Alignment of Content and Effectiveness of Mathematics Assessment Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kulm, Gerald; Dager Wilson, Linda; Kitchen, Richard
2005-01-01
Alignment has taken on increased importance given the current high-stakes nature of assessment. To make well-informed decisions about student learning on the basis of test results, assessment items need to be well aligned with standards. Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has developed a procedure for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Council of Chief State School Officers, 2009
2009-01-01
In Fall 2008, the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) conducted an alignment content analysis of the 2007 TIMSS Mathematics and Science education assessments for students at grades 4 and 8 and the 2006 PISA Mathematics and Science Literacy assessments for students at age 15 (i.e., TIMSS--Trends in Mathematics and Science Study,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica
2008-01-01
This Technical Brief examines the alignment between the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica
2008-01-01
This technical brief examines the current alignment between the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) and Graduation Exit Examination (GEE) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica
2008-01-01
This Technical Brief examines the current alignment between the Arkansas Comprehensive Testing, Assessment, and Accountability Program (ACTAAP) mathematics assessment standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica
2008-01-01
This technical brief examines the current alignment between the New Mexico Standards Based Assessment (NMSBA) standards and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAEP assessments will be based. Applying…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shapley, Kathy L.; Brite, Jessica
2008-01-01
This technical brief examines the current alignment between Oklahoma Core Curriculum Tests (OCT) and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAPE) mathematics framework. It looks at the extent to which current state assessment standards cover the content on which 2009 NAPE assessments will be based. Applying the methodology used by…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, Ryan M.
2013-01-01
In support of the national movement to improve mathematics instruction and assessment, states and districts are looking for the best tools to measure student progress toward proficiency. There is a national dialogue about how to use 8th-grade measurements like ACT EXPLORE and NAEP as predictors of student success and school accountability. This…
Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather
2015-01-01
Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…
Designing Assessment for Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Depka, Eileen
2007-01-01
Teaching mathematics in today's world requires practices and procedures integrated with performance tasks that actively involve students. In this second edition of Designing Rubrics for Mathematics, Eileen Depka clarifies the purpose of rubrics in math instruction and illustrates the relationship between assessment, rubrics, and the National…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newton, Jill A.; Kasten, Sarah E.
2013-01-01
The release of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and their adoption across the United States calls for careful attention to the alignment between mathematics standards and assessments. This study investigates 2 models that measure alignment between standards and assessments, the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) and the Webb…
Assessment and Learning of Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leder, Gilah C., Ed.
This book addresses the link between student learning of mathematics, the teaching method adopted in the mathematics classroom, and the assessment procedures used to determine and measure student knowledge. Fifteen chapters address issues that include a review of different models of mathematics learning and assessment practices, three contrasting…
Promoting and Assessing Mathematical Generalising
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Tiffany; Lannin, John; van Garderen, Delinda
2015-01-01
Helping students generalise mathematical ideas is an essential component of teaching and learning of mathematics (Lannin, Ellis, Elliott & Zbiek, 2011). However, it can be challenging for primary teachers to assess and promote generalisation. Because generalisation is an essential part of mathematics instruction, the authors highlight the…
Using technology in assessing integrated science and mathematics learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.
1995-03-01
Drawing from current models, research, and science and mathematics education reform documents, this article first defines and/or delimits three broad domains of education: integrated school science and mathematics, assessment, and technology. Based upon this three-tiered discussion, a list of characteristics is then distilled to guide in the development of assessment for integrated school science and mathematics using technology. Two integrated school science and mathematics activities are provided to illustrate the alignment of instruction and assessment and the systematic integration of technology into both.
Teaching and Assessing Mathematical Modelling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lingefjard, T.
2002-01-01
Reports on the observed actions of prospective Swedish secondary mathematics teachers as they were working in a modeling situation. Discusses the way the students tackled the modeling situation and their strategies and attitudes as well as the difficulties in assessing mathematical modeling performance. (KHR)
Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui
2013-01-01
We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…
Assessment Mathematics Teacher's Competencies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alnoor, A. G.; Yuanxiang, Guo; Abudhuim, F. S.
2007-01-01
This paper aimed to identifying the professional efficiencies for the intermediate schools mathematics teachers and tries to know at what level the math teachers experience those competencies. The researcher used a descriptive research approach, the study data collected from specialist educators and teacher's experts and previous studies to…
Supporting Assessment in Undergraduate Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steen, Lynn Arthur, Ed.
2006-01-01
This publication contains 29 case studies offering lessons learned during a four year NSF-supported MAA project designed to support mathematicians and mathematics departments in the increasingly important challenge of assessing student learning. Three introductory essays set assessment in broader academic and national contexts; an appendix…
Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
La Marca, Paul M.
2001-01-01
Provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. Discusses some methodological issues affecting the study of alignment and explores the relationship between alignment and test score interpretation. Alignment is not only a methodological requirement but also an ethical requirement.…
Mathematics Objectives. 1990 Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reports on the status and progress of educational achievement in the United States. Based on its surveys, "The Nation's Report Card" provides comprehensive information about what students in the United States can do in various subject areas. The framework for the 1990 mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaufman, Julia Heath; Stein, Mary Kay; Junker, Brian
2016-01-01
We investigated the alignment between a teacher survey self-report measure and classroom observation measure of ambitious mathematics instructional practice among teachers in two urban school districts using two different standards-based mathematics curricula. Survey reports suggested mild differences in teachers' instructional practices between…
Alignment of Standards and Assessment: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Methods for Alignment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nasstrom, Gunilla; Henriksson, Widar
2008-01-01
Introduction: In a standards-based school-system alignment of policy documents with standards and assessment is important. To be able to evaluate whether schools and students have reached the standards, the assessment should focus on the standards. Different models and methods can be used for measuring alignment, i.e. the correspondence between…
Examining the Language Factor in Mathematics Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kan, Adnan; Bulut, Okan
2015-01-01
This study investigates whether word problems and mathematically expressed items can be used interchangeably regardless of their linguistic complexities. A sample of sixth grade students was given two forms of a mathematics assessment. The first form included mathematics items with mathematical terms, expressions, and equations whereas the second…
Assessing Innovative Proposals in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ediger, Marlow
Mathematics is at the apex in priorities pertaining to state-mandated testing of students. With 49 out of 50 states having mandated the testing of students, all of these have mathematics in the testing format. This paper discusses the modern school mathematics movement, recent approaches in improving the teaching of mathematics, and specific…
Educational assessment of mathematics skills and abilities.
Bryant, B R; Rivera, D P
1997-01-01
Mathematics assessments play a valuable role in identifying students' strengths and weaknesses and in developing and monitoring instructional practice. Over the last century, mathematics assessment has been refined as math content has changed as a result of curriculum reform. Today, researchers and practitioners use various assessment techniques to (a) identify students who have mathematics learning disabilities (LD), (b) target individual strengths and weaknesses across mathematics areas, (c) document the effects of mathematics instruction in a remedial or special program, (d) identify strategies that students employ during math activities, (e) conduct research about the characteristics of students with math LD, and (f) examine the technical characteristics of mathematics tests. This article provides an historical overview of the development of mathematics assessment and a description of specific strategies for conducting math evaluations.
Clinical Assessment in Mathematics: Learning the Craft.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hunting, Robert P.; Doig, Brian A.
1997-01-01
Discusses a professional development program called Clinical Approaches to Mathematics Assessment. Argues for the advanced training of mathematics teachers who understand knowledge construction processes of students; can use clinical tools for evaluating a student's unique mathematical "fingerprint"; and can create or adapt problems, tasks, or…
Assessment for the Common Core Mathematics Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Hung-Hsi
2012-01-01
This article makes two simple observations about high-stakes assessments. The first is that, because mathematics is a very technical subject, an assessment item can be mathematically flawed regardless of how elementary it is. For this reason, every assessment project needs the active participation of high level mathematicians. A second point is…
Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.
2012-01-01
In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…
Assessing Higher Order Thinking in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kulm, Gerald, Ed.
This book explores current theory, research, practice, and policy in the assessment of higher order thinking in mathematics, focusing on the elementary and secondary grades. Current knowledge and research on mathematics learning and testing is synthesized. Examples of innovative test items for classroom use and state assessment programs are…
Small-Group Assessment Methods in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berry, John; Nyman, Melvin A.
2002-01-01
Discusses a team-oriented formal testing method used in a mathematical modeling course taught during the Alma College intensive spring term. Asks the question, If a collaborative teaching method is used, how does one assess students' acquisition of problem-solving and mathematical-thinking skills? (Author/MM)
Self and Peer Assessment of Mathematical Processes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Onion, Alice; Javaheri, Elnaz
2011-01-01
This article explores using Bowland assessment tasks and Nuffield Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP) activities as part of a scheme of work. The Bowland tasks and Nuffield AMP activities are designed to develop students' mathematical thinking; they are focused on key processes. Unfamiliar demands are made on the students and they are challenged…
The Summative Assessment Diet: How We Assess in Mathematics Degrees
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian
2011-01-01
Much research and many papers on mathematics pedagogy have discussed assessment and, in particular, the need to provide a varied diet of methods by which students are assessed for the award of their degree. In this article, we explore the mix of assessment methods provided across a range of UK university mathematics departments. We examine the…
Students' Perceptions of Assessment in Undergraduate Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian
2013-01-01
A consistent message emerges from research on undergraduate students' perceptions of assessment which describes traditional assessment as detrimental to learning. However this literature has not included students in the pure sciences. Mathematics education literature advocates the introduction of innovative assessment at university. In this…
Engineering Mathematics Assessment Using "MapleTA"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian S.
2008-01-01
The assessment of degree level engineering mathematics students using the computer-aided assessment package MapleTA is discussed. Experience of academic and practical issues for both online coursework and examination assessments is presented, hopefully benefiting other academics in this novel area of activity. (Contains 6 figures and 1 table.)
When Mathematics and Statistics Collide in Assessment Tasks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bargagliotti, Anna; Groth, Randall
2016-01-01
Because the disciplines of mathematics and statistics are naturally intertwined, designing assessment questions that disentangle mathematical and statistical reasoning can be challenging. We explore the writing statistics assessment tasks that take into consideration potential mathematical reasoning they may inadvertently activate.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lang, Laura B.; Schoen, Robert R.; LaVenia, Mark; Oberlin, Maureen
2014-01-01
The Florida Center for Research in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (FCR-STEM) was awarded a grant by the Florida Department of Education to develop a Mathematics Formative Assessment System (MFAS) aligned with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Intended for both teachers and students, formative assessment is a process that…
Students' Preferences in Undergraduate Mathematics Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.
2015-01-01
Existing research into students' preferences for assessment methods has been developed from a restricted sample: in particular, the voice of students in the 'hard-pure sciences' has rarely been heard. We conducted a mixed method study to explore mathematics students' preferences of assessment methods. In contrast to the message from the general…
Screencasts: Formative Assessment for Mathematical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soto, Melissa; Ambrose, Rebecca
2016-01-01
Increased attention to reasoning and justification in mathematics classrooms requires the use of more authentic assessment methods. Particularly important are tools that allow teachers and students opportunities to engage in formative assessment practices such as gathering data, interpreting understanding, and revising thinking or instruction.…
Next-Generation Assessments Aligned to the Common Core
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Willhoft, Joseph L.
2012-01-01
Through the Common Core State Standards and the development of new assessments aligned to the standards, the public education system is undergoing a transformation--and administrators can help make this vision a reality. Today, more than 45 states and the District of Columbia have adopted the Common Core State Standards. The standards, however,…
Toward a Balanced Curriculum: Aligning Standards, Curriculum, and Assessments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Squires, David A.
1998-01-01
Describes a balanced-curriculum process created by James Comer's School Development Program that involves describing and aligning the curriculum and assessing student mastery. The SDP's first goal is to establish a supportive school culture. The balanced-curriculum process helps broaden the developmental perspective by addressing student learning.…
Aligning Objectives and Assessment in Responsible Conduct of Research Instruction
Antes, Alison L.; DuBois, James M.
2014-01-01
Efforts to advance research integrity in light of concerns about misbehavior in research rely heavily on education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). However, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of RCR instruction as a remedy. Assessment is essential in RCR education if the research community wishes to expend the effort of instructors, students, and trainees wisely. This article presents key considerations that instructors and course directors must consider in aligning learning objectives with instructional methods and assessment measures, and it provides illustrative examples. Above all, in order for RCR educators to assess outcomes more effectively, they must align assessment to their learning objectives and attend to the validity of the measures used. PMID:25574258
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
La Marca, Paul M.; Redfield, Doris; Winter, Phoebe C.
Alignment of content standards, performance standards, and assessments is crucial. This guide contains information to assist states and districts in aligning their assessment systems to their content and performance standards. It includes a review of current literature, both published and fugitive. The research is woven together with a few basic…
The Fantastic Four of Mathematics Assessment Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenlees, Jane
2011-01-01
In this article, the author makes reference to four comic book characters to make the point that together they are a formidable team, but on their own they are vulnerable. She examines the four components of mathematics assessment items and the need for implicit instruction within the classroom for student success. Just like the "Fantastic Four"…
The Challenge of Maintaining the Integrity of Reform Mathematics in Large-Scale Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suurtamm, Christine; Lawson, Alex; Koch, Martha
2008-01-01
This article examines the complex task of designing a large-scale assessment to align with a reform-oriented view of mathematics teaching and learning. Specifically, we address this issue through the case of the province of Ontario that has a reform-oriented curriculum and support for its implementation. The province also has a mandate to assess…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bargagliotti, Anna E.
2012-01-01
Statistics and probability have become an integral part of mathematics education. Therefore it is important to understand whether curricular materials adequately represent statistical ideas. The "Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education" (GAISE) report (Franklin, Kader, Mewborn, Moreno, Peck, Perry, & Scheaffer, 2007),…
To Assess Students' Attitudes, Skills and Competencies in Mathematical Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lingefjard, Thomas; Holmquist, Mikael
2005-01-01
Peer-to-peer assessment, take-home exams and a mathematical modeling survey were used to monitor and assess students' attitudes, skills and competencies in mathematical modeling. The students were all in a secondary mathematics, teacher education program with a comprehensive amount of mathematics studies behind them. Findings indicate that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.
2016-01-01
Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…
Rethinking Program Assessment through the Use of Program Alignment Mapping Technique
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Min; Wrobbel, Duff; Blankson, Isaac
2010-01-01
Curriculum mapping is a well-known assessment tool used to articulate and align a curriculum. The authors present an improved method of curriculum alignment that combines the traditional curriculum mapping with what is often called prerequisite mapping. This improved method of curriculum alignment mapping we label Program Alignment Mapping (PAM)…
Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion. ERIC Digest.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
La Marca, Paul M.
This digest provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. It also discusses methodological issues affecting the study of alignment and explores the relationship between alignment and test score interpretation. Alignment refers to the degree of match between test content and subject…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tran, Dung
2016-01-01
This study examined the alignment of three selected U.S. high school textbooks series with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) regarding the treatment of statistical association. A framework grounded in the literature for inclusion and exclusion of reasoning about association topics was developed, and textbook entries were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Felicia Moss
This study involved over 4,000 third grade students in a large (90,000+) suburban-emerging-urban school district. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of curriculum alignment on student achievement in mathematics as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (IOWA) after one year of implementation in the DeKalb County School…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawson, Alex; Suurtamm, Christine
2006-01-01
In 1997, the Ontario government, like many other jurisdictions, undertook systemic reform of their elementary school mathematics programme, developing a new mathematics curriculum, report card, and province-wide assessment. The curricular reform embodied a new vision of mathematics learning and instruction that emphasized instruction using…
Mathematics Assessment and Evaluation: Imperatives for Mathematics Educators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.
This books contains papers written on issues related to externally mandated mathematics tests and their influence on school mathematics. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the book, including brief abstracts of each chapter. Chapter 2 presents a summary of the overall problems associated with the need for valid information. Remaining chapters…
Assessing Middle and High School Mathematics & Science: Differentiating Formative Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waterman, Sheryn Spencer
2010-01-01
For middle and high school teachers of mathematics and science, this book is filled with examples of instructional strategies that address students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. It shows teachers how to formatively assess their students by addressing differentiated learning targets. Included are detailed examples of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiland, Christina; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Hurwitz, Michael D.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie H.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
2012-01-01
In recent years, there has been increased interest in improving early mathematics curricula and instruction. Subsequently, there has also been a rise in demand for better early mathematics assessments, as most current measures are limited in their content and/or their sensitivity to detect differences in early mathematics development among young…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Kris; Emerson, Allen
2008-01-01
The first part of this two-part paper [see EJ787497] described the development of a new freshman business mathematics (FBM) course at our college. In this paper, we discuss our assessment tool, the business memo, as a venue for students to apply mathematical skills, via mathematical modelling, to realistic business problems. These memos have…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fulmer, Gavin W.; Polikoff, Morgan S.
2014-01-01
An essential component in school accountability efforts is for assessments to be well-aligned with the standards or curriculum they are intended to measure. However, relatively little prior research has explored methods to determine statistical significance of alignment or misalignment. This study explores analyses of alignment as a special case…
Assessing Understanding through Reading and Writing in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna
2010-01-01
The mathematics education community recognizes the integrality of reading and writing in learning and communicating mathematics knowledge. Unfortunately, many students have yet to significantly experience this integrality in their mathematics classrooms despite the power these tools offer teachers for assessing student knowledge. This paper…
Using Technology in Assessing Integrated Science and Mathematics Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.
1995-01-01
Drawing from current models, research, and science and mathematics education reform documents, this article first defines and/or delimits three broad domains of education: integrated school science and mathematics, assessment, and technology. A list of characteristics is derived, and two integrated school science and mathematics activities are…
Mathematics Framework for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Howe, Roger; Scheaffer, Richard; Lindquist, Mary; Philip, Frank; Halbrook, Arthur
2004-01-01
This document contains the framework and a set of recommendations for the 2005 NAEP mathematics assessment. It includes descriptions of the mathematical content of the test, the types of test questions, and recommendations for administration of the test. In broad terms, this framework attempts to answer the question: What mathematics should be…
Mathematics Framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Assessment Governing Board, 2010
2010-01-01
Since 1973, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has gathered information about student achievement in mathematics. Results of these periodic assessments, produced in print and web-based formats, provide valuable information to a wide variety of audiences. The NAEP Assessment in mathematics has two components that differ in…
Assessment of a field-aligned ICRF antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wukitch, S. J.; Brunner, D.; Ennever, P.; Garrett, M. L.; Hubbard, A.; Labombard, B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Miller, D.; Ochoukov, R.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.
2014-02-01
Impurity contamination and localized heat loads associated with ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna operation are among the most challenging issues for ICRF utilization.. Another challenge is maintaining maximum coupled power through plasma variations including edge localized modes (ELMs) and confinement transitions. Here, we report on an experimental assessment of a field aligned (FA) antenna with respect to impurity contamination, impurity sources, RF enhanced heat flux and load tolerance. In addition, we compare the modification of the scrape of layer (SOL) plasma potential of the FA antenna to a conventional, toroidally aligned (TA) antenna, in order to explore the underlying physics governing impurity contamination linked to ICRF heating. The FA antenna is a 4-strap ICRF antenna where the current straps and antenna enclosure sides are perpendicular to and the Faraday screen rods are parallel to the total magnetic field. In principle, alignment with respect to the total magnetic field minimizes integrated E∥ (electric field along a magnetic field line) via symmetry. Consistent with expectations, we observed that the impurity contamination and impurity source at the FA antenna are reduced compared to the TA antenna. In both L and H-mode discharges, the radiated power is 20-30% lower for a FA-antenna heated discharge than a discharge heated with the TA-antennas. Further we observe that the fraction of RF energy deposited upon the antenna is less than 0.4 % of the total injected RF energy in dipole phasing. The total deposited energy increases significantly when the FA antenna is operated in monopole phasing. The FA antenna also exhibits an unexpected load tolerance for ELMs and confinement transitions compared to the TA antennas. However, inconsistent with expectations, we observe RF induced plasma potentials to be nearly identical for FA and TA antennas when operated in dipole phasing. In monopole phasing, the FA antenna has the highest plasma
Assessment of a field-aligned ICRF antenna
Wukitch, S. J.; Brunner, D.; Ennever, P.; Garrett, M. L.; Hubbard, A.; Labombard, B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Miller, D.; Ochoukov, R.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.
2014-02-12
Impurity contamination and localized heat loads associated with ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antenna operation are among the most challenging issues for ICRF utilization.. Another challenge is maintaining maximum coupled power through plasma variations including edge localized modes (ELMs) and confinement transitions. Here, we report on an experimental assessment of a field aligned (FA) antenna with respect to impurity contamination, impurity sources, RF enhanced heat flux and load tolerance. In addition, we compare the modification of the scrape of layer (SOL) plasma potential of the FA antenna to a conventional, toroidally aligned (TA) antenna, in order to explore the underlying physics governing impurity contamination linked to ICRF heating. The FA antenna is a 4-strap ICRF antenna where the current straps and antenna enclosure sides are perpendicular to and the Faraday screen rods are parallel to the total magnetic field. In principle, alignment with respect to the total magnetic field minimizes integrated E∥ (electric field along a magnetic field line) via symmetry. Consistent with expectations, we observed that the impurity contamination and impurity source at the FA antenna are reduced compared to the TA antenna. In both L and H-mode discharges, the radiated power is 20–30% lower for a FA-antenna heated discharge than a discharge heated with the TA-antennas. Further we observe that the fraction of RF energy deposited upon the antenna is less than 0.4 % of the total injected RF energy in dipole phasing. The total deposited energy increases significantly when the FA antenna is operated in monopole phasing. The FA antenna also exhibits an unexpected load tolerance for ELMs and confinement transitions compared to the TA antennas. However, inconsistent with expectations, we observe RF induced plasma potentials to be nearly identical for FA and TA antennas when operated in dipole phasing. In monopole phasing, the FA antenna has the highest plasma
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.
2013-01-01
The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…
The Relationship between Teacher Assessments and NCLB Mathematics Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herte, Christopher Mark
2007-01-01
This study examined the relationship between teacher assessments and grade eight New Jersey NCLB mathematics testing. It also examined how curricular changes affected student achievement for one New Jersey junior high school on the NCLB mathematics test. The research considered teacher assessments and the New Jersey grade eight NCLB mathematics…
Approaching Standards for Mathematics Assessment. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brosnan, Patricia A.; Hartog, Martin D.
Current assessment practices in the classroom can affect the movement toward a child-centered curriculum in mathematics education. The mathematical community is addressing the challenge to implement standards in the areas of testing, assessment, and accountability in order to maintain this movement. This digest: (1) discusses what makes current…
An Assessment Model for Proof Comprehension in Undergraduate Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Fuller, Evan; Weber, Keith; Rhoads, Kathryn; Samkoff, Aron
2012-01-01
Although proof comprehension is fundamental in advanced undergraduate mathematics courses, there has been limited research on what it means to understand a mathematical proof at this level and how such understanding can be assessed. In this paper, we address these issues by presenting a multidimensional model for assessing proof comprehension in…
Mathematics Framework for the 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Howe, Roger; Scheaffer, Richard; Lindquist, Mary
2006-01-01
This document contains the framework and a set of recommendations for the NAEP 2007 mathematics assessment, which will assess student achievement nationally and state-by-state, as well as in select urban districts, in grades 4 and 8. It includes descriptions of the mathematical content of the test, the types of test questions, and recommendations…
How Well Aligned Are Textbooks to the Common Core Standards in Mathematics?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polikoff, Morgan S.
2015-01-01
Research has identified a number of problems limiting the implementation of content standards in the classroom. Curriculum materials may be among the most important influences on teachers' instruction. As new standards roll out, there is skepticism about the alignment of "Common Core--aligned" curriculum materials to the standards. This…
Issues Related to Judging the Alignment of Curriculum Standards and Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Webb, Norman L.
2007-01-01
A process for judging the alignment between curriculum standards and assessments developed by the author is presented. This process produces information on the relationship of standards and assessments on four alignment criteria: Categorical Concurrence, Depth of Knowledge Consistency, Range of Knowledge Correspondence, and Balance of…
Core Skills Assessment to Improve Mathematical Competency
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carr, Michael; Bowe, Brian; Ní Fhloinn, Eabhnat
2013-01-01
Many engineering undergraduates begin third-level education with significant deficiencies in their core mathematical skills. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology, a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students, consistently revealing problems in basic mathematics. It is difficult to motivate students to address these…
Assessing Students' Conceptions of Reform Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Star, Jon R.; Hoffmann, Amanda J.
As the use of National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored, reform- oriented mathematics curricula has become more prevalent across the U.S., an increasing number of researchers are attempting to study the "impact" of reform. In particular, mathematics educators are interested in determining whether reforms are having the desired effects on…
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…
Mathematics Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Assessment Governing Board, 2008
2008-01-01
An assessment framework is like a blueprint, laying out the basic design of the assessment by describing the mathematics content that should be tested and the types of assessment questions that should be included. It also describes how the various design factors should be balanced across the assessment. This is an assessment framework, not a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Achieve, Inc., 2006
2006-01-01
For the past two years, Achieve, Inc. has worked with the Transition Mathematics Project (TMP), a collaborative project of K-12 schools, community and technical colleges, and baccalaureate institutions within the state of Washington, as it developed mathematics standards that "define the core knowledge and skills expected of students entering…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osta, Iman
2007-01-01
This research aimed at developing a methodological framework to investigate the alignment of the Lebanese national math exam tests with the curriculum at the middle school level, during the transitory period of a major curricular reform. The focus is on exploring the characteristics of an "assessment culture" set by the national exams…
The Mathematics Assessment Collaborative: Performance Testing to Improve Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foster, David; Noyce, Pendred
2004-01-01
In this article, the authors describe a collaborative effort involving 30 school districts in California's Silicon Valley that are seeking to overcome the ill effects of mandatory high-stakes standardized testing in mathematics. These districts administer, score, and analyze a common set of performance assessments in mathematics in a way that…
Exploring Crossing Differential Item Functioning by Gender in Mathematics Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ong, Yoke Mooi; Williams, Julian; Lamprianou, Iasonas
2015-01-01
The purpose of this article is to explore crossing differential item functioning (DIF) in a test drawn from a national examination of mathematics for 11-year-old pupils in England. An empirical dataset was analyzed to explore DIF by gender in a mathematics assessment. A two-step process involving the logistic regression (LR) procedure for…
Assessing Technology-Based Approaches for Teaching and Learning Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forster, P. A.
2006-01-01
When technologies are used in mathematics education it is important to assess how activities will support the development of mathematical understanding and the technical expertise that students will need. The two issues are discussed in this paper. Literature is reviewed and findings from a recent study in a high-school class are reported. The…
Assessing the Potential of Mathematics Textbooks to Promote Deep Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shield, Malcolm; Dole, Shelley
2013-01-01
Curriculum documents for mathematics emphasise the importance of promoting depth of knowledge rather than shallow coverage of the curriculum. In this paper, we report on a study that explored the analysis of junior secondary mathematics textbooks to assess their potential to assist in teaching and learning aimed at building and applying deep…
Using Problem Solving to Assess Young Children's Mathematics Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.
2012-01-01
Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Achieve, Inc., 2014
2014-01-01
In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards. The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the CCSS; each…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Achieve, Inc., 2014
2014-01-01
In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anku, Sitsofe E.
1997-09-01
Using the reform documents of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (NCTM, 1989, 1991, 1995), a theory-based multi-dimensional assessment framework (the "SEA" framework) which should help expand the scope of assessment in mathematics is proposed. This framework uses a context based on mathematical reasoning and has components that comprise mathematical concepts, mathematical procedures, mathematical communication, mathematical problem solving, and mathematical disposition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephens, Max, Ed.; Izard, John, Ed.
The purpose of the Australian conference on mathematical assessment was to address the challenges to traditional methods of assessment that have resulted as part of the call for reform in the mathematics curriculum. The 28 papers presented were: "Who Assesses Whom and To What Purpose?" (Leone Burton; "Assessment of the Learned…
Core skills assessment to improve mathematical competency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Michael; Bowe, Brian; Fhloinn, Eabhnat Ní
2013-12-01
Many engineering undergraduates begin third-level education with significant deficiencies in their core mathematical skills. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology, a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students, consistently revealing problems in basic mathematics. It is difficult to motivate students to address these problems; instead, they struggle through their degree, carrying a serious handicap of poor core mathematical skills, as confirmed by exploratory testing of final year students. In order to improve these skills, a pilot project was set up in which a 'module' in core mathematics was developed. The course material was basic, but 90% or higher was required to pass. Students were allowed to repeat this module throughout the year by completing an automated examination on WebCT populated by a question bank. Subsequent to the success of this pilot with third-year mechanical engineering students, the project was extended to five different engineering programmes, across three different year-groups. Full results and analysis of this project are presented, including responses to interviews carried out with a selection of the students involved.
Psychological Perspectives in Assessing Mathematics Learning Needs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Augustyniak, Kristine; Murphy, Jacqueline; Phillips, Donna Kester
2005-01-01
While the definition of learning disabilities has been the subject of controversy for decades, the current federal classification system identifies three specific areas of deficit: reading, written language, and mathematics and maintains the presumption that the disabilities are a result of a central nervous system dysfunction. In contrast to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexander, Julie
2013-01-01
Across the United States, students are entering college with a need for improvement in basic mathematics and communication skills. In 2008, the Florida Legislature passed Senate Bill 1908 which changed the expectations for the senior year of high school for many students. Students who score within certain levels on the mandatory high school…
Implementing Formative Mathematics Assessments in Prekindergarten
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Komara, Cecile; Herron, Julie
2012-01-01
Authentic assessment "refers to the systematic collection of information about the naturally occurring behaviors of young children and families in their daily routines" (Neisworth & Bagnato, 2004, p. 204). In formative assessments, the assessment information informs instruction. Formative assessments are given periodically and should be used to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sandlin, Benjamin; Harshman, Jordan; Yezierski, Ellen
2015-01-01
A 2011 report by the Department of Education states that understanding how teachers use results from formative assessments to guide their practice is necessary to improve instruction. Chemistry teachers have goals for items in their formative assessments, but the degree of alignment between what is assessed by these items and the teachers' goals…
Alignment of Scores on Large-Scale Assessments and Report-Card Grades
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ross, John A.; Gray, Peter
2008-01-01
We examined how much agreement there was between scores from large-scale mandated assessments and report-card grades for 14,776 students in grades 3, 6, and 9 of a district in which conditions were conducive to alignment of assessments. We found significant mean differences between internal and external assessments: effect sizes were 0.29 to 0.63…
Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel
2015-09-01
Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.
Developing Classroom Formative Assessment in Dutch Primary Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van den Berg, M.; Harskamp, E. G.; Suhre, C. J. M.
2016-01-01
In the last two decades Dutch primary school students scored below expectation in international mathematics tests. An explanation for this may be that teachers fail to adequately assess their students' understanding of learning goals and provide timely feedback. To improve the teachers' formative assessment practice, researchers, curriculum…
New Approaches to Assessment in Science and Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crow, Tracy, Ed.
1997-01-01
This issue of ENC Focus serves as a guide to 29 instructional materials that utilize some form of alternative assessment. These materials focus on mathematics, science, and integrated topics. The products included utilize one or more of the following means of student assessment: (1) portfolios; (2) journals; (3) interviews; (4) surveys; (5)…
Dynamic Assessment, Potential Giftedness and Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Popa, Nicoleta Laura; Pauc, Ramona Loredana
2015-01-01
Dynamic assessment is currently discussed in educational literature as one of the most promising practices in stimulating learning among various groups of students, including gifted and potentially gifted students. The present study investigates effects of dynamic assessment on mathematics achievement among elementary school students, with…
Mathematics Framework for the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Assessment Governing Board, 2012
2012-01-01
Since 1973, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has gathered information about student achievement in mathematics. Results of these periodic assessments, produced in print and web-based formats, provide valuable information to a wide variety of audiences. They inform citizens about the nature of students' comprehension of the…
Social Representations of High School Students about Mathematics Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martínez-Sierra, Gustavo; Valle-Zequeida, María E.; Miranda-Tirado, Marisa; Dolores-Flores, Crisólogo
2016-01-01
The perceptions of students about assessment in mathematics classes have been sparsely investigated. In order to fill this gap, this qualitative study aims to identify the social "representations" (understood as the system of values, ideas, and practices about a social object) of high school students regarding "assessment in…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimarez, Teresa
Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roach, Andrew T.; Elliott, Stephan N.; Webb, Norman L.
2005-01-01
In this article, the authors describe an alignment and content analysis of the Wisconsin Alternate Assessment (WAA) for students with disabilities. The WAA is an assessment of the academic performance of students with significant disabilities and is an alternative to the traditional on-demand achievement test. Alternate assessments like the WAA…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamb, John H.
2010-01-01
Increased reading difficulty of mathematics assessment items has been shown to negatively affect student performance. The advent of high-stakes testing, which has serious ramifications for students' futures and teachers' careers, necessitates analysis of reading difficulty on state assessment items and student performance on those items. Using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allsopp, David H.; Kyger, Maggie M.; Lovin, LouAnn; Gerretson, Helen; Carson, Katie L.; Ray, Sharon
2008-01-01
Ms. Carlisi teaches middle school mathematics for students who were retained at least 1 year and who were identified as at risk of failure in mathematics. About half of her class of 14 students has identified learning disabilities and/or emotional and behavioral difficulties. Ms. Carlisi worries constantly that she is not going to be able to help…
Common Core State Standards Benchmark Assessments: Item Alignment to the Shifts in Tennessee
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stugart, Melissa
2016-01-01
Our nation is in the midst of one of the largest education reforms in decades centered on the adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and aligned assessments. In an era of rising accountability measures and declining literacy proficiency, it is vital to ensure that educational resources, such as benchmark assessments, are appropriately…
How Well Aligned Are State Assessments of Student Achievement with State Content Standards?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polikoff, Morgan S.; Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John
2011-01-01
Coherence is the core principle underlying standards-based educational reforms. Assessments aligned with content standards are designed to guide instruction and raise achievement. The authors investigate the coherence of standards-based reform's key instruments using the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum. Analyzing 138 standards-assessment pairs…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norton, Anderson; McCloskey, Andrea; Hudson, Rick A.
2011-01-01
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental elementary mathematics field experience course, we have designed a new assessment instrument. These video-based prediction assessments engage prospective teachers in a video analysis of a child solving mathematical tasks. The prospective teachers build a model of that child's mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeley, Page; Tobey, Cheryl Rose
2011-01-01
Award-winning author Page Keeley and mathematics expert Cheryl Rose Tobey apply the successful format of Keeley's best-selling "Science Formative Assessment" to mathematics. They provide 75 formative assessment strategies and show teachers how to use them to inform instructional planning and better meet the needs of all students. Research shows…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesh, Richard, Ed.; Lamon, Susan J., Ed.
This book grew out of a conference sponsored by the Educational Testing Service and the University of Wisconsin's National Center for Research in Mathematical Science Education that focused on assessment issues in mathematics education. The book's 16 chapters focus on clarifying and articulating the goals of assessment and instruction. They are…
Results from the Fourth Mathematics Assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindquist, Mary Montgomery, Ed.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) completed its fourth mathematics assessment during the 1985-86 school year and finished the analyses of the results in 1988. This monograph, prepared by an interpretive team of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, represents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the fourth…
Zhang, Xiao-Juan; He, Li; Tian, Jie; Bai, Yu-Xing; Li, Song
2015-01-01
Objective To assess the accuracy of anterior tooth movement using clear aligners in integrated three-dimensional digital models. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography was performed before and after treatment with clear aligners in 32 patients. Plaster casts were laser-scanned for virtual setup and aligner fabrication. Differences in predicted and achieved root and crown positions of anterior teeth were compared on superimposed maxillofacial digital images and virtual models and analyzed by Student's t-test. Results The mean discrepancies in maxillary and mandibular crown positions were 0.376 ± 0.041 mm and 0.398 ± 0.037 mm, respectively. Maxillary and mandibular root positions differed by 2.062 ± 0.128 mm and 1.941 ± 0.154 mm, respectively. Conclusions Crowns but not roots of anterior teeth can be moved to designated positions using clear aligners, because these appliances cause tooth movement by tilting motion. PMID:26629473
Language, Diversity, and Assessment in Mathematics Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berenson, Sarah B.
1997-01-01
Examines the theoretical framework of psychologist Lev Vygotsky with regard to communication tools, cognition, and socio-cultural effects on these tools. Reports the results of several studies of students' word meanings of division by adapting Luria's instruments for alternative assessments. Discusses the implications of socio-cultural diversity,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flowers, Claudia; Wakeman, Shawnee; Browder, Diane M.; Karvonen, Meagan
2009-01-01
This article describes an alignment procedure, called Links for Academic Learning (LAL), for examining the degree of alignment of alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) to grade-level content standards and instruction. Although some of the alignment criteria are similar to those used in general education…
Biochemical Visual Literacy with Constructive Alignment: Outcomes, Assessment, and Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herraez, Angel; Costa, Manuel Joao
2013-01-01
Several contributions in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education" have highlighted the role of visualization tools and the importance of developing students' visual literacy in biochemistry education. In this forum, the authors suggest that more focus is needed on the assessment of student learning, and they advance…
Building Assessment Tools Aligned with Grade-Level Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Caryl; Horton, Mel L.; Tarr, Susan J.
2015-01-01
This article focuses on the development of assessment tools to enhance the acquisition of the grade-level outcomes developed in the K-12 curriculum. Physical education is one of the few educational programs that does not have a multitude of available state and national tests to measure student progress. This distinction has been both a strength…
Holt, Emily A.; Young, Craig; Keetch, Jared; Larsen, Skylar; Mollner, Brayden
2015-01-01
Critical thinking is often considered an essential learning outcome of institutions in higher education. Previous work has proposed three pedagogical strategies to address this goal: more active, student-centered in-class instruction, assessments which contain higher-order cognitive questions, and greater alignment within a classroom (i.e., high agreement of the cognitive level of learning objectives, assessments, and in-class instruction). Our goals were to determine which of these factors, individually or the interactions therein, contributed most to improvements in university students’ critical thinking. We assessed students’ higher-order cognitive skills in introductory non-majors biology courses the first and last week of instruction. For each of the fifteen sections observed, we also measured the cognitive level of assessments and learning objectives, evaluated the learner-centeredness of each classroom, and calculated an alignment score for each class. The best model to explain improvements in students’ high-order cognitive skills contained the measure of learner-centeredness of the class and pre-quiz scores as a covariate. The cognitive level of assessments, learning objectives, nor alignment explained improvements in students’ critical thinking. In accordance with much of the current literature, our findings support that more student-centered classes had greater improvements in student learning. However, more research is needed to clarify the role of assessment and alignment in student learning. PMID:26340659
Generalizability and Validity of a Mathematics Performance Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Suzanne; And Others
1996-01-01
Evidence from test results of 3,604 sixth and seventh graders is provided for the generalizability and validity of the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) Cognitive Assessment Instrument, which is designed to measure program outcomes and growth in mathematics. (SLD)
The 1990 British Columbia Mathematics Assessment: Technical Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robitaille, David F., Ed.
This book presents the results of the fourth British Columbia Mathematics Assessment conducted in the spring of 1990. Students in Grades 4, 7, and 10 (approximately 120,000) were asked to provide information about themselves, to express their opinions about school-related experiences, and to demonstrate their ability to do the mathematics…
Assessing Academic Language in an Elementary Mathematics Teacher Licensure Exam
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castellano, Katherine E.; Duckor, Brent; Wihardini, Diah; Telléz, Kip; Wilson, Mark
2016-01-01
With the adoption by most states of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English language arts and literacy and for mathematics (CCSS Initiative, 2010a, 2010b) comes major changes in public education that will affect instructional practice, curriculum, and assessment across the nation. Heritage, Walqui, and Linquanti (2015) argued that the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian
2015-01-01
This paper explores the views of a group of students who took an oral performance assessment in a first-year mathematics module. Such assessments are unusual for most subjects in the UK, but particularly within the generally homogenous assessment diet of undergraduate mathematics. The evidence presented here resonates with some, but not all, of…
Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.
Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie
2015-10-20
The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timms, Michael; Schneider, Steven; Lee, Cindy; Rolfhus, Eric
2007-01-01
This policy research document is intended for New Mexico policymakers to use when examining possible changes to the state assessment's alignment with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The 2009 NAEP test is not yet in existence, so the purpose of this report is to give policymakers a head start in determining where they might,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timms, Michael; Schneider, Steven; Lee, Cindy; Rolfhus, Eric
2007-01-01
This policy research document is intended for Louisiana policymakers to use when examining possible changes to the state assessment's alignment with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The 2009 NAEP test is not yet in existence, so the purpose of this report is to give policymakers a head start in determining where they might,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timms, Michael; Schneider, Steven; Lee, Cindy; Rolfhus, Eric
2007-01-01
This policy research document is intended for Oklahoma policymakers to use when examining possible changes to the state assessment's alignment with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The 2009 NAEP test is not yet in existence, so the purpose of this report is to give policymakers a head start in determining where they might,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rawding, Denise M.
2016-01-01
The Common Core Math Standards were written to address concerns that the math curriculum in the United States was not focused and coherent. Based on national and international assessments, the United States math scores have remained stagnant, while other countries have seen significant growth in their scores. This study, designed as an action…
Assessment of school mathematics: Teachers' perceptions and practices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfannkuch, Maxine
2001-12-01
This is the first report of a proposed ten-year interval longitudinal study about teacher assessment practice in Auckland, New Zealand. Interviews with teachers of Year 3, 6, 8, 10, and 13 students are analysed. These interviews indicate that primary teachers are using a variety of assessment strategies in a mastery-based system. Their judgement of mathematical performance is dominated by the belief that all students must feel that they are achieving. The secondary teacher interviews indicate common use of alternative assessment strategies in non-examination classes. Judgement of student performance is benchmarked against national examinations. It is conjectured that an education system effect determines teachers' assessment practices.
2012-01-01
Background The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of alternative measures of frontal plane knee alignment, namely the radiographic anatomic axis and two clinical measures in patients complaining of knee malalignment as compared with the mechanical axis on full-length radiograph of lower limbs. Methods The knee-alignment angle was measured in 100 knees of 50 subjects with the chief complaint of frontal knee malalignment according to the following methods: lower-limb mechanical axis on radiograph, lower-limb anatomic axis on radiograph, distance between medial femoral condyles or medial malleoli using a calliper and lower-limb alignment using a goniometer. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and simple linear regression. Results The anatomic axis best correlated with the mechanical axis (r = 0.93, P<0.001), followed closely by the intercondylar/intermalleolar distance measured by calliper (r = 0.89, P<0.001). Significant correlation was also found between the mechanical-axis angle and the lower limb axis measured by goniometer (r = 0.67, P<0.001). Conclusions The anatomic axis on radiograph, the calliper method and to a lesser extent the goniometer measurement appear to be valid alternatives to the mechanical axis on full-leg radiograph for determining frontal plane knee alignment. These alternative measures have the potential to provide useful information regarding knee alignment and may increase the assessment of this parameter by clinicians and researchers. PMID:23110745
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wallace, Matt; White, Tobin
2015-01-01
Over the past two decades, mathematics education reformers have increasingly called for new approaches to assessment. This call urges mathematics teachers to merge their assessment with pedagogy, to employ assessments that engage students in the process of "doing mathematics," and to exploit assessment to support learning. This paper…
Challenges Associated with Curriculum Alignment, Change and Assessment Reforms in Namibia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iipinge, Sakaria M.; Kasanda, Choshi D.
2013-01-01
Aligning curriculum change and assessment reforms has been a topic of great concern in Namibia for over the past 23 years. This is because during the pre-colonial period and continuing in post-independence Namibia, national examinations have been used mainly for the certification and selection of learners at Junior and Senior secondary school…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Serin, Gökhan
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore alignment between reform-based Turkish primary science curriculum and alternative assessment practices of a classroom teacher. Observational case study approach was utilized. A classroom teacher with 32 years of experience and his 31 students participated in the study. The data were collected during one…
Primary school teachers' assessment profiles in mathematics education.
Veldhuis, Michiel; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to contribute to knowledge about classroom assessment by identifying profiles of teachers' assessment of their students' understanding of mathematics. For carrying out this study we used data of a nationwide teacher survey (N = 960) in the Netherlands. The data were collected by an online questionnaire. Through exploratory factor analyses the underlying structure of what is measured by this questionnaire was uncovered as consisting of five factors: Goal centeredness of assessment, Authentic nature of assessment, Perceived usefulness of assessment, Diversity of assessment problem format, and Allocated importance of assessing skills and knowledge. By using a latent class analysis four different assessment profiles of teachers were identified: Enthusiastic assessors, Mainstream assessors, Non-enthusiastic assessors, and Alternative assessors. The findings suggest that teachers with particular assessment profiles have qualitatively different assessment practices. The paper concludes with discussing theoretical implications of these assessment profiles and indications these profiles can offer both for designing material for professional development in classroom assessment and for evaluating changes in teachers' classroom assessment practice.
Primary School Teachers’ Assessment Profiles in Mathematics Education
Veldhuis, Michiel; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to contribute to knowledge about classroom assessment by identifying profiles of teachers’ assessment of their students’ understanding of mathematics. For carrying out this study we used data of a nationwide teacher survey (N = 960) in the Netherlands. The data were collected by an online questionnaire. Through exploratory factor analyses the underlying structure of what is measured by this questionnaire was uncovered as consisting of five factors: Goal centeredness of assessment, Authentic nature of assessment, Perceived usefulness of assessment, Diversity of assessment problem format, and Allocated importance of assessing skills and knowledge. By using a latent class analysis four different assessment profiles of teachers were identified: Enthusiastic assessors, Mainstream assessors, Non-enthusiastic assessors, and Alternative assessors. The findings suggest that teachers with particular assessment profiles have qualitatively different assessment practices. The paper concludes with discussing theoretical implications of these assessment profiles and indications these profiles can offer both for designing material for professional development in classroom assessment and for evaluating changes in teachers’ classroom assessment practice. PMID:24466255
Cognitive assessment in mathematics with the least squares distance method.
Ma, Lin; Çetin, Emre; Green, Kathy E
2012-01-01
This study investigated the validation of comprehensive cognitive attributes of an eighth-grade mathematics test using the least squares distance method and compared performance on attributes by gender and region. A sample of 5,000 students was randomly selected from the data of the 2005 Turkish national mathematics assessment of eighth-grade students. Twenty-five math items were assessed for presence or absence of 20 cognitive attributes (content, cognitive processes, and skill). Four attributes were found to be misspecified or nonpredictive. However, results demonstrated the validity of cognitive attributes in terms of the revised set of 17 attributes. The girls had similar performance on the attributes as the boys. The students from the two eastern regions significantly underperformed on the most attributes.
Assessment of the Assessment Tool: Analysis of Items in a Non-MCQ Mathematics Exam
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Rashid, Saima
2016-01-01
Assessment is one of the vital steps in the teaching and learning process. The reported action research examines the effectiveness of an assessment process and inspects the validity of exam questions used for the assessment purpose. The instructors of a college-level mathematics course studied questions used in the final exams during the academic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Platas, Linda M.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Sitabkhan, Yasmin
2016-01-01
This paper describes the development and intended uses of the Early Grades Mathematics Assessment (EGMA), which measures essential early mathematical knowledge and skills that are foundational to more sophisticated mathematical abilities, predictive of later achievement, and teachable. Administering the EGMA can provide policy makers,…
Assessment of mathematical models for the flow in directional solidification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jay W.; Chen, Falin
1997-02-01
In a binary solution unidirectionally solidified from below, the bulk melt and the eutectic solid is separated by a dendritic mushy zone. The mathematical formulation governing the fluid motion shall thus consist of the equations in the bulk melt and the mushy zone and the associated boundary conditions. In the bulk melt, assuming that the melt is a Newtonian fluid, the governing equations are the continuity equation, the Navier-Stokes equations, the heat conservation equation, and the solute conservation equation. In the mushy layer, however, the formulation of the momentum equation and the associated boundary conditions are diversified in previous investigations. In this paper, we discuss three mathematical models, which had been previously applied to study the flow induced by the solidification of binary solutions cooling from below. The assessment is given on the bases of the stability characteristics of the convective flow and the comparison between the numerical and experimental results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oktiningrum, Wuli; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf
2016-01-01
The aim of this research is produce a set of PISA-like mathematics task with Indonesia natural and cultural heritage as context which are valid, practical, to assess students' mathematics literacy. This is design research using type of development research with formative evaluation. A total of 20 students of SMP Negeri 1 Palembang. Beside, 10…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tzur, Ron
2007-01-01
This study addressed a twofold problem--the soundness of a theoretical stage-distinction regarding the process of constructing a new (to the learner) mathematical conception and how such distinction contributes to fine grain assessment of students' mathematical understandings. As a context for the study served the difficult-to-grasp concept of…
Alternative Assessment in Mathematics: Insights from Massachusetts, Maine, Vermont and Kentucky.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahl, Stuart R.
Statewide assessment programs in mathematics that have led the way in the development and implementation of new alternative forms of assessment are described and compared. Assessments reviewed are: (1) the Massachusetts Educational Assessment Program (MEAP); (2) the Maine Educational Assessment (MEA); (3) Vermont's Mathematics Portfolio Assessment…
Learning and Assessing Mathematics through Reading and Writing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna
2008-01-01
Students learn mathematics more effectively and more deeply when reading and writing is directed at learning mathematics. Although reading and writing in mathematics may necessitate more skills and practice to master, the mathematical learning derived from reading and writing mathematics far outweighs the burden it places on teachers and students.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Al Duwairi, Ahmed
2013-01-01
This study aimed at investigating the extent to which secondary schools mathematics teachers practice to assessment models in their mathematics teaching and learning. Definitely, the study aimed at answering the following questions: (1) To what extent do secondary schools mathematics teachers practice each of the assessment models in their…
Assessing effects of technology usage on mathematics learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lynch, Julianne
2006-12-01
Computer-based technologies are now commonplace in classrooms, and the integration of these media into the teaching and learning of mathematics is supported by government policy in most developed countries. However, many questions about the impact of computer-based technologies on classroom mathematics learning remain unanswered, and debates about when and how they ought to be used continue. An increasing number of studies seek to identify the effects of technology usage on classroom learning, and at a time when governments are calling for `evidence-based' policy development, many studies applying quasi-scientific methodologies to this field of practice are emerging. By analysing a series of conceptual frameworks for assessing the use of computer-based technologies to support school learning, this article emphasises the value of research into the relationship between technical and conceptual aspects of technology use in mathematics education and beyond, and challenges the usefulness of large-scale, quasi-scientific studies that focus on educational inputs and outputs.
Mina, Marco; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram
2014-01-01
The analysis of protein behavior at the network level had been applied to elucidate the mechanisms of protein interaction that are similar in different species. Published network alignment algorithms proved to be able to recapitulate known conserved modules and protein complexes, and infer new conserved interactions confirmed by wet lab experiments. In the meantime, however, a plethora of continuously evolving protein-protein interaction (PPI) data sets have been developed, each featuring different levels of completeness and reliability. For instance, algorithms performance may vary significantly when changing the data set used in their assessment. Moreover, existing papers did not deeply investigate the robustness of alignment algorithms. For instance, some algorithms performances vary significantly when changing the data set used in their assessment. In this work, we design an extensive assessment of current algorithms discussing the robustness of the results on the basis of input networks. We also present AlignMCL, a local network alignment algorithm based on an improved model of alignment graph and Markov Clustering. AlignMCL performs better than other state-of-the-art local alignment algorithms over different updated data sets. In addition, AlignMCL features high levels of robustness, producing similar results regardless the selected data set.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Finch, Maida A.
2013-01-01
Kindergarten mathematics skills are important for subsequent achievement, yet mathematics is underemphasized in kindergarten classrooms. Using nationally representative data, this study explored the relationship between students' school-entry math skills, classroom content coverage, and end-of-kindergarten math achievement. Although the vast…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, L. L.; Tso, T. -Y.; Lin, F. L.
2009-01-01
This article reports the attitudes of students towards mathematics after they had participated in an applied mathematical modelling project that was part of an Applied Mathematics course. The students were majoring in Earth Science at the National Taiwan Normal University. Twenty-six students took part in the project. It was the first time a…
Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaechi, Bennett T.
2009-02-01
It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.
2016-01-01
Research studies have identified several factors related to mathematics achievement of students in Korea. Further, results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments have shown that instructional practices and beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with mathematics achievement of students in…
Soft Mathematical Aggregation in Safety Assessment and Decision Analysis
Cooper, J. Arlin
1999-06-10
This paper improves on some of the limitations of conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. It develops a top-down mathematical method for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers and shows how they may be combined (aggregated) into an overall metric, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. Both positively contributing and negatively contributing factors are included. Metrics are weighted according to significance of the attribute and evaluated as to contribution toward the attribute. Aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed soft mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on overlap of the factors and by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to add important information to the decision process. The methodology has been implemented in software.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Georges, Annie; Borman, Kathryn M.; Lee, Reginald S.
2010-01-01
We analyzed the gap in mathematics standards, assessments and accountability, and teacher licensure and certification requirements in mathematics for elementary grades. We found states delineated mathematics academic standards in specific content areas. Licensure and certification requirements were weak indicators since they lacked the specificity…
Assessing Students' Theories of Success in Mathematics: Individual and Classroom Differences.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicholls, John G.; And Others
1990-01-01
Assessed were second grade students to determine whether their beliefs about causes of success in mathematics were related to their personal goals in mathematics. One class that experienced mathematics instruction consistent with a constructivist view rated higher than traditional classes on Task Orientation, attempting to gain understanding.…
Classroom Experience about Cartooning as Assessment in Pre-Service Mathematics Content Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cho, Hoyun; Osborne, Carolyn; Sanders, Tobie
2015-01-01
Elementary Education pre-service teachers are noted for disliking and even fearing mathematics, so a teaching strategy that increases their enjoyment of mathematics learning must be a powerful one, indeed. When the same strategy can also support problem posing and assess mathematical knowledge and reasoning, providing an occasional alternative to…
Examining the Relationship between Gender DIF and Language Complexity in Mathematics Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kan, Adnan; Bulut, Okan
2014-01-01
This study investigated whether the linguistic complexity of items leads to gender differential item functioning (DIF) on mathematics assessments. Two forms of a mathematics test were developed. The first form consisted of algebra items based on mathematical expressions, terms, and equations. In the second form, the same items were written as word…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lein, Amy E.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Starosta, Kristin M.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Hughes-Reid, Cheyenne L.; Star, Jon R.
2016-01-01
In this study, the authors assessed the contribution of engagement (on-task behavior) to the mathematics problem-solving performance of seventh-grade students after accounting for prior mathematics achievement. A subsample of seventh-grade students in four mathematics classrooms (one high-, two average-, and one low-achieving) from a larger…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellis, Arthur K.; Denton, David W.
2010-01-01
This book offers easy-to-use classroom strategies for middle and high school Mathematics and Science classrooms. They demonstrate how teaching, learning, and assessment are inseparable and seamless. Each strategy will engage your students in activity and reflection, consuming little class time, costing nothing, and uniting the three dimensions of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reese, Clyde M.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the only nationally representative and continuing assessment of what students in the United States know and can do in various academic subjects. The 1996 NAEP in mathematics assessed the current level of mathematical achievement as a mechanism for informing education reform. In 1996, 44…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Behizadeh, Nadia
2014-01-01
The dangers of a single story in current U.S. large-scale writing assessment are that assessment practice does not align with theory and this practice has negative effects on instruction and students. In this article, I analyze the connections or lack of connections among writing theory, writing assessment, and writing instruction, critique the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tella, Adedeji
2011-03-01
This study examined the mathematics teachers' Internet self-efficacy and its possible influence on the delivery of mathematics instruction. The participants were 90 mathematics teachers selected from various schools in five local government areas of Osun State, Nigeria. The results demonstrated that to a great extent mathematics teachers have high Internet self-efficacy and that correlation exists between mathematics teachers' age, Internet usage and Internet self-efficacy. Irrespective of gender, mathematics teachers have the same level of Internet self-efficacy. Moreover, Internet self-efficacy and usage were revealed to drastically improve the way teacher teach mathematics and conduct research. Upon these findings, it was recommended that mathematics teachers who do not know how to browse and search the Internet should consider doing so now without wasting much time. There is also the need to increase Internet usage, on the part of the mathematics teachers who just begin using the Internet. They need to do this considering the fact that increased usage leads to high Internet self-efficacy. Moreover, it is high time to close the technology gender gap which has been in existence since a long time. This can start from the mathematics teachers.
Assessment of Primary 5 Students' Mathematical Modelling Competencies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chan, Chun Ming Eric; Ng, Kit Ee Dawn; Widjaja, Wanty; Seto, Cynthia
2012-01-01
Mathematical modelling is increasingly becoming part of an instructional approach deemed to develop students with competencies to function as 21st century learners and problem solvers. As mathematical modelling is a relatively new domain in the Singapore primary school mathematics curriculum, many teachers may not be aware of the learning outcomes…
Hardré, Patricia L; Slater, Janis; Nanny, Mark
2010-11-01
This paper examines the redesign of evaluation components for a teacher professional development project funded by the National Science Foundation. It focuses on aligning evaluation instrumentation and strategies with program goals, research goals and program evaluation best practices. The study identifies weaknesses in the original (year 1) program evaluation design and implementation, develops strategies and tracks changes for year 2 implementation, and then reports enhancement of findings and recommendations for year 3. It includes lessons learned about assessment and evaluation over the project lifespan, with implications for research and evaluation of a range of related programs. This study functions as a classic illustration of how critical it is to observe first principles of assessment and evaluation for funded programs, the risks that arise when they are ignored, and the benefits that accrue when they are systematically observed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2011
2011-01-01
Wisconsin's adoption of the Common Core State Standards provides an excellent opportunity for Wisconsin school districts and communities to define expectations from birth through preparation for college and work. By aligning the existing Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards with the Wisconsin Common Core State Standards, expectations can be…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ma, X.
2005-01-01
Early acceleration of students in mathematics (in the form of early access to formal abstract algebra) has been a controversial educational issue. The current study examined the rate of growth in mathematics achievement of accelerated gifted, honors, and regular students across the entire secondary years (Grades 7-12), in comparison to their…
CPAT: Coding-Potential Assessment Tool using an alignment-free logistic regression model
Wang, Liguo; Park, Hyun Jung; Dasari, Surendra; Wang, Shengqin; Kocher, Jean-Pierre; Li, Wei
2013-01-01
Thousands of novel transcripts have been identified using deep transcriptome sequencing. This discovery of large and ‘hidden’ transcriptome rejuvenates the demand for methods that can rapidly distinguish between coding and noncoding RNA. Here, we present a novel alignment-free method, Coding Potential Assessment Tool (CPAT), which rapidly recognizes coding and noncoding transcripts from a large pool of candidates. To this end, CPAT uses a logistic regression model built with four sequence features: open reading frame size, open reading frame coverage, Fickett TESTCODE statistic and hexamer usage bias. CPAT software outperformed (sensitivity: 0.96, specificity: 0.97) other state-of-the-art alignment-based software such as Coding-Potential Calculator (sensitivity: 0.99, specificity: 0.74) and Phylo Codon Substitution Frequencies (sensitivity: 0.90, specificity: 0.63). In addition to high accuracy, CPAT is approximately four orders of magnitude faster than Coding-Potential Calculator and Phylo Codon Substitution Frequencies, enabling its users to process thousands of transcripts within seconds. The software accepts input sequences in either FASTA- or BED-formatted data files. We also developed a web interface for CPAT that allows users to submit sequences and receive the prediction results almost instantly. PMID:23335781
Self-Assessment in Mathematics as a Placement/Advising Tool.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Paul A.
1998-01-01
Examines the viability of replacing the conventional placement testing in mathematics with a self-assessment strategy. Describes a study of 63 adult students who completed one of two self-assessment inventories and a mathematics placement test. Found that there is a positive relationship between information provided by students on the…
Testing Technology: Administrating Formative Mathematics Assessments in Kindergarten and First Grade
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill-Cunningham, Pamela Renee
2012-01-01
Research was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the use of handheld technology to administer mathematics assessments in kindergarten and 1 st grade classes in North Carolina. This research was a review of secondary data from the first year of implementation of the Mathematics Assessment Pilot Project conducted by the North Carolina…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trenholm, Sven; Alcock, Lara; Robinson, Carol
2015-01-01
Research suggests it is difficult to learn mathematics in the fully asynchronous online (FAO) instructional modality, yet little is known about associated teaching and assessment practices. In this study, we investigate FAO mathematics assessment and feedback practices in particular consideration of both claims and findings that these practices…
What Is the Basis for Self-Assessment of Comprehension When Reading Mathematical Expository Texts?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Österholm, Magnus
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to characterize students' self-assessments when reading mathematical texts, in particular regarding what students use as a basis for evaluations of their own reading comprehension. A total of 91 students read two mathematical texts, and for each text, they performed a self-assessment of their comprehension and…
Equity of Student Use of Graphing Calculators for Mathematics Learning and Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klecker, Beverly M.; Klecker, Richard L.
2015-01-01
This study examined equity through the differences average scale scores on the NAEP 2015 12th-grade mathematics test by parents' socioeconomic status (SES) and students' use of graphing calculators in the classroom and while taking the NAEP 2015 assessment. Data were national public composite mathematics 12-grade 2015 NAEP assessment scores. The…
Helping Early Childhood Educators to Understand and Assess Young Children's Mathematical Minds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ginsburg, Herbert P.
2016-01-01
This issue of "ZDM Mathematics Education" focuses on the formative assessment of young children's mathematical thinking, with an emphasis on computer-based approaches drawing upon on cognitive and educational research. The authors discuss several different assessment methods, including clinical interviewing, observation, and testing,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jideani, V. A.; Jideani, I. A.
2012-01-01
Nine food science and technology (FST) subjects were assessed for alignment between the learning outcomes and assessment using revised Bloom's taxonomy (RBT) of cognitive knowledge. Conjoint analysis was used to estimate the utilities of the levels of cognitive, knowledge, and the attribute importance (cognitive process and knowledge dimension)…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hanshin; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Noyola, Eva; Peterson, Trent; Vattiat, Brian L.
2014-07-01
Teague introduced a phase retrieval method that uses the image shape moments. More recently, an independent study arrived at a similar technique, which was then applied to in-situ full-field image-quality evaluation of spectroscopic systems. This moment-based wavefront sensing (MWFS) method relies on the geometric relation between the image shape moments and the geometric wavefront modal coefficients. The MWFS method allows a non-iterative determination of the modal coefficients from focus-modulated images at arbitrary spatial resolutions. The determination of image moments is a direct extension of routine centroid and image size calculation, making its implementation easy. Previous studies showed that the MWFS works well in capturing large low-order modes, and is quite suitable for in-situ alignment diagnostics. At the Astronomical Instrumentation conference in 2012, we presented initial results of the application of the moment-based wavefront sensing to a fiber-fed astronomical spectrograph, called VIRUS (a set of replicated 150 identical integral-field unit spectrographs contained in 75 unit pairs). This initial result shows that the MWFS can provide accurate full-field image-quality assessment for efficiently aligning these 150 spectrographs. Since then, we have assembled more than 24 unit pairs using this technique. In this paper, we detail the technical update/progress made so far for the moment-based wavefront sensing method and the statistical estimates of the before/after alignment aberrations, image-quality, and various efficiency indicators of the unit spectrograph alignment process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mowrey, Sascha C.; Farran, Dale C.
2016-01-01
The middle grades are a critical transition period in students' mathematics trajectories, as students move from arithmetic to the more complex and abstract concepts of algebra. Teachers' and parents' judgments of students' math abilities in these years are important to instructional planning and decision making for teachers, and can advise parents…
Estimating Critical Values for Strength of Alignment among Curriculum, Assessments, and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fulmer, Gavin W.
2011-01-01
School accountability decisions based on standardized tests hinge on the degree of alignment of the test with the state's standards documents. Yet, there exist no established criteria for judging strength of alignment. Previous measures of alignment among tests, standards, and teachers' instruction have yielded mixed results that are difficult to…
Estimating Critical Values for Strength of Alignment among Curriculum, Assessments, and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fulmer, Gavin W.
2010-01-01
School accountability decisions based on standardized tests hinge on the degree of alignment of the test with a state's standards. Yet no established criteria were available for judging strength of alignment. Previous studies of alignment among tests, standards, and teachers' instruction have yielded mixed results that are difficult to interpret…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDuffie, Amy Roth; Drake, Corey; Choppin, Jeffrey; Davis, Jon D.; Magaña, Margarita V.; Carson, Cynthia
2017-01-01
In this study, U.S. middle school teachers' perceptions of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), CCSSM-related assessments, teacher evaluation processes, and resources for implementing CCSSM were investigated. Using a mixed methods design, a national sample of 366 teachers was surveyed, and 24 teachers were interviewed. Findings…
Theory of grain alignment in molecular clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberge, Wayne G.
1993-01-01
Research accomplishments are presented and include the following: (1) mathematical theory of grain alignment; (2) super-paramagnetic alignment of molecular cloud grains; and (3) theory of grain alignment by ambipolar diffusion.
Mathematical Reasoning Requirements in Swedish Upper Secondary Level Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palm, Torulf; Boesen, Jesper; Lithner, Johan
2011-01-01
We investigate the mathematical reasoning required to solve the tasks in the Swedish national tests and a random selection of Swedish teacher-made tests. The results show that only a small proportion of the tasks in the teacher-made tests require the students to produce new reasoning and to consider the intrinsic mathematical properties involved…
Assessing Effects of Technology Usage on Mathematics Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynch, Julianne
2006-01-01
Computer-based technologies are now commonplace in classrooms, and the integration of these media into the teaching and learning of mathematics is supported by government policy in most developed countries. However, many questions about the impact of computer-based technologies on classroom mathematics learning remain unanswered, and debates about…
Planning, Teaching and Assessing Mathematics Learning for Real!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Youdale, Leonie
2010-01-01
As a final year Bachelor of Education student at the University of Tasmania, this author recently participated in an innovative program for improving mathematics learning outcomes for primary school students and the mathematics teaching development of pre-service teachers. As a participant in the program, she was required to plan, teach, and…
Assessing Attitudes toward Mathematics across Teacher Education Contexts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jong, Cindy; Hodges, Thomas E.
2015-01-01
This article reports on the development of attitudes toward mathematics among pre-service elementary teachers (n = 146) in relation to their experiences as K-12 learners of mathematics and experiences within a teacher education program. Using a combination of the Rasch Rating Scale Model and traditional parametric analyses, results indicate that…
Enhancing Mathematics by Online Assessments: Two Cases of Remedial Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brouwer, Natasa; Ekimova, Lilia; Jasinska, Magdalena; van Gastel, Leendert; Virgailaite-Meckauskaite, Egle
2009-01-01
There is growing concern in Europe that some students are not well-equipped to start a Bachelor's or Master's programme, especially when the programme has a strong mathematical focus. In particular, attention is drawn to problems with mathematics in the transition from secondary to higher education. Higher education expects a certain level of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Costellano, Janet; Scaffa, Matthew
The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents 37 activities designed to develop mathematics concepts and skills utilizing the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on experiencing math models, patterns, problems, and relationships found in an urban environment. Activities…
Classroom Assessment Practices in English and Mathematics at Years 5, 7, and 9.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunn, Karyn; Strafford, Ed; Marston, Chris
This study investigated current classroom assessment practices by surveying teachers in New Zealand at years 5, 7, and 9 on the assessments they use in the areas of English and mathematics, the purposes of the assessment, and the assessments that provide the most useful information. A total of 676 questionnaires were returned from 311 full…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meng, Chew Cheng; Idris, Noraini; Eu, Leong Kwan
2014-01-01
The problems of the decreasing enrolment of science students at secondary school level as well as the lagging science and mathematics achievement and literacy of Malaysian secondary students in international assessment studies point to a serious challenge for the government to improve Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yin, Yue; Olson, Judith; Olson, Melfried; Solvin, Hannah; Brandon, Paul R.
2015-01-01
This study compared two versions of professional development (PD) designed for teachers using formative assessment (FA) in mathematics classrooms that were networked with Texas Instruments Navigator (NAV) technology. Thirty-two middle school mathematics teachers were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: FA-then-NAV group and FA-and-NAV…
Assessing Mathematics Self-Efficacy: How Many Categories Do We Really Need?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toland, Michael D.; Usher, Ellen L.
2016-01-01
The present study tested whether a reduced number of categories is optimal for assessing mathematics self-efficacy among middle school students using a 6-point Likert-type format or a 0- to 100-point format. Two independent samples of middle school adolescents (N = 1,913) were administered a 24-item Middle School Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Danhui; Orrill, Chandra; Campbell, Todd
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mixture Rasch models followed by qualitative item-by-item analysis of selected Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) mathematics and science items offered insight into knowledge students invoke in mathematics and science separately and combined. The researchers administered an…
Mathematics in Secondary Psychiatric Schools: Curricular and Assessment Policies and Practices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Maccini, Paula; Mulcahy, Candace
2014-01-01
The current study focuses on results from a national survey of special education mathematics teachers in secondary psychiatric schools. A total of 115 (33.04%) respondents completed a mail or online survey concerning school-level mathematics curriculum and assessment policies and practices. No statistically significant differences existed between…
Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson
2009-01-01
A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…
Assessing the Quality of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara
2011-01-01
The authors comment on Porter, McMaken, Hwang, and Yang's recent analysis of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by critiquing their measures of the focus of the standards and the absence of an assessment of coherence. The authors then consider whether the standards are an improvement over most state mathematics standards by discussing…
Designing and Developing Assessments of Complex Thinking in Mathematics for the Middle Grades
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graf, Edith Aurora; Arieli-Attali, Meirav
2015-01-01
Designing an assessment system for complex thinking in mathematics involves decisions at every stage, from how to represent the target competencies to how to interpret evidence from student performances. Beyond learning to solve particular problems in a particular area, learning mathematics with understanding involves comprehending connections…
Understanding Graphicacy: Students' Making Sense of Graphics in Mathematics Assessment Tasks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lowrie, Tom; Diezmann, Carmel M.; Logan, Tracy
2011-01-01
The ability to decode graphics is an increasingly important component of mathematics assessment and curricula. This study examined 50, 9- to 10-year-old students (23 male, 27 female), as they solved items from six distinct graphical languages (e.g., maps) that are commonly used to convey mathematical information. The results of the study revealed:…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shorter, Nichole A.; Young, Cynthia Y.
2011-12-01
This experiment was designed to determine which assessment method: continuous assessment (in the form of daily in-class quizzes), cumulative assessment (in the form of online homework), or project-based learning, best predicted student learning (dependent upon post-test grades) in an undergraduate mathematics course. Participants included 117 university-level undergraduate freshmen enrolled in a course titled 'Mathematics for Calculus'. A stepwise regression model was formulated to model the relationship between the predictor variables (the continuous assessment, cumulative assessment, and project scores) versus the outcome variable (the post-test scores). Results indicated that ultimately the continuous assessment scores best predicted students' post-test scores.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zmuda, Allison; Tomaino, Mary
This book describes two high school teachers' efforts to align curriculum, assessment, and performance standards, troubleshooting issues surrounding content standards, instructional objectives, and curricular aims. Eight chapters examine: (1) "What Does a Competent Classroom Look Like?"; (2) "What Drives a Course?" (e.g.,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charles, Randall I., Ed.; Silver, Edward A., Ed.
This document contains overviews of current research, insights from teachers and tutors, and considerations of such issues as metacognition, choice of operations, and the testing of problem-solving skills. Papers include: (1) "Historical Perspectives on Problem Solving in the Mathematics Curriculum" (George M. A. Stanic and Jeremy…
Developing formal mathematical assessment for 4- to 8-year-olds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doig, Brian
2005-10-01
The assessment of children in their years before school and their first years of school has been, traditionally, informal. Further, assessment of children's mathematical skills at this level has been infrequent compared to social, emotional and physical assessments. However, there are contexts where reliable, valid, standardised data from assessment in mathematics are required. This paper outlines the development of two assessment tools for mathematics that were originally developed for such contexts. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses enabled the construction of assessment forms that address the range of abilities of 4- to 8-year-old children, and provided the scales used for constructing formative and summative reports of achievement. A description of the development of the assessment tools and the IRT analysis that provides the reporting formats are presented together with some research uses of the tools.
Validation of Scores/Measures from a K-2 Developmental Assessment in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Banerji, Madhabi
1999-01-01
Studied the psychometric characteristics of a developmental assessment in mathematics composed of 19 performance tasks for students in grades K-3. Reports convergent validity coefficients, internal consistency reliability, interrater reliability, and task orderings. (SLD)
Dillon, Andrew
2015-01-01
Health systems around the world cope with the challenge of difficult economic times, and the value of health technology assessment (HTA) is increasing. Making the right choices, with limited resources, in the face of increasingly complex technologies requires decisions informed by data and analyses that help us to manage the risks involved. Those who undertake and use HTA can play a greater role in helping decision makers meet these challenges; they need to think how to define innovation and respond to it, how to communicate their analyses, and, critically, how to align their work with the ambitions of their health systems. HTA can become a key health system enabler without compromising its objectivity or independence. It can say that it is too early to determine the value of a new technology when the data simply will not support a safe decision. However, it can also be bold and recommend the managed introduction of new technologies, even when the when the data is immature, provided that the health system understands the risks and there is a plausible case for believing that further research will support the value proposition. The goal for HTA is to be able confidently to do both.
Aligning Goals, Assessments, and Activities: An Approach to Teaching PCR and Gel Electrophoresis
Robertson, Amber L.; Batzli, Janet; Harris, Michelle; Miller, Sarah
2008-01-01
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis have become common techniques used in undergraduate molecular and cell biology labs. Although students enjoy learning these techniques, they often cannot fully comprehend and analyze the outcomes of their experiments because of a disconnect between concepts taught in lecture and experiments done in lab. Here we report the development and implementation of novel exercises that integrate the biological concepts of DNA structure and replication with the techniques of PCR and gel electrophoresis. Learning goals were defined based on concepts taught throughout the cell biology lab course and learning objectives specific to the PCR and gel electrophoresis lab. Exercises developed to promote critical thinking and target the underlying concepts of PCR, primer design, gel analysis, and troubleshooting were incorporated into an existing lab unit based on the detection of genetically modified organisms. Evaluative assessments for each exercise were aligned with the learning goals and used to measure student learning achievements. Our analysis found that the exercises were effective in enhancing student understanding of these concepts as shown by student performance across all learning goals. The new materials were particularly helpful in acquiring relevant knowledge, fostering critical-thinking skills, and uncovering prevalent misconceptions. PMID:18316813
Using the Anatomical Axis as an Alternative to the Mechanical Axis to Assess Knee Alignment.
Tipton, Shane C; Sutherland, John; Schwarzkopf, Ran
2015-12-01
The treatment of knee osteoarthritis and the preparation for total knee arthroplasty require repetitive imaging to guide preoperative planning and operative technique. Full-length standing anteroposterior images are the gold standard in assessing the alignment of the limb via the measurement of the mechanical axis of the knee. The anatomical axis can be obtained from a more limited image of the knee, and as such is less expensive and exposes the patient to less ionizing radiation. The objective of this cross-sectional prospective study was to examine the extent to which the anatomical axis measured on a fixed-flexed posteroanterior (Rosenberg view) radiograph correlates with the mechanical axis. The data of 209 total knee arthroplasty radiographs were analyzed to compare the preoperative correlation between the mechanical and anatomical axis. The anatomical axis correlated with the mechanical axis when it was measured from both the standing full-length anteroposterior radiograph and from a fixed-flexed posteroanterior radiograph. Using an angle of offset found from linear regression, these correlations become closer. Body mass index and Kellgren-Lawrence grade were not found to have a significant effect. It is the conclusion of this study that the anatomical axis, as measured from a limited knee radiography, may serve as a plausible estimate of the mechanical axis when done with a neutral angle of offset, and that offset angle depends on gender and the imaging technique used to determine the anatomical axis.
Aligning goals, assessments, and activities: an approach to teaching PCR and gel electrophoresis.
Phillips, Allison R; Robertson, Amber L; Batzli, Janet; Harris, Michelle; Miller, Sarah
2008-01-01
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis have become common techniques used in undergraduate molecular and cell biology labs. Although students enjoy learning these techniques, they often cannot fully comprehend and analyze the outcomes of their experiments because of a disconnect between concepts taught in lecture and experiments done in lab. Here we report the development and implementation of novel exercises that integrate the biological concepts of DNA structure and replication with the techniques of PCR and gel electrophoresis. Learning goals were defined based on concepts taught throughout the cell biology lab course and learning objectives specific to the PCR and gel electrophoresis lab. Exercises developed to promote critical thinking and target the underlying concepts of PCR, primer design, gel analysis, and troubleshooting were incorporated into an existing lab unit based on the detection of genetically modified organisms. Evaluative assessments for each exercise were aligned with the learning goals and used to measure student learning achievements. Our analysis found that the exercises were effective in enhancing student understanding of these concepts as shown by student performance across all learning goals. The new materials were particularly helpful in acquiring relevant knowledge, fostering critical-thinking skills, and uncovering prevalent misconceptions.
Incoming Engineering Students' Self-Assessment of Their Mathematical Background
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guner, Necdet
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop a tool to measure levels of mathematical knowledge gained in high school, as perceived by incoming engineering students. The study included 657 engineering students in the 2011-2012 academic year. Factor analysis was used to obtain a scale consisting of 47 items (Cronbach Alpha coefficient, 0.975). The…
An Assessment of the Dimensionality of SAT-Mathematical.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawrence, Ida M.; Dorans, Neil J.
Six editions of Scholastic Aptitude Test-Mathematical (SAT-M) were factor analyzed using confirmatory and exploratory methods. Confirmatory factor analyses (using the LISREL VI program) were conducted on correlation matrices among item parcels--sums of scores on a small subset of items. Item parcels were constructed to yield correlation matrices…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drake, Pat; Wake, Geoff; Noyes, Andrew
2012-01-01
This article analyses aspects of the process of developing "functional" assessments of mathematics at the end of compulsory schooling in England. A protocol that was developed for scrutinising assessment items is presented. This protocol includes an indicator of the "authenticity" of each assessment item. The data are drawn…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shorter, Nichole A.; Young, Cynthia Y.
2011-01-01
This experiment was designed to determine which assessment method: continuous assessment (in the form of daily in-class quizzes), cumulative assessment (in the form of online homework), or project-based learning, best predicted student learning (dependent upon post-test grades) in an undergraduate mathematics course. Participants included 117…
NAEP 1992 Mathematics State Report for New Mexico. The Trial State Assessment Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment which, for the first time in the NAEP's history, made voluntary state-by-state assessments. This 1992 mathematics report marks the first attempt of the National Center for Education Statistics to shift to standards-based reporting of National…
Using Formative Assessment to Drive Mathematics Instruction in Grades 3-5
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oberdorf, Christine; Taylor-Cox, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This book provides targeted mathematics instruction for every child. This book combines formative assessment with practical activities to differentiate the elementary classroom. The formative assessments include student work samples at varying levels. The authors: (1) Illustrate the distinction between a "traditional" assessment and an "enhanced"…
Using Formative Assessment to Drive Mathematics Instruction in Grades PreK-2
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oberdorf, Christine; Taylor-Cox, Jennifer
2012-01-01
Provide targeted mathematics instruction for every child. These books combine formative assessment with practical activities to differentiate the elementary classroom. The formative assessments include student work samples at varying levels. The authors: (1) Illustrate the distinction between a "traditional" assessment and an "enhanced"…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trenholm, Sven; Alcock, Lara; Robinson, Carol
2015-11-01
Research suggests it is difficult to learn mathematics in the fully asynchronous online (FAO) instructional modality, yet little is known about associated teaching and assessment practices. In this study, we investigate FAO mathematics assessment and feedback practices in particular consideration of both claims and findings that these practices have a powerful influence on learning. A survey questionnaire was constructed and completed by 70 FAO undergraduate mathematics instructors, mostly from the USA, who were each asked to detail their assessment and feedback practices in a single FAO mathematics course. Alongside these questions, participants also answered the 16-item version of the Approaches to Teaching Inventory. In addition, a novel feedback framework was also created and used to examine how feedback practices may be related to participants' approaches to teaching. Results show that assessment and feedback practices are varied and complex: in particular, we found there was not a simple emphasis on summative assessment instruments, nor a concomitant expectation these would always be invigilated. Though richer assessment feedback appears to be emphasized, evidence suggests this feedback may not be primarily directed at advancing student learning. Moreover, we found evidence of a reliance on computer--human interactions (e.g. via computer-assisted assessment systems) and further evidence of a decline in human interactions, suggesting a dynamic that is both consistent with current online learning theory and claims FAO mathematics courses are becoming commodified. Several avenues for further research are suggested.
House, J Daniel
2009-04-01
Recent mathematics assessment findings indicate that Native American students tend to score below students of the ethnic majority. Findings suggest that students' beliefs about mathematics are significantly related to achievement outcomes. This study examined relations between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a national sample of 130 Grade 8 Native American students from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States sample of (M age = 14.2 yr., SD = 0.5). Multiple regression indicated several significant relations of mathematics beliefs with achievement and accounted for 26.7% of the variance in test scores. Students who earned high test scores tended to hold more positive beliefs about their ability to learn mathematics quickly, while students who earned low scores expressed negative beliefs about their ability to learn new mathematics topics.
House, J Daniel
2005-12-01
A recent study (1) of undergraduate students in a precalculus course indicated that they expressed slightly positive attitudes toward mathematics. It is important, however, to examine relationships between students' initial attitudes and achievement outcomes. The present purpose was to assess the relationship between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a large national sample of students from the TIMSS 1999 international sample (eighth graders) from Japan. Several significant relationships between mathematics beliefs and test scores were noted. In addition, the overall multiple regression equation that assessed the joint significance of the complete set of self-belief variables was significant (F7.65 = 159.48, p < .001) and explained 20.6% of the variance in mathematics achievement test scores.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kloosterman, Peter, Ed.; Lester, Frank K., Jr., Ed.
2004-01-01
Often referred to as "The Nation's Report Card," the mathematics assessments of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) have come to be regarded by many policymakers as the primary yardstick by which to judge our schools' success in meeting national expectations. This monograph reports and interprets trends in NAEP…
Gender-Related Differential Item Functioning on a Middle-School Mathematics Performance Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Suzanne; And Others
This study examined gender-related differential item functioning (DIF) using a mathematics performance assessment, the QUASAR Cognitive Assessment Instrument (QCAI), administered to middle school students. The QCAI was developed for the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reading (QUASAR) project, which focuses on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilburne, Jane M.; Long, Michael
2010-01-01
Seventy secondary mathematics pre-service teachers from two universities were assessed on their content knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, and their perceived confidence in teaching the content addressed on the eleventh grade state assessment. The results indicate the pre-service teachers had significant content weakness in data analysis, algebra,…
The Impact of Web-Based Assessment and Practice on Students' Mathematics Learning Attitudes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nguyen, Diem M.; Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Allen, G. Donald
2006-01-01
This study investigates the effects of web-based assessment and practice on improving middle school students' mathematics learning attitudes. With the use of an experimental design and a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, the study compared and contrasted the attitude achievement of students, who used the web-based assessment and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Phillips, Alison; Guzey, S. Selcen; Moore, Tamara J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop, scale, and validate assessments in engineering, science, and mathematics with grade appropriate items that were sensitive to the curriculum developed by teachers. The use of item response theory to assess item functioning was a focus of the study. The work is part of a larger project focused on increasing…
The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Miller, Shazia Rafiullah; van der Ploeg, Arie
2013-01-01
Interim assessments are increasingly common in U.S. schools. We use high-quality data from a large-scale school-level cluster randomized experiment to examine the impact of two well-known commercial interim assessment programs on mathematics and reading achievement in Indiana. Results indicate that the treatment effects are positive but not…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Academies Press, 2016
2016-01-01
Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has been providing policymakers, educators, and the public with reports on academic performance and progress of the nation's students. The assessment is given periodically in a variety of subjects: mathematics, reading, writing, science, the arts, civics, economics, geography, U.S.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill
2013-01-01
This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…
How Might the Use of Technology in Formative Assessment Support Changes in Mathematics Teaching?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olsher, Shai; Yerushalmy, Michal; Chazan, Daniel
2016-01-01
Technological developments make it feasible to assess students' mathematics work automatically when students are working in rich digital environments and thus offer important affordances for assessment in the service of instruction. In this article, we illustrate how these technological advances might be harnessed to support the work of teachers…
The Influence of Test Mode and Visuospatial Ability on Mathematics Assessment Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Logan, Tracy
2015-01-01
Mathematics assessment and testing are increasingly situated within digital environments with international tests moving to computer-based testing in the near future. This paper reports on a secondary data analysis which explored the influence the mode of assessment--computer-based (CBT) and pencil-and-paper based (PPT)--and visuospatial ability…
Assessing the Mathematical Thinking of Young Children in New Zealand: The Initial School Years
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young-Loveridge, Jenny
2011-01-01
This paper provides an overview of assessment policy and practice in mathematics for early years classrooms in New Zealand between 1993 and the present day. It describes the introduction of school entry assessment for children starting school at age five. A numeracy initiative, the Numeracy Development Projects (NDP), for students in Years 1-10…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Chang-Hua
2012-01-01
This study implements a teacher professional development program with an aim toward developing mathematics teachers' discourse-based assessment practice (DAP) and exploring its possible impact on teacher discourse in sessions and in DAP in the classroom. DAP is a type of formative assessment practice which consists of questioning and feedback.…
District Results for the 2013 Mathematics and Reading Assessments. Executive Summary
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
2013-01-01
NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) results in mathematics and reading are based on representative samples of 1,100 to 2,300 public school students at grade 4 and 900 to 2,100 public school students at grade 8 in each participating urban district in 2013. Twenty-one urban districts participated in the 2013 assessments. The assessments…
Toward a Framework for Using Student Mathematical Representations as Formative Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heritage, Margaret; Niemi, David
2006-01-01
This article explores how students' mathematical representations can be used as formative assessments. We introduce a framework for teaching and learning that integrates representations as instructional and assessment tools, and illustrate these uses of student representations with reference to a study conducted with 250 5th-grade students. This…
Open-Start Mathematics Problems: An Approach to Assessing Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monaghan, John; Pool, Peter; Roper, Tom; Threlfall, John
2009-01-01
This article describes one type of mathematical problem, open-start problems, and discusses their potential for use in assessment. In open-start problems how one starts to address the problem can vary but they have a correct answer. We argue that the use of open-start problems in assessment could positively influence classroom mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hunsader, Patricia D.; Thompson, Denisse R.; Zorin, Barbara
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present a framework used to analyze the extent to which assessments (i.e., chapter tests) accompanying three published elementary grades 3-5 curricula in the United States provide students with opportunities to engage with key mathematical processes. The framework uses indicators for five criteria to assess the processes of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne
Recent reports on mathematics education reform have focused the attention of educational practitioners and policymakers on new goals for mathematics education and new descriptions of mathematical proficiency. QUASAR is a national project (Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning) designed to improve the mathematics…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papic, Marina
2015-12-01
This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.
Carraccio, Carol; Englander, Robert; Holmboe, Eric S; Kogan, Jennifer R
2016-02-01
To address the long-standing challenge of meaningful trainee assessment, the authors reviewed and expanded on the Accountable Assessment for Quality Care and Supervision (AAQCS) equation. The equation proposes that care quality is the product of the interaction between trainee performance (measured by workplace assessment) and supervision (required level of intervention to ensure care quality) in the context of the environment where the care occurs: Trainee performance × Appropriate supervision = Safe, effective patient-centered care. Assessing trainee performance and matching that performance to "appropriate" supervision, however, is fraught with challenges. The authors suggest a unifying framework that integrates entrustable professional activities (EPAs), competencies, and milestones to inform trainee assessment and supervision, thereby enabling the practical application of the AAQCS equation in the workplace. Because the unit of measure for an EPA is the outcome of whether the trainee can safely and effectively perform the professional activity without supervision, the proposed unifying framework directly aligns with the dependent variable in the AAQCS equation: care quality.The value of applying a unifying framework that integrates EPAs, competencies, and milestones to the AAQCS equation in the clinical learning environment lies in its ability to provide supervisors with a shared mental model of performance expectations for trainees, reducing unwanted variability and improving assessment accuracy; guidance for aligning performance milestones of trainees with the needed level of supervisor intervention to ensure care quality; and substrate for specific feedback to improve the trainee's professional development as a way to ensure future care quality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Contino, Julie
2013-01-01
In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hardre, Patricia L.; Slater, Janis; Nanny, Mark
2010-01-01
This paper examines the redesign of evaluation components for a teacher professional development project funded by the National Science Foundation. It focuses on aligning evaluation instrumentation and strategies with program goals, research goals and program evaluation best practices. The study identifies weaknesses in the original (year 1)…
Alignment between the Science Curriculum and Assessment in Selected NY State Regents Exams
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Xiufeng; Fulmer, Gavin
2008-01-01
This article reports on an analysis of alignment between NY state core curricula and NY Regents tests in physics and chemistry. Both the curriculum and test were represented by a two dimensional table consisting of topics and cognitive demands. The cell values of the table were numbers of major understandings in the curriculum and points of test…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Michael F.
2011-01-01
Fiscal challenges are forcing institutions of higher education to do more with less, while retaining the quality of service that the institution has established. The net result is that these institutions need to prepare themselves to achieve a sustained competitive advantage. In business, the focus has been on strategic alignment of IT to provide…
Curricula Alignment and Its Impact on End of Course Assessment Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burti, Neil, Jr.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the alignment of the written, enacted, and tested Algebra I curricula in the Cherry Hill (NJ) Public School District. Furthermore, this QUAN-QUAL study sought to determine the impact of course selection (Algebra I, Enriched Algebra) on achievement as measured by the Algebra I End of Course…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Code, Warren; Merchant, Sandra; Maciejewski, Wes; Thomas, Matthew; Lo, Joseph
2016-01-01
One goal of an undergraduate education in mathematics is to help students develop a productive disposition towards mathematics. A way of conceiving of this is as helping mathematical novices transition to more expert-like perceptions of mathematics. This conceptualization creates a need for a way to characterize students' perceptions of…
Narrative Assessment: Making Mathematics Learning Visible in Early Childhood Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel
2015-01-01
Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories--the preferred form of narrative assessment--currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper,…
"Poems Look Like a Mathematical Equation": Assessment in Poetry Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xerri, Daniel
2016-01-01
This article considers the influence that assessment exerts on poetry education. By means of research conducted in a post-16 educational context in Malta, it shows that teachers' and students' practices in the poetry lesson are determined by the kind of examinations that candidates sit for. When the mode of assessment is constituted solely by the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.
2014-01-01
There is continuing interest in the identification of student and instructional factors associated with the mathematics achievement of students in Japan. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments have provided opportunities to examine factors associated with mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was…
Assessment of Galileo modal test results for mathematical model verification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trubert, M.
1984-01-01
The modal test program for the Galileo Spacecraft was completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the summer of 1983. The multiple sine dwell method was used for the baseline test. The Galileo Spacecraft is a rather complex 2433 kg structure made of a central core on which seven major appendages representing 30 percent of the total mass are attached, resulting in a high modal density structure. The test revealed a strong nonlinearity in several major modes. This nonlinearity discovered in the course of the test necessitated running additional tests at the unusually high response levels of up to about 21 g. The high levels of response were required to obtain a model verification valid at the level of loads for which the spacecraft was designed. Because of the high modal density and the nonlinearity, correlation between the dynamic mathematical model and the test results becomes a difficult task. Significant changes in the pre-test analytical model are necessary to establish confidence in the upgraded analytical model used for the final load verification. This verification, using a test verified model, is required by NASA to fly the Galileo Spacecraft on the Shuttle/Centaur launch vehicle in 1986.
Aligning the NWEA RIT Scale with the Maine Educational Assessments (MEA)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cronin, John
2004-01-01
Recently Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) completed a project to connect the scale of the MEA with NWEA's RIT scale. Six Maine school systems participated in the study, using test information from a group of over 800 students enrolled in fourth and eighth grade who took both the MEA and NWEA reading and mathematics tests in the spring of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khademolhosseini, F.; Liu, C.-C.; Lim, C. J.; Chiao, M.
2016-08-01
Commercially available cell strain tools, such as pneumatically actuated elastomer substrates, require special culture plates, pumps, and incubator setups. In this work, we present a magnetically actuated cellular strain assessment tool (MACSAT) that can be implemented using off-the-shelf components and conventional incubators. We determine the strain field on the MACSAT elastomer substrate using numerical models and experimental measurements and show that a specific region of the elastomer substrate undergoes a quasi-uniaxial 2D stretch, and that cells confined to this region of the MACSAT elastomer substrate undergo tensile, compressive, or zero axial strain depending on their angle of orientation. Using the MACSAT to apply cyclic strain on endothelial cells, we demonstrate that actin filaments within the cells reorient away from the stretching direction, towards the directions of minimum axial strain. We show that the final actin orientation angles in strained cells are spread over a region of compressive axial strain, confirming previous findings on the existence of a varied pre-tension in the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. We also demonstrate that strained cells exhibit distinctly different values of actin alignment coherency compared to unstrained cells and therefore propose that this parameter, i.e., the coherency of actin alignment, can be used as a new readout to determine the occurrence/extent of actin alignment in cell strain experiments. The tools and methods demonstrated in this study are simple and accessible and can be easily replicated by other researchers to study the strain response of other adherent cells.
Mathematical economics methods in assessing the effects of institutional factors on foreign trade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazantseva, M. A.; Nepp, A. N.
2016-12-01
Foreign trade activity (FT) is an essential driver of economic development; therefore, factors affecting its efficiency should be analysed. Along with the conventional economic factors affecting FT development, a focus should be given to institutional factors, whose role also cannot be neglected. Recent studies show institutional factors to produce both qualitative and quantitative effects on a country's economic development, with various criteria and assessment approaches having been developed for their estimation. This paper classifies mathematical methods used to assess the effect of institutional factors on FT efficiency. An analysis of conventional mathematical models describing the relationship between institutional factors and FT indicators is provided. Mathematical methods are currently the major instrument for the analysis of FT parameters and their dependence on various external factors.
Stotsky, Sandra
2009-01-01
To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now Evaluation Systems group of Pearson). It estimated the percentage of test items on phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge and on mathematics content. It also analyzed descriptions of ETS's tests of "principles of teaching and learning." Findings imply that prospective special education teachers should be required to take both a dedicated test of evidence-based reading instructional knowledge, as in California, Massachusetts, and Virginia, and a test of mathematical knowledge, as in Massachusetts. States must design their own tests of teaching principles to assess knowledge of evidence-based educational theories.
Changing Mathematics Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment and Feedback
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dixon, Helen; Haigh, Mavis
2009-01-01
Informed by an amalgam of notions drawn from constructivist, socio-cultural, metacognitive and self-regulation theory, the discourse created to describe assessment to enhance learning has gone through a number of iterations or discursive shifts. As a result, the current discourse is both ambitious and complex with the roles and responsibilities…
Assessing Fidelity of Implementation of an Unprescribed, Diagnostic Mathematics Intervention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Munter, Charles; Wilhelm, Anne Garrison; Cobb, Paul; Cordray, David S.
2014-01-01
This article draws on previously employed methods for conducting fidelity studies and applies them to an evaluation of an unprescribed intervention. We document the process of assessing the fidelity of implementation of the Math Recovery first-grade tutoring program, an unprescribed, diagnostic intervention. We describe how we drew on recent…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reilly, David; Neumann, David L.; Andrews, Glenda
2015-01-01
Gender gaps in the development of mathematical and scientific literacy have important implications for the general public's understanding of scientific issues and for the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math. We subjected data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress to a meta-analysis to examine…
Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Hoopes, B.L.; Walter, M.B.; Knight, R.L.; Brown, S.M.
1989-12-01
The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a methodology for assessing relative health impacts from the release of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials. MEPAS is an enhanced version of the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). This document, a supplement to the RAPS documentation, contains an overview of MEPAS followed by detailed discussions of enhancements. MEPAS provides outputs of health impact parameters for use in ranking and screening applications. Environmental contaminant concentrations are used to estimate potential health impacts based on major exposure pathways. Enhancements to the groundwater, surface water, overland, atmospheric, and exposure components are documented. These enhancements include a revision in the integration method for the waterborne pathway, a wetland component, a gaseous emission (volatilization) component, an atmospheric complex terrain component, mass budget formulations, and environmental decay of chemical constituents. Several new exposure components are described along with enhancements to the exposure pathways computations. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.
Alignment of the UMLS semantic network with BioTop: methodology and assessment
Schulz, Stefan; Beisswanger, Elena; van den Hoek, László; Bodenreider, Olivier; van Mulligen, Erik M.
2009-01-01
Motivation: For many years, the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic network (SN) has been used as an upper-level semantic framework for the categorization of terms from terminological resources in biomedicine. BioTop has recently been developed as an upper-level ontology for the biomedical domain. In contrast to the SN, it is founded upon strict ontological principles, using OWL DL as a formal representation language, which has become standard in the semantic Web. In order to make logic-based reasoning available for the resources annotated or categorized with the SN, a mapping ontology was developed aligning the SN with BioTop. Methods: The theoretical foundations and the practical realization of the alignment are being described, with a focus on the design decisions taken, the problems encountered and the adaptations of BioTop that became necessary. For evaluation purposes, UMLS concept pairs obtained from MEDLINE abstracts by a named entity recognition system were tested for possible semantic relationships. Furthermore, all semantic-type combinations that occur in the UMLS Metathesaurus were checked for satisfiability. Results: The effort-intensive alignment process required major design changes and enhancements of BioTop and brought up several design errors that could be fixed. A comparison between a human curator and the ontology yielded only a low agreement. Ontology reasoning was also used to successfully identify 133 inconsistent semantic-type combinations. Availability: BioTop, the OWL DL representation of the UMLS SN, and the mapping ontology are available at http://www.purl.org/biotop/. Contact: stschulz@uni-freiburg.de PMID:19478019
A Comparative Study of Partial Credit Assessment and Computer-Based Testing for Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darrah, Marjorie; Fuller, Edgar; Miller, David
2010-01-01
This paper discusses a possible solution to a problem frequently encountered by educators seeking to use computer-based or multiple choice-based exams for mathematics. These assessment methodologies force a discrete grading system on students and do not allow for the possibility of partial credit. The research presented in this paper investigates…
Assessment for Learning in Norway and Portugal: The Case of Primary School Mathematics Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nortvedt, Guri A.; Santos, Leonor; Pinto, Jorge
2016-01-01
In this study, we aim to understand the forces driving assessment for learning (AfL) in primary school teaching. By applying a case study design, including the two cases of Norway and Portugal and using mathematics teaching as an example, available policy documents and research reports are analysed to identify the differences and similarities that…
The Study of Constructed-Response Assessment of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Min Kyeong; Cho, Mi Kyung
2015-01-01
Recently, many countries have considered various assessment methods in order to measure multiple ways of students' thinking skills and problem solving ability. Recently, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology [MOEST] (2009) in Korea revised the mathematics curriculum, which now more focuses on enabling students to explain mathematically…
The Conceptual Framework for the Development of a Mathematics Performance Assessment Instrument.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Suzanne
1993-01-01
A conceptual framework is presented for the development of the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) Cognitive Assessment Instrument (QCAI) that focuses on the ability of middle-school students to problem solve, reason, and communicate mathematically. The instrument will provide programatic rather than…
Detection of Gender-Based Differential Item Functioning in a Mathematics Performance Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Ning; Lane, Suzanne
This study used three different differential item functioning (DIF) procedures to examine the extent to which items in a mathematics performance assessment functioned differently for matched gender groups. In addition to examining the appropriateness of individual items in terms of DIF with respect to gender, an attempt was made to identify…
An Assessment-for-Learning System in Mathematics for Individuals with Visual Impairments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, Eric G.; Shute, Valerie J.; Landau, Steven
2010-01-01
This study examined the usability of an assessment-for-learning (AfL) system that provides audio-tactile graphics for algebra content (geometric sequences) for individuals with visual impairments--two who are blind and two with low vision. It found that the system is generally usable as a mathematics AfL system. (Contains 4 tables.)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cansiz Aktas, Meral; Baki, Adnan
2014-01-01
The aim of this study is to investigate teachers' views on the new measurement and assessment approaches within the context of secondary school mathematics education reform. With this purpose, the factors which affected the implementation process were determined. The research data were obtained from two teachers via in-depth interviews,…
Assessment of a Problem Posing Task in a Jamaican Grade Four Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Munroe, Kayan Lloyd
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes how a teacher of mathematics used problem posing in the assessment of the cognitive development of 26 students at the grade-four level. The students, ages 8 to 10 years, were from a rural elementary school in western Jamaica. Using a picture as a prompt, students were asked to generate three arithmetic problems and to offer…
Validation of the Diagnostic Teacher Assessment of Mathematics and Science (DTAMS) Instrument
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saderholm, Jon; Ronau, Robert; Brown, E. Todd; Collins, Gary
2010-01-01
The Diagnostic Teacher Assessment in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS) was developed to measure the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of middle-school teachers. Its reliability and validity were initially established by reviewing national standards for content and use of expert question writing teams and reviewers. DTAMS was…
On-Line Mathematics Assessment: The Impact of Mode on Performance and Question Answering Strategies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Martin; Green, Sylvia
2006-01-01
The transition from paper-based to computer-based assessment raises a number of important issues about how mode might affect children's performance and question answering strategies. In this project 104 eleven-year-olds were given two sets of matched mathematics questions, one set on-line and the other on paper. Facility values were analyzed to…
Students' Learning Assessment Practices Used by Jordanian Teachers of Mathematics for Grades (1-6)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abed, Eman Rasmi; Abu Awwad, Ferial Mohammad
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the students' learning assessment practices used by Jordanian teachers of mathematics for grades (1-6) in Amman. The sample of the study consists of (402) teachers. A questionnaire of (72) items are developed on four domains, namely: questions, homework, exams, and alternative strategies. Validity and reliability are…
Teachers' Assessment Practices in Mathematics: Classrooms in the Context of Reform
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suurtamm, Christine; Koch, Martha; Arden, Ann
2010-01-01
This article responds to calls that have been made for research into how teachers incorporate new assessment ideas into their practice. We draw on a large-scale study that examined the implementation of reform in mathematics in grades 7-10 in Ontario, Canada. We present teacher questionnaire data, and focus on data gathered from case studies for…
ICT-Based Dynamic Assessment to Reveal Special Education Students' Potential in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peltenburg, Marjolijn; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Robitzsch, Alexander
2010-01-01
This paper reports on a research project on information and communication technology (ICT)-based dynamic assessment. The project aims to reveal the mathematical potential of students in special education. The focus is on a topic that is generally recognised as rather difficult for weak students: subtraction up to 100 with crossing the ten. The…
Implementing Computer Algebra Enabled Questions for the Assessment and Learning of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sangwin, Christopher J.; Naismith, Laura
2008-01-01
We present principles for the design of an online system to support computer algebra enabled questions for use within the teaching and learning of mathematics in higher education. The introduction of a computer algebra system (CAS) into a computer aided assessment (CAA) system affords sophisticated response processing of student provided answers.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Tzu-Hua
2011-01-01
This research adopts the Graduated Prompting Assessment Module of the WATA system (GPAM-WATA) and applies it to the remedial teaching of junior high school mathematics. The theoretical basis of the development of GPAM-WATA is the idea of 'graduated prompt approach' proposed by Campione and Brown (1985; 1987, pp. 92-95). In GPAM-WATA, when…
Initial Assessment of a Forgivable Loan Program for Pre-service Mathematics and Science Teachers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Thomas E.
Described is the development and initial assessment of a forgiveable loan program designed to attract qualified students into a teacher education program to prepare for teaching mathematics in middle or high schools. The program was established in 1983 at Austin College by the King Foundation. Five qualified students a year may be awarded a King…
Computer-Aided Assessment Questions in Engineering Mathematics Using "MapleTA"[R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, I. S.
2008-01-01
The use of "MapleTA"[R] in the assessment of engineering mathematics at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is discussed with particular reference to the design of questions. Key aspects in the formulation and coding of questions are considered. Problems associated with the submission of symbolic answers, the use of randomly generated numbers…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Augustin, T.; Hockemeyer, C.; Kickmeier-Rust, M.; Albert, D.
2011-01-01
The assessment of knowledge and learning progress in the context of game-based learning requires novel, noninvasive, and embedded approaches. In the present paper, we introduce a mathematical framework which relates the (problem solution) behavior of a learner in the game context to the learner's available and lacking competencies. We argue that a…
Effective Computer-Aided Assessment of Mathematics; Principles, Practice and Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenhow, Martin
2015-01-01
This article outlines some key issues for writing effective computer-aided assessment (CAA) questions in subjects with substantial mathematical or statistical content, especially the importance of control of random parameters and the encoding of wrong methods of solution (mal-rules) commonly used by students. The pros and cons of using CAA and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenseid, Lija O.; Lawrenz, Frances
2011-01-01
This study explores the use of citation analysis methods to assess the influence of program evaluations conducted within the area of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Citation analysis is widely used within scientific research communities to measure the relative influence of scientific research enterprises and/or…
The Challenge of Formative Assessment in Mathematics Education: Children's Minds, Teachers' Minds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ginsburg, Herbert P.
2009-01-01
The developmental psychology of mathematical thinking and the clinical interview method can make major contributions to education by transforming the process of formative assessment--the attempt to use information concerning student performance, knowledge, learning potential, and motivation to inform instruction. The clinical interview is a…
An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Mathematical & Physical Sciences.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others
The quality of doctoral-level chemistry (N=145), computer science (N=58), geoscience (N=91), mathematics (N=115), physics (N=123), and statistics/biostatistics (N=64) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: program size; characteristics of graduates; reputational…
Impact of Student Calculator Use on the 2013 NAEP Twelfth-Grade Mathematics Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klecker, Beverly M.; Klecker, Richard L.
2014-01-01
This descriptive research study examined 2013 NAEP 12th-grade mathematics scores by students' use of graphing calculators in math classes and the kind of calculator students used during NAEP assessment. NAEP Data Explorer analysis included two questions from Student Factors: How often do you use these different kinds of calculators in math class?…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Star, Jon R.; Hoffmann, Amanda Jansen
2005-01-01
Since the advent of the NCTM "Standards" (1989), mathematics educators have been faced with the challenge of assessing the impact of "Standards"-based (or "reform") curricula. Research on the impact of "Standards"-based curricula has predominantly focused on student achievement; here we consider an alternative: Students' epistemological…
Construct Validity of Scores on a Developmental Assessment with Mathematical Patterns Tasks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Banerji, Madhabi; Ferron, John
1998-01-01
Three analytic approaches were used in a framework of classical test theory to examine the construct validity of a mathematics assessment of 16 constructed response items. Results from 280 elementary school students across four age groups suggest a developmental structure of tasks and subdomains that was generally consistent with the test's…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N.; Craddock, Caitlin F.; Hamlett, Carol L.
2008-01-01
Dynamic assessment (DA) involves helping students learn a task and indexing responsiveness to that instruction as a measure of learning potential. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of a DA of algebraic learning in predicting third graders' development of mathematics problem solving. In the fall, 122 third-grade students were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Denise
2014-01-01
Despite acknowledgement of the benefits of self-assessment in higher education, disparity between student and academic assessments, with associated trends in overrating and underrating, plagues its meaningful use, particularly as a tool for formal assessment. This study examines self-assessment of capabilities in certain employability skills in…
Wave-optical assessment of alignment tolerances in nano-focusing with ellipsoidal mirror
Yumoto, Hirokatsu Koyama, Takahisa; Ohashi, Haruhiko
2016-01-28
High-precision ellipsoidal mirrors, which can efficiently focus X-rays to the nanometer dimension with a mirror, have not been realized because of the difficulties in the fabrication process. The purpose of our study was to develop nano-focusing ellipsoidal mirrors in the hard X-ray region. We developed a wave-optical focusing simulator for investigating alignment tolerances in nano-focusing with a designed ellipsoidal mirror, which produce a diffraction-limited focus size of 30 × 35 nm{sup 2} in full width at half maximum at an X-ray energy of 7 keV. The simulator can calculate focusing intensity distributions around the focal point under conditions of misalignment. The wave-optical simulator enabled the calculation of interference intensity distributions, which cannot be predicted by the conventional ray-trace method. The alignment conditions with a focal length error of ≲ ±10 µm, incident angle error of ≲ ±0.5 µrad, and in-plane rotation angle error of ≲ ±0.25 µrad must be satisfied for nano-focusing.
Wave-optical assessment of alignment tolerances in nano-focusing with ellipsoidal mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ohashi, Haruhiko
2016-01-01
High-precision ellipsoidal mirrors, which can efficiently focus X-rays to the nanometer dimension with a mirror, have not been realized because of the difficulties in the fabrication process. The purpose of our study was to develop nano-focusing ellipsoidal mirrors in the hard X-ray region. We developed a wave-optical focusing simulator for investigating alignment tolerances in nano-focusing with a designed ellipsoidal mirror, which produce a diffraction-limited focus size of 30 × 35 nm2 in full width at half maximum at an X-ray energy of 7 keV. The simulator can calculate focusing intensity distributions around the focal point under conditions of misalignment. The wave-optical simulator enabled the calculation of interference intensity distributions, which cannot be predicted by the conventional ray-trace method. The alignment conditions with a focal length error of ≲ ±10 µm, incident angle error of ≲ ±0.5 µrad, and in-plane rotation angle error of ≲ ±0.25 µrad must be satisfied for nano-focusing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2011
2011-01-01
This report presents results of the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics at grades 4 and 8. Nationally representative samples of 209,000 fourth-graders and 175,200 eighth-graders participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics. At each grade, students responded to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2009
2009-01-01
This report presents results of the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics at grades 4 and 8. The results from the 2009 assessment presented in this report are compared to those from previous years, showing how students' performance in mathematics has progressed over time. Results for students in the nation, the 50…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hudesman, John; Crosby, Sara; Ziehmke, Niesha; Everson, Howard; Issac, Sharlene; Flugman, Bert; Zimmerman, Barry; Moylan, Adam
2014-01-01
The authors describe an Enhanced Formative Assessment and Self-Regulated Learning (EFA-SRL) program designed to improve the achievement of community college students enrolled in developmental mathematics courses. Their model includes the use of specially formatted quizzes designed to assess both the students' mathematics and metacognitive skill…
Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L
2011-01-01
This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Jacob; Kurlaender, Michal
2016-01-01
State K-12 assessments may soon include measures for college readiness, as California's already do. We seek to understand how California's Early Assessment Program (EAP, designed to assess high school juniors' college readiness in English and math) may have influenced overall school-level college readiness and state accountability outcomes. Using…
A mathematically guided strategy for risk assessment and management.
Cooper, James Arlin
2005-03-01
Strategies for risk assessment and management of high consequence operations are often based on factors such as physical analysis, analysis of software and other logical processing, and analysis of statistically determined human actions. Conventional analysis methods work well for processing objective information. However, in practical situations, much or most of the data available are subjective. Also, there are potential resultant pitfalls where conventional analysis might be unrealistic, such as improperly using event tree and fault tree failure descriptions where failures or events are soft (partial) rather than crisp (binary), neglecting or misinterpreting dependence (positive, negative, correlation), and aggregating nonlinear contributions linearly. There are also personnel issues that transcend basic human factors statistics. For example, sustained productivity and safety in critical operations can depend on the morale of involved personnel. In addition, motivation is significantly influenced by 'latent effects', which are pre-occurring influences. This paper addresses these challenges and proposes techniques for subjective risk analysis, latent effects risk analysis and a hybrid analysis that also includes objective risk analysis. The goal is an improved strategy for risk management.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirchhoff, C.; Dilling, L.
2011-12-01
Water managers have long experienced the challenges of managing water resources in a variable climate. However, climate change has the potential to reshape the experiential landscape by, for example, increasing the intensity and duration of droughts, shifting precipitation timing and amounts, and changing sea levels. Given the uncertainty in evaluating potential climate risks as well as future water availability and water demands, scholars suggest water managers employ more flexible and adaptive science-based management to manage uncertainty (NRC 2009). While such an approach is appropriate, for adaptive science-based management to be effective both governance and information must be concordant across three measures: fit, interplay and scale (Young 2002)(Note 1). Our research relies on interviews of state water managers and related experts (n=50) and documentary analysis in five U.S. states to understand the drivers and constraints to improving water resource planning and decision-making in a changing climate using an assessment of fit, interplay and scale as an evaluative framework. We apply this framework to assess and compare how water managers plan and respond to current or anticipated water resource challenges within each state. We hypothesize that better alignment between the data and management framework and the water resource problem improves water managers' facility to understand (via available, relevant, timely information) and respond appropriately (through institutional response mechanisms). In addition, better alignment between governance mechanisms (between the scope of the problem and identified appropriate responses) improves water management. Moreover, because many of the management challenges analyzed in this study concern present day issues with scarcity brought on by a combination of growth and drought, better alignment of fit, interplay, and scale today will enable and prepare water managers to be more successful in adapting to climate change
House, J Daniel
2007-04-01
Recent findings concerning mathematics assessment indicate that students in Japan consistently score above international averages. Researchers have examined specific mathematics beliefs and instructional strategies associated with mathematics achievement for students in Japan. This study examined relationships among self-beliefs, classroom instructional strategies, and mathematics achievement for a large national sample of students (N=4,207) from the TIMSS 2003 international sample of fourth graders in Japan. Several significant relationships between mathematics beliefs and test scores were found; a number of classroom teaching strategies were also significantly associated with test scores. However, multiple regression using the complete set of five mathematics beliefs and five instructional strategies explained only 25.1% of the variance in mathematics achievement test scores.
Alignment of World Language Standards and Assessments: A Multiple Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaplan, Carolyn Shemwell
2016-01-01
Previous research has examined world language classroom-based assessment practices as well as the impact of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, 1999) on practice. However, the extent to which K-12 teachers' assessment practices reflect national and state…
School-Based Assessment of ADHD: Purpose, Alignment with Best Practice Guidelines, and Training
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogg, Julia; Fefer, Sarah; Sundman-Wheat, Ashley; McMahan, Melanie; Stewart, Tiffany; Chappel, Ashley; Bateman, Lisa
2013-01-01
Youth exhibiting symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are frequently referred to school psychologists because of academic, social, and behavioral difficulties that they face. To address these difficulties, evidence-based assessment methods have been outlined for multiple purposes of assessment. The goals of this study were to…
Aligning CASAS Competencies and Assessments to Basic Skills Content Standards. Second Edition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2009
2009-01-01
Since its inception, the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) has focused on teaching and assessing basic skills in contexts that are relevant and important to adult learners. CASAS has developed and continues to refine a highly formalized hierarchy of competencies, the application of basic skills that adults need to be fully…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NJ1), 2011
2011-01-01
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and assessments aligned to them represent a significant milestone in public education reform in the U.S. Developed with consultation from higher education, the rigorous new standards and the assessments now being drafted by two consortia promise to help students reach higher levels of academic achievement and…
The school-tertiary interface in mathematics: teaching style and assessment practice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Michael O. J.; Klymchuk, Sergiy
2012-09-01
Issues arising in the transition from secondary school to tertiary mathematics study are increasingly coming under scrutiny. In this paper, we analyse two practical aspects of the school-tertiary interface: teaching style; and assessment. We present some of the findings arising from a 2-year national project in New Zealand titled "Analysing the Transition from Secondary to Tertiary Education in Mathematics" supported by the New Zealand Ministry of Education. The results provide evidence of similarities and differences between teachers and lecturers in their preferred teaching approaches and assessment strategies that contribute to a transitional gap between the school and tertiary sectors. The results also show that each group lacks a clear understanding of the issues involved in the transition from the other's perspective, and there is a need for improved communication between the two sectors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Code, Warren; Merchant, Sandra; Maciejewski, Wes; Thomas, Matthew; Lo, Joseph
2016-08-01
One goal of an undergraduate education in mathematics is to help students develop a productive disposition towards mathematics. A way of conceiving of this is as helping mathematical novices transition to more expert-like perceptions of mathematics. This conceptualization creates a need for a way to characterize students' perceptions of mathematics in authentic educational settings. This article presents a survey, the Mathematics Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (MAPS), designed to address this need. We present the development of the MAPS instrument and its validation on a large (N = 3411) set of student data. Results from various MAPS implementations corroborate results from analogous instruments in other STEM disciplines. We present these results and highlight some in particular: MAPS scores correlate with course grades; students tend to move away from expert-like orientations over a semester or year of taking a mathematics course; and interactive-engagement type lectures have less of a negative impact, but no positive impact, on students' overall orientations than traditional lecturing. We include the MAPS instrument in this article and suggest ways in which it may deepen our understanding of undergraduate mathematics education.
Esteva, Lourdes; Mo Yang, Hyun
2005-12-01
We propose a mathematical model to assess the effects of irradiated (or transgenic) male insects introduction in a previously infested region. The release of sterile male insects aims to displace gradually the natural (wild) insect from the habitat. We discuss the suitability of this release technique when applied to peri-domestically adapted Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which are transmissors of Yellow Fever and Dengue disease.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O.
2015-08-01
In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions.
Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O
2015-08-21
In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.
2013-06-01
This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers were assessed at the beginning and the end of school year (February and October, respectively) on their Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), through the use of a questionnaire involving teachers' responses to hypothetical teaching, planning, or assessment scenarios. We report here the results from one item that assessed teachers' MKT in relation to representations of division. Results indicated that teachers were more familiar with partitive than quotitive division, and found connecting appropriate story problems with a given form of division difficult. Teachers' relating their understanding of the forms of division to the context of division by a decimal number was also challenging. There were interesting variations in the data across primary grade levels, particularly in relation to change over time. Professional learning on these topics and other support within the project appeared to improve teachers' MKT in this area.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014
2014-01-01
Recently, Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) completed a study to connect the scale of the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments (MCA) Testing Program used for Minnesota's mathematics and reading assessments with NWEA's RIT (Rasch Unit) scale. Information from the state assessments was used in a study to establish performance-level scores on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Tory C.
2013-01-01
The introduction of No Child Left Behind increased performance expectations for students across the United States and compelled teachers to focus on standardized assessments instead of frequent formative assessments to monitor instruction and promote student learning. Common formative assessments (CFAs) help teachers align curriculum, assessment,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
House, J, Daniel; Telese, James A.
2013-01-01
Effective teaching practice for improving student achievement in mathematics is a critical area for instructional design. Further, results from international assessments of mathematics achievement have indicated that students in Korea typically earned test scores higher then international averages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reis, Giuliano; Barwell, Richard
2013-01-01
The day-to-day business of being a science or mathematics teacher involves the continuous assessment of students. This, in turn, is an inherently discursive process. The aim of the present study is to examine some of the specific discursive practices through which science and mathematics knowing is jointly produced through classroom interaction.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cupani, Marcos; de Minzi, Maria Cristina Richaud; Perez, Edgardo Raul; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
2010-01-01
This study tested a set of hypotheses derived from the model of academic achievement in mathematics of the Social Cognitive Career Theory in a sample of Argentinean middle school students. To this aim, 277 students (male and female; age: 13-15 years) were assessed using the following instruments: logical-mathematical self-efficacy scale,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aly, Hassan Shawky; Abdulhakeem, Hassan Daker
2016-01-01
This study aimed at assessing the training programs for Mathematics teachers at elementary stage on developed Curricula and attitudes toward teaching at Najran educational administration in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this objective, two instruments were developed, one of them measures the opinions of Mathematics teachers about the training programs…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, C. Michael
2013-01-01
Mathematics proficiency of English language learners (ELLs) on the Maryland School Assessments (MSA) for mathematics continues to lag behind the proficiency level of students who are proficient English speakers. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between English language learner's…
Language matters in demonstrations of understanding in early years mathematics assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mushin, Ilana; Gardner, Rod; Munro, Jennifer M.
2013-09-01
In classrooms tests, students are regularly required to demonstrate their understanding of mathematical concepts. When children encounter problems in demonstrating such understanding, it is often not clear whether this is because of the language of the teachers' questions and instructions or a genuine non-understanding of the concept itself. This paper uses Conversation Analysis to investigate the role that language plays in Year 1 oral maths assessment in an Australian Indigenous community school. This approach allows us to monitor the very subtle communicative gestures, verbal and non-verbal, that contribute to the trajectory of a particular test task. Here we are able to bring to light a range of ways in which language may interfere with demonstrations of understanding of mathematical concepts. These include particular mathematical words (e.g., size, shape, same), as well as problems with what is being asked in an instruction. We argue that while all children must learn new mathematical language in their early years of schooling, the challenge for the students we have recorded may be compounded by the language differences between the Indigenous variety of language they speak in the community, and the Standard Australian English of the classroom and teachers.
Convergence or Divergence: Alignment of Standards, Assessment, and Issues of Diversity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Norvella, Ed.
In this report, teacher educators scrutinize the relationships between the standards and assessment movement in education and the United States' increasingly multicultural population. The papers include: "Foreword" (Jacqueline Jordan Irvine); (1) "Diversity and Standards: Defining the Issues" (Norvella P. Carter); (2) "Accountability and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegel, Marcelle; Roberts, Tina M.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Izci, Kemal
2015-01-01
The authors describe a collaborative group-testing strategy implemented and studied in undergraduate science classes. This project investigated how the assessment strategy relates to student performance and perceptions about collaboration and focused on two sections of an undergraduate biotechnology course taught in separate semesters.
Towards a Framework for Aligning Learning Outcomes, Academic Literacies and Assessment Criteria
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dew, Robert; Goscinski, Andrzej; Coldwell-Neilson, Jo
2016-01-01
Although Australian students spend three or more years studying they can seem quite unaware of any of the expected learning outcomes of their course. They are often single unit focused, paying most attention to individual assessment items thus not developing a holistic view of their course. This paper presents a theoretical framework to support…
Aligning the NWEA RIT Scale with the Maryland School Assessment (MSA)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowe, Branin; Cronin, John
2005-01-01
Recently NWEA completed a project to connect the scale of the Maryland School Assessment (MSA) with NWEA's RIT scale. One large school system participated in the study, using test information from a group of over 24,000 students enrolled in third, fourth and fifth grade who took both the MSA and NWEA reading tests in the spring of 2005.…
Davidson, Ian; Scianni, Christopher; Hewitt, Chad; Everett, Richard; Holm, Eric; Tamburri, Mario; Ruiz, Gregory
2016-01-01
Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions.
Mathematical model for assessment of radiation risk on long space missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnova, O. A.
A mathematical model is developed which describes the dynamics of radiation-induced mortality in mammalian populations. It relates statistical biometric functions with statistical characteristics and dynamics of an organism's critical system. In the framework of the model the effects of low and very low dose rates of chronic radiation on mice are simulated. Respectively, thrombocytopoietic and granulocytopoietic systems are considered as the critical ones. To calculate the dynamics of these systems, mathematical models are applied, too. In accordance with experimental data, the mortality model reproduces on quantitative level both increased and decreased mortality rates in populations of LAF1 mice, which were chronically exposed, respectively, to low and very low level radiation. All this makes it feasible to use the model as a basis for risk assessments of low level long-term irradiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lind Pantzare, Anna
2012-10-01
Calculators with computer algebra systems (CAS) are powerful tools when working with equations and algebraic expressions in mathematics. When calculators are allowed to be used during assessments but are not available or provided to every student, they may cause bias. The CAS calculators may also have an impact on the trustworthiness of results. In this study students' use of the CAS calculator in their work with released assessment items from TIMSS Advanced 2008 is studied using two approaches. Eight students familiar with CAS, from two mathematics classes in the 12th form, were video filmed when encouraged to think aloud during their work with the items. In addition, a questionnaire was distributed to all 33 students in the two classes who had been working with a CAS. The main finding is that even if the students are used to working with the CAS calculator, they are not using the calculator to a large extent. The analysis indicates that the difference in performance between the high- and low-achieving students has slightly increased due to the use of the calculator. From a validity perspective one could therefore argue that the CAS calculator is no major threat to the trustworthiness of the assessment. Nevertheless, the result indicates that those students in the study, mainly high achieving, who know how to use the CAS calculator, get an additional advantage. The advantage brings an amount of unfairness into the assessment and could be a threat to the trustworthiness and fairness.
Summative and Formative Assessments in Mathematics Supporting the Goals of the Common Core Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
2015-01-01
Being proficient in mathematics involves having rich and connected mathematical knowledge, being a strategic and reflective thinker and problem solver, and having productive mathematical beliefs and dispositions. This broad set of mathematics goals is central to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. High-stakes testing often drives…
Re-evaluating Sustainability Assessment: Aligning the vision and the practice
Bond, Alan J.; Morrison-Saunders, Angus
2011-01-15
Sustainable Development is the core goal of the expanding field of Sustainability Assessment (SA). However, we find that three key areas of debate in relation to SA practice in England and Western Australia can be classified as policy controversies. Through literature review and analysis of documentary evidence we consider the problem of reductionism (breaking down complex processes to simple terms or component parts) as opposed to holism (considering systems as wholes); the issue of contested understandings of the meaning of sustainability (and of the purpose of SA); and the definition of 'inter-generational' in the context of sustainable development and how this is reflected in the timescales considered in SA. We argue that SA practice is based on particular framings of the policy controversies and that the critical role of SA in facilitating deliberation over these controversies needs to be recognised if there is to be a move towards a new deliberative sustainability discourse which can accommodate these different framings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koirala, Hari P.; Davis, Marsha; Johnson, Peter
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to share a performance assessment task and rubric designed to assess secondary school mathematics preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills. The assessment task and rubric were developed in collaboration with five education faculty, four arts and sciences faculty, and four high school teachers over…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2011
2011-01-01
Representative samples of fourth- and eighth-grade public school students from 21 urban districts participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics. Eighteen of the districts participating in the 2011 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) participated in earlier assessment years, while three districts…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2011
2011-01-01
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment measures students' knowledge and skills in mathematics and students' ability to apply their knowledge in problem-solving situations. At each grade, students responded to questions designed to measure what they know and can do across five mathematics content areas: number…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
2013-01-01
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment measures students' knowledge and skills in mathematics and students' ability to apply their knowledge in problem-solving situations. At each grade, students responded to questions designed to measure what they know and can do across five mathematics content areas: number…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkerson, Judy R.; Lang, William Steve
2005-01-01
NCATE (2002) requires the measurement of knowledge, skills, and dispositions as part of its accreditation requirements for teacher education programs (Standard 1) and the use of unit assessment systems to aggregate and analyse data with a view toward program improvement (Standard 2). Data must indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tan, May; Turner, Carolyn E.
2015-01-01
In Quebec the high-stakes Secondary Five ESL exit writing exam developed by the Education Ministry (MELS) is administered and corrected by classroom teachers. In this distinctive situation, the MELS works toward aligning classroom-based assessment (CBA) and the writing exam by making ongoing teacher involvement part of its development and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.
2014-01-01
This study examined the effect of learning progression-aligned formal embedded formative assessment on conceptual change and achievement in middle-school science. Fifty-two sixth graders were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were taught about sinking and floating by the same teacher with identical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finnegan, Robert J.
2010-01-01
Despite recent policy initiatives to ensure high school accountability through state-mandated testing, New Jersey high school graduates may not be prepared for the challenges of college-level writing because the state's high school assessment is not aligned with college-level expectations (Brown & Conley, 2007; Conley, 2003). An ever-growing…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Lambert, Warren; Compton, Donald L.
2006-01-01
This study investigated whether 2 different progress monitoring assessments differentially predicted growth in reading skills associated with systematic phonics instruction. Oral reading fluency (ORE) was compared with an intervention aligned word list (IAWL) as predictors of growth in untimed and timed decoding and word identification and text…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrere, C.; Milesi, S.; Lapyckyj, I.; Ravera, E.; Escher, L.; Miyara, A.; Pita, G.; Añino, M.
2016-04-01
Bioengineering is currently considered an interdisciplinary professional field which provides solutions to different problems arising in the area of health care. Its strategic importance is widely acknowledged since its developments and proposals could help diminish the level of technological dependence in the sector. The fast pace of innovation in the area of biomedical technology gives rise to permanent reflection on the learning goals and teaching strategies proposed by educators in the different training stages of a bioengineer. In this context, learning assessment appears as a controversial issue which needs to be debated and rethought. This paper describes the reflections of teachers of a Mathematics course within a Bioengineering program around the question, What approach to assessment favors the student’s participation, autonomy and training as a future bioengineer? The investigation was carried out in the framework of a Participatory Research Action project and helped us to redesign assessment activities from a different perspective.
The influence of test mode and visuospatial ability on mathematics assessment performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logan, Tracy
2015-12-01
Mathematics assessment and testing are increasingly situated within digital environments with international tests moving to computer-based testing in the near future. This paper reports on a secondary data analysis which explored the influence the mode of assessment—computer-based (CBT) and pencil-and-paper based (PPT)—and visuospatial ability had on students' mathematics test performance. Data from 804 grade 6 Singaporean students were analysed using the knowledge discovery in data design. The results revealed statistically significant differences between performance on CBT and PPT test modes across content areas concerning whole number algebraic patterns and data and chance. However, there were no performance differences for content areas related to spatial arrangements geometric measurement or other number. There were also statistically significant differences in performance between those students who possess higher levels of visuospatial ability compared to those with lower levels across all six content areas. Implications include careful consideration for the comparability of CBT and PPT testing and the need for increased attention to the role of visuospatial reasoning in student's mathematics reasoning.
Assessing Mathematical Models of Influenza Infections Using Features of the Immune Response
Dobrovolny, Hana M.; Reddy, Micaela B.; Kamal, Mohamed A.; Rayner, Craig R.; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.
2013-01-01
The role of the host immune response in determining the severity and duration of an influenza infection is still unclear. In order to identify severity factors and more accurately predict the course of an influenza infection within a human host, an understanding of the impact of host factors on the infection process is required. Despite the lack of sufficiently diverse experimental data describing the time course of the various immune response components, published mathematical models were constructed from limited human or animal data using various strategies and simplifying assumptions. To assess the validity of these models, we assemble previously published experimental data of the dynamics and role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, antibodies, and interferon and determined qualitative key features of their effect that should be captured by mathematical models. We test these existing models by confronting them with experimental data and find that no single model agrees completely with the variety of influenza viral kinetics responses observed experimentally when various immune response components are suppressed. Our analysis highlights the strong and weak points of each mathematical model and highlights areas where additional experimental data could elucidate specific mechanisms, constrain model design, and complete our understanding of the immune response to influenza. PMID:23468916
Laprevotte, I; Pupin, M; Coward, E; Didier, G; Terzian, C; Devauchelle, C; Hénaut, A
2001-07-01
Previous analyses of retroviral nucleotide sequences, suggest a so-called "scrambled duplicative stepwise molecular evolution" (many sectors with successive duplications/deletions of short and longer motifs) that could have stemmed from one or several starter tandemly repeated short sequence(s). In the present report, we tested this hypothesis by focusing on the long terminal repeats (LTRs) (and flanking sequences) of 24 human and 3 simian immunodeficiency viruses. By using a calculation strategy applicable to short sequences, we found consensus overrepresented motifs (often containing CTG or CAG) that were congruent with the previously defined "retroviral signature." We also show many local repetition patterns that are significant when compared with simply shuffled sequences. First- and second-order Markov chain analyses demonstrate that a major portion of the overrepresented oligonucleotides can be predicted from the dinucleotide compositions of the sequences, but by no means can biological mechanisms be deduced from these results: some of the listed local repetitions remain significant against dinucleotide-conserving shuffled sequences; together with previous results, this suggests that interspersed and/or local mononucleotide and oligonucleotide repetitions could have biased the dinucleotide compositions of the sequences. We searched for suggestive evolutionary patterns by scrutinizing a reliable multiple alignment of the 27 sequences. A manually constructed alignment based on homology blocks was in good agreement with the polypeptide alignment in the coding sectors and has been exhaustively assessed by using a multiplied alphabet obtained by the promising mathematical strategy called the N-block presentation (taking into account the environment of each nucleotide in a sequence). Sector by sector, we hypothesize many successive duplication/deletion scenarios that fit our previous evolutionary hypotheses. This suggests an important duplication/deletion role for
Assessing Seventh Graders' Mathematical Literacy in Solving PISA-Like Tasks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dewantara, Andi Harpeni; Zulkardi; Darmawijoyo
2015-01-01
This design research type development study aims at producing a set of PISA-like mathematics task which is valid and practical as well as has the potential effects. Then, activation of fundamental mathematical capabilities underlying mathematical process related to the mathematical literacy as the main potential effect of the developed PISA-like…
Pomplun, M; Omar, M H
2000-02-01
This study investigated the factorial invariance of a fourth-grade state mathematics assessment across groups of general education students and students with learning disabilities with and without reading accommodations. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of a 2-factor model to each of the 3 groups. In addition to the overall fit of this model, several levels of constraint were investigated. Invariance across the 3 groups was supported for factor loadings and intercepts. However, invariance of the factor covariances across the general education group and the groups of students with learning disabilities was not supported. Because of the implications for aggregating reported scores, further research is needed into the relationship between the factors in the different groups.
ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias
2008-09-06
The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Onderi, Peter Omae; Okwara, Michael Okello; Raburu, Pam; Barongo, Samson; Mokaya, Evans; Mokogi, Henry; Omae, David
2015-01-01
Performance in mathematics in Masaba Sub-County, Kenya has been poor for many years. In 2010 the mean score was 3.2282, while in 2011 it had a mean score of 3.9528 and in 2012 it had a mean of 4.0660 which is far below the maximum mean of 12.00. The purpose of this study was to assess factors related to academic achievement in mathematics in…
Naumov, R L; Zhigal'skiĭ, O A; Gutova, V P; Kilina, A I; Nikulina, E S
1989-01-01
Long-term extrapolative prognosis is presented, which is based on 30-year data on tick-borne encephalitis infection rates in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Mathematical analysis of many-year ranges was performed later by a maximum entropy method with further frequency filtration, its results allowing to predict the infection rate. Disease rate changes for the last 4 years demonstrated that extrapolative prognosis based both on expert and mathematical assessment (by the entropy maximum method) agreed well with the real data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Birgin, Osman
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the views of pre-service mathematics (PSM) teachers on the use of portfolios as an alternative assessment method. This study was conducted with 146 Turkish PSM teachers participating in a semester-long portfolio assessment application. Data were collected with a questionnaire comprising 34 items on a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tarr, James E.; Walker, Erica N.; Hollebrands, Karen F.; Chval, Kathryn B.; Berry, Robert Q., III; Rasmussen, Chris L.; Konold, Cliff; King, Karen
2013-01-01
The current era of common curriculum standards, increased accountability, and rapid expansion of technology within a complex and highly charged political context has influenced changes in assessment practices in mathematics classrooms. This research commentary situates high-stakes assessments in a historical context, discusses recent advances in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellington, Aimee J.; Whitenack, Joy W.; Inge, Vickie L.; Murray, Megan K.; Schneider, Patti J.
2012-01-01
This article describes the design and implementation of an assessment instrument for Numbers and Operations, the first course in a program to train elementary mathematics specialists. We briefly describe the course and its content, and then we elaborate on the process we used to develop the assessment instrument and the corresponding rubric for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Hudson-Vassell, Michael; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse N.; Garvan, Cynthia W.
2015-01-01
Using critical lenses, this study examined the predictive value added of curriculum-based assessment (CBA), with socio-demographic and educational variables on the mathematics portion of Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Gender, race, socio-economic status, and exceptional student education (ESE) were compared in a de-identified post…
Song, Ping; Herman, Rod A; Kumpatla, Siva
2014-09-01
To address the high false positive rate using >35% identity over 80 amino acids in the regulatory assessment of transgenic proteins for potential allergenicity and the change of E-value with database size, the Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment and a one-to-one (1:1) local FASTA search (one protein in the target database at a time) using FASTA were evaluated by comparing proteins randomly selected from Arabidopsis, rice, corn, and soybean with known allergens in a peer-reviewed allergen database (http://www.allergenonline.org/). Compared with the approach of searching >35%/80aa+, the false positive rate measured by specificity rate for identification of true allergens was reduced by a 1:1 global sequence alignment with a cut-off threshold of ≧30% identity and a 1:1 FASTA local alignment with a cut-off E-value of ≦1.0E-09 while maintaining the same sensitivity. Hence, a 1:1 sequence comparison, especially using the FASTA local alignment tool with a biological relevant E-value of 1.0E-09 as a threshold, is recommended for the regulatory assessment of sequence identities between transgenic proteins in food crops and known allergens.
Mathematical aspects of assessing extreme events for the safety of nuclear plants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potempski, Slawomir; Borysiewicz, Mieczyslaw
2015-04-01
In the paper the review of mathematical methodologies applied for assessing low frequencies of rare natural events like earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or tornadoes, floods (in particular flash floods and surge storms), lightning, solar flares, etc., will be given in the perspective of the safety assessment of nuclear plants. The statistical methods are usually based on the extreme value theory, which deals with the analysis of extreme deviation from the median (or the mean). In this respect application of various mathematical tools can be useful, like: the extreme value theorem of Fisher-Tippett-Gnedenko leading to possible choices of general extreme value distributions, or the Pickands-Balkema-de Haan theorem for tail fitting, or the methods related to large deviation theory. In the paper the most important stochastic distributions relevant for performing rare events statistical analysis will be presented. This concerns, for example, the analysis of the data with the annual extreme values (maxima - "Annual Maxima Series" or minima), or the peak values, exceeding given thresholds at some periods of interest ("Peak Over Threshold"), or the estimation of the size of exceedance. Despite of the fact that there is a lack of sufficient statistical data directly containing rare events, in some cases it is still possible to extract useful information from existing larger data sets. As an example one can consider some data sets available from the web sites for floods, earthquakes or generally natural hazards. Some aspects of such data sets will be also presented taking into account their usefulness for the practical assessment of risk for nuclear power plants coming from extreme weather conditions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
What Works Clearinghouse, 2015
2015-01-01
The study, "The Impact of Indiana's System of Interim Assessments on Mathematics and Reading," examined the effects of using Diagnostic Assessment Tools (DAT) on mathematics and reading outcomes for students in 59 Indiana schools during the 2009-10 academic year. DAT consists of interim assessment tools--Wireless Generation's mCLASS for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Speziale, Kerry Maureen
2011-01-01
This study determined whether chronological age differences among students in the same grade level affected their respective levels of academic performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics assessment. The study analyzed the additional independent variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and special education…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dearn, Ceri; And Others
The works reported in this book represent a second phase to a 2-day summer conference that focused on assessment in mathematics and science classrooms. This book presents research and findings of a subset of the conference participants who investigated a self-selected aspect of assessment in their educational environments. Action research was the…
Padial, José M; Grant, Taran; Frost, Darrel R
2014-06-26
Brachycephaloidea is a monophyletic group of frogs with more than 1000 species distributed throughout the New World tropics, subtropics, and Andean regions. Recently, the group has been the target of multiple molecular phylogenetic analyses, resulting in extensive changes in its taxonomy. Here, we test previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships for the group by combining available molecular evidence (sequences of 22 genes representing 431 ingroup and 25 outgroup terminals) and performing a tree-alignment analysis under the parsimony optimality criterion using the program POY. To elucidate the effects of alignment and optimality criterion on phylogenetic inferences, we also used the program MAFFT to obtain a similarity-alignment for analysis under both parsimony and maximum likelihood using the programs TNT and GARLI, respectively. Although all three analytical approaches agreed on numerous points, there was also extensive disagreement. Tree-alignment under parsimony supported the monophyly of the ingroup and the sister group relationship of the monophyletic marsupial frogs (Hemiphractidae), while maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the MAFFT similarity-alignment did not. All three methods differed with respect to the position of Ceuthomantis smaragdinus (Ceuthomantidae), with tree-alignment using parsimony recovering this species as the sister of Pristimantis + Yunganastes. All analyses rejected the monophyly of Strabomantidae and Strabomantinae as originally defined, and the tree-alignment analysis under parsimony further rejected the recently redefined Craugastoridae and Pristimantinae. Despite the greater emphasis in the systematics literature placed on the choice of optimality criterion for evaluating trees than on the choice of method for aligning DNA sequences, we found that the topological differences attributable to the alignment method were as great as those caused by the optimality criterion. Further, the optimal tree-alignment indicates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tayyaba, Saadia
2010-01-01
Purpose: The general objective of this paper is to investigate the mathematics achievement of middle grade students in Pakistan. Specifically: to determine whether mathematics achievement varies systematically across students and schools; to what extent the mathematics curriculum and frameworks are implemented in schools; to what extent gender and…
SUMO, System performance assessment for a high-level nuclear waste repository: Mathematical models
Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Engel, D.W.; Chamberlain, P.J. II
1992-09-01
Following completion of the preliminary risk assessment of the potential Yucca Mountain Site by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1988, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL to develop an integrated system model and computer code that provides performance and risk assessment analysis capabilities for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The system model that has been developed addresses the cumulative radionuclide release criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and estimates population risks in terms of dose to humans. The system model embodied in the SUMO (System Unsaturated Model) code will also allow benchmarking of other models being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The system model has three natural divisions: (1) source term, (2) far-field transport, and (3) dose to humans. This document gives a detailed description of the mathematics of each of these three divisions. Each of the governing equations employed is based on modeling assumptions that are widely accepted within the scientific community.
Fuchs, Lynn S; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N; Craddock, Caitlin F; Hamlett, Carol L
2008-11-01
Dynamic assessment (DA) involves helping students learn a task and indexing responsiveness to that instruction as a measure of learning potential. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of a DA of algebraic learning in predicting 3(rd) graders' development of mathematics problem solving. In the fall, 122 3(rd)-grade students were assessed on language, nonverbal reasoning, attentive behavior, calculations, word-problem skill, and DA. On the basis of random assignment, students received 16 weeks of validated instruction on word problems or received 16 weeks of conventional instruction on word problems. Then, students were assessed on word-problem measures proximal and distal to instruction. Structural equation measurement models showed that DA measured a distinct dimension of pretreatment ability and that proximal and distal word-problem measures were needed to account for outcome. Structural equation modeling showed that instruction (conventional vs. validated) was sufficient to account for math word-problem outcome proximal to instruction; by contrast, language, pretreatment math skill, and DA were needed to forecast learning on word-problem outcomes more distal to instruction. Findings are discussed in terms of responsiveness-to-intervention models for preventing and identifying learning disabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drachova-Strang, Svetlana V.
As computing becomes ubiquitous, software correctness has a fundamental role in ensuring the safety and security of the systems we build. To design and develop software correctly according to their formal contracts, CS students, the future software practitioners, need to learn a critical set of skills that are necessary and sufficient for reasoning about software correctness. This dissertation presents a systematic approach to both introducing these reasoning skills into the curriculum, and assessing how well the students have learned them. Specifically, it introduces a comprehensive Reasoning Concept Inventory (RCI) that captures the fine details of basic reasoning skills that are ideally learned across the undergraduate curriculum to reason about software correctness, to develop high quality software, and to understand why software works as specified. The RCI forms the basis for developing learning outcomes that help educators to assess the adequacy of current techniques and pinpoint necessary improvements. This dissertation contains results from experimentation and assessment over the past few years in multiple CS courses. The results show that the finer principles of mathematical reasoning of software correctness can be taught effectively and continuously improved with the help of the RCI using suitable teaching practices, and supporting methods and tools.
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N.; Craddock, Caitlin F.; Hamlett, Carol L.
2008-01-01
Dynamic assessment (DA) involves helping students learn a task and indexing responsiveness to that instruction as a measure of learning potential. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of a DA of algebraic learning in predicting 3rd graders’ development of mathematics problem solving. In the fall, 122 3rd-grade students were assessed on language, nonverbal reasoning, attentive behavior, calculations, word-problem skill, and DA. On the basis of random assignment, students received 16 weeks of validated instruction on word problems or received 16 weeks of conventional instruction on word problems. Then, students were assessed on word-problem measures proximal and distal to instruction. Structural equation measurement models showed that DA measured a distinct dimension of pretreatment ability and that proximal and distal word-problem measures were needed to account for outcome. Structural equation modeling showed that instruction (conventional vs. validated) was sufficient to account for math word-problem outcome proximal to instruction; by contrast, language, pretreatment math skill, and DA were needed to forecast learning on word-problem outcomes more distal to instruction. Findings are discussed in terms of responsiveness-to-intervention models for preventing and identifying learning disabilities. PMID:19884957
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straub, Jeremy
2016-05-01
Quality control is critical to manufacturing. Frequently, techniques are used to define object conformity bounds, based on historical quality data. This paper considers techniques for bespoke and small batch jobs that are not statistical model based. These techniques also serve jobs where 100% validation is needed due to the mission or safety critical nature of particular parts. One issue with this type of system is alignment discrepancies between the generated model and the physical part. This paper discusses and evaluates techniques for characterizing and correcting alignment issues between the projected and perceived data sets to prevent errors attributable to misalignment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hongru; Wang, Yukui; Wang, Bing; Sun, Jian; Li, Yaolong
2017-01-01
Bearing performance degradation assessment is a key step of condition-based maintenance. In this paper, a novel indicator of bearing performance degradation assessment is presented based on the mathematical morphology (MM) theory for higher efficiency. Because the traditional mathematical morphology particle (MMP) is unable to exactly describe the bearing's performance degradation, we extended its definition to the general space to address the limited ability of the former definition. On the basis of the innovative definition, we used the morphology erosion operation instead of the morphology open operation to calculate the general mathematical morphology particle (GMMP) of the bearing's whole life data. The analysis of the simulation and practical application demonstrated that the proposed index is feasible and effective to indicate the performance degradation of the bearing.
River basin soil-vegetation condition assessment applying mathematic simulation methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishchenko, Natalia; Trifonova, Tatiana; Shirkin, Leonid
2013-04-01
Meticulous attention paid nowadays to the problem of vegetation cover productivity changes is connected also to climate global transformation. At the same time ecosystems anthropogenic transformation, basically connected to the changes of land use structure and human impact on soil fertility, is developing to a great extent independently from climatic processes and can seriously influence vegetation cover productivity not only at the local and regional levels but also globally. Analysis results of land use structure and soil cover condition influence on river basin ecosystems productive potential is presented in the research. The analysis is carried out applying integrated characteristics of ecosystems functioning, space images processing results and mathematic simulation methods. The possibility of making permanent functional simulator defining connection between macroparameters of "phytocenosis-soil" system condition on the basis of basin approach is shown. Ecosystems of river catchment basins of various degrees located in European part of Russia were chosen as research objects. For the integrated assessment of ecosystems soil and vegetation conditions the following characteristics have been applied: 1. Soil-productional potential, characterizing the ability of natural and natural-anthropogenic ecosystem in certain soil-bioclimatic conditions for long term reproduction. This indicator allows for specific phytomass characteristics and ecosystem produce, humus content in soil and bioclimatic parameters. 2. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been applied as an efficient, remotely defined, monitoring indicator characterizing spatio-temporal unsteadiness of soil-productional potential. To design mathematic simulator functional simulation methods and principles on the basis of regression, correlation and factor analysis have been applied in the research. Coefficients values defining in the designed static model of phytoproductivity distribution has been
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bin
Spatial control behaviors account for a large proportion of human everyday activities from normal daily tasks, such as reaching for objects, to specialized tasks, such as driving, surgery, or operating equipment. These behaviors involve intensive interactions within internal processes (i.e. cognitive, perceptual, and motor control) and with the physical world. This dissertation builds on a concept of interaction pattern and a hierarchical functional model. Interaction pattern represents a type of behavior synergy that humans coordinates cognitive, perceptual, and motor control processes. It contributes to the construction of the hierarchical functional model that delineates humans spatial control behaviors as the coordination of three functional subsystems: planning, guidance, and tracking/pursuit. This dissertation formalizes and validates these two theories and extends them for the investigation of human spatial control skills encompassing development and assessment. Specifically, this dissertation first presents an overview of studies in human spatial control skills encompassing definition, characteristic, development, and assessment, to provide theoretical evidence for the concept of interaction pattern and the hierarchical functional model. The following, the human experiments for collecting motion and gaze data and techniques to register and classify gaze data, are described. This dissertation then elaborates and mathematically formalizes the hierarchical functional model and the concept of interaction pattern. These theories then enables the construction of a succinct simulation model that can reproduce a variety of human performance with a minimal set of hypotheses. This validates the hierarchical functional model as a normative framework for interpreting human spatial control behaviors. The dissertation then investigates human skill development and captures the emergence of interaction pattern. The final part of the dissertation applies the hierarchical
Wang, Xun; Jia, Yao; Xie, Yun-zheng; Li, Xiu-mei; Liu, Xiao-ying; Wu, Xiao-fei
2011-09-01
The practicable and effective methods for residual risk assessment on transfusion-transmitted disease was to establish the mathematic models. Based on the characteristics of the repeat donors which donated their blood on a regular base, a model of sero-conversion during the interval of donations was established to assess the incidence of the repeat donors. Based on the characteristics of the prevalence in the population, a model of 'prevalence increased with the age of the donor' was established to assess the incidence of those first-time donors. And based on the impact of the windows period through blood screening program, a model of residual risk associated with the incidence and the length of the windows period was established to assess the residual risk of blood transfusion. In this paper, above said 3 kinds of mathematic models were jointly applied to assess the residual risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) which was transmitted through blood transfusion in Shanghai, based on data from the routine blood collection and screening program. All the anti-HCV unqualified blood donations were confirmed before assessment. Results showed that the residual risk of HCV transmitted through blood transfusion during Jan. 1(st), 2007 to Dec. 31(st), 2008 in Shanghai was 1:101 000. Data showed that the results of residual risk assessment with mathematic models was valuable. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV in Shanghai was at a safe level, according to the results in this paper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Suzanne; And Others
1995-01-01
Over 5,000 students participated in a study of the dimensionality and stability of the item parameter estimates of a mathematics performance assessment developed for the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) Project. Results demonstrate the test's dimensionality and illustrate ways to examine use of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cobb, Floyd, II; Russell, Nicole M.
2015-01-01
Through the examination of a collection of macro factors and explanations for racial disparities in mathematics assessment found in the literature, this article takes up these accounts and problematizes the factors by unpacking the assumptions and exposing complexities. We do this using Critical Race Theory (CRT) to reinterpret and call out…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allmond, Sue; Hillman, Jude; Huntly, Karen; Makar, Katie; O'Brien, Mia
2016-01-01
Intellectual risk is valued among 21st century skills. Three primary teachers who promoted positive learning within mathematical inquiry collaborated with researchers to design and apply a rubric to assess children's progress in taking intellectual risks twice during the year. Results suggest that handling setbacks and giving feedback to peers…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Michael D.
2013-01-01
While recent national and international assessments have shown mathematical progress being made by US students, little to no gains are evident in the areas of geometry and measurement. These reports also suggest that practicing teachers have traditionally had few opportunities to engage in content learning around topics in geometry and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Banerji, Madhabi
2000-01-01
Validated data from a developmental mathematics assessment using classical and three-faceted Rasch measurement methods. Analysis of field test data for 289 elementary school students suggested that a unidimensional construct was being measured, as defined by Rasch criteria. Discusses limitations in confirming content-related validity of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Opara, Ijeoma M.; Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Njoku, Joyce U.
2015-01-01
The study investigated the predictive power of school based assessment scores on students' achievement in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) in English and Mathematics. Two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. A sample of 250 students were randomly drawn…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiu, Pui Chi
2012-01-01
This study examines student growth on mathematics and reading assessments across academic years (Spring 2006 through Spring 2009) using three different growth models: hierarchical linear model (HLM), value-added model (VAM), and student growth percentile model (SGP). Comparisons across these three growth models were conducted to investigate the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hickendorff, Marian
2013-01-01
The results of an exploratory study into measurement of elementary mathematics ability are presented. The focus is on the abilities involved in solving standard computation problems on the one hand and problems presented in a realistic context on the other. The objectives were to assess to what extent these abilities are shared or distinct, and…
Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, I R; Lovett, J V
2005-04-01
One of the main challenges to the research on allelopathy is technically the separation of allelopathic effect from competition, and quantitatively, the assessment of the contribution of each component to overall interference. A simple mathematical model is proposed to calculate the contribution of allelopathy and competition to interference. As an example of applying the quantitative model to interference by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Triumph), the approach used was an addition of allelopathic effect, by an equivalent amount, to the environment of the test plant (white mustard, Sinapis alba), rather than elimination of competition. Experiments were conducted in glasshouse to determine the magnitude of the contributions of allelopathy and competition to interference by barley. The leachates of living barley roots significantly reduced the total dry weight of white mustard. The model involved the calculation of adjusted densities to an equivalent basis for modelling the contribution of allelopathy and competition to total interference. The results showed that allelopathy contributed 40%, 37% and 43% to interference by barley at 6, 12 and 18 white mustard pot(-1). The consistency in magnitude of the calculated contribution of allelopathic effect by barley across various densities of receiver plant suggested that the adjusted equivalent density is effective and that the model is able to assess the contribution of each component of interference regardless of the density of receiver plant.
Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, I.R.; Lovett, J.V.
2005-01-01
One of the main challenges to the research on allelopathy is technically the separation of allelopathic effect from competition, and quantitatively, the assessment of the contribution of each component to overall interference. A simple mathematical model is proposed to calculate the contribution of allelopathy and competition to interference. As an example of applying the quantitative model to interference by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Triumph), the approach used was an addition of allelopathic effect, by an equivalent amount, to the environment of the test plant (white mustard, Sinapis alba), rather than elimination of competition. Experiments were conducted in glasshouse to determine the magnitude of the contributions of allelopathy and competition to interference by barley. The leachates of living barley roots significantly reduced the total dry weight of white mustard. The model involved the calculation of adjusted densities to an equivalent basis for modelling the contribution of allelopathy and competition to total interference. The results showed that allelopathy contributed 40%, 37% and 43% to interference by barley at 6, 12 and 18 white mustard pot−1. The consistency in magnitude of the calculated contribution of allelopathic effect by barley across various densities of receiver plant suggested that the adjusted equivalent density is effective and that the model is able to assess the contribution of each component of interference regardless of the density of receiver plant. PMID:19330162
Use of mathematical models for assessing the pool and dynamics of carbon in forest soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komarov, A. S.
2008-12-01
The contribution of forest soils to the total carbon budget and to the emission of greenhouse gases is an important problem involved in many international programs, including the Kyoto Protocol. Direct measurements of the carbon pool in forest soils and its changes are slow and expensive; therefore, mathematical models are proposed in different countries for describing the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM). The models differ in complexity and consider different processes of SOM mineralization and humification. The input parameters include model coefficients (these are usually the rates of decomposition and humification of different SOM compartments) and the initial values for different SOM pools. The coefficients can be estimated in special laboratory and field experiments, but the characteristics of the initial values for different SOM pools are usually absent. In this case, some assumptions about the character of SOM accumulation, which depends on forest vegetation, are used. The most realistic is the use of databases on the pools of carbon and other elements related to the types of forest or habitat conditions, including the primarily water regime and soil fertility. Under some suppositions, the agreement conditions between the main parameters of the SOM and forest vegetation can be formulated to assess the initial SOM pools in the forest litter and mineral horizons of the soil. An example of assessing the prediction of forest soil dynamics in Leningrad oblast was considered.
Assessment of Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater in Korea Using a Mathematical Simulation Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, E.; Kim, M.; Lee, K.
2005-12-01
According to the nationwide groundwater monitoring system, nitrate is one of the major contaminants found in groundwater in Korea. Septic systems, animal waste and fertilizer are potential sources of nitrate contamination. There have been a growing number of studies on identification of the source of nitrate contamination of groundwater at agricultural sites, or analysis of the groundwater contamination at intensive livestock facilities. However, there have been a few studies on linkage between the surface loading of nitrate sources and the level of groundwater contamination. The objective of this study is to assess the groundwater contamination with nitrate resulted from current agricultural practices, and the potential impacts of changes in the practices on the groundwater contamination by using a mathematical model. An integrated modeling framework incorporating the nitrogen leaching model, LEACHN, and mass transport model, RT3D linked to MODFLOW was used to account for the fate and transport of nitrate through soil and groundwater. Data were collected from different areas so that they could represent the condition of agricultural sites in Korea. The groundwater nitrate contamination was assessed for different crops and soil types under varying fertilization rates and manure application.
Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Sullivan, John L; Keoleian, Gregory A
2015-08-18
Lightweighting is a key strategy to improve vehicle fuel economy. Assessing the life-cycle benefits of lightweighting requires a quantitative description of the use-phase fuel consumption reduction associated with mass reduction. We present novel methods of estimating mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) and fuel reduction values (FRVs) from fuel economy and dynamometer test data in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) database. In the past, FRVs have been measured using experimental testing. We demonstrate that FRVs can be mathematically derived from coast down coefficients in the EPA vehicle test database avoiding additional testing. MIF and FRVs calculated for 83 different 2013 MY vehicles are in the ranges 0.22-0.43 and 0.15-0.26 L/(100 km 100 kg), respectively, and increase to 0.27-0.53 L/(100 km 100 kg) with powertrain resizing to retain equivalent vehicle performance. We show how use-phase fuel consumption can be estimated using MIF and FRVs in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of vehicle lightweighting from total vehicle and vehicle component perspectives with, and without, powertrain resizing. The mass-induced fuel consumption model is illustrated by estimating lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benefits from lightweighting a grille opening reinforcement component using magnesium or carbon fiber composite for 83 different vehicle models.
Culver, J.S.; Tunnell, W.C.
1958-08-01
A jig or device is described for setting or aligning an opening in one member relative to another member or structure, with a predetermined offset, or it may be used for measuring the amount of offset with which the parts have previously been sct. This jig comprises two blocks rabbeted to each other, with means for securing thc upper block to the lower block. The upper block has fingers for contacting one of the members to be a1igmed, the lower block is designed to ride in grooves within the reference member, and calibration marks are provided to determine the amount of offset. This jig is specially designed to align the collimating slits of a mass spectrometer.
Dowell, Larry Jonathan
2014-04-22
Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.
An Assessment of the Level of Mathematics in Introductory Meteorology Textbooks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulanski, Stan L.
1992-10-01
A review of introductory meteorology textbooks shows a wide difference in the level of mathematical treatment of atmospheric principles-from virtually none to fairly high. Particular deficiencies include lack of equations integrated into the text, problem-solving examples, and paucity of end-of-chapter questions requiring mathematical reasoning. These issues are raised in order to generate discussion among the meteorological community with regard to the degree of interaction between mathematics and meteorology in introductory courses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.
2014-03-01
This study examined the effect of learning progression-aligned formal embedded formative assessment on conceptual change and achievement in middle-school science. Fifty-two sixth graders were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were taught about sinking and floating by the same teacher with identical curriculum materials and activities. The experimental group received, in addition, three sets of formal embedded formative assessments with qualitative feedback as to how to improve their understandings aligned with an expected learning progression during instruction. The control group spent the corresponding time between new curriculum activities conducting curriculum-specific extension activities. Overall, the experimental group experienced on average greater conceptual change than the control group. The experimental group also scored higher on average than the control group on general achievement tests, especially the performance assessment. This study supported the contention, then, that embedding formal formative assessments within a curricular sequence built around an expected learning progression is a useful way to promote conceptual change along that learning progression in science classrooms.
Early Mathematics Fluency with CCSSM
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matney, Gabriel T.
2014-01-01
To develop second-grade students' confidence and ease, this author presents examples of learning tasks (Number of the Day, Word Problem Solving, and Modeling New Mathematical Ideas) that align with Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and that build mathematical fluency to promote students' creative expression of mathematical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kulikowich, Jonna M.
2007-01-01
Operating from multiple literature bases in cognitive psychology, mathematics education, and theoretical and applied psychometrics, Schilling, Hill and their colleagues provide a systemic approach to studying the validity of scores of mathematical knowledge for teaching. This system encompasses an array of task formats and methodologies. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.
2013-01-01
This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers…
An Analysis of Gender Differences on Performance Assessment in Mathematics--A Follow-Up Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Liru; Wilson, Linda; Manon, Jon
To add to previous research on gender differences in mathematics ability and achievement, this study was designed to investigate gender differences in problem-solving strategies for two extended constructed-response mathematics questions in grade 3. It is a followup to a study of gender differences on constructed-response and multiple-choice items…
Primary Trait Analysis to Assess a Learner-Centered, Upper-Level Mathematics Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alsardary, Salar; Pontiggia, Laura; Hamid, Mohammed; Blumberg, Phyllis
2011-01-01
This study presents a primary trait analysis of a learner-centered, discrete mathematics course based on student-to-student instruction. The authors developed a scoring rubric for the primary traits: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, application of understanding, and mathematical communication skills. Eleven students took an exam…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mutodi, Paul; Chigonga, Benard
2016-01-01
This paper reports on teachers' views on concept mapping: its applicability; reliability; advantages and; difficulties. A close-ended questionnaire was administered to 50 purposefully selected secondary school mathematics teachers from Sekhukhune District, Limpopo, South Africa. The findings indicate that mathematics teachers generally perceive…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinzie, Mable B.; Pianta, Robert C.; Kilday, Carolyn R.; McGuire, Patrick R.; Pinkham, Ashley M.
2009-01-01
The "MTP-Math/Science" curricula specifically target the teaching and learning of children at risk of early school failure, a population for whom achievement gaps in mathematics and science are visible even in Pre-K years. "MTP-Math" is based on Focal Areas defined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin. Div. of Community and Technical Colleges.
This report aims to address concerns regarding the need for developmental education in mathematics in the higher education institutions in Texas. Fifty-three million dollars of the $93 million appropriated for developmental education in Texas in 2002 went to mathematics. About 40% of new students in two-year colleges and 20% of new students in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
2001
A project sought to improve mathematics instruction at the Winnebago Public School (WPS) on the Winnebago Indian Reservation (Nebraska) and to provide purposeful interactions between preservice teachers from Wayne State College and Native American children. WPS educators, grades K-6, improved their mathematics instructional ability by attending…
Seethaler, Pamela M; Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L
2016-12-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the added value of dynamic assessment (DA) beyond more conventional static measures for predicting individual differences in year-end 1(st)-grade calculation (CA) and word-problem (WP) performance, as a function of limited English proficiency (LEP) status. At the start of 1(st) grade, students (129 LEP; 163 non-LEP) were assessed on a brief static mathematics test, an extended static mathematics test, static tests of domain-general abilities associated with CAs and WPs (vocabulary; reasoning), and DA. Near end of 1(st) grade, they were assessed on CA and WP. Regression analyses indicated that the value of the predictor depends on the predicted outcome and LEP status. In predicting CAs, the extended mathematics test and DA uniquely explained variance for LEP children, with stronger predictive value for the extended mathematics test; for non-LEP children, the extended mathematics test was the only significant predictor. However, in predicting WPs, only DA and vocabulary were uniquely predictive for LEP children, with stronger value for DA; for non-LEP children, the extended mathematics test and DA were comparably uniquely predictive. Neither the brief static mathematics test nor reasoning was significant in predicting either outcome. The potential value of a gated screening process, using an extended mathematics assessment to predict CAs and using DA to predict WPs, is discussed.
Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the added value of dynamic assessment (DA) beyond more conventional static measures for predicting individual differences in year-end 1st-grade calculation (CA) and word-problem (WP) performance, as a function of limited English proficiency (LEP) status. At the start of 1st grade, students (129 LEP; 163 non-LEP) were assessed on a brief static mathematics test, an extended static mathematics test, static tests of domain-general abilities associated with CAs and WPs (vocabulary; reasoning), and DA. Near end of 1st grade, they were assessed on CA and WP. Regression analyses indicated that the value of the predictor depends on the predicted outcome and LEP status. In predicting CAs, the extended mathematics test and DA uniquely explained variance for LEP children, with stronger predictive value for the extended mathematics test; for non-LEP children, the extended mathematics test was the only significant predictor. However, in predicting WPs, only DA and vocabulary were uniquely predictive for LEP children, with stronger value for DA; for non-LEP children, the extended mathematics test and DA were comparably uniquely predictive. Neither the brief static mathematics test nor reasoning was significant in predicting either outcome. The potential value of a gated screening process, using an extended mathematics assessment to predict CAs and using DA to predict WPs, is discussed. PMID:26523068
Assessing control bundles for Clostridium difficile: a review and mathematical model.
Yakob, Laith; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L; Marquess, John; Clements, Archie Ca
2014-06-01
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Integrating several infection control and prevention methods is a burgeoning strategy for reducing disease incidence in healthcare settings. We present an up-to-date review of the literature on 'control bundles' used to mitigate the transmission of this pathogen. All clinical studies of control bundles reported substantial reductions in disease rates, in the order of 33%-61%. Using a biologically realistic mathematical model we then simulated the efficacy of different combinations of the most prominent control methods: stricter antimicrobial stewardship; the administering of probiotics/intestinal microbiota transplantation; and improved hygiene and sanitation. We also assessed the health gains that can be expected from reducing the average length of stay of inpatients. In terms of reducing the rates of colonization, all combinations had the potential to give rise to marked improvements. For example, halving the number of inpatients on broad-spectrum antimicrobials combined with prescribing probiotics or intestinal microbiota transplantation could cut pathogen carriage by two-thirds. However, in terms of symptomatic disease incidence reduction, antimicrobials, probiotics and intestinal microbiota transplantation proved substantially less effective. Eliminating within-ward transmission by improving sanitation and reducing average length of stay (from six to three days) yielded the most potent symptomatic infection control combination, cutting rates down from three to less than one per 1000 hospital bed days. Both the empirical and theoretical exploration of C. difficile control combinations presented in the current study highlights the potential gains that can be achieved through strategically integrated infection control.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegfried, John Zig Michael
2012-01-01
Teachers' mathematical content knowledge is one of the most important constructs considered by researchers studying elementary mathematics education (Fennema & Franke, 1992). One component of mathematical content knowledge that is complicated, ill-defined, and oft-ignored is "productive disposition," defined as the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graf, Edith Aurora
2009-01-01
This report makes recommendations for the development of middle-school assessment in mathematics, based on a synthesis of scientific findings in cognitive psychology and mathematics education. The focus is on background research, rather than test specifications or example tasks. Readers interested in early development and pilot efforts associated…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
2013-01-01
This document represents one of three appendices associated with "The Nation's Report Card: A First Look--2013 Mathematics and Reading. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 4 and 8. NCES 2014-451." It includes tabular data relating to the mathematics portion of the Tables of Education Progress at Grade 4 and 8. [For the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2007
2007-01-01
The Hawai'i State Assessment is an annual testing program that measures student progress on Hawai'i's reading, writing, and mathematics standards. This handbook provides all Department of Education personnel at the school, complex area, and state levels with information about participation in the Hawai'i State Reading and Mathematics Assessment…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Güzeller, Cem Oktay; Eser, Mehmet Taha; Aksu, Gökhan
2016-01-01
This study attempts to determine the factors affecting the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2012 and the correct classification ratio of the established model. The study used mathematics achievement as a dependent variable while sex, having a study room, preparation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nyroos, Mikaela; Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance measured by the national curriculum assessment in third-grade children (n = 40). The national tests concerned six subareas within mathematics. One-way ANOVA, two-tailed Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, J.; Grigg, W.; Dion, G.
2007-01-01
The 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) evaluated students' understanding of mathematics concepts and their ability to apply mathematics to everyday situations. Students demonstrated their knowledge of these critical skills by responding to questions about number properties and operations, measurement, geometry, data analysis…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, Nanci A.; Perry, Jeannine B.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.
2004-01-01
NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the series over the first five seasons (1998-99 through 2002-03) reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for the grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chia, Magda Y.
2014-01-01
The Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (Smarter Balanced) serves over 19 million primary, middle, and high school students from across 26 states and affiliates (Smarter Balanced, n.d). As one of the two Race to the Top (RTT)-funded assessment consortia, Smarter Balanced is responsible for developing formative, interim, and summative…
Mathematical and statistical analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houston, A. Glen
1988-01-01
The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.
Watanabe, Manabu; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Ono, Susumu; Koseki, Hirohisa; Watarai, Koji
2016-01-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between malalignment and lower-extremity injury and to determine the optimal dynamic alignment of the lower extremity with wall squats. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy individuals from one therapy school were enrolled and assigned to a wall squat normal or abnormal group based on their forms during wall squats. The abnormal group was found to be more prone to lower-extremity injury on three-dimensional motion analysis. Eight students from each group were randomly chosen for the study. The effects of single-leg landing movements were assessed using three-dimensional motion analysis. [Results] In the sagittal plane, significant flexion of the hip and knee joints occurred 0.02 and 0.04 seconds after initial foot contact with the ground in the normal and abnormal groups, respectively. In the frontal plane, significant adduction of the hip joint occurred at 0.07 seconds in the abnormal group. [Conclusion] The abnormal group tended to display later flexion of the hip and knee joints and narrower hip, knee, and ankle range of motion than the normal group, suggesting that dynamic alignment of the lower extremity in the abnormal group likely made them susceptible to injury. PMID:27390393
Mathematical modeling as a tool to assess microbial community responses to CO2 injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilcaez, J.
2014-12-01
The issue of subsurface microbial community responses to the injection of CO2 has great importance not only from a risk assessment point of view but also from the perspective of CO2 recycling to CH4. In this sense, the objective of this study is to develop mathematical models to make a quantitative description of the responses of subsurface indigenous microbial communities to the injection of CO2. For this end, TOUGHREACTV1.2 reactive transport simulator with its module ECO2N is used as the modeling framework. The targeted microbial community is composed of fermentative bacteria (Organic matter → Acetate & H2), acetotrophic methanogens (Acetate → Methane & CO2), acetotrophic Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) (Acetate → H2S & CO2), hydrogenotrophic methanogens (H2 & CO2 → CH4), and hydrogenotrophic SRB (H2 → H2S). Due to the multiple hydrogeological, geochemical and microbiological factors intervening in both the response of subsurface microbial communities to the injection of CO2 and the chemical and physical fate of CO2 itself, at this stage simulations have been performed in batch mode. That means numerical simulations aimed to track changes in CO2 saturation levels, pH, and concentrations of mineral and aqueous phase species over time at selected initial conditions. Numerical simulation results indicate that the activity of microbes associated with methanogenic processes in geological storage sites of CO2 is governed by the level of CO2 saturation in the pore space as well as by the presence of pH buffering minerals such as calcite. With calcite in the mineral phase attenuating drops in pH below inhibitory levels, for instance it is shown that acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic SRB outcompete acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens for acetate and H2, respectively. During the initial stages of the reaction when the pH level is lowest, the higher tolerance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to acidic pH levels is reflected by a preferential formation of
Multiple protein structure alignment.
Taylor, W. R.; Flores, T. P.; Orengo, C. A.
1994-01-01
A method was developed to compare protein structures and to combine them into a multiple structure consensus. Previous methods of multiple structure comparison have only concatenated pairwise alignments or produced a consensus structure by averaging coordinate sets. The current method is a fusion of the fast structure comparison program SSAP and the multiple sequence alignment program MULTAL. As in MULTAL, structures are progressively combined, producing intermediate consensus structures that are compared directly to each other and all remaining single structures. This leads to a hierarchic "condensation," continually evaluated in the light of the emerging conserved core regions. Following the SSAP approach, all interatomic vectors were retained with well-conserved regions distinguished by coherent vector bundles (the structural equivalent of a conserved sequence position). Each bundle of vectors is summarized by a resultant, whereas vector coherence is captured in an error term, which is the only distinction between conserved and variable positions. Resultant vectors are used directly in the comparison, which is weighted by their error values, giving greater importance to the matching of conserved positions. The resultant vectors and their errors can also be used directly in molecular modeling. Applications of the method were assessed by the quality of the resulting sequence alignments, phylogenetic tree construction, and databank scanning with the consensus. Visual assessment of the structural superpositions and consensus structure for various well-characterized families confirmed that the consensus had identified a reasonable core. PMID:7849601
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hunt, Jessica H.; Welch-Ptak, Jasmine J.; Silva, Juanita M.
2016-01-01
Documenting how students with learning disabilities (LD) initially conceive of fractional quantities, and how their understandings may align with or differ from students with mathematics difficulties, is necessary to guide development of assessments and interventions that attach to unique ways of thinking or inherent difficulties these students…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seeratan, Kavita L.
2011-01-01
In collaboration with two other research organizations, the authors integrate principles of the BEAR Assessment System with Universal Design for Learning principles to develop and validate learning progressions and an aligned, universally designed formative and summative classroom assessment system for promoting conceptual understanding of number…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kurlaender, Michal; Jackson, Jacob; Howell, Jessica S.
2012-01-01
This brief studies California's introduction of the Early Assessment Program to bridge the gap between K-12 educational standards and postsecondary education requirements, similar to the Common Core State Standards movement.
The Relation between Types of Assessment Tasks and the Mathematical Reasoning Students Use
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boesen, Jesper; Lithner, Johan; Palm, Torulf
2010-01-01
The relation between types of tasks and the mathematical reasoning used by students trying to solve tasks in a national test situation is analyzed. The results show that when confronted with test tasks that share important properties with tasks in the textbook the students solved them by trying to recall facts or algorithms. Such test tasks did…
An Application of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment on TIMMS-2007 8th Grade Mathematics Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toker, Turker; Green, Kathy
2012-01-01
The least squares distance method (LSDM) was used in a cognitive diagnostic analysis of TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) items administered to 4,498 8th-grade students from seven geographical regions of Turkey, extending analysis of attributes from content to process and skill attributes. Logit item positions were…
Assessing Academic and Creative Abilities in Mathematics at Four Levels of Understanding.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livne, Nava L.; Livne, Oren E.; Milgram, Roberta M.
1999-01-01
Develops a mapping sentence to construct test items measuring academic and creative abilities in mathematics at four levels. Describes the three stages of the process of developing the mapping sentence and presents examples of test items representing each ability/level combination. Contains 63 references. (Author/ASK)
Robotics: Assessing Its Role in Improving Mathematics Skills for Grades 4 to 5
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laughlin, Sara Rose
2013-01-01
Inspiring and motivating students to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education continues to be an important educational focus in the United States. Robotics programs are one strategy developed to accomplish this goal. This causal comparative study focused on investigating whether a causal relationship exists between…
Improving Mathematical Skills Assessed on the High School Proficiency Test: Computation of Percents.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hills, Catherine A.
This monograph aims to provide teachers of grades 7, 8, and 9 with a variety of instructional activities and strategies that identify student difficulties in computing percents and teaching the skills needed for that cluster on the mathematics part of the New Jersey High School Proficiency Test (HSPT). Sections include: (1) "Concepts"…
[The assessment of prognosis of carotid endarterectomy by cliniсal-mathematical method].
Spirin, N N; Malyshev, N N; Malysheva, I V
2012-01-01
We examined 127 patients with atherosclerotic stenosis of carotid arteries who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEAE). In the most of patients (85%), CEAE slowed the progression of chronic cerebral ischemia leading to the stabilization or improvement of neurologic and/or neuropsychological status. The analysis of the data allowed to suggest a mathematical model for predicting the outcome of the surgery.
Double Visions: Educational Technology in Standards and Assessments for Science and Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Irving, Karen E.; Bell, Randy L.
2004-01-01
For educational technology integration in content disciplines to succeed, teachers and teacher educators need clear standards delineating why, how, where, and how much educational technology they should include in their teaching. This paper examines the visions offered by current science, mathematics, and educational technology standards for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montiel, Mariana; Bhatti, Uzma
2010-01-01
This article presents an overview of some issues that were confronted when delivering an online second Linear Algebra course (assuming a previous Introductory Linear Algebra course) to graduate students enrolled in a Secondary Mathematics Education program. The focus is on performance in one particular aspect of the course: "change of basis" and…
Differences between Mathematics Test Assessment Scores for Middle School Hispanic Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Washington, Nefertitti T.
2016-01-01
Today's classroom is the continuation of America as "the melting pot". Within this educational setting is an increased emphasis on student mathematical success as well as the acquisition of the English language by foreign-born students, whose families have come as an actualization of the American dream. Educators are striving to find…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gadalla, Tahany M.
The equivalence of multiple-choice (MC) and constructed response (discrete) (CR-D) response formats as applied to mathematics computation at grade levels two to six was tested. The difference between total scores from the two response formats was tested for statistical significance, and the factor structure of items in both response formats was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marinos, Andreas
2012-01-01
In this study, there is an attempt to teach simple mathematical concepts of fractional numbers to Secondary School students in Technical School who, despite their age, had not previously managed to understand these concepts. At the same time, to further the success of this undertaking, we also examined the emotions generated in the students. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shanley, Lina
2016-01-01
Accurately measuring and modeling academic achievement growth is critical to support educational policy and practice. Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, this study compared various models of mathematics achievement growth on the basis of both practical utility and optimal statistical fit and explored relationships within and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guzey, S. Selcen; Harwell, Michael; Moore, Tamara
2014-01-01
There is a need for more students to be interested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers to advance U.S. competitiveness and economic growth. A consensus exists that improving STEM education is necessary for motivating more students to pursue STEM careers. In this study, a survey to measure student (grades 4-6)…
Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar
2014-05-01
Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryan, Peter
The new "Mathematics Framework for California Public Schools" identifies complex instructional activities and student performance, and requires new assessment methods to reveal that performance. One of the goals of the California Assessment Collaborative (CAC) is to study the effects of local assessment development and implementation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hebert, Michael A.; Powell, Sarah R.
2016-01-01
Increasingly, students are expected to write about mathematics. Mathematics writing may be informal (e.g., journals, exit slips) or formal (e.g., writing prompts on high-stakes mathematics assessments). In order to develop an effective mathematics-writing intervention, research needs to be conducted on how students organize mathematics writing and…
Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James
2010-01-01
With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troia, Gary A.; Graham, Steve
2016-01-01
A random sample of 482 teachers in grades 3 through 8 from across the United States were surveyed about (a) their perceptions of the version of the Common Core writing and language standards adopted by their state and their state's writing assessment, (b) their preparation to teach writing, and (c) their self-efficacy beliefs for teaching writing.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stephens, Wendy
2014-01-01
School librarians and other specialists should take note of the new wave of computer-based assessments required by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), testing that is only now beginning to get off the ground. The new testing necessitates that districts possess the right hardware, install the requisite software, and, in some cases, create…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dabbagh, Nada; English, Mary
2015-01-01
This research examined students' self-reported proficiency in Instructional Design (ID) competencies using IBSTPI and AECT standards in order to assess the extent to which these standards are integrated in a university's graduate ID program. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 34 students who completed Advanced Instructional Design…
1980-02-01
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Mathematical accuracy of Aztec land surveys assessed from records in the Codex Vergara.
Jorge, María del Carmen; Williams, Barbara J; Garza-Hume, C E; Olvera, Arturo
2011-09-13
Land surveying in ancient states is documented not only for Eurasia but also for the Americas, amply attested by two Acolhua-Aztec pictorial manuscripts from the Valley of Mexico. The Codex Vergara and the Códice de Santa María Asunción consist of hundreds of drawings of agricultural fields that uniquely record surface areas as well as perimeter measurements. A previous study of the Codex Vergara examines how Acolhua-Aztecs determined field area by reconstructing their calculation procedures. Here we evaluate the accuracy of their area values using modern mathematics. The findings verify the overall mathematical validity of the codex records. Three-quarters of the areas are within 5% of the maximum possible value, and 85% are within 10%, which compares well with reported errors by Western surveyors that postdate Aztec-Acolhua work by several centuries.
Mathematical accuracy of Aztec land surveys assessed from records in the Codex Vergara
Williams, Barbara J.; Garza-Hume, C. E.; Olvera, Arturo
2011-01-01
Land surveying in ancient states is documented not only for Eurasia but also for the Americas, amply attested by two Acolhua–Aztec pictorial manuscripts from the Valley of Mexico. The Codex Vergara and the Códice de Santa María Asunción consist of hundreds of drawings of agricultural fields that uniquely record surface areas as well as perimeter measurements. A previous study of the Codex Vergara examines how Acolhua–Aztecs determined field area by reconstructing their calculation procedures. Here we evaluate the accuracy of their area values using modern mathematics. The findings verify the overall mathematical validity of the codex records. Three-quarters of the areas are within 5% of the maximum possible value, and 85% are within 10%, which compares well with reported errors by Western surveyors that postdate Aztec–Acolhua work by several centuries. PMID:21876138
Stellar Alignments - Identification and Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruggles, Clive L. N.
Fortuitous stellar alignments can be fitted to structural orientations with relative ease by the unwary. Nonetheless, cautious approaches taking into account a broader range of cultural evidence, as well as paying due attention to potential methodological pitfalls, have been successful in identifying credible stellar alignments—and constructing plausible assessments of their cultural significance—in a variety of circumstances. These range from single instances of alignments upon particular asterisms where the corroborating historical or ethnographic evidence is strong to repeated instances of oriented structures with only limited independent cultural information but where systematic, data-driven approaches can be productive. In the majority of cases, the identification and interpretation of putative stellar alignments relates to groups of similar monuments or complex single sites and involves a balance between systematic studies of the alignments themselves, backed up by statistical analysis where appropriate, and the consideration of a range of contextual evidence, either derived from the archaeological record alone or from other relevant sources.
Stoet, Gijsbert; Geary, David C.
2013-01-01
We analyzed one decade of data collected by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), including the mathematics and reading performance of nearly 1.5 million 15 year olds in 75 countries. Across nations, boys scored higher than girls in mathematics, but lower than girls in reading. The sex difference in reading was three times as large as in mathematics. There was considerable variation in the extent of the sex differences between nations. There are countries without a sex difference in mathematics performance, and in some countries girls scored higher than boys. Boys scored lower in reading in all nations in all four PISA assessments (2000, 2003, 2006, 2009). Contrary to several previous studies, we found no evidence that the sex differences were related to nations’ gender equality indicators. Further, paradoxically, sex differences in mathematics were consistently and strongly inversely correlated with sex differences in reading: Countries with a smaller sex difference in mathematics had a larger sex difference in reading and vice versa. We demonstrate that this was not merely a between-nation, but also a within-nation effect. This effect is related to relative changes in these sex differences across the performance continuum: We did not find a sex difference in mathematics among the lowest performing students, but this is where the sex difference in reading was largest. In contrast, the sex difference in mathematics was largest among the higher performing students, and this is where the sex difference in reading was smallest. The implication is that if policy makers decide that changes in these sex differences are desired, different approaches will be needed to achieve this for reading and mathematics. Interventions that focus on high-achieving girls in mathematics and on low achieving boys in reading are likely to yield the strongest educational benefits. PMID:23516422
Stoet, Gijsbert; Geary, David C
2013-01-01
We analyzed one decade of data collected by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), including the mathematics and reading performance of nearly 1.5 million 15 year olds in 75 countries. Across nations, boys scored higher than girls in mathematics, but lower than girls in reading. The sex difference in reading was three times as large as in mathematics. There was considerable variation in the extent of the sex differences between nations. There are countries without a sex difference in mathematics performance, and in some countries girls scored higher than boys. Boys scored lower in reading in all nations in all four PISA assessments (2000, 2003, 2006, 2009). Contrary to several previous studies, we found no evidence that the sex differences were related to nations' gender equality indicators. Further, paradoxically, sex differences in mathematics were consistently and strongly inversely correlated with sex differences in reading: Countries with a smaller sex difference in mathematics had a larger sex difference in reading and vice versa. We demonstrate that this was not merely a between-nation, but also a within-nation effect. This effect is related to relative changes in these sex differences across the performance continuum: We did not find a sex difference in mathematics among the lowest performing students, but this is where the sex difference in reading was largest. In contrast, the sex difference in mathematics was largest among the higher performing students, and this is where the sex difference in reading was smallest. The implication is that if policy makers decide that changes in these sex differences are desired, different approaches will be needed to achieve this for reading and mathematics. Interventions that focus on high-achieving girls in mathematics and on low achieving boys in reading are likely to yield the strongest educational benefits.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darlington, Ellie
2014-01-01
This article describes part of a study which investigated the role of questions in students' approaches to learning mathematics at the secondary-tertiary interface, focussing on the enculturation of students at the University of Oxford. Use of the Mathematical Assessment Task Hierarchy taxonomy revealed A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Everage, Hilda Irene Holman
The effects of staff development on hands-on teaching and assessment of Illinois benchmarks in early elementary mathematics and science were examined in Madison County, Illinois. The study determined if teachers teach or assess Illinois learning benchmarks, or use hands-on methods to teach or assess the learning benchmarks. The study determined if teachers had college courses or staff development that included methods of teaching and assessing early elementary level mathematics and science, and the frequency mathematics and science were taught using hands-on methods. The research determined the relationship between the teaching and assessment of Illinois benchmarks and the frequency the benchmarks were taught with 11 selected teacher characteristics. A sample of early elementary teachers from Madison County, Illinois was randomly selected to participate in the study. A researcher designed survey instrument was mailed to the teachers. The analysis of variance was used to measure the statistical interaction between the variables. Statistically significant interaction occurred in 25 of 132 hypotheses tested. There was a relationship between the frequency science was taught using hands-on methods and the number of college courses and workshops completed that included hands-on methods of teaching and assessing science. There was a relationship between the frequency mathematics was taught using hands-on methods and the number of years taught. There was a relationship between the frequency mathematics was assessed and the number of years taught, college courses completed that included hands-on methods of teaching and assessing, and workshops completed that included hands-on methods of assessing. Less than half of the science benchmarks were taught, and very few of the benchmarks were assessed. Less than half of the mathematics benchmarks were taught and a third were assessed. Less than thirty percent of the science benchmarks were taught or assessed using hands-on methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solovyova, N. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.
2015-09-01
This paper proposes a method of mathematical modelling of ecological risk based on a synthesis of dynamic and probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The probability of assessment of an acceptable probability of an anthropogenic impact to minimize economic costs is proposed. The dependence of an acceptable probability of an anthropogenic impact on the ecological risk is demonstrated with an example calculation. The results of the modelling of the state of a shelf ecosystem based on the dynamic model are used for the calculation as source information. Based on this synthesis, the calculation results bring about the opportunity to balance ecological-economic goals of achieving safe development of the shelf and to satisfy the involuntary necessity to reduce the costs on environmental protection measures, while maintaining the priority of environmental requirements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marinos, Andreas
2012-09-01
In this study, there is an attempt to teach simple mathematical concepts of fractional numbers to Secondary School students in Technical School who, despite their age, had not previously managed to understand these concepts. At the same time, to further the success of this undertaking, we also examined the emotions generated in the students. The whole undertaking is shown to be successful, since the students understood the particular concepts taught, and the significant role played by a teacher's ability in the feelings of the students regarding the above approach is realized, since teachers with different abilities created different feelings in their students.
Mathematical model for the assessment of fracture risk associated with osteoporosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinis, Jairson; Pereira, Ana I.; Fonseca, Elza M.
2012-09-01
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass. It is considered a worldwide public health problem that affects a large number of people, in particularly for women with more than 50 years old. The occurrence pattern of osteoporosis in a population may be related to several factors, including socio-economic factors such as income, educational attainment, and factors related to lifestyle such as diet and physical activity. These and other aspects have increasingly been identified as determining the occurrence of various diseases, including osteoporosis. This work proposes a mathematical model that provides the level of osteoporosis in the patient. Preliminary numerical results are presented.
Brunie, Aurélie; Chen, Mario; Akol, Angela
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Background: Maximizing the benefits of community health worker (CHW) programs requires strategies for improving motivation, performance, and retention. Discrete choice experiments (DCE) are increasingly used to inform policy response to health workforce shortages in rural areas, and may be of value in the context of CHW programs. Participants are presented with pairs of hypothetical jobs that are described by job attributes with varying levels and are asked what their preferred job is within each pair. Responses are then analyzed quantitatively to obtain information on what attributes are important to participants. We conducted a qualitative assessment to examine the appropriateness and validity of applying a DCE to a new population of CHWs with lower literacy. Methods: In 2011, we conducted a mixed-method study with CHWs in Uganda, consisting of 183 surveys and 43 in-depth interviews (IDIs). The DCE was administered to both survey and IDI participants. This article reports on the qualitative assessment of the implementation of the DCE. We compare DCE responses between survey and IDI participants to determine whether administering the DCE in a qualitative (IDI) context altered responses. We then present additional information collected on CHWs' decision-making processes and their experiences with the DCE in the IDIs. Results: Choices made by IDI participants were consistent with the choices made by survey participants. In-depth exploration of CHWs' observations in answering the DCE suggest that, overall, CHWs comprehended the DCE exercise and made reasoned choices. However, the data revealed some level of cognitive difficulty and highlighted some design and implementation challenges that are important to consider, particularly when applying a DCE to populations with lower literacy. These include the need to keep the number of attributes small; to choose levels that are realistic yet show sufficient range; and to clearly define attributes and their levels
The State of Mathematics Achievement in Rhode Island: The Trial State Assessment at Grade Eight.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments (37 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands) were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roble, Amanda Jean
2015-01-01
The use of formative assessment can increase student achievement (Black & Wiliam, 1998a). However, some of the challenges of incorporating formative assessment into instruction include the length of time needed to collect, assess and provide feedback to all students and dealing with students misunderstandings and incorrect answers that are…
A Case Study of Teachers' Practices Using Formative Assessment for Fifth Grade Mathematics Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veon, Kenneth E.
2016-01-01
Formative assessment is a classroom learning process that consists of clear goals and objectives, assessing students' knowledge, providing feedback and adjusting instruction based upon the data within a socially interactive process. Because of inconsistent implementation of the formative assessment process within classrooms, the efficacy of the…
The State of Mathematics Achievement in New Mexico: The Trial State Assessment at Grade Eight.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments (37 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands) were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state…
Technical Report of the NAEP 1992 Trial State Assessment Program in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Eugene G.; And Others
The "Nation's Report Card," the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), is the only nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas. This report summarizes some of the sophisticated statistical methodology used in the 1992 Trial State Assessment of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kesianye, Sesutho Koketso
2015-01-01
This paper discusses three different but related perspectives of integrating assessment and instruction from a theoretical perspective. Each of these perspectives is discussed based on the literature to highlight how they may be viewed in the notion of assessment as an integral part of assessment. The theoretical orientations considered here are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Jinfa, And Others
1996-01-01
Presents a conceptual framework for analyzing students' mathematical understanding, reasoning, problem solving, and communication. Analyses of student responses indicated that the tasks appear to measure the complex thinking and reasoning processes that they were designed to assess. Concludes that the QUASAR assessment tasks can capture changes in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livne, Nava L.; Milgram, Roberta M.
2000-01-01
A questionnaire of out-of-school activities was developed to assess mathematical creative ability at four levels using a three-stage circular technique. Israeli high school students (n=139) reported whether they had performed the activities. Resulting data provided evidence of the construct validity of a 12-item scale for assessing creative…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
What Works Clearinghouse, 2015
2015-01-01
The study authors examined the effects of using "Diagnostic Assessment Tools" ("DAT") on mathematics and reading outcomes for students in Indiana schools during the 2009-10 academic year. "DAT" consists of interim assessment tools--Wireless Generation's mCLASS for students in grades K-2 and CTB/ McGraw-Hill's Acuity…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arhonditsis, G.; Giourga, C.; Loumou, A.; Koulouri, M.
2002-09-01
Three mathematical models, the runoff curve number equation, the universal soil loss equation, and the mass response functions, were evaluated for predicting nonpoint source nutrient loading from agricultural watersheds of the Mediterranean region. These methodologies were applied to a catchment, the gulf of Gera Basin, that is a typical terrestrial ecosystem of the islands of the Aegean archipelago. The calibration of the model parameters was based on data from experimental plots from which edge-of-field losses of sediment, water runoff, and nutrients were measured. Special emphasis was given to the transport of dissolved and solid-phase nutrients from their sources in the farmers' fields to the outlet of the watershed in order to estimate respective attenuation rates. It was found that nonpoint nutrient loading due to surface losses was high during winter, the contribution being between 50% and 80% of the total annual nutrient losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. The good fit between simulated and experimental data supports the view that these modeling procedures should be considered as reliable and effective methodological tools in Mediterranean areas for evaluating potential control measures, such as management practices for soil and water conservation and changes in land uses, aimed at diminishing soil loss and nutrient delivery to surface waters. Furthermore, the modifications of the general mathematical formulations and the experimental values of the model parameters provided by the study can be used in further application of these methodologies in watersheds with similar characteristics.
Wu, S S; Chang, T T; Majid, A; Caspers, S; Eickhoff, S B; Menon, V
2009-12-01
Although the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) has been consistently implicated in mathematical cognition, the functional roles of its subdivisions are poorly understood. We address this problem using probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps of IPC subdivisions intraparietal sulcus (IPS), angular gyrus (AG), and supramarginal gyrus. We quantified IPC responses relative to task difficulty and individual differences in task proficiency during mental arithmetic (MA) tasks performed with Arabic (MA-A) and Roman (MA-R) numerals. The 2 tasks showed similar levels of activation in 3 distinct IPS areas, hIP1, hIP2, and hIP3, suggesting their obligatory role in MA. Both AG areas, PGa and PGp, were strongly deactivated in both tasks, with stronger deactivations in posterior area PGp. Compared with the more difficult MA-R task, the MA-A task showed greater responses in both AG areas, but this effect was driven by less deactivation in the MA-A task. AG deactivations showed prominent overlap with lateral parietal nodes of the default mode network, suggesting a nonspecific role in MA. In both tasks, greater bilateral AG deactivation was associated with poorer performance. Our findings suggest a close link between IPC structure and function and they provide new evidence for behaviorally salient functional heterogeneity within the IPC during mathematical cognition.
Arhonditsis, G; Giourga, C; Loumou, A; Koulouri, M
2002-09-01
Three mathematical models, the runoff curve number equation, the universal soil loss equation, and the mass response functions, were evaluated for predicting nonpoint source nutrient loading from agricultural watersheds of the Mediterranean region. These methodologies were applied to a catchment, the gulf of Gera Basin, that is a typical terrestrial ecosystem of the islands of the Aegean archipelago. The calibration of the model parameters was based on data from experimental plots from which edge-of-field losses of sediment, water runoff, and nutrients were measured. Special emphasis was given to the transport of dissolved and solid-phase nutrients from their sources in the farmers' fields to the outlet of the watershed in order to estimate respective attenuation rates. It was found that nonpoint nutrient loading due to surface losses was high during winter, the contribution being between 50% and 80% of the total annual nutrient losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. The good fit between simulated and experimental data supports the view that these modeling procedures should be considered as reliable and effective methodological tools in Mediterranean areas for evaluating potential control measures, such as management practices for soil and water conservation and changes in land uses, aimed at diminishing soil loss and nutrient delivery to surface waters. Furthermore, the modifications of the general mathematical formulations and the experimental values of the model parameters provided by the study can be used in further application of these methodologies in watersheds with similar characteristics.
Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawemeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Antoniadou, Konstantina; Hollinworth, Melissa
2016-05-01
Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder have been found to have deficits in metacognition that could impact upon their learning. This study explored metacognitive monitoring in 28 (23 males and 5 females) participants with autism spectrum disorder and 56 (16 males and 40 females) typically developing controls who were being educated at the same level. Participants were asked a series of mathematics questions. Based upon previous research, after each question they were asked two metacognitive questions: (1) whether they thought they had got the answer correct or not (or 'don't know') and (2) whether they meant to get the answer correct or not (or 'don't know'). Participants with autism spectrum disorder were significantly more likely than the typically developing group to erroneously think that they had got an incorrect answer correct. Having made an error, those with autism spectrum disorder were also significantly more likely to report that they had meant to make the error. Different patterns in the types of errors made were also identified between the two groups. Deficits in metacognition were identified for the autism spectrum disorder group in the learning of mathematics. This is consistent with metacognitive research from different contexts and the implications for supporting learning in autism spectrum disorder are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasongkit, Jariyanee; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Rocha, Alexandre R.; He, Yuhui; Osotchan, Tanakorn; Ahuja, Rajeev; Scheicher, Ralph H.
2015-12-01
Fast, cost effective, single-shot DNA sequencing could be the prelude of a new era in genetics. As DNA encodes the information for the production of proteins in all known living beings on Earth, determining the nucleobase sequences is the first and necessary step in that direction. Graphene-based nanopore devices hold great promise for next-generation DNA sequencing. In this work, we develop a novel approach for sequencing DNA using bilayer graphene to read the interlayer conductance through the layers in the presence of target nucleobases. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of DNA translocation through the pore were performed to trace the nucleobase trajectories and evaluate the interaction between the nucleobases and the nanopore. This interaction stabilizes the bases in different orientations, resulting in smaller fluctuations of the nucleobases inside the pore. We assessed the performance of a bilayer graphene nanopore setup for the purpose of DNA sequencing by employing density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function method to investigate the interlayer conductance of nucleobases coupling simultaneously to the top and bottom graphene layers. The obtained conductance is significantly affected by the presence of DNA in the bilayer graphene nanopore, allowing us to analyze DNA sequences.
Prasongkit, Jariyanee; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Rocha, Alexandre R.; He, Yuhui; Osotchan, Tanakorn; Ahuja, Rajeev; Scheicher, Ralph H.
2015-01-01
Fast, cost effective, single-shot DNA sequencing could be the prelude of a new era in genetics. As DNA encodes the information for the production of proteins in all known living beings on Earth, determining the nucleobase sequences is the first and necessary step in that direction. Graphene-based nanopore devices hold great promise for next-generation DNA sequencing. In this work, we develop a novel approach for sequencing DNA using bilayer graphene to read the interlayer conductance through the layers in the presence of target nucleobases. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of DNA translocation through the pore were performed to trace the nucleobase trajectories and evaluate the interaction between the nucleobases and the nanopore. This interaction stabilizes the bases in different orientations, resulting in smaller fluctuations of the nucleobases inside the pore. We assessed the performance of a bilayer graphene nanopore setup for the purpose of DNA sequencing by employing density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function method to investigate the interlayer conductance of nucleobases coupling simultaneously to the top and bottom graphene layers. The obtained conductance is significantly affected by the presence of DNA in the bilayer graphene nanopore, allowing us to analyze DNA sequences. PMID:26634811
Dieleman, J.; Singh, L.; Whiteford, H. A.
2017-01-01
Background A recent report by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) highlights that mental health receives little attention despite being a major cause of disease burden. This paper extends previous assessments of development assistance for mental health (DAMH) in two significant ways; first by contrasting DAMH against that for other disease categories, and second by benchmarking allocated development assistance against the core disease burden metric (disability-adjusted life year) as estimated by the Global Burden of Disease Studies. Methods In order to track DAH, IHME collates information from audited financial records, project level data, and budget information from the primary global health channels. The diverse set of data were standardised and put into a single inflation adjusted currency (2015 US dollars) and each dollar disbursed was assigned up to one health focus areas from 1990 through 2015. We tied these health financing estimates to disease burden estimates (DALYs) produced by the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study to calculated a standardised measure across health focus areas—development assistance for health (in US Dollars) per DALY. Findings DAMH increased from USD 18 million in 1995 to USD 132 million in 2015, which equates to 0.4% of total DAH in 2015. Over 1990 to 2015, private philanthropy was the most significant source (USD 435 million, 30% of DAMH), while the United States government provided USD 270 million of total DAMH. South and Southeast Asia received the largest proportion of funding for mental health in 2013 (34%). DAMH available per DALY in 2013 ranged from USD 0.27 in East Asia and the Pacific to USD 1.18 in the Middle East and North Africa. HIV/AIDS received the largest ratio of funds to burden—approximately USD150 per DALY in 2013. Mental and substance use disorders and its broader category of non-communicable disease received less than USD1 of DAH per DALY. Interpretation Combining estimates of disease burden
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Christie S.; Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Lambert, Richard G.; Pugalee, David K.
2016-01-01
This study examined the influence of professional development on elementary school teachers' perceptions of and use of an internet-based formative assessment tool focused on students' number sense skills. Data sources include teacher-participants' pre and post survey, open ended response on post survey, use of the assessment tool and their written…
DALIX: optimal DALI protein structure alignment.
Wohlers, Inken; Andonov, Rumen; Klau, Gunnar W
2013-01-01
We present a mathematical model and exact algorithm for optimally aligning protein structures using the DALI scoring model. This scoring model is based on comparing the interresidue distance matrices of proteins and is used in the popular DALI software tool, a heuristic method for protein structure alignment. Our model and algorithm extend an integer linear programming approach that has been previously applied for the related, but simpler, contact map overlap problem. To this end, we introduce a novel type of constraint that handles negative score values and relax it in a Lagrangian fashion. The new algorithm, which we call DALIX, is applicable to any distance matrix-based scoring scheme. We also review options that allow to consider fewer pairs of interresidue distances explicitly because their large number hinders the optimization process. Using four known data sets of varying structural similarity, we compute many provably score-optimal DALI alignments. This allowed, for the first time, to evaluate the DALI heuristic in sound mathematical terms. The results indicate that DALI usually computes optimal or close to optimal alignments. However, we detect a subset of small proteins for which DALI fails to generate any significant alignment, although such alignments do exist.
A comparison of the various helicopter mathematical models used in the methodology assessment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephens, Wendell B.
1988-01-01
Various features of the computer codes used in the helicopter industry and by government agencies for rotorcraft aeroelastic stability analysis are compared. Mathematical rigor in modeling rotorcraft is given primarily to the rotor-system dynamic behavior; the aerodynamic modeling is still limited to strip theory and to uneven application of corrections for stall, reversed flow, yawed flow, radial flow, and unsteady aerodynamic effects. The forward-flight regime analysis is included in five of the 11 codes surveyed. However, only two of these codes are capable of a Floquet analysis for aeroelastic stability. For the hover regime, nine of the 11 codes use eigen-analysis approach. The remaining codes perform a harmonic analysis of the transient response of system.
Carbon monoxide effects on human ventricle action potential assessed by mathematical simulations
Trenor, Beatriz; Cardona, Karen; Saiz, Javier; Rajamani, Sridharan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Giles, Wayne R.
2013-01-01
Carbon monoxide (CO) that is produced in a number of different mammalian tissues is now known to have significant effects on the cardiovascular system. These include: (i) vasodilation, (ii) changes in heart rate and strength of contractions, and (iii) modulation of autonomic nervous system input to both the primary pacemaker and the working myocardium. Excessive CO in the environment is toxic and can initiate or mediate life threatening cardiac rhythm disturbances. Recent reports link these ventricular arrhythmias to an increase in the slowly inactivating, or “late” component of the Na+ current in the mammalian heart. The main goal of this paper is to explore the basis of this pro-arrhythmic capability of CO by incorporating changes in CO-induced ion channel activity with intracellular signaling pathways in the mammalian heart. To do this, a quite well-documented mathematical model of the action potential and intracellular calcium transient in the human ventricular myocyte has been employed. In silico iterations based on this model provide a useful first step in illustrating the cellular electrophysiological consequences of CO that have been reported from mammalian heart experiments. Specifically, when the Grandi et al. model of the human ventricular action potential is utilized, and after the Na+ and Ca2+ currents in a single myocyte are modified based on the experimental literature, early after-depolarization (EAD) rhythm disturbances appear, and important elements of the underlying causes of these EADs are revealed/illustrated. Our modified mathematical model of the human ventricular action potential also provides a convenient digital platform for designing future experimental work and relating these changes in cellular cardiac electrophysiology to emerging clinical and epidemiological data on CO toxicity. PMID:24146650
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wertheim, J.; Willard, S.
2011-12-01
There is growing interest in ensuring that citizens understand weather and climate sufficiently to make informed decisions, and these topics are gaining increased attention in K-12 education. The National Research Council recently released A Framework for K-12 Science Education with the expectation that U.S. 12th graders must have a sophisticated knowledge of climate change, including the role of deep time, variability, and computer modeling in the prediction of climate impacts on the planet and human activity. This requirement demands that students extend their understanding of climate change to the past and future, but it is important to recognize that many students know little about prerequisite ideas, such as daily and annual weather and climate processes, and this problem must be addressed prior to introducing the complexities of the climate system. In order to diagnose weaknesses in students' foundational understanding of the complex climate system, we primarily assessed a middle school (MS)-level understanding of the core elements of the system, in addition to a high school (HS)-level understanding of seasons. We described grade appropriate, coherent, functioning conceptual models for each targeted idea, and decomposed them into explicit learning goals. We then applied Project 2061's rigorous item development procedure to produce 235 high-quality, misconception-based multiple choice test items. These items were tested with a national sample of approximately 20,000 students, grades 6-12, in two phases (Spring 2010 & 2011). Here we report results from the second phase, including items targeting knowledge about convection, daily and annual air temperature patterns, factors that influence air temperature, and seasons. Overall, HS students outperformed MS students on these items by an average of only 3% (MS:31% correct; HS:34% correct). These data show a few strong misconceptions (e.g., 47% of students think that the North Pole is always angled toward the Sun
Banerji, M
2000-01-01
Data from a developmental assessment comprised of 9 short answer mathematics tasks were validated using classical and three-faceted Rasch measurement methods. Field test data from a mixed age elementary school sample (N=280) were analyzed. Descriptive statistics on scores from the overall scale and two subdomains indicated improved performance with age. The data showed better fit with a two-factor model corresponding with the subdomain structure (Bentler's CFI=.94), than a one factor model (CFI=.87). The inter-factor correlation was.76. Convergent validity coefficients of scores with scaled scores of the Stanford AchievementTest mathematics battery ranged from.28 to.47; internal consistency reliability of the total and subdomain scores ranged from.87 to.89, respectively; and median inter-rater reliability was.75. On average, persons, tasks and raters showed acceptable fit with the three-facet Rasch model. Rasch logit difficulties of tasks suggested an ordered scale structure, although tasks tended to have high difficulty levels. The original and calibrated task ordering was consistent at the extreme ends of the scale. Gaps identified on the Rasch item map suggested a need for additional task construction. Conceptual and procedural differences in each technique are considered in deciding future improvements to the scale.
Assessing Measures of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Validity Argument Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schilling, Stephen G.; Hill, Heather C.
2007-01-01
In assessing the utility of a test, two issues stand out: whether it provides information of interest to test consumers, and whether scores generated by the test assist in making good decisions. Validity addresses these two issues, making an assessment of test validity the single most important product provided by test developers. Unfortunately,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Philhower, Joanne; Cisterna, Dante; Bennett, Steven
2015-01-01
Formative assessment practices, including eliciting a broad range of student ideas, noticing the nuances in students' ideas, using these ideas to guide instruction, and promoting student self-regulation of learning are key components of expert teaching. Given the inherent dialogical nature of formative assessment in the classroom, video can…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe
2012-01-01
This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…
The impact assessment phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has received much criticism due to lack of consistency. ISO 14042 requires selection of impact categories that “reflect a comprehensive set of environmental issues” related to the system being studied, especi...
Danisch, Robert
2013-02-01
The twin problems of possible terrorist attacks and a global economic recession have been, and continue to be, critical components of contemporary political culture. At the center of both problems is the assessment of future risk. To calculate the probability that a loan will default or to estimate the likelihood of an act of bioterrorism crippling an American city is to engage in the quantitative science of risk assessment. The process of risk assessment is an attempt to rationalize the uncertainty and contingency of the future. In this essay, I read risk assessments made by the Department of Homeland Security and by major banks during the recent financial collapse as examples of rhetorical practice. As such, I show the rhetorical form and function of risk assessments in order to determine the effect that they have on contemporary political culture.
Assessment in a Common Core Era: Revolutionary or Evolutionary?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dimacali, Allen M.
2012-01-01
In conjunction with the adoption and subsequent implementation of the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics" (CCSSM), state-led consortia are developing next-generation assessments aligned to the CCSSM. This paper discusses the progress and plans of two main coalitions of states--the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for…
Burrows, John
2013-04-01
An introduction to the use of the mathematical technique of Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate least squares regression calibration is described. Monte Carlo techniques involve the repeated sampling of data from a population that may be derived from real (experimental) data, but is more conveniently generated by a computer using a model of the analytical system and a randomization process to produce a large database. Datasets are selected from this population and fed into the calibration algorithms under test, thus providing a facile way of producing a sufficiently large number of assessments of the algorithm to enable a statically valid appraisal of the calibration process to be made. This communication provides a description of the technique that forms the basis of the results presented in Parts II and III of this series, which follow in this issue, and also highlights the issues arising from the use of small data populations in bioanalysis.
Santos, Radleigh G.; Appel, Jon R.; Giulianotti, Marc A.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Sklar, Larry A.; Houghten, Richard A.; Pinilla, Clemencia
2014-01-01
In the past 20 years, synthetic combinatorial methods have fundamentally advanced the ability to synthesize and screen large numbers of compounds for drug discovery and basic research. Mixture-based libraries and positional scanning deconvolution combine two approaches for the rapid identification of specific scaffolds and active ligands. Here we present a quantitative assessment of the screening of 32 positional scanning libraries in the identification of highly specific and selective ligands for two formylpeptide receptors. We also compare and contrast two mixture-based library approaches using a mathematical model to facilitate the selection of active scaffolds and libraries to be pursued for further evaluation. The flexibility demonstrated in the differently formatted mixture-based libraries allows for their screening in a wide range of assays. PMID:23722730
Santos, Radleigh G; Appel, Jon R; Giulianotti, Marc A; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry A; Houghten, Richard A; Pinilla, Clemencia
2013-05-30
In the past 20 years, synthetic combinatorial methods have fundamentally advanced the ability to synthesize and screen large numbers of compounds for drug discovery and basic research. Mixture-based libraries and positional scanning deconvolution combine two approaches for the rapid identification of specific scaffolds and active ligands. Here we present a quantitative assessment of the screening of 32 positional scanning libraries in the identification of highly specific and selective ligands for two formylpeptide receptors. We also compare and contrast two mixture-based library approaches using a mathematical model to facilitate the selection of active scaffolds and libraries to be pursued for further evaluation. The flexibility demonstrated in the differently formatted mixture-based libraries allows for their screening in a wide range of assays.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noser, Thomas C.; Tanner, John R.; Shah, Situl
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study was to measure the comprehension of basic mathematical skills of students enrolled in statistics classes at a large regional university, and to determine if the scores earned on a basic math skills test are useful in forecasting student performance in these statistics classes, and to determine if students' basic math…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yáñez-Marquina, Lara; Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes
2016-01-01
Introduction: In secondary education, students' low achievement and engagement in mathematics are closely related to their attitudes towards the subject. Despite the international body of research, an exhaustive literature review of the existing instruments for measuring it draws attention to the inconsistency in the definition and corresponding…
Instructional Alignment under No Child Left Behind
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polikoff, Morgan S.
2012-01-01
The alignment of instruction with the content of standards and assessments is the key mediating variable separating the policy of standards-based reform (SBR) from the outcome of improved student achievement. Few studies have investigated SBR's effects on instructional alignment, and most have serious methodological limitations. This research uses…
Assessing chromate reduction by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria using mathematical modeling.
Peng, Lai; Liu, Yiwen; Gao, Shu-Hong; Dai, Xiaohu; Ni, Bing-Jie
2015-11-01
Chromate (Cr (VI)) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquifers and soils, which can be reduced to its trivalent counterpart (Cr (III)), with the hazard being relieved. The coupling microbial and chemical reduction by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (IRB) is a promising approach for the reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III). In this work, three mathematical models with different Cr (VI) reduction pathways were proposed and compared based on their ability to predict the performance of an IRB-based stirred-flow reactor treating Cr (VI) contaminated medium and to provide insights into the possible chemical or microbial pathways for Cr (VI) reduction in the system. The Cr (VI) reduction was considered as chemical reaction between Fe (II) and Cr (VI), direct microbial reduction by IRB and combined biotic-abiotic reduction in these three models, respectively. Model evaluation results indicated that the model incorporating both chemical and microbial Cr (VI) reductions could well describe the system performance. In contrast, the other two single-pathway models were not capable of predicting the experimental data, suggesting that both chemical and microbial pathways contributed to Cr (VI) reduction by IRB. The validity of the two-pathway model was further confirmed by an independent experimental data set with different conditions. The results further revealed that the organic carbon availability and Cr (VI) loading rates for the IRB in the system determined the relative contributions of chemical and microbial pathways to overall Cr (VI) reduction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, V. Faye; Brown, Elizabeth Todd; Molfese, Victoria; Ferguson, Melissa C.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill; Bertsch, Carey; Abraham, Tanya; Davis, Deborah Winders
2015-01-01
Objective: Children from low-income families are often not well-prepared for kindergarten entry, especially in mathematical skills. Caregivers may lack the knowledge and confidence to teach early mathematical skills. The purpose of this study was to develop a parent-child activities-based mathematics learning programme and test its acceptability…
Joplin, Karl H.; Govett, Aimee; Miller, Hugh A.; Seier, Edith
2010-01-01
“It takes a lot of courage to release the familiar and seemingly secure, to embrace the new. But there is no real security in what is no longer meaningful. There is more security in the adventurous and exciting, for in movement there is life, and in change there is power.”Alan Cohen (Used by permission. All rights reserved. For more information on Alan Cohen's books and programs, see (www.alancohen.com.) With the support of the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) administration and a grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the departments of Biological Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics, and Curriculum and Instruction have developed a biology–math integrated curriculum. An interdisciplinary faculty team, charged with teaching the 18 curriculum modules, designed this three-semester curriculum, known as SYMBIOSIS. This curriculum was piloted to two student cohorts during the developmental stage. The positive feedback and assessment results of this project have given us the foundation to implement the SYMBIOSIS curriculum as a replacement for the standard biology majors curriculum at the introductory level. This article addresses the history and development of the curriculum, previous assessment results and current assessment protocol, and the future of ETSU's approach to implementing the SYMBIOSIS curriculum. PMID:20810967
Depelteau, Audrey M; Joplin, Karl H; Govett, Aimee; Miller, Hugh A; Seier, Edith
2010-01-01
"It takes a lot of courage to release the familiar and seemingly secure, to embrace the new. But there is no real security in what is no longer meaningful. There is more security in the adventurous and exciting, for in movement there is life, and in change there is power." Alan Cohen (Used by permission. All rights reserved. For more information on Alan Cohen's books and programs, see (www.alancohen.com.) With the support of the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) administration and a grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the departments of Biological Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics, and Curriculum and Instruction have developed a biology-math integrated curriculum. An interdisciplinary faculty team, charged with teaching the 18 curriculum modules, designed this three-semester curriculum, known as SYMBIOSIS. This curriculum was piloted to two student cohorts during the developmental stage. The positive feedback and assessment results of this project have given us the foundation to implement the SYMBIOSIS curriculum as a replacement for the standard biology majors curriculum at the introductory level. This article addresses the history and development of the curriculum, previous assessment results and current assessment protocol, and the future of ETSU's approach to implementing the SYMBIOSIS curriculum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeilik, M.; Mathieu, R. D.; National InstituteScience Education; College Level-One Team
2000-12-01
Even the most dedicated college faculty often discover that their students fail to learn what was taught in their courses and that much of what students do learn is quickly forgotten after the final exam. To help college faculty improve student learning in college Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology (SMET), the College Level - One Team of the National Institute for Science Education has created the "FLAG" a Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide for SMET faculty. Developed with funding from the National Science Foundation, the FLAG presents in guidebook format a diverse and robust collection of field-tested classroom assessment techniques (CATs), with supporting information on how to apply them in the classroom. Faculty can download the tools and techniques from the website, which also provides a goals clarifier, an assessment primer, a searchable database, and links to additional resources. The CATs and tools have been reviewed by an expert editorial board and the NISE team. These assessment strategies can help faculty improve the learning environments in their SMET courses especially the crucial introductory courses that most strongly shape students' college learning experiences. In addition, the FLAG includes the web-based Student Assessment of Learning Gains. The SALG offers a convenient way to evaluate the impact of your courses on students. It is based on findings that students' estimates of what they gained are more reliable and informative than their observations of what they liked about the course or teacher. It offers accurate feedback on how well the different aspects of teaching helped the students to learn. Students complete the SALG online after a generic template has been modified to fit the learning objectives and activities of your course. The results are presented to the teacher as summary statistics automatically. The FLAG can be found at the NISE "Innovations in SMET Education" website at www.wcer.wisc.edu/nise/cl1
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.
2011-01-01
This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) x 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
ACT, Inc., Iowa City, IA.
In the early 1980s, American College Testing (ACT) saw a need for a system that would respond to the planning and assessment needs of students, parents, teachers, and administrators, and conducted an extensive review of what was being taught in American schools from grade 7 through college-sophomore level in order to identify the important…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shantarin, V. D.
2016-10-01
The paper reviews the development of methodology for calculation of hydrocarbon emissions during seepage and evaporation to monitor the reliability and safety of hydrocarbon storage and transportation. The authors have analyzed existing methods, models and techniques for assessing the amount of evaporated oil. Models used for predicting the material balance of multicomponent two-phase systems have been discussed. The results of modeling the open-air hydrocarbon evaporation from an oil spill are provided and exemplified by an emergency pit. Dependences and systems of differential equations have been obtained to assess parameters of mass transfer from the open surface of a liquid multicomponent mixture.
The History of Mathematics and Mathematical Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grattan-Guinness, I.
1977-01-01
Answers to questions which were asked after the author's various lectures in Australia are gathered here. Topics touched upon include "new" mathematics, unknown constants and free variables, propositional functions, linear algebra, arithmetic and geometry, and student assessment. (MN)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilhelm, Anne Garrison; Kim, Sungyeun
2015-01-01
One crucial question for researchers who study teachers' classroom practice is how to maximize information about what is happening in classrooms while minimizing costs. This report extends prior studies of the reliability of the Instructional Quality Assessment (IQA), a widely used classroom observation toolkit, and offers insight into the often…
Role-Playing Game Based Assessment to Fractional Concept in Second Grade Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiu, Fu-Yuan; Hsieh, Mei-Ling
2017-01-01
This study developed a set of Role-playing game (RPG), which was used to explore whether significant differences exist in academic performance and learning attitudes between RPG-based assessment and traditional lectures. This study also investigated the satisfaction of students toward the RPG scenario. Research participants included 100 second…
Policy and the Standards Debate: Mapping Changes in Assessment in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lerman, Stephen; Adler, Jill
2016-01-01
The influences on governments for policy changes in schools range across many agencies, including the political party in power. When policies change, the sources of these influences are not always clear. The project whose work is presented in this special issue examines what these changes look like in terms of the differences in assessment tasks…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parks, Amy Noelle; Schmeichel, Mardi
2014-01-01
Despite the increased use of video for data collection, most research using assessment interviews in early childhood education relies solely upon the analysis of linguistic data, ignoring children's bodies. This trend is particularly troubling in studies of marginalized children because transcripts limited to language can make it difficult to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Regalado, Ester Calderon
2007-01-01
With the implementation in 2003 of the federal education law known as No Child Left Behind, students from all cultural and linguistic backgrounds, including English language learners (ELLs), are required to perform well on state assessments. Since the numbers of ELLs in schools are growing and since schools are held accountable for all students'…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koukounas, Susan M.
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high student accountability and formative assessment affected student motivation, learning and resource management strategies, and achievement in developmental algebra I. The setting was a fifteen-week semester at a community college in suburban New York. Two sections of developmental algebra I…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013
2013-01-01
Are students well prepared to meet the challenges of the future? Can they analyse, reason and communicate their ideas effectively? Have they found the kinds of interests they can pursue throughout their lives as productive members of the economy and society? The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) seeks to answer these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Virginia Department of Education, 2011
2011-01-01
This first draft of the "Comparison of Virginia's 2009 Mathematics Standards of Learning (SOL) with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Mathematics" provides a side-by-side overview demonstrating how the 2009 Mathematics SOL are aligned to the CCSS. The comparison was made using Virginia's complete standards program for supporting…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Achieve, Inc., 2007
2007-01-01
At the request of the Hawaii Department of Education, Achieve conducted a study of Hawaii's 2005 grade 10 State Assessment in reading and mathematics. The study compared the content, rigor and passing (meets proficiency) scores on Hawaii's assessment with those of the six states that participated in Achieve's earlier study, "Do Graduation…
MP-Align: alignment of metabolic pathways
2014-01-01
Background Comparing the metabolic pathways of different species is useful for understanding metabolic functions and can help in studying diseases and engineering drugs. Several comparison techniques for metabolic pathways have been introduced in the literature as a first attempt in this direction. The approaches are based on some simplified representation of metabolic pathways and on a related definition of a similarity score (or distance measure) between two pathways. More recent comparative research focuses on alignment techniques that can identify similar parts between pathways. Results We propose a methodology for the pairwise comparison and alignment of metabolic pathways that aims at providing the largest conserved substructure of the pathways under consideration. The proposed methodology has been implemented in a tool called MP-Align, which has been used to perform several validation tests. The results showed that our similarity score makes it possible to discriminate between different domains and to reconstruct a meaningful phylogeny from metabolic data. The results further demonstrate that our alignment algorithm correctly identifies subpathways sharing a common biological function. Conclusion The results of the validation tests performed with MP-Align are encouraging. A comparison with another proposal in the literature showed that our alignment algorithm is particularly well-suited to finding the largest conserved subpathway of the pathways under examination. PMID:24886436
Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC
2010-11-18
The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feeley, Susan Jane
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine whether multiple-choice and constructed-response items assessed prospective secondary mathematics teachers' understanding of the concept of function. The conceptual framework for the study was the Dreyfus and Eisenberg (1982) Function Block. The theoretical framework was Sierpinska's (1992, 1994)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arhin, Ato Kwamina
2015-01-01
The study was a quasi-experimental research project conducted to investigate the effect of performance assessment-driven instructions on the attitude and achievement in mathematics of senior high school students in Ghana at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arnold, Carolyn L.; Kaufman, Phillip D.
This report examines the effects of both student and school characteristics on mathematics and science achievement levels in the third, seventh, and eleventh grades using data from the 1985-86 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Analyses feature hierarchical linear models (HLM), a regression-like statistical technique that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zwerling, Harris L.
In the context of controversy over the use of high stakes testing, the Pennsylvania State Education Association (PSEA) asked for an evaluation of the performance levels and cut score of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics and reading tests. While awaiting technical documentation from the Pennsylvania Department of…
Castro Sanchez, Amparo Yovanna; Aerts, Marc; Shkedy, Ziv; Vickerman, Peter; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Salamina, Guiseppe; Hens, Niel
2013-03-01
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a clear threat for public health, with high prevalences especially in high risk groups such as injecting drug users. People with HIV infection who are also infected by HCV suffer from a more rapid progression to HCV-related liver disease and have an increased risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Quantifying the impact of HIV and HCV co-infection is therefore of great importance. We propose a new joint mathematical model accounting for co-infection with the two viruses in the context of injecting drug users (IDUs). Statistical concepts and methods are used to assess the model from a statistical perspective, in order to get further insights in: (i) the comparison and selection of optional model components, (ii) the unknown values of the numerous model parameters, (iii) the parameters to which the model is most 'sensitive' and (iv) the combinations or patterns of values in the high-dimensional parameter space which are most supported by the data. Data from a longitudinal study of heroin users in Italy are used to illustrate the application of the proposed joint model and its statistical assessment. The parameters associated with contact rates (sharing syringes) and the transmission rates per syringe-sharing event are shown to play a major role.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, De-Yi; Gu, Jing-Ping; Lin, Ming-Zhou; Xu, Shao-Xie; Yu, Xue-Jun
1984-11-01
A probabilistic method and a retrieval method of fuzzy information are simultaneously studied for assessment of earthquake hazard, or earthquake prediction. Statistical indices of regional seismicity in three adjacent time intervals are used to predict an earthquake in the next interval. The indices are earthquake frequency, the maximum magnitude, and a parameter related to the average magnitude (or b-value) and their time derivatives. Applying the probabilistic method, we can estimate a probability for a large earthquake with magnitude larger than a certain threshold occurring in the next time interval in a given region. By using the retrieval method of fuzzy information we can classify time intervals into several classes according to the regional seismic activity in each time interval and then evaluate whether or not the next time interval belongs to seismically hazardous time interval with a large earthquake. Some examples of applying both methods to the North section of the North-South Seismic Zone in China are shown. The results obtained are in good agreement with actual earthquake history. A comparison of the probabilistic method with the method of fuzzy mathematics is made, and it is recommended that earthquake hazard be assessed by simultaneous use of both methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Jiahua; Tseng, Hsin-Wu; Kupinski, Matthew; Cao, Guangzhi; Sainath, Paavana; Hsieh, Jiang
2013-03-01
Radiation dose on patient has become a major concern today for Computed Tomography (CT) imaging in clinical practice. Various hardware and algorithm solutions have been designed to reduce dose. Among them, iterative reconstruction (IR) has been widely expected to be an effective dose reduction approach for CT. However, there is no clear understanding on the exact amount of dose saving an IR approach can offer for various clinical applications. We know that quantitative image quality assessment should be task-based. This work applied mathematical model observers to study detectability performance of CT scan data reconstructed using an advanced IR approach as well as the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) approach. The purpose of this work is to establish a practical and robust approach for CT IR detectability image quality evaluation and to assess the dose saving capability of the IR method under study. Low contrast (LC) objects imbedded in head size and body size phantoms were imaged multiple times with different dose levels. Independent signal present and absent pairs were generated for model observer study training and testing. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves for location known exact and location ROC (LROC) curves for location unknown as well as their corresponding the area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Results showed approximately 3 times dose reduction has been achieved using the IR method under study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luther, Kenneth H.
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
2013-01-01
This document represents one of three appendices associated with "The Nation's Report Card: A First Look--2013 Mathematics and Reading. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 4 and 8. NCES 2014-451." It includes tabular data relating to the mathematics portion of the National Assessment of Education Progress at Grade 4 and…
Interdisciplinary Collaborative Mathematics: Standards Correlation Guide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiatula, Victoria Oliaku
2015-01-01
This guide outlines teacher preparation, professional association, and Common Core State Standards aligned to an "interdisciplinary collaborative mathematics" approach using Junior Achievement educational programs within a Math Methods course to train pre-service elementary teachers to teach math.
Rashedi, Ehsan; Nussbaum, Maury A.
2015-01-01
Muscle fatigue models (MFM) have broad potential application if they can accurately predict muscle capacity and/or endurance time during the execution of diverse tasks. As an initial step toward facilitating improved MFMs, we assessed the sensitivity of selected existing models to their inherent parameters, specifically that model the fatigue and recovery processes, and the accuracy of model predictions. These evaluations were completed for both prolonged and intermittent isometric contractions, and were based on model predictions of endurance times. Based on a recent review of the literature, four MFMs were initially chosen, from which a preliminary assessment led to two of these being considered for more comprehensive evaluation. Both models had a higher sensitivity to their fatigue parameter. Predictions of both models were also more sensitive to the alteration of their parameters in conditions involving lower to moderate levels of effort, though such conditions may be of most practical, contemporary interest or relevance. Although both models yielded accurate predictions of endurance times during prolonged contractions, their predictive ability was inferior for more complex (intermittent) conditions. When optimizing model parameters for different loading conditions, the recovery parameter showed considerably larger variability, which might be related to the inability of these MFMs in simulating the recovery process under different loading conditions. It is argued that such models may benefit in future work from improving their representation of recovery process, particularly how this process differs across loading conditions. PMID:26656741
Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.
2015-01-01
Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP) is a method being developed by the Advanced Concepts Office, at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The TAPP method expands on current technology assessment methods by incorporating the technological structure underlying technology development, e.g., organizational structures and resources, institutional policy and strategy, and the factors that motivate technological change. This paper discusses the methods ACO is currently developing to better perform technology assessments while taking into consideration Strategic Alignment, Technology Forecasting, and Long Term Planning.
Quality and Quantity in the Mathematics Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ediger, Marlow
This paper presents cognitive, affective, and psychomotor objectives and appraisal procedures in mathematics. It emphasizes the development of achievable mathematics curriculum and ongoing and sequential assessment to provide appropriate order of mathematical experiences for students. (KHR)
Probabilistic sequence alignment of stratigraphic records
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Luan; Khider, Deborah; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lawrence, Charles E.
2014-10-01
The assessment of age uncertainty in stratigraphically aligned records is a pressing need in paleoceanographic research. The alignment of ocean sediment cores is used to develop mutually consistent age models for climate proxies and is often based on the δ18O of calcite from benthic foraminifera, which records a global ice volume and deep water temperature signal. To date, δ18O alignment has been performed by manual, qualitative comparison or by deterministic algorithms. Here we present a hidden Markov model (HMM) probabilistic algorithm to find 95% confidence bands for δ18O alignment. This model considers the probability of every possible alignment based on its fit to the δ18O data and transition probabilities for sedimentation rate changes obtained from radiocarbon-based estimates for 37 cores. Uncertainty is assessed using a stochastic back trace recursion to sample alignments in exact proportion to their probability. We applied the algorithm to align 35 late Pleistocene records to a global benthic δ18O stack and found that the mean width of 95% confidence intervals varies between 3 and 23 kyr depending on the resolution and noisiness of the record's δ18O signal. Confidence bands within individual cores also vary greatly, ranging from ~0 to >40 kyr. These alignment uncertainty estimates will allow researchers to examine the robustness of their conclusions, including the statistical evaluation of lead-lag relationships between events observed in different cores.
Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš
2015-08-01
We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.
Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu
2015-08-01
We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used 'nonlinear alignment model,' finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the 'GI' term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.
Hazra, Anasuya; Krzyzanski, Wojciech; Jusko, William J
2006-12-01
Precursor-dependent indirect response (PDIDR) models may describe the tolerance and rebound phenomenon observed for many pharmacodynamic responses where these characteristics are manifested due to the depletion or accumulation of a physiological precursor or cofactor pool responsible for generating drug effects. The purpose of this report is to extend the concepts and applications of these models and to approximate responses and limiting conditions for very large doses of drugs. Asymptotic analysis was performed for qualitative determination of various parameters, such as maximum response (Rmax) and rebound (RBmax), time to maximum response and rebound (TRmax and TRBmax), and area under the effect and rebound curve (ABEC and ABRC) for large doses. Computer simulations were performed to assess the role of dose for both cases where drugs act either by depleting (Model V) or by blocking (Model VI) the endogenous precursor. Simulations showed that Rmax, RBmax, TRBmax, ABEC and ABRC increase with dose, eventually reaching a plateau when Dose/V is very large compared to the efficacy parameters (SC50 or IC50) of the drug. However, TRmax either increased or decreased with dose depending on various system and drug parameters. The limits for these parameters at large doses qualitatively determined by asymptotic analysis closely approximated the plateaus observed from the simulated curves. At large doses, the drug response could be approximated by a Bateman-like function for both Models V and VI. Qualitative analyses along with simulation studies provide a fundamental basis for understanding the temporal aspects of the PDIDR models especially at large doses to describe the tolerance and rebound phenomenon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan; Beatty, Ian D.
2012-10-01
The purpose of this study is to uncover and understand the factors that affect secondary science and mathematics teachers' initial implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA), a pedagogy developed for teaching with classroom response system (CRS) technology. We sought to identify the most common and strongest factors, and to understand the general process of how teachers adopt TEFA. We identified ten main hindering factors reported by teachers, and found that time limitations and question development difficulties are reported as the most problematic. In this paper we provide five vignettes of teachers' initial implementation experiences, illustrating different courses that TEFA adoption can follow. We classify our ten factors into four groups: contextual factors that directly hinder teachers' attempts to implement TEFA (extrinsic type I); circumstances that affect teachers' teaching in general (extrinsic type 0); gaps that teachers have in the knowledge and skills they need to adopt TEFA (intrinsic type I); and ways of being a teacher that describe teachers' deeper perspectives and beliefs, which may be consonant or dissonant with TEFA (intrinsic type II). Finally, we identify four general categories that describe the teachers' initial TEFA implementation.
Wang, Yanxing; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Lindfors, Lennart; Brasseur, James G
2015-09-01
We introduce a "hierarchical" modeling strategy designed to be systematically extensible to increase the detail of dissolution predictions from polydisperse collections of drug particles and to be placed on firm mathematical and physical foundations with diffusion-dominated dissolution at its core to predict dissolution and the evolution of particle size distribution. We assess the model with experimental data and demonstrate higher accuracy by treating the polydisperse nature of dissolution. A level in the hierarchy is applied to study elements of diffusion-driven dissolution, in particular the role of particle-size distribution width with varying dose level and the influences of "confinement" on the process of dissolution. Confinement influences surface molecular flux, directly by the increase in bulk concentration and indirectly by the relative volume of particles to container. We find that the dissolution process can be broadly categorized within three "regimes" defined by the ratio of total concentration Ctot to solubility CS . Sink conditions apply in the first regime, when C tot /CS<∼0.1. When C tot /CS>∼5 (regime 3) dissolution is dominated by confinement and normalized saturation time follows a simple power law relationship. Regime 2 is characterized by a "saturation singularity" where dissolution is sensitive to both initial particle size distribution and confinement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reynolds, Betty Gulin
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent digital portfolios would affect mathematics achievement, attitudes, and self-perceptions of themselves as mathematics learners of sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students. The study analyzed the effect of digital portfolios on the students' performance on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rattanatumma, Tawachai; Puncreobutr, Vichian
2016-01-01
The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of teaching methods in improving Mathematics Learning Achievement and Problem solving ability of students at an international college. This is a Quasi-Experimental Research which was done the study with the first year students who have registered to study Mathematics subject at St.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyublinskaya, Irina; Tournaki, Nelly
2014-01-01
Invited as a paper from SITE 2013. This study focuses on the development of Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge (TPACK) in mathematics and science of pre-service special education teachers for teaching mathematics and science via one course. This course introduces a variety of strategies and techniques for using instructional…