or rather standardized a-p knee-radiographs should be used to assess implant position and coronal alignment after TKA. It is the aim of the present study to investigate if implant position and the mechanical alignment after TKA can reproducibly be assessed using standardized a-p knee-radiographs or rather if weight-bearing hip-ankle radiographs are needed. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 100 postoperative weight-bearing hip-ankle radiographs after conventional primary TKA. The true mechanical and anatomical femorotibial angle as well as coronal implant position (MPTA, LDFA) was assessed using the MediCAD software, which served as a control. The hip-ankle radiographs were then digitally cropped to 80%, 60% and 40% of the leg-length. In each cropped radiograph, tibial coronal implant position was assessed by referencing against the visible mid-shaft, whereas femoral implant position was referenced against the visible mid-shaft (anatomical axis) or against a surrogate mechanical axis, which was drawn perpendicular to the distal tangent of the femoral component. Each measurement was performed by three independent observers. The difference between the alignment parameters in the hip-ankle radiographs were statistically compared with the cropped radiographs and the inter-observer correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for each parameter. Results: The ICC for inter-observer agreement of measurement of the mechanical femorotibial angle was significantly higher in hip-ankle radiographs (.95) when compared with a radiograph cropped
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khademolhosseini, F.; Liu, C.-C.; Lim, C. J.; Chiao, M.
2016-08-01
Commercially available cell strain tools, such as pneumatically actuated elastomer substrates, require special culture plates, pumps, and incubator setups. In this work, we present a magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool (MACSAT) that can be implemented using off-the-shelf components and conventional incubators. We determine the strain field on the MACSAT elastomer substrate using numerical models and experimental measurements and show that a specific region of the elastomer substrate undergoes a quasi-uniaxial 2D stretch, and that cells confined to this region of the MACSAT elastomer substrate undergo tensile, compressive, or zero axial strain depending on their angle of orientation. Using the MACSAT to apply cyclic strain on endothelial cells, we demonstrate that actin filaments within the cells reorient away from the stretching direction, towards the directions of minimum axial strain. We show that the final actin orientation angles in strained cells are spread over a region of compressive axial strain, confirming previous findings on the existence of a varied pre-tension in the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. We also demonstrate that strained cells exhibit distinctly different values of actin alignment coherency compared to unstrained cells and therefore propose that this parameter, i.e., the coherency of actin alignment, can be used as a new readout to determine the occurrence/extent of actin alignment in cell strain experiments. The tools and methods demonstrated in this study are simple and accessible and can be easily replicated by other researchers to study the strain response of other adherent cells.
The school-tertiary interface in mathematics: teaching style and assessment practice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Michael O. J.; Klymchuk, Sergiy
2012-09-01
Issues arising in the transition from secondary school to tertiary mathematics study are increasingly coming under scrutiny. In this paper, we analyse two practical aspects of the school-tertiary interface: teaching style; and assessment. We present some of the findings arising from a 2-year national project in New Zealand titled "Analysing the Transition from Secondary to Tertiary Education in Mathematics" supported by the New Zealand Ministry of Education. The results provide evidence of similarities and differences between teachers and lecturers in their preferred teaching approaches and assessment strategies that contribute to a transitional gap between the school and tertiary sectors. The results also show that each group lacks a clear understanding of the issues involved in the transition from the other's perspective, and there is a need for improved communication between the two sectors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Denise
2014-01-01
Despite acknowledgement of the benefits of self-assessment in higher education, disparity between student and academic assessments, with associated trends in overrating and underrating, plagues its meaningful use, particularly as a tool for formal assessment. This study examines self-assessment of capabilities in certain employability skills in…
Language matters in demonstrations of understanding in early years mathematics assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mushin, Ilana; Gardner, Rod; Munro, Jennifer M.
2013-09-01
In classrooms tests, students are regularly required to demonstrate their understanding of mathematical concepts. When children encounter problems in demonstrating such understanding, it is often not clear whether this is because of the language of the teachers' questions and instructions or a genuine non-understanding of the concept itself. This paper uses Conversation Analysis to investigate the role that language plays in Year 1 oral maths assessment in an Australian Indigenous community school. This approach allows us to monitor the very subtle communicative gestures, verbal and non-verbal, that contribute to the trajectory of a particular test task. Here we are able to bring to light a range of ways in which language may interfere with demonstrations of understanding of mathematical concepts. These include particular mathematical words (e.g., size, shape, same), as well as problems with what is being asked in an instruction. We argue that while all children must learn new mathematical language in their early years of schooling, the challenge for the students we have recorded may be compounded by the language differences between the Indigenous variety of language they speak in the community, and the Standard Australian English of the classroom and teachers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reis, Giuliano; Barwell, Richard
2013-01-01
The day-to-day business of being a science or mathematics teacher involves the continuous assessment of students. This, in turn, is an inherently discursive process. The aim of the present study is to examine some of the specific discursive practices through which science and mathematics knowing is jointly produced through classroom interaction.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
House, J, Daniel; Telese, James A.
2013-01-01
Effective teaching practice for improving student achievement in mathematics is a critical area for instructional design. Further, results from international assessments of mathematics achievement have indicated that students in Korea typically earned test scores higher then international averages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cupani, Marcos; de Minzi, Maria Cristina Richaud; Perez, Edgardo Raul; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
2010-01-01
This study tested a set of hypotheses derived from the model of academic achievement in mathematics of the Social Cognitive Career Theory in a sample of Argentinean middle school students. To this aim, 277 students (male and female; age: 13-15 years) were assessed using the following instruments: logical-mathematical self-efficacy scale,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aly, Hassan Shawky; Abdulhakeem, Hassan Daker
2016-01-01
This study aimed at assessing the training programs for Mathematics teachers at elementary stage on developed Curricula and attitudes toward teaching at Najran educational administration in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this objective, two instruments were developed, one of them measures the opinions of Mathematics teachers about the training programs…
Wave-optical assessment of alignment tolerances in nano-focusing with ellipsoidal mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ohashi, Haruhiko
2016-01-01
High-precision ellipsoidal mirrors, which can efficiently focus X-rays to the nanometer dimension with a mirror, have not been realized because of the difficulties in the fabrication process. The purpose of our study was to develop nano-focusing ellipsoidal mirrors in the hard X-ray region. We developed a wave-optical focusing simulator for investigating alignment tolerances in nano-focusing with a designed ellipsoidal mirror, which produce a diffraction-limited focus size of 30 × 35 nm2 in full width at half maximum at an X-ray energy of 7 keV. The simulator can calculate focusing intensity distributions around the focal point under conditions of misalignment. The wave-optical simulator enabled the calculation of interference intensity distributions, which cannot be predicted by the conventional ray-trace method. The alignment conditions with a focal length error of ≲ ±10 µm, incident angle error of ≲ ±0.5 µrad, and in-plane rotation angle error of ≲ ±0.25 µrad must be satisfied for nano-focusing.
Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.
1996-03-01
The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a ``multimedia`` model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manon, John Rahn
1995-01-01
Suggests important roles for the mathematics test: certifying procedural skills, informing instruction, and preparation for sense-making. Offers cautions about the limitations of the teacher-produced test. (MKR)
The Alignment of Alternate Assessment Content with Academic and Functional Curricula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Browder, D; Flowers, C; Ahlgrim-Delzell, L; Karvonen, M; Spooner, F; Algozzine, R
2004-01-01
The 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act required states to provide access to the general curriculum and alternate assessments for students with disabilities who were unable to participate in statewide assessments. For this study, we examined the curricular focus of alternate assessments using performance indicators…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirchhoff, C.; Dilling, L.
2011-12-01
Water managers have long experienced the challenges of managing water resources in a variable climate. However, climate change has the potential to reshape the experiential landscape by, for example, increasing the intensity and duration of droughts, shifting precipitation timing and amounts, and changing sea levels. Given the uncertainty in evaluating potential climate risks as well as future water availability and water demands, scholars suggest water managers employ more flexible and adaptive science-based management to manage uncertainty (NRC 2009). While such an approach is appropriate, for adaptive science-based management to be effective both governance and information must be concordant across three measures: fit, interplay and scale (Young 2002)(Note 1). Our research relies on interviews of state water managers and related experts (n=50) and documentary analysis in five U.S. states to understand the drivers and constraints to improving water resource planning and decision-making in a changing climate using an assessment of fit, interplay and scale as an evaluative framework. We apply this framework to assess and compare how water managers plan and respond to current or anticipated water resource challenges within each state. We hypothesize that better alignment between the data and management framework and the water resource problem improves water managers' facility to understand (via available, relevant, timely information) and respond appropriately (through institutional response mechanisms). In addition, better alignment between governance mechanisms (between the scope of the problem and identified appropriate responses) improves water management. Moreover, because many of the management challenges analyzed in this study concern present day issues with scarcity brought on by a combination of growth and drought, better alignment of fit, interplay, and scale today will enable and prepare water managers to be more successful in adapting to climate change
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKinzie, Abasi H.
2012-01-01
This study utilized the student scores of eighth-grade mathematics students on the "Discovery Education Assessment," as well as the self-efficacy perceptions of eighth-grade mathematics teachers as determined by the "Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale" ("TSES") from seven middle schools that encompassed grades 6-8…
Summative and Formative Assessments in Mathematics Supporting the Goals of the Common Core Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
2015-01-01
Being proficient in mathematics involves having rich and connected mathematical knowledge, being a strategic and reflective thinker and problem solver, and having productive mathematical beliefs and dispositions. This broad set of mathematics goals is central to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. High-stakes testing often drives…
Khademolhosseini, F; Liu, C-C; Lim, C J; Chiao, M
2016-08-01
Commercially available cell strain tools, such as pneumatically actuated elastomer substrates, require special culture plates, pumps, and incubator setups. In this work, we present a magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool (MACSAT) that can be implemented using off-the-shelf components and conventional incubators. We determine the strain field on the MACSAT elastomer substrate using numerical models and experimental measurements and show that a specific region of the elastomer substrate undergoes a quasi-uniaxial 2D stretch, and that cells confined to this region of the MACSAT elastomer substrate undergo tensile, compressive, or zero axial strain depending on their angle of orientation. Using the MACSAT to apply cyclic strain on endothelial cells, we demonstrate that actin filaments within the cells reorient away from the stretching direction, towards the directions of minimum axial strain. We show that the final actin orientation angles in strained cells are spread over a region of compressive axial strain, confirming previous findings on the existence of a varied pre-tension in the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. We also demonstrate that strained cells exhibit distinctly different values of actin alignment coherency compared to unstrained cells and therefore propose that this parameter, i.e., the coherency of actin alignment, can be used as a new readout to determine the occurrence/extent of actin alignment in cell strain experiments. The tools and methods demonstrated in this study are simple and accessible and can be easily replicated by other researchers to study the strain response of other adherent cells. PMID:27587150
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLaughlin, Don; Bandeira de Mello, Victor; Blankenship, Charles; Chaney, Kassandra; Esra, Phil; Hikawa, Hiro; Rojas, Daniela; William, Paul; Wolman, Michael
2008-01-01
In late January through early March of 2003, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) grade 4 and 8 reading and mathematics assessments were administered to representative samples of students in approximately 100 public schools in each state. The results of these assessments were announced in November 2003. Each state also carried…
Developing High-Quality Assessments that Align with Instructional Video Games. CRESST Report 774
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vendlinski, Terry P.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Buschang, Rebecca E.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Baker, Eva L.
2010-01-01
The evaluation of educational interventions requires assessments that consistently (reliably) produce data from which accurate (valid) inferences about the test subjects can be made for some stated purpose. Despite codified definitions of all these terms, there remains vibrant debate about the assessment design process and how measures of…
School-Based Assessment of ADHD: Purpose, Alignment with Best Practice Guidelines, and Training
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogg, Julia; Fefer, Sarah; Sundman-Wheat, Ashley; McMahan, Melanie; Stewart, Tiffany; Chappel, Ashley; Bateman, Lisa
2013-01-01
Youth exhibiting symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are frequently referred to school psychologists because of academic, social, and behavioral difficulties that they face. To address these difficulties, evidence-based assessment methods have been outlined for multiple purposes of assessment. The goals of this study were to…
Aligning CASAS Competencies and Assessments to Basic Skills Content Standards. Second Edition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2009
2009-01-01
Since its inception, the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) has focused on teaching and assessing basic skills in contexts that are relevant and important to adult learners. CASAS has developed and continues to refine a highly formalized hierarchy of competencies, the application of basic skills that adults need to be fully…
Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.
Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I
2016-09-21
The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrere, C.; Milesi, S.; Lapyckyj, I.; Ravera, E.; Escher, L.; Miyara, A.; Pita, G.; Añino, M.
2016-04-01
Bioengineering is currently considered an interdisciplinary professional field which provides solutions to different problems arising in the area of health care. Its strategic importance is widely acknowledged since its developments and proposals could help diminish the level of technological dependence in the sector. The fast pace of innovation in the area of biomedical technology gives rise to permanent reflection on the learning goals and teaching strategies proposed by educators in the different training stages of a bioengineer. In this context, learning assessment appears as a controversial issue which needs to be debated and rethought. This paper describes the reflections of teachers of a Mathematics course within a Bioengineering program around the question, What approach to assessment favors the student’s participation, autonomy and training as a future bioengineer? The investigation was carried out in the framework of a Participatory Research Action project and helped us to redesign assessment activities from a different perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NJ1), 2011
2011-01-01
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and assessments aligned to them represent a significant milestone in public education reform in the U.S. Developed with consultation from higher education, the rigorous new standards and the assessments now being drafted by two consortia promise to help students reach higher levels of academic achievement and…
The influence of test mode and visuospatial ability on mathematics assessment performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logan, Tracy
2015-12-01
Mathematics assessment and testing are increasingly situated within digital environments with international tests moving to computer-based testing in the near future. This paper reports on a secondary data analysis which explored the influence the mode of assessment—computer-based (CBT) and pencil-and-paper based (PPT)—and visuospatial ability had on students' mathematics test performance. Data from 804 grade 6 Singaporean students were analysed using the knowledge discovery in data design. The results revealed statistically significant differences between performance on CBT and PPT test modes across content areas concerning whole number algebraic patterns and data and chance. However, there were no performance differences for content areas related to spatial arrangements geometric measurement or other number. There were also statistically significant differences in performance between those students who possess higher levels of visuospatial ability compared to those with lower levels across all six content areas. Implications include careful consideration for the comparability of CBT and PPT testing and the need for increased attention to the role of visuospatial reasoning in student's mathematics reasoning.
Assessing Mathematical Models of Influenza Infections Using Features of the Immune Response
Dobrovolny, Hana M.; Reddy, Micaela B.; Kamal, Mohamed A.; Rayner, Craig R.; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.
2013-01-01
The role of the host immune response in determining the severity and duration of an influenza infection is still unclear. In order to identify severity factors and more accurately predict the course of an influenza infection within a human host, an understanding of the impact of host factors on the infection process is required. Despite the lack of sufficiently diverse experimental data describing the time course of the various immune response components, published mathematical models were constructed from limited human or animal data using various strategies and simplifying assumptions. To assess the validity of these models, we assemble previously published experimental data of the dynamics and role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, antibodies, and interferon and determined qualitative key features of their effect that should be captured by mathematical models. We test these existing models by confronting them with experimental data and find that no single model agrees completely with the variety of influenza viral kinetics responses observed experimentally when various immune response components are suppressed. Our analysis highlights the strong and weak points of each mathematical model and highlights areas where additional experimental data could elucidate specific mechanisms, constrain model design, and complete our understanding of the immune response to influenza. PMID:23468916
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2011
2011-01-01
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment measures students' knowledge and skills in mathematics and students' ability to apply their knowledge in problem-solving situations. At each grade, students responded to questions designed to measure what they know and can do across five mathematics content areas: number…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
2013-01-01
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment measures students' knowledge and skills in mathematics and students' ability to apply their knowledge in problem-solving situations. At each grade, students responded to questions designed to measure what they know and can do across five mathematics content areas: number…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014
2014-01-01
Recently, Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) completed a study to connect the scale of the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments (MCA) Testing Program used for Minnesota's mathematics and reading assessments with NWEA's RIT (Rasch Unit) scale. Information from the state assessments was used in a study to establish performance-level scores on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Tory C.
2013-01-01
The introduction of No Child Left Behind increased performance expectations for students across the United States and compelled teachers to focus on standardized assessments instead of frequent formative assessments to monitor instruction and promote student learning. Common formative assessments (CFAs) help teachers align curriculum, assessment,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O.
2015-08-01
In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions.
Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O
2015-08-21
In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions. PMID:26222018
Aligning the 3Rs with new paradigms in the safety assessment of chemicals.
Burden, Natalie; Mahony, Catherine; Müller, Boris P; Terry, Claire; Westmoreland, Carl; Kimber, Ian
2015-04-01
There are currently several factors driving a move away from the reliance on in vivo toxicity testing for the purposes of chemical safety assessment. Progress has started to be made in the development and validation of non-animal methods. However, recent advances in the biosciences provide exciting opportunities to accelerate this process and to ensure that the alternative paradigms for hazard identification and risk assessment deliver lasting 3Rs benefits, whilst improving the quality and relevance of safety assessment. The NC3Rs, a UK-based scientific organisation which supports the development and application of novel 3Rs techniques and approaches, held a workshop recently which brought together over 20 international experts in the field of chemical safety assessment. The aim of this workshop was to review the current scientific, technical and regulatory landscapes, and to identify key opportunities towards reaching these goals. Here, we consider areas where further strategic investment will need to be focused if significant impact on 3Rs is to be matched with improved safety science, and why the timing is right for the field to work together towards an environment where we no longer rely on whole animal data for the accurate safety assessment of chemicals. PMID:25932488
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegel, Marcelle; Roberts, Tina M.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Izci, Kemal
2015-01-01
The authors describe a collaborative group-testing strategy implemented and studied in undergraduate science classes. This project investigated how the assessment strategy relates to student performance and perceptions about collaboration and focused on two sections of an undergraduate biotechnology course taught in separate semesters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cronin, John
2004-01-01
Recently the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) completed a project to connect the scale of the MCA and BST with NWEA's RIT scale. Six Minnesota systems participated in the study, using test information from a group of over 13,000 students enrolled in third, fifth, and eighth grades who took these Minnesota Assessments and NWEA tests in the…
Aligning Instruction and Assessment with Game and Simulation Design. CRESST Report 780
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wainess, Richard; Koenig, Alan; Kerr, Deirdre
2011-01-01
Effective design of training-related games (games for training and/or assessment) requires synergy between the mechanisms for delivering instructional content and the mechanisms for learning game play and game functionality (Becker, 2006). The learning domain must be embedded as a core game mechanic: that is, the game cannot be advanced or won…
Towards a Framework for Aligning Learning Outcomes, Academic Literacies and Assessment Criteria
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dew, Robert; Goscinski, Andrzej; Coldwell-Neilson, Jo
2016-01-01
Although Australian students spend three or more years studying they can seem quite unaware of any of the expected learning outcomes of their course. They are often single unit focused, paying most attention to individual assessment items thus not developing a holistic view of their course. This paper presents a theoretical framework to support…
Assessing Seventh Graders' Mathematical Literacy in Solving PISA-Like Tasks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dewantara, Andi Harpeni; Zulkardi; Darmawijoyo
2015-01-01
This design research type development study aims at producing a set of PISA-like mathematics task which is valid and practical as well as has the potential effects. Then, activation of fundamental mathematical capabilities underlying mathematical process related to the mathematical literacy as the main potential effect of the developed PISA-like…
Elective Drama Course in Mathematics Education: An Assessment of Pre-Service Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sagirli, Meryem Özturan
2014-01-01
This study aimed to evaluate a newly introduced elective course "Drama in Mathematics Education" into mathematics education curriculum from the viewpoints of pre-service mathematics teachers. A case study was employed in the study. The study group consisted of 37 pre-service mathematics teachers who were enrolled in a Turkish state…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Onderi, Peter Omae; Okwara, Michael Okello; Raburu, Pam; Barongo, Samson; Mokaya, Evans; Mokogi, Henry; Omae, David
2015-01-01
Performance in mathematics in Masaba Sub-County, Kenya has been poor for many years. In 2010 the mean score was 3.2282, while in 2011 it had a mean score of 3.9528 and in 2012 it had a mean of 4.0660 which is far below the maximum mean of 12.00. The purpose of this study was to assess factors related to academic achievement in mathematics in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Joshua
2011-01-01
The pressure to meet the demands of "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act coupled with poor results by secondary students on national assessments in mathematics have forced school principals to develop skill sets in the use of data in efforts to increase student performance on standardized assessments. The effective use of data by school principals…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Chang-Hua
2012-01-01
This study implements a teacher professional development program with an aim toward developing mathematics teachers' discourse-based assessment practice (DAP) and exploring its possible impact on teacher discourse in sessions and in DAP in the classroom. DAP is a type of formative assessment practice which consists of questioning and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Smith, Zachary R.
2009-01-01
In this study, we mapped achievement levels from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) onto the score scales for selected assessments from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Program for International Student Achievement (PISA). The mapping was conducted on NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA Mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baxter, G. P.; Ahmed, S.; Sikali, E.; Waits, T.; Sloan, M.; Salvucci, S.
2007-01-01
In 2003, a trial National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment was administered in Spanish to public school students at grades 4 and 8 in Puerto Rico. Based on preliminary analyses of the 2003 data, changes were made in administration and translation procedures for the 2005 NAEP administration in Puerto Rico. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Birgin, Osman
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the views of pre-service mathematics (PSM) teachers on the use of portfolios as an alternative assessment method. This study was conducted with 146 Turkish PSM teachers participating in a semester-long portfolio assessment application. Data were collected with a questionnaire comprising 34 items on a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poggio, John; Glasnapp, Douglas R.; Yang, Xiangdong; Poggio, Andrew J.
2005-01-01
The present study reports results from a quasi-controlled empirical investigation addressing the impact on student test scores when using fixed form computer based testing (CBT) versus paper and pencil (P&P) testing as the delivery mode to assess student mathematics achievement in a state's large scale assessment program. Grade 7 students served…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tarr, James E.; Walker, Erica N.; Hollebrands, Karen F.; Chval, Kathryn B.; Berry, Robert Q., III; Rasmussen, Chris L.; Konold, Cliff; King, Karen
2013-01-01
The current era of common curriculum standards, increased accountability, and rapid expansion of technology within a complex and highly charged political context has influenced changes in assessment practices in mathematics classrooms. This research commentary situates high-stakes assessments in a historical context, discusses recent advances in…
Davidson, Ian; Scianni, Christopher; Hewitt, Chad; Everett, Richard; Holm, Eric; Tamburri, Mario; Ruiz, Gregory
2016-01-01
Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:26930397
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contino, Julie
2013-02-01
In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the standards. This study reports an analysis of the alignment between the National Science Education Standards (NSES), New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum (Core Curriculum) and New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Regents Examination (Regents Exam)—the sources teachers use for creating Earth Science curricula in New York State. The NSES were found to have a 49 % overlap with the Core Curriculum and a 27 % overlap with the Regents Exam. The Core Curriculum and Regents Exam, represented by matrices consisting of performance indicators and cognitive demands, were compared using the Porter Alignment Index. The alignment was 0.35, categorized as slightly aligned, due to the different emphases on cognitive levels. The Core focused on cognitive skills of Understand and Apply while the Regents concentrated more on Apply followed by Understand and Remember. It is suggested that the NSES be revised and the Core updated to include quantifiable emphasis on the major understandings such as percentage of time.
Mathematical aspects of assessing extreme events for the safety of nuclear plants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potempski, Slawomir; Borysiewicz, Mieczyslaw
2015-04-01
In the paper the review of mathematical methodologies applied for assessing low frequencies of rare natural events like earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or tornadoes, floods (in particular flash floods and surge storms), lightning, solar flares, etc., will be given in the perspective of the safety assessment of nuclear plants. The statistical methods are usually based on the extreme value theory, which deals with the analysis of extreme deviation from the median (or the mean). In this respect application of various mathematical tools can be useful, like: the extreme value theorem of Fisher-Tippett-Gnedenko leading to possible choices of general extreme value distributions, or the Pickands-Balkema-de Haan theorem for tail fitting, or the methods related to large deviation theory. In the paper the most important stochastic distributions relevant for performing rare events statistical analysis will be presented. This concerns, for example, the analysis of the data with the annual extreme values (maxima - "Annual Maxima Series" or minima), or the peak values, exceeding given thresholds at some periods of interest ("Peak Over Threshold"), or the estimation of the size of exceedance. Despite of the fact that there is a lack of sufficient statistical data directly containing rare events, in some cases it is still possible to extract useful information from existing larger data sets. As an example one can consider some data sets available from the web sites for floods, earthquakes or generally natural hazards. Some aspects of such data sets will be also presented taking into account their usefulness for the practical assessment of risk for nuclear power plants coming from extreme weather conditions.
Re-evaluating Sustainability Assessment: Aligning the vision and the practice
Bond, Alan J.; Morrison-Saunders, Angus
2011-01-15
Sustainable Development is the core goal of the expanding field of Sustainability Assessment (SA). However, we find that three key areas of debate in relation to SA practice in England and Western Australia can be classified as policy controversies. Through literature review and analysis of documentary evidence we consider the problem of reductionism (breaking down complex processes to simple terms or component parts) as opposed to holism (considering systems as wholes); the issue of contested understandings of the meaning of sustainability (and of the purpose of SA); and the definition of 'inter-generational' in the context of sustainable development and how this is reflected in the timescales considered in SA. We argue that SA practice is based on particular framings of the policy controversies and that the critical role of SA in facilitating deliberation over these controversies needs to be recognised if there is to be a move towards a new deliberative sustainability discourse which can accommodate these different framings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkerson, Judy R.; Lang, William Steve
2005-01-01
NCATE (2002) requires the measurement of knowledge, skills, and dispositions as part of its accreditation requirements for teacher education programs (Standard 1) and the use of unit assessment systems to aggregate and analyse data with a view toward program improvement (Standard 2). Data must indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.
2014-01-01
This study examined the effect of learning progression-aligned formal embedded formative assessment on conceptual change and achievement in middle-school science. Fifty-two sixth graders were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were taught about sinking and floating by the same teacher with identical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finnegan, Robert J.
2010-01-01
Despite recent policy initiatives to ensure high school accountability through state-mandated testing, New Jersey high school graduates may not be prepared for the challenges of college-level writing because the state's high school assessment is not aligned with college-level expectations (Brown & Conley, 2007; Conley, 2003). An ever-growing…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Lambert, Warren; Compton, Donald L.
2006-01-01
This study investigated whether 2 different progress monitoring assessments differentially predicted growth in reading skills associated with systematic phonics instruction. Oral reading fluency (ORE) was compared with an intervention aligned word list (IAWL) as predictors of growth in untimed and timed decoding and word identification and text…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tan, May; Turner, Carolyn E.
2015-01-01
In Quebec the high-stakes Secondary Five ESL exit writing exam developed by the Education Ministry (MELS) is administered and corrected by classroom teachers. In this distinctive situation, the MELS works toward aligning classroom-based assessment (CBA) and the writing exam by making ongoing teacher involvement part of its development and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chesswas, Roger; Lee, Lesley
2008-01-01
This study was designed to answer the question: What is the status of student achievement in middle school mathematics in the Pacific Region jurisdictions? Findings provide a portrait of the types of mathematic assessments used in grades 7 and 8 and of how well students are performing. In addressing the question of mathematics achievement in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Speziale, Kerry Maureen
2011-01-01
This study determined whether chronological age differences among students in the same grade level affected their respective levels of academic performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics assessment. The study analyzed the additional independent variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and special education…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dearn, Ceri; And Others
The works reported in this book represent a second phase to a 2-day summer conference that focused on assessment in mathematics and science classrooms. This book presents research and findings of a subset of the conference participants who investigated a self-selected aspect of assessment in their educational environments. Action research was the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Daniel; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
2012-01-01
Within a response to intervention framework, teachers regularly base important instructional decisions on the results of formative assessments. The validity of these decisions depends, in part, upon the validity of the inference of students' skills drawn from the formative assessment. If formative assessment items do not genuinely measure the…
Fuchs, Lynn S; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N; Craddock, Caitlin F; Hamlett, Carol L
2008-11-01
Dynamic assessment (DA) involves helping students learn a task and indexing responsiveness to that instruction as a measure of learning potential. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of a DA of algebraic learning in predicting 3(rd) graders' development of mathematics problem solving. In the fall, 122 3(rd)-grade students were assessed on language, nonverbal reasoning, attentive behavior, calculations, word-problem skill, and DA. On the basis of random assignment, students received 16 weeks of validated instruction on word problems or received 16 weeks of conventional instruction on word problems. Then, students were assessed on word-problem measures proximal and distal to instruction. Structural equation measurement models showed that DA measured a distinct dimension of pretreatment ability and that proximal and distal word-problem measures were needed to account for outcome. Structural equation modeling showed that instruction (conventional vs. validated) was sufficient to account for math word-problem outcome proximal to instruction; by contrast, language, pretreatment math skill, and DA were needed to forecast learning on word-problem outcomes more distal to instruction. Findings are discussed in terms of responsiveness-to-intervention models for preventing and identifying learning disabilities. PMID:19884957
SUMO, System performance assessment for a high-level nuclear waste repository: Mathematical models
Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Engel, D.W.; Chamberlain, P.J. II
1992-09-01
Following completion of the preliminary risk assessment of the potential Yucca Mountain Site by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1988, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL to develop an integrated system model and computer code that provides performance and risk assessment analysis capabilities for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The system model that has been developed addresses the cumulative radionuclide release criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and estimates population risks in terms of dose to humans. The system model embodied in the SUMO (System Unsaturated Model) code will also allow benchmarking of other models being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The system model has three natural divisions: (1) source term, (2) far-field transport, and (3) dose to humans. This document gives a detailed description of the mathematics of each of these three divisions. Each of the governing equations employed is based on modeling assumptions that are widely accepted within the scientific community.
Langers, Dave R M
2014-04-01
Although orderly representations of sound frequency in the brain play a guiding role in the investigation of auditory processing, a rigorous statistical evaluation of cortical tonotopic maps has so far hardly been attempted. In this report, the group-level significance of local tonotopic gradients was assessed using mass-multivariate statistics. The existence of multiple fields on the superior surface of the temporal lobe in both hemispheres was shown. These fields were distinguishable on the basis of tonotopic gradient direction and may likely be identified with the human homologues of the core areas AI and R in primates. Moreover, an objective comparison was made between the usage of volumetric and surface-based registration methods. Although the surface-based method resulted in a better registration across subjects of the grey matter segment as a whole, the alignment of functional subdivisions within the cortical sheet did not appear to improve over volumetric methods. This suggests that the variable relationship between the structural and the functional characteristics of auditory cortex is a limiting factor that cannot be overcome by morphology-based registration techniques alone. Finally, to illustrate how the proposed approach may be used in clinical practice, the method was used to test for focal differences regarding the tonotopic arrangements in healthy controls and tinnitus patients. No significant differences were observed, suggesting that tinnitus does not necessarily require tonotopic reorganisation to occur. PMID:23633425
River basin soil-vegetation condition assessment applying mathematic simulation methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishchenko, Natalia; Trifonova, Tatiana; Shirkin, Leonid
2013-04-01
Meticulous attention paid nowadays to the problem of vegetation cover productivity changes is connected also to climate global transformation. At the same time ecosystems anthropogenic transformation, basically connected to the changes of land use structure and human impact on soil fertility, is developing to a great extent independently from climatic processes and can seriously influence vegetation cover productivity not only at the local and regional levels but also globally. Analysis results of land use structure and soil cover condition influence on river basin ecosystems productive potential is presented in the research. The analysis is carried out applying integrated characteristics of ecosystems functioning, space images processing results and mathematic simulation methods. The possibility of making permanent functional simulator defining connection between macroparameters of "phytocenosis-soil" system condition on the basis of basin approach is shown. Ecosystems of river catchment basins of various degrees located in European part of Russia were chosen as research objects. For the integrated assessment of ecosystems soil and vegetation conditions the following characteristics have been applied: 1. Soil-productional potential, characterizing the ability of natural and natural-anthropogenic ecosystem in certain soil-bioclimatic conditions for long term reproduction. This indicator allows for specific phytomass characteristics and ecosystem produce, humus content in soil and bioclimatic parameters. 2. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been applied as an efficient, remotely defined, monitoring indicator characterizing spatio-temporal unsteadiness of soil-productional potential. To design mathematic simulator functional simulation methods and principles on the basis of regression, correlation and factor analysis have been applied in the research. Coefficients values defining in the designed static model of phytoproductivity distribution has been
Use of mathematical models for assessing the pool and dynamics of carbon in forest soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komarov, A. S.
2008-12-01
The contribution of forest soils to the total carbon budget and to the emission of greenhouse gases is an important problem involved in many international programs, including the Kyoto Protocol. Direct measurements of the carbon pool in forest soils and its changes are slow and expensive; therefore, mathematical models are proposed in different countries for describing the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM). The models differ in complexity and consider different processes of SOM mineralization and humification. The input parameters include model coefficients (these are usually the rates of decomposition and humification of different SOM compartments) and the initial values for different SOM pools. The coefficients can be estimated in special laboratory and field experiments, but the characteristics of the initial values for different SOM pools are usually absent. In this case, some assumptions about the character of SOM accumulation, which depends on forest vegetation, are used. The most realistic is the use of databases on the pools of carbon and other elements related to the types of forest or habitat conditions, including the primarily water regime and soil fertility. Under some suppositions, the agreement conditions between the main parameters of the SOM and forest vegetation can be formulated to assess the initial SOM pools in the forest litter and mineral horizons of the soil. An example of assessing the prediction of forest soil dynamics in Leningrad oblast was considered.
Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Sullivan, John L; Keoleian, Gregory A
2015-08-18
Lightweighting is a key strategy to improve vehicle fuel economy. Assessing the life-cycle benefits of lightweighting requires a quantitative description of the use-phase fuel consumption reduction associated with mass reduction. We present novel methods of estimating mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) and fuel reduction values (FRVs) from fuel economy and dynamometer test data in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database. In the past, FRVs have been measured using experimental testing. We demonstrate that FRVs can be mathematically derived from coast down coefficients in the EPA vehicle test database avoiding additional testing. MIF and FRVs calculated for 83 different 2013 MY vehicles are in the ranges 0.22-0.43 and 0.15-0.26 L/(100 km 100 kg), respectively, and increase to 0.27-0.53 L/(100 km 100 kg) with powertrain resizing to retain equivalent vehicle performance. We show how use-phase fuel consumption can be estimated using MIF and FRVs in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of vehicle lightweighting from total vehicle and vehicle component perspectives with, and without, powertrain resizing. The mass-induced fuel consumption model is illustrated by estimating lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benefits from lightweighting a grille opening reinforcement component using magnesium or carbon fiber composite for 83 different vehicle models. PMID:26168234
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Suzanne; And Others
1995-01-01
Over 5,000 students participated in a study of the dimensionality and stability of the item parameter estimates of a mathematics performance assessment developed for the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) Project. Results demonstrate the test's dimensionality and illustrate ways to examine use of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan; Beatty, Ian D.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to uncover and understand the factors that affect secondary science and mathematics teachers' initial implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA), a pedagogy developed for teaching with classroom response system (CRS) technology. We sought to identify the most common and strongest factors, and to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Michael D.
2013-01-01
While recent national and international assessments have shown mathematical progress being made by US students, little to no gains are evident in the areas of geometry and measurement. These reports also suggest that practicing teachers have traditionally had few opportunities to engage in content learning around topics in geometry and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baxter, G. P.; Ahmed, S.; Sikali, E.; Waits, T.; Sloan, M.; Salvucci, S.
2007-01-01
The Nation's Report Card[TM] informs the public about the academic achievement of elementary and secondary students in the United States and its jurisdictions, including Puerto Rico. In 2003, a trial NAEP mathematics assessment was administered in Spanish to public school students at grades 4 and 8 in Puerto Rico. Based on preliminary analyses of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Opara, Ijeoma M.; Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Njoku, Joyce U.
2015-01-01
The study investigated the predictive power of school based assessment scores on students' achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics. Two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. A sample of 250 students were randomly drawn…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cansiz Aktas, Meral; Baki, Adnan
2014-01-01
The aim of this study is to investigate teachers' views on the new measurement and assessment approaches within the context of secondary school mathematics education reform. With this purpose, the factors which affected the implementation process were determined. The research data were obtained from two teachers via in-depth interviews,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kim, Jinok; Kao, Jenny
2012-01-01
Glossary and reading aloud test items are commonly allowed in many states' accommodation policies for English language learner (ELL) students for large-scale mathematics assessments. However, little research is available regarding the effects of these accommodations on ELL students' performance. Further, no research exists that examines how…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hickendorff, Marian
2013-01-01
The results of an exploratory study into measurement of elementary mathematics ability are presented. The focus is on the abilities involved in solving standard computation problems on the one hand and problems presented in a realistic context on the other. The objectives were to assess to what extent these abilities are shared or distinct, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cobb, Floyd, II; Russell, Nicole M.
2015-01-01
Through the examination of a collection of macro factors and explanations for racial disparities in mathematics assessment found in the literature, this article takes up these accounts and problematizes the factors by unpacking the assumptions and exposing complexities. We do this using Critical Race Theory (CRT) to reinterpret and call out…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bai, Haiyan; Pan, Wei; Hirumi, Astusi; Kebritchi, Mansureh
2012-01-01
This research study assessed the effectiveness of a three-dimensional mathematics game, DimensionM, through a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design. Participants consisted of 437 eighth graders. The classrooms were randomly assigned either to the treatment group that utilized DimensionM as a supplement to regular classroom…
ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias
2008-09-06
The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wertheim, J.; Deboer, G. E.
2009-12-01
Efforts to assess students’ climate literacy so far have focused mainly on evaluating their understanding of advanced ideas about earth’s complex climate system. It is widely accepted that students, their teachers, and most other adults have persistent misconceptions about climate processes (e.g., the hole in the ozone layer is the main cause of global warming) that preclude them having an accurate understanding of more advanced ideas about the climate. Having established that significant gaps in climate literacy exist even at the college level, it is important to identify where the gaps in understanding of concepts fundamental to climate literacy occur. Here we present results from the most comprehensive assessment of middle and high school students’ understanding of the weather and climate topic to date. Students were given 90 multiple-choice assessment items aligned to various fundamental ideas about weather and climate. Students were also asked to justify their answer choices and to explain why each answer choice was either correct or incorrect. The items were administered to 2063 middle school students and 1006 high school students from 76 schools across the country, sampling a wide range of demographic groups. For the entire set of items, the percent correct for middle school students was 39% and for high school students was 47%. With high school students scoring only 8% better than middle school students overall, and middle school students equaling or outperforming high school students on 20% of the items, it is evident that most high school students do not adequately understand the foundational concepts that climate literacy is built upon, knowledge that is needed if they are going to successfully learn more sophisticated concepts in college. The results from this study are used to validate known misconceptions for middle and high school students, identify new misconceptions, and examine previously reported misconceptions that were not supported by
Antares alignment gimbal positioner
Day, R.D.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Saxman, A.C.; Lujan, R.E.; Woodfin, G.L.; Sweatt, W.C.
1981-01-01
Antares is a 24-beam 40-TW carbon-dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser fusion system currently under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Antares alignment gimbal positioner (AGP) is an optomechanical instrument that will be used for target alignment and alignment of the 24 laser beams, as well as beam quality assessments. The AGP will be capable of providing pointing, focusing, and wavefront optical path difference, as well as aberration information at both helium-neon (He-Ne) and CO/sub 2/ wavelengths. It is designed to allow the laser beams to be aligned to any position within a 1-cm cube to a tolerance of 10 ..mu..m.
Lunkenheimer, P P; Redmann, K; Dietl, K H; Cryer, C; Richter, K D; Whimster, W F; Niederer, P
1997-04-01
Myocardial contractile pathways which are not aligned strictly parallel to the heart's epicardial surface, give rise to forces which also act in the ventricular dilating direction. We developed a method which allows us to assess any fibre orientation in the three-dimensional myocardial weave. Decollagenized hearts were prepared by peeling-off fibre strands, following their main fibre orientation down to near the endocardium. In the subepicardium the strands followed a course more or less parallel to the epicardium, whereas from the mid-wall on they tended to dive progressively deeper into the wall. The preparation displays more or less rugged surfaces rather than smooth layers. The grooves and crests on the exposed surfaces were sequentially digitized by two methods: (1) Using a magnet tablet (3 Draw Digitizer System, Polhemus, Cochester VTO 5446, USA) on a dilated pig heart we manually followed the crests using a stylus, handling each groove and crest as an individual contractile pathway. (2) A constricted cow heart was digitized using a contact-free optical system (opto TOP, Dr. Breuckmann, Meersburg, Germany), which is based on the principle of imaging triangulation. Using specially developed software the inclination angles of selected crests and grooves with respect to the epicardial surface were calculated. The two digitizing methods yield comparable results. We found a depth- and side-specific weave component inclined to the epi-endocardial direction. This oblique netting component was more pronounced in the inner 1/3 of the wall than in the subepicardium. The inclination angle probably increases with increasing wall thickness during the ejection period. Manual digitizing is an easy and fast method which delivers consistent results comparable with those obtained by the cumbersome high resolution optical method. The rationales for the assessment of transmural fibre inclination are (1) the putative existence of dilating forces inherent in the myocardial weave
Padial, José M; Grant, Taran; Frost, Darrel R
2014-01-01
Brachycephaloidea is a monophyletic group of frogs with more than 1000 species distributed throughout the New World tropics, subtropics, and Andean regions. Recently, the group has been the target of multiple molecular phylogenetic analyses, resulting in extensive changes in its taxonomy. Here, we test previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships for the group by combining available molecular evidence (sequences of 22 genes representing 431 ingroup and 25 outgroup terminals) and performing a tree-alignment analysis under the parsimony optimality criterion using the program POY. To elucidate the effects of alignment and optimality criterion on phylogenetic inferences, we also used the program MAFFT to obtain a similarity-alignment for analysis under both parsimony and maximum likelihood using the programs TNT and GARLI, respectively. Although all three analytical approaches agreed on numerous points, there was also extensive disagreement. Tree-alignment under parsimony supported the monophyly of the ingroup and the sister group relationship of the monophyletic marsupial frogs (Hemiphractidae), while maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the MAFFT similarity-alignment did not. All three methods differed with respect to the position of Ceuthomantis smaragdinus (Ceuthomantidae), with tree-alignment using parsimony recovering this species as the sister of Pristimantis + Yunganastes. All analyses rejected the monophyly of Strabomantidae and Strabomantinae as originally defined, and the tree-alignment analysis under parsimony further rejected the recently redefined Craugastoridae and Pristimantinae. Despite the greater emphasis in the systematics literature placed on the choice of optimality criterion for evaluating trees than on the choice of method for aligning DNA sequences, we found that the topological differences attributable to the alignment method were as great as those caused by the optimality criterion. Further, the optimal tree-alignment indicates
Primary Trait Analysis to Assess a Learner-Centered, Upper-Level Mathematics Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alsardary, Salar; Pontiggia, Laura; Hamid, Mohammed; Blumberg, Phyllis
2011-01-01
This study presents a primary trait analysis of a learner-centered, discrete mathematics course based on student-to-student instruction. The authors developed a scoring rubric for the primary traits: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, application of understanding, and mathematical communication skills. Eleven students took an exam…
Assessment Skills: A Case of Mathematics Examination and Its Place in Math-Teacher Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Qudah, Ahmad Hassan
2016-01-01
The research aims to reveal the specific way to evaluate learning mathematics, so that we get the "measuring tool" for the achievement of learners in mathematics that reflect their level of understanding by score (mark), which we trust it with high degree. The behavior of the learner can be measured by a professional way to build the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kulikowich, Jonna M.
2007-01-01
Operating from multiple literature bases in cognitive psychology, mathematics education, and theoretical and applied psychometrics, Schilling, Hill and their colleagues provide a systemic approach to studying the validity of scores of mathematical knowledge for teaching. This system encompasses an array of task formats and methodologies. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinzie, Mable B.; Pianta, Robert C.; Kilday, Carolyn R.; McGuire, Patrick R.; Pinkham, Ashley M.
2009-01-01
The "MTP-Math/Science" curricula specifically target the teaching and learning of children at risk of early school failure, a population for whom achievement gaps in mathematics and science are visible even in Pre-K years. "MTP-Math" is based on Focal Areas defined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (2006) for Pre-K through…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.
2013-01-01
This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers…
An Analysis of Gender Differences on Performance Assessment in Mathematics--A Follow-Up Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Liru; Wilson, Linda; Manon, Jon
To add to previous research on gender differences in mathematics ability and achievement, this study was designed to investigate gender differences in problem-solving strategies for two extended constructed-response mathematics questions in grade 3. It is a followup to a study of gender differences on constructed-response and multiple-choice items…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straub, Jeremy
2016-05-01
Quality control is critical to manufacturing. Frequently, techniques are used to define object conformity bounds, based on historical quality data. This paper considers techniques for bespoke and small batch jobs that are not statistical model based. These techniques also serve jobs where 100% validation is needed due to the mission or safety critical nature of particular parts. One issue with this type of system is alignment discrepancies between the generated model and the physical part. This paper discusses and evaluates techniques for characterizing and correcting alignment issues between the projected and perceived data sets to prevent errors attributable to misalignment.
Bell, Grover C.; Gibson, O. Theodore
1980-01-01
A part alignment fixture is provided which may be used for precise variable lateral and tilt alignment relative to the fixture base of various shaped parts. The fixture may be used as a part holder for machining or inspection of parts or alignment of parts during assembly and the like. The fixture includes a precisely machined diameter disc-shaped hub adapted to receive the part to be aligned. The hub is nested in a guide plate which is adapted to carry two oppositely disposed pairs of positioning wedges so that the wedges may be reciprocatively positioned by means of respective micrometer screws. The sloping faces of the wedges contact the hub at respective quadrants of the hub periphery. The lateral position of the hub relative to the guide plate is adjusted by positioning the wedges with the associated micrometer screws. The tilt of the part is adjusted relative to a base plate, to which the guide plate is pivotally connected by means of a holding plate. Two pairs of oppositely disposed wedges are mounted for reciprocative lateral positioning by means of separate micrometer screws between flanges of the guide plate and the base plate. Once the wedges are positioned to achieve the proper tilt of the part or hub on which the part is mounted relative to the base plate, the fixture may be bolted to a machining, inspection, or assembly device.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kurz, Alexander; Talapatra, Devadrita; Roach, Andrew T.
2012-01-01
Inclusive test-based accountability systems are intended to focus attention on the teaching and learning of important knowledge and skills for students with disabilities. Test score inferences to this end are often based on unverified assumptions of curricular alignment, access, and engagement. Focusing on students with disabilities, we discuss…
Elsner, Kelly; Francis, Kate; Hruby, George; Roderick, Stephanie
2014-01-01
Introduction This quality improvement study tested three methods of tattoo alignment and isocentre definition to investigate if aligning lateral tattoos to minimise pitch, roll and yaw decreased set-up error, and if defining the isocentre using the lateral tattoos for cranio-caudal (CC) position improved isocentre reproducibility. The study population was patients receiving curative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. The results are applicable to all supine pelvic EBRT patients. Methods The three sequential cohorts recruited 11, 11 and 10 patients respectively. A data set of 20 orthogonal pairs of electronic portal images (EPI) was acquired for each patient. EPIs were matched offline to digitally reconstructed radiographs. In cohort 1, lateral tattoos were adjusted to minimise roll. The anterior tattoo was used to define the isocentre. In cohort 2, lateral tattoos were aligned to minimise roll and yaw. Isocentre was defined as per cohort 1. In cohort 3, lateral tattoos were aligned as per cohort 2 and the anterior tattoo was adjusted to minimise pitch. Isocentre was defined by the lateral tattoos for CC position and the anterior tattoo for the left–right position. Results Cohort 3 results were superior as CC systematic and random set-up errors reduced from −1.3 mm to −0.5 mm, and 3.1 mm to 1.4 mm respectively, from cohort 1 to cohort 3. Isocentre reproducibility also improved from 86.7% to 92.1% of treatment isocentres within 5 mm of the planned isocentre. Conclusion The methods of tattoo alignment and isocentre definition in cohort 3 reduced set-up errors and improved isocentre reproducibility. PMID:25598978
Vertical Alignment and Collaboration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bergman, Donna; Calzada, Lucio; LaPointe, Nancy; Lee, Audra; Sullivan, Lynn
This study investigated whether vertical (grade level sequence) alignment of the curriculum in conjunction with teacher collaboration would enhance student performance on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test in south Texas school districts of various sizes. Surveys were mailed to the office of the superintendent of 47 school…
Culver, J.S.; Tunnell, W.C.
1958-08-01
A jig or device is described for setting or aligning an opening in one member relative to another member or structure, with a predetermined offset, or it may be used for measuring the amount of offset with which the parts have previously been sct. This jig comprises two blocks rabbeted to each other, with means for securing thc upper block to the lower block. The upper block has fingers for contacting one of the members to be a1igmed, the lower block is designed to ride in grooves within the reference member, and calibration marks are provided to determine the amount of offset. This jig is specially designed to align the collimating slits of a mass spectrometer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Güzeller, Cem Oktay; Eser, Mehmet Taha; Aksu, Gökhan
2016-01-01
This study attempts to determine the factors affecting the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2012 and the correct classification ratio of the established model. The study used mathematics achievement as a dependent variable while sex, having a study room, preparation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nyroos, Mikaela; Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance measured by the national curriculum assessment in third-grade children (n = 40). The national tests concerned six subareas within mathematics. One-way ANOVA, two-tailed Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graf, Edith Aurora
2009-01-01
This report makes recommendations for the development of middle-school assessment in mathematics, based on a synthesis of scientific findings in cognitive psychology and mathematics education. The focus is on background research, rather than test specifications or example tasks. Readers interested in early development and pilot efforts associated…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
2013-01-01
This document represents one of three appendices associated with "The Nation's Report Card: A First Look--2013 Mathematics and Reading. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 4 and 8. NCES 2014-451." It includes tabular data relating to the mathematics portion of the Tables of Education Progress at Grade 4 and 8. [For the main…
Dowell, Larry Jonathan
2014-04-22
Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.
Mathematical and statistical analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houston, A. Glen
1988-01-01
The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, Nanci A.; Perry, Jeannine B.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.
2004-01-01
NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the series over the first five seasons (1998-99 through 2002-03) reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for the grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blank, Rolf K.; Smithson, John
2010-01-01
Beginning in summer 2009, the complete set of NAEP student assessment items for grades 4 and 8 Science and Reading 2009 assessments were analyzed for comparison to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Item Specifications which are based on the NAEP Assessment Frameworks for these subjects (National Assessment Governing Board,…
Mathematical modeling as a tool to assess microbial community responses to CO2 injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilcaez, J.
2014-12-01
The issue of subsurface microbial community responses to the injection of CO2 has great importance not only from a risk assessment point of view but also from the perspective of CO2 recycling to CH4. In this sense, the objective of this study is to develop mathematical models to make a quantitative description of the responses of subsurface indigenous microbial communities to the injection of CO2. For this end, TOUGHREACTV1.2 reactive transport simulator with its module ECO2N is used as the modeling framework. The targeted microbial community is composed of fermentative bacteria (Organic matter → Acetate & H2), acetotrophic methanogens (Acetate → Methane & CO2), acetotrophic Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) (Acetate → H2S & CO2), hydrogenotrophic methanogens (H2 & CO2 → CH4), and hydrogenotrophic SRB (H2 → H2S). Due to the multiple hydrogeological, geochemical and microbiological factors intervening in both the response of subsurface microbial communities to the injection of CO2 and the chemical and physical fate of CO2 itself, at this stage simulations have been performed in batch mode. That means numerical simulations aimed to track changes in CO2 saturation levels, pH, and concentrations of mineral and aqueous phase species over time at selected initial conditions. Numerical simulation results indicate that the activity of microbes associated with methanogenic processes in geological storage sites of CO2 is governed by the level of CO2 saturation in the pore space as well as by the presence of pH buffering minerals such as calcite. With calcite in the mineral phase attenuating drops in pH below inhibitory levels, for instance it is shown that acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic SRB outcompete acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens for acetate and H2, respectively. During the initial stages of the reaction when the pH level is lowest, the higher tolerance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to acidic pH levels is reflected by a preferential formation of
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lapointe, Archie E.; And Others
In 1990-91, 20 countries (Brazil, Canada, China, England, France, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Korea, Mozambique, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia, Soviet Union, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the United States) surveyed the mathematics and science performance of 13-year-old students (and 14 countries also assessed 9-year-olds in the same…
Fukui, Tomokazu; Fukunishi, Shigeo; Nishio, Shoji; Fujihara, Yuki; Shohei, Okahisa; Yoshiya, Shinichi
2013-02-22
The transverse acetabulum ligament (TAL) has been used as an intraoperative anatomical landmark to position the acetabulum cup in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, the validity of the use of TAL has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine the orientation of the cup component aligned with the TAL in cadaveric study. The 31 hips in 25 whole-body embalmed cadavers were examined. The donors were 12 men and 13 women. Simulated THA procedure using image-free navigation system was performed and a trial cup with a diameter of approximately 2 mm less than the size of the acetabulum were inserted and snugly fitted on the TAL through the posterior wall of acetabulum. The orientation of the cup component was measured using an image-free THA navigation system. The measured radiographic anteversion and inclination angles averaged 18.2±7.2° (range: 2.0-33.2°) and 43.5±4.2° (range: 33.1-51.0°) respectively. Based on the Lewinnek's safe zone criteria, 26 hips (80.6%) were judged to be within the. Moreover, in the analysis of the gender difference of TAL angles, the average anteversion angle was shown to be significant larger in female than male population. The TAL can be effectively used an intraoperative landmark to align the acetabulum component helping reduce the risk of dislocation after surgery. In the intraoperative judgment, a gender difference in the alignment of the TAL should be taken into consideration. PMID:23705063
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joftus, Scott; Berman, Ilene
Are states setting high expectations for student learning? To answer this question the Council for Basic Education (CBE) evaluated the rigor of mathematics and language arts standards in the United States. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) Context for the Study; (2) Rigor in State Standards; (3) Issues Affecting the…
Using a Brier Score Analysis to Assess the Effectiveness of a Mathematics Placement Policy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesik, Sally A.; Leake, Meg
2013-01-01
This article describes how a Brier score analysis can be used as an evaluative tool to estimate the predictive accuracy of a course placement policy that was established based on professional or subjective judgment. The policy being evaluated uses the score received on the mathematics portion of the SAT examination as the primary mechanism to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marinos, Andreas
2012-01-01
In this study, there is an attempt to teach simple mathematical concepts of fractional numbers to Secondary School students in Technical School who, despite their age, had not previously managed to understand these concepts. At the same time, to further the success of this undertaking, we also examined the emotions generated in the students. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cahnmann, Melisa S.; Hornberger, Nancy H.
2000-01-01
Examines mathematics instruction and its relationship to issues of language, culture, and power in a low-income urban elementary school with large numbers of bilingual students. Results of discussions of student work during a summer training institute for university researchers, teachers, and administrators provide suggestions for approaching…
Language Matters in Demonstrations of Understanding in Early Years Mathematics Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mushin, Ilana; Gardner, Rod; Munro, Jennifer M.
2013-01-01
In classrooms tests, students are regularly required to demonstrate their understanding of mathematical concepts. When children encounter problems in demonstrating such understanding, it is often not clear whether this is because of the language of the teachers' questions and instructions or a genuine non-understanding of the concept itself.…
An Application of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment on TIMMS-2007 8th Grade Mathematics Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toker, Turker; Green, Kathy
2012-01-01
The least squares distance method (LSDM) was used in a cognitive diagnostic analysis of TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) items administered to 4,498 8th-grade students from seven geographical regions of Turkey, extending analysis of attributes from content to process and skill attributes. Logit item positions were…
Robotics: Assessing Its Role in Improving Mathematics Skills for Grades 4 to 5
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laughlin, Sara Rose
2013-01-01
Inspiring and motivating students to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education continues to be an important educational focus in the United States. Robotics programs are one strategy developed to accomplish this goal. This causal comparative study focused on investigating whether a causal relationship exists between…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montiel, Mariana; Bhatti, Uzma
2010-01-01
This article presents an overview of some issues that were confronted when delivering an online second Linear Algebra course (assuming a previous Introductory Linear Algebra course) to graduate students enrolled in a Secondary Mathematics Education program. The focus is on performance in one particular aspect of the course: "change of basis" and…
A Tree-Based Analysis of Items from an Assessment of Basic Mathematics Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sheehan, Kathleen; Mislevy, Robert J.
The operating characteristics of 114 mathematics pretest items from the Praxis I: Computer Based Test were analyzed in terms of item attributes and test developers' judgments of item difficulty. Item operating characteristics were defined as the difficulty, discrimination, and asymptote parameters of a three parameter logistic item response theory…
Double Visions: Educational Technology in Standards and Assessments for Science and Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Irving, Karen E.; Bell, Randy L.
2004-01-01
For educational technology integration in content disciplines to succeed, teachers and teacher educators need clear standards delineating why, how, where, and how much educational technology they should include in their teaching. This paper examines the visions offered by current science, mathematics, and educational technology standards for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Callingham, Rosemary
2008-01-01
Recent international studies have highlighted the success of students from Hong Kong in mathematics and problem-solving, and have begun to suggest some of the factors associated with this success. Other studies have suggested that Hong Kong students are averse to risk-taking, favouring memorisation and imitation in their solution strategies. Year…
The Relation between Types of Assessment Tasks and the Mathematical Reasoning Students Use
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boesen, Jesper; Lithner, Johan; Palm, Torulf
2010-01-01
The relation between types of tasks and the mathematical reasoning used by students trying to solve tasks in a national test situation is analyzed. The results show that when confronted with test tasks that share important properties with tasks in the textbook the students solved them by trying to recall facts or algorithms. Such test tasks did…
Fish Tanks, Right Angles and Graphs--Assessment of Understanding in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ward, Murray
1976-01-01
Indicates some of the "first faltering steps" being taken in an attempt to describe something of children's understanding of primary mathematics. Suggests that future evaluations of children's performance need to be based on first-hand experience and valid interpretation of classroom practice. (Editor/RK)
Incoming Engineering Students' Self-Assessment of Their Mathematical Background
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guner, Necdet
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop a tool to measure levels of mathematical knowledge gained in high school, as perceived by incoming engineering students. The study included 657 engineering students in the 2011-2012 academic year. Factor analysis was used to obtain a scale consisting of 47 items (Cronbach Alpha coefficient, 0.975). The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guzey, S. Selcen; Harwell, Michael; Moore, Tamara
2014-01-01
There is a need for more students to be interested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers to advance U.S. competitiveness and economic growth. A consensus exists that improving STEM education is necessary for motivating more students to pursue STEM careers. In this study, a survey to measure student (grades 4-6)…
Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar
2014-05-01
Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering
Dios, R.A.
1984-01-01
This dissertation focuses upon the field of probabilistic risk assessment and its development. It investigates the development of probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear engineering. To provide background for its development, the related areas of population dynamics (demography), epidemiology and actuarial science are studied by presenting information upon how risk has been viewed in these areas over the years. A second major problem involves presenting an overview of the mathematical models related to risk analysis to mathematics educators and making recommendations for presenting this theory in classes of probability and statistics for mathematics and engineering majors at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seeratan, Kavita L.
2011-01-01
In collaboration with two other research organizations, the authors integrate principles of the BEAR Assessment System with Universal Design for Learning principles to develop and validate learning progressions and an aligned, universally designed formative and summative classroom assessment system for promoting conceptual understanding of number…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brese, Falk, Ed.
2012-01-01
The goal for selecting the released set of test items was to have approximately 25% of each of the full item sets for mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) that would represent the full range of difficulty, content, and item format used in the TEDS-M study. The initial step in the selection was to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bouck, Emily C.; Kulkarni, Gauri; Johnson, Linley
2011-01-01
This study investigated the impact of mathematics curriculum (standards based vs. traditional) on the performance of sixth and seventh grade students with disabilities on multiple-choice and open-ended assessments aligned to one state's number and operations and algebra standards. It also sought to understand factors affecting student performance…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, F. A.
1978-01-01
Space shuttle orbiter/IUS alignment transfer was evaluated. Although the orbiter alignment accuracy was originally believed to be the major contributor to the overall alignment transfer error, it was shown that orbiter alignment accuracy is not a factor affecting IUS alignment accuracy, if certain procedures are followed. Results are reported of alignment transfer accuracy analysis.
Mathematical accuracy of Aztec land surveys assessed from records in the Codex Vergara.
Jorge, María del Carmen; Williams, Barbara J; Garza-Hume, C E; Olvera, Arturo
2011-09-13
Land surveying in ancient states is documented not only for Eurasia but also for the Americas, amply attested by two Acolhua-Aztec pictorial manuscripts from the Valley of Mexico. The Codex Vergara and the Códice de Santa María Asunción consist of hundreds of drawings of agricultural fields that uniquely record surface areas as well as perimeter measurements. A previous study of the Codex Vergara examines how Acolhua-Aztecs determined field area by reconstructing their calculation procedures. Here we evaluate the accuracy of their area values using modern mathematics. The findings verify the overall mathematical validity of the codex records. Three-quarters of the areas are within 5% of the maximum possible value, and 85% are within 10%, which compares well with reported errors by Western surveyors that postdate Aztec-Acolhua work by several centuries. PMID:21876138
Mathematical accuracy of Aztec land surveys assessed from records in the Codex Vergara
Williams, Barbara J.; Garza-Hume, C. E.; Olvera, Arturo
2011-01-01
Land surveying in ancient states is documented not only for Eurasia but also for the Americas, amply attested by two Acolhua–Aztec pictorial manuscripts from the Valley of Mexico. The Codex Vergara and the Códice de Santa María Asunción consist of hundreds of drawings of agricultural fields that uniquely record surface areas as well as perimeter measurements. A previous study of the Codex Vergara examines how Acolhua–Aztecs determined field area by reconstructing their calculation procedures. Here we evaluate the accuracy of their area values using modern mathematics. The findings verify the overall mathematical validity of the codex records. Three-quarters of the areas are within 5% of the maximum possible value, and 85% are within 10%, which compares well with reported errors by Western surveyors that postdate Aztec–Acolhua work by several centuries. PMID:21876138
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010
2010-01-01
This handbook describes the responsibilities of district and school assessment coordinators in the administration of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA). This updated guidebook contains the following sections: (1) General Assessment Guidelines for All Assessments; (2) Writing Specific Guidelines; (3) Reading and Mathematics…
Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002
2002-01-01
This document contains the two issues of "Rural Mathematics Educator" published in 2002. This newsletter of the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) includes articles on rural mathematics education, as well as information and descriptions of professional development opportunities for…
Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kathotia, Vinay
2011-01-01
This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darlington, Ellie
2014-01-01
This article describes part of a study which investigated the role of questions in students' approaches to learning mathematics at the secondary-tertiary interface, focussing on the enculturation of students at the University of Oxford. Use of the Mathematical Assessment Task Hierarchy taxonomy revealed A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics…
Stoet, Gijsbert; Geary, David C
2013-01-01
We analyzed one decade of data collected by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), including the mathematics and reading performance of nearly 1.5 million 15 year olds in 75 countries. Across nations, boys scored higher than girls in mathematics, but lower than girls in reading. The sex difference in reading was three times as large as in mathematics. There was considerable variation in the extent of the sex differences between nations. There are countries without a sex difference in mathematics performance, and in some countries girls scored higher than boys. Boys scored lower in reading in all nations in all four PISA assessments (2000, 2003, 2006, 2009). Contrary to several previous studies, we found no evidence that the sex differences were related to nations' gender equality indicators. Further, paradoxically, sex differences in mathematics were consistently and strongly inversely correlated with sex differences in reading: Countries with a smaller sex difference in mathematics had a larger sex difference in reading and vice versa. We demonstrate that this was not merely a between-nation, but also a within-nation effect. This effect is related to relative changes in these sex differences across the performance continuum: We did not find a sex difference in mathematics among the lowest performing students, but this is where the sex difference in reading was largest. In contrast, the sex difference in mathematics was largest among the higher performing students, and this is where the sex difference in reading was smallest. The implication is that if policy makers decide that changes in these sex differences are desired, different approaches will be needed to achieve this for reading and mathematics. Interventions that focus on high-achieving girls in mathematics and on low achieving boys in reading are likely to yield the strongest educational benefits. PMID:23516422
Mathematical model for the assessment of fracture risk associated with osteoporosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinis, Jairson; Pereira, Ana I.; Fonseca, Elza M.
2012-09-01
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass. It is considered a worldwide public health problem that affects a large number of people, in particularly for women with more than 50 years old. The occurrence pattern of osteoporosis in a population may be related to several factors, including socio-economic factors such as income, educational attainment, and factors related to lifestyle such as diet and physical activity. These and other aspects have increasingly been identified as determining the occurrence of various diseases, including osteoporosis. This work proposes a mathematical model that provides the level of osteoporosis in the patient. Preliminary numerical results are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marinos, Andreas
2012-09-01
In this study, there is an attempt to teach simple mathematical concepts of fractional numbers to Secondary School students in Technical School who, despite their age, had not previously managed to understand these concepts. At the same time, to further the success of this undertaking, we also examined the emotions generated in the students. The whole undertaking is shown to be successful, since the students understood the particular concepts taught, and the significant role played by a teacher's ability in the feelings of the students regarding the above approach is realized, since teachers with different abilities created different feelings in their students.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solovyova, N. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.
2015-09-01
This paper proposes a method of mathematical modelling of ecological risk based on a synthesis of dynamic and probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The probability of assessment of an acceptable probability of an anthropogenic impact to minimize economic costs is proposed. The dependence of an acceptable probability of an anthropogenic impact on the ecological risk is demonstrated with an example calculation. The results of the modelling of the state of a shelf ecosystem based on the dynamic model are used for the calculation as source information. Based on this synthesis, the calculation results bring about the opportunity to balance ecological-economic goals of achieving safe development of the shelf and to satisfy the involuntary necessity to reduce the costs on environmental protection measures, while maintaining the priority of environmental requirements.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chia, Magda Y.
2014-01-01
The Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (Smarter Balanced) serves over 19 million primary, middle, and high school students from across 26 states and affiliates (Smarter Balanced, n.d). As one of the two Race to the Top (RTT)-funded assessment consortia, Smarter Balanced is responsible for developing formative, interim, and summative…
Dreischarf, Marcel; Pries, Esther; Bashkuev, Maxim; Putzier, Michael; Schmidt, Hendrik
2016-03-21
The individual lumbar lordosis and lumbar motion have been identified to play an important role in pathogenesis of low back pain and are essential references for preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation. The clinical "gold-standard" for measuring lumbar lordosis and its motion are radiological "snap-shots" taken while standing and during upper-body flexion and extension. The extent to which these clinically assessed values characterise lumbar alignment and its motion in daily life merits discussion. A non-invasive measurement-system was employed to measure lumbar lordosis and lumbar motion in 208 volunteers (age: 20-74yrs; ♀/♂: 115/93). For an initial short-term measurement, comparable with the clinical "snap-shot", lumbar lordosis and its motion were assessed while standing and during flexion and extension. Subsequently, volunteers were released to their daily lives while wearing the device, and measurements were performed during the following 24h. The average lumbar lordosis during 24h (8.0°) differed significantly from the standardised measurement while standing (33.3°). Ranges of motion were significantly different throughout the day compared to standing measurements. The influence of the factors age and gender on lordosis and its motion resulted in conflicting results between long- and short-term-measurements. In conclusion, results of short-term examinations differ considerably from the average values during real-life. These findings might be important for surgical planning and increase the awareness of the biomechanical challenges that spinal structures and implants face in real-life. Furthermore, long-term assessments of spinal alignment and motion during daily life can provide valid data on spinal function and can reveal the importance of influential factors. PMID:26900033
The State of Mathematics Achievement in Hawaii: The Trial State Assessment at Grade Eight.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments (37 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands) were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state…
Finding the Connections: Linking Assessment, Instruction, and Curriculum in Elementary Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moon, C. Jean; Schulman, Linda
This book provides practitioners with an introduction to alternative assessment that is comprehensive, practical, and to the degree allowed by the printed page, interactive. Theoretical and practical aspects of assessment are discussed in a way that suggests the process-oriented nature of alternative assessment rather than a fixed end point.…
Exploring Discourse-Based Assessment Practice and Its Role in Mathematics Professional Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crockett, Michele D.; Chen, Chang-Hua; Namikawa, Takayuki; Zilimu, Johndamaseni
2009-01-01
There is compelling evidence that teachers' effective use of formative assessment practices improves student learning, yet many teachers have little knowledge of these practices. In this research note, we highlight our exploratory studies about discourse-based formative assessment practices, an aspect of formative assessment whereby the teacher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kesianye, Sesutho Koketso
2015-01-01
This paper discusses three different but related perspectives of integrating assessment and instruction from a theoretical perspective. Each of these perspectives is discussed based on the literature to highlight how they may be viewed in the notion of assessment as an integral part of assessment. The theoretical orientations considered here are…
Watanabe, Manabu; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Ono, Susumu; Koseki, Hirohisa; Watarai, Koji
2016-01-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between malalignment and lower-extremity injury and to determine the optimal dynamic alignment of the lower extremity with wall squats. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy individuals from one therapy school were enrolled and assigned to a wall squat normal or abnormal group based on their forms during wall squats. The abnormal group was found to be more prone to lower-extremity injury on three-dimensional motion analysis. Eight students from each group were randomly chosen for the study. The effects of single-leg landing movements were assessed using three-dimensional motion analysis. [Results] In the sagittal plane, significant flexion of the hip and knee joints occurred 0.02 and 0.04 seconds after initial foot contact with the ground in the normal and abnormal groups, respectively. In the frontal plane, significant adduction of the hip joint occurred at 0.07 seconds in the abnormal group. [Conclusion] The abnormal group tended to display later flexion of the hip and knee joints and narrower hip, knee, and ankle range of motion than the normal group, suggesting that dynamic alignment of the lower extremity in the abnormal group likely made them susceptible to injury. PMID:27390393
Watanabe, Manabu; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Ono, Susumu; Koseki, Hirohisa; Watarai, Koji
2016-06-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between malalignment and lower-extremity injury and to determine the optimal dynamic alignment of the lower extremity with wall squats. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy individuals from one therapy school were enrolled and assigned to a wall squat normal or abnormal group based on their forms during wall squats. The abnormal group was found to be more prone to lower-extremity injury on three-dimensional motion analysis. Eight students from each group were randomly chosen for the study. The effects of single-leg landing movements were assessed using three-dimensional motion analysis. [Results] In the sagittal plane, significant flexion of the hip and knee joints occurred 0.02 and 0.04 seconds after initial foot contact with the ground in the normal and abnormal groups, respectively. In the frontal plane, significant adduction of the hip joint occurred at 0.07 seconds in the abnormal group. [Conclusion] The abnormal group tended to display later flexion of the hip and knee joints and narrower hip, knee, and ankle range of motion than the normal group, suggesting that dynamic alignment of the lower extremity in the abnormal group likely made them susceptible to injury. PMID:27390393
Wu, S S; Chang, T T; Majid, A; Caspers, S; Eickhoff, S B; Menon, V
2009-12-01
Although the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) has been consistently implicated in mathematical cognition, the functional roles of its subdivisions are poorly understood. We address this problem using probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps of IPC subdivisions intraparietal sulcus (IPS), angular gyrus (AG), and supramarginal gyrus. We quantified IPC responses relative to task difficulty and individual differences in task proficiency during mental arithmetic (MA) tasks performed with Arabic (MA-A) and Roman (MA-R) numerals. The 2 tasks showed similar levels of activation in 3 distinct IPS areas, hIP1, hIP2, and hIP3, suggesting their obligatory role in MA. Both AG areas, PGa and PGp, were strongly deactivated in both tasks, with stronger deactivations in posterior area PGp. Compared with the more difficult MA-R task, the MA-A task showed greater responses in both AG areas, but this effect was driven by less deactivation in the MA-A task. AG deactivations showed prominent overlap with lateral parietal nodes of the default mode network, suggesting a nonspecific role in MA. In both tasks, greater bilateral AG deactivation was associated with poorer performance. Our findings suggest a close link between IPC structure and function and they provide new evidence for behaviorally salient functional heterogeneity within the IPC during mathematical cognition. PMID:19406903
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arhonditsis, G.; Giourga, C.; Loumou, A.; Koulouri, M.
2002-09-01
Three mathematical models, the runoff curve number equation, the universal soil loss equation, and the mass response functions, were evaluated for predicting nonpoint source nutrient loading from agricultural watersheds of the Mediterranean region. These methodologies were applied to a catchment, the gulf of Gera Basin, that is a typical terrestrial ecosystem of the islands of the Aegean archipelago. The calibration of the model parameters was based on data from experimental plots from which edge-of-field losses of sediment, water runoff, and nutrients were measured. Special emphasis was given to the transport of dissolved and solid-phase nutrients from their sources in the farmers' fields to the outlet of the watershed in order to estimate respective attenuation rates. It was found that nonpoint nutrient loading due to surface losses was high during winter, the contribution being between 50% and 80% of the total annual nutrient losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. The good fit between simulated and experimental data supports the view that these modeling procedures should be considered as reliable and effective methodological tools in Mediterranean areas for evaluating potential control measures, such as management practices for soil and water conservation and changes in land uses, aimed at diminishing soil loss and nutrient delivery to surface waters. Furthermore, the modifications of the general mathematical formulations and the experimental values of the model parameters provided by the study can be used in further application of these methodologies in watersheds with similar characteristics.
Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawemeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Antoniadou, Konstantina; Hollinworth, Melissa
2016-05-01
Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder have been found to have deficits in metacognition that could impact upon their learning. This study explored metacognitive monitoring in 28 (23 males and 5 females) participants with autism spectrum disorder and 56 (16 males and 40 females) typically developing controls who were being educated at the same level. Participants were asked a series of mathematics questions. Based upon previous research, after each question they were asked two metacognitive questions: (1) whether they thought they had got the answer correct or not (or 'don't know') and (2) whether they meant to get the answer correct or not (or 'don't know'). Participants with autism spectrum disorder were significantly more likely than the typically developing group to erroneously think that they had got an incorrect answer correct. Having made an error, those with autism spectrum disorder were also significantly more likely to report that they had meant to make the error. Different patterns in the types of errors made were also identified between the two groups. Deficits in metacognition were identified for the autism spectrum disorder group in the learning of mathematics. This is consistent with metacognitive research from different contexts and the implications for supporting learning in autism spectrum disorder are discussed. PMID:26101449
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Jinfa, And Others
1996-01-01
Presents a conceptual framework for analyzing students' mathematical understanding, reasoning, problem solving, and communication. Analyses of student responses indicated that the tasks appear to measure the complex thinking and reasoning processes that they were designed to assess. Concludes that the QUASAR assessment tasks can capture changes in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
St. John, Mark; Helms, Jennifer; Smith, Anita
2008-01-01
The purpose of this summary is to provide the public with an independent external assessment of ACCLAIM (Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics). The authors draw upon all the knowledge of this Center for Learning and Teaching that they have accumulated in past years, and they refer to that data…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2011
2011-01-01
This report provides a detailed portrait of Hispanic and White academic achievement gaps and how students' performance has changed over time at both the national and state levels. The report presents achievement gaps using reading and mathematics assessment data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for the 4th- and 8th-grade…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livne, Nava L.; Milgram, Roberta M.
2000-01-01
A questionnaire of out-of-school activities was developed to assess mathematical creative ability at four levels using a three-stage circular technique. Israeli high school students (n=139) reported whether they had performed the activities. Resulting data provided evidence of the construct validity of a 12-item scale for assessing creative…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kurlaender, Michal; Jackson, Jacob; Howell, Jessica S.
2012-01-01
This brief studies California's introduction of the Early Assessment Program to bridge the gap between K-12 educational standards and postsecondary education requirements, similar to the Common Core State Standards movement.
Carbon monoxide effects on human ventricle action potential assessed by mathematical simulations
Trenor, Beatriz; Cardona, Karen; Saiz, Javier; Rajamani, Sridharan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Giles, Wayne R.
2013-01-01
Carbon monoxide (CO) that is produced in a number of different mammalian tissues is now known to have significant effects on the cardiovascular system. These include: (i) vasodilation, (ii) changes in heart rate and strength of contractions, and (iii) modulation of autonomic nervous system input to both the primary pacemaker and the working myocardium. Excessive CO in the environment is toxic and can initiate or mediate life threatening cardiac rhythm disturbances. Recent reports link these ventricular arrhythmias to an increase in the slowly inactivating, or “late” component of the Na+ current in the mammalian heart. The main goal of this paper is to explore the basis of this pro-arrhythmic capability of CO by incorporating changes in CO-induced ion channel activity with intracellular signaling pathways in the mammalian heart. To do this, a quite well-documented mathematical model of the action potential and intracellular calcium transient in the human ventricular myocyte has been employed. In silico iterations based on this model provide a useful first step in illustrating the cellular electrophysiological consequences of CO that have been reported from mammalian heart experiments. Specifically, when the Grandi et al. model of the human ventricular action potential is utilized, and after the Na+ and Ca2+ currents in a single myocyte are modified based on the experimental literature, early after-depolarization (EAD) rhythm disturbances appear, and important elements of the underlying causes of these EADs are revealed/illustrated. Our modified mathematical model of the human ventricular action potential also provides a convenient digital platform for designing future experimental work and relating these changes in cellular cardiac electrophysiology to emerging clinical and epidemiological data on CO toxicity. PMID:24146650
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Christie S.; Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Lambert, Richard G.; Pugalee, David K.
2016-01-01
This study examined the influence of professional development on elementary school teachers' perceptions of and use of an internet-based formative assessment tool focused on students' number sense skills. Data sources include teacher-participants' pre and post survey, open ended response on post survey, use of the assessment tool and their written…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Philhower, Joanne; Cisterna, Dante; Bennett, Steven
2015-01-01
Formative assessment practices, including eliciting a broad range of student ideas, noticing the nuances in students' ideas, using these ideas to guide instruction, and promoting student self-regulation of learning are key components of expert teaching. Given the inherent dialogical nature of formative assessment in the classroom, video can…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe
2012-01-01
This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…
Design Decisions in Developing Learning Trajectories-Based Assessments in Mathematics: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Penuel, William R.; Confrey, Jere; Maloney, Alan; Rupp, André A.
2014-01-01
This article analyzes the design decisions of a team developing diagnostic assessments for a learning trajectory focused on rational number reasoning. The analysis focuses on the design rationale for key decisions about how to develop the cognitive assessments and related validity arguments within a fluid state and national policy context. The…
DNA Align Editor: DNA Alignment Editor Tool
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The SNPAlignEditor is a DNA sequence alignment editor that runs on Windows platforms. The purpose of the program is to provide an intuitive, user-friendly tool for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments by providing functions for input, editing, and output of nucleotide sequence alignments....
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dabbagh, Nada; English, Mary
2015-01-01
This research examined students' self-reported proficiency in Instructional Design (ID) competencies using IBSTPI and AECT standards in order to assess the extent to which these standards are integrated in a university's graduate ID program. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 34 students who completed Advanced Instructional Design…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roach, Andrew T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Webb, Norman L.
2003-01-01
The primary purpose of the investigation was to determine the extent to which (a) the Wisconsin Alternate Assessment (WAA) adequately measures the skills and concepts that make up the curriculum and instruction of students with significant disabilities; and (b) the WAA adequately measures the concepts and skill areas represented in Wisconsin's…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephens, Wendy
2014-01-01
School librarians and other specialists should take note of the new wave of computer-based assessments required by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), testing that is only now beginning to get off the ground. The new testing necessitates that districts possess the right hardware, install the requisite software, and, in some cases, create…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pisapia, John; Coukos-Semmel, Eleni
Florida Atlantic University College of Education was commissioned by the South Florida Annenberg Challenge to develop and create five diagnostic and assessment instruments for leaders that will provide candidate information about: (1) personality skills related to leadership; (2) transformational leadership potential; (3) leadership skills; (4)…
Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James
2010-01-01
With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noser, Thomas C.; Tanner, John R.; Shah, Situl
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study was to measure the comprehension of basic mathematical skills of students enrolled in statistics classes at a large regional university, and to determine if the scores earned on a basic math skills test are useful in forecasting student performance in these statistics classes, and to determine if students' basic math…
Assessing chromate reduction by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria using mathematical modeling.
Peng, Lai; Liu, Yiwen; Gao, Shu-Hong; Dai, Xiaohu; Ni, Bing-Jie
2015-11-01
Chromate (Cr (VI)) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquifers and soils, which can be reduced to its trivalent counterpart (Cr (III)), with the hazard being relieved. The coupling microbial and chemical reduction by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (IRB) is a promising approach for the reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III). In this work, three mathematical models with different Cr (VI) reduction pathways were proposed and compared based on their ability to predict the performance of an IRB-based stirred-flow reactor treating Cr (VI) contaminated medium and to provide insights into the possible chemical or microbial pathways for Cr (VI) reduction in the system. The Cr (VI) reduction was considered as chemical reaction between Fe (II) and Cr (VI), direct microbial reduction by IRB and combined biotic-abiotic reduction in these three models, respectively. Model evaluation results indicated that the model incorporating both chemical and microbial Cr (VI) reductions could well describe the system performance. In contrast, the other two single-pathway models were not capable of predicting the experimental data, suggesting that both chemical and microbial pathways contributed to Cr (VI) reduction by IRB. The validity of the two-pathway model was further confirmed by an independent experimental data set with different conditions. The results further revealed that the organic carbon availability and Cr (VI) loading rates for the IRB in the system determined the relative contributions of chemical and microbial pathways to overall Cr (VI) reduction. PMID:26171818
Nagy, Alexander; Jiřinec, Tomáš; Černíková, Lenka; Jiřincová, Helena; Havlíčková, Martina
2015-01-01
The development of a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for universal detection of highly variable viral genomes is always a difficult task. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a guideline on how to align, process, and evaluate a huge set of homologous nucleotide sequences in order to reveal the evolutionarily most conserved positions suitable for universal qPCR primer and hybridization probe design. Attention is paid to the quantification and clear graphical visualization of the sequence variability at each position of the alignment. In addition, specific problems related to the processing of the extremely large sequence pool are highlighted. All of these steps are performed using an ordinary desktop computer without the need for extensive mathematical or computational skills. PMID:25697651
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, V. Faye; Brown, Elizabeth Todd; Molfese, Victoria; Ferguson, Melissa C.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill; Bertsch, Carey; Abraham, Tanya; Davis, Deborah Winders
2015-01-01
Objective: Children from low-income families are often not well-prepared for kindergarten entry, especially in mathematical skills. Caregivers may lack the knowledge and confidence to teach early mathematical skills. The purpose of this study was to develop a parent-child activities-based mathematics learning programme and test its acceptability…
Depelteau, Audrey M; Joplin, Karl H; Govett, Aimee; Miller, Hugh A; Seier, Edith
2010-01-01
"It takes a lot of courage to release the familiar and seemingly secure, to embrace the new. But there is no real security in what is no longer meaningful. There is more security in the adventurous and exciting, for in movement there is life, and in change there is power." Alan Cohen (Used by permission. All rights reserved. For more information on Alan Cohen's books and programs, see (www.alancohen.com.) With the support of the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) administration and a grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the departments of Biological Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics, and Curriculum and Instruction have developed a biology-math integrated curriculum. An interdisciplinary faculty team, charged with teaching the 18 curriculum modules, designed this three-semester curriculum, known as SYMBIOSIS. This curriculum was piloted to two student cohorts during the developmental stage. The positive feedback and assessment results of this project have given us the foundation to implement the SYMBIOSIS curriculum as a replacement for the standard biology majors curriculum at the introductory level. This article addresses the history and development of the curriculum, previous assessment results and current assessment protocol, and the future of ETSU's approach to implementing the SYMBIOSIS curriculum. PMID:20810967
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeilik, M.; Mathieu, R. D.; National InstituteScience Education; College Level-One Team
2000-12-01
Even the most dedicated college faculty often discover that their students fail to learn what was taught in their courses and that much of what students do learn is quickly forgotten after the final exam. To help college faculty improve student learning in college Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology (SMET), the College Level - One Team of the National Institute for Science Education has created the "FLAG" a Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide for SMET faculty. Developed with funding from the National Science Foundation, the FLAG presents in guidebook format a diverse and robust collection of field-tested classroom assessment techniques (CATs), with supporting information on how to apply them in the classroom. Faculty can download the tools and techniques from the website, which also provides a goals clarifier, an assessment primer, a searchable database, and links to additional resources. The CATs and tools have been reviewed by an expert editorial board and the NISE team. These assessment strategies can help faculty improve the learning environments in their SMET courses especially the crucial introductory courses that most strongly shape students' college learning experiences. In addition, the FLAG includes the web-based Student Assessment of Learning Gains. The SALG offers a convenient way to evaluate the impact of your courses on students. It is based on findings that students' estimates of what they gained are more reliable and informative than their observations of what they liked about the course or teacher. It offers accurate feedback on how well the different aspects of teaching helped the students to learn. Students complete the SALG online after a generic template has been modified to fit the learning objectives and activities of your course. The results are presented to the teacher as summary statistics automatically. The FLAG can be found at the NISE "Innovations in SMET Education" website at www.wcer.wisc.edu/nise/cl1
Pitzer, Virginia E.; Feasey, Nicholas A.; Msefula, Chisomo; Mallewa, Jane; Kennedy, Neil; Dube, Queen; Denis, Brigitte; Gordon, Melita A.; Heyderman, Robert S.
2015-01-01
Background. Multiyear epidemics of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi have been reported from countries across eastern and southern Africa in recent years. In Blantyre, Malawi, a dramatic increase in typhoid fever cases has recently occurred, and may be linked to the emergence of the H58 haplotype. Strains belonging to the H58 haplotype often exhibit multidrug resistance and may have a fitness advantage relative to other Salmonella Typhi strains. Methods. To explore hypotheses for the increased number of typhoid fever cases in Blantyre, we fit a mathematical model to culture-confirmed cases of Salmonella enterica infections at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre. We explored 4 hypotheses: (1) an increase in the basic reproductive number (R0) in response to increasing population density; (2) a decrease in the incidence of cross-immunizing infection with Salmonella Enteritidis; (3) an increase in the duration of infectiousness due to failure to respond to first-line antibiotics; and (4) an increase in the transmission rate following the emergence of the H58 haplotype. Results. Increasing population density or decreasing cross-immunity could not fully explain the observed pattern of typhoid emergence in Blantyre, whereas models allowing for an increase in the duration of infectiousness and/or the transmission rate of typhoid following the emergence of the H58 haplotype provided a good fit to the data. Conclusions. Our results suggest that an increase in the transmissibility of typhoid due to the emergence of drug resistance associated with the H58 haplotype may help to explain recent outbreaks of typhoid in Malawi and similar settings in Africa. PMID:26449939
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, John O.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Treagust, David F.; Ross, Shelley P.; Yore, Larry D.
2007-01-01
Large-scale assessments of student achievement provide a window into the broadly defined concepts of literacy and generate information about levels and types of student achievement in relation to some of the correlates of learning, such as student background, attitudes, and perceptions, and perhaps school and home characteristics. This paper…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.
2011-01-01
This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) x 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control…
Classroom 2061: Activity-Based Assessments in Science Integrated with Mathematics and Language Arts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hammerman, Elizabeth; Musial, Diann
This book contains a set of authentic performance assessments that offer students the opportunity to demonstrate knowledge and multiple science abilities through communication, problem solving, inventiveness, persistence, and curiosity. The specific knowledge and science abilities are drawn from those identified in Benchmarks for Science Literacy…
Error Ratio Analysis: Alternate Mathematics Assessment for General and Special Educators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, James H.; Carr, Sonya C.
1997-01-01
Eighty-seven elementary students in grades four, five, and six, were administered a 30-item multiplication instrument to assess performance in computation across grade levels. An interpretation of student performance using error ratio analysis is provided and the use of this method with groups of students for instructional decision making is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
What Works Clearinghouse, 2004
2004-01-01
Schneider found no statistically significant differences between the intervention and comparison groups on the school-level Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) analyzed in the study. The findings may have been affected by only three schools implementing more than one-third of the total math problems in each year and grade. In addition, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
What Works Clearinghouse, 2004
2004-01-01
Schneider found no statistically significant differences between the intervention and comparison groups on the school-level Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) analyzed in the study. The findings may have been affected by only three schools implementing more than one-third of the total math problems in each year and grade. In addition, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maccini, Paula; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin
2006-01-01
A nationwide random sample of 179 secondary general education math and special education teachers completed a survey asking them about their use of specific instructional practices to help teach math to students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (EB/D) and their use of specific assessment accommodations with these…
The Value of the Clinical Interview in Interpreting Elementary Mathematics Assessment Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lehet, Bonnie
2013-01-01
With the national trend to link student achievement results with teacher evaluation ratings, it is critical for teachers to examine and interpret children's assessment results collaboratively. This study explored how the clinical interview process can be integrated into a professional learning experience to support teachers in identifying…
Mathematical Art-O-Facts: Activities to Introduce, Reinforce, or Assess Geometry & Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kuhns, Catherine Jones
2008-01-01
This book is loaded with hands-on measurement and geometry activities that will get students rolling up their sleeves, excited to use their math skills. The author has created these activities to supplement a teacher's existing math curriculum. They are flexibly designed for use as either introductory, reinforcement, or assessment activities. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilhelm, Anne Garrison; Kim, Sungyeun
2015-01-01
One crucial question for researchers who study teachers' classroom practice is how to maximize information about what is happening in classrooms while minimizing costs. This report extends prior studies of the reliability of the Instructional Quality Assessment (IQA), a widely used classroom observation toolkit, and offers insight into the often…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lombardi, Karen Ann
2011-01-01
This mixed-methods case study focuses on the third through fifth grade classrooms at a public elementary school in a Midwestern urban school district where the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) assessment is being implemented. According to the school district, the goals of these tests are: to show…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suurtamm, Christine; Koch, Martha J.
2014-01-01
Current thinking encourages teachers to incorporate a range of assessment practices that are responsive to student thinking and promote student learning. At the same time, teachers are situated in a landscape of accountability, where they are often seen as technicians who implement prescribed curriculum, policies, and procedures with success…
Policy and the Standards Debate: Mapping Changes in Assessment in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lerman, Stephen; Adler, Jill
2016-01-01
The influences on governments for policy changes in schools range across many agencies, including the political party in power. When policies change, the sources of these influences are not always clear. The project whose work is presented in this special issue examines what these changes look like in terms of the differences in assessment tasks…
PISA 2009 Assessment Framework: Key Competencies in Reading, Mathematics and Science
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schleicher, Andreas; Zimmer, Karin; Evans, Juliet; Clements, Niccolina
2009-01-01
In response to the need for cross-nationally comparable evidence on student performance, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) launched the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 1997. PISA represents a commitment by governments to monitor the outcomes of education systems through measuring…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013
2013-01-01
Are students well prepared to meet the challenges of the future? Can they analyse, reason and communicate their ideas effectively? Have they found the kinds of interests they can pursue throughout their lives as productive members of the economy and society? The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) seeks to answer these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parks, Amy Noelle; Schmeichel, Mardi
2014-01-01
Despite the increased use of video for data collection, most research using assessment interviews in early childhood education relies solely upon the analysis of linguistic data, ignoring children's bodies. This trend is particularly troubling in studies of marginalized children because transcripts limited to language can make it difficult to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luther, Kenneth H.
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Virginia Department of Education, 2011
2011-01-01
This first draft of the "Comparison of Virginia's 2009 Mathematics Standards of Learning (SOL) with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Mathematics" provides a side-by-side overview demonstrating how the 2009 Mathematics SOL are aligned to the CCSS. The comparison was made using Virginia's complete standards program for supporting teaching…
Prasongkit, Jariyanee; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Rocha, Alexandre R.; He, Yuhui; Osotchan, Tanakorn; Ahuja, Rajeev; Scheicher, Ralph H.
2015-01-01
Fast, cost effective, single-shot DNA sequencing could be the prelude of a new era in genetics. As DNA encodes the information for the production of proteins in all known living beings on Earth, determining the nucleobase sequences is the first and necessary step in that direction. Graphene-based nanopore devices hold great promise for next-generation DNA sequencing. In this work, we develop a novel approach for sequencing DNA using bilayer graphene to read the interlayer conductance through the layers in the presence of target nucleobases. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of DNA translocation through the pore were performed to trace the nucleobase trajectories and evaluate the interaction between the nucleobases and the nanopore. This interaction stabilizes the bases in different orientations, resulting in smaller fluctuations of the nucleobases inside the pore. We assessed the performance of a bilayer graphene nanopore setup for the purpose of DNA sequencing by employing density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function method to investigate the interlayer conductance of nucleobases coupling simultaneously to the top and bottom graphene layers. The obtained conductance is significantly affected by the presence of DNA in the bilayer graphene nanopore, allowing us to analyze DNA sequences. PMID:26634811
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasongkit, Jariyanee; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Rocha, Alexandre R.; He, Yuhui; Osotchan, Tanakorn; Ahuja, Rajeev; Scheicher, Ralph H.
2015-12-01
Fast, cost effective, single-shot DNA sequencing could be the prelude of a new era in genetics. As DNA encodes the information for the production of proteins in all known living beings on Earth, determining the nucleobase sequences is the first and necessary step in that direction. Graphene-based nanopore devices hold great promise for next-generation DNA sequencing. In this work, we develop a novel approach for sequencing DNA using bilayer graphene to read the interlayer conductance through the layers in the presence of target nucleobases. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of DNA translocation through the pore were performed to trace the nucleobase trajectories and evaluate the interaction between the nucleobases and the nanopore. This interaction stabilizes the bases in different orientations, resulting in smaller fluctuations of the nucleobases inside the pore. We assessed the performance of a bilayer graphene nanopore setup for the purpose of DNA sequencing by employing density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function method to investigate the interlayer conductance of nucleobases coupling simultaneously to the top and bottom graphene layers. The obtained conductance is significantly affected by the presence of DNA in the bilayer graphene nanopore, allowing us to analyze DNA sequences.
Prasongkit, Jariyanee; Feliciano, Gustavo T; Rocha, Alexandre R; He, Yuhui; Osotchan, Tanakorn; Ahuja, Rajeev; Scheicher, Ralph H
2015-01-01
Fast, cost effective, single-shot DNA sequencing could be the prelude of a new era in genetics. As DNA encodes the information for the production of proteins in all known living beings on Earth, determining the nucleobase sequences is the first and necessary step in that direction. Graphene-based nanopore devices hold great promise for next-generation DNA sequencing. In this work, we develop a novel approach for sequencing DNA using bilayer graphene to read the interlayer conductance through the layers in the presence of target nucleobases. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of DNA translocation through the pore were performed to trace the nucleobase trajectories and evaluate the interaction between the nucleobases and the nanopore. This interaction stabilizes the bases in different orientations, resulting in smaller fluctuations of the nucleobases inside the pore. We assessed the performance of a bilayer graphene nanopore setup for the purpose of DNA sequencing by employing density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method to investigate the interlayer conductance of nucleobases coupling simultaneously to the top and bottom graphene layers. The obtained conductance is significantly affected by the presence of DNA in the bilayer graphene nanopore, allowing us to analyze DNA sequences. PMID:26634811
Assessment in a Common Core Era: Revolutionary or Evolutionary?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dimacali, Allen M.
2012-01-01
In conjunction with the adoption and subsequent implementation of the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics" (CCSSM), state-led consortia are developing next-generation assessments aligned to the CCSSM. This paper discusses the progress and plans of two main coalitions of states--the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Confrey, Jere; Carrejo, David
High stakes tests are increasingly used to monitor systemic improvements in mathematics and teachers are expected to rely on the results of such tests to adapt their instructional practices. We examine the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) over a period of three years to examine to what extent its results can be used to guide…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zwerling, Harris L.
In the context of controversy over the use of high stakes testing, the Pennsylvania State Education Association (PSEA) asked for an evaluation of the performance levels and cut score of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics and reading tests. While awaiting technical documentation from the Pennsylvania Department of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arhin, Ato Kwamina
2015-01-01
The study was a quasi-experimental research project conducted to investigate the effect of performance assessment-driven instructions on the attitude and achievement in mathematics of senior high school students in Ghana at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tucker, Tommy Howard
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) size and success on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics exam with fifth-grade students in Texas compared to the effect of alternative improvement approaches used by a control group. Research explored the use of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nwabude, Aaron A. R.
2012-01-01
This paper is a pilot study that investigates how the use of virtual learning environment can enhance or support assessment "for" learning mathematics by the KS4 students with special education needs in school sector, and then reports the finding. A virtual learning environment is an electronic system that can provide online interaction…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feeley, Susan Jane
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine whether multiple-choice and constructed-response items assessed prospective secondary mathematics teachers' understanding of the concept of function. The conceptual framework for the study was the Dreyfus and Eisenberg (1982) Function Block. The theoretical framework was Sierpinska's (1992, 1994)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tittle, Carol Kehr; Hecht, Deborah
This manual describes the Mathematics Assessment Questionnaire (MAQ) and its development, provides relevant background from the research literature, describes approaches to the reporting and uses of the MAQ (including its use in instructional planning), and presents sample responses from students and classes. The MAQ provides teachers and students…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Achieve, Inc., 2007
2007-01-01
At the request of the Hawaii Department of Education, Achieve conducted a study of Hawaii's 2005 grade 10 State Assessment in reading and mathematics. The study compared the content, rigor and passing (meets proficiency) scores on Hawaii's assessment with those of the six states that participated in Achieve's earlier study, "Do Graduation Tests…
Rashedi, Ehsan; Nussbaum, Maury A.
2015-01-01
Muscle fatigue models (MFM) have broad potential application if they can accurately predict muscle capacity and/or endurance time during the execution of diverse tasks. As an initial step toward facilitating improved MFMs, we assessed the sensitivity of selected existing models to their inherent parameters, specifically that model the fatigue and recovery processes, and the accuracy of model predictions. These evaluations were completed for both prolonged and intermittent isometric contractions, and were based on model predictions of endurance times. Based on a recent review of the literature, four MFMs were initially chosen, from which a preliminary assessment led to two of these being considered for more comprehensive evaluation. Both models had a higher sensitivity to their fatigue parameter. Predictions of both models were also more sensitive to the alteration of their parameters in conditions involving lower to moderate levels of effort, though such conditions may be of most practical, contemporary interest or relevance. Although both models yielded accurate predictions of endurance times during prolonged contractions, their predictive ability was inferior for more complex (intermittent) conditions. When optimizing model parameters for different loading conditions, the recovery parameter showed considerably larger variability, which might be related to the inability of these MFMs in simulating the recovery process under different loading conditions. It is argued that such models may benefit in future work from improving their representation of recovery process, particularly how this process differs across loading conditions. PMID:26656741
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wertheim, J.; Willard, S.
2011-12-01
There is growing interest in ensuring that citizens understand weather and climate sufficiently to make informed decisions, and these topics are gaining increased attention in K-12 education. The National Research Council recently released A Framework for K-12 Science Education with the expectation that U.S. 12th graders must have a sophisticated knowledge of climate change, including the role of deep time, variability, and computer modeling in the prediction of climate impacts on the planet and human activity. This requirement demands that students extend their understanding of climate change to the past and future, but it is important to recognize that many students know little about prerequisite ideas, such as daily and annual weather and climate processes, and this problem must be addressed prior to introducing the complexities of the climate system. In order to diagnose weaknesses in students' foundational understanding of the complex climate system, we primarily assessed a middle school (MS)-level understanding of the core elements of the system, in addition to a high school (HS)-level understanding of seasons. We described grade appropriate, coherent, functioning conceptual models for each targeted idea, and decomposed them into explicit learning goals. We then applied Project 2061's rigorous item development procedure to produce 235 high-quality, misconception-based multiple choice test items. These items were tested with a national sample of approximately 20,000 students, grades 6-12, in two phases (Spring 2010 & 2011). Here we report results from the second phase, including items targeting knowledge about convection, daily and annual air temperature patterns, factors that influence air temperature, and seasons. Overall, HS students outperformed MS students on these items by an average of only 3% (MS:31% correct; HS:34% correct). These data show a few strong misconceptions (e.g., 47% of students think that the North Pole is always angled toward the Sun
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
2013-01-01
This document represents one of three appendices associated with "The Nation's Report Card: A First Look--2013 Mathematics and Reading. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 4 and 8. NCES 2014-451." It includes tabular data relating to the mathematics portion of the National Assessment of Education Progress at Grade 4 and 8. [For…
Interdisciplinary Collaborative Mathematics: Standards Correlation Guide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiatula, Victoria Oliaku
2015-01-01
This guide outlines teacher preparation, professional association, and Common Core State Standards aligned to an "interdisciplinary collaborative mathematics" approach using Junior Achievement educational programs within a Math Methods course to train pre-service elementary teachers to teach math.
Crosswalks: PACESETTER Mathematics and the National Standards.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
College Board, New York, NY.
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) has published three documents that propose standards related to mathematics education called "The Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" (1989), "The Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (1991), and "The Assessment Standards for School Mathematics" (1995). The…
PSAR: measuring multiple sequence alignment reliability by probabilistic sampling
Kim, Jaebum; Ma, Jian
2011-01-01
Multiple sequence alignment, which is of fundamental importance for comparative genomics, is a difficult problem and error-prone. Therefore, it is essential to measure the reliability of the alignments and incorporate it into downstream analyses. We propose a new probabilistic sampling-based alignment reliability (PSAR) score. Instead of relying on heuristic assumptions, such as the correlation between alignment quality and guide tree uncertainty in progressive alignment methods, we directly generate suboptimal alignments from an input multiple sequence alignment by a probabilistic sampling method, and compute the agreement of the input alignment with the suboptimal alignments as the alignment reliability score. We construct the suboptimal alignments by an approximate method that is based on pairwise comparisons between each single sequence and the sub-alignment of the input alignment where the chosen sequence is left out. By using simulation-based benchmarks, we find that our approach is superior to existing ones, supporting that the suboptimal alignments are highly informative source for assessing alignment reliability. We apply the PSAR method to the alignments in the UCSC Genome Browser to measure the reliability of alignments in different types of regions, such as coding exons and conserved non-coding regions, and use it to guide cross-species conservation study. PMID:21576232
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin
2011-01-01
In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan; Beatty, Ian D.
2012-10-01
The purpose of this study is to uncover and understand the factors that affect secondary science and mathematics teachers' initial implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA), a pedagogy developed for teaching with classroom response system (CRS) technology. We sought to identify the most common and strongest factors, and to understand the general process of how teachers adopt TEFA. We identified ten main hindering factors reported by teachers, and found that time limitations and question development difficulties are reported as the most problematic. In this paper we provide five vignettes of teachers' initial implementation experiences, illustrating different courses that TEFA adoption can follow. We classify our ten factors into four groups: contextual factors that directly hinder teachers' attempts to implement TEFA (extrinsic type I); circumstances that affect teachers' teaching in general (extrinsic type 0); gaps that teachers have in the knowledge and skills they need to adopt TEFA (intrinsic type I); and ways of being a teacher that describe teachers' deeper perspectives and beliefs, which may be consonant or dissonant with TEFA (intrinsic type II). Finally, we identify four general categories that describe the teachers' initial TEFA implementation.
Wang, Yanxing; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Lindfors, Lennart; Brasseur, James G
2015-09-01
We introduce a "hierarchical" modeling strategy designed to be systematically extensible to increase the detail of dissolution predictions from polydisperse collections of drug particles and to be placed on firm mathematical and physical foundations with diffusion-dominated dissolution at its core to predict dissolution and the evolution of particle size distribution. We assess the model with experimental data and demonstrate higher accuracy by treating the polydisperse nature of dissolution. A level in the hierarchy is applied to study elements of diffusion-driven dissolution, in particular the role of particle-size distribution width with varying dose level and the influences of "confinement" on the process of dissolution. Confinement influences surface molecular flux, directly by the increase in bulk concentration and indirectly by the relative volume of particles to container. We find that the dissolution process can be broadly categorized within three "regimes" defined by the ratio of total concentration Ctot to solubility CS . Sink conditions apply in the first regime, when C tot /CS<∼0.1. When C tot /CS>∼5 (regime 3) dissolution is dominated by confinement and normalized saturation time follows a simple power law relationship. Regime 2 is characterized by a "saturation singularity" where dissolution is sensitive to both initial particle size distribution and confinement. PMID:25989144
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Planning and Development.
Examples are given of criterion-referenced test items in mathematics and reading used at the sixth grade level in Georgia. Three skill areas are identified for mathematics: concept identification, component operations, and problem solving. Tests measure students' ability to: (1) recognize whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; (2) identify…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rattanatumma, Tawachai; Puncreobutr, Vichian
2016-01-01
The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of teaching methods in improving Mathematics Learning Achievement and Problem solving ability of students at an international college. This is a Quasi-Experimental Research which was done the study with the first year students who have registered to study Mathematics subject at St.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Judson, Eugene
2013-01-01
It has long been noted in research literature that there does not exist a shared definition of integration of science and mathematics. Classifying a particular set of integration practices by one of many labels has limited value. Moving past the definition debate, this study describes the development and testing of the Mathematics Integrated into…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
House, J. Daniel
2009-01-01
Research findings indicate that specific instructional strategies, such as the use of real-world examples and independent learning activities, are positively related to mathematics achievement. This study was designed to investigate relationships between classroom instructional strategies and mathematics achievement of elementary-school students…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyublinskaya, Irina; Tournaki, Nelly
2014-01-01
Invited as a paper from SITE 2013. This study focuses on the development of Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge (TPACK) in mathematics and science of pre-service special education teachers for teaching mathematics and science via one course. This course introduces a variety of strategies and techniques for using instructional…
Instructional Alignment under No Child Left Behind
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polikoff, Morgan S.
2012-01-01
The alignment of instruction with the content of standards and assessments is the key mediating variable separating the policy of standards-based reform (SBR) from the outcome of improved student achievement. Few studies have investigated SBR's effects on instructional alignment, and most have serious methodological limitations. This research uses…
Nearest Alignment Space Termination
2006-07-13
Near Alignment Space Termination (NAST) is the Greengenes algorithm that matches up submitted sequences with the Greengenes database to look for similarities and align the submitted sequences based on those similarities.
Mathematics Education for Students with Learning Disabilities: Theory to Practice.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rivera, Diane Pedrotty, Ed.
This book addresses teaching mathematics to students with learning disabilities, including characteristics and assessment of mathematics learning disabilities, mathematics programming and interventions, and teacher preparation. Chapters include: (1) "Mathematics Education and Students with Learning Disabilities: Instruction" (Diane Pedrotty…
Laminar silk scaffolds for aligned tissue fabrication
Mandal, Biman B.; Gil, Eun Seok; Panilaitis, Bruce; Kaplan, David L.
2013-01-01
3D biomaterial scaffolds with aligned architecture are of vital importance in tissue regeneration to mimic native tissue hierarchy and hence function. We demonstrate a generic method to produce aligned biomaterial scaffolds using the physics of directional ice freezing. Homogeneously aligned 3D silk scaffold with high porosity and alignment was demonstrated. The method can be adapted to a wide range of polymers and is devoid of any chemical reactions, thus avoiding potential complications associated with by-products and purification procedures. Subsequently, the 3D aligned system was tested for mechanical properties and cellular responses with chondrocytes and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells, assessing survival, proliferation and differentiation. In vivo tests suggested biocompatibility of the matrices for future tissue engineering applications, specifically in areas where high cellular alignment is needed. PMID:23161731
Shiva automatic pinhole alignment
Suski, G.J.
1980-09-05
This paper describes a computer controlled closed loop alignment subsystem for Shiva, which represents the first use of video sensors for large laser alignment at LLNL. The techniques used on this now operational subsystem are serving as the basis for all closed loop alignment on Nova, the 200 terawatt successor to Shiva.
Bradley, Robert K; Roberts, Adam; Smoot, Michael; Juvekar, Sudeep; Do, Jaeyoung; Dewey, Colin; Holmes, Ian; Pachter, Lior
2009-05-01
We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multiple alignments which are accompanied by estimates of the alignment accuracy and uncertainty for every column and character of the alignment--previously available only with alignment programs which use computationally-expensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches--yet can align thousands of long sequences. Moreover, FSA utilizes an unsupervised query-specific learning procedure for parameter estimation which leads to improved accuracy on benchmark reference alignments in comparison to existing programs. The centroid alignment approach taken by FSA, in combination with its learning procedure, drastically reduces the amount of false-positive alignment on biological data in comparison to that given by other methods. The FSA program and a companion visualization tool for exploring uncertainty in alignments can be used via a web interface at http://orangutan.math.berkeley.edu/fsa/, and the source code is available at http://fsa.sourceforge.net/. PMID:19478997
The Alignment of easyCBM[R] Math Measures to Curriculum Standards. Technical Report #1002
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Anderson, Daniel; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the alignment of the easyCBM[R] mathematics benchmark and progress monitoring measures to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics "Curriculum Focal Points" (NCTM, 2006). Based on Webb's alignment model (1997, 2002), we collected expert judgments on individual math items across a sampling of forms…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young, R. Brent; Hodge, Angie; Edwards, M. Craig; Leising, James G.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to empirically test the posit that students who participated in a contextualized, mathematics-enhanced high school agricultural power and technology (APT) curriculum and aligned instructional approach would develop a deeper and more sustained understanding of selected mathematics concepts than those students who…
Teaching of Mathematics: Way Forward
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bashir, Taqadus; Shami, Pervez A.
2006-01-01
This paper describes the results of a research study focusing quality improvement in mathematics education and promotion with the use of mathematics laboratory. The primary purpose was to assess the perception of teachers regarding the teaching method through activities and the subsequent need for the mathematics laboratory in schools. This…
Learning to Write about Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, Renee; Breyfogle, M. Lynn
2011-01-01
Beginning in third grade, Pennsylvania students are required to take the Pennsylvania State Standardized Assessment (PSSA), which presents multiple-choice mathematics questions and open-ended mathematics problems. Consistent with the Communication Standard of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, while solving the open-ended problems,…
Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC
2010-11-18
The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.
Converse, Alexander K.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Bryan, Tom W.; Hetue, Jackson D.; Lake, Katherine A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Williams, Paul H.; et al
2015-03-15
Background: Ion transport is a fundamental physiological process that can be studied non-invasively in living plants with radiotracer imaging methods. Fluoride is a known phytotoxic pollutant and understanding its transport in plants after leaf absorption is of interest to those in agricultural areas near industrial sources of airborne fluoride. Here we report the novel use of a commercial, high-resolution, animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner to trace a bolus of [¹⁸F]fluoride administered via bisected petioles of Brassica oleracea, an established model species, to simulate whole plant uptake of atmospheric fluoride. This methodology allows for the first time mathematical compartmental modelingmore » of fluoride transport in the living plant. Radiotracer kinetics in the stem were described with a single-parameter free- and trapped-compartment model and mean arrival times at different stem positions were calculated from the free-compartment time-activity curves. Results: After initiation of administration at the bisected leaf stalk, [¹⁸F] radioactivity climbed for approximately 10 minutes followed by rapid washout from the stem and equilibration within leaves. Kinetic modeling of transport in the stem yielded a trapping rate of 1.5 +/- 0.3%/min (mean +/- s.d., n = 3), velocity of 2.2 +/- 1.1 cm/min, and trapping fraction of 0.8 +/- 0.5%/cm. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of physiologically meaningful transport parameters of fluoride in living plants is possible using standard positron emission tomography in combination with petiolar radiotracer administration. Movement of free fluoride was observed to be consistent with bulk flow in xylem, namely a rapid and linear change in position with respect to time. Trapping, likely in the apoplast, was observed. Future applications of the methods described here include studies of transport of other ions and molecules of interest in plant physiology.« less
Converse, Alexander K.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Bryan, Tom W.; Hetue, Jackson D.; Lake, Katherine A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Williams, Paul H.; DeJesus, Onofre T.
2015-03-15
Background: Ion transport is a fundamental physiological process that can be studied non-invasively in living plants with radiotracer imaging methods. Fluoride is a known phytotoxic pollutant and understanding its transport in plants after leaf absorption is of interest to those in agricultural areas near industrial sources of airborne fluoride. Here we report the novel use of a commercial, high-resolution, animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner to trace a bolus of [¹⁸F]fluoride administered via bisected petioles of Brassica oleracea, an established model species, to simulate whole plant uptake of atmospheric fluoride. This methodology allows for the first time mathematical compartmental modeling of fluoride transport in the living plant. Radiotracer kinetics in the stem were described with a single-parameter free- and trapped-compartment model and mean arrival times at different stem positions were calculated from the free-compartment time-activity curves. Results: After initiation of administration at the bisected leaf stalk, [¹⁸F] radioactivity climbed for approximately 10 minutes followed by rapid washout from the stem and equilibration within leaves. Kinetic modeling of transport in the stem yielded a trapping rate of 1.5 +/- 0.3%/min (mean +/- s.d., n = 3), velocity of 2.2 +/- 1.1 cm/min, and trapping fraction of 0.8 +/- 0.5%/cm. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of physiologically meaningful transport parameters of fluoride in living plants is possible using standard positron emission tomography in combination with petiolar radiotracer administration. Movement of free fluoride was observed to be consistent with bulk flow in xylem, namely a rapid and linear change in position with respect to time. Trapping, likely in the apoplast, was observed. Future applications of the methods described here include studies of transport of other ions and molecules of interest in plant physiology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mangels, Kenneth
This paper presents the results of a comparison of data from the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS) 4th (n=179) and 8th (n=143) grade student and teacher samples to the data from the 1990 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 4th and 8th grade student and teacher samples. This is part of a larger study of mathematics education in…
Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.
2015-01-01
Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP) is a method being developed by the Advanced Concepts Office, at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The TAPP method expands on current technology assessment methods by incorporating the technological structure underlying technology development, e.g., organizational structures and resources, institutional policy and strategy, and the factors that motivate technological change. This paper discusses the methods ACO is currently developing to better perform technology assessments while taking into consideration Strategic Alignment, Technology Forecasting, and Long Term Planning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Thomas A.
1983-01-01
Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanh, Vu Duc, Ed.
This document gives a listing of mathematical terminology in both the English and Vietnamese languages. Vocabulary used in algebra and geometry is included along with a translation of mathematical symbols. (DT)
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Parker, Richard; Aviles, Claudia; Mason, Samantha; Irby, Beverly J.
1998-01-01
As an alternative form of mathematics assessment for use with limited-English-proficient students, 14 mathematics tasks using manipulatives were administered to 45 Hispanic students in grades 1-3 and readministered 2-3 weeks later. Test reliability and validity, task difficulty, and the relationship among test subscales across grades were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kilpatrick, Jeremy
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…
Probabilistic sequence alignment of stratigraphic records
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Luan; Khider, Deborah; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lawrence, Charles E.
2014-10-01
The assessment of age uncertainty in stratigraphically aligned records is a pressing need in paleoceanographic research. The alignment of ocean sediment cores is used to develop mutually consistent age models for climate proxies and is often based on the δ18O of calcite from benthic foraminifera, which records a global ice volume and deep water temperature signal. To date, δ18O alignment has been performed by manual, qualitative comparison or by deterministic algorithms. Here we present a hidden Markov model (HMM) probabilistic algorithm to find 95% confidence bands for δ18O alignment. This model considers the probability of every possible alignment based on its fit to the δ18O data and transition probabilities for sedimentation rate changes obtained from radiocarbon-based estimates for 37 cores. Uncertainty is assessed using a stochastic back trace recursion to sample alignments in exact proportion to their probability. We applied the algorithm to align 35 late Pleistocene records to a global benthic δ18O stack and found that the mean width of 95% confidence intervals varies between 3 and 23 kyr depending on the resolution and noisiness of the record's δ18O signal. Confidence bands within individual cores also vary greatly, ranging from ~0 to >40 kyr. These alignment uncertainty estimates will allow researchers to examine the robustness of their conclusions, including the statistical evaluation of lead-lag relationships between events observed in different cores.
Nikas, Jason B.; Keene, C. Dirk; Low, Walter C.
2010-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a rapidly emerging technology that can be used to assess tissue metabolic profile in the living animal. At the present time, no approach has been developed 1) to systematically identify profiles of key chemical alterations that can be used as biomarkers to diagnose diseases and to monitor disease progression; and 2) to assess mathematically the diagnostic power of potential biomarkers. To address this issue, we have evaluated mathematical approaches that employ receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and logistic regression analysis to systematically identify key biomarkers from NMR spectra that have excellent diagnostic power and can be used accurately for disease diagnosis and monitoring. To validate our mathematical approaches, we studied the striatal concentrations of 17 metabolites of 13 R6/ 2 transgenic mice with Huntington's disease, as well as those of 17 wild-type (WT) mice, which were obtained via in vivo proton NMR spectroscopy (9.4 Tesla). We developed diagnostic biomarker models and clinical change assessment models based on our three aforementioned mathematical approaches, and we tested all of them, first, with the 30 original mice and, then, with 31 unknown mice. Their prediction results were compared with genotyping—the gold standard. All models correctly diagnosed all of the 30 original mice (17 WT and 13 R6/2) and all of the 31 unknown mice (20 WT and 11 R6/2), with a positive likelihood ratio approximating infinity [1/0 (→ ∞)], and with a negative likelihood ratio equal to zero [0/1 = 0]. PMID:20878778
New Attitude Sensor Alignment Calibration Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Harman, Richard (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Accurate spacecraft attitudes may only be obtained if the primary attitude sensors are well calibrated. Launch shock, relaxation of gravitational stresses and similar effects often produce large enough alignment shifts so that on-orbit alignment calibration is necessary if attitude accuracy requirements are to be met. A variety of attitude sensor alignment algorithms have been developed to meet the need for on-orbit calibration. Two new algorithms are presented here: ALICAL and ALIQUEST. Each of these has advantages in particular circumstances. ALICAL is an attitude independent algorithm that uses near simultaneous measurements from two or more sensors to produce accurate sensor alignments. For each set of simultaneous observations the attitude is overdetermined. The information content of the extra degrees of freedom can be combined over numerous sets to provide the sensor alignments. ALIQUEST is an attitude dependent algorithm that combines sensor and attitude data into a loss function that has the same mathematical form as the Wahba problem. Alignments can then be determined using any of the algorithms (such as the QUEST quaternion estimator) that have been developed to solve the Wahba problem for attitude. Results from the use of these methods on active missions are presented.
Refining Methods for Estimating Critical Values for an Alignment Index
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polikoff, Morgan S.; Fulmer, Gavin W.
2013-01-01
The alignment among standards, assessments, and teachers' instruction is an essential element of standards-based educational reforms. The Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) is the only common tool that can be used to measure the alignment among all three of these sources (Martone & Sireci, 2009). Prior SEC alignment work has been limited…
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Alignability of Optical Interconnects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beech, Russell Scott
With the continuing drive towards higher speed, density, and functionality in electronics, electrical interconnects become inadequate. Due to optics' high speed and bandwidth, freedom from capacitive loading effects, and freedom from crosstalk, optical interconnects can meet more stringent interconnect requirements. But, an optical interconnect requires additional components, such as an optical source and detector, lenses, holographic elements, etc. Fabrication and assembly of an optical interconnect requires precise alignment of these components. The successful development and deployment of optical interconnects depend on how easily the interconnect components can be aligned and/or how tolerant the interconnect is to misalignments. In this thesis, a method of quantitatively specifying the relative difficulty of properly aligning an optical interconnect is described. Ways of using this theory of alignment to obtain design and packaging guidelines for optical interconnects are examined. The measure of the ease with which an optical interconnect can be aligned, called the alignability, uses the efficiency of power transfer as a measure of alignment quality. The alignability is related to interconnect package design through the overall cost measure, which depends upon various physical parameters of the interconnect, such as the cost of the components and the time required for fabrication and alignment. Through a mutual dependence on detector size, the relationship between an interconnect's alignability and its bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and bit-error -rate is examined. The results indicate that a range of device sizes exists for which given performance threshold values are satisfied. Next, the alignability of integrated planar-optic backplanes is analyzed in detail. The resulting data show that the alignability can be optimized by varying the substrate thickness or the angle of reflection. By including the effects of crosstalk, in a multi-channel backplane, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš
2015-08-01
We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.
Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Usiskin, Zalman
2015-01-01
Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abbott, Laura Lynn Tanner
2014-01-01
The purpose of this quantitative non-experimental predictive study was to determine if CIA alignment factors and related district support systems are associated with student achievement to enable the turnaround of schools in crisis. This study aimed to utilize the District Snapshot Tool to determine if the district systems that support CIA…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stöltzner, Michael
Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pierce, Kristin B.
2013-01-01
A quasi experimental study tested a contextual teaching and learning (CTL) model for integrating reading and mathematics competencies through 13 introductory Career and Technical Education (CTE) courses. Volunteer CTE Lead Teachers with assistance from academic teachers, developed integrated units. The purpose of this study was to determine…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grana, David P.
2010-01-01
The disparity in academic achievement between African American and White students in all levels of education has been one of the critical issues in education. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of school, community, and family on African American and White students' on the 8 th grade mathematics scores on the Missouri…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Logue, A. W.; Watanabe-Rose, Mari; Douglas, Daniel
2016-01-01
Many college students never take, or do not pass, required remedial mathematics courses theorized to increase college-level performance. Some colleges and states are therefore instituting policies allowing students to take college-level courses without first taking remedial courses. However, no experiments have compared the effectiveness of these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tarlow, Lynn D.
2014-01-01
This study documents the change in teaching practices of a group of mathematics teachers in urban middle schools as they participated in a program of professional development to promote standards-based learning environments. The teachers made a shift in their classroom practice from a traditional, didactic lecture approach towards a role of…