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Sample records for alignment control system

  1. Optical tools and techniques for aligning solar payloads with the SPARCS control system. [Solar Pointing Aerobee Rocket Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, N. L.; Chisel, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The success of a rocket-borne experiment depends not only on the pointing of the attitude control system, but on the alignment of the attitude control system to the payload. To ensure proper alignment, special optical tools and alignment techniques are required. Those that were used in the SPARCS program are described and discussed herein. These tools include theodolites, autocollimators, a 38-cm diameter solar simulator, a high-performance 1-m heliostat to provide a stable solar source during the integration of the rocket payload, a portable 75-cm sun tracker for use at the launch site, and an innovation called the Solar Alignment Prism. Using the real sun as the primary reference under field conditions, the Solar Alignment Prism facilitates the coalignment of the attitude sun sensor with the payload. The alignment techniques were developed to ensure the precise alignment of the solar payloads to the SPARCS attitude sensors during payload integration and to verify the required alignment under field conditions just prior to launch.

  2. Development of a Digital Control for the Phase Contrast Imaging Alignment Feedback System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, M.; Marinoni, A.; Rost, J. C.; Davis, E. M.; Porkolab, M.

    2016-10-01

    The Phase Contrast Imaging diagnostic is an internal reference interferometer that images density fluctuations on a 32-element linear detector array. Since proper operation of the system requires accurate alignment of a CO2 laser beam on a phase plate, beam motion due to vibrations of the DIII-D vessel need to be compensated up to 1 kHz. The feedback network controlling the steering mirrors currently uses a linear analog controller, but a digital controller can provide improved stability performance and flexibility. A prototype was developed using an Arduino Due, a low-cost microcontroller, to assess performance capabilities. Digital control parameters will be developed based on the measured frequency and phase response of the physical components. Finally, testing of the digital feedback system and the required revisions will be done to achieve successful performance. This upgrade to the linear analog controller is expected to be used routinely on similar diagnostics in fusion devices, especially in view of restricted access to the machine hall. Work supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  3. Alignment issues, correlation techniques and their assessment for a visible light imaging-based 3D printer quality control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Quality control is critical to manufacturing. Frequently, techniques are used to define object conformity bounds, based on historical quality data. This paper considers techniques for bespoke and small batch jobs that are not statistical model based. These techniques also serve jobs where 100% validation is needed due to the mission or safety critical nature of particular parts. One issue with this type of system is alignment discrepancies between the generated model and the physical part. This paper discusses and evaluates techniques for characterizing and correcting alignment issues between the projected and perceived data sets to prevent errors attributable to misalignment.

  4. Laser-Beam-Alignment Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, M. J.; Dickens, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    In laser-beam-alignment controller, images from video camera compared to reference patterns by fuzzy-logic pattern comparator. Results processed by fuzzy-logic microcontroller, which sends control signals to motor driver adjusting lens and pinhole in spatial filter.

  5. Space Mirror Alignment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.

    2011-01-01

    An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

  6. Self-propelled in-tube shuttle and control system for automated measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Pidcoe, S.V.

    1990-03-01

    A magnetic field alignment gauge is used to measure the field angle as a function of axial position in each of the magnets for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Present measurements are made by manually pushing the through the magnet bore tube and stopping at intervals to record field measurements. Gauge location is controlled through graduation marks and alignment pins on the push rods. Field measurements are recorded on a logging multimeter with tape output. Described is a computerized control system being developed to replace the manual procedure for field alignment measurements. The automated system employs a pneumatic walking devicemore » to move the measurement gauge through the bore tube. Movement of the device, called the Self-Propelled In-Tube Shuttle (SPITS), is accomplished through an integral, gas driven, double-acting cylinder. The motion of the SPITS is transferred to the bore tube by means of a pair of controlled, retractable support feet. Control of the SPITS is accomplished through an RS-422 interface from an IBM-compatible computer to a series of solenoid-actuated air valves. Direction of SPITS travel is determined by the air-valve sequence, and is managed through the control software. Precise axial position of the gauge within the magnet is returned to the control system through an optically-encoded digital position transducer attached to the shuttle. Discussed is the performance of the transport device and control system during preliminary testing of the first prototype shuttle. 1 ref., 7 figs.« less

  7. Improved docking alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Improved techniques are provided for the alignment of two objects. The present invention is particularly suited for 3-D translation and 3-D rotational alignment of objects in outer space. A camera is affixed to one object, such as a remote manipulator arm of the spacecraft, while the planar reflective surface is affixed to the other object, such as a grapple fixture. A monitor displays in real-time images from the camera such that the monitor displays both the reflected image of the camera and visible marking on the planar reflective surface when the objects are in proper alignment. The monitor may thus be viewed by the operator and the arm manipulated so that the reflective surface is perpendicular to the optical axis of the camera, the roll of the reflective surface is at a selected angle with respect to the camera, and the camera is spaced a pre-selected distance from the reflective surface.

  8. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  9. Experimental image alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, A. L.; Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrument for image alignment with respect to a reference image is described which uses the DEFT sensor (Direct Electronic Fourier Transform) for image sensing and preprocessing. The instrument alignment algorithm which uses the two-dimensional Fourier transform as input is also described. It generates signals used to steer the stage carrying the test image into the correct orientation. This algorithm has computational advantages over algorithms which use image intensity data as input and is suitable for a microcomputer-based instrument since the two-dimensional Fourier transform is provided by the DEFT sensor.

  10. FALCON Remote Laser Alignment System

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.W.; Hebner, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The FALCON Remote Laser Alignment System is used in a high radiation environment to adjust an optical assembly. The purpose of this report is to provide a description of the hardware used and to present the system configuration. Use of the system has increased the reliability and reproducibility of data as well as significantly reducing personnel radiation exposure. Based upon measured radiation dose, radiation exposure was reduced by at least a factor of two after implementing the remote alignment system.

  11. FALCON Remote Laser Alignment System

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.W.; Hebner, G.A.

    1993-02-01

    The FALCON Remote Laser Alignment System is used in a high radiation environment to adjust an optical assembly. The purpose of this report is to provide a description of the hardware used and to present the system configuration. Use of the system has increased the reliability and reproducibility of data as well as significantly reducing personnel radiation exposure. Based upon measured radiation dose, radiation exposure was reduced by at least a factor of two after implementing the remote alignment system.

  12. Gauging Item Alignment through Online Systems While Controlling for Rater Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Irvin, Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment of test items to content standards is critical to the validity of decisions made from standards-based tests. Generally, alignment is determined based on judgments made by a panel of content experts with either ratings averaged or via a consensus reached through discussion. When the pool of items to be reviewed is large, or the…

  13. Docking alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Improved techniques are provided for alignment of two objects. The present invention is particularly suited for three-dimensional translation and three-dimensional rotational alignment of objects in outer space. A camera 18 is fixedly mounted to one object, such as a remote manipulator arm 10 of the spacecraft, while the planar reflective surface 30 is fixed to the other object, such as a grapple fixture 20. A monitor 50 displays in real-time images from the camera, such that the monitor displays both the reflected image of the camera and visible markings on the planar reflective surface when the objects are in proper alignment. The monitor may thus be viewed by the operator and the arm 10 manipulated so that the reflective surface is perpendicular to the optical axis of the camera, the roll of the reflective surface is at a selected angle with respect to the camera, and the camera is spaced a pre-selected distance from the reflective surface.

  14. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  15. Precision lens assembly with alignment turning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Chien-Yao; Lin, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Hui-Jean; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2017-10-01

    The poker chip assembly with high precision lens barrels is widely applied to ultra-high performance optical system. ITRC applies the poker chip assembly technology to the high numerical aperture objective lenses and lithography projection lenses because of its high efficiency assembly process. In order to achieve high precision lens cell for poker chip assembly, an alignment turning system (ATS) is developed. The ATS includes measurement, alignment and turning modules. The measurement module is equipped with a non-contact displacement sensor (NCDS) and an autocollimator (ACM). The NCDS and ACM are used to measure centration errors of the top and the bottom surface of a lens respectively; then the amount of adjustment of displacement and tilt with respect to the rotational axis of the turning machine for the alignment module can be determined. After measurement, alignment and turning processes on the ATS, the centration error of a lens cell with 200 mm in diameter can be controlled within 10 arcsec. Furthermore, a poker chip assembly lens cell with three sub-cells is demonstrated, each sub-cells are measured and accomplished with alignment and turning processes. The lens assembly test for five times by each three technicians; the average transmission centration error of assembly lens is 12.45 arcsec. The results show that ATS can achieve high assembly efficiency for precision optical systems.

  16. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.

    1993-09-28

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.

  17. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  18. Beam/seam alignment control for electron beam welding

    DOEpatents

    Burkhardt, Jr., James H.; Henry, J. James; Davenport, Clyde M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a dynamic beam/seam alignment control system for electron beam welds utilizing video apparatus. The system includes automatic control of workpiece illumination, near infrared illumination of the workpiece to limit the range of illumination and camera sensitivity adjustment, curve fitting of seam position data to obtain an accurate measure of beam/seam alignment, and automatic beam detection and calculation of the threshold beam level from the peak beam level of the preceding video line to locate the beam or seam edges.

  19. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L. Curtis

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aigning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront.

  20. Study on the position accuracy of a mechanical alignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yimin

    In this thesis, we investigated the precision level and established the baseline achieved by a mechanical alignment system using datums and reference surfaces. The factors which affect the accuracy of mechanical alignment system were studied and methodology was developed to suppress these factors so as to reach its full potential precision. In order to characterize the mechanical alignment system quantitatively, a new optical position monitoring system by using quadrant detectors has been developed in this thesis, it can monitor multi-dimensional degrees of mechanical workpieces in real time with high precision. We studied the noise factors inside the system and optimized the optical system. Based on the fact that one of the major limiting noise factors is the shifting of the laser beam, a noise cancellation technique has been developed successfully to suppress this noise, the feasibility of an ultra high resolution (<20 A) for displacement monitoring has been demonstrated. Using the optical position monitoring system, repeatability experiment of the mechanical alignment system has been conducted on different kinds of samples including steel, aluminum, glass and plastics with the same size 100mm x 130mm. The alignment accuracy was studied quantitatively rather than qualitatively before. In a controlled environment, the alignment precision can be improved 5 folds by securing the datum without other means of help. The alignment accuracy of an aluminum workpiece having reference surface by milling is about 3 times better than by shearing. Also we have found that sample material can have fairly significant effect on the alignment precision of the system. Contamination trapped between the datum and reference surfaces in mechanical alignment system can cause errors of registration or reduce the level of manufacturing precision. In the thesis, artificial and natural dust particles were used to simulate the real situations and their effects on system precision have been

  1. Smart and precise alignment of optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehanenberg, Patrik; Heinisch, Josef; Stickler, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    For the assembly of any kind of optical systems the precise centration of every single element is of particular importance. Classically the precise alignment of optical components is based on the precise centering of all components to an external axis (usually a high-precision rotary spindle axis). Main drawback of this timeconsuming process is that it is significantly sensitive to misalignments of the reference (e.g. the housing) axis. In order to facilitate process in this contribution we present a novel alignment strategy for the TRIOPTICS OptiCentric® instrument family that directly aligns two elements with respect to each other by measuring the first element's axis and using this axis as alignment reference without the detour of considering an external reference. According to the optical design any axis in the system can be chosen as target axis. In case of the alignment to a barrel this axis is measured by using a distance sensor (e.g., the classically used dial indicator). Instead of fine alignment the obtained data is used for the calculation of its orientation within the setup. Alternatively, the axis of an optical element (single lens or group of lenses) whose orientation is measured with the standard OptiCentric MultiLens concept can be used as a reference. In the instrument's software the decentering of the adjusting element to the calculated axis is displayed in realtime and indicated by a target mark that can be used for the manual alignment. In addition, the obtained information can also be applied for active and fully automated alignment of lens assemblies with the help of motorized actuators.

  2. Active alignment/contact verification system

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A system involving an active (i.e. electrical) technique for the verification of: 1) close tolerance mechanical alignment between two component, and 2) electrical contact between mating through an elastomeric interface. For example, the two components may be an alumina carrier and a printed circuit board, two mating parts that are extremely small, high density parts and require alignment within a fraction of a mil, as well as a specified interface point of engagement between the parts. The system comprises pairs of conductive structures defined in the surfaces layers of the alumina carrier and the printed circuit board, for example. The first pair of conductive structures relate to item (1) above and permit alignment verification between mating parts. The second pair of conductive structures relate to item (2) above and permit verification of electrical contact between mating parts.

  3. Conception and design of a control and monitoring system for the mirror alignment of the CBM RICH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Akishin, P.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Bendarouach, J.; Boldyreva, N.; Deveaux, C.; Dobyrn, V.; Dürr, M.; Eschke, J.; Förtsch, J.; Heep, J.; Höhne, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kochenda, L.; Kopfer, J.; Kravtsov, P.; Kres, I.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Leonova, E.; Linev, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Niebur, W.; Ovcharenko, E.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Pfeifer, D.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Reinecke, S.; Riabov, Y.; Roshchin, E.; Samsonov, V.; Schetinin, V.; Tarasenkova, O.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high net-baryon density and moderate temperature in A+A collisions. One of the key detectors of CBM to explore this physics program is a Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector for electron identification. For a high performance of the RICH detector precise mirror alignment is essential. A three-step correction cycle has been developed, which will be discussed: First a qualitative, fast check of the mirror positions, second a quantitative determination of possible misalignments and third a software correction routine, allowing a proper functioning of the RICH under misalignment conditions.

  4. Study of a module alignment measuring system for UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An alignment measurement system (AMS) which precisely determines the boresights pointing directions of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) instruments relative to the UARS attitude control system (ACS) was studied. The technology used in on the MAGSAT mission was considered. The AMS optical, mechanical, thermal and electrical system properties were defined. The AMS is constrained to interface with the UARS instrument module and spacecraft layout.

  5. Portable weighing system with alignment features

    DOEpatents

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2012-11-06

    A system for weighing a load is disclosed. The weighing system includes a pad having at least one transducer for weighing a load disposed on the pad. In some embodiments the pad has a plurality of foot members and the weighing system may include a plate that disposed underneath the pad for receiving the plurality of foot member and for aligning the foot members when the weighing system is installed. The weighing system may include a spacer disposed adjacent the pad and in some embodiments, a spacer anchor operatively secures the spacer to a support surface, such as a plate, a railway bed, or a roadway. In some embodiments the spacer anchor operatively secures both the spacer and the pad to a roadway.

  6. Alignment control study for the solar optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the alignment and focus errors than can be tolerated, methods of sensing such errors, and mechanisms to make the necessary corrections were addressed. Alternate approaches and their relative merits were considered. The results of this study indicate that adequate alignment control can be achieved.

  7. Controlling band alignments by artificial interface dipoles at perovskite heterointerfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Yajima, Takeaki; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Minohara, Makoto; ...

    2015-04-07

    The concept ‘the interface is the device' is embodied in a wide variety of interfacial electronic phenomena and associated applications in oxide materials, ranging from catalysts and clean energy systems to emerging multifunctional devices. Many device properties are defined by the band alignment, which is often influenced by interface dipoles. On the other hand, the ability to purposefully create and control interface dipoles is a relatively unexplored degree of freedom for perovskite oxides, which should be particularly effective for such ionic materials. Here we demonstrate tuning the band alignment in perovskite metal-semiconductor heterojunctions over a broad range of 1.7 eV.more » This is achieved by the insertion of positive or negative charges at the interface, and the resultant dipole formed by the induced screening charge. This approach can be broadly used in applications where decoupling the band alignment from the constituent work functions and electron affinities can enhance device functionality.« less

  8. Opportunities to Align California's PreK-3 Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Analysis for California Education, PACE, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "PreK-3 Alignment in California's Education System: Obstacles and Opportunities" by Rachel Valentino and Deborah J. Stipek reviews the opportunities and challenges that must be addressed to better align PreK-3 education in California. The report describes policies and practices that districts have implemented to strengthen alignment, and…

  9. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Ingram, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the . substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carver liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to The CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  10. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  11. The development of alignment turning system for precision len cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Yao; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Wang, Jung-Hsing; Chung, Chien-Kai; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Chang, Keng-Shou; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2017-08-01

    In general, the drop-in and cell-mounted assembly are used for standard and high performance optical system respectively. The optical performance is limited by the residual centration error and position accuracy of the conventional assembly. Recently, the poker chip assembly with high precision lens barrels that can overcome the limitation of conventional assembly is widely applied to ultra-high performance optical system. ITRC also develops the poker chip assembly solution for high numerical aperture objective lenses and lithography projection lenses. In order to achieve high precision lens cell for poker chip assembly, an alignment turning system (ATS) is developed. The ATS includes measurement, alignment and turning modules. The measurement module including a non-contact displacement sensor and an autocollimator can measure centration errors of the top and the bottom surface of a lens respectively. The alignment module comprising tilt and translation stages can align the optical axis of the lens to the rotating axis of the vertical lathe. The key specifications of the ATS are maximum lens diameter, 400mm, and radial and axial runout of the rotary table < 2 μm. The cutting performances of the ATS are surface roughness Ra < 1 μm, flatness < 2 μm, and parallelism < 5 μm. After measurement, alignment and turning processes on our ATS, the centration error of a lens cell with 200mm in diameter can be controlled in 10 arcsec. This paper also presents the thermal expansion of the hydrostatic rotating table. A poker chip assembly lens cell with three sub-cells is accomplished with average transmission centration error in 12.45 arcsec by fresh technicians. The results show that ATS can achieve high assembly efficiency for precision optical systems.

  12. Method and system for aligning fibers during electrospinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Carnell, Lisa A. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Rhim, Caroline (Inventor); Niklason, Laura (Inventor); Clark, Robert L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system are provided for aligning fibers in an electrospinning process. A jet of a fiberizable material is directed towards an uncharged collector from a dispensing location that is spaced apart from the collector. While the fiberizable material is directed towards the collector, an elliptical electric field is generated via the electrically charged dispenser and an oppositely-charged control location. The field spans between the dispensing location and the control location that is within line-of-sight of the dispensing location, and impinges upon at least a portion of the collector. Various combinations of numbers and geometries of dispensers, collectors, and electrodes can be used.

  13. Alignment system for SGII-Up laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yanqi; Cui, Yong; Li, Hong; Gong, Lei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Daizhong; Zhu, Baoqiang; Ma, Weixin; Zhu, Jian; Lin, Zunqi

    2018-03-01

    The SGII-Up laser facility in Shanghai is one of the most important high-power laser facilities in China. It is designed to obtain 24 kJ (3ω) of energy with a square pulse of 3 ns using eight laser beams (two bundles). To satisfy the requirements for the safety, efficiency, and quality, an alignment system is developed for this facility. This alignment system can perform automatic alignment of the preamplifier system, main amplifier system, and harmonic conversion system within 30 min before every shot during the routine operation of the facility. In this article, an overview of the alignment system is first presented. Then, its alignment characteristics are discussed, along with the alignment process. Finally, experimental results, including the alignment results and the facility performance, are reported. The results show that the far-field beam pointing alignment accuracy is better than 3 μrad, and the alignment error of the near-field beam centering is no larger than 1 mm. These satisfy the design requirements very well.

  14. System alignment using the Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallier, Raymond; Le Falher, Eric; Heggarty, Kevin

    1990-08-01

    The Talbot effect is utilized to correct an alignment problem related to a neural network used for image recognition, which required the alignment of a spatial light modulator (SLM) with the input module. A mathematical model which employs the Fresnel diffraction theory is presented to describe the method. The calculation of the diffracted amplitude describes the wavefront sphericity and the original object transmittance function in order to qualify the lateral shift of the Talbot image. Another explanation is set forth in terms of plane-wave illumination in the neural network. Using a Fourier series and by describing planes where all the harmonics are in phase, the reconstruction of Talbot images is explained. The alignment is effective when the lenslet array is aligned on the even Talbot images of the SLM pixels and the incident wave is a plane wave. The alignment is evaluated in terms of source and periodicity errors, tilt of the incident plane waves, and finite object dimensions. The effects of the error sources are concluded to be negligible, the lenslet array is shown to be successfully aligned with the SLM, and other alignment applications are shown to be possible.

  15. Field-Aligned Current Systems at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyner, Daniel; Exner, Willi

    2017-04-01

    Mercury exhibits a very dynamic magnetosphere, which is partially due to strong dayside reconnection and fast magnetospheric convection. It has been shown that dayside reconnection occurs even on low magnetic shear angles across the magnetopause. This drives quasi-steady region 1 field-aligned currents (FAC) that are observable in in-situ MESSENGER data. Here, the structure of the Hermean FAC-system is discussed and compared to the terrestrial counterpart. Due to the lack of a significant ionosphere at Mercury, it has to be examined how much of the poloidal FAC is reflected back to the magnetosphere, closed via toroidal currents in the planetary interior or via Pedersen currents in the tenuous exosphere. This investigation gives insights into the planetary conductivity structure as well as the exospheric plasma densities. Furthermore, it will be examined how much the only partially developed ring current at Mercury produces possible region 2 FAC signatures. We conclude with requirements to simulations that are needed to forecast the FAC structure on the southern hemisphere that will be closely studied with the upcoming BepiColombo mission.

  16. An automatic alignment system for measuring optical path of transmissometer based on light beam scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shudao; Ma, Zhongliang; Wang, Min; Peng, Shuling

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel alignment system based on the measurement of optical path using a light beam scanning mode in a transmissometer. The system controls both the probe beam and the receiving field of view while scanning in two vertical directions. The system then calculates the azimuth angle of the transmitter and the receiver to determine the precise alignment of the optical path. Experiments show that this method can determine the alignment angles in less than 10 min with errors smaller than 66 μrad in the azimuth. This system also features high collimation precision, process automation and simple installation.

  17. The ties that bind: interorganizational linkages and physician-system alignment.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J A; Waters, T M; Burns, L R; Shortell, S M; Gillies, R R; Budetti, P P; Zuckerman, H S

    2001-07-01

    To examine the association between the degree of alignment between physicians and health care systems, and interorganizational linkages between physician groups and health care systems. The study used a cross sectional, comparative analysis using a sample of 1,279 physicians practicing in loosely affiliated arrangements and 1,781 physicians in 61 groups closely affiliated with 14 vertically integrated health systems. Measures of physician alignment were based on multiitem scales validated in previous studies and derived from surveys sent to individual physicians. Measures of interorganizational linkages were specified at the institutional, administrative, and technical core levels of the physician group and were developed from surveys sent to the administrator of each of the 61 physician groups in the sample. Two stage Heckman models with fixed effects adjustments in the second stage were used to correct for sample selection and clustering respectively. After accounting for sample selection, fixed effects, and group and individual controls, physicians in groups with more valued practice service linkages display consistently higher alignment with systems than physicians in groups that have fewer such linkages. Results also suggest that centralized administrative control lowers physician-system alignment for selected measures of alignment. Governance interlocks exhibited only weak associations with alignment. Our findings suggest that alignment generally follows resource exchanges that promote value-added contributions to physicians and physician groups while preserving control and authority within the group.

  18. Alignment monitoring system for ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandmont, Frédéric; Dupont, Fabien; Moreau, Louis; Larouche, Martin; Bibeau, Louis-Philippe; Laplante, Sylvio

    2017-11-01

    measures this flexion in order to allow post-acquisition compensation in generating the science images. In the current paper, we describe a possible Alignment Monitoring System (AMS) to measure in real time the relative position of the boom. The AMS will be an important element to guaranty that the ASTRO-H observatory will meet its performance requirements. The Canadian Space Agency has the intention of providing the AMS to the ASTRO-H mission. The current paper reports a study that was conducted to support that intention.

  19. Automated alignment of a reconfigurable optical system using focal-plane sensing and Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Fang, Joyce; Savransky, Dmitry

    2016-08-01

    Automation of alignment tasks can provide improved efficiency and greatly increase the flexibility of an optical system. Current optical systems with automated alignment capabilities are typically designed to include a dedicated wavefront sensor. Here, we demonstrate a self-aligning method for a reconfigurable system using only focal plane images. We define a two lens optical system with 8 degrees of freedom. Images are simulated given misalignment parameters using ZEMAX software. We perform a principal component analysis on the simulated data set to obtain Karhunen-Loève modes, which form the basis set whose weights are the system measurements. A model function, which maps the state to the measurement, is learned using nonlinear least-squares fitting and serves as the measurement function for the nonlinear estimator (extended and unscented Kalman filters) used to calculate control inputs to align the system. We present and discuss simulated and experimental results of the full system in operation.

  20. Mask-to-wafer alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Tichenor, Daniel A.; Haney, Steven J.

    2003-11-04

    A modified beam splitter that has a hole pattern that is symmetric in one axis and anti-symmetric in the other can be employed in a mask-to-wafer alignment device. The device is particularly suited for rough alignment using visible light. The modified beam splitter transmits and reflects light from a source of electromagnetic radiation and it includes a substrate that has a first surface facing the source of electromagnetic radiation and second surface that is reflective of said electromagnetic radiation. The substrate defines a hole pattern about a central line of the substrate. In operation, an input beam from a camera is directed toward the modified beam splitter and the light from the camera that passes through the holes illuminates the reticle on the wafer. The light beam from the camera also projects an image of a corresponding reticle pattern that is formed on the mask surface of the that is positioned downstream from the camera. Alignment can be accomplished by detecting the radiation that is reflected from the second surface of the modified beam splitter since the reflected radiation contains both the image of the pattern from the mask and a corresponding pattern on the wafer.

  1. Field gradients can control the alignment of nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Chinchun; Yellen, Benjamin B

    2008-08-19

    This work is motivated by the unexpected experimental observation that field gradients can control the alignment of nonmagnetic nanorods immersed inside magnetic fluids. In the presence of local field gradients, nanorods were observed to align perpendicular to the external field at low field strengths, but parallel to the external field at high field strengths. The switching behavior results from the competition between a preference to align with the external field (orientational potential energy) and preference to move into regions of minimum magnetic field (positional potential energy). A theoretical model is developed to explain this experimental behavior by investigating the statistics of nanorod alignment as a function of both the external uniform magnetic field strength and the local magnetic field variation above a periodic array of micromagnets. Computational phase diagrams are developed which indicate that the relative population of nanorods in parallel and perpendicular states can be adjusted through several control parameters. However, an energy barrier to rotation was discovered to influence the rate kinetics and restrict the utility of this assembly technique to nanorods which are slightly shorter than the micromagnet length. Experimental results concerning the orientation of nanorods inside magnetic fluid are also presented and shown to be in strong agreement with the theoretical work.

  2. Model-based estimation and control for off-axis parabolic mirror alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Joyce; Savransky, Dmitry

    2018-02-01

    This paper propose an model-based estimation and control method for an off-axis parabolic mirror (OAP) alignment. Current studies in automated optical alignment systems typically require additional wavefront sensors. We propose a self-aligning method using only focal plane images captured by the existing camera. Image processing methods and Karhunen-Loève (K-L) decomposition are used to extract measurements for the observer in closed-loop control system. Our system has linear dynamic in state transition, and a nonlinear mapping from the state to the measurement. An iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) is shown to accurately predict the unknown states, and nonlinear observability is discussed. Linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) is applied to correct the misalignments. The method is validated experimentally on the optical bench with a commercial OAP. We conduct 100 tests in the experiment to demonstrate the consistency in between runs.

  3. Rigorous electromagnetic simulation applied to alignment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunfei; Pistor, Thomas V.; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2001-09-01

    Rigorous electromagnetic simulation with TEMPEST is used to provide benchmark data and understanding of key parameters in the design of topographical features of alignment marks. Periodic large silicon trenches are analyzed as a function of wavelength (530-800 nm), duty cycle, depth, slope and angle of incidence. The signals are well behaved except when the trench width becomes about 1 micrometers or smaller. Segmentation of the trenches to form 3D marks shows that a segmentation period of 2-5 wavelengths makes the diffraction in the (1,1) direction about 1/3 to 1/2 of that in the main first order (1,0). Transmission alignment marks nanoimprint lithography using the difference between the +1 and -1 reflected orders showed a sensitivity of the difference signal to misalignment of 0.7%/nm for rigorous simulation and 0.5%/nm for simple ray-tracing. The sensitivity to a slanted substrate indentation was 10 nm off-set per degree of tilt from horizontal.

  4. Liquid crystal dynamic flow control by bidirectional alignment surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. W.; Lee, C. Y.; Kwok, H. S.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the behavior of liquid crystal dynamic flow in a cell with a bidirectional alignment (BDA) surface. Numerical simulations show that with a BDA surface having a pitch comparable to the cell gap d, the liquid crystal dynamic flow direction can be controlled by the driving voltage. Such an effect can be applied to bistable twisted nematic displays without the need for anchoring breaking.

  5. Segment Alignment Maintenance System for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with Blue Line Engineering of Colorado Springs, Colorado, is developing a Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMS) for McDonald Observatory's Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). The SAMS shall sense motions of the 91 primary mirror segments and send corrections to HET's primary mirror controller as the mirror segments misalign due to thermo -elastic deformations of the mirror support structure. The SAMS consists of inductive edge sensors. All measurements are sent to the SAMS computer where mirror motion corrections are calculated. In October 2000, a prototype SAMS was installed on a seven-segment cluster of the HET. Subsequent testing has shown that the SAMS concept and architecture are a viable practical approach to maintaining HET's primary mirror figure, or the figure of any large segmented telescope. This paper gives a functional description of the SAMS sub-array components and presents test data to characterize the performance of the subarray SAMS.

  6. Mask aligner for ultrahigh vacuum with capacitive distance control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, Priyamvada; Mathioudakis, Simon; Olschewski, Tim; Muckel, Florian; Bindel, Jan Raphael; Pratzer, Marco; Liebmann, Marcus; Morgenstern, Markus

    2018-04-01

    We present a mask aligner driven by three piezomotors which guides and aligns a SiN shadow mask under capacitive control towards a sample surface. The three capacitors for read out are located at the backside of the thin mask such that the mask can be placed at a μm distance from the sample surface, while keeping it parallel to the surface, without touching the sample by the mask a priori. Samples and masks can be exchanged in-situ and the mask can additionally be displaced parallel to the surface. We demonstrate an edge sharpness of the deposited structures below 100 nm, which is likely limited by the diffusion of the deposited Au on Si(111).

  7. Magnetic Control of MOF Crystal Orientation and Alignment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Marshall, Ellis S; Young, Adam J; Robinson, Peter J; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien G; Adawi, Ali M; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Farha, Omar K; Reithofer, Michael R; Chin, Jia Min

    2017-11-07

    Most metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) possess anisotropic properties, the full exploitation of which necessitates a general strategy for the controllable orientation of such MOF crystals. Current methods largely rely upon layer-by-layer MOF epitaxy or tuning of MOF crystal growth on appropriate substrates, yielding MOFs with fixed crystal orientations. Here, the dynamic magnetic alignment of different MOF crystals (NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) and NU-1000) is shown. The MOFs were magnetized by electrostatic adsorption of iron oxide nanoparticles, dispersed in curable polymer resins (Formlabs 1+ clear resin/ Sylgard 184), magnetically oriented, and fixed by resin curing. The importance of crystal orientation on MOF functionality was demonstrated whereby magnetically aligned NU-1000/Sylgard 184 composite was excited with linearly polarized 405 nm light, affording an anisotropic fluorescence response dependent on the polarization angle of the excitation beam relative to NU-1000 crystal orientation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Inflight alignment of payload inertial reference from Shuttle navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treder, A. J.; Norris, R. E.; Ruprecht, R.

    Two methods for payload attitude initialization from the STS Orbiter have been proposed: body axis maneuvers (BAM) and star line maneuvers (SLM). The first achieves alignment directly through the Shuttle star tracker, while the second, indirectly through the stellar-updated Shuttle inertial platform. The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) with its strapdown navigation system is used to demonstrate in-flight alignment techniques. Significant accuracy can be obtained with minimal impact on Orbiter operations, with payload inertial reference potentially approaching the accuracy of the Shuttle star tracker. STS-6 flight performance parameters, including alignment stability, are discussed and compared with operational complexity. Results indicate overall alignment stability of .06 deg, 3 sigma per axis.

  9. Global Regularity for the Fractional Euler Alignment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tam; Kiselev, Alexander; Ryzhik, Lenya; Tan, Changhui

    2018-04-01

    We study a pressureless Euler system with a non-linear density-dependent alignment term, originating in the Cucker-Smale swarming models. The alignment term is dissipative in the sense that it tends to equilibrate the velocities. Its density dependence is natural: the alignment rate increases in the areas of high density due to species discomfort. The diffusive term has the order of a fractional Laplacian {(-partial _{xx})^{α/2}, α \\in (0, 1)}. The corresponding Burgers equation with a linear dissipation of this type develops shocks in a finite time. We show that the alignment nonlinearity enhances the dissipation, and the solutions are globally regular for all {α \\in (0, 1)}. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of such regularization due to the non-local nonlinear modulation of dissipation.

  10. Controlled growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhaoli

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a fascinating material with extraordinary electrical thermal and mechanical properties. Growing vertically aligned CNT (VACNT) arrays on metal substrates is an important step in bringing CNT into practical applications such as thermal interface materials (TIMs) and microelectrodes. However, the growth process is challenging due to the difficulties in preventing catalyst diffusion and controlling catalyst dewetting on metal substrates with physical surface heterogeneity. In this work, the catalyst diffusion mechanism and catalyst dewetting theory were studied for the controlled growth of VACNTs on metal substrates. The diffusion time of the catalyst, the diffusion coefficients for the catalyst in the substrate materials and the number density of catalyst nanoparticles after dewetting are identified as the key parameters, based on which three strategies are developed. Firstly, a fast-heating catalyst pretreatment strategy was used, aiming at preserving the amount of catalyst prior to CNT growth by reducing the catalyst diffusion time. The catalyst lifetime is extended from half an hour to one hour on a patterned Al thin film and a VACNT height of 106 mum, about twenty fold of that reported in the literature, was attained. Secondly, a diffusion barrier layer strategy is employed for a reduction of catalyst diffusion into the substrate materials. Enhancement of VACNT growth on Cu substrates was achieved by adopting a conformal Al2O 3 diffusion barrier layer fabricated by a specially designed atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Lastly, a novel catalyst glancing angle deposition (GLAD) strategy is performed to manipulate the morphology of a relatively thick catalyst on metal substrates with physical surface heterogeneity, aiming to obtain uniform and dense catalyst nanoparticles after dewetting in the pretreatment process for enhanced VACNT growth. We are able to control the VACNT growth conditions on metal substrates in terms of their

  11. Boresight alignment method for mobile laser scanning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, P.; Studnicka, N.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Zach, G.

    2010-06-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) is the latest approach towards fast and cost-efficient acquisition of 3-dimensional spatial data. Accurately evaluating the boresight alignment in MLS systems is an obvious necessity. However, recent systems available on the market may lack of suitable and efficient practical workflows on how to perform this calibration. This paper discusses an innovative method for accurately determining the boresight alignment of MLS systems by employing 3D laser scanners. Scanning objects using a 3D laser scanner operating in a 2D line-scan mode from various different runs and scan directions provides valuable scan data for determining the angular alignment between inertial measurement unit and laser scanner. Field data is presented demonstrating the final accuracy of the calibration and the high quality of the point cloud acquired during an MLS campaign.

  12. Relay telescope for high power laser alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2006-09-19

    A laser system includes an optical path having an intracavity relay telescope with a telescope focal point for imaging an output of the gain medium between an image location at or near the gain medium and an image location at or near an output coupler for the laser system. A kinematic mount is provided within a vacuum chamber, and adapted to secure beam baffles near the telescope focal point. An access port on the vacuum chamber is adapted for allowing insertion and removal of the beam baffles. A first baffle formed using an alignment pinhole aperture is used during alignment of the laser system. A second tapered baffle replaces the alignment aperture during operation and acts as a far-field baffle in which off angle beams strike the baffle a grazing angle of incidence, reducing fluence levels at the impact areas.

  13. Optimal Alignment of Structures for Finite and Periodic Systems.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Matthew; Niblett, Samuel P; Wales, David J

    2017-10-10

    Finding the optimal alignment between two structures is important for identifying the minimum root-mean-square distance (RMSD) between them and as a starting point for calculating pathways. Most current algorithms for aligning structures are stochastic, scale exponentially with the size of structure, and the performance can be unreliable. We present two complementary methods for aligning structures corresponding to isolated clusters of atoms and to condensed matter described by a periodic cubic supercell. The first method (Go-PERMDIST), a branch and bound algorithm, locates the global minimum RMSD deterministically in polynomial time. The run time increases for larger RMSDs. The second method (FASTOVERLAP) is a heuristic algorithm that aligns structures by finding the global maximum kernel correlation between them using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and fast SO(3) transforms (SOFTs). For periodic systems, FASTOVERLAP scales with the square of the number of identical atoms in the system, reliably finds the best alignment between structures that are not too distant, and shows significantly better performance than existing algorithms. The expected run time for Go-PERMDIST is longer than FASTOVERLAP for periodic systems. For finite clusters, the FASTOVERLAP algorithm is competitive with existing algorithms. The expected run time for Go-PERMDIST to find the global RMSD between two structures deterministically is generally longer than for existing stochastic algorithms. However, with an earlier exit condition, Go-PERMDIST exhibits similar or better performance.

  14. Secure alignment of coordinate systems using quantum correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezazadeh, F.; Mani, A.; Karimipour, V.

    2017-08-01

    We show that two parties far apart can use shared entangled states and classical communication to align their coordinate systems with a very high fidelity. Moreover, compared with previous methods proposed for such a task, i.e., sending parallel or antiparallel pairs or groups of spin states, our method has the extra advantages of using single-qubit measurements and also being secure, so that third parties do not extract any information about the aligned coordinate system established between the two parties. The latter property is important in many other quantum information protocols in which measurements inevitably play a significant role.

  15. AXAF Alignment Test System Autocollimating Flat Error Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Timothy S.

    1995-01-01

    The alignment test system for the advanced x ray astrophysics facility (AXAF) high-resolution mirror assembly (HRMA) determines the misalignment of the HRMA by measuring the displacement of a beam of light reflected by the HRMA mirrors and an autocollimating flat (ACF). This report shows how to calibrate the system to compensate for errors introduced by the ACF, using measurements taken with the ACF in different positions. It also shows what information can be obtained from alignment test data regarding errors in the shapes of the HRMA mirrors. Simulated results based on measured ACF surface data are presented.

  16. Flexible polymeric rib waveguide with self-align couplers system

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a polymeric based rib waveguide with U shape self-align fiber couplers system using a simple micromolding process with SU8 as a molding material and polydimethysiloxane as a waveguide material. The material is used for its good optical transparency, low surface tension, biocompatibility, and durability. Furthermore, the material is highly formable. This unique fabrication molding technique provides a means of keeping the material and manufacturing costs to a minimum. The self-align fiber couplers system also proves a fast and simple means of light coupling. The flexible nature of the waveguide material makes this process ideal for a potential wearable optical sensor. PMID:22171151

  17. Spacecraft Alignment Determination and Control for Dual Spacecraft Precision Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Shah, Neerav

    2017-01-01

    Many proposed formation flying missions seek to advance the state of the art in spacecraft science imaging by utilizing precision dual spacecraft formation flying to enable a virtual space telescope. Using precision dual spacecraft alignment, very long focal lengths can be achieved by locating the optics on one spacecraft and the detector on the other. Proposed science missions include astrophysics concepts with spacecraft separations from 1000 km to 25,000 km, such as the Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager (MASSIM) and the New Worlds Observer, and Heliophysics concepts for solar coronagraphs and X-ray imaging with smaller separations (50m 500m). All of these proposed missions require advances in guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) for precision formation flying. In particular, very precise astrometric alignment control and estimation is required for precise inertial pointing of the virtual space telescope to enable science imaging orders of magnitude better than can be achieved with conventional single spacecraft instruments. This work develops design architectures, algorithms, and performance analysis of proposed GNC systems for precision dual spacecraft astrometric alignment. These systems employ a variety of GNC sensors and actuators, including laser-based alignment and ranging systems, optical imaging sensors (e.g. guide star telescope), inertial measurement units (IMU), as well as micro-thruster and precision stabilized platforms. A comprehensive GNC performance analysis is given for Heliophysics dual spacecraft PFF imaging mission concept.

  18. Spacecraft Alignment Determination and Control for Dual Spacecraft Precision Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Shah, Neerav

    2017-01-01

    Many proposed formation flying missions seek to advance the state of the art in spacecraft science imaging by utilizing precision dual spacecraft formation flying to enable a virtual space telescope. Using precision dual spacecraft alignment, very long focal lengths can be achieved by locating the optics on one spacecraft and the detector on the other. Proposed science missions include astrophysics concepts with spacecraft separations from 1000 km to 25,000 km, such as the Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager (MASSIM) and the New Worlds Observer, and Heliophysics concepts for solar coronagraphs and X-ray imaging with smaller separations (50m-500m). All of these proposed missions require advances in guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) for precision formation flying. In particular, very precise astrometric alignment control and estimation is required for precise inertial pointing of the virtual space telescope to enable science imaging orders of magnitude better than can be achieved with conventional single spacecraft instruments. This work develops design architectures, algorithms, and performance analysis of proposed GNC systems for precision dual spacecraft astrometric alignment. These systems employ a variety of GNC sensors and actuators, including laser-based alignment and ranging systems, optical imaging sensors (e.g. guide star telescope), inertial measurement units (IMU), as well as microthruster and precision stabilized platforms. A comprehensive GNC performance analysis is given for Heliophysics dual spacecraft PFF imaging mission concept.

  19. Primary Mirror Figure Maintenance of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope using the Segment Alignment Maintenance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Hall, Drew; Howard, Ricky; Ly, William; Weir, John; Montgomery, Edward; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMs) was installed on McDonald Observatory's Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in August 2001. The SAMs became fully operational in October 2001. The SAMs uses a system of 480 inductive edge sensors to correct misalignments of the HET's 91 primary mirror segments when the segments are perturbed from their aligned reference positions. A special observer estimated and corrects for the global radius of curvature (GroC) mode, a mode unobservable by the edge sensors. The SAMs edge sensor system and (GroC) estimator are able to maintain HET's primary figure for much longer durations than previously had been observed. Telescope image quality has improved, and the amount of overhead time required from primary mirror alignment has been reduced. This paper gives a functional description of the SAMs control system and presents performance verification data. This paper also describes how the SAMs has improved the operational efficiency of the HET.

  20. FSO tracking and auto-alignment transceiver system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cap, Gabriel A.; Refai, Hakki H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2008-10-01

    Free-space optics (FSO) technology utilizes a modulated light beam to transmit information through the atmosphere. Due to reduced size and cost, and higher data rates, FSO can be more effective than wireless communication. Although atmospheric conditions can affect FSO communication, a line-of-sight connection between FSO transceivers is a necessary condition to maintain continuous exchange of data, voice, and video information. To date, the primary concentration of mobile FSO research and development has been toward accurate alignment between two transceivers. This study introduces a fully automatic, advanced alignment system that will maintain a line of sight connection for any FSO transceiver system. A complete transceiver system includes a position-sensing detector (PSD) to receive the signal, a laser to transmit the signal, a gimbal to move the transceiver to maintain alignment, and a computer to coordinate the necessary movements during motion. The FSO system was tested for mobility by employing one gimbal as a mobile unit and establishing another as a base station. Tests were performed to establish that alignment between two transceivers could be maintained during a given period of experiments and to determine the maximum speeds tolerated by the system. Implementation of the transceiver system can be realized in many ways, including vehicle-to-base station communication or vehicle-to-vehicle communication. This study is especially promising in that it suggests such a system is able to provide high-speed data in many applications where current wireless technology may not be effective. This phenomenon, coupled with the ability to maintain an autonomously realigned connection, opens the possibility of endless applications for both military and civilian use.

  1. A Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for the Automated Alignment of a Laser-beam-smoothing Spatial Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, M. J.; Dickens, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    A fuzzy logic based controller for a laser-beam-smoothing spatial filter is described. It is demonstrated that a human operator's alignment actions can easily be described by a system of fuzzy rules of inference. The final configuration uses inexpensive, off-the-shelf hardware and allows for a compact, readily implemented embedded control system.

  2. Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Boeing Commercial Airplane Company's Flight Control Department engineers relied on Langley developed software package known as ORACLS to develop an advanced control synthesis package for both continuous and discrete control system. Package was used by Boeing for computerized analysis of new system designs. Resulting applications include a multiple input/output control system for the terrain-following navigation equipment of the Air Forces B-1 Bomber, and another for controlling in flight changes of wing camber on an experimental airplane. ORACLS is one of 1,300 computer programs available from COSMIC.

  3. Low cost, high performance, self-aligning miniature optical systems

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Robert T.; Christenson, Todd; Kortum, Rebecca Richards; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2009-01-01

    The most expensive aspects in producing high quality miniature optical systems are the component costs and long assembly process. A new approach for fabricating these systems that reduces both aspects through the implementation of self-aligning LIGA (German acronym for lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, or x-ray lithography, electroplating, and molding) optomechanics with high volume plastic injection molded and off-the-shelf glass optics is presented. This zero alignment strategy has been incorporated into a miniature high numerical aperture (NA = 1.0W) microscope objective for a fiber confocal reflectance microscope. Tight alignment tolerances of less than 10 μm are maintained for all components that reside inside of a small 9 gauge diameter hypodermic tubing. A prototype system has been tested using the slanted edge modulation transfer function technique and demonstrated to have a Strehl ratio of 0.71. This universal technology is now being developed for smaller, needle-sized imaging systems and other portable point-of-care diagnostic instruments. PMID:19543344

  4. String-fluid transition in systems with aligned anisotropic interactions.

    PubMed

    Brandt, P C; Ivlev, A V; Morfill, G E

    2010-06-21

    Systems with aligned anisotropic interactions between particles exhibit numerous phase transitions. A remarkable example of the fluid phase transition occurring in such systems is the formation of particle strings--the so-called "string" or "chain" fluids. We employ an approach based on the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation, which allows us to calculate structural properties of fluids with aligned anisotropic interactions. We show that the string-fluid transition can be associated with the bifurcation of the "isotropic" correlation length into two distinct scales which characterize the longitudinal and transverse order in string fluids and, hence, may be used as a fingerprint of this transition. The comparison of the proposed OZ theory with the Monte Carlo simulations reveals fairly good agreement.

  5. Understanding Beam Alignment in a Coherent Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Roychoudhari, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Optical beam alignment in a coherent lidar (or ladar) receiver system plays a critical role in optimizing its performance. Optical alignment in a coherent lidar system dictates the wavefront curvature (phase front) and Poynting vector) matching of the local oscillator beam with the incoming receiver beam on a detector. However, this alignment is often not easy to achieve and is rarely perfect. Furthermore, optical fibers are being increasingly used in coherent lidar system receivers for transporting radiation to achieve architectural elegance. Single mode fibers also require stringent mode matching for efficient light coupling. The detector response characteristics vary with the misalignment of the two pointing vectors. Misalignment can lead to increase in DC current. Also, a lens in front of the detector may exasperate phase front and Poynting vector mismatch. Non-Interaction of Waves, or the NIW property indicates the light beams do not interfere by themselves in the absence of detecting dipoles. In this paper, we will analyze the extent of misalignment on the detector specifications using pointing vectors of mixing beams in light of the NIW property.

  6. Note: O-ring stack system for electron gun alignment.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Yong; Cho, Boklae; Han, Cheolsu; Shin, Seungmin; Lee, Dongjun; Ahn, Sang Jung

    2015-01-01

    We present a reliable method for aligning an electron gun which consists of an electron source and lenses by controlling a stack of rubber O-rings in a vacuum condition. The beam direction angle is precisely tilted along two axes by adjusting the height difference of a stack of O-rings. In addition, the source position is shifted in each of three orthogonal directions. We show that the tilting angle and linear shift along the x and y axes as obtained from ten stacked O-rings are ±2.55° and ±2 mm, respectively. This study can easily be adapted to charged particle gun alignment and adjustments of the flange position in a vacuum, ensuring that its results can be useful with regard to electrical insulation between flanges with slight modifications.

  7. Alignment in star-debris disc systems seen by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Thureau, N.; Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Maldonado, J.; Matthews, B. C.; Olofsson, G.; Barlow, M. J.; Moro-Martín, A.; Sibthorpe, B.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D. R.; Booth, M.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cameron, A. Collier; del Burgo, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Eislöffel, J.; Duchêne, G.; Ertel, S.; Holland, W. S.; Horner, J.; Kalas, P.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Vican, L.; Wilner, D. J.; Wolf, S.; Wyatt, M. C.

    2014-02-01

    Many nearby main-sequence stars have been searched for debris using the far-infrared Herschel satellite, within the DEBRIS, DUNES and Guaranteed-Time Key Projects. We discuss here 11 stars of spectral types A-M where the stellar inclination is known and can be compared to that of the spatially resolved dust belts. The discs are found to be well aligned with the stellar equators, as in the case of the Sun's Kuiper belt, and unlike many close-in planets seen in transit surveys. The ensemble of stars here can be fitted with a star-disc tilt of ≲ 10°. These results suggest that proposed mechanisms for tilting the star or disc in fact operate rarely. A few systems also host imaged planets, whose orbits at tens of au are aligned with the debris discs, contrary to what might be expected in models where external perturbers induce tilts.

  8. Development of the segment alignment maintenance system (SAMS) for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, John A.; Adams, Mark T.; Ames, Gregory H.; Fowler, James R.; Montgomery, Edward E.; Rakoczy, John M.

    2000-07-01

    A sensing and control system for maintaining optical alignment of ninety-one 1-meter mirror segments forming the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) primary mirror array is now under development. The Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMS) is designed to sense relative shear motion between each segment edge pair and calculated individual segment tip, tilt, and piston position errors. Error information is sent to the HET primary mirror control system, which corrects the physical position of each segment as often as once per minute. Development of SAMS is required to meet optical images quality specifications for the telescope. Segment misalignment over time is though to be due to thermal inhomogeneity within the steel mirror support truss. Challenging problems of sensor resolution, dynamic range, mechanical mounting, calibration, stability, robust algorithm development, and system integration must be overcome to achieve a successful operational solution.

  9. System and method for 2D workpiece alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, William T.; Carlson, Charles T.; Smith, Scott A.

    2015-07-14

    A carrier capable of holding one or more workpieces is disclosed. The carrier includes movable projections located along the sides of each cell in the carrier. This carrier, in conjunction with a separate alignment apparatus, aligns each workpiece within its respective cell against several alignment pins, using a multiple step alignment process to guarantee proper positioning of the workpiece in the cell. First, the workpieces are moved toward one side of the cell. Once the workpieces have been aligned against this side, the workpieces are then moved toward an adjacent orthogonal side such that the workpieces are aligned to twomore » sides of the cell. Once aligned, the workpiece is held in place by the projections located along each side of each cell. In addition, the alignment pins are also used to align the associated mask, thereby guaranteeing that the mask is properly aligned to the workpiece.« less

  10. Real-time Optical Alignment and Diagnostic System (ROADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The ultimate and most frequent usage of ROADS will be the alignment of subassemblies (collector and collimator) prior to their installation in a chamber. The system as designed has inherent associated capabilities well applied to acceptance testing of the No. 4 mirror, prediction of in-chamber performance, generation of a catalog of test results and other data, providing data for the plotting of isointensity lines, and other applications which are discussed. The ROADS system will collect, process, display, analyze, and retain data as required for components, partial subassemblies, complete subassemblies, complete modules, and multimodular arrays.

  11. Recent advances in automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsen, Karl; Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Kalantar, Dan; Leach, Richard; Lowe-Webb, Roger; McGuigan, David; Miller Kamm, Vicki

    2011-03-01

    The automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large-scale parallel system that directs all 192 laser beams along the 300-m optical path to a 50-micron focus at target chamber in less than 50 minutes. The system automatically commands 9,000 stepping motors to adjust mirrors and other optics based upon images acquired from high-resolution digital cameras viewing beams at various locations. Forty-five control loops per beamline request image processing services running on a LINUX cluster to analyze these images of the beams and references, and automatically steer the beams toward the target. This paper discusses the upgrades to the NIF automatic alignment system to handle new alignment needs and evolving requirements as related to various types of experiments performed. As NIF becomes a continuously-operated system and more experiments are performed, performance monitoring is increasingly important for maintenance and commissioning work. Data, collected during operations, is analyzed for tuning of the laser and targeting maintenance work. Handling evolving alignment and maintenance needs is expected for the planned 30-year operational life of NIF.

  12. MACSIMS : multiple alignment of complete sequences information management system

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Julie D; Muller, Arnaud; Waterhouse, Andrew; Procter, Jim; Barton, Geoffrey J; Plewniak, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Background In the post-genomic era, systems-level studies are being performed that seek to explain complex biological systems by integrating diverse resources from fields such as genomics, proteomics or transcriptomics. New information management systems are now needed for the collection, validation and analysis of the vast amount of heterogeneous data available. Multiple alignments of complete sequences provide an ideal environment for the integration of this information in the context of the protein family. Results MACSIMS is a multiple alignment-based information management program that combines the advantages of both knowledge-based and ab initio sequence analysis methods. Structural and functional information is retrieved automatically from the public databases. In the multiple alignment, homologous regions are identified and the retrieved data is evaluated and propagated from known to unknown sequences with these reliable regions. In a large-scale evaluation, the specificity of the propagated sequence features is estimated to be >99%, i.e. very few false positive predictions are made. MACSIMS is then used to characterise mutations in a test set of 100 proteins that are known to be involved in human genetic diseases. The number of sequence features associated with these proteins was increased by 60%, compared to the features available in the public databases. An XML format output file allows automatic parsing of the MACSIM results, while a graphical display using the JalView program allows manual analysis. Conclusion MACSIMS is a new information management system that incorporates detailed analyses of protein families at the structural, functional and evolutionary levels. MACSIMS thus provides a unique environment that facilitates knowledge extraction and the presentation of the most pertinent information to the biologist. A web server and the source code are available at . PMID:16792820

  13. CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  14. Automatic target alignment of the Helios laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, I.; Viswanathan, V. K.; Klein, M.; Seery, B. D.

    1980-05-01

    An automatic target-alignment technique for the Helios laser facility is reported and verified experimentally. The desired alignment condition is completely described by an autocollimation test. A computer program examines the autocollimated return pattern from the surrogate target and correctly describes any changes required in mirror orientation to yield optimum target alignment with either aberrated or misaligned beams. Automated on-line target alignment is thus shown to be feasible.

  15. Feed-forward alignment correction for advanced overlay process control using a standalone alignment station "Litho Booster"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiro, Takehisa; Sawamura, Junpei; Dosho, Tomonori; Shiba, Yuji; Ando, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Jun; Morita, Masahiro; Shibazaki, Yuichi

    2018-03-01

    One of the main components of an On-Product Overlay (OPO) error budget is the process induced wafer error. This necessitates wafer-to-wafer correction in order to optimize overlay accuracy. This paper introduces the Litho Booster (LB), standalone alignment station as a solution to improving OPO. LB can execute high speed alignment measurements without throughput (THP) loss. LB can be installed in any lithography process control loop as a metrology tool, and is then able to provide feed-forward (FF) corrections to the scanners. In this paper, the detailed LB design is described and basic LB performance and OPO improvement is demonstrated. Litho Booster's extendibility and applicability as a solution for next generation manufacturing accuracy and productivity challenges are also outlined

  16. Optical development system lab alignment solutions for the ICESat-2 ATLAS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T.

    The ATLAS Instrument for the ICESat-2 mission at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center requires an alignment test-bed to prove out new concepts. The Optical Development System (ODS) lab was created to test prototype models of individual instrument components to simulate how they will act as a system. The main ICESat-2 instrument is the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). It measures ice elevation by transmitting laser pulses, and collecting the reflection in a telescope. Because the round trip time is used to calculate distance, alignment between the outgoing transmitter beam and the incoming receiver beams are critical. An automated closed loop monitoring control system is currently being tested at the prototype level to prove out implementation for the final spacecraft. To achieve an error of less than 2 micro-radians, an active deformable mirror was used to correct the lab wave front from the collimated “ ground reflection” beam. The lab includes a focal plane assembly set up, a one meter diameter collimator optic, and a 0.8 meter flight spare telescope for alignment. ATLAS prototypes and engineering models of transmitter and receiver optics and sub-systems are brought in to develop and integrate systems as well as write procedures to be used in integration and testing. By having a fully integrated system with prototypes and engineering units, lessons can be learned before flight designs are finalized.

  17. Controlled alignment of carbon nanofibers in a large-scale synthesis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Melechko, A. V.; Guillorn, M. A.; Simpson, M. L.; Lowndes, D. H.; Whealton, J. H.; Raridon, R. J.

    2002-06-01

    Controlled alignment of catalytically grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) at a variable angle to the substrate during a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process is achieved. The CNF alignment is controlled by the direction of the electric field lines during the synthesis process. Off normal CNF orientations are achieved by positioning the sample in the vicinity of geometrical features of the sample holder, where bending of the electric field lines occurs. The controlled growth of kinked CNFs that consist of two parts aligned at different angles to the substrate normal also is demonstrated.

  18. Study on the key alignment technology of the catadioptric optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chong; Fu, Xing; Fu, Xi-hong; Kang, Xiao-peng; Liu, Kai

    2017-02-01

    Optical system alignment has a great influence on the whole system accuracy. In this paper, the processing of optical system alignment was mainly studied, the processing method of optics on the primary and secondary mirrors, front correction lens group and behind correction lens group with high precision centering lathe and internal focusing telescope. Then using the height indicator complete the system alignment of the primary mirror, secondary mirror, front correction group and behind correction group. Finally, based on the zygo interferometer detect the wavefront information. Using this alignment program for catadioptric optical system, the wavefront aberration of optical system, focal length, modulation transfer function (MTF) and other technical indicators have reached the requirements.

  19. Note: O-ring stack system for electron gun alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In-Yong; Cho, Boklae; Han, Cheolsu

    We present a reliable method for aligning an electron gun which consists of an electron source and lenses by controlling a stack of rubber O-rings in a vacuum condition. The beam direction angle is precisely tilted along two axes by adjusting the height difference of a stack of O-rings. In addition, the source position is shifted in each of three orthogonal directions. We show that the tilting angle and linear shift along the x and y axes as obtained from ten stacked O-rings are ±2.55° and ±2 mm, respectively. This study can easily be adapted to charged particle gun alignmentmore » and adjustments of the flange position in a vacuum, ensuring that its results can be useful with regard to electrical insulation between flanges with slight modifications.« less

  20. Centroid Detector Assembly for the AXAF-I Alignment Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (imaging) (AXAF-I) consists of four nested paraboloids and four nested hyperboloids, all of meter-class size, and all of which are to be assembled and aligned in a special 15 meter tower at Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, NY. The goals of the alignment are (1) to make the images of the four telescopes coincident; (2) to remove coma from each image individually; and (3) to control and determine the final position of the composite focus. This will be accomplished by the HRMA Aligment Test System (HATS) which is essentially a scanning Hartmann test system. The scanning laser source and the focal plane of the HATS are part of the Centroid Detector Assembly (CDA) which also includes processing electronics and software. In this paper we discuss the design and the measured performance of the CDA.

  1. Controlled growth of well-aligned carbon nanotubes with large diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianbao; Liu, Yunqi; Zhu, Daoben

    2001-06-01

    Well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with large diameters (25-200 nm) were synthesized by pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine. The outer diameter up to 218.5 nm and the length of the well-aligned CNTs can be systematically controlled by varying the growth time. A tube-in-tube nano-structure with large and small diameters of 176 and 16.7 nm, respectively, was found. The grain sizes of the iron catalyst play an important role in controlling the CNT diameters. These results are of great importance to design new aligned CNT-based electron field emitters in the potential application of panel displays.

  2. An error analysis perspective for patient alignment systems.

    PubMed

    Figl, Michael; Kaar, Marcus; Hoffman, Rainer; Kratochwil, Alfred; Hummel, Johann

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyses the effects of error sources which can be found in patient alignment systems. As an example, an ultrasound (US) repositioning system and its transformation chain are assessed. The findings of this concept can also be applied to any navigation system. In a first step, all error sources were identified and where applicable, corresponding target registration errors were computed. By applying error propagation calculations on these commonly used registration/calibration and tracking errors, we were able to analyse the components of the overall error. Furthermore, we defined a special situation where the whole registration chain reduces to the error caused by the tracking system. Additionally, we used a phantom to evaluate the errors arising from the image-to-image registration procedure, depending on the image metric used. We have also discussed how this analysis can be applied to other positioning systems such as Cone Beam CT-based systems or Brainlab's ExacTrac. The estimates found by our error propagation analysis are in good agreement with the numbers found in the phantom study but significantly smaller than results from patient evaluations. We probably underestimated human influences such as the US scan head positioning by the operator and tissue deformation. Rotational errors of the tracking system can multiply these errors, depending on the relative position of tracker and probe. We were able to analyse the components of the overall error of a typical patient positioning system. We consider this to be a contribution to the optimization of the positioning accuracy for computer guidance systems.

  3. Effects of clear aligners on sleep bruxism: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Castroflorio, T; Bargellini, A; Lucchese, A; Manuelli, M; Casasco, F; Cugliari, G; Cioffi, I; Deregibus, A

    2018-01-01

    The possible effects on sleep bruxism (SB) of clear aligners in orthodontics are unknown. This study was conducted to analyze the effects of clear aligners on SB. Sixty subjects needing orthodontic treatment and affected by SB (33 m, 27 f, 20±;5 years) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to one of the following three groups: 20 were given clear aligners (CAT) (12 m, 8 f, 19±5 years), 20 occlusal splint (MOS) (9 m, 11 f, 22±5 years) and 20 a placebo splint (PMS) (12 m, 8 f, 24±3 years). All groups were followed for 6 consecutive months and monitored for SB with a portable electromyographic-electrocardiographic (EMG-ECG) device (Bruxoff®, OT Bioelettronica, Torino, Italy). MOS subjects reduced masseter contractions after 6 months of treatment (t3) (MD=-29.11, std. error 11.74, p=0.017) but increased phasic contractions related to SB after 3 months of treatment (t2) (MD=4.73, std. error 2.36, p=0.048) and tonic contractions related to SB during all the six months of treatment (t1, t2, t3) when compared to PMS. CAT subjects increased phasic contractions related to SB during the first (t1) (MD=3.94, std. error 2.27, p=0.04) and the third month (t2) of treatment (MD=4.62, std. error 2.36, p=0.046) when compared to PMS. No significant differences were found for SB index at any time for all the three groups. Although MOS and CAT affected EMG signals during sleep time differently, they did not influence the overall SB index.

  4. Engineering controllable architecture in matrigel for 3D cell alignment.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Myung; Tran, Si-Hoai-Trung; Na, Sang Cheol; Jeon, Noo Li

    2015-02-04

    We report a microfluidic approach to impart alignment in ECM components in 3D hydrogels by continuously applying fluid flow across the bulk gel during the gelation process. The microfluidic device where each channel can be independently filled was tilted at 90° to generate continuous flow across the Matrigel as it gelled. The presence of flow helped that more than 70% of ECM components were oriented along the direction of flow, compared with randomly cross-linked Matrigel. Following the oriented ECM components, primary rat cortical neurons and mouse neural stem cells showed oriented outgrowth of neuronal processes within the 3D Matrigel matrix.

  5. Field-aligned currents associated with multiple arc systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Knudsen, D. J.; Gillies, D. M.; Donovan, E.; Burchill, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    It is often thought that auroral arcs are a direct consequence of upward field-aligned currents. In fact, the relation between currents and brightness is more complicated. Multiple auroral arc systems provide and opportunity to study this relation in detail; this information can be used as a test of models for quasi-static arc formation. In this study, we have identified two types of FAC configurations in multiple parallel arc systems using ground-based optical data from the THEMIS all-sky imagers (ASIs), magnetometers and electric field instruments onboard the Swarm satellites during the period from December 2013 to March 2015. In type 1 events, each arc is an intensification within a broad, unipolar current sheet and downward currents only exist outside the upward current sheet. In type 2 events, multiple arc systems represent a collection of multiple up/down current pairs. By collecting 12 events for type 1 and 17 events for type 2, we find that (1) Type 1 events are mainly located between 22-23MLT. Type 2 events are mainly located around midnight. (2) The typical size of upward and downward FAC in type 2 events are comparable, while upward FAC in type 1 events are larger than downward FAC. (3) Upward currents with more arcs embedded have larger intensities and widths. (4) There is no significant difference between the characteristic widths of multiple arcs and single arcs.

  6. System modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope alignment and phasing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Troy, Mitchell

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a system model using the System Modeling Language (SysML) for the Alignment and Phasing System (APS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). APS is a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor that will be used to measure the alignment and phasing of the primary mirror segments, and the alignment of the secondary and tertiary mirrors. The APS system model contains the ow-down of the Level 1 TMT requirements to APS (Level 2) requirements, and from there to the APS sub-systems (Level 3) requirements. The model also contains the operating modes and scenarios for various activities, such as maintenance alignment, post-segment exchange alignment, and calibration activities. The requirements ow-down is captured in SysML requirements diagrams, and we describe the process of maintaining the DOORS database as the single-source-of-truth for requirements, while using the SysML model to capture the logic and notes associated with the ow-down. We also use the system model to capture any needed communications from APS to other TMT systems, and between the APS sub-systems. The operations are modeled using SysML activity diagrams, and will be used to specify the APS interface documents. The modeling tool can simulate the top level activities to produce sequence diagrams, which contain all the communications between the system and subsystem needed for that activity. By adding time estimates for the lowest level APS activities, a robust estimate for the total time on-sky that APS requires to align and phase the telescope can be obtained. This estimate will be used to verify that the time APS requires on-sky meets the Level 1 TMT requirements.

  7. Software Development for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's Segment Alignment Maintenance System using LABView

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Drew P.; Ly, William; Howard, Richard T.; Weir, John; Rakoczy, John; Roe, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The software development for an upgrade to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) was done in LABView. In order to improve the performance of the HET at the McDonald Observatory, a closed-loop system had to be implemented to keep the mirror segments aligned during periods of observation. The control system, called the Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMs), utilized inductive sensors to measure the relative motions of the mirror segments. Software was developed in LABView to tie the sensors, operator interface, and mirror-control motors together. Developing the software in LABView allowed the system to be flexible, understandable, and able to be modified by the end users. Since LABView is built using block diagrams, the software naturally followed the designed control system's block and flow diagrams, and individual software blocks could be easily verified. LABView's many built-in display routines allowed easy visualization of diagnostic and health-monitoring data during testing. Also, since LABView is a multi-platform software package, different programmers could develop the code remotely on various types of machines. LABView s ease of use facilitated rapid prototyping and field testing. There were some unanticipated difficulties in the software development, but the use of LABView as the software "language" for the development of SAMs contributed to the overall success of the project.

  8. AlexSys: a knowledge-based expert system for multiple sequence alignment construction and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aniba, Mohamed Radhouene; Poch, Olivier; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Thompson, Julie Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a cornerstone of modern molecular biology and represents a unique means of investigating the patterns of conservation and diversity in complex biological systems. Many different algorithms have been developed to construct MSAs, but previous studies have shown that no single aligner consistently outperforms the rest. This has led to the development of a number of ‘meta-methods’ that systematically run several aligners and merge the output into one single solution. Although these methods generally produce more accurate alignments, they are inefficient because all the aligners need to be run first and the choice of the best solution is made a posteriori. Here, we describe the development of a new expert system, AlexSys, for the multiple alignment of protein sequences. AlexSys incorporates an intelligent inference engine to automatically select an appropriate aligner a priori, depending only on the nature of the input sequences. The inference engine was trained on a large set of reference multiple alignments, using a novel machine learning approach. Applying AlexSys to a test set of 178 alignments, we show that the expert system represents a good compromise between alignment quality and running time, making it suitable for high throughput projects. AlexSys is freely available from http://alnitak.u-strasbg.fr/∼aniba/alexsys. PMID:20530533

  9. Controllable 3D architectures of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by multi-step processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shaoming

    2003-06-01

    An effective way to fabricate large area three-dimensional (3D) aligned CNTs pattern based on pyrolysis of iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) by two-step processes is reported. The controllable generation of different lengths and selective growth of the aligned CNT arrays on metal-patterned (e.g., Ag and Au) substrate are the bases for generating such 3D aligned CNTs architectures. By controlling experimental conditions 3D aligned CNT arrays with different lengths/densities and morphologies/structures as well as multi-layered architectures can be fabricated in large scale by multi-step pyrolysis of FePc. These 3D architectures could have interesting properties and be applied for developing novel nanotube-based devices.

  10. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers and related structures: Controlled synthesis and directed assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melechko, A. V.; Merkulov, V. I.; McKnight, T. E.; Guillorn, M. A.; Klein, K. L.; Lowndes, D. H.; Simpson, M. L.

    2005-02-01

    The controlled synthesis of materials by methods that permit their assembly into functional nanoscale structures lies at the crux of the emerging field of nanotechnology. Although only one of several materials families is of interest, carbon-based nanostructured materials continue to attract a disproportionate share of research effort, in part because of their wide-ranging properties. Additionally, developments of the past decade in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have opened additional possibilities for their use as functional elements in numerous applications. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are a subclass of carbon nanostructured materials that can be produced with a high degree of control using catalytic plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (C-PECVD). Using C-PECVD the location, diameter, length, shape, chemical composition, and orientation can be controlled during VACNF synthesis. Here we review the CVD and PECVD systems, growth control mechanisms, catalyst preparation, resultant carbon nanostructures, and VACNF properties. This is followed by a review of many of the application areas for carbon nanotubes and nanofibers including electron field-emission sources, electrochemical probes, functionalized sensor elements, scanning probe microscopy tips, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), hydrogen and charge storage, and catalyst support. We end by noting gaps in the understanding of VACNF growth mechanisms and the challenges remaining in the development of methods for an even more comprehensive control of the carbon nanofiber synthesis process.

  11. Neural-network-directed alignment of optical systems using the laser-beam spatial filter as an example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an effort at NASA Lewis Research Center to use artificial neural networks to automate the alignment and control of optical measurement systems. Specifically, it addresses the use of commercially available neural network software and hardware to direct alignments of the common laser-beam-smoothing spatial filter. The report presents a general approach for designing alignment records and combining these into training sets to teach optical alignment functions to neural networks and discusses the use of these training sets to train several types of neural networks. Neural network configurations used include the adaptive resonance network, the back-propagation-trained network, and the counter-propagation network. This work shows that neural networks can be used to produce robust sequencers. These sequencers can learn by example to execute the step-by-step procedures of optical alignment and also can learn adaptively to correct for environmentally induced misalignment. The long-range objective is to use neural networks to automate the alignment and operation of optical measurement systems in remote, harsh, or dangerous aerospace environments. This work also shows that when neural networks are trained by a human operator, training sets should be recorded, training should be executed, and testing should be done in a manner that does not depend on intellectual judgments of the human operator.

  12. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites

  13. Digital optical correlator x-ray telescope alignment monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Tomasz; Gaskin, Jessica; Jasper, John; Gregory, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    The High-Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) program is a balloon-borne x-ray telescope mission to observe hard x-rays (˜20 to 70 keV) from the sun and multiple astrophysical targets. The payload consists of eight mirror modules with a total of 114 optics that are mounted on a 6-m-long optical bench. Each mirror module is complemented by a high-pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counter. Attached to the payload is a camera that acquires star fields and then matches the acquired field to star maps to determine the pointing of the optical bench. Slight misalignments between the star camera, the optical bench, and the telescope elements attached to the optical bench may occur during flight due to mechanical shifts, thermal gradients, and gravitational effects. These misalignments can result in diminished imaging and reduced photon collection efficiency. To monitor these misalignments during flight, a supplementary Bench Alignment Monitoring System (BAMS) was added to the payload. BAMS hardware comprises two cameras mounted directly to the optical bench and rings of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) mounted onto the telescope components. The LEDs in these rings are mounted in a predefined, asymmetric pattern, and their positions are tracked using an optical/digital correlator. The BAMS analysis software is a digital adaption of an optical joint transform correlator. The aim is to enhance the observational proficiency of HEROES while providing insight into the magnitude of mechanically and thermally induced misalignments during flight. Results from a preflight test of the system are reported.

  14. The Alignment Test System for AXAF-I's High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldman, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The AXAF-1 High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) consists of four nested mirror pairs of Wolter Type-1 grazing incidence optics. The HRMA assembly and alignment will take place in a vibration-isolated, cleanliness class 100, 18 meter high tower at an Eastman Kodak Company facility in Rochester, NY. Each mirror pair must be aligned such that its image is coma-free, and the four pairs must be aligned such that their images are coincident. In addition, both the HRMA optical axis and focal point must be precisely known with respect to physical references on the HRMA. The alignment of the HRMA mirrors is measured by the HRMA Alignment Test System (HATS), which is an integral part of the tower facility. The HATS is configured as a double-pass, autocollimating Hartmann test where each mirror aperture is scanned to determine the state of alignment. This paper will describe the design and operation of the HATS.

  15. Nanostructured aligned CNT platforms enhance the controlled release of a neurotrophic protein from polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Brianna C.; Chen, Jun; Moulton, Simon E.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2010-04-01

    An aligned CNT array membrane electrode has been used as a nanostructured supporting platform for polypyrrole (PPy) films, exhibiting significant improvement in the controlled release of neurotrophin. In terms of linearity of release, stimulated to unstimulated control of NT-3 release and increased mass and % release of incorporated NT-3, the nanostructured material performed more favourably than the flat PPy film.

  16. Dynamic interferometer alignment and its utility in UV Fourier transform spectrometer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorval, Rick K.; Engel, James R.; Wyntjes, Geert J.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic alignment has been demonstrated as a practical approach to alignment maintenance for systems in the infrared region of the spectrum. On the basis of work done by OPTRA, this technique was introduced in commercial Fourier transform spectrometer systems in 1982 and in various forms is now available from a number of manufacturers. This paper reports on work by OPTRA to extend the basic technique to systems operating in the ultraviolet. In addition, this paper reports the preliminary results of the development of an alignment system using a laser diode in place of a gas laser normally found in dynamic alignment systems. A unique optical system and spatial heterodyne technique allows for achievement of a metrology system with characteristics that fully satisfy the requirements of an ultraviolet spectrometer system.

  17. State Standards and State Assessment Systems: A Guide to Alignment. Series on Standards and Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.; Redfield, Doris; Winter, Phoebe C.

    Alignment of content standards, performance standards, and assessments is crucial. This guide contains information to assist states and districts in aligning their assessment systems to their content and performance standards. It includes a review of current literature, both published and fugitive. The research is woven together with a few basic…

  18. Voltage controlled oscillator is easily aligned, has low phase noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, R. L.

    1965-01-01

    Voltage Controlled Oscillator /VCO/, represented by an equivalent RF circuit, is easily adjusted for optimum performance by varying the circuit parameter. It contains a crystal drive level which is also easily adjusted to obtain minimum phase noise.

  19. Systems Alignment for Comprehensive Faculty Development in Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Vicki L.; Lunsford, Laura G.; Pifer, Meghan J.

    2015-01-01

    Using an alignment framework, the authors explore faculty development initiatives in liberal arts colleges in order to understand the connection between organizational priorities and processes as connected to faculty members' stated needs. The study draws on mixed-methods data from The Initiative for Faculty Development in Liberal Arts Colleges…

  20. Wireless optical transceiver design, link analisys and alignment control for mobile communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dayong

    Pointing, acquisition and tracking of a free-space optical node in a mobile network experiencing misalignment due to adverse factors including vibration, motion and atmospheric turbulence requires a different approach than traditional free-space optical transceivers. A recent fiber-bundle approach for beam steering at the transmitter was investigated to provide continuous beam coverage at the receiver without the application of mechanical devices. Utilizing multiple fibers-lenses sets at the receiver was also proposed to enhance the tolerance of optical link misalignment. In this work, both laboratory experiments and software simulation were implemented to evaluate the optical link performance for different fiber-bundle-based transceiver setups as the link parameters were varied. The performance was evaluated in terms of the coverage area at the receiver, which is a measure of misalignment tolerance and is dependent not only on wavelength but on other key parameters such as link length, transmitted power, the pattern of transmitters, beam divergence, and the receiver construction. The results showed that fiber-bindle-based transceivers reveal significant potential to maximize the up time of the link, and the results also provide guidance on the further development of the overall system. To incorporate the proposed transceiver designs, an alignment control system was developed and evaluated as well. The laboratory results show that the optical control system successfully recovered and maintained the link while the receiver was in motion and the signal coverage at the target area was enhanced significantly.

  1. Push-Pull and Feedback Mechanisms Can Align Signaling System Outputs with Inputs.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Steven S; Peria, William J; Yu, Richard C; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Brent, Roger

    2016-11-23

    Many cell signaling systems, including the yeast pheromone response system, exhibit "dose-response alignment" (DoRA), in which output of one or more downstream steps closely matches the fraction of occupied receptors. DoRA can improve the fidelity of transmitted dose information. Here, we searched systematically for biochemical network topologies that produced DoRA. Most networks, including many containing feedback and feedforward loops, could not produce DoRA. However, networks including "push-pull" mechanisms, in which the active form of a signaling species stimulates downstream activity and the nominally inactive form reduces downstream activity, enabled perfect DoRA. Networks containing feedbacks enabled DoRA, but only if they also compared feedback to input and adjusted output to match. Our results establish push-pull as a non-feedback mechanism to align output with variable input and maximize information transfer in signaling systems. They also suggest genetic approaches to determine whether particular signaling systems use feedback or push-pull control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced water vapor separation by temperature-controlled aligned-multiwalled carbon nanotube membranes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Wonjae; Yun, Jongju; Khan, Fakhre Alam; Baik, Seunghyun

    2015-09-14

    Here we present a new strategy of selectively rejecting water vapor while allowing fast transport of dry gases using temperature-controlled aligned-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (aligned-MWNTs). The mechanism is based on the water vapor condensation at the entry region of nanotubes followed by removing aggregated water droplets at the tip of the superhydrophobic aligned-MWNTs. The first condensation step could be dramatically enhanced by decreasing the nanotube temperature. The permeate-side relative humidity was as low as ∼17% and the helium-water vapor separation factor was as high as 4.62 when a helium-water vapor mixture with a relative humidity of 100% was supplied to the aligned-MWNTs. The flow through the interstitial space of the aligned-MWNTs allowed the permeability of single dry gases an order of magnitude higher than the Knudsen prediction regardless of membrane temperature. The water vapor separation performance of hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene membranes could also be significantly enhanced at low temperatures. This work combines the membrane-based separation technology with temperature control to enhance water vapor separation performance.

  3. Fabrication Process for Large Size Mold and Alignment Method for Nanoimprint System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Kentaro; Kokubo, Mitsunori; Goto, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Jun; Shoji, Shuichi

    Nanoimprint technology is considered one of the mass production methods of the display for cellular phone or notebook computer, with Anti-Reflection Structures (ARS) pattern and so on. In this case, the large size mold with nanometer order pattern is very important. Then, we describe the fabrication process for large size mold, and the alignment method for UV nanoimprint system. We developed the original mold fabrication process using nanoimprint method and etching techniques. In 66 × 45 mm2 area, 200nm period seamless patterns were formed using this process. And, we constructed original alignment system that consists of the CCD-camera system, X-Y-θ table, method of moiré fringe, and image processing system, because the accuracy of pattern connection depends on the alignment method. This alignment system accuracy was within 20nm.

  4. In-situ temperature-controllable shear flow device for neutron scattering measurement—An example of aligned bicellar mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Kučerka, Norbert

    We have designed and constructed a temperature-controllable shear flow cell for in-situ study on flow alignable systems. The device has been tested in the neutron diffraction and has the potential to be applied in the small angle neutron scattering configuration to characterize the nanostructures of the materials under flow. The required sample amount is as small as 1 ml. The shear rate on the sample is controlled by the flow rate produced by an external pump and can potentially vary from 0.11 to 3.8 × 10{sup 5} s{sup −1}. Both unidirectional and oscillational flows are achievable by the setting ofmore » the pump. The instrument is validated by using a lipid bicellar mixture, which yields non-alignable nanodisc-like bicelles at low T and shear-alignable membranes at high T. Using the shear cell, the bicellar membranes can be aligned at 31 °C under the flow with a shear rate of 11.11 s{sup −1}. Multiple high-order Bragg peaks are observed and the full width at half maximum of the “rocking curve” around the Bragg’s condition is found to be 3.5°–4.1°. It is noteworthy that a portion of the membranes remains aligned even after the flow stops. Detailed and comprehensive intensity correction for the rocking curve has been derived based on the finite rectangular sample geometry and the absorption of the neutrons as a function of sample angle [See supplementary material at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4908165 for the detailed derivation of the absorption correction]. The device offers a new capability to study the conformational or orientational anisotropy of the solvated macromolecules or aggregates induced by the hydrodynamic interaction in a flow field.« less

  5. In-situ temperature-controllable shear flow device for neutron scattering measurement--an example of aligned bicellar mixtures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Kučerka, Norbert; Li, Shutao; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2015-02-01

    We have designed and constructed a temperature-controllable shear flow cell for in-situ study on flow alignable systems. The device has been tested in the neutron diffraction and has the potential to be applied in the small angle neutron scattering configuration to characterize the nanostructures of the materials under flow. The required sample amount is as small as 1 ml. The shear rate on the sample is controlled by the flow rate produced by an external pump and can potentially vary from 0.11 to 3.8 × 10(5) s(-1). Both unidirectional and oscillational flows are achievable by the setting of the pump. The instrument is validated by using a lipid bicellar mixture, which yields non-alignable nanodisc-like bicelles at low T and shear-alignable membranes at high T. Using the shear cell, the bicellar membranes can be aligned at 31 °C under the flow with a shear rate of 11.11 s(-1). Multiple high-order Bragg peaks are observed and the full width at half maximum of the "rocking curve" around the Bragg's condition is found to be 3.5°-4.1°. It is noteworthy that a portion of the membranes remains aligned even after the flow stops. Detailed and comprehensive intensity correction for the rocking curve has been derived based on the finite rectangular sample geometry and the absorption of the neutrons as a function of sample angle [See supplementary material at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4908165 for the detailed derivation of the absorption correction]. The device offers a new capability to study the conformational or orientational anisotropy of the solvated macromolecules or aggregates induced by the hydrodynamic interaction in a flow field.

  6. A distributed system for fast alignment of next-generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Srimani, Jaydeep K; Wu, Po-Yen; Phan, John H; Wang, May D

    2010-12-01

    We developed a scalable distributed computing system using the Berkeley Open Interface for Network Computing (BOINC) to align next-generation sequencing (NGS) data quickly and accurately. NGS technology is emerging as a promising platform for gene expression analysis due to its high sensitivity compared to traditional genomic microarray technology. However, despite the benefits, NGS datasets can be prohibitively large, requiring significant computing resources to obtain sequence alignment results. Moreover, as the data and alignment algorithms become more prevalent, it will become necessary to examine the effect of the multitude of alignment parameters on various NGS systems. We validate the distributed software system by (1) computing simple timing results to show the speed-up gained by using multiple computers, (2) optimizing alignment parameters using simulated NGS data, and (3) computing NGS expression levels for a single biological sample using optimal parameters and comparing these expression levels to that of a microarray sample. Results indicate that the distributed alignment system achieves approximately a linear speed-up and correctly distributes sequence data to and gathers alignment results from multiple compute clients.

  7. Fabrication and testing of a prototype longwall face alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Fabrication and testing of a laser system for instantaneous location of a longwall shearer are summarized. Calculations and measurements for the design of a laser based system for monitoring and controlling the trajectory of the shearing machine as it progresses along the longwall face are reported. An early version was fabricated by employing simple mechanical contrivances and a standard miners lamp. It is concluded that the advantages of the early version is the ability to test the longwall face without approval from the Mine Safety and Health Administration.

  8. In Situ alignment system for phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, Kenneth Alan; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2000-01-01

    A device and method to facilitate the gross alignment of patterned object- and image-plane masks in optical systems such as the phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer are provided. When an array of similar pinholes or discreet mask fields is used, confusion can occur over the alignment of the focused beams within the field. Adding to the mask pattern a circumscribed or inscribed set of symbols that are identifiable in situ facilitates the unambiguous gross alignment of the object- and/or image-plane masks. Alternatively, a system of markings can be encoded directly into the window shape to accomplish this same task.

  9. Controllable growth of vertically aligned graphene on C-face SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Lianlian; Hilliard, Donovan

    We investigated how to control the growth of vertically aligned graphene on C-face SiC by varying the processing conditions. It is found that, the growth rate scales with the annealing temperature and the graphene height is proportional to the annealing time. Temperature gradient and crystalline quality of the SiC substrates influence their vaporization. The partial vapor pressure is crucial as it can interfere with further vaporization. A growth mechanism is proposed in terms of physical vapor transport. The monolayer character of vertically aligned graphene is verified by Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. With the processed samples, d 0 magnetism ismore » realized and negative magnetoresistance is observed after Cu implantation. We also prove that multiple carriers exist in vertically aligned graphene.« less

  10. Controllable growth of vertically aligned graphene on C-face SiC

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Lianlian; Hilliard, Donovan; ...

    2016-10-06

    We investigated how to control the growth of vertically aligned graphene on C-face SiC by varying the processing conditions. It is found that, the growth rate scales with the annealing temperature and the graphene height is proportional to the annealing time. Temperature gradient and crystalline quality of the SiC substrates influence their vaporization. The partial vapor pressure is crucial as it can interfere with further vaporization. A growth mechanism is proposed in terms of physical vapor transport. The monolayer character of vertically aligned graphene is verified by Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. With the processed samples, d 0 magnetism ismore » realized and negative magnetoresistance is observed after Cu implantation. We also prove that multiple carriers exist in vertically aligned graphene.« less

  11. Developing Secure Power Systems Professional Competence: Alignment and Gaps in Workforce Development Programs—Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Lori Ross; Assante, Michael; Tobey, D. H.

    2013-07-01

    This document is a summarization of the report, Developing Secure Power Systems Professional Competence: Alignment and Gaps in Workforce Development Programs, the final report for phase 2 of the SPSP (DOE workforce study) project.

  12. In-flight angular alignment of inertial navigation systems by means of radio aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, W.

    1972-01-01

    The principles involved in the angular alignment of the inertial reference by nondirectional data from radio aids are developed and compared with conventional methods of alignment such as gyro-compassing and pendulous vertical determination. The specific problem is considered of the space shuttle reentry and a proposed technique for the alignment of the inertial reference system some time before landing. A description is given of the digital simulation of a transponder interrogation system and of its interaction with the inertial navigation system. Data from reentry simulations are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of in-flight inertial system alignment. Concluding remarks refer to other potential applications such as space shuttle orbit insertion and air navigation of conventional aircraft.

  13. Alignment of the measurement scale mark during immersion hydrometer calibration using an image processing system.

    PubMed

    Peña-Perez, Luis Manuel; Pedraza-Ortega, Jesus Carlos; Ramos-Arreguin, Juan Manuel; Arriaga, Saul Tovar; Fernandez, Marco Antonio Aceves; Becerra, Luis Omar; Hurtado, Efren Gorrostieta; Vargas-Soto, Jose Emilio

    2013-10-24

    The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement scale mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration system of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision system to align the scale mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process, therefore decreasing the relative uncertainty of calibration.

  14. Binocular contrast-gain control for natural scenes: Image structure and phase alignment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pi-Chun; Dai, Yu-Ming

    2018-05-01

    In the context of natural scenes, we applied the pattern-masking paradigm to investigate how image structure and phase alignment affect contrast-gain control in binocular vision. We measured the discrimination thresholds of bandpass-filtered natural-scene images (targets) under various types of pedestals. Our first experiment had four pedestal types: bandpass-filtered pedestals, unfiltered pedestals, notch-filtered pedestals (which enabled removal of the spatial frequency), and misaligned pedestals (which involved rotation of unfiltered pedestals). Our second experiment featured six types of pedestals: bandpass-filtered, unfiltered, and notch-filtered pedestals, and the corresponding phase-scrambled pedestals. The thresholds were compared for monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing configurations. The bandpass-filtered pedestal and unfiltered pedestals showed classic dipper shapes; the dipper shapes of the notch-filtered, misaligned, and phase-scrambled pedestals were weak. We adopted a two-stage binocular contrast-gain control model to describe our results. We deduced that the phase-alignment information influenced the contrast-gain control mechanism before the binocular summation stage and that the phase-alignment information and structural misalignment information caused relatively strong divisive inhibition in the monocular and interocular suppression stages. When the pedestals were phase-scrambled, the elimination of the interocular suppression processing was the most convincing explanation of the results. Thus, our results indicated that both phase-alignment information and similar image structures cause strong interocular suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Annealed Au-assisted epitaxial growth of si nanowires: control of alignment and density.

    PubMed

    Park, Yi-Seul; Jung, Da Hee; Kim, Hyun Ji; Lee, Jin Seok

    2015-04-14

    The epitaxial growth of 1D nanostructures is of particular interest for future nanoelectronic devices such as vertical field-effect transistors because it directly influences transistor densities and 3D logic or memory architectures. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are a particularly important 1D nanomaterial because they possess excellent electronic and optical properties. What is more, the scalable fabrication of vertically aligned SiNW arrays presents an opportunity for improved device applications if suitable properties can be achieved through controlling the alignment and density of SiNWs, yet this is something that has not been reported in the case of SiNWs synthesized from Au films. This work therefore explores the controllable synthesis of vertically aligned SiNWs through the introduction of an annealing process prior to growth via a Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. The epitaxial growth of SiNWs was demonstrated to be achievable using SiCl4 as the Si precursor in chemical vapor deposition, whereas the alignment and density of the SiNWs could be controlled by manipulating the annealing time during the formation of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) from Au films. During the annealing process, gold silicide was observed to form on the interface of the liquid-phase AuNPs, depending on the size of the AuNPs and the annealing time. This work therefore makes a valuable contribution to improving nanowire-based engineering by controlling its alignment and density as well as providing greater insight into the epitaxial growth of 1D nanostructures.

  16. Note: A simple sample transfer alignment for ultra-high vacuum systems.

    PubMed

    Tamtögl, A; Carter, E A; Ward, D J; Avidor, N; Kole, P R; Jardine, A P; Allison, W

    2016-06-01

    The alignment of ultra-high-vacuum sample transfer systems can be problematic when there is no direct line of sight to assist the user. We present the design of a simple and cheap system which greatly simplifies the alignment of sample transfer devices. Our method is based on the adaptation of a commercial digital camera which provides live views from within the vacuum chamber. The images of the camera are further processed using an image recognition and processing code which determines any misalignments and reports them to the user. Installation has proven to be extremely useful in order to align the sample with respect to the transfer mechanism. Furthermore, the alignment software can be easily adapted for other systems.

  17. Imageless navigation system does not improve component rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Zhang, Guoyou; Zhang, Xianlong

    2011-12-01

    The aim of computer-assisted surgery is to improve accuracy and limit the range of surgical variability. However, a worldwide debate exists regarding the importance and usefulness of computer-assisted navigation for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The main purpose of this study is to summarize and compare the radiographic outcomes of TKA performed using imageless computer-assisted navigation compared with conventional techniques. An electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases was made, in addition to manual search of major orthopedic journals. A meta-analysis of 29 quasi-randomized/randomized controlled trials (quasi-RCTs/RCTs) and 11 prospective comparative studies was conducted through a random effects model. Additional a priori sources of clinical heterogeneity were evaluated by subgroup analysis with regard to radiographic methods. When the outlier cut-off value of lower limb axis was defined as ±2° or ±3° from the neutral, the postoperative full-length radiographs demonstrated that the risk ratio was 0.54 or 0.39, respectively, which were in favor of the navigated group. When the cut-off value used for the alignment in the coronal and sagittal plane was 2° or 3°, imageless navigation significantly reduced the outlier rate of the femoral and tibial components compared with the conventional group. Notably, computed tomography scans demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the outliers in the rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components; however, there was strong statistical heterogeneity. Our results indicated that imageless computer-assisted navigation systems improve lower limb axis and component orientation in the coronal and sagittal planes, but not the rotational alignment in TKA. Further multiple-center clinical trials with long-term follow-up are needed to determine differences in the clinical and functional outcomes of knee arthroplasties performed

  18. Experimental findings on the underwater measurements uncertainty of speed of sound and the alignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, T. Q.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Oliveira, D. P.; Mayworm, R. C.; Souza, R. M.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Speed of sound is an important quantity to characterize reference materials for ultrasonic applications, for instance. The alignment between the transducer and the test body is an key activity in order to perform reliable and consistent measurement. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of the alignment system to the expanded uncertainty of such measurement. A stainless steel cylinder was previously calibrated on an out of water system typically used for calibration of non-destructive blocks. Afterwards, the cylinder was calibrated underwater with two distinct alignment system: fixed and mobile. The values were statistically compared to the out-of-water measurement, considered the golden standard for such application. For both alignment systems, the normalized error was less than 0.8, leading to conclude that the both measurement system (under and out-of-water) do not diverge significantly. The gold standard uncertainty was 2.7 m-s-1, whilst the fixed underwater system resulted in 13 m-s-1, and the mobile alignment system achieved 6.6 m-s-1. After the validation of the underwater system for speed of sound measurement, it will be applied to certify Encapsulated Tissue Mimicking Material as a reference material for biotechnology application.

  19. Controlled growth of aligned carbon nanotube using pulsed glow barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Kimura, Yoshihito; Okazaki, Ken

    2002-10-01

    We first achieved a catalytic growth of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) using atmospheric pressure pulsed glow barrier discharge combined with DC bias (1000 V). Aligned CNT can grow with the directional electric field, and this is a big challenge in barrier discharges since dielectric barrier does not allow DC bias and forces to use AC voltage to maintain stable plasma conditions. To overcome this, we developed a power source generating Gaussian-shape pulses at 20 kpps with 4% duty, and DC bias was applied to the GND electrode where Ni-, Fe-coated substrate existed. With positive pulse, i.e. substrate was the cathode, random growth of CNT was observed at about 10^9 cm-2. Growth rate significantly reduced when applied negative pulse; Negative glow formation near substrate is essential for sufficient supply of radical species to the catalyst. If -DC was biased, aligned CNT with 20 nm was synthesized because negative bias enhanced negative glow formation. Interestingly, 2 to 3 CNTs stuck each other with +DC bias, resulting in 50-70 nm and non-aligned CNT. Atmospheric pressure glow barrier discharges can be highly controlled and be a potential alternative to vacuum plasmas for CVD, micro-scale, nano-scale fabrication.

  20. A New Three-Dimensional High-Accuracy Automatic Alignment System For Single-Mode Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun-jiang, Rao; Shang-lian, Huang; Ping, Li; Yu-mei, Wen; Jun, Tang

    1990-02-01

    In order to achieve the low-loss splices of single-mode fibers, a new three-dimension high-accuracy automatic alignment system for single -mode fibers has been developed, which includes a new-type three-dimension high-resolution microdisplacement servo stage driven by piezoelectric elements, a new high-accuracy measurement system for the misalignment error of the fiber core-axis, and a special single chip microcomputer processing system. The experimental results show that alignment accuracy of ±0.1 pin with a movable stroke of -±20μm has been obtained. This new system has more advantages than that reported.

  1. The Drive towards Sustainable Health Systems Needs an Alignment: Where are the Innovations in Health Systems Planning?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Birch, Stephen; MacKenzie, Adrian; Rigby, Janet; Purkis, Mary Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Clarifying the healthcare innovation agenda is critical in order to advance the impact of system innovations. As part of this agenda-setting it is important to address the four conditions within which innovations can enhance system sustainability: 1) the innovation agenda reflects and is aligned with healthcare objectives and policy; 2) planning methodologies for services, workforce and funding are aligned with healthcare objectives and policy; 3) innovations in services are accommodated in systems through innovations in policy, planning and funding; and 4) innovations are systematically monitored and evaluated. In order to illustrate these conditions, the authors present a case study of an evaluation of one Canadian Health Authority's efforts to transform healthcare delivery. This case study reveals that aligning innovations in policy, planning, funding and health services is critical to transforming health systems and that, in the absence of such alignment, sustainable health systems are difficult to achieve.

  2. The Role of System Alignment in Care and Education of Children from Birth to Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.; Yuan, Jing; Hu, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging concept of system alignment refers to how different systems in care and education of young children can be integrated to work together as a whole system that is more effective, efficient, and equitable to produce excellent outcomes in children. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the existing literature on system…

  3. Facilitating Constructive Alignment in Power Systems Engineering Education Using Free and Open-Source Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanfretti, L.; Milano, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how the use of free and open-source software (FOSS) can facilitate the application of constructive alignment theory in power systems engineering education by enabling the deep learning approach in power system analysis courses. With this aim, this paper describes the authors' approach in using the Power System Analysis Toolbox…

  4. Evaluation of Eight Methods for Aligning Orientation of Two Coordinate Systems.

    PubMed

    Mecheri, Hakim; Robert-Lachaine, Xavier; Larue, Christian; Plamondon, André

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate eight methods for aligning the orientation of two different local coordinate systems. Alignment is very important when combining two different systems of motion analysis. Two of the methods were developed specifically for biomechanical studies, and because there have been at least three decades of algorithm development in robotics, it was decided to include six methods from this field. To compare these methods, an Xsens sensor and two Optotrak clusters were attached to a Plexiglas plate. The first optical marker cluster was fixed on the sensor and 20 trials were recorded. The error of alignment was calculated for each trial, and the mean, the standard deviation, and the maximum values of this error over all trials were reported. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the alignment error differed significantly across the eight methods. Post-hoc tests showed that the alignment error from the methods based on angular velocities was significantly lower than for the other methods. The method using angular velocities performed the best, with an average error of 0.17 ± 0.08 deg. We therefore recommend this method, which is easy to perform and provides accurate alignment.

  5. Alignment control and atomically-scaled heteroepitaxial interface study of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyun; Liu, Baodan; Yang, Wenjin; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xinglai; Labbé, Christophe; Portier, Xavier; An, Vladimir; Jiang, Xin

    2017-04-20

    Well-aligned GaN nanowires are promising candidates for building high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices. In this work, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of well-aligned GaN nanowires on a [0001]-oriented sapphire substrate in a simple catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition process and their alignment control. It is found that the ammonia flux plays a key role in dominating the initial nucleation of GaN nanocrystals and their orientation. Typically, significant improvement of the GaN nanowire alignment can be realized at a low NH 3 flow rate. X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy studies further verified the preferential orientation of GaN nanowires along the [0001] direction. The growth mechanism of GaN nanowire arrays is also well studied based on cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization and it is observed that GaN nanowires have good epitaxial growth on the sapphire substrate following the crystallographic relationship between (0001) GaN ∥(0001) sapphire and (101[combining macron]0) GaN ∥(112[combining macron]0) sapphire . Most importantly, periodic misfit dislocations are also experimentally observed in the interface region due to the large lattice mismatch between the GaN nanowire and the sapphire substrate, and the formation of such dislocations will favor the release of structural strain in GaN nanowires. HRTEM analysis also finds the existence of "type I" stacking faults and voids inside the GaN nanowires. Optical investigation suggests that the GaN nanowire arrays have strong emission in the UV range, suggesting their crystalline nature and chemical purity. The achievement of aligned GaN nanowires will further promote the wide applications of GaN nanostructures toward diverse high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices including nano-LEDs, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors etc.

  6. Precision alignment and calibration of optical systems using computer generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Laura Elizabeth

    As techniques for manufacturing and metrology advance, optical systems are being designed with more complexity than ever before. Given these prescriptions, alignment and calibration can be a limiting factor in their final performance. Computer generated holograms (CGHs) have several unique properties that make them powerful tools for meeting these demanding tolerances. This work will present three novel methods for alignment and calibration of optical systems using computer generated holograms. Alignment methods using CGHs require that the optical wavefront created by the CGH be related to a mechanical datum to locate it space. An overview of existing methods is provided as background, then two new alignment methods are discussed in detail. In the first method, the CGH contact Ball Alignment Tool (CBAT) is used to align a ball or sphere mounted retroreflector (SMR) to a Fresnel zone plate pattern with micron level accuracy. The ball is bonded directly onto the CGH substrate and provides permanent, accurate registration between the optical wavefront and a mechanical reference to locate the CGH in space. A prototype CBAT was built and used to align and bond an SMR to a CGH. In the second method, CGH references are used to align axi-symmetric optics in four degrees of freedom with low uncertainty and real time feedback. The CGHs create simultaneous 3D optical references where the zero order reflection sets tilt and the first diffracted order sets centration. The flexibility of the CGH design can be used to accommodate a wide variety of optical systems and maximize sensitivity to misalignments. A 2-CGH prototype system was aligned multiplied times and the alignment uncertainty was quantified and compared to an error model. Finally, an enhanced calibration method is presented. It uses multiple perturbed measurements of a master sphere to improve the calibration of CGH-based Fizeau interferometers ultimately measuring aspheric test surfaces. The improvement in the

  7. Enhanced antibacterial activity through the controlled alignment of graphene oxide nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Feng, Xunda; Werber, Jay R; Chu, Chiheng; Zucker, Ines; Kim, Jae-Hong; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-11-14

    The cytotoxicity of 2D graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) is highly important for engineered applications and environmental health. However, the isotropic orientation of GBNs, most notably graphene oxide (GO), in previous experimental studies obscured the interpretation of cytotoxic contributions of nanosheet edges. Here, we investigate the orientation-dependent interaction of GBNs with bacteria using GO composite films. To produce the films, GO nanosheets are aligned in a magnetic field, immobilized by cross-linking of the surrounding matrix, and exposed on the surface through oxidative etching. Characterization by small-angle X-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy confirms that GO nanosheets align progressively well with increasing magnetic field strength and that the alignment is effectively preserved by cross-linking. When contacted with the model bacterium Escherichia coli , GO nanosheets with vertical orientation exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity compared with random and horizontal orientations. Further characterization is performed to explain the enhanced antibacterial activity of the film with vertically aligned GO. Using phospholipid vesicles as a model system, we observe that GO nanosheets induce physical disruption of the lipid bilayer. Additionally, we find substantial GO-induced oxidation of glutathione, a model intracellular antioxidant, paired with limited generation of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that oxidation occurs through a direct electron-transfer mechanism. These physical and chemical mechanisms both require nanosheet penetration of the cell membrane, suggesting that the enhanced antibacterial activity of the film with vertically aligned GO stems from an increased density of edges with a preferential orientation for membrane disruption. The importance of nanosheet penetration for cytotoxicity has direct implications for the design of engineering surfaces using GBNs.

  8. Efficacy of clear aligners in controlling orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Gabriele; Parrini, Simone; Castroflorio, Tommaso; Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare L

    2015-09-01

    To assess the scientific evidence related to the efficacy of clear aligner treatment (CAT) in controlling orthodontic tooth movement. PubMed, PMC, NLM, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Google Scholar, and LILACs were searched from January 2000 to June 2014 to identify all peer-reviewed articles potentially relevant to the review. Methodological shortcomings were highlighted and the quality of the studies was ranked using the Cochrane Tool for Risk of Bias Assessment. Eleven relevant articles were selected (two Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT), five prospective non-randomized, four retrospective non-randomized), and the risk of bias was moderate for six studies and unclear for the others. The amount of mean intrusion reported was 0.72 mm. Extrusion was the most difficult movement to control (30% of accuracy), followed by rotation. Upper molar distalization revealed the highest predictability (88%) when a bodily movement of at least 1.5 mm was prescribed. A decrease of the Little's Index (mandibular arch: 5 mm; maxillary arch: 4 mm) was observed in aligning arches. CAT aligns and levels the arches; it is effective in controlling anterior intrusion but not anterior extrusion; it is effective in controlling posterior buccolingual inclination but not anterior buccolingual inclination; it is effective in controlling upper molar bodily movements of about 1.5 mm; and it is not effective in controlling rotation of rounded teeth in particular. However, the results of this review should be interpreted with caution because of the number, quality, and heterogeneity of the studies.

  9. Stability Measurements for Alignment of the NIF Neutron Imaging System Pinhole Array

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, D N; Bower, D E; Drury, O B

    2011-03-29

    The alignment system for the National Ignition Facility's neutron imaging system has been commissioned and measurements of the relative stability of the 90-315 DIM, the front and the back of the neutron imaging pinhole array and an exploding pusher target have been made using the 90-135 and the 90-258 opposite port alignment systems. Additionally, a laser beam shot from the neutron-imaging Annex and reflected from a mirror at the back of the pinhole array was used to monitor the pointing of the pinhole. Over a twelve hour period, the relative stability of these parts was found to be within {approx}more » {+-}18 {micro}m rms even when using manual methods for tracking the position of the objects. For highly visible features, use of basic particle tracking techniques found that the front of the pinhole array was stable relative to the 90-135 opposite port alignment camera to within {+-}3.4 {micro}m rms. Reregistration, however, of the opposite port alignment systems themselves using the target alignment sensor was found to change the expected position of target chamber center by up to 194 {micro}m.« less

  10. Diameter and Geometry Control of Vertically Aligned SWNTs through Catalyst Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Rong; Einarsson, Erik; Okawa, Jun; Murakami, Yoichi; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2009-03-01

    We present our recent progress on manipulating our liquid-based catalyst loading process, which possesses greater potential than conventional deposition in terms of cost and scalability, to control the diameter and morphology of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We demonstrate that the diameter of aligned SWNTs synthesized by alcohol catalytic CVD can be tailored over a wide range by modifying the catalyst recipe. SWNT arrays with an average diameter as small as 1.2 nm were obtained by this method. Additionally, owing to the alignment of the array, the continuous change of the SWNT diameter during a single CVD process can be clearly observed and quantitatively characterized. We have also developed a versatile wet chemistry method to localize the growth of SWNTs to desired regions via surface modification. By functionalizing the silicon surface using a classic self-assembled monolayer, the catalyst can be selectively dip-coated onto hydrophilic areas of the substrate. This technique was successful in producing both random and aligned SWNTs with various patterns. The precise control of the diameter and morphology of SWNTs, achieved by simple and scalable liquid-based surface chemistry, could greatly facilitate the application of SWNTs as the building blocks of future nano-devices.

  11. Automated alignment system for optical wireless communication systems using image recognition.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Paul; Weiss, Alexander; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-07-01

    In this Letter, we describe the realization of a tracked line-of-sight optical wireless communication system for indoor data distribution. We built a laser-based transmitter with adaptive focus and ray steering by a microelectromechanical systems mirror. To execute the alignment procedure, we used a CMOS image sensor at the transmitter side and developed an algorithm for image recognition to localize the receiver's position. The receiver is based on a self-developed optoelectronic integrated chip with low requirements on the receiver optics to make the system economically attractive. With this system, we were able to set up the communication link automatically without any back channel and to perform error-free (bit error rate <10⁻⁹) data transmission over a distance of 3.5 m with a data rate of 3 Gbit/s.

  12. Ultra-high density aligned Carbon-nanotube with controled nano-morphology for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Mehdi; Zhao, Ran; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yue; Cheng, Jiping; Guzman de Villoria, Roberto; Wardle, B. L.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2012-02-01

    Recent advances in fabricating controlled-morphology vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) with ultrahigh volume fractioncreate unique opportunities for developing unconventional supercapacitors with ultra-high energy density, power density, and long charge/discharge cycle life.Continuous paths through inter-VA-CNT channels allow fast ion transport, and high electrical conduction of the aligned CNTs in the composite electrodes lead to fast discharge speed. We investigate the charge-discharge characteristics of VA-CNTs with >20 vol% of CNT and ionic liquids as electrolytes. By employing both the electric and electromechanical spectroscopes, as well as nanostructured materials characterization, the ion transport and storage behaviors in porous electrodes are studied. The results suggest pathways for optimizing the electrode morphology in supercapacitorsusing ultra-high volume fraction VA-CNTs to further enhance performance.

  13. Second Language Writing Classification System Based on Word-Alignment Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotani, Katsunori; Yoshimi, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    The present paper introduces an automatic classification system for assisting second language (L2) writing evaluation. This system, which classifies sentences written by L2 learners as either native speaker-like or learner-like sentences, is constructed by machine learning algorithms using word-alignment distributions as classification features…

  14. Microwave systems analysis, solar power satellite. [alignment of the antenna array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Various alternative active approaches to achieving aand maintaining flatness for the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) were studied. A baseline active alignment scheme was developed which includes subarray attachment mechanisms, height and tilting adjustments, service corridors, a rotating laser beam reference system, monopulse pointing techniques, and the design of a beam-centering photoconductive sensor.

  15. Control of exciton confinement in quantum dot-organic complexes through energetic alignment of interfacial orbitals.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Matthew T; Amin, Victor A; Swenson, Nathaniel K; Ho, Andrew Y; Weiss, Emily A

    2013-01-09

    This paper describes a method to control the quantum confinement, and therefore the energy, of excitonic holes in CdSe QDs through adsorption of the hole-delocalizing ligand phenyldithiocarbamate, PTC, and para substitutions of the phenyl ring of this ligand with electron-donating or -withdrawing groups. These substitutions control hole delocalization in the QDs through the energetic alignment of the highest occupied orbitals of PTC with the highest density-of-states region of the CdSe valence band, to which PTC couples selectively.

  16. Aligning ERP systems with companies' real needs: an `Operational Model Based' method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamoghli, Sarra; Goepp, Virginie; Botta-Genoulaz, Valérie

    2017-02-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems offer standard functionalities that have to be configured and customised by a specific company depending on its own requirements. A consistent alignment is therefore an essential success factor of ERP projects. To manage this alignment, an 'Operational Model Based' method is proposed. It is based on the design and the matching of models, and conforms to the modelling views and constructs of the ISO 19439 and 19440 enterprise-modelling standards. It is characterised by: (1) a predefined design and matching order of the models; (2) the formalisation, in terms of modelling constructs, of alignment and misalignment situations; and (3) their association with a set of decisions in order to mitigate the misalignment risk. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the alignment management during ERP projects is given. Unlike existing methods, this one includes decisions related to the organisational changes an ERP system can induce, as well as criteria on which the best decision can be based. In this way, it provides effective support and guidance to companies implementing ERP systems, as the alignment process is detailed and structured. The method is applied on the ERP project of a Small and Medium Enterprise, showing that it can be used even in contexts where the ERP project expertise level is low.

  17. Alignment of the Measurement Scale Mark during Immersion Hydrometer Calibration Using an Image Processing System

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Perez, Luis Manuel; Pedraza-Ortega, Jesus Carlos; Ramos-Arreguin, Juan Manuel; Arriaga, Saul Tovar; Fernandez, Marco Antonio Aceves; Becerra, Luis Omar; Hurtado, Efren Gorrostieta; Vargas-Soto, Jose Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement scale mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration system of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision system to align the scale mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process, therefore decreasing the relative uncertainty of calibration. PMID:24284770

  18. A closed-loop time-alignment system for baseband combining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feria, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In baseband combining, the key element is the time alignment of the baseband signals. This article describes a closed-loop time-alignment system that estimates and adjusts the relative delay between two baseband signals received from two different antennas for the signals to be coherently combined. This system automatically determines which signal is advanced and delays it accordingly with a resolution of a sample period. The performance of the loop is analyzed, and the analysis is verified through simulation. The variance of the delay estimates and the signal-to-noise ratio degradation in the simulations agree with the theoretical calculations.

  19. Band Alignment and Controllable Electron Migration between Rutile and Anatase TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Yang; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    TiO2 is the most promising semiconductor for photocatalytic splitting of water for hydrogen and degradation of pollutants. The highly photocatalytic active form is its mixed phase of two polymorphs anatase and rutile rather than their pristine compositions. Such a synergetic effect is understood by the staggered band alignment favorable to spatial charge separation. However, electron migration in either direction between the two phases has been reported, the reason of which is still unknown. We determined the band alignment by a novel method, i.e., transient infrared absorption-excitation energy scanning spectra, showing their conduction bands being aligned, thus the electron migration direction is controlled by dynamical factors, such as varying the particle size of anatase, putting electron or hole scavengers on either the surface of anatase or rutile phases, or both. A quantitative criterion capable of predicting the migration direction under various conditions including particle size and surface chemical reactions is proposed, the predictions have been verified experimentally in several typical cases. This would give rise to a great potential in designing more effective titania photocatalysts. PMID:26169699

  20. Coherent control of molecular alignment of homonuclear diatomic molecules by analytically designed laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shiyang; Sanz, Cristina; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G

    2008-09-28

    We present an analytic scheme for designing laser pulses to manipulate the field-free molecular alignment of a homonuclear diatomic molecule. The scheme is based on the use of a generalized pulse-area theorem and makes use of pulses constructed around two-photon resonant frequencies. In the proposed scheme, the populations and relative phases of the rovibrational states of the molecule are independently controlled utilizing changes in the laser intensity and in the carrier-envelope phase difference, respectively. This allows us to create the correct coherent superposition of rovibrational states needed to achieve optimal molecular alignment. The validity and efficiency of the scheme are demonstrated by explicit application to the H(2) molecule. The analytically designed laser pulses are tested by exact numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation including laser-molecule interactions to all orders of the field strength. The design of a sequence of pulses to further enhance molecular alignment is also discussed and tested. It is found that the rotating wave approximation used in the analytic design of the laser pulses leads to small errors in the prediction of the relative phase of the rotational states. It is further shown how these errors may be easily corrected.

  1. Precision digital control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  2. A line-source method for aligning on-board and other pinhole SPECT systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Susu; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-12-01

    In order to achieve functional and molecular imaging as patients are in position for radiation therapy, a robotic multipinhole SPECT system is being developed. Alignment of the SPECT system-to the linear accelerator (LINAC) coordinate frame and to the coordinate frames of other on-board imaging systems such as cone-beam CT (CBCT)-is essential for target localization and image reconstruction. An alignment method that utilizes line sources and one pinhole projection is proposed and investigated to achieve this goal. Potentially, this method could also be applied to the calibration of the other pinhole SPECT systems. An alignment model consisting of multiple alignment parameters was developed which maps line sources in three-dimensional (3D) space to their two-dimensional (2D) projections on the SPECT detector. In a computer-simulation study, 3D coordinates of line-sources were defined in a reference room coordinate frame, such as the LINAC coordinate frame. Corresponding 2D line-source projections were generated by computer simulation that included SPECT blurring and noise effects. The Radon transform was utilized to detect angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the line-source projections. Alignment parameters were then estimated by a nonlinear least squares method, based on the α and ρ values and the alignment model. Alignment performance was evaluated as a function of number of line sources, Radon transform accuracy, finite line-source width, intrinsic camera resolution, Poisson noise, and acquisition geometry. Experimental evaluations were performed using a physical line-source phantom and a pinhole-collimated gamma camera attached to a robot. In computer-simulation studies, when there was no error in determining angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the measured projections, six alignment parameters (three translational and three rotational) were estimated perfectly using three line sources. When angles (α) and offsets (ρ) were provided by the Radon transform, estimation

  3. Aligning Food Systems Policies to Advance Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mark; Tagtow, Angie; Roberts, Susan L.; MacDougall, Erin

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of public health professionals in food and agricultural policy provides tremendous opportunities for advancing the public's health. It is particularly challenging, however, for professionals to understand and consider the numerous policy drivers that impact the food system, which range from agricultural commodity policies to local food safety ordinances. Confronted with this complexity in the food system, policy advocates often focus on narrow objectives with disregard for the larger system. This commentary contends that, in order to be most effective, public health professionals need to consider the full range of interdependent policies that affect the system. Food policy councils have proven to be an effective tool, particularly at the local and state level, for developing comprehensive food systems policies that can improve public health. PMID:23144671

  4. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  5. Evaluation of radiation exposure with Tru-Align intraoral rectangular collimation system using OSL dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Goren, Arthur D; Bonvento, Michael J; Fernandez, Thomas J; Abramovitch, Kenneth; Zhang, Wenjian; Roe, Nadine; Seltzer, Jared; Steinberg, Mitchell; Colosi, Dan C

    2011-03-01

    A pilot study to compare radiation exposure with the Tru-Align rectangular collimation system to round collimation exposures was undertaken. Radiation exposure at various points within the cross sections of the collimators and entrance, intraoral and exit dose measurements were measured using InLight OSL dosimeters. Overall dose reduction with the use of the rectangular collimation system was estimated by taking into account the ratios of collimator openings and the average radiation exposure at the measurement points. Use of the Tru-Align system resulted in an average radiation exposure within the perimeter of the projected outline of the rectangular collimator of 36.1 mR, compared to 148.5 mR with the round collimator. Our calculations indicate a dose reduction by a factor of approximately 3.2 in the case of the Tru-Align system compared to round collimation. The Tru-Align system was easy to use, but in some situations failed to allow Xray coverage of the entire surface of the image receptor, leading to cone cuts.

  6. A line-source method for aligning on-board and other pinhole SPECT systems

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Susu; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In order to achieve functional and molecular imaging as patients are in position for radiation therapy, a robotic multipinhole SPECT system is being developed. Alignment of the SPECT system—to the linear accelerator (LINAC) coordinate frame and to the coordinate frames of other on-board imaging systems such as cone-beam CT (CBCT)—is essential for target localization and image reconstruction. An alignment method that utilizes line sources and one pinhole projection is proposed and investigated to achieve this goal. Potentially, this method could also be applied to the calibration of the other pinhole SPECT systems. Methods: An alignment model consisting of multiple alignment parameters was developed which maps line sources in three-dimensional (3D) space to their two-dimensional (2D) projections on the SPECT detector. In a computer-simulation study, 3D coordinates of line-sources were defined in a reference room coordinate frame, such as the LINAC coordinate frame. Corresponding 2D line-source projections were generated by computer simulation that included SPECT blurring and noise effects. The Radon transform was utilized to detect angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the line-source projections. Alignment parameters were then estimated by a nonlinear least squares method, based on the α and ρ values and the alignment model. Alignment performance was evaluated as a function of number of line sources, Radon transform accuracy, finite line-source width, intrinsic camera resolution, Poisson noise, and acquisition geometry. Experimental evaluations were performed using a physical line-source phantom and a pinhole-collimated gamma camera attached to a robot. Results: In computer-simulation studies, when there was no error in determining angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the measured projections, six alignment parameters (three translational and three rotational) were estimated perfectly using three line sources. When angles (α) and offsets (ρ) were provided by

  7. WAVELENGTH AND ALIGNMENT TESTS FOR CONFOCAL SPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal spectral imaging (CSI) microscope systems now on the market delineate multiple fluorescent proteins, labels, or dyes within biological specimens by performing spectral characterizations. However, we find that some CSI present inconsistent spectral profiles of reference s...

  8. Evidence of Ubiquitous Large-Amplitude Alfven waves in the Global Field-Aligned Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhotin, I.; Mann, I.; Lysak, R. L.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Rae, J.; Forsyth, C.; Murphy, K. R.; Miles, D.; Ozeke, L.; Balasis, G.

    2017-12-01

    Large-amplitude non-stationarities have been observed during an analysis of a quiescent field-aligned current system crossing using the multi-satellite Swarm constellation. Using simultaneous electric and magnetic field measurements it has been determined that these non-stationarities, reaching tens to hundreds of nanoteslas, are Alfvenic in nature. Evidence suggests that these large-amplitude Alfven waves are a ubiquitous, fundamentally inherent feature of and exist in a continuum with larger-scale field-aligned currents, and both can be explained using the same physical paradigm of reflected Alfven waves.

  9. A Sense of Balance: District Aligns Personalized Learning with School and System Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donsky, Debbie; Witherow, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the challenge of personalizing learning while also ensuring alignment with system and school improvement plans. Leaders of the York Region District School Board in Ontario knew that what took their high-performing school district from good to great would not take it from great to excellent. The district's early model of…

  10. The Caterpillar Game: A SW-PBIS Aligned Classroom Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floress, Margaret T.; Jacoby, Amber L.

    2017-01-01

    The Caterpillar Game is a classroom management system that is aligned with School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports standards. A single-case, multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Caterpillar Game on disruptive student behavior and teacher praise. Three classrooms were included in the study (preschool,…

  11. Performance Reports: Mirror alignment system performance prediction comparison between SAO and EKC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H. D.; Zhang, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform an independent analysis of the residual high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA) mirror distortions caused by force and moment errors in the mirror alignment system (MAS) to statistically predict the HRMA performance. These performance predictions are then compared with those performed by Kodak to verify their analysis results.

  12. SU-F-J-44: Development of a Room Laser Based Real-Time Alignment Monitoring System Using An Array of Photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Y; Kim, T; Kang, S

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a real-time alignment monitoring system (RAMS) to compensate for the limitations of the conventional room laser based alignment system, and to verify the feasibility of the RAMS. Methods: The RAMS was composed of a room laser sensing array (RLSA), an analog-todigital converter, and a control PC. In the RLSA, seven photodiodes (each in 1 mm width) are arranged in a pattern that the RAMS provides alignment in 1 mm resolution. It works based on detecting laser light aligned on one of photodiodes. When misaligned, the laser would match with different photodiode(s) giving signal at unexpected location. Thus,more » how much displaced can be determined. To verify the reproducibility of the system with respect to time as well as repeated set-ups, temporal reproducibility and repeatability test was conducted. The accuracy of the system was tested by obtaining detection signals with varying laser-match positions. Results: The signal of the RAMS was found to be stable with respect to time. The repeatability test resulted in a maximum coefficient of variance of 1.14%, suggesting that the signal of the RAMS was stable over repeated set-ups. In the accuracy test, signals between when the laser was aligned and notaligned with any of sensors could be distinguished by signal intensity. The signals of not-aligned sensors were always below 75% of the signal of the aligned sensor. It was confirmed that the system could detect 1 mm of movement by monitoring the pattern of signals, and could observe the movement of the system in real-time. Conclusion: We developed a room laser based alignment monitoring system. The feasibility test verified that the system is capable of quantitative alignment monitoring in real time. The system is relatively simple, not expensive, and considered to be easily incorporated into conventional room laser systems for real-time alignment monitoring. This research was supported by the Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF funded by the

  13. A line-source method for aligning on-board and other pinhole SPECT systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Susu; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: In order to achieve functional and molecular imaging as patients are in position for radiation therapy, a robotic multipinhole SPECT system is being developed. Alignment of the SPECT system—to the linear accelerator (LINAC) coordinate frame and to the coordinate frames of other on-board imaging systems such as cone-beam CT (CBCT)—is essential for target localization and image reconstruction. An alignment method that utilizes line sources and one pinhole projection is proposed and investigated to achieve this goal. Potentially, this method could also be applied to the calibration of the other pinhole SPECT systems.Methods: An alignment model consisting of multiple alignmentmore » parameters was developed which maps line sources in three-dimensional (3D) space to their two-dimensional (2D) projections on the SPECT detector. In a computer-simulation study, 3D coordinates of line-sources were defined in a reference room coordinate frame, such as the LINAC coordinate frame. Corresponding 2D line-source projections were generated by computer simulation that included SPECT blurring and noise effects. The Radon transform was utilized to detect angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the line-source projections. Alignment parameters were then estimated by a nonlinear least squares method, based on the α and ρ values and the alignment model. Alignment performance was evaluated as a function of number of line sources, Radon transform accuracy, finite line-source width, intrinsic camera resolution, Poisson noise, and acquisition geometry. Experimental evaluations were performed using a physical line-source phantom and a pinhole-collimated gamma camera attached to a robot.Results: In computer-simulation studies, when there was no error in determining angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the measured projections, six alignment parameters (three translational and three rotational) were estimated perfectly using three line sources. When angles (α) and offsets (ρ) were

  14. Automatic patient alignment system using 3D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kaar, Marcus; Figl, Michael; Hoffmann, Rainer; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Stock, Markus; Georg, Dietmar; Goldner, Gregor; Hummel, Johann

    2013-04-01

    Recent developments in radiation therapy such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or dose painting promise to provide better dose distribution on the tumor. For effective application of these methods the exact positioning of the patient and the localization of the irradiated organ and surrounding structures is crucial. Especially with respect to the treatment of the prostate, ultrasound (US) allows for differentiation between soft tissue and was therefore applied by various repositioning systems, such as BAT or Clarity. The authors built a new system which uses 3D US at both sites, the CT room and the intervention room and applied a 3D/3D US/US registration for automatic repositioning. In a first step the authors applied image preprocessing methods to prepare the US images for an optimal registration process. For the 3D/3D registration procedure five different metrics were evaluated. To find the image metric which fits best for a particular patient three 3D US images were taken at the CT site and registered to each other. From these results an US registration error was calculated. The most successful image metric was then applied for the US/US registration process. The success of the whole repositioning method was assessed by taking the results of an ExacTrac system as golden standard. The US/US registration error was found to be 2.99 ± 1.54 mm with respect to the mutual information metric by Mattes (eleven patients) which revealed to be the most suitable of the assessed metrics. For complete repositioning chain the error amounted to 4.15 ± 1.20 mm (ten patients). The authors developed a system for patient repositioning which works automatically without the necessity of user interaction with an accuracy which seems to be suitable for clinical application.

  15. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  16. Solar radiation control using nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vanKonynenburg, Peter; Marsland, Stephen; McCoy, James

    1987-11-01

    A new, advanced liquid crystal technology has made economical, large area, electrically-controlled windows a commercial reality. The new technology, Nematic Curvilinear Aligned Phase (NCAP), is based on a polymeric material containing small droplets of nematic liquid crystal which is coated and laminated between transparent electrodes and fabricated into large area field effect devices. NCAP windows feature variable solar transmission and reflection through a voltage-controlled scattering mechanism. Laminated window constructions provide the excellent transmission and visibility of glass in the powered condition. In the unpowered condition, the windows are highly translucent, and provide 1) blocked vision for privacy, security, and obscuration of information, and 2) glare control and solar shading. The stability is excellent during accelerated aging tests. Degradation mechanisms which can limit performance and lifetime are discussed. Maximum long term stability is achieved by product designs that incorporate the appropriate window materials to provide environmental protection.

  17. Increased dermal collagen bundle alignment in systemic sclerosis is associated with a cell migration signature and role of Arhgdib in directed fibroblast migration on aligned ECMs

    PubMed Central

    Lafyatis, Robert; Burkly, Linda C.

    2017-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a devastating disease affecting the skin and internal organs. Dermal fibrosis manifests early and Modified Rodnan Skin Scores (MRSS) correlate with disease progression. Transcriptomics of SSc skin biopsies suggest the role of the in vivo microenvironment in maintaining the pathological myofibroblasts. Therefore, defining the structural changes in dermal collagen in SSc patients could inform our understanding of fibrosis pathogenesis. Here, we report a method for quantitative whole-slide image analysis of dermal collagen from SSc patients, and our findings of more aligned dermal collagen bundles in diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) patients. Using the bleomycin-induced mouse model of SSc, we identified a distinct high dermal collagen bundle alignment gene signature, characterized by a concerted upregulation in cell migration, adhesion, and guidance pathways, and downregulation of spindle, replication, and cytokinesis pathways. Furthermore, increased bundle alignment induced a cell migration gene signature in fibroblasts in vitro, and these cells demonstrated increased directed migration on aligned ECM fibers that is dependent on expression of Arhgdib (Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2). Our results indicate that increased cell migration is a cellular response to the increased collagen bundle alignment featured in fibrotic skin. Moreover, many of the cell migration genes identified in our study are shared with human SSc skin and may be new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28662216

  18. THE BANANA PROJECT. IV. TWO ALIGNED STELLAR ROTATION AXES IN THE YOUNG ECCENTRIC BINARY SYSTEM EP CRUCIS: PRIMORDIAL ORIENTATION AND TIDAL ALIGNMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Setiawan, Johny

    With observations of the EP Cru system, we continue our series of measurements of spin-orbit angles in eclipsing binary star systems, the BANANA project (Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned). We find a close alignment between the sky projections of the rotational and orbital angular momentum vectors for both stars ({beta}{sub p} = -1. Degree-Sign 8 {+-} 1. Degree-Sign 6 and |{beta}{sub s}| < 17 Degree-Sign ). We also derive precise absolute dimensions and stellar ages for this system. The EP Cru and DI Her systems provide an interesting comparison: they have similar stellar types and orbital properties, but DImore » Her is younger and has major spin-orbit misalignments, raising the question of whether EP Cru also had a large misalignment at an earlier phase of evolution. We show that tidal dissipation is an unlikely explanation for the good alignment observed today, because realignment happens on the same timescale as spin-orbit synchronization, and the stars in EP Cru are far from synchronization (they are spinning nine times too quickly). Therefore it seems that some binaries form with aligned axes, while other superficially similar binaries are formed with misaligned axes.« less

  19. James Webb Space Telescope optical simulation testbed IV: linear control alignment of the primary segmented mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, Sylvain; Soummer, Rémi; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Long, Joseph; Michau, Vincent; Choquet, Elodie; Ferrari, Marc; Leboulleux, Lucie; Levecq, Olivier; Mazoyer, Johan; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Perrin, Marshall; Petrone, Peter; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2017-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to study wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, such as JWST. With the JWST Science and Operations Center co-located at STScI, JOST was developed to provide both a platform for staff training and to test alternate wavefront sensing and control strategies for independent validation or future improvements beyond the baseline operations. The design of JOST reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) using three custom aspheric lenses. It provides similar quality image as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at 633 nm. An Iris AO segmented mirror stands for the segmented primary mirror of JWST. Actuators allow us to control (1) the 18 segments of the segmented mirror in piston, tip, tilt and (2) the second lens, which stands for the secondary mirror, in tip, tilt and x, y, z positions. We present the most recent experimental results for the segmented mirror alignment. Our implementation of the Wavefront Sensing (WFS) algorithms using phase diversity is tested on simulation and experimentally. The wavefront control (WFC) algorithms, which rely on a linear model for optical aberrations induced by misalignment of the secondary lens and the segmented mirror, are tested and validated both on simulations and experimentally. In this proceeding, we present the performance of the full active optic control loop in presence of perturbations on the segmented mirror, and we detail the quality of the alignment correction.

  20. An optimal beam alignment method for large-scale distributed space surveillance radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Dongya; Xia, Shuangzhi

    2018-06-01

    Large-scale distributed space surveillance radar is a very important ground-based equipment to maintain a complete catalogue for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris. However, due to the thousands of kilometers distance between each sites of the distributed radar system, how to optimally implement the Transmitting/Receiving (T/R) beams alignment in a great space using the narrow beam, which proposed a special and considerable technical challenge in the space surveillance area. According to the common coordinate transformation model and the radar beam space model, we presented a two dimensional projection algorithm for T/R beam using the direction angles, which could visually describe and assess the beam alignment performance. Subsequently, the optimal mathematical models for the orientation angle of the antenna array, the site location and the T/R beam coverage are constructed, and also the beam alignment parameters are precisely solved. At last, we conducted the optimal beam alignment experiments base on the site parameters of Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS). The simulation results demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of our novel method, which can significantly stimulate the construction for the LEO space debris surveillance equipment.

  1. Traffic control systems handbook.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-10-01

    The Traffic Control Systems Handbook updates the 1996 edition (FHWA-SA-96-032). It serves as a basic reference in planning, designing and implementing traffic control systems. : Specific chapters include introduction, summary of available and emergin...

  2. Traffic control systems handbook

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-10-01

    The 2005 edition of "Traffic Control Systems Handbook" updates the 1996 edition (FHWA-SA-96-032). It serves as a basic reference in planning, designing and implementing traffic control systems. Specific chapters include introduction, summary of avail...

  3. Method for auto-alignment of digital optical phase conjugation systems based on digital propagation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mooseok; Ruan, Haowen; Zhou, Haojiang; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) has enabled many optical applications such as aberration correction and image transmission through fiber. In recent years, implementation of digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) has opened up the possibility of its use in biomedical optics (e.g. deep-tissue optical focusing) due to its ability to provide greater-than-unity OPC reflectivity (the power ratio of the phase conjugated beam and input beam to the OPC system) and its flexibility to accommodate additional wavefront manipulations. However, the requirement for precise (pixel-to-pixel matching) alignment of the wavefront sensor and the spatial light modulator (SLM) limits the practical usability of DOPC systems. Here, we report a method for auto-alignment of a DOPC system by which the misalignment between the sensor and the SLM is auto-corrected through digital light propagation. With this method, we were able to accomplish OPC playback with a DOPC system with gross sensor-SLM misalignment by an axial displacement of up to~1.5 cm, rotation and tip/tilt of ~5∘, and in-plane displacement of ~5 mm (dependent on the physical size of the sensor and the SLM). Our auto-alignment method robustly achieved a DOPC playback peak-to-background ratio (PBR) corresponding to more than ~30 % of the theoretical maximum. As an additional advantage, the auto-alignment procedure can be easily performed at will and, as such, allows us to correct for small mechanical drifts within the DOPC systems, thus overcoming a previously major DOPC system vulnerability. We believe that this reported method for implementing robust DOPC systems will broaden the practical utility of DOPC systems. PMID:24977504

  4. Method for auto-alignment of digital optical phase conjugation systems based on digital propagation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mooseok; Ruan, Haowen; Zhou, Haojiang; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-06-16

    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) has enabled many optical applications such as aberration correction and image transmission through fiber. In recent years, implementation of digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) has opened up the possibility of its use in biomedical optics (e.g. deep-tissue optical focusing) due to its ability to provide greater-than-unity OPC reflectivity (the power ratio of the phase conjugated beam and input beam to the OPC system) and its flexibility to accommodate additional wavefront manipulations. However, the requirement for precise (pixel-to-pixel matching) alignment of the wavefront sensor and the spatial light modulator (SLM) limits the practical usability of DOPC systems. Here, we report a method for auto-alignment of a DOPC system by which the misalignment between the sensor and the SLM is auto-corrected through digital light propagation. With this method, we were able to accomplish OPC playback with a DOPC system with gross sensor-SLM misalignment by an axial displacement of up to~1.5 cm, rotation and tip/tilt of ~5° and in-plane displacement of ~5 mm (dependent on the physical size of the sensor and the SLM). Our auto-alignment method robustly achieved a DOPC playback peak-to-background ratio (PBR) corresponding to more than ~30 % of the theoretical maximum. As an additional advantage, the auto-alignment procedure can be easily performed at will and, as such, allows us to correct for small mechanical drifts within the DOPC systems, thus overcoming a previously major DOPC system vulnerability. We believe that this reported method for implementing robust DOPC systems will broaden the practical utility of DOPC systems.

  5. Control System Damps Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopf, E. H., Jr.; Brown, T. K.; Marsh, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    New control system damps vibrations in rotating equipment with help of phase-locked-loop techniques. Vibrational modes are controlled by applying suitable currents to drive motor. Control signals are derived from sensors mounted on equipment.

  6. Controlled growth of well-aligned GaS nanohornlike structures and their field emission properties.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Godhuli; Panda, Subhendu K; Datta, Anuja; Chavan, Padmakar G; Shinde, Deodatta R; More, Mahendra A; Joag, D S; Patra, Amitava

    2011-06-01

    Here, we report the synthesis of vertically aligned gallium sulfide (GaS) nanohorn arrays using simple vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. The morphologies of GaS nano and microstructures are tuned by controlling the temperature and position of the substrate with respect to the source material. A plausible mechanism for the controlled growth has been proposed. It is important to note that the turn-on field value of GaS nanohorns array is found to be the low turn-on field 4.2 V/μm having current density of 0.1 μA/cm(2). The striking feature of the field emission behavior of the GaS nanohorn arrays is that the average emission current remains nearly constant over long time without any degradation. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Nonlinear Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Finite -dimensional regulators for a class of infinite dimensional systems ,” Systems and Control Letters, 3 (1983), 7-12. [11] B...semiglobal stabilizability by encoded state feedback,” to appear in Systems and Control Letters. 22 29. C. De Persis, A. Isidori, “Global stabilization of...nonequilibrium setting, for both finite and infinite dimensional control systems . Our objectives for distributed parameter systems included

  8. Analysis of the influence of manufacturing and alignment related errors on an optical tweezer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmann, R.; Sinzinger, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we present the design process as well as experimental results of an optical system for trapping particles in air. For positioning applications of micro-sized objects onto a glass wafer we developed a highly efficient optical tweezer. The focus of this paper is the iterative design process where we combine classical optics design software with a ray optics based force simulation tool. Thus we can find the best compromise which matches the optical systems restrictions with stable trapping conditions. Furthermore we analyze the influence of manufacturing related tolerances and errors in the alignment process of the optical elements on the optical forces. We present the design procedure for the necessary optical elements as well as experimental results for the aligned system.

  9. Coordinate alignment of combined measurement systems using a modified common points method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Zhang, P.; Xiao, W.

    2018-03-01

    The co-ordinate metrology has been extensively researched for its outstanding advantages in measurement range and accuracy. The alignment of different measurement systems is usually achieved by integrating local coordinates via common points before measurement. The alignment errors would accumulate and significantly reduce the global accuracy, thus need to be minimized. In this thesis, a modified common points method (MCPM) is proposed to combine different traceable system errors of the cooperating machines, and optimize the global accuracy by introducing mutual geometric constraints. The geometric constraints, obtained by measuring the common points in individual local coordinate systems, provide the possibility to reduce the local measuring uncertainty whereby enhance the global measuring certainty. A simulation system is developed in Matlab to analyze the feature of MCPM using the Monto-Carlo method. An exemplary setup is constructed to verify the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method associated with laser tracker and indoor iGPS systems. Experimental results show that MCPM could significantly improve the alignment accuracy.

  10. The SOAPS project - Spin-orbit alignment of planetary systems. Exoplanets' evolution histories in systems with different architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedi, F.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Fossati, L.; Pollacco, D.; McQuillan, A.; Hebb, L.; Chaplin, W. J.; Aigrain, S.

    2013-04-01

    The wealth of information rendered by Kepler planets and planet candidates is indispensable for statistically significant studies of distinct planet populations, in both single and multiple systems. Empirical evidences suggest that Kepler's planet population shows different physical properties as compared to the bulk of known exoplanets. The SOAPS project, aims to shed light on Kepler's planets formation, their migration and architecture. By measuring v sini accurately for Kepler hosts with rotation periods measured from their high-precision light curves, we will assess the alignment of the planetary orbit with respect to the stellar spin axis. This degree of alignment traces the formation history and evolution of the planetary systems, and thus, allows to distinguish between different proposed migration theories. SOAPS will increase by a factor of 2 the number of spin-orbit alignment measurements pushing the parameters space down to the SuperEarth domain. Here we present our preliminary results.

  11. Environmental Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbush, F. M.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on environment control systems for electric flight systems are presented. Schematics and flow diagrams of fresh air source and air conditioning systems, and vapor cycle and air cycle parts lists are presented.

  12. Nonlinear Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-18

    J.M. Schumacher, Finite -dimensional regulators for a class of infinite dimensional systems . Systems and Control Letters, 3 (1983), 7-12. [39J J.M...for the control of certain examples or system classes us- ing particular feedback design methods ([20, 21, 16, 17, 19, 18]). Still, the control of...long time existence and asymptotic behavior for certain examples or system classes using particular feedback design methods (see, e.g., [20, 21, 16, 17

  13. James Webb Space Telescope optical simulation testbed III: first experimental results with linear-control alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, Sylvain; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Leboulleux, Lucie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Élodie; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ygouf, Marie; Michau, Vincent; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Fusco, Thierry; Escolle, Clément; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel; Soummer, Rémi

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to study wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, including both commissioning and maintenance activities. JOST is complementary to existing testbeds for JWST (e.g. the Ball Aerospace Testbed Telescope TBT) given its compact scale and flexibility, ease of use, and colocation at the JWST Science and Operations Center. The design of JOST reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) using three custom aspheric lenses. It provides similar quality image as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at 633 nm. An Iris AO segmented mirror stands for the segmented primary mirror of JWST. Actuators allow us to control (1) the 18 segments of the segmented mirror in piston, tip, tilt and (2) the second lens, which stands for the secondary mirror, in tip, tilt and x, y, z positions. We present the full linear control alignment infrastructure developed for JOST, with an emphasis on multi-field wavefront sensing and control. Our implementation of the Wavefront Sensing (WFS) algorithms using phase diversity is experimentally tested. The wavefront control (WFC) algorithms, which rely on a linear model for optical aberrations induced by small misalignments of the three lenses, are tested and validated on simulations.

  14. Controlled transport of latex beads through vertically aligned carbon nanofiber membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Melechko, A. V.; Merkulov, V. I.; Guillorn, M. A.; Simpson, M. L.; Lowndes, D. H.; Doktycz, M. J.

    2002-07-01

    Stripes of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have been used to form membranes for size selectively controlling the transport of latex beads. Fluidic structures were created in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and interfaced to the VACNF structures for characterization of the membrane pore size. Solutions of fluorescently labeled latex beads were introduced into the PDMS channels and characterized by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the beads size selectively pass through the nanofiber barriers and the size restriction limit correlates with the interfiber spacing. The results suggest that altering VACNF array density can alter fractionation properties of the membrane. Such membranes may be useful for molecular sorting and for mimicking the properties of natural membranes.

  15. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  16. Fission control system for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Conley, G.H.; Estes, G.P.

    Control system for nuclear reactor comprises a first set of reactivity modifying rods fixed in a reactor core with their upper ends stepped in height across the core, and a second set of reactivity modifying rods movable vertically within the reactor core and having their lower ends stepped to correspond with the stepped arrangement of the first set of rods, pairs of the rods of the first and second sets being in coaxial alignment.

  17. Digital Optical Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, David H.; Tipton, Charles A.; Christmann, Charles E.; Hochhausler, Nils P.

    1988-09-01

    We describe the digital optical control system (DOGS), a state-of-the-art controller for electrical feedback in an optical system. The need for a versatile optical controller arose from a number of unique experiments being performed by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. These experiments use similar detectors and actuator-controlled mirrors, but the control requirements vary greatly. The experiments have in common a requirement for parallel control systems. The DOGS satisfies these needs by allowing several control systems to occupy a single chassis with one master controller. The architecture was designed to allow upward compatibility with future configurations. Combinations of off-the-shelf and custom boards are configured to meet the requirements of each experiment. The configuration described here was used to control piston error to X/80 at a wavelength of 0.51 Am. A peak sample rate of 8 kHz, yielding a closed loop bandwidth of 800 Hz, was achieved.

  18. Intermittent Control Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Thomas L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The technique of intermittent control systems for air quality control as developed and used by the Tennessee Valley Authority is investigated. Although controversial, all Tennessee Valley Authority sulfur dioxide elimination programs are scheduled to be operational this year. Existing or anticipated intermittent control systems are identified. (BT)

  19. Temperature offset control system

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, M.

    1987-07-28

    This patent describes a temperature offset control system for controlling the operation of both heating and air conditioning systems simultaneously contained within the same premises each of which is set by local thermostats to operate at an appropriate temperature, the offset control system comprising: a central control station having means for presetting an offset temperature range, means for sensing the temperature at a central location, means for comparing the sensed temperature with the offset temperature range, means responsive to the comparison for producing a control signal indicative of whether the sensed temperature is within the offset temperature range or beyondmore » the offset temperature range, and means for transmitting the control signal onto the standard energy lines servicing the premises; and a receiving station respectively associated with each heating and air conditioning system, the receiving stations each comprising means for receiving the same transmitted control signal from the energy lines, and switch means for controlling the energization of the respective system in response to the received control signal. The heating systems and associated local thermostat are disabled by the control signal when the control signal originates from a sensed temperature above the lower end of the offset temperature range. The air conditioning systems and associated thermostats are disabled by the same control signal when the control signal originates from a sensed temperature below the upper end of the offset temperature range.« less

  20. Quality control methods for linear accelerator radiation and mechanical axes alignment.

    PubMed

    Létourneau, Daniel; Keller, Harald; Becker, Nathan; Amin, Md Nurul; Norrlinger, Bernhard; Jaffray, David A

    2018-06-01

    The delivery accuracy of highly conformal dose distributions generated using intensity modulation and collimator, gantry, and couch degrees of freedom is directly affected by the quality of the alignment between the radiation beam and the mechanical axes of a linear accelerator. For this purpose, quality control (QC) guidelines recommend a tolerance of ±1 mm for the coincidence of the radiation and mechanical isocenters. Traditional QC methods for assessment of radiation and mechanical axes alignment (based on pointer alignment) are time consuming and complex tasks that provide limited accuracy. In this work, an automated test suite based on an analytical model of the linear accelerator motions was developed to streamline the QC of radiation and mechanical axes alignment. The proposed method used the automated analysis of megavoltage images of two simple task-specific phantoms acquired at different linear accelerator settings to determine the coincidence of the radiation and mechanical isocenters. The sensitivity and accuracy of the test suite were validated by introducing actual misalignments on a linear accelerator between the radiation axis and the mechanical axes using both beam steering and mechanical adjustments of the gantry and couch. The validation demonstrated that the new QC method can detect sub-millimeter misalignment between the radiation axis and the three mechanical axes of rotation. A displacement of the radiation source of 0.2 mm using beam steering parameters was easily detectable with the proposed collimator rotation axis test. Mechanical misalignments of the gantry and couch rotation axes of the same magnitude (0.2 mm) were also detectable using the new gantry and couch rotation axis tests. For the couch rotation axis, the phantom and test design allow detection of both translational and tilt misalignments with the radiation beam axis. For the collimator rotation axis, the test can isolate the misalignment between the beam radiation axis

  1. Ergatic dynamic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, V. V. (Editor); Drozdova, T. I. (Editor); Antomonov, Y. G. (Editor); Golego, V. N. (Editor); Ivakhnenko, A. G. (Editor); Meleshev, A. M. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Synthesis and analysis of systems containing a man in their control circuits are considered. The concepts of ergonomics and ergatic systems are defined, and tasks and problems of ergonomics are outlined. The synthesis of the structure of an astronautic ergatic organism is presented, as well as the synthesis of nonstationary ergatic systems. Problems of selecting the criteria for complex systems are considered, and the results are presented from a study of ergatic control systems with any degree of human participation.

  2. Controllability in nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschorn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    An explicit expression for the reachable set is obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. This class is described by a chain condition on the Lie algebra of vector fields associated with each nonlinear system. These ideas are used to obtain a generalization of a controllability result for linear systems in the case where multiplicative controls are present.

  3. The effect of surface alignment on analog control of director rotation in polarization stiffened SmC* devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznikov, Mitya; Lopatina, Lena M.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Bos, Philip J.

    2011-03-01

    The effect of surface alignment on the achievement of analog ("V"-shaped) electric field control of director rotation in SmC* liquid crystal devices is investigated experimentally and through numerical modeling. Ferroelectric SmC* liquid crystals are intrinsically analog and thresholdless, i.e. the director can be rotated freely around the tilt cone. Whether or not a SmC* liquid crystal cell exhibits thresholdless switching depends strongly on the influence of the cell's alignment layers, on the magnitude of the liquid crystal's spontaneous polarization, and on whether smectic layers adopt a bookshelf or chevron configuration. To study the effect of the surface alignment layers, we have exploited a technique for the vertical (bookshelf) alignment of the smectic layers that does not depend on surface anisotropy. The alignment technique allows an experimental study of the influence of surfaces spanning a wide range of pretilt angles, azimuthal and zenithal anchoring energies. This technique is used to study the effect of surfaces on the threshold behavior of director rotation in SmC* materials under the influence of an electric field. The alignment technique also allowed us to use a high-PS liquid crystal material having an I-A-C phase sequence and reduced layer shrinkage thought to be well suited to thresholdless switching. We show that the alignment layer has a strong effect, and that excellent analog response can be achieved for the case of alignment layers which promote homeotropic director orientation. We further model and discuss the potential effect of a thin layer of nematic at the surface and the possibility of gliding of the easy axis during switching.

  4. Design and realization of the optical and electron beam alignment system for the HUST-FEL oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Q.; Tan, P.; Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Liu, X.

    2018-06-01

    A Free Electron Laser(FEL) oscillator with radiation wavelength at 30-100 μ m is under commissioning at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). This work presents the schematic design and realization procedures for the optical and beam alignment system in the HUST FEL facility. The optical cavity misalignment effects are analyzed with the code OPC + Genesis 1.3, and the tolerance of misalignment is proposed with the simulation result. Depending on undulator mechanical benchmarks, a laser indicating system has been built up as reference datum. The alignment of both optical axis and beam trajectory were achieved by this alignment system.

  5. Vertically aligned carbon nanopillars with size and spacing control for a transparent field emission display.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, Jung A; Lee, Seung S

    2013-01-18

    A top-down fabrication method is presented for vertically aligned carbon nanopillars (CNPs) using photolithography and pyrolysis. The modified backside exposure method of photolithography fabricates vertically aligned polymer (SU-8) nanopillars. The pyrolysis process, which transforms the polymer to amorphous carbon, reliably produces vertically aligned CNPs with widths ranging from 100 to 400 nm. The CNPs can be used as a transparent field emission cathode for a transparent display and light emission is observed.

  6. Solar Collector Control System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A system for controlling the movement in azimuth and elevation of a large number of sun following solor energy collectors from a single controller...The system utilizes servo signal generators, a modulator and a demodulator for transmitting the servo signals, and stepping motors for controlling...remotely located solar collectors. The system allows precise tracking of the sun by a series of solar collectors without the necessity or expense of individualized solar trackers. (Author)

  7. Robust Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    time control system algorithms that will perform adequately (i.e., at least maintain closed-loop system stability) when ucertain parameters in the...system design models vary significantly. Such a control algorithm is said to have stability robustness-or more simply is said to be "robust". This...cas6s above, the performance is analyzed using a covariance analysis. The development of all the controllers and the performance analysis algorithms is

  8. Control and optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  9. Intelligent Control Systems Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a three phase research program into intelligent control systems are presented. The first phase looked at implementing the lowest or direct level of a hierarchical control scheme using a reinforcement learning approach assuming no a priori information about the system under control. The second phase involved the design of an adaptive/optimizing level of the hierarchy and its interaction with the direct control level. The third and final phase of the research was aimed at combining the results of the previous phases with some a priori information about the controlled system.

  10. Alignment of the Korsch type off-axis 3 mirror optical system using sensitivity table method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoungmuk; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Jinsuk; Kim, Sug-Whan; Lee, Haeng-Bok; Choi, Se-Chol

    2018-05-01

    The optical system of the entire mechanical and optical components consist of all silicon carbide (SiC) is designed, manufactured and aligned. The Korsch type Cassegrain optical system has 3-mirrors, the primary mirror (M1), the secondary mirror (M2), the folding mirror (FM) and the tertiary mirror (M3). To assemble the M3 and the FM to the rear side of the M1 bench, the optical axis of the M3 is 65.56 mm off from the physical center. Due to the limitation of the mass budget, the M3 is truncated excluding its optical axis. The M2 was assigned to the coma compensator and the M3 the astigmatism respectively as per the result of the sensitivity analysis. Despite of the difficulty of placing these optical components in their initial position within the mechanical tolerance, the initial wave front error (WFE) performance is as large as 171.4 nm RMS. After the initial alignment, the sensitivity table method is used to reach the goal of WFE 63.3 nm RMS in all fields. We finished the alignment with the final WFE performance in all fields are as large as 55.18 nm RMS.

  11. Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Ng, W.; Cerrina, F.

    1995-11-01

    Multilayer-coated imaging systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13 nm represent a significant challenge for alignment and characterization. The standard practice of utilizing visible light interferometry fundamentally provides an incomplete picture since this technique fails to account for phase effects induced by the multilayer coating. Thus the development of optical techniques at the functional EUV wavelength is required. We present the development of two EUV optical tests based on Foucault and Ronchi techniques. These relatively simple techniques are extremely sensitive due to the factor of 50 reduction in wavelength. Both techniques were utilized to align a Mo--Si multilayer-coated Schwarzschildmore » camera. By varying the illumination wavelength, phase shift effects due to the interplay of multilayer coating and incident angle were uniquely detected. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}« less

  12. System access control study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-06-01

    The report presents a summary of a study conducted for the Transportation Systems Center of promising access control techniques which are applicable to an aeronautical satellite system. Several frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time divis...

  13. LSST camera control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Stuart; Thaler, Jon; Schalk, Terry; Huffer, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The LSST Camera Control System (CCS) will manage the activities of the various camera subsystems and coordinate those activities with the LSST Observatory Control System (OCS). The CCS comprises a set of modules (nominally implemented in software) which are each responsible for managing one camera subsystem. Generally, a control module will be a long lived "server" process running on an embedded computer in the subsystem. Multiple control modules may run on a single computer or a module may be implemented in "firmware" on a subsystem. In any case control modules must exchange messages and status data with a master control module (MCM). The main features of this approach are: (1) control is distributed to the local subsystem level; (2) the systems follow a "Master/Slave" strategy; (3) coordination will be achieved by the exchange of messages through the interfaces between the CCS and its subsystems. The interface between the camera data acquisition system and its downstream clients is also presented.

  14. Dual annular rotating "windowed" nuclear reflector reactor control system

    DOEpatents

    Jacox, Michael G.; Drexler, Robert L.; Hunt, Robert N. M.; Lake, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core.

  15. Very high stability systems: LMJ target alignment system and MTG imager test setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compain, Eric; Maquet, Philippe; Kunc, Thierry; Marque, Julien; Lauer-Solelhac, Maxime; Delage, Laurent; Lanternier, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Most of space instruments and research facilities require test equipment with demanding opto-mechanical stability. In some specific cases, when the stability performance directly drives the final performance of the scientific mission and when feasibility is questionable, specific methods must be implemented for the associated technical risk management. In present paper, we will present our heritage in terms of methodology, design, test and the associated results for two specific systems : the SOPAC-POS and the MOTA, generating new references for future developments. From a performance point of view, we will emphasis on following key parameters : design symmetry, thermal load management, and material and structural choices. From a method point of view the difficulties arise first during design, from the strong coupling between the thermal, mechanical and optical performance models, and then during testing, from the difficulty of conceiving test setup having appropriate performance level. We will present how these limitations have been overcome. SOPAC-POS is the target alignment system of the LMJ, Laser Mega Joule, the French inertial confinement fusion research center. Its stability has been demonstrated by tests in 2014 after 10 years of research and development activities, achieving 1μm stability @ 6m during one hour periods. MOTA is an Optical Ground Support Equipment aiming at qualifying by tests the Flexible Combined Imager (FCI). FCI is an instrument for the meteorological satellite MTG-I, a program of and funded by the European Space Agency and under prime contractorship of Thales Alenia Space. Optimized design will allow to get better than 0.2 μrad stability for one hour periods, as required for MTF measurement.

  16. Scalable fabrication of coupled NV center - photonic crystal cavity systems by self-aligned N ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Schröder, T.; Walsh, M.; Zheng, J.

    2017-04-06

    Towards building large-scale integrated photonic systems for quantum information processing, spatial and spectral alignment of single quantum systems to photonic nanocavities is required. In this paper, we demonstrate spatially targeted implantation of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers into the mode maximum of 2-d diamond photonic crystal cavities with quality factors up to 8000, achieving an average of 1.1 ± 0.2 NVs per cavity. Nearly all NV-cavity systems have significant emission intensity enhancement, reaching a cavity-fed spectrally selective intensity enhancement, F int, of up to 93. Although spatial NV-cavity overlap is nearly guaranteed within about 40 nm, spectral tuning of the NV’smore » zero-phonon-line (ZPL) is still necessary after fabrication. To demonstrate spectral control, we temperature tune a cavity into an NV ZPL, yielding F ZPL int~5 at cryogenic temperatures.« less

  17. Aligning incentives in health care: physician practice and health system partnership.

    PubMed

    Levin, L Scott; Gustave, Lori

    2013-06-01

    The key to successfully aligning hospitals and physicians is financial integration and joint incentives for academic, quality, and clinical productivity. Many physician practices and health systems are moving toward closer integration, but mainly through consolidation and employment strategies. We describe a fully integrated physician and hospital relationship including an overview of an aligned funds flow process that affords the department support for clinical services and teaching, research, and administrative activity. We also describe a physician compensation model that provides incentive not only for increased clinical performance, but also quality and academic objectives. The content of this article was acquired through our own experience in managing the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Pennsylvania Health System including the health system's funds flow process. Based on input from both health system leaders and the faculty, the department's compensation plan was totally redesigned to create a line-of-sight plan that credits clinical performance and academic productivity. Our model is multifactorial and provides sustainable support for the department and a compensation plan that is competitive within the local market and nationally. The health system's funds flow process has enhanced alignment of the faculty and hospitals by providing compensation for nonclinical time and assists the department's growth strategies by providing funding for new faculty and gain-sharing of improved hospital margin. The implementation of the compensation plan increased productivity by 8% in its first year with no additional resources. Academic productivity in that same year was arguably at or above any other year in the department's history in terms of accepted publications, national presentations, and research grants awarded. A model of complete integration between an academic department and a health system is achievable through a systematic process of

  18. Least Squares Approach to the Alignment of the Generic High Precision Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Renstrom, Pawel Brückman; Haywood, Stephen

    2006-04-01

    A least squares method to solve a generic alignment problem of a high granularity tracking system is presented. The algorithm is based on an analytical linear expansion and allows for multiple nested fits, e.g. imposing a common vertex for groups of particle tracks is of particular interest. We present a consistent and complete recipe to impose constraints on either implicit or explicit parameters. The method has been applied to the full simulation of a subset of the ATLAS silicon tracking system. The ultimate goal is to determine ≈35,000 degrees of freedom (DoF's). We present a limited scale exercise exploring various aspects of the solution.

  19. Optimal Parameter Design of Coarse Alignment for Fiber Optic Gyro Inertial Navigation System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Baofeng; Wang, Qiuying; Yu, Chunmei; Gao, Wei

    2015-06-25

    Two different coarse alignment algorithms for Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Inertial Navigation System (INS) based on inertial reference frame are discussed in this paper. Both of them are based on gravity vector integration, therefore, the performance of these algorithms is determined by integration time. In previous works, integration time is selected by experience. In order to give a criterion for the selection process, and make the selection of the integration time more accurate, optimal parameter design of these algorithms for FOG INS is performed in this paper. The design process is accomplished based on the analysis of the error characteristics of these two coarse alignment algorithms. Moreover, this analysis and optimal parameter design allow us to make an adequate selection of the most accurate algorithm for FOG INS according to the actual operational conditions. The analysis and simulation results show that the parameter provided by this work is the optimal value, and indicate that in different operational conditions, the coarse alignment algorithms adopted for FOG INS are different in order to achieve better performance. Lastly, the experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Supporting Instruction By Defining Conceptual Relevance Of Materials: Alignment Of Resources To An Earth Systems Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menicucci, A. J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental, geological, and climatological sciences are important facets of physical science education. However, it is often difficult for educators to acquire the necessary resources to facilitate content explanations, and demonstration of the conceptual links between individual lessons. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley is aligning new and existing Earth systems educational resources that are high-quality, interactive and inquiry based. Learning resources are organized by the UGC framework topics (Causes of Change, How the Earth System Works, and Measurable Changes), and focus on exploring topic relationships. Resources are currently aligned with both the UGC framework and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), facilitating broad utility among K-16 educators. The overarching goal of the UGC Project is to provide the necessary resources that guide the construction of coherent, interdisciplinary instructional units. These units can be reinforced through system models, providing visual learning scaffolds for assessments of student content knowledge. Utilizing the central framework of UGC alleviates the long-standing problem of creating coherent instructional units from multiple learning resources, each organized and categorized independently across multiple platforms that may not provide explicit connections among Earth science subjects UGC topic cross listing of learning modules establishes conceptual links. Each resource is linked across several Earth system components, facilitating exploration of relationships and feedbacks between processes. Cross listed topics are therefore useful for development of broad picture learning goals via targeted instructional units. We also anticipate cultivating summaries of the explicit conceptual links explored in each resource from both current teachers and content specialists. Insructional units currated and aligned under the UGC

  1. Cockpit control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesnewski, David; Snow, Russ M.; Paufler, Dave; Schnieder, George; Athousake, Roxanne; Combs, Lisa

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a detail design for the cockpit control system of the Viper PFT. The statement of work for this project requires provisions for control of the ailerons, elevator, rudder, and elevator trim. The system should provide adjustment for pilot stature, rigging, and maintenance. MIL-STD-1472 is used as a model for human factors criterion. The system is designed to the pilot limit loading outlined in FAR part 23.397. The general philosophy behind this design is to provide a simple, reliable control system which will withstand the daily abuse that is experienced in the training environment without excessive cost or weight penalties.

  2. Analyzing Feedback Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Interactive controls analysis (INCA) program developed to provide user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control. Designed for use with both small- and large-order systems. Using interactive-graphics capability, INCA user quickly plots root locus, frequency response, or time response of either continuous-time system or sampled-data system. Configuration and parameters easily changed, allowing user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in very convenient manner. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  3. Regulation of skeletal myotube formation and alignment by nanotopographically controlled cell-secreted extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Alex; Moerk, Charles T; Penland, Nisa; Perla, Mikael; Kim, Jinsung; Smith, Alec S T; Murry, Charles E; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2018-06-01

    Skeletal muscle has a well-organized tissue structure comprised of aligned myofibers and an encasing extracellular matrix (ECM) sheath or lamina, within which reside satellite cells. We hypothesize that the organization of skeletal muscle tissues in culture can affect both the structure of the deposited ECM and the differentiation potential of developing myotubes. Furthermore, we posit that cellular and ECM cues can be a strong determinant of myoblast fusion and morphology in 3D tissue culture environments. To test these, we utilized a thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum to engineer anisotropic sheets of myoblasts which could then be transferred and stacked into multilayered tissues. Within such engineered tissues, we found that myoblasts rapidly sense topography and deposit structurally organized ECM proteins. Furthermore, the initial tissue structure was found to exert significant control over myoblast fusion and eventual myotube organization. These results highlight the importance of ECM structure on myoblast fusion and organization, and provide insights into substrate-mediated control of myotube formation in the development of novel, more effective, engineered skeletal muscle tissues. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1543-1551, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. CMSA: a heterogeneous CPU/GPU computing system for multiple similar RNA/DNA sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Chen; Tang, Shanjiang; Yu, Ce; Zou, Quan

    2017-06-24

    The multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a classic and powerful technique for sequence analysis in bioinformatics. With the rapid growth of biological datasets, MSA parallelization becomes necessary to keep its running time in an acceptable level. Although there are a lot of work on MSA problems, their approaches are either insufficient or contain some implicit assumptions that limit the generality of usage. First, the information of users' sequences, including the sizes of datasets and the lengths of sequences, can be of arbitrary values and are generally unknown before submitted, which are unfortunately ignored by previous work. Second, the center star strategy is suited for aligning similar sequences. But its first stage, center sequence selection, is highly time-consuming and requires further optimization. Moreover, given the heterogeneous CPU/GPU platform, prior studies consider the MSA parallelization on GPU devices only, making the CPUs idle during the computation. Co-run computation, however, can maximize the utilization of the computing resources by enabling the workload computation on both CPU and GPU simultaneously. This paper presents CMSA, a robust and efficient MSA system for large-scale datasets on the heterogeneous CPU/GPU platform. It performs and optimizes multiple sequence alignment automatically for users' submitted sequences without any assumptions. CMSA adopts the co-run computation model so that both CPU and GPU devices are fully utilized. Moreover, CMSA proposes an improved center star strategy that reduces the time complexity of its center sequence selection process from O(mn 2 ) to O(mn). The experimental results show that CMSA achieves an up to 11× speedup and outperforms the state-of-the-art software. CMSA focuses on the multiple similar RNA/DNA sequence alignment and proposes a novel bitmap based algorithm to improve the center star strategy. We can conclude that harvesting the high performance of modern GPU is a promising approach to

  5. Novel theory for propagation of tilted Gaussian beam through aligned optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lei; Gao, Yunguo; Han, Xudong

    2017-03-01

    A novel theory for tilted beam propagation is established in this paper. By setting the propagation direction of the tilted beam as the new optical axis, we establish a virtual optical system that is aligned with the new optical axis. Within the first order approximation of the tilt and off-axis, the propagation of the tilted beam is studied in the virtual system instead of the actual system. To achieve more accurate optical field distributions of tilted Gaussian beams, a complete diffraction integral for a misaligned optical system is derived by using the matrix theory with angular momentums. The theory demonstrates that a tilted TEM00 Gaussian beam passing through an aligned optical element transforms into a decentered Gaussian beam along the propagation direction. The deviations between the peak intensity axis of the decentered Gaussian beam and the new optical axis have linear relationships with the misalignments in the virtual system. ZEMAX simulation of a tilted beam through a thick lens exposed to air shows that the errors between the simulation results and theoretical calculations of the position deviations are less than 2‰ when the misalignments εx, εy, εx', εy' are in the range of [-0.5, 0.5] mm and [-0.5, 0.5]°.

  6. PRESSURE SYSTEM CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Esselman, W.H.; Kaplan, G.M.

    1961-06-20

    The control of pressure in pressurized liquid systems, especially a pressurized liquid reactor system, may be achieved by providing a bias circuit or loop across a closed loop having a flow restriction means in the form of an orifice, a storage tank, and a pump connected in series. The subject invention is advantageously utilized where control of a reactor can be achieved by response to the temperature and pressure of the primary cooling system.

  7. Drone Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  8. Digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  9. Desiccant humidity control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amazeen, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A regenerable sorbent system was investigated for controlling the humidity and carbon dioxide concentration of the space shuttle cabin atmosphere. The sorbents considered for water and carbon dioxide removal were silica gel and molecular sieves. Bed optimization and preliminary system design are discussed along with system optimization studies and weight penalites.

  10. Integrated manufacture of a freeform off-axis multi-reflective imaging system without optical alignment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zexiao; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Zhu, Linlin; Yan, Ning

    2018-03-19

    Multi-reflective imaging systems find wide applications in optical imaging and space detection. However, it is faced with difficulties in adjusting the freeform mirrors with high accuracy to guarantee the optical function. Motivated by this, an alignment-free manufacture approach is proposed to machine the optical system. The direct optical performance-guided manufacture route is established without measuring the form error of freeform optics. An analytical model is established to investigate the effects of machine errors to serve the error identification and compensation in machining. Based on the integrated manufactured system, an ingenious self-designed testing configuration is constructed to evaluate the optical performance by directly measuring the wavefront aberration. Experiments are carried out to manufacture a three-mirror anastigmat, surface topographical details and optical performance shows agreement to the designed expectation. The final system works as an off-axis infrared imaging system. Results validate the feasibility of the proposed method to achieve excellent optical application.

  11. What is system control?

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1999-11-01

    Just as the aviation industry needs air-traffic controllers to manage the movement of airplanes for safety and commerce, so too, the electricity industry requires system operators. The electrical-system-control functions encompass a range of activities that support commercial transactions and maintain bulk-power reliability. As part of a project for the Edison Electric Institute, the authors examined the functions and costs of system control and the issues that need to be resolved in a restructured electricity industry (Hirst and Kirby 1998).

  12. The network of photodetectors and diode lasers of the CMS Link alignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Brochero, J.; Calderón, A.; Fernández, M. G.; Gómez, G.; González-Sánchez, F. J.; Martínez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Árbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobrón, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fernández, J.; Raics, P.; Szabó, Zs.; Trócsnyi, Z.; Ujvári, B.; Zilizi, Gy.; Béni, N.; Christian, G.; Imrek, J.; Molnar, J.; Novak, D.; Pálinkás, J.; Székely, G.; Szillási, Z.; Bencze, G. L.; Vestergombi, G.; Benettoni, M.; Gasparini, F.; Montecassiano, F.; Rampazzo, M.; Zago, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Reithler, H.; Jiang, C.

    2018-07-01

    The central feature of the CMS Link alignment system is a network of Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors distributed throughout the muon spectrometer that are connected by multiple laser lines. The data collected during the years from 2008 to 2015 is presented confirming an outstanding performance of the photo sensors during more than seven years of operation. Details of the photo sensor readout of the laser signals are presented. The mechanical motions of the CMS detector are monitored using these photosensors and good agreement with distance sensors is obtained.

  13. Classification systems for causes of stillbirth and neonatal death, 2009-2014: an assessment of alignment with characteristics for an effective global system.

    PubMed

    Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Teoh, Zheyi; Reinebrant, Hanna; Allanson, Emma; Blencowe, Hannah; Erwich, Jan Jaap; Frøen, J Frederik; Gardosi, Jason; Gordijn, Sanne; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Heazell, Alexander E P; Korteweg, Fleurisca; Lawn, Joy; McClure, Elizabeth M; Pattinson, Robert; Smith, Gordon C S; Tunçalp, Ӧzge; Wojcieszek, Aleena M; Flenady, Vicki

    2016-09-15

    To reduce the burden of 5.3 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually, an understanding of causes of deaths is critical. A systematic review identified 81 systems for classification of causes of stillbirth (SB) and neonatal death (NND) between 2009 and 2014. The large number of systems hampers efforts to understand and prevent these deaths. This study aimed to assess the alignment of current classification systems with expert-identified characteristics for a globally effective classification system. Eighty-one classification systems were assessed for alignment with 17 characteristics previously identified through expert consensus as necessary for an effective global system. Data were extracted independently by two authors. Systems were assessed against each characteristic and weighted and unweighted scores assigned to each. Subgroup analyses were undertaken by system use, setting, type of death included and type of characteristic. None of the 81 systems were aligned with more than 9 of the 17 characteristics; most (82 %) were aligned with four or fewer. On average, systems were aligned with 19 % of characteristics. The most aligned system (Frøen 2009-Codac) still had an unweighted score of only 9/17. Alignment with individual characteristics ranged from 0 to 49 %. Alignment was somewhat higher for widely used as compared to less used systems (22 % v 17 %), systems used only in high income countries as compared to only in low and middle income countries (20 % vs 16 %), and systems including both SB and NND (23 %) as compared to NND-only (15 %) and SB-only systems (13 %). Alignment was higher with characteristics assessing structure (23 %) than function (15 %). There is an unmet need for a system exhibiting all the characteristics of a globally effective system as defined by experts in the use of systems, as none of the 81 contemporary classification systems assessed was highly aligned with these characteristics. A particular concern in terms of

  14. Remotely controllable mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to a remotely controllable mixing system in which a plurality of mixing assemblies are arranged in an annular configuration, and wherein each assembly employs a central chamber and two outer, upper and lower chambers. Valves are positioned between chambers, and these valves for a given mixing assembly are operated by upper and lower control rotors, which in turn are driven by upper and lower drive rotors. Additionally, a hoop is compressed around upper control rotors and a hoop is compressed around lower control rotors to thus insure constant frictional engagement between all control rotors and drive rotors. The drive rollers are driven by a motor.

  15. A novel flexible field-aligned coordinate system for tokamak edge plasma simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leddy, J.; Dudson, B.; Romanelli, M.; Shanahan, B.; Walkden, N.

    2017-03-01

    Tokamak plasmas are confined by a magnetic field that limits the particle and heat transport perpendicular to the field. Parallel to the field the ionised particles can move freely, so to obtain confinement the field lines are "closed" (i.e. form closed surfaces of constant poloidal flux) in the core of a tokamak. Towards, the edge, however, the field lines intersect physical surfaces, leading to interaction between neutral and ionised particles, and the potential melting of the material surface. Simulation of this interaction is important for predicting the performance and lifetime of future tokamak devices such as ITER. Field-aligned coordinates are commonly used in the simulation of tokamak plasmas due to the geometry and magnetic topology of the system. However, these coordinates are limited in the geometry they allow in the poloidal plane due to orthogonality requirements. A novel 3D coordinate system is proposed herein that relaxes this constraint so that any arbitrary, smoothly varying geometry can be matched in the poloidal plane while maintaining a field-aligned coordinate. This system is implemented in BOUT++ and tested for accuracy using the method of manufactured solutions. A MAST edge cross-section is simulated using a fluid plasma model and the results show expected behaviour for density, temperature, and velocity. Finally, simulations of an isolated divertor leg are conducted with and without neutrals to demonstrate the ion-neutral interaction near the divertor plate and the corresponding beneficial decrease in plasma temperature.

  16. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  17. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  18. Controlled Synthesis and Functionalization of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Multifunctional Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-07

    6 1.6 Lithium - Ion Batteries Based on Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrodes and Ionic...Cl, Br, or I) Prepared by Ball-Milling and Used as Anode Materials for Lithium - Ion Batteries ……………....................23 3.4 Well-Defined Two...9 1.6 Lithium - Ion Batteries Based on Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrodes and Ionic Liquid Electrolytes

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  20. A Comprehensive Analysis of Multiscale Field-Aligned Currents: Characteristics, Controlling Parameters, and Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Forsyth, Colin

    2017-12-01

    We explore the characteristics, controlling parameters, and relationships of multiscale field-aligned currents (FACs) using a rigorous, comprehensive, and cross-platform analysis. Our unique approach combines FAC data from the Swarm satellites and the Advanced Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) to create a database of small-scale (˜10-150 km, <1° latitudinal width), mesoscale (˜150-250 km, 1-2° latitudinal width), and large-scale (>250 km) FACs. We examine these data for the repeatable behavior of FACs across scales (i.e., the characteristics), the dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field orientation, and the degree to which each scale "departs" from nominal large-scale specification. We retrieve new information by utilizing magnetic latitude and local time dependence, correlation analyses, and quantification of the departure of smaller from larger scales. We find that (1) FACs characteristics and dependence on controlling parameters do not map between scales in a straight forward manner, (2) relationships between FAC scales exhibit local time dependence, and (3) the dayside high-latitude region is characterized by remarkably distinct FAC behavior when analyzed at different scales, and the locations of distinction correspond to "anomalous" ionosphere-thermosphere behavior. Comparing with nominal large-scale FACs, we find that differences are characterized by a horseshoe shape, maximizing across dayside local times, and that difference magnitudes increase when smaller-scale observed FACs are considered. We suggest that both new physics and increased resolution of models are required to address the multiscale complexities. We include a summary table of our findings to provide a quick reference for differences between multiscale FACs.

  1. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  2. The ISOLDE control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-12-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained.

  3. How does lower leg alignment differ between soccer players, other athletes, and non-athletic controls?

    PubMed

    Colyn, William; Agricola, Rintje; Arnout, Nele; Verhaar, Jan A N; Bellemans, Johan

    2016-11-01

    The influence of type and intensity of sports during growth on knee alignment was investigated. The second aim was to ascertain whether the distal femur or proximal tibia contribute most to knee alignment. Also, the influence of field position and leg dominancy on knee alignment in soccer players was audited. Standardized full-leg standing digital radiographs were obtained from 100 males and 100 females on which 8 different alignment parameters were measured. Participants were questioned on their sports activities during different stages of growth. Sports activities were graded according to the Tegner score. The mean (±SD) hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in high-activity male athletes (-2.8° ± 2.4°) than in low-activity male athletes (-0.9° ± 1.9°). No differences in HKA were observed between different activity levels in females. Males who practiced soccer between 10-12 years and 15-17 years had, in turn, a lower HKA than athletes practicing other high-activity sports in these age categories (mean difference ≥1.2°, p ≤ 0.046). The most contributing factor for the varus alignment in male soccer players was a lower medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA). High-activity sports participation during youth is associated with varus alignment at the end of growth in males. The most pronounced bowlegs were observed in male soccer players, and this was primarily determined by the proximal tibia. Adjustments in loads applied to the knees during skeletal growth in males might prevent the development of varus alignment and associated pathology, but further studies are required. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  4. Method to determine and adjust the alignment of the transmitter and receiver fields of view of a LIDAR system

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Randal L [Tijeras, NM; Henson, Tammy D [Albuquerque, NM; Krumel, Leslie J [Cedar Crest, NM; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.

    2006-06-20

    A method to determine the alignment of the transmitter and receiver fields of view of a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. This method can be employed to determine the far-field intensity distribution of the transmitter beam, as well as the variations in transmitted laser beam pointing as a function of time, temperature, or other environmental variables that may affect the co-alignment of the LIDAR system components. In order to achieve proper alignment of the transmitter and receiver optical systems when a LIDAR system is being used in the field, this method employs a laser-beam-position-sensing detector as an integral part of the receiver optics of the LIDAR system.

  5. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  6. Some aspects of SR beamline alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaponov, Yu. A.; Cerenius, Y.; Nygaard, J.; Ursby, T.; Larsson, K.

    2011-09-01

    Based on the Synchrotron Radiation (SR) beamline optical element-by-element alignment with analysis of the alignment results an optimized beamline alignment algorithm has been designed and developed. The alignment procedures have been designed and developed for the MAX-lab I911-4 fixed energy beamline. It has been shown that the intermediate information received during the monochromator alignment stage can be used for the correction of both monochromator and mirror without the next stages of alignment of mirror, slits, sample holder, etc. Such an optimization of the beamline alignment procedures decreases the time necessary for the alignment and becomes useful and helpful in the case of any instability of the beamline optical elements, storage ring electron orbit or the wiggler insertion device, which could result in the instability of angular and positional parameters of the SR beam. A general purpose software package for manual, semi-automatic and automatic SR beamline alignment has been designed and developed using the developed algorithm. The TANGO control system is used as the middle-ware between the stand-alone beamline control applications BLTools, BPMonitor and the beamline equipment.

  7. Hollow elliptical Gaussian beam and its propagation through aligned and misaligned paraxial optical systems.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yangjian; Lin, Qiang

    2004-06-01

    A new mathematical model called hollow elliptical Gaussian beam (HEGB) is proposed to describe a dark-hollow laser beam with noncircular symmetry in terms of a tensor method. The HEGB can be expressed as a superposition of a series of elliptical Hermite-Gaussian modes. By using the generalized diffraction integral formulas for light passing through paraxial optical systems, analytical propagation formulas for HEGBs passing through paraxial aligned and misaligned optical systems are obtained through vector integration. As examples of applications, evolution properties of the intensity distribution of HEGBs in free-space propagation were studied. Propagation properties of HEGBs through a misaligned thin lens were also studied. The HEGB provides a convenient way to describe elliptical dark-hollow laser beams and can be used conveniently to study the motion of atoms in a dark-hollow laser beam.

  8. Hollow elliptical Gaussian beam and its propagation through aligned and misaligned paraxial optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yangjian; Lin, Qiang

    2004-06-01

    A new mathematical model called hollow elliptical Gaussian beam (HEGB) is proposed to describe a dark-hollow laser beam with noncircular symmetry in terms of a tensor method. The HEGB can be expressed as a superposition of a series of elliptical Hermite-Gaussian modes. By using the generalized diffraction integral formulas for light passing through paraxial optical systems, analytical propagation formulas for HEGBs passing through paraxial aligned and misaligned optical systems are obtained through vector integration. As examples of applications, evolution properties of the intensity distribution of HEGBs in free-space propagation were studied. Propagation properties of HEGBs through a misaligned thin lens were also studied. The HEGB provides a convenient way to describe elliptical dark-hollow laser beams and can be used conveniently to study the motion of atoms in a dark-hollow laser beam.

  9. MSAProbs-MPI: parallel multiple sequence aligner for distributed-memory systems.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Liu, Yongchao; Touriño, Juan; Schmidt, Bertil

    2016-12-15

    MSAProbs is a state-of-the-art protein multiple sequence alignment tool based on hidden Markov models. It can achieve high alignment accuracy at the expense of relatively long runtimes for large-scale input datasets. In this work we present MSAProbs-MPI, a distributed-memory parallel version of the multithreaded MSAProbs tool that is able to reduce runtimes by exploiting the compute capabilities of common multicore CPU clusters. Our performance evaluation on a cluster with 32 nodes (each containing two Intel Haswell processors) shows reductions in execution time of over one order of magnitude for typical input datasets. Furthermore, MSAProbs-MPI using eight nodes is faster than the GPU-accelerated QuickProbs running on a Tesla K20. Another strong point is that MSAProbs-MPI can deal with large datasets for which MSAProbs and QuickProbs might fail due to time and memory constraints, respectively. Source code in C ++ and MPI running on Linux systems as well as a reference manual are available at http://msaprobs.sourceforge.net CONTACT: jgonzalezd@udc.esSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Environmental constraints shaping constituent order in emerging communication systems: Structural iconicity, interactive alignment and conventionalization.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peer; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Where does linguistic structure come from? Recent gesture elicitation studies have indicated that constituent order (corresponding to for instance subject-verb-object, or SVO in English) may be heavily influenced by human cognitive biases constraining gesture production and transmission. Here we explore the alternative hypothesis that syntactic patterns are motivated by multiple environmental and social-interactional constraints that are external to the cognitive domain. In three experiments, we systematically investigate different motivations for structure in the gestural communication of simple transitive events. The first experiment indicates that, if participants communicate about different types of events, manipulation events (e.g. someone throwing a cake) and construction events (e.g. someone baking a cake), they spontaneously and systematically produce different constituent orders, SOV and SVO respectively, thus following the principle of structural iconicity. The second experiment shows that participants' choice of constituent order is also reliably influenced by social-interactional forces of interactive alignment, that is, the tendency to re-use an interlocutor's previous choice of constituent order, thus potentially overriding affordances for iconicity. Lastly, the third experiment finds that the relative frequency distribution of referent event types motivates the stabilization and conventionalization of a single constituent order for the communication of different types of events. Together, our results demonstrate that constituent order in emerging gestural communication systems is shaped and stabilized in response to multiple external environmental and social factors: structural iconicity, interactive alignment and distributional frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transparent silicon strip sensors for the optical alignment of particle detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, W.; Kroha, H.; Widmann, P.

    1996-02-01

    Modern large-area precision tracking detectors require increasing accuracy for the alignment of their components. A novel multi-point laser alignment system has been developed for such applications. The position of detector components with respect to reference laser beams is monitored by semi-transparent optical position sensors which work on the principle of silicon strip photodiodes. Two types of custom designed transparent strip sensors, based on crystalline and on amorphous silicon as active material, have been studied. The sensors are optimized for the typical diameters of collimated laser beams of 3-5 mm over distances of 10-20 m. They provide very high position resolution, on the order of 1 μm, uniformly over a wide measurement range of several centimeters. The preparation of the sensor surfaces requires special attention in order to achieve high light transmittance and minimum distortion of the traversing laser beams. At selected wavelengths, produced by laser diodes, transmission rates above 90% have been achieved. This allows to position more than 30 sensors along one laser beam. The sensors will be equipped with custom designed integrated readout electronics.

  12. SERVOMOTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeille, S.M.

    1958-12-01

    Control systems for automatic positioning of an electric motor operated vapor valve are described which is operable under the severe conditions existing in apparatus for electro-magnetlcally separating isotopes. In general, the system includes a rotor for turning the valve comprising two colls mounted mutually perpendicular to each other and also perpendicular to the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus. The coils are furnished with both a-c and d- c current by assoclate control circuitry and a position control is provided for varying the ratlo of the a-c currents in the coils and at the same time, but in an inverse manner, the ratio between the d-c currents in the coils is varied. With the present system the magnitude of the motor torque is constant for all valves of the rotor orientatlon angle.

  13. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

  14. Terminator field-aligned current system: A new finding from model-assimilated data set (MADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Gardner, L. C.; Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.

    2013-12-01

    Physics-based data assimilation models have been recognized by the space science community as the most accurate approach to specify and forecast the space weather of the solar-terrestrial environment. The model-assimilated data sets (MADS) produced by these models constitute an internally consistent time series of global three-dimensional fields whose accuracy can be estimated. Because of its internal consistency of physics and completeness of descriptions on the status of global systems, the MADS has also been a powerful tool to identify the systematic errors in measurements, reveal the missing physics in physical models, and discover the important dynamical physical processes that are inadequately observed or missed by measurements due to observational limitations. In the past years, we developed a data assimilation model for the high-latitude ionospheric plasma dynamics and electrodynamics. With a set of physical models, an ensemble Kalman filter, and the ingestion of data from multiple observations, the data assimilation model can produce a self-consistent time-series of the complete descriptions of the global high-latitude ionosphere, which includes the convection electric field, horizontal and field-aligned currents, conductivity, as well as 3-D plasma densities and temperatures, In this presentation, we will show a new field-aligned current system discovered from the analysis of the MADS produced by our data assimilation model. This new current system appears and develops near the ionospheric terminator. The dynamical features of this current system will be described and its connection to the active role of the ionosphere in the M-I coupling will be discussed.

  15. Lighting Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-26

    Shorter payback periods After 19 Cost Benefit of Powerlink Rule of Thumb for Powerlink: Powerlink becomes more cost effective beyond 16 controlled...web enabled control (and management software) Increase in level of integration between building systems Increase in new features, functions, benefits ...focus on reducing run-time via Scheduling, Sensing, Switching Growing focus on payback Direct energy cost (with demand) Additional maintenance benefits

  16. Infrared Smartt Interferometer As An Alignment Tool For Carbon Dioxide Laser Fusion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Bolen, P. D.

    1980-11-01

    It is essential to minimize the pointing and focusing errors at the focal plane for many applications involving infrared laser systems. In the case of the LASL CO2 laser fusion systems, with two beams in the Gemini System and eight beams in the Helios System, this is particularly important. The LASL Helios CO2 Laser Fusion System has eight 34-cm diameter beams emerging from the power amplifier and each beam is brought to focus by an off-aperture parabola (nearly 77.3-cm focal length) resulting in a nearly F/2.4 beam at the focal plane. The design tolerance at the focal plane for pointing accuracy is +/- 25 microns and for focusing accuracy is +/- 50 microns for this system. This paper describes an alignment scheme based on the use of the infrared Smartt interferometer' and compares the results obtained using this technique and the autocollimating Hartmann scheme2 in a laboratory setup duplicating the target chamber region of one of the beams of the Helios System. The results using the Smartt interferometer show that pointing accuracy of +/- 12.5 microns and focusing accuracies of ± 15 microns are obtained at the focal plane of the system.

  17. REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeill, J.H.; Estabrook, J.Y.

    1960-05-10

    A reactor control system including a continuous tape passing through a first coolant passageway, over idler rollers, back through another parallel passageway, and over motor-driven rollers is described. Discrete portions of fuel or poison are carried on two opposed active sections of the tape. Driving the tape in forward or reverse directions causes both active sections to be simultaneously inserted or withdrawn uniformly, tending to maintain a more uniform flux within the reactor. The system is particularly useful in mobile reactors, where reduced inertial resistance to control rod movement is important.

  18. ZEUS hardware control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, R.; Erhard, P.; Ficenec, J.; Gather, K.; Heath, G.; Iacovacci, M.; Kehres, J.; Mobayyen, M.; Notz, D.; Orr, R.; Orr, R.; Sephton, A.; Stroili, R.; Tokushuku, K.; Vogel, W.; Whitmore, J.; Wiggers, L.

    1989-12-01

    The ZEUS collaboration is building a system to monitor, control and document the hardware of the ZEUS detector. This system is based on a network of VAX computers and microprocessors connected via ethernet. The database for the hardware values will be ADAMO tables; the ethernet connection will be DECNET, TCP/IP, or RPC. Most of the documentation will also be kept in ADAMO tables for easy access by users.

  19. A Novel Adaptive H∞ Filtering Method with Delay Compensation for the Transfer Alignment of Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Weiwei; Cheng, Xianghong

    2017-11-28

    Transfer alignment is always a key technology in a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) because of its rapidity and accuracy. In this paper a transfer alignment model is established, which contains the SINS error model and the measurement model. The time delay in the process of transfer alignment is analyzed, and an H∞ filtering method with delay compensation is presented. Then the H∞ filtering theory and the robust mechanism of H∞ filter are deduced and analyzed in detail. In order to improve the transfer alignment accuracy in SINS with time delay, an adaptive H∞ filtering method with delay compensation is proposed. Since the robustness factor plays an important role in the filtering process and has effect on the filtering accuracy, the adaptive H∞ filter with delay compensation can adjust the value of robustness factor adaptively according to the dynamic external environment. The vehicle transfer alignment experiment indicates that by using the adaptive H∞ filtering method with delay compensation, the transfer alignment accuracy and the pure inertial navigation accuracy can be dramatically improved, which demonstrates the superiority of the proposed filtering method.

  20. A Novel Adaptive H∞ Filtering Method with Delay Compensation for the Transfer Alignment of Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    Transfer alignment is always a key technology in a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) because of its rapidity and accuracy. In this paper a transfer alignment model is established, which contains the SINS error model and the measurement model. The time delay in the process of transfer alignment is analyzed, and an H∞ filtering method with delay compensation is presented. Then the H∞ filtering theory and the robust mechanism of H∞ filter are deduced and analyzed in detail. In order to improve the transfer alignment accuracy in SINS with time delay, an adaptive H∞ filtering method with delay compensation is proposed. Since the robustness factor plays an important role in the filtering process and has effect on the filtering accuracy, the adaptive H∞ filter with delay compensation can adjust the value of robustness factor adaptively according to the dynamic external environment. The vehicle transfer alignment experiment indicates that by using the adaptive H∞ filtering method with delay compensation, the transfer alignment accuracy and the pure inertial navigation accuracy can be dramatically improved, which demonstrates the superiority of the proposed filtering method. PMID:29182592

  1. Switching Systems: Controllability and Control Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-25

    controllable linear time invariant (LTI) systems ẋ = Ax+Bu are stabilizable and the stabilization can be always done by a...to control the system is bounded. As an application controllability conditions for a class of bimodal linear time invariant (LTI) systems are also...There exist a universal ( finite ) switching sequence σ such that the time varying system ẋ = A(σ)x+ B(σ)u is globally controllable . Proof: The

  2. Practical alignment method for X-ray spectral measurement in micro-CT system based on 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Yong; Yang, Kai; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a practical alignment method for X-ray spectral measurement in a rotating gantry based micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. In order to facilitate the spectrometer placement inside the gantry, supporting structures including a cover and a stand were dedicatedly designed and printed using a 3D printer. According to the relative position between the spectrometer and the stand, the upright projection of the spectrometer collimator onto the stand was determined and then marked by a tungsten pinhole. Thus, a visible alignment indicator of the X-ray central beam and the spectrometer collimator represented by the pinhole was established in the micro-CT live mode. Then, a rough alignment could be achieved through repeatedly adjusting and imaging the stand until the pinhole was located at the center of the acquired projection image. With the spectrometer being positioned back onto the stand, the precise alignment was completed by slightly translating the spectrometer-stand assembly around the rough location, until finding a "sweet spot" with the highest photon rate and proper distribution of the X-ray photons in the resultant spectrum. The spectra were acquired under precise alignment and misalignment of approximately 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0mm away from the precise alignment position, and then were compared in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Qualitative analysis results show that, with slight misalignment, the photon rate is reduced from 1302 to 1098, 1031, and 416 photons/second (p/s), respectively, and the characteristic peaks in the acquired spectra are gradually deteriorated. Quantitative analysis indicates that the energy resolutions for characteristic peak of K α1 were calculated as 1.56% for precise alignment, while were 1.84% and 2.40% for slight misalignment of 0.2mm and 0.5mm. The mean energies were reduced from 43.93keV under precise alignment condition to 40.97, 39.63 and 37.78ke

  3. Practical alignment method for X-ray spectral measurement in micro-CT system based on 3D printing technology

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Yong; Yang, Kai; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a practical alignment method for X-ray spectral measurement in a rotating gantry based micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. In order to facilitate the spectrometer placement inside the gantry, supporting structures including a cover and a stand were dedicatedly designed and printed using a 3D printer. According to the relative position between the spectrometer and the stand, the upright projection of the spectrometer collimator onto the stand was determined and then marked by a tungsten pinhole. Thus, a visible alignment indicator of the X-ray central beam and the spectrometer collimator represented by the pinhole was established in the micro-CT live mode. Then, a rough alignment could be achieved through repeatedly adjusting and imaging the stand until the pinhole was located at the center of the acquired projection image. With the spectrometer being positioned back onto the stand, the precise alignment was completed by slightly translating the spectrometer-stand assembly around the rough location, until finding a “sweet spot” with the highest photon rate and proper distribution of the X-ray photons in the resultant spectrum. The spectra were acquired under precise alignment and misalignment of approximately 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0mm away from the precise alignment position, and then were compared in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Qualitative analysis results show that, with slight misalignment, the photon rate is reduced from 1302 to 1098, 1031, and 416 photons/second (p/s), respectively, and the characteristic peaks in the acquired spectra are gradually deteriorated. Quantitative analysis indicates that the energy resolutions for characteristic peak of Kα1 were calculated as 1.56% for precise alignment, while were 1.84% and 2.40% for slight misalignment of 0.2mm and 0.5mm. The mean energies were reduced from 43.93keV under precise alignment condition to 40.97, 39.63 and 37.78ke

  4. Lighting Control Systems Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    cost, both initial and operating. Initially, the control system designer must collect in- formation and then study and weigh several areas including...8217odLe 045. Pearl Harbor. III: Code 11 Pearl Harbor ar ho I ir I L ’ odk 402. R IYI& [’. Plearl II arbor I II: Li bra ry. Pearl HaIitrbor. I ai

  5. Inhibitory Control and Lexical Alignment in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Zoë; Yuill, Nicola; Branigan, Holly P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Two experiments investigated the contribution of conflict inhibition to pragmatic deficits in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Typical adults' tendency to reuse interlocutors' referential choices (lexical alignment) implicates communicative perspective-taking, which is regulated by conflict inhibition. We examined whether…

  6. Electric turbocompound control system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C [Dunlap, IL

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  7. Timing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, Gordon A. (Inventor); Wells, Jr., George H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A timing control system is disclosed which is particularly useful in connection with simulated mortar shells. Special circuitry is provided to assure that the shell does not overshoot, but rather detonates early in case of an improper condition; this ensures that ground personnel will not be harmed by a delayed detonation. The system responds to an externally applied frequency control code which is configured to avoid any confusion between different control modes. A premature detonation routine is entered in case an improper time-setting signal is entered, or if the shell is launched before completion of the time-setting sequence. Special provisions are also made for very early launch situations and improper detonator connections. An alternate abort mode is provided to discharge the internal power supply without a detonation in a manner that can be externally monitored, thereby providing a mechanism for non-destructive testing. The abort mode also accelerates the timing function for rapid testing.

  8. Timing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, Gordon A. (Inventor); Wells, George H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A timing control system is disclosed which is particularly useful in connection with simulated mortar shells. Special circuitry is provided to assure that the shell does not over shoot, but rather detonates early in case of an improper condition; this ensures that ground personnel will not be harmed by a delayed detonation. The system responds to an externally applied frequency control code which is configured to avoid any confusion between different control modes. A premature detonation routine is entered in case an improper time-setting signal is entered, or if the shell is launched before completion of the time-setting sequence. Special provisions are also made for very early launch situations and improper detonator connections. An alternate abort mode is provided to discharge the internal power supply without a detonation in a manner that can be externally monitored, thereby providing a mechanism for non-destructive testing. The abort mode also accelerates the timing function for rapid testing.

  9. Combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems in TKA reduces postoperative outliers of rotational alignment of the tibial component.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Shota; Akamatsu, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Kusayama, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Ken; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2018-02-01

    Rotational malpositioning of the tibial component can lead to poor functional outcome in TKA. Although various surgical techniques have been proposed, precise rotational placement of the tibial component was difficult to accomplish even with the use of a navigation system. The purpose of this study is to assess whether combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems replicate accurately the rotational alignment of tibial component that was preoperatively planned on CT, compared with the conventional method. We compared the number of outliers for rotational alignment of the tibial component using combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems (navigated group) with those of conventional method (conventional group). Seventy-two TKAs were performed between May 2012 and December 2014. In the navigated group, the anteroposterior axis was prepared using CT-based navigation system and the tibial component was positioned under control of the navigation. In the conventional group, the tibial component was placed with reference to the Akagi line that was determined visually. Fisher's exact probability test was performed to evaluate the results. There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to the number of outliers: 3 outliers in the navigated group compared with 12 outliers in the conventional group (P < 0.01). We concluded that combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems decreased the number of rotational outliers of tibial component, and was helpful for the replication of the accurate rotational alignment of the tibial component that was preoperatively planned.

  10. JCMT observatory control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Nicholas P.; Economou, Frossie; Jenness, Tim; Kackley, Russell D.; Walther, Craig A.; Dent, William R. F.; Folger, Martin; Gao, Xiaofeng; Kelly, Dennis; Lightfoot, John F.; Pain, Ian; Hovey, Gary J.; Redman, Russell O.

    2002-12-01

    The JCMT, the world's largest sub-mm telescope, has had essentially the same VAX/VMS based control system since it was commissioned. For the next generation of instrumentation we are implementing a new Unix/VxWorks based system, based on the successful ORAC system that was recently released on UKIRT. The system is now entering the integration and testing phase. This paper gives a broad overview of the system architecture and includes some discussion on the choices made. (Other papers in this conference cover some areas in more detail). The basic philosophy is to control the sub-systems with a small and simple set of commands, but passing detailed XML configuration descriptions along with the commands to give the flexibility required. The XML files can be passed between various layers in the system without interpretation, and so simplify the design enormously. This has all been made possible by the adoption of an Observation Preparation Tool, which essentially serves as an intelligent XML editor.

  11. Alignment System for Full-Shell Replicated X-Ray Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Ramsey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysical applications using the electroformnickel replication process. For space-based applications these optics must be light-weight yet stable, which dictates the use of very-thin-walled full-shell mirrors. Such shells have been fabricated with resolution as good as 11 arcsec for hard x-rays, and technology enhancements under development at MSFC are aimed at producing mirrors with resolution better than 10 arcsec. The challenge, however, is to preserve this resolution during mounting and assembly. We present here a status report on a mounting and alignment system currently under development at Marshall Space Flight Center designed to meet this challenge.

  12. System for maintaining the alignment of mandrels in filament winding operations

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, S.C.; Dodge, W.G.; Pollard, R.E.

    1983-10-12

    The present invention is directed to a system for sensing and correcting the alignment of a mandrel being wound with filamentary material with respect to the filamentary material winding mechanism. A positioned reference pin attached to the mandrel is positioned in a beam of collimated light emanating from a laser so as to bisect the light beam and create a shadow therebetween. A pair of photocells are positioned to receive the bisected light beam with the shadow uniformly located between the photocells when the pin is in a selected position. The mandrel is supported in the selected position for the winding of a filamentary material by a position adjustable roller mechanism which is coupled by a screw drive to a reversible motor. Changes in the pin position such as caused by winding growth are sensed by the photocells to provide the displacement of the roller mechanism in the direction necessary to return the mandrel to the selected position.

  13. System for maintaining the alignment of mandrels in filament winding operations

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Dodge, William G.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a system for sensing and correcting the alignment of a mandrel being wound with filamentary material with respect to the filamentary material winding mechanism. A positioned reference pin attached to the mandrel is positioned in a beam of collimated light emanating from a laser so as to bisect the light beam and create a shadow therebetween. A pair of photocells are positioned to receive the bisected light beam with the shadow uniformly located between the photocells when the pin is in a selected position. The mandrel is supported in the selected position for the winding of a filamentary material by a position adjustable roller mechanism which is coupled by a screw drive to a reversible motor. Changes in the pin position such as caused by winding growth are sensed by the photocells to provide the displacement of the roller mechanism in the direction necessary to return the mandrel to the selected position.

  14. System and method for aligning heliostats of a solar power tower

    DOEpatents

    Convery, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar power tower heliostat alignment system and method that includes a solar power tower with a focal area, a plurality of heliostats that each reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower, an off-focal area location substantially close to the focal area of the solar power tower, a communication link between the off-focal area location and a misaligned heliostat, and a processor that interprets the communication between the off-focal area location and the misaligned heliostat to identify the misaligned heliostat from the plurality of heliostats and that determines a correction for the identified misaligned heliostat to realign the misaligned heliostat to reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower.

  15. Mechanical stability of the CMS strip tracker measured with a laser alignment system

    DOE PAGES

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; ...

    2017-04-21

    Here, the CMS tracker consists of 206 m 2 of silicon strip sensors assembled on carbon fibre composite structures and is designed for operation in the temperature range from –25 to +25°C. The mechanical stability of tracker components during physics operation was monitored with a few μm resolution using a dedicated laser alignment system as well as particle tracks from cosmic rays and hadron-hadron collisions. During the LHC operational period of 2011–2013 at stable temperatures, the components of the tracker were observed to experience relative movements of less than 30μm. In addition, temperature variations were found to cause displacements ofmore » tracker structures of about 2μm°C, which largely revert to their initial positions when the temperature is restored to its original value.« less

  16. Transducer-actuator systems and methods for performing on-machine measurements and automatic part alignment

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E.; Dow, Thomas A.; Garrard, Kenneth P.; Marston, Zachary

    2016-07-12

    Systems and methods for performing on-machine measurements and automatic part alignment, including: a measurement component operable for determining the position of a part on a machine; and an actuation component operable for adjusting the position of the part by contacting the part with a predetermined force responsive to the determined position of the part. The measurement component consists of a transducer. The actuation component consists of a linear actuator. Optionally, the measurement component and the actuation component consist of a single linear actuator operable for contacting the part with a first lighter force for determining the position of the part and with a second harder force for adjusting the position of the part. The actuation component is utilized in a substantially horizontal configuration and the effects of gravitational drop of the part are accounted for in the force applied and the timing of the contact.

  17. Mechanical stability of the CMS strip tracker measured with a laser alignment system

    SciTech Connect

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.

    Here, the CMS tracker consists of 206 m 2 of silicon strip sensors assembled on carbon fibre composite structures and is designed for operation in the temperature range from –25 to +25°C. The mechanical stability of tracker components during physics operation was monitored with a few μm resolution using a dedicated laser alignment system as well as particle tracks from cosmic rays and hadron-hadron collisions. During the LHC operational period of 2011–2013 at stable temperatures, the components of the tracker were observed to experience relative movements of less than 30μm. In addition, temperature variations were found to cause displacements ofmore » tracker structures of about 2μm°C, which largely revert to their initial positions when the temperature is restored to its original value.« less

  18. Telerobot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G. (Inventor); Tso, Kam S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to an operator interface for controlling a telerobot to perform tasks in a poorly modeled environment and/or within unplanned scenarios. The telerobot control system includes a remote robot manipulator linked to an operator interface. The operator interface includes a setup terminal, simulation terminal, and execution terminal for the control of the graphics simulator and local robot actuator as well as the remote robot actuator. These terminals may be combined in a single terminal. Complex tasks are developed from sequential combinations of parameterized task primitives and recorded teleoperations, and are tested by execution on a graphics simulator and/or local robot actuator, together with adjustable time delays. The novel features of this invention include the shared and supervisory control of the remote robot manipulator via operator interface by pretested complex tasks sequences based on sequences of parameterized task primitives combined with further teleoperation and run-time binding of parameters based on task context.

  19. Defining a Comprehensive Aligned Instructional System: To Ensure Powerful Teaching and Learning for Every Student in Every Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Louise Bay; O'Meara, Kiley Walsh

    2007-01-01

    The Stupski Foundation has focused on the implementation of a comprehensive aligned instructional system as a critical lever for district reform. In the challenging environment of urban education, reforms focusing on only one system component (i.e., assessment, curriculum materials, professional development, resource utilization, regulatory…

  20. Automated polarization control for the precise alignment of laser-induced self-organized nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermens, Ulrike; Pothen, Mario; Winands, Kai; Arntz, Kristian; Klocke, Fritz

    2018-02-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) found in particular applications in the fields of surface functionalization have been investigated since many years. The direction of these ripple structures with a periodicity in the nanoscale can be manipulated by changing the laser polarization. For industrial use, it is useful to manipulate the direction of these structures automatically and to obtain smooth changes of their orientation without any visible inhomogeneity. However, currently no system solution exists that is able to control the polarization direction completely automated in one software solution so far. In this paper, a system solution is presented that includes a liquid crystal polarizer to control the polarization direction. It is synchronized with a scanner, a dynamic beam expander and a five axis-system. It provides fast switching times and small step sizes. First results of fabricated structures are also presented. In a systematic study, the conjunction of LIPSS with different orientation in two parallel line scans has been investigated.

  1. Comparing the Zeiss Callisto Eye and the Alcon Verion Image Guided System Toric Lens Alignment Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hura, Arjan S; Osher, Robert H

    2017-07-01

    To compare the alignment meridian generated by the Zeiss Callisto Eye (Carl Zeiss AG, Dublin, CA) and the Alcon Verion Image Guided System (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). In this retrospective comparative evaluation of technology, intraoperative images were captured at different steps in the same surgery, allowing the comparison of the guidance lines generated by the Verion system to the parallel guidance lines generated by the Callisto Eye system. Measurements of each hemi-meridian were quantified using Adobe Photoshop 2015 CC software (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). The numbers of degrees separating these alignment meridians were calculated, entered into a database, and analyzed. The authors found that of 98 captured images of 16 eyes, the two technologies were identical in 0 eyes (θ 1 = θ 2 = 0), similar by 3° in 52 (53%) captured images (θ 1 ≠ θ 2 ≠ 0), and different by at least 3° in 46 (47%) captured images (θ 1 ≠ θ 2 ≠ 0). The target meridians were superimposed, the target lines were minimally separated, and the target lines were dissimilar. It was noted that some intraoperative variation occurred from measurement to measurement. Within the small group of 16 cases of routine toric lens implantation in this study, the absolute average number of degrees of misalignment between the Verion and Callisto Eye systems was 3.355 for θ 1 and 3.838 for θ 2 . On average, the intraoperative variation termed "drift" was noted to be 3.963° for θ 1 , and 4.557° for θ 2 . The authors found that small deviations were frequent when comparing two sophisticated technologies. Although deviations greater than 3° occurred in less than 47% of captured images from 16 eyes, smaller but significant variations of less than 3° occurred in 53% of captured images from 16 eyes. It was rare to identify a large deviation. However, the authors identified "drift" in the same eye when measurements were taken at different times. The results indicate that the two

  2. Comparison of Flux-Surface Aligned Curvilinear Coordinate Systems and Neoclassical Magnetic Field Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collart, T. G.; Stacey, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    Several methods are presented for extending the traditional analytic ``circular'' representation of flux-surface aligned curvilinear coordinate systems to more accurately describe equilibrium plasma geometry and magnetic fields in DIII-D. The formalism originally presented by Miller is extended to include different poloidal variations in the upper and lower hemispheres. A coordinate system based on separate Fourier expansions of major radius and vertical position greatly improves accuracy in edge plasma structure representation. Scale factors and basis vectors for a system formed by expanding the circular model minor radius can be represented using linear combinations of Fourier basis functions. A general method for coordinate system orthogonalization is presented and applied to all curvilinear models. A formalism for the magnetic field structure in these curvilinear models is presented, and the resulting magnetic field predictions are compared against calculations performed in a Cartesian system using an experimentally based EFIT prediction for the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium. Supported by: US DOE under DE-FG02-00ER54538.

  3. High Electromechanical Response of Ionic Polymer Actuators with Controlled-Morphology Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Nafion Nanocomposite Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Liu, Yang; Cebeci, Hülya; de Villoria, Roberto Guzmán; Lin, Jun-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in fabricating controlled-morphology vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) with ultrahigh volume fraction create unique opportunities for markedly improving the electromechanical performance of ionic polymer conductor network composite (IPCNC) actuators. Continuous paths through inter-VA-CNT channels allow fast ion transport, and high electrical conduction of the aligned CNTs in the composite electrodes lead to fast device actuation speed (>10% strain/second). One critical issue in developing advanced actuator materials is how to suppress the strain that does not contribute to the actuation (unwanted strain) thereby reducing actuation efficiency. Here our experiments demonstrate that the VA-CNTs give an anisotropic elastic response in the composite electrodes, which suppresses the unwanted strain and markedly enhances the actuation strain (>8% strain under 4 volts). The results reported here suggest pathways for optimizing the electrode morphology in IPCNCs using ultra-high volume fraction VA-CNTs to further enhanced performance. PMID:21765822

  4. Identifying Natural Alignments Between Ambulatory Surgery Centers and Local Health Systems: Building Broader Communities of Surgical Care.

    PubMed

    Funk, Russell J; Owen-Smith, Jason; Landon, Bruce E; Birkmeyer, John D; Hollingsworth, John M

    2017-02-01

    To develop and compare methods for identifying natural alignments between ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) and hospitals that anchor local health systems. Using all-payer data from Florida's State Ambulatory Surgery and Inpatient Databases (2005-2009), we developed 3 methods for identifying alignments between ASCS and hospitals. The first, a geographic proximity approach, used spatial data to assign an ASC to its nearest hospital neighbor. The second, a predominant affiliation approach, assigned an ASC to the hospital with which it shared a plurality of surgeons. The third, a network community approach, linked an ASC with a larger group of hospitals held together by naturally occurring physician networks. We compared each method in terms of its ability to capture meaningful and stable affiliations and its administrative simplicity. Although the proximity approach was simplest to implement and produced the most durable alignments, ASC surgeon's loyalty to the assigned hospital was low with this method. The predominant affiliation and network community approaches performed better and nearly equivalently on these metrics, capturing more meaningful affiliations between ASCs and hospitals. However, the latter's alignments were least durable, and it was complex to administer. We describe 3 methods for identifying natural alignments between ASCs and hospitals, each with strengths and weaknesses. These methods will help health system managers identify ASCs with which to partner. Moreover, health services researchers and policy analysts can use them to study broader communities of surgical care.

  5. Half a billion surgical cases: Aligning surgical delivery with best-performing health systems.

    PubMed

    Shrime, Mark G; Daniels, Kimberly M; Meara, John G

    2015-07-01

    Surgical delivery varies 200-fold across countries. No direct correlation exists, however, between surgical delivery and health outcomes, making it difficult to pinpoint a goal for surgical scale-up. This report determines the amount of surgery that would be delivered worldwide if the world aligned itself with countries providing the best health outcomes. Annual rates of surgical delivery have been published previously for 129 countries. Five health outcomes were plotted against reported surgical delivery. Univariate and multivariate polynomial regression curves were fit, and the optimal point on each regression curve was determined by solving for first-order conditions. The country closest to the optimum for each health outcome was taken as representative of the best-performing health system. Monetary inputs to and surgical procedures provided by these systems were scaled to the global population. For 3 of the 5 health outcomes, optima could be found. Globally, 315 million procedures currently are provided annually. If global delivery mirrored the 3 best-performing countries, between 360 million and 460 million cases would be provided annually. With population growth, this will increase to approximately half a billion cases by 2030. Health systems delivering these outcomes spend approximately 10% of their GDP on health. This is the first study to provide empirical evidence for the surgical output that an ideal health system would provide. Our results project ideal delivery worldwide of approximately 550 million annual surgical cases by 2030. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Half a billion surgical cases: Aligning surgical delivery with best-performing health systems

    PubMed Central

    Shrime, Mark G.; Daniels, Kimberly M.; Meara, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical delivery varies 200-fold across countries. No direct correlation exists, however, between surgical delivery and health outcomes, making it difficult to pinpoint a goal for surgical scale-up. This report determines the amount of surgery that would be delivered worldwide if the world aligned itself with countries providing the best health outcomes. Methods Annual rates of surgical delivery have been published previously for 129 countries. Five health outcomes were plotted against reported surgical delivery. Univariate and multivariate polynomial regression curves were fit, and the optimal point on each regression curve was determined by solving for first-order conditions. The country closest to the optimum for each health outcome was taken as representative of the best-performing health system. Monetary inputs to and surgical procedures provided by these systems were scaled to the global population. Results For 3 of the 5 health outcomes, optima could be found. Globally, 315 million procedures currently are provided annually. If global delivery mirrored the 3 best-performing countries, between 360 million and 460 million cases would be provided annually. With population growth, this will increase to approximately half a billion cases by 2030. Health systems delivering these outcomes spend approximately 10% of their GDP on health. Conclusion This is the first study to provide empirical evidence for the surgical output that an ideal health system would provide. Our results project ideal delivery worldwide of approximately 550 million annual surgical cases by 2030. PMID:25934078

  7. Organic semiconductor density of states controls the energy level alignment at electrode interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Oehzelt, Martin; Koch, Norbert; Heimel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing charge carrier injection barriers and extraction losses at interfaces between organic semiconductors and metallic electrodes is critical for optimizing the performance of organic (opto-) electronic devices. Here, we implement a detailed electrostatic model, capable of reproducing the alignment between the electrode Fermi energy and the transport states in the organic semiconductor both qualitatively and quantitatively. Covering the full phenomenological range of interfacial energy level alignment regimes within a single, consistent framework and continuously connecting the limiting cases described by previously proposed models allows us to resolve conflicting views in the literature. Our results highlight the density of states in the organic semiconductor as a key factor. Its shape and, in particular, the energy distribution of electronic states tailing into the fundamental gap is found to determine both the minimum value of practically achievable injection barriers as well as their spatial profile, ranging from abrupt interface dipoles to extended band-bending regions. PMID:24938867

  8. Climatology of the inter-hemispheric field-aligned currents system over the Nigeria ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaji, O. S.; Rabiu, A. B.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Yumoto, K.

    2012-11-01

    Records of the declination (D) magnetic field data for the year 2009 from the Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) facilities at University of Ilorin were employed for this work. From the minutes value of the D-component, the deduced hourly values of the D-component (Sq(QD)) were used to estimate its diurnal (Sq(D)) values with the most five quietest days identified. The monthly mean (MSq(D)) of the most five quietest days and their seasonal (SSq(D)) variabilities were investigated. The inter-hemispheric field aligned currents (IHFACs) exhibit downward and upward inter-hemispheric field-aligned sheet current that appears as a pair at all local times of the Sq(D), MSq(D), and SSq(D) variations. From these variabilities, the IHFACs were observed to flow from the winter to summer hemisphere during noon and dusk sector and flowing in opposite direction during the dawn sector. The Sq(D) variability patterns that were observed in May, June, August September are gentle compared to the disturbed variabilities in January, February, March and November. The highest positive (˜1.7 arc-min) and negative (˜-2.7 arc min) MSq(D) maxima values were observed in August during the dawn and noon sectors respectively. These values indicated that the IHFACs flow in August is strongly southbound (positive) and northbound (negative) in the dawn and noon sectors respectively. Dusk-side IHFACs as can be observed by MAGDAS are weakly northbound in all the seasons. The direction of IHFACs does not flip at the equinoxes but in June and November and does not become largest at solstices but in August. The IHFACs was observed to exhibit longitudinal variability, which indicated that larger amplitude of winter-to-summer IHFACs is observed to be greater in June solstice (northbound/negative IHFACs) than in the December solstice (southbound/positive IHFACs) during the noon sector.

  9. Stability and alignment do not improve by using patient-specific instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kosse, Nienke M; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Schimmel, Janneke J P; van Hellemondt, Gijs G; Wymenga, Ate B; Defoort, Koen C

    2018-06-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine stability and alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) and conventional instrumentation (CI). The hypothesis was that stability and alignment would be better using PSI than CI, 12 months postoperatively. The secondary aim included the evaluation of clinical outcomes after TKA. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 42 patients with knee osteoarthritis received a Genesis II PS prosthesis with either PSI or CI. Patients visited the hospital preoperatively and postoperatively after 6 weeks and 3 and 12 months. To evaluate stability, varus-valgus laxity was determined in extension and flexion using stress radiographs 12 months postoperatively. Three months postoperatively, a long-leg radiograph and CT scan were obtained to measure hip-knee-ankle (HKA) alignment and component rotation. Furthermore, frontal and sagittal alignment of the components, the Knee Society Score, VAS Pain, VAS Satisfaction, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome score, Patella score (Kujala), University of California Los Angeles activity score, anterior-posterior laxity, (serious) adverse device-related events, and intraoperative complications were reported. The clinical outcomes were compared using independent t tests or non-parametric alternatives, and repeated measurements ANOVA with a significance level of p < 0.05. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding stability, HKA angle, and rotational alignment. In four patients, the PSI did not fit correctly on the tibia and/or femur requiring intraoperative modifications. Both groups improved significantly over time on all clinical outcomes, with no significant differences between the groups 12 months postoperatively. The PSI group showed less tibial slope than the patients in the CI group [PSI 2.6° versus CI 4.8° (p = 0.02)]. Finally, the PSI group more frequently received a thinner insert size than

  10. PreK-3 Alignment in California's Education System: Obstacles and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Rachel; Stipek, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence that horizontal alignment of policies and practices from preschool through the early elementary grades sustains the effects of quality preschool and contributes to children's learning is scarce, as discussed above, but there are nevertheless good reasons to expect benefits to such alignment. Moreover, many districts and schools…

  11. Development of controlled solid-state alignment for alnico permanent magnets in near-final shape

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Iver E.; Kassen, Aaron G.; White, Emma M. H.; ...

    2017-01-09

    The 2011 price shock in the rare earth (RE) permanent magnet (PM) marketplace precipitated realization of extremely poor RE supply diversity and drove renewed research in RE-free permanent magnets such as “alnico.” Essentially, alnico is an Al-Ni-Co-Fe alloy with high magnetic saturation and T C, but low coercivity. It also was last researched extensively in the 1970’s. Currently alnico “9” magnets with the highest energy product (10MGOe) are manufactured by directional solidification to make highly aligned anisotropic magnets. This work developed novel powder processing techniques to improve on unaligned anisotropic alnico “8H” with elevated coercivity. Gas atomization was used tomore » produce pre-alloyed powder for binder-assisted compression molding of near-final shape magnets that were vacuum sintered to full density (<1% porosity). Biased grain growth with resulting grain alignment was achieved during a second solution annealing step, during which a uni-axial stress was applied along the axis parallel to the magnetization direction. Lastly, evaluation of heavily stressed samples (>250g) showed reduced overall loop squareness compared to unaligned (equiaxed) 8H due to grain rotation-induced misalignment, while low stresses improved squareness and greatly improved alignment compared to equiaxed magnets, with squareness approaching 0.30 and remanence ratio as high as 0.79.« less

  12. Using Stars to Align a Steered Laser System for Cosmic Ray Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, Harry; Wiencke, Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are the highest energy cosmic particles with kinetic energy above 1018eV . UHECRs are detected from the air shower of secondary particles and UV florescence that results from interaction with the atmosphere. A high power UV laser beam can be used to simulate the optical signature of a UHCER air shower. The Global Light System (GLS) is a planned network of ground-based light sources including lasers to support the planned space-based Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO). A portable prototype GLS laser station has been constructed at the Colorado School of Mines. Currently the laser system uses reference targets on the ground but stars can be used to better align the beam by providing a complete hemisphere of targets. In this work, a CCD camera is used to capture images of known stars through the steering head optics. The images are analyzed to find the steering head coordinates of the target star. The true coordinates of the star are calculated from the location and time of observation. A universal adjustment for the steering head is determined from the differences between the two pairs of coordinates across multiple stars. This laser system prototype will also be used for preflight tests of the ESUO Super Pressure Balloon mission.

  13. Optimal control of the orientation and alignment of an asymmetric-top molecule with terahertz and laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudert, L. H.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum optimal control theory is applied to determine numerically the terahertz and nonresonant laser pulses leading, respectively, to the highest degree of orientation and alignment of the asymmetric-top H2S molecule. The optimized terahertz pulses retrieved for temperatures of zero and 50 K lead after 50 ps to an orientation with ⟨ΦZx⟩ = 0.959 73 and ⟨⟨ΦZx⟩⟩ = 0.742 30, respectively. For the zero temperature, the orientation is close to its maximum theoretical value; for the higher temperature, it is below the maximum theoretical value. The mechanism by which the terahertz pulse populates high lying rotational levels is elucidated. The 5 ps long optimized laser pulse calculated for a zero temperature leads to an alignment with ⟨ΦZy 2 ⟩ =0.944 16 and consists of several kick pulses with a duration of ≈0.1 ps. It is found that the timing of these kick pulses is such that it leads to an increase of the rotational energy of the molecule. The optimized laser pulse retrieved for a temperature of 20 K is 6 ps long and yields a lower alignment with ⟨⟨ΦZy 2 ⟩ ⟩ =0.717 20 .

  14. MIRADAS control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosich Minguell, Josefina; Garzón Lopez, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected in 2010 by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This paper shows an overview of the MIRADAS control software, which follows the standards defined by the telescope to permit the integration of this software on the GTC Control System (GCS). The MIRADAS Control System is based on a distributed architecture according to a component model where every subsystem is selfcontained. The GCS is a distributed environment written in object oriented C++, which runs components in different computers, using CORBA middleware for communications. Each MIRADAS observing mode, including engineering, monitoring and calibration modes, will have its own predefined sequence, which are executed in the GCS Sequencer. These sequences will have the ability of communicating with other telescope subsystems.

  15. Swarm Observation of Field-Aligned Currents Associated With Multiple Auroral Arc Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Knudsen, D. J.; Gillies, D. M.; Donovan, E. F.; Burchill, J. K.

    2017-10-01

    Auroral arcs occur in regions of upward field-aligned currents (FACs); however, the relation is not one to one, since kinetic energy of the current-carrying electrons is also important in the production of auroral luminosity. Multiple auroral arc systems provide an opportunity to study the relation between FACs and auroral brightness in detail. In this study, we have identified two types of FAC configurations in multiple parallel arc systems using ground-based optical data from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms all-sky imagers, magnetometers and electric field instruments on board the Swarm satellites. In "unipolar FAC" events, each arc is an intensification within a broad, unipolar current sheet and downward return currents occur outside of this broad sheet. In "multipolar FAC" events, multiple arc systems represent a collection of multiple up/down current pairs. By collecting 17 events with unipolar FAC and 12 events with multipolar FACs, we find that (1) unipolar FAC events occur most frequently between 20 and 21 magnetic local time and multipolar FAC events tend to occur around local midnight and within 1 h after substorm onset. (2) Arcs in unipolar FAC systems have a typical width of 10-20 km and a spacing of 25-50 km. Arcs in multipolar FAC systems are wider and more separated. (3) Upward currents with more arcs embedded have larger intensities and widths. (4) Electric fields are strong and highly structured on the edges of multiple arc system with unipolar FAC. The fact that arcs with unipolar FAC are much more highly structured than the associated currents suggests that arc multiplicity is indicative not of a structured generator deep in the magnetosphere, but rather of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling process.

  16. Gas turbine engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idelchik, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system and method of controlling a gas turbine engine. The control system receives an error signal and processes the error signal to form a primary fuel control signal. The control system also receives at least one anticipatory demand signal and processes the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal. The control system adjusts the value of the anticipatory fuel control signal based on the value of the error signal to form an adjusted anticipatory signal and then the adjusted anticipatory fuel control signal and the primary fuel control signal are combined to form a fuel command signal.

  17. Consensus-Based Course Design and Implementation of Constructive Alignment Theory in a Power System Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanfretti, Luigi; Farrokhabadi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the implementation of the constructive alignment theory (CAT) in a power system analysis course through a consensus-based course design process. The consensus-based design process involves both the instructor and graduate-level students and it aims to develop the CAT framework in a holistic manner with the goal of including…

  18. Aligning P-12 and Postsecondary Education toward a Seamless P-16 Education System. A College Readiness Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TERi (The Education Resources Institute, Inc), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Surveys show that the overwhelming majority of youngsters in this country--regardless of race, income, or ethnic background--want to go to college. As rewarding 21st century jobs increasingly require postsecondary education, these ambitions have never been more important. Everyone must align the nation's divergent educational systems so that…

  19. Relationship between postural alignment in sitting by photogrammetry and seated postural control in post-stroke subjects.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Y R; Vijayakumar, K; Abraham, J M; Misri, Z K; Suresh, B V; Unnikrishnan, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was executed to find out correlation between postural alignment in sitting measured through photogrammetry and postural control in sitting following stroke. A cross-sectional study with convenient sampling consisting of 45 subjects with acute and sub-acute stroke. Postural alignment in sitting was measured through photogrammetry and relevant angles were obtained through software MB Ruler (version 5.0). Seated postural control was measured through Function in Sitting Test (FIST). Correlation was obtained using Spearman's Rank Correlation co-efficient in SPSS software (version 17.0). Moderate positive correlation (r = 0.385; p < 0.01) was found between angle of lordosis and angle between acromion, lateral epicondyle and point between radius and ulna. Strong negative correlation (r = -0.435; p < 0.01) was found between cranio-vertebral angle and kyphosis. FIST showed moderate positive correlation (r = 0.3446; p < 0.05) with cranio-vertebral angle and strong positive correlation (r = 0.4336; p < 0.01) with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in upper extremity. Degree of forward head posture in sitting correlates directly with seated postural control and inversely with degree of kyphosis in sitting post-stroke. Postural control in sitting post-stroke is directly related with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in affected upper extremity in sitting.

  20. Control of optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Founds, D.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the current and planned activities at the Air Force Systems Command in structures and controls for optical-type systems are summarized. Many of the activities are contracted to industry; one task is an in-house program which includes a hardware test program. The objective of the in-house program, referred to as the Aluminum Beam Expander Structure (ABES), is to address issues involved in on-orbit system identification. The structure, which appears similar to the LDR backup structure, is about 35 feet tall. The activity to date has been limited to acquisition of about 250 hours of test data. About 30 hours of data per excitation force is gathered in order to obtain sufficient data for a good statistical estimate of the structural parameters. The development of an Integrated Structural Modeling (ISM) computer program is being done by Boeing Aerospace Company. The objective of the contracted effort is to develop a combined optics, structures, thermal, controls, and multibody dynamics simulation code.

  1. Phase Control in Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, Samuel; Seoane, Jesús M.; Mariño, Inés P.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Meucci, Riccardo

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Phase Control of Chaos * Description of the model * Numerical exploration of phase control of chaos * Experimental evidence of phase control of chaos * Phase Control of Intermittency in Dynamical Systems * Crisis-induced intermittency and its control * Experimental setup and implementation of the phase control scheme * Phase control of the laser in the pre-crisis regime * Phase control of the intermittency after the crisis * Phase control of the intermittency in the quadratic map * Phase Control of Escapes in Open Dynamical Systems * Control of open dynamical systems * Model description * Numerical simulations and heuristic arguments * Experimental implementation in an electronic circuit * Conclusions and Discussions * Acknowledgments * References

  2. Rapid transfer alignment of an inertial navigation system using a marginal stochastic integration filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dapeng; Guo, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to address the rapid transfer alignment (RTA) issue of an inertial navigation system with large misalignment angles. The strong nonlinearity and high dimensionality of the system model pose a significant challenge to the estimation of the misalignment angles. In this paper, a 15-dimensional nonlinear model for RTA has been exploited, and it is shown that the functions for the model description exhibit a conditionally linear substructure. Then, a modified stochastic integration filter (SIF) called marginal SIF (MSIF) is developed to incorporate into the nonlinear model, where the number of sample points is significantly reduced but the estimation accuracy of SIF is retained. Comparisons between the MSIF-based RTA and the previously well-known methodologies are carried out through numerical simulations and a van test. The results demonstrate that the newly proposed method has an obvious accuracy advantage over the extended Kalman filter, the unscented Kalman filter and the marginal unscented Kalman filter. Further, the MSIF achieves a comparable performance to SIF, but with a significantly lower computation load.

  3. Swarm observation of field-aligned current and electric field in multiple arc systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Knudsen, D. J.; Gillies, M.; Donovan, E.; Burchill, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    It is often thought that auroral arcs are a direct consequence of upward field-aligned currents. In fact, the relation between currents and brightness is more complicated. Multiple auroral arc systems provide and opportunity to study this relation in detail. In this study, we have identified two types of FAC configurations in multiple parallel arc systems using ground-based optical data from the THEMIS all-sky imagers (ASIs), magnetometers and electric field instruments onboard the Swarm satellites during the period from December 2013 to March 2015. In type 1 events, each arc is an intensification within a broad, unipolar current sheet and downward currents only exist outside the upward current sheet. These types of events are termed "unipolar FAC" events. In type 2 events, multiple arc systems represent a collection of multiple up/down current pairs, which are termed as "multipolar FAC" events. Comparisons of these two types of FAC events are presented with 17 "unipolar FAC" events and 12 "multipolar FAC" events. The results show that "unipolar FAC" and "multipolar FAC" events have systematic differences in terms of MLT, arc width and separation, and dependence on substorm onset time. For "unipolar FAC" events, significant electric field enhancements are shown on the edges of the broad upward current sheet. Electric field fluctuations inside the multiple arc system can be large or small. For "multipolar FAC" events, a strong correlation between magnetic and electric field indicate uniform conductance within each upward current sheet. The electrodynamical structures of multiple arc systems presented in this paper represents a step toward understanding arc generation.

  4. A Toolbox of Metrology-Based Techniques for Optical System Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Phillip; Ohl, Raymond G.; Blake, Peter N.; Bos, Brent J.; Casto, Gordon V.; Eichhorn, William L.; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hagopian, John G.; Hayden, Joseph E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and its partners have broad experience in the alignment of flight optical instruments and spacecraft structures. Over decades, GSFC developed alignment capabilities and techniques for a variety of optical and aerospace applications. In this paper, we provide an overview of a subset of the capabilities and techniques used on several recent projects in a toolbox format. We discuss a range of applications, from small-scale optical alignment of sensors to mirror and bench examples that make use of various large-volume metrology techniques. We also discuss instruments and analytical tools.

  5. A Toolbox of Metrology-Based Techniques for Optical System Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Phillip; Ohl, Raymond G.; Blake, Peter N.; Bos, Brent J.; Eichhorn, William L.; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hagopian, John G.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hetherington, Samuel E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and its partners have broad experience in the alignment of flight optical instruments and spacecraft structures. Over decades, GSFC developed alignment capabilities and techniques for a variety of optical and aerospace applications. In this paper, we provide an overview of a subset of the capabilities and techniques used on several recent projects in a "toolbox" format. We discuss a range of applications, from small-scale optical alignment of sensors to mirror and bench examples that make use of various large-volume metrology techniques. We also discuss instruments and analytical tools.

  6. Environmental Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    With the ever-growing desire for mankind to reach destinations whose distances had been deemed impossible to transit, the largest rocket known to man was designed and is being developed. The Space Launch System (SLS), National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) solution for deep space travel, will begin its missions with the launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) and Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2). In order to accommodate the larger rocket, Kennedy Space Center made crucial upgrades to its existing facilities. At Launch Complex 39B, an entirely new Environmental Control System (ECS) was developed to supply the vehicle with the appropriate air or nitrogen gas mixture for launch. The new ECS displays must undergo Validation and Verification (V&V) using testing procedures developed to meet this requirement.

  7. Environmental Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores Arroyo, Elvin A.

    2018-01-01

    Since before the first men landed on the moon, human beings have aspired to reach farther into space, to discover and answer the great mysteries that exist beyond imagination. To reach where no one has gone before. To able to see all the wonderful things that can be found in space and that only satellites have revealed to us during all this time. Considering the last trip to the moon, mankind has been evolving and improving their technology to reach destinations whose distances had been impossible to transit. To reach that goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has designed and developed the largest and most powerful rocket ever created by the human race, the Space Launch System - better known as the SLS. To be able to send this large rocket to space, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is doing upgrades to their existing facilities and equipment. At Launch Pad 39B, they are setting up a new Environmental Control System (ECS) developed to supply the rocket with the correct gases and mixtures that will be needed for the rocket to launch. The ECS is similar to an air conditioning unit. The main functionality of it is to supply the SLS with the correct gas mixture for it to launch. Also the ECS has been required to reduce or eliminate the possibility of a complete system failure. The system is part of the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) for the SLS that will be going to the Moon and Mars.

  8. CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES FOR THE VENTILATION SYSTEM AND A PLC SWITCH FOR AUTOMATIC CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) SYSTEM. THE AIR TESTING SYSTEM IS FREE STANDING AND THE FANS ARE COMPUTER-OPERATED. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  9. Antares alignment gimbal positioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, R. D.; Viswanathan, V. K.; Saxman, A. C.; Lujan, R. E.; Woodfin, W. C.; Sweatt, W. C.

    Antares is a 24-beam 40-TW carbon dioxide (CO2) laser fusion system currently under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Antares alignment gimbal positioner (AGP) is an optomechanical instrument that will be used for target alignment and alignment of the 24 laser beams, as well as beam quality assessments. The AGP will be capable of providing pointing, focusing, an wavefront optical path difference, as well as aberration information at both helium neon (He-Ne) and CO2 wavelengths. It is designed to allow the laser beams to be aligned to any position within a 1 cm cube to a tolerance of 10 micrometers.

  10. Antares Alignment Gimbal Positioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, R. D.; Viswanathan, V. K.; Saxman, A. C.; Lujan, R. E.; Woodfin, G. L.; Sweatt, W. C.

    1981-12-01

    Antares is a 24-beam 40-TW carbon-dioxide (CO2) laser fusion system currently under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Antares alignment gimbal positioner (AGP) is an optomechanical instrument that will be used for target alignment and alignment of the 24 laser beams, as well as beam quality assessments. The AGP will be capable of providing pointing, focusing, and wavefront optical path difference, as well as aberration information at both helium-neon (He-Ne) and CO2 wavelengths. It is designed to allow the laser beams to be aligned to any position within a 1-cm cube to a tolerance of 10 μm.

  11. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contino, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

  12. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    DOEpatents

    Higgins, Robert W.; Robichaud, Roger E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  13. Capabilities and challenges in transferring the wavefront-based alignment approach to small aperture multi-element optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krappig, Reik; Schmitt, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Present alignment methods already have an accuracy of some microns, allowing in general the fairly precise assembly of multi element optical systems. Nevertheless, they suffer decisive drawbacks, such as the necessity of an iterative process, stepping through all optical surfaces of the system when using autocollimation telescopes. In contrast to these limitations, the wavefront based alignment offers an elegant approach to potentially reach sub-µm accuracy in the alignment within a highly efficient process, that simultaneously acquires and evaluates the best optical solution possible. However, the practical use of these capabilities in corresponding alignment devices needs to take real sensor behavior into account. This publication will especially elaborate on the influence of the sensor properties in relation to the alignment process. The first dominant requirement is a highly stable measurement, since tiny perturbations in the optical system will have an also tiny influence on the wavefront. Secondly, the lateral sampling of the measured wavefront is supposed to be as high as possible, in order to be able to extract higher order Zernike coefficients reliable. The resulting necessity of using the largest sensor area possible conflicts with the requirement to allow a certain lateral displacement of the measured spot, indicating a perturbation. A movement of the sensor with suitable stages in turn leads to additional uncertainties connected to the actuators. Further factors include the SNR-ratio of the sensor as well as multiple measurements, in order to improve data repeatability. This publication will present a procedure of dealing with these relevant influence factors. Depending on the optical system and its properties the optimal adjustment of these parameters is derived.

  14. An 8-week thoracic spine stabilization exercise program improves postural back pain, spine alignment, postural sway, and core endurance in university students:a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Toprak Çelenay, Şeyda; Özer Kaya, Derya

    2017-04-18

    To investigate the effects of an 8-week thoracic stabilization exercise program on back pain, spinal alignment, postural sway, and core endurance in university students. University students were randomly allocated into exercise (n: 28) and control (n: 25) groups. The exercise program was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Postural pain, spinal alignment, postural sway, and core endurance were assessed via visual analogue scale, Spinal Mouse, Biodex Balance System, and McGill's trunk muscle endurance tests at the baseline and after 8 weeks of training. Differences were observed for postural pain, thoracic and lumbar curvature, dynamic stability index (eyes closed), and core endurance scores in the exercise group between baseline and week 8 (P < 0.05) and all the parameters were significantly different when compared to those of the control group (P < 0.05). The program decreased postural pain, spinal curvatures, and postural sway, and increased core endurance in university students. The program can be effective in postural pain and misalignment of spine problems related to core weakness and balance disorders.

  15. Controlled growth of periodically aligned copper-silicide nanocrystal arrays on silicon directed by laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nürnberger, Philipp; Reinhardt, Hendrik M.; Rhinow, Daniel; Riedel, René; Werner, Simon; Hampp, Norbert A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a versatile tool for the controlled growth and alignment of copper-silicide nanocrystals. The method takes advantage of a unique self-organization phenomenon denoted as laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). Copper films (3 ± 0.2 nm) are sputter-deposited onto single crystal silicon (100) substrates with a thin oxide layer (4 ± 0.2 nm), and subsequently exposed to linearly polarized nanosecond laser pulses (τ ≈ 6 ns) at a central wavelength of 532 nm. The irradiation triggers dewetting of the Cu film and simultaneous formation of periodic Cu nanowires (LIPSS), which partially penetrate the oxide layer to the Si substrate. These LIPSS act as nucleation centers for the growth of Cu-Si crystals during thermal processing at 500 °C under forming gas 95/5 atmosphere. Exemplified by our model system Cu/SiO2/Si, LIPSS are demonstrated to facilitate the diffusion reaction between Cu and underlying Si. Moreover, adjustment of the laser polarization allows us to precisely control the nanocrystal alignment with respect to the LIPSS orientation. Potential applications and conceivable alternatives of this process are discussed.

  16. Image-guided system versus manual marking for toric intraocular lens alignment in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Webers, Valentijn S C; Bauer, Noel J C; Visser, Nienke; Berendschot, Tos T J M; van den Biggelaar, Frank J H M; Nuijts, Rudy M M A

    2017-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of toric intraocular lens (IOL) alignment using the Verion Image-Guided System versus a conventional manual ink-marking procedure. University Eye Clinic Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Eyes with regular corneal astigmatism of at least 1.25 diopters (D) that required cataract surgery and toric IOL implantation (Acrysof SN6AT3-T9) were randomly assigned to the image-guided group or the manual-marking group. The primary outcome was the alignment of the toric IOL based on preoperative images and images taken immediately after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were residual astigmatism, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and complications. The study enrolled 36 eyes (24 patients). The mean toric IOL misalignment was significantly less in the image-guided group than in the manual group 1 hour (1.3 degrees ± 1.6 [SD] versus 2.8 ± 1.8 degrees; P = .02) and 3 months (1.7 ± 1.5 degrees versus 3.1 ± 2.1 degrees; P < .05) postoperatively. The mean residual refractive cylinder was -0.36 ± 0.32 D and -0.47 ± 0.28 D in the image-guided group and manual group, respectively (P > .05). The mean UDVA was 0.03 ± 0.10 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and 0.04 ± 0.09 logMAR, respectively (both P > .05). No intraoperative complications occurred during any surgery. The IOL misalignment was significantly less with digital marking than with manual marking; this did not result in a better UDVA or lower residual refractive astigmatism. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced topographic laser altimeter system (ATLAS) receiver telescope assembly (RTA) and transmitter alignment and test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagopian, John; Bolcar, Matthew; Chambers, John; Crane, Allen; Eegholm, Bente; Evans, Tyler; Hetherington, Samuel; Mentzell, Eric; Thompson, Patrick L.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Vaughnn, David

    2016-09-01

    The sole instrument on NASA's ICESat-2 spacecraft shown in Figure 1 will be the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS)1. The ATLAS is a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instrument; it measures the time of flight of the six transmitted laser beams to the Earth and back to determine altitude for geospatial mapping of global ice. The ATLAS laser beam is split into 6 main beams by a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) that are reflected off of the earth and imaged by an 800 mm diameter Receiver Telescope Assembly (RTA). The RTA is composed of a 2-mirror telescope and Aft Optics Assembly (AOA) that collects and focuses the light from the 6 probe beams into 6 science fibers. Each fiber optic has a field of view on the earth that subtends 83 micro Radians. The light collected by each fiber is detected by a photomultiplier and timing related to a master clock to determine time of flight and therefore distance. The collection of the light from the 6 laser spots projected to the ground allows for dense cross track sampling to provide for slope measurements of ice fields. NASA LIDAR instruments typically utilize telescopes that are not diffraction limited since they function as a light collector rather than imaging function. The more challenging requirements of the ATLAS instrument require better performance of the telescope at the ¼ wave level to provide for improved sampling and signal to noise. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) contracted the build of the telescope to General Dynamics (GD). GD fabricated and tested the flight and flight spare telescope and then integrated the government supplied AOA for testing of the RTA before and after vibration qualification. The RTA was then delivered to GSFC for independent verification and testing over expected thermal vacuum conditions. The testing at GSFC included a measurement of the RTA wavefront error and encircled energy in several orientations to determine the expected zero gravity figure, encircled

  18. Using string alignment in a query-by-humming system for real world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailer, Christian

    2005-09-01

    Though query by humming (i.e., retrieving music or information about music by singing a characteristic melody) has been a popular research topic during the past decade, few approaches have reached a level of usefulness beyond mere scientific interest. One of the main problems is the inherent contradiction between error tolerance and dicriminative power in conventional melody matching algorithms that rely on a melody contour approach to handle intonation or transcription errors. Adopting the string matching/alignment techniques from bioinformatics to melody sequences allows to directly assess the similarity between two melodies. This method takes an MPEG-7 compliant melody sequence (i.e., a list of note intervals and length ratios) as query and evaluates the steps necessary to transform it into the reference sequence. By introducing a musically founded cost-of-replace function and an adequate post processing, this method yields a measure for melodic similarity. Thus it is possible to construct a query by humming system that can properly discriminate between thousands of melodies and still be sufficiently error tolerant to be used by untrained singers. The robustness has been verified in extensive tests and real world applications.

  19. Optically controlled welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system (10) wherein a welding torch (12) having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter (56) to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder (15) to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features includes an actively cooled electrode holder (26) which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm (28) and a weld pool contour detector (14) comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  20. Optically controlled welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system wherein a welding torch having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features include an actively cooled electrode holder which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm, and a weld pool contour detector comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom, being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  1. Control, Filtering and Prediction for Phased Arrays in Directed Energy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    adaptive optics. 15. SUBJECT TERMS control, filtering, prediction, system identification, adaptive optics, laser beam pointing, target tracking, phase... laser beam control; furthermore, wavefront sensors are plagued by the difficulty of maintaining the required alignment and focusing in dynamic mission...developed new methods for filtering, prediction and system identification in adaptive optics for high energy laser systems including phased arrays. The

  2. Comparing HARPS and Kepler surveys. The alignment of multiple-planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Marmier, M.; Boué, G.; Lovis, C.; Santos, N. C.; Montalto, M.; Udry, S.; Pepe, F.; Mayor, M.

    2012-05-01

    Context. The recent results of the HARPS and Kepler surveys provided us with a bounty of extrasolar systems. While the two teams extensively analyzed each of their data-sets, little work has been done comparing the two. Aims: We study a subset of the planetary population whose characterization is simultaneously within reach of both instruments. We compare the statistical properties of planets in systems with msini > 5-10 M⊕ and R > 2 R⊕, as inferred from the HARPS and Kepler surveys, respectively. If we assume that the underlying population has the same characteristics, the different detection sensitivity to the orbital inclination relative to the line of sight allows us to probe the planets' mutual inclination. Methods: We considered the frequency of systems with one, two, and three planets as dictated by HARPS data. We used Kepler's planetary period and host mass and radius distributions (corrected from detection bias) to model planetary systems in a simple, yet physically plausible way. We then varied the mutual inclination between planets in a system according to different prescriptions (completely aligned, Rayleigh distributions, and isotropic) and compared the transit frequencies with one, two, or three planets with those measured by Kepler. Results: The results show that the two datasets are compatible, a remarkable result especially because there are no tunable knobs other than the assumed inclination distribution. For msini cutoffs of 7-10 M⊕, which are those expected to correspond to the radius cutoff of 2 R⊕, we conclude that the results are better described by a Rayleigh distribution with a mode of 1° or smaller. We show that the best-fit scenario only becomes a Rayleigh distribution with a mode of 5° if we assume a quite extreme mass-radius relationship for the planetary population. Conclusions: These results have important consequences for our understanding of the role of several proposed formation and evolution mechanisms. They confirm that

  3. Environment control system

    DOEpatents

    Sammarone, Dino G.

    1978-01-01

    A system for controlling the environment of an enclosed area in nuclear reactor installations. The system permits the changing of the environment from nitrogen to air, or from air to nitrogen, without the release of any radioactivity or process gas to the outside atmosphere. In changing from a nitrogen to an air environment, oxygen is inserted into the enclosed area at the same rate which the nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture is removed from the enclosed area. The nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture removed from the enclosed area is mixed with hydrogen, the hydrogen recombining with the oxygen present in the gas to form water. The water is then removed from the system and, if it contains any radioactive products, can be utilized to form concrete, which can then be transferred to a licensed burial site. The process gas is purified further by stripping it of carbon dioxide and then distilling it to remove any xenon, krypton, and other fission or non-condensable gases. The pure nitrogen is stored as either a cryogenic liquid or a gas. In changing from an air to nitrogen environment, the gas is removed from the enclosed area, mixed with hydrogen to remove the oxygen present, dried, passed through adsorption beds to remove any fission gases, and reinserted into the enclosed area. Additionally, the nitrogen stored during the nitrogen to air change, is inserted into the enclosed area, the nitrogen from both sources being inserted into the enclosed area at the same rate as the removal of the gas from the containment area. As designed, the amount of nitrogen stored during the nitrogen to air change substantially equals that required to replace oxygen removed during an air to nitrogen change.

  4. Division 1137 property control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated data processing property control system was developed by Mobile and Remote Range Division 1137. This report describes the operation of the system and examines ways of using it in operational planning and control.

  5. Control of solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, Iu. M.; Zakhidov, R. A.; Baranov, V. G.

    Two approaches to the control of large solar energy systems, i.e., programmed control and control systems relying on the use of orientation transducers and feedback, are briefly reviewed, with particular attention given to problems associated with these control systems. A new control system for large solar power plants is then proposed which is based on a combination of these approaches. The general design of the control system is shown and its principle of operation described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of the approach proposed here are demonstrated.

  6. Optical control of ground-state atomic orbital alignment: Cl(2P3/2) atoms from HCl(v=2,J=1) photodissociation.

    PubMed

    Sofikitis, Dimitris; Rubio-Lago, Luis; Martin, Marion R; Ankeny Brown, Davida J; Bartlett, Nathaniel C-M; Alexander, Andrew J; Zare, Richard N; Rakitzis, T Peter

    2007-10-14

    H(35)Cl(v=0,J=0) molecules in a supersonic expansion were excited to the H(35)Cl(v=2,J=1,M=0) state with linearly polarized laser pulses at about 1.7 microm. These rotationally aligned J=1 molecules were then selectively photodissociated with a linearly polarized laser pulse at 220 nm after a time delay, and the velocity-dependent alignment of the (35)Cl((2)P(32)) photofragments was measured using 2+1 REMPI and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The (35)Cl((2)P(32)) atoms are aligned by two mechanisms: (1) the time-dependent transfer of rotational polarization of the H(35)Cl(v=2,J=1,M=0) molecule to the (35)Cl((2)P(32)) nuclear spin [which is conserved during the photodissociation and thus contributes to the total (35)Cl((2)P(32)) photofragment atomic polarization] and (2) the alignment of the (35)Cl((2)P(32)) electronic polarization resulting from the photoexcitation and dissociation process. The total alignment of the (35)Cl((2)P(32)) photofragments from these two mechanisms was found to vary as a function of time delay between the excitation and the photolysis laser pulses, in agreement with theoretical predictions. We show that the alignment of the ground-state (35)Cl((2)P(32)) atoms, with respect to the photodissociation recoil direction, can be controlled optically. Potential applications include the study of alignment-dependent collision effects.

  7. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  8. Photoresist thin-film effects on alignment process capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Gary E.; Flack, Warren W.

    1993-08-01

    Two photoresists were selected for alignment characterization based on their dissimilar coating properties and observed differences on alignment capability. The materials are Dynachem OFPR-800 and Shipley System 8. Both photoresists were examined on two challenging alignment levels in a submicron CMOS process, a nitride level and a planarized second level metal. An Ultratech Stepper model 1500 which features a darkfield alignment system with a broadband green light for alignment signal detection was used for this project. Initially, statistically designed linear screening experiments were performed to examine six process factors for each photoresist: viscosity, spin acceleration, spin speed, spin time, softbake time, and softbake temperature. Using the results derived from the screening experiments, a more thorough examination of the statistically significant process factors was performed. A full quadratic experimental design was conducted to examine viscosity, spin speed, and spin time coating properties on alignment. This included a characterization of both intra and inter wafer alignment control and alignment process capability. Insight to the different alignment behavior is analyzed in terms of photoresist material properties and the physical nature of the alignment detection system.

  9. Coordinative Alignment of Chiral Molecules to Control over the Chirality Transfer in Spontaneous Resolution and Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengqiang; Jing, Xu; He, Cheng; Wang, Xiaoge; Duan, Chunying

    2017-11-13

    The production and availability of enantiomerically pure compounds that spurred the development of chiral technologies and materials are very important to the fine chemicals and pharmaceutical industries. By coordinative alignment of enantiopure guests in the metal‒organic frameworks, we reported an approach to control over the chirality of homochiral crystallization and asymmetric transformation. Synthesized by achiral triphenylamine derivatives, the chirality of silver frameworks was determined by the encapsulated enantiopure azomethine ylides, from which clear interaction patterns were observed to explore the chiral induction principles. With the changing of addition sequence of substrates, the enantioselectivity of asymmetric cycloaddition was controlled to verify the determinant on the chirality of the bulky MOF materials. The economical chirality amplification that merges a series of complicated self-inductions, bulk homochiral crystallization and enantioselective catalysis opens new avenues for enantiopure chemical synthesis and provides a promising path for the directional design and development of homochiral materials.

  10. Neural nets for aligning optical components in harsh environments: Beam smoothing spatial filter as an example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Krasowski, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The goal is to develop an approach to automating the alignment and adjustment of optical measurement, visualization, inspection, and control systems. Classical controls, expert systems, and neural networks are three approaches to automating the alignment of an optical system. Neural networks were chosen for this project and the judgements that led to this decision are presented. Neural networks were used to automate the alignment of the ubiquitous laser-beam-smoothing spatial filter. The results and future plans of the project are presented.

  11. Modular microfluidic systems using reversibly attached PDMS fluid control modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Sip, Christopher G.; Folch, Albert; Dufva, Martin

    2013-05-01

    The use of soft lithography-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) valve systems is the dominating approach for high-density microscale fluidic control. Integrated systems enable complex flow control and large-scale integration, but lack modularity. In contrast, modular systems are attractive alternatives to integration because they can be tailored for different applications piecewise and without redesigning every element of the system. We present a method for reversibly coupling hard materials to soft lithography defined systems through self-aligning O-ring features thereby enabling easy interfacing of complex-valve-based systems with simpler detachable units. Using this scheme, we demonstrate the seamless interfacing of a PDMS-based fluid control module with hard polymer chips. In our system, 32 self-aligning O-ring features protruding from the PDMS fluid control module form chip-to-control module interconnections which are sealed by tightening four screws. The interconnection method is robust and supports complex fluidic operations in the reversibly attached passive chip. In addition, we developed a double-sided molding method for fabricating PDMS devices with integrated through-holes. The versatile system facilitates a wide range of applications due to the modular approach, where application specific passive chips can be readily attached to the flow control module.

  12. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  13. High-power modular LED-based illumination systems for mask-aligner lithography.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Johana; Scharf, Toralf; Vogler, Uwe; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2018-04-30

    Mask-aligner lithography is traditionally performed using mercury arc lamps with wavelengths ranging from 250 nm to 600 nm with intensity peaks at the i, g and h lines. Since mercury arc lamps present several disadvantages, it is of interest to replace them with high power light emitting diodes (LEDs), which recently appeared on the market at those wavelengths. In this contribution, we present a prototype of an LED-based mask-aligner illumination. An optical characterization is made and the prototype is tested in a mask-aligner. Very good performances are demonstrated. The measured uniformity in the mask plane is 2.59 ± 0.24 % which is within the uniformity of the standard lamp. Print tests show resolution of 1 micron in contact printing and of 3 microns in proximity printing with a proximity gap of 30 microns.

  14. Integrated crystal mounting and alignment system for high-throughput biological crystallography

    DOEpatents

    Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Snell, Gyorgy P.; Cornell, Earl W.; Kolbe, William F.; Yegian, Derek T.; Earnest, Thomas N.; Jaklevich, Joseph M.; Cork, Carl W.; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2007-09-25

    A method and apparatus for the transportation, remote and unattended mounting, and visual alignment and monitoring of protein crystals for synchrotron generated x-ray diffraction analysis. The protein samples are maintained at liquid nitrogen temperatures at all times: during shipment, before mounting, mounting, alignment, data acquisition and following removal. The samples must additionally be stably aligned to within a few microns at a point in space. The ability to accurately perform these tasks remotely and automatically leads to a significant increase in sample throughput and reliability for high-volume protein characterization efforts. Since the protein samples are placed in a shipping-compatible layered stack of sample cassettes each holding many samples, a large number of samples can be shipped in a single cryogenic shipping container.

  15. Integrated crystal mounting and alignment system for high-throughput biological crystallography

    DOEpatents

    Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Snell, Gyorgy P.; Cornell, Earl W.; Kolbe, William; Yegian, Derek; Earnest, Thomas N.; Jaklevic, Joseph M.; Cork, Carl W.; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2005-07-19

    A method and apparatus for the transportation, remote and unattended mounting, and visual alignment and monitoring of protein crystals for synchrotron generated x-ray diffraction analysis. The protein samples are maintained at liquid nitrogen temperatures at all times: during shipment, before mounting, mounting, alignment, data acquisition and following removal. The samples must additionally be stably aligned to within a few microns at a point in space. The ability to accurately perform these tasks remotely and automatically leads to a significant increase in sample throughput and reliability for high-volume protein characterization efforts. Since the protein samples are placed in a shipping-compatible layered stack of sample cassettes each holding many samples, a large number of samples can be shipped in a single cryogenic shipping container.

  16. Upgrade of the HET segment control system, utilizing state-of-the-art, decentralized and embedded system controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häuser, Marco; Richter, Josef; Kriel, Herman; Turbyfill, Amanda; Buetow, Brent; Ward, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Together with the ongoing major instrument upgrade of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) we present the planned upgrade of the HET Segment Control System (SCS) to SCS2. Because HET's primary mirror is segmented into 91 individual 1-meter hexagonal mirrors, the SCS is essential to maintain the mirror alignment throughout an entire night of observations. SCS2 will complete tip, tilt and piston corrections of each mirror segment at a significantly higher rate than the original SCS. The new motion control hardware will further increase the system's reliability. The initial optical measurements of this array are performed by the Mirror Alignment Recovery System (MARS) and the HET Extra Focal Instrument (HEFI). Once the segments are optically aligned, the inductive edge sensors give sub-micron precise feedback of each segment's positions relative to its adjacent segments. These sensors are part of the Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMS) and are responsible for providing information about positional changes due to external influences, such as steep temperature changes and mechanical stress, and for making compensatory calculations while tracking the telescope on sky. SCS2 will use the optical alignment systems and SAMS inputs to command corrections of every segment in a closed loop. The correction period will be roughly 30 seconds, mostly due to the measurement and averaging process of the SAMS algorithm. The segment actuators will be controlled by the custom developed HET Segment MOtion COntroller (SMOCO). It is a direct descendant of University Observatory Munich's embedded, CAN-based system and instrument control tool-kit. To preserve the existing HET hardware layout, each SMOCO will control two adjacent mirror segments. Unlike the original SCS motor controllers, SMOCO is able to drive all six axes of its two segments at the same time. SCS2 will continue to allow for sub-arcsecond precision in tip and tilt as well as sub-micro meter precision in piston. These

  17. Reliable Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty by the Use of an iPod-Based Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Koenen, Paola; Schneider, Marco M.; Fröhlich, Matthias; Driessen, Arne; Bouillon, Bertil; Bäthis, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Axial alignment is one of the main objectives in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) is more accurate regarding limb alignment reconstruction compared to the conventional technique. The aim of this study was to analyse the precision of the innovative navigation system DASH® by Brainlab and to evaluate the reliability of intraoperatively acquired data. A retrospective analysis of 40 patients was performed, who underwent CAS TKA using the iPod-based navigation system DASH. Pre- and postoperative axial alignment were measured on standardized radiographs by two independent observers. These data were compared with the navigation data. Furthermore, interobserver reliability was measured. The duration of surgery was monitored. The mean difference between the preoperative mechanical axis by X-ray and the first intraoperatively measured limb axis by the navigation system was 2.4°. The postoperative X-rays showed a mean difference of 1.3° compared to the final navigation measurement. According to radiographic measurements, 88% of arthroplasties had a postoperative limb axis within ±3°. The mean additional time needed for navigation was 5 minutes. We could prove very good precision for the DASH system, which is comparable to established navigation devices with only negligible expenditure of time compared to conventional TKA. PMID:27313898

  18. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A span-loaded, highly flexible flying wing, having horizontal control surfaces mounted aft of the wing on extended beams to form local pitch-control devices. Each of five spanwise wing segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other wing segments, to minimize inter-segment loads. Wing dihedral is controlled by separately controlling the local pitch-control devices consisting of a control surface on a boom, such that inboard and outboard wing segment pitch changes relative to each other, and thus relative inboard and outboard lift is varied.

  19. Evolution of auroral acceleration region field-aligned current systems, plasma, and potentials observed by Cluster during substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Chaston, C. C.; Fillingim, M. O.; Frey, H. U.; Goldstein, M. L.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mozer, F.

    2015-12-01

    The auroral acceleration region is an integral link in the chain of events that transpire during substorms, and the currents, plasma and electric fields undergo significant changes driven by complex dynamical processes deep in the magnetotail. The acceleration processes that occur therein accelerate and heat the plasma that ultimately leads to some of the most intense global substorm auroral displays. Though this region has garnered considerable attention, the temporal evolution of field-aligned current systems, associated acceleration processes, and resultant changes in the plasma constituents that occur during key stages of substorm development remain unclear. In this study we present a survey of Cluster traversals within and just above the auroral acceleration region (≤3 Re altitude) during substorms. Particular emphasis is on the spatial morphology and developmental sequence of auroral acceleration current systems, potentials and plasma constituents, with the aim of identifying controlling factors, and assessing auroral emmission consequences. Exploiting multi-point measurements from Cluster in combination with auroral imaging, we reveal the injection powered, Alfvenic nature of both the substorm onset and expansion of auroral particle acceleration. We show evidence that indicates substorm onsets are characterized by the gross-intensification and filamentation/striation of pre-existing large-scale current systems to smaller/dispersive scale Alfven waves. Such an evolutionary sequence has been suggested in theoretical models or single spacecraft data, but has not been demonstrated or characterized in multispacecraft observations until now. It is also shown how the Alfvenic variations over time may dissipate to form large-scale inverted-V structures characteristic of the quasi-static aurora. These findings suggest that, in addition to playing active roles in driving substorm aurora, inverted-V and Alfvenic acceleration processes are causally linked. Key

  20. Reducing beam shaper alignment complexity: diagnostic techniques for alignment and tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-10-01

    Safe and efficient optical alignment is a critical requirement for industrial laser systems used in a high volume manufacturing environment. Of specific interest is the development of techniques to align beam shaping optics within a beam line; having the ability to instantly verify by a qualitative means that each element is in its proper position as the beam shaper module is being aligned. There is a need to reduce these types of alignment techniques down to a level where even a newbie to optical alignment will be able to complete the task. Couple this alignment need with the fact that most laser system manufacturers ship their products worldwide and the introduction of a new set of variables including cultural and language barriers, makes this a top priority for manufacturers. Tools and methodologies for alignment of complex optical systems need to be able to cross these barriers to ensure the highest degree of up time and reduce the cost of maintenance on the production floor. Customers worldwide, who purchase production laser equipment, understand that the majority of costs to a manufacturing facility is spent on system maintenance and is typically the largest single controllable expenditure in a production plant. This desire to reduce costs is driving the trend these days towards predictive and proactive, not reactive maintenance of laser based optical beam delivery systems [10]. With proper diagnostic tools, laser system developers can develop proactive approaches to reduce system down time, safe guard operational performance and reduce premature or catastrophic optics failures. Obviously analytical data will provide quantifiable performance standards which are more precise than qualitative standards, but each have a role in determining overall optical system performance [10]. This paper will discuss the use of film and fluorescent mirror devices as diagnostic tools for beam shaper module alignment off line or in-situ. The paper will also provide an overview

  1. Specificity control for read alignments using an artificial reference genome-guided false discovery rate.

    PubMed

    Giese, Sven H; Zickmann, Franziska; Renard, Bernhard Y

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation, comparison and evaluation of read mapping error rates is a crucial step in the processing of next-generation sequencing data, as further analysis steps and interpretation assume the correctness of the mapping results. Current approaches are either focused on sensitivity estimation and thereby disregard specificity or are based on read simulations. Although continuously improving, read simulations are still prone to introduce a bias into the mapping error quantitation and cannot capture all characteristics of an individual dataset. We introduce ARDEN (artificial reference driven estimation of false positives in next-generation sequencing data), a novel benchmark method that estimates error rates of read mappers based on real experimental reads, using an additionally generated artificial reference genome. It allows a dataset-specific computation of error rates and the construction of a receiver operating characteristic curve. Thereby, it can be used for optimization of parameters for read mappers, selection of read mappers for a specific problem or for filtering alignments based on quality estimation. The use of ARDEN is demonstrated in a general read mapper comparison, a parameter optimization for one read mapper and an application example in single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery with a significant reduction in the number of false positive identifications. The ARDEN source code is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/arden/.

  2. System for controlling apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, John F

    2015-05-05

    An implanted stimulation device or air control device are activated by an external radar-like sensor for controlling apnea. The radar-like sensor senses the closure of the air flow cavity, and associated control circuitry signals (1) a stimulator to cause muscles to open the air passage way that is closing or closed or (2) an air control device to open the air passage way that is closing or closed.

  3. Mathematical modeling of alignment dynamics in active motor-filament systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Sumanth

    The formation of the cytoskeleton, via motor-mediated microtubule self-organization, is an important subject of study in the biological sciences as well as in nonequilibrium, soft matter physics. Accurate modeling of the dynamics is a formidable task as it involves intrinsic nonlinearities, structural anisotropies, nonequilibrium processes, and a broad window of time scales, length scales, and densities. In this thesis, we study the ordering dynamics and pattern formations arising from motor-mediated microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions. In the dilute case, we use a probabilistic model in which microtubules interact through motor induced, inelastic binary collisions. This model shows that initially disordered filament solutions exhibit an ordering transition resulting in the emergence of well aligned rod bundles. We study the existence and dynamic interaction of microtubule bundles analytically and numerically. Our results show a long term attraction and coalescing of bundles indicating a clear coarsening in the system; microtubule bundles concentrate into fewer orientations on a slow logarithmic time scale. In the semi-dilute case, multiple motors can bind a filament to several others and, for a critical motor density, induce a transition to an ordered state with a nonzero mean orientation. We develop a spatially homogeneous, mean-field theory that explicitly accounts for motor forcing and thermal fluctuations which enter into the model as multiplicative and additive noises respectively. Our model further incorporates a force-dependent detachment rate of motors, which in turn affects the mean and the fluctuations of the net force acting on a filament. We demonstrate that the transition to the oriented state changes from second order to first order when the force-dependent detachment becomes important. In our final analysis, we add complex spatial inhomogeneities to our mean field theory. The revised model consists of a system

  4. Energy Partitioning and Impulse Dispersion in the Decorated, Tapered, Strongly Nonlinear Granular Alignment: A System with Many Potential Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    finally discuss some preliminary experimental results using systems with chrome spheres and small Nitinol interstitial grains to present the... Nitinol interstitial grains to present the underlying nonlinear dynamics of this so-called decorated tapered granular alignment. We are specifically...second was the DTC setup. In this case, small Nitinol 2.38 mm diameter particles were in- troduced between the main STC particles so that NDTC=9. 53 The

  5. SP-100 Control System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Jaikaran N.; Halfen, Frank J.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Syed, Akbar; Jiang, Thomas J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Otwell, Robert L.

    1994-07-01

    Recent work in lower power generic early applications for the SP-100 have resulted in control system design simplification for a 20 kWe design with thermoelectric power conversion. This paper presents the non-mission-dependent control system features for this design. The control system includes a digital computer based controller, dual purpose control rods and drives, temperature sensors, and neutron flux monitors. The thaw system is mission dependent and can be either electrical or based on NaK trace lines. Key features of the control system and components are discussed. As was the case for higher power applications, the initial on-orbit approach to criticality involves the relatively fast withdrawal of the control-rods to a near-critical position followed by slower movement through critical and into the power range. The control system performs operating maneuvers as well as providing for automatic startup, shutdown, restart, and reactor protection.

  6. Distributed systems status and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreidler, David; Vickers, David

    1990-01-01

    Concepts are investigated for an automated status and control system for a distributed processing environment. System characteristics, data requirements for health assessment, data acquisition methods, system diagnosis methods and control methods were investigated in an attempt to determine the high-level requirements for a system which can be used to assess the health of a distributed processing system and implement control procedures to maintain an accepted level of health for the system. A potential concept for automated status and control includes the use of expert system techniques to assess the health of the system, detect and diagnose faults, and initiate or recommend actions to correct the faults. Therefore, this research included the investigation of methods by which expert systems were developed for real-time environments and distributed systems. The focus is on the features required by real-time expert systems and the tools available to develop real-time expert systems.

  7. James Webb Space telescope optical simulation testbed: experimental results with linear control alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, Sylvain; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Michau, Vincent; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Escolle, Clément; Leboulleux, Lucie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Elodie; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ygouf, Marie; Fusco, Thierry; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel; Soummer, Rémi

    2017-09-01

    The current generation of terrestrial telescopes has large enough primary mirror diameters that active optical control based on wavefront sensing is necessary. Similarly, in space, while the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has a mostly passive optical design, apart from focus control, its successor the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has active control of many degrees of freedom in its primary and secondary mirrors.

  8. SPring-8 beamline control system.

    PubMed

    Ohata, T; Konishi, H; Kimura, H; Furukawa, Y; Tamasaku, K; Nakatani, T; Tanabe, T; Matsumoto, N; Ishii, M; Ishikawa, T

    1998-05-01

    The SPring-8 beamline control system is now taking part in the control of the insertion device (ID), front end, beam transportation channel and all interlock systems of the beamline: it will supply a highly standardized environment of apparatus control for collaborative researchers. In particular, ID operation is very important in a third-generation synchrotron light source facility. It is also very important to consider the security system because the ID is part of the storage ring and is therefore governed by the synchrotron ring control system. The progress of computer networking systems and the technology of security control require the development of a highly flexible control system. An interlock system that is independent of the control system has increased the reliability. For the beamline control system the so-called standard model concept has been adopted. VME-bus (VME) is used as the front-end control system and a UNIX workstation as the operator console. CPU boards of the VME-bus are RISC processor-based board computers operated by a LynxOS-based HP-RT real-time operating system. The workstation and the VME are linked to each other by a network, and form the distributed system. The HP 9000/700 series with HP-UX and the HP 9000/743rt series with HP-RT are used. All the controllable apparatus may be operated from any workstation.

  9. A computationally efficient technique to model depth, orientation and alignment via ray tracing in acoustic power transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, David B.; Basaeri, Hamid; Roundy, Shad

    2017-12-01

    In acoustic power transfer systems, a receiver is displaced from a transmitter by an axial depth, a lateral offset (alignment), and a rotation angle (orientation). In systems where the receiver’s position is not fixed, such as a receiver implanted in biological tissue, slight variations in depth, orientation, or alignment can cause significant variations in the received voltage and power. To address this concern, this paper presents a computationally efficient technique to model the effects of depth, orientation, and alignment via ray tracing (DOART) on received voltage and power in acoustic power transfer systems. DOART combines transducer circuit equivalent models, a modified version of Huygens principle, and ray tracing to simulate pressure wave propagation and reflection between a transmitter and a receiver in a homogeneous medium. A reflected grid method is introduced to calculate propagation distances, reflection coefficients, and initial vectors between a point on the transmitter and a point on the receiver for an arbitrary number of reflections. DOART convergence and simulation time per data point is discussed as a function of the number of reflections and elements chosen. Finally, experimental data is compared to DOART simulation data in terms of magnitude and shape of the received voltage signal.

  10. In vitro evaluation of resistance to sliding in self-ligating and conventional bracket systems during dental alignment.

    PubMed

    Cordasco, Giancarlo; Lo Giudice, Antonino; Militi, Angela; Nucera, Riccardo; Triolo, Giuseppe; Matarese, Giovanni

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the resistance to sliding (RS) in self-ligating and conventional ligation bracket systems at 5 different second-order bracket angulations by using low-stiffness alignment wires in a 3-bracket experimental model and to verify the performance of the main RS components in both systems when these wires are used. Interactive self-ligating brackets with closed and open slides were used for the self-ligating (SL) and conventional ligation (CL) groups, respectively; elastomeric ligatures (1 mm inner diameter) were used in the latter system. The alignment wire used was 0.014 inch heat-activated NiTi (austenitic finish temperature set at 36℃ by the manufacturer). A custom-made testing machine was used to measure frictional resistance. Tests were repeated 5 times at every angulation simulated. All data were analyzed statistically. The RS increased significantly with increasing angulation in both SL and CL groups (p < 0.0001). However, the RS values were significantly higher at every angulation (p < 0.0001) in the CL group. Despite the relevance of the binding phenomenon, ligation forces predominantly affect the RS when low-stiffness alignment wires are used.

  11. In vitro evaluation of resistance to sliding in self-ligating and conventional bracket systems during dental alignment

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Giancarlo; Lo Giudice, Antonino; Militi, Angela; Nucera, Riccardo; Triolo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the resistance to sliding (RS) in self-ligating and conventional ligation bracket systems at 5 different second-order bracket angulations by using low-stiffness alignment wires in a 3-bracket experimental model and to verify the performance of the main RS components in both systems when these wires are used. Methods Interactive self-ligating brackets with closed and open slides were used for the self-ligating (SL) and conventional ligation (CL) groups, respectively; elastomeric ligatures (1 mm inner diameter) were used in the latter system. The alignment wire used was 0.014 inch heat-activated NiTi (austenitic finish temperature set at 36℃ by the manufacturer). A custom-made testing machine was used to measure frictional resistance. Tests were repeated 5 times at every angulation simulated. All data were analyzed statistically. Results The RS increased significantly with increasing angulation in both SL and CL groups (p < 0.0001). However, the RS values were significantly higher at every angulation (p < 0.0001) in the CL group. Conclusions Despite the relevance of the binding phenomenon, ligation forces predominantly affect the RS when low-stiffness alignment wires are used. PMID:23112953

  12. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including tooth elements for alignment

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2016-11-22

    Examples are described including assay platforms having tooth elements. An impinging element may sequentially engage tooth elements on the assay platform to sequentially align corresponding detection regions with a detection unit. In this manner, multiple measurements may be made of detection regions on the assay platform without necessarily requiring the starting and stopping of a motor.

  13. Self-aligned spatial filtering using laser optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Birkbeck, Aaron L; Zlatanovic, Sanja; Esener, Sadik C

    2006-09-01

    We present an optical spatial filtering device that has been integrated into a microfluidic system and whose motion and alignment is controlled using a laser optical tweezer. The lithographically patterned micro-optical spatial filter device filters out higher frequency additive noise components by automatically aligning itself in three dimensions to the focus of the laser beam. This self-alignment capability is achieved through the attachment of a refractive optical element directly over the circular aperture or pinhole of the spatial filter. A discussion of two different spatial filter designs is presented along with experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the self-aligned micro-optic spatial filter.

  14. Supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    The various functions of a computer are considered that serve in connecting the man, with his displays and controls, to an external environment, manipulator activators and the interoceptors that are in the actuators, and to the interosensors and the motors or the actuators to drive the sensors. Projected is an improved exoskeleton mechanism with computer control and some supervisory control that may give a quadriplegic the ability to walk and run around.

  15. Automatized alignment control of wing mechanization in aerodynamic contour of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odnokurtsev, K. A.

    2018-05-01

    The method of automatized control of accuracy of an aircraft aerodynamic contour when mounting wing mechanization elements is described in the article. A control device in the stand of the wing assembling, equipped with the distance sensors, is suggested to be used. The measurement of control points’ inaccuracies is made automatically in a special computer program. Two kinds of sensor calibration are made in advance in order to increase the accuracy of measurements. As a result, the duration of control and adjustment of mechanization elements is reduced.

  16. Fluid delivery control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  17. Autorotation flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Edward N. (Inventor); Aponso, Bimal L. (Inventor); Lee, Dong-Chan (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides computer implemented methodology that permits the safe landing and recovery of rotorcraft following engine failure. With this invention successful autorotations may be performed from well within the unsafe operating area of the height-velocity profile of a helicopter by employing the fast and robust real-time trajectory optimization algorithm that commands control motion through an intuitive pilot display, or directly in the case of autonomous rotorcraft. The algorithm generates optimal trajectories and control commands via the direct-collocation optimization method, solved using a nonlinear programming problem solver. The control inputs computed are collective pitch and aircraft pitch, which are easily tracked and manipulated by the pilot or converted to control actuator commands for automated operation during autorotation in the case of an autonomous rotorcraft. The formulation of the optimal control problem has been carefully tailored so the solutions resemble those of an expert pilot, accounting for the performance limitations of the rotorcraft and safety concerns.

  18. Finding the optical axis of a distant object using an optical alignment system based on a holographic marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, D. I.; Denisyuk, I. Yu.; Gutner, I. E.

    2015-07-01

    A way to construct a holographic indicator of the position of the central axis of a distant object based on recording a transmission hologram in a layer of photosensitive material and forming a remote real image before a light source is considered. A light source with a holographically formed marker designed for visual guidance to the object axis; it can be used to simplify aircraft landing on a glide path, preliminary visual alignment of large coaxial details of various machines, etc. Specific features of the scheme of recording a holographic marker and the reconstruction of its image are considered. The possibility of forming a remote holographic image marker, which can be aligned with a simultaneously operating reference laser system for determining the direction to an object and its optical axis, has been demonstrated experimentally.

  19. Large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation, periodic distribution as building blocks for chip-in piezo-phototronic LEDs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Li, Haiwen; Zhou, Lianqun; Zhao, Dongxu; Wu, Yihui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chuanyu; Yao, Jia

    2015-01-27

    A novel method of fabricating large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation and periodic distribution via combing technology is introduced. Horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with uniform orientation and periodic distribution can be realized based on the conventional bottom-up method prepared vertically aligned ZnO microrod matrix via the combing method. When the combing parameters are changed, the orientation of horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays can be adjusted (θ = 90° or 45°) in a plane and a misalignment angle of the microrods (0.3° to 2.3°) with low-growth density can be obtained. To explore the potential applications based on the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods on p-GaN layer, piezo-phototronic devices such as heterojunction LEDs are built. Electroluminescence (EL) emission patterns can be adjusted for the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs by applying forward bias. Moreover, the emission color from UV-blue to yellow-green can be tuned by investigating the piezoelectric properties of the materials. The EL emission mechanisms of the LEDs are discussed in terms of band diagrams of the heterojunctions and carrier recombination processes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Automation of the targeting and reflective alignment concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redfield, Robin C.

    1992-01-01

    The automated alignment system, described herein, employs a reflective, passive (requiring no power) target and includes a PC-based imaging system and one camera mounted on a six degree of freedom robot manipulator. The system detects and corrects for manipulator misalignment in three translational and three rotational directions by employing the Targeting and Reflective Alignment Concept (TRAC), which simplifies alignment by decoupling translational and rotational alignment control. The concept uses information on the camera and the target's relative position based on video feedback from the camera. These relative positions are converted into alignment errors and minimized by motions of the robot. The system is robust to exogenous lighting by virtue of a subtraction algorithm which enables the camera to only see the target. These capabilities are realized with relatively minimal complexity and expense.

  1. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  2. A telerobotic digital controller system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    This system is a network of joint mounted dual axes digital servo-controllers (DDSC), providing control of various joints and end effectors of different robotic systems. This report provides description of and user required information for the Digital Controller System Network (DSCN) and, in particular, the DDSC, Model DDSC-2, developed to perform the controller functions. The DDSC can control 3 phase brushless or brush type DC motors, requiring up to 8 amps. Only four wires, two for power and 2 for serial communication, are required, except for local sensor and motor connections. This highly capable, very flexible, programmable servo-controller, contained on a single, compact printed circuit board measuring only 4.5 x 5.1 inches, is applicable to control systems of all types from sub-arc second precision pointing to control of robotic joints and end effectors. This document concentrates on the robotic applications for the DDSC.

  3. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Boncel, Slawomir; Pattinson, Sebastian W; Geiser, Valérie; Shaffer, Milo S P; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD) technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). A mixture of toluene (main carbon source), pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source) and ferrocene (catalyst precursor) was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C), composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs). As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM), the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs) grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 10(8) nanotubes per mm(2) (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor). In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a 'bamboo'-like or 'membrane'-like (multi-compartmental structure) morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp(2)-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a 'mixed base-and-tip' (primarily of the base-type) type as compared to the purely 'base'-type for undoped

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Howard, D.F.; Motta, E.E.

    1961-06-27

    A method for controlling the excess reactivity in a nuclear reactor throughout the core life while maintaining the neutron flux distribution at the desired level is described. The control unit embodies a container having two electrodes of different surface area immersed in an electrolytic solution of a good neutron sbsorbing metal ion such as boron, gadolinium, or cadmium. Initially, the neutron absorber is plated on the larger electrode to control the greater neutron flux of a freshly refueled core. As the fuel burns up, the excess reactivity decreases and the neutron absorber is then plated onto the smaller electrode so that the number of neutrons absorbed also decreases. The excess reactivity in the core may thus be maintained without the introduction of serious perturbations in the neutron flux distributibn.

  5. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  6. A method to align the coordinate system of accelerometers to the axes of a human body: The depitch algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gietzelt, Matthias; Schnabel, Stephan; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Büsching, Felix; Song, Bianying; Rust, Stefan; Marschollek, Michael

    2012-05-01

    One of the key problems in accelerometry based gait analyses is that it may not be possible to attach an accelerometer to the lower trunk so that its axes are perfectly aligned to the axes of the subject. In this paper we will present an algorithm that was designed to virtually align the axes of the accelerometer to the axes of the subject during walking sections. This algorithm is based on a physically reasonable approach and built for measurements in unsupervised settings, where the test persons are applying the sensors by themselves. For evaluation purposes we conducted a study with 6 healthy subjects and measured their gait with a manually aligned and a skewed accelerometer attached to the subject's lower trunk. After applying the algorithm the intra-axis correlation of both sensors was on average 0.89±0.1 with a mean absolute error of 0.05g. We concluded that the algorithm was able to adjust the skewed sensor node virtually to the coordinate system of the subject. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diameter control of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using CoFe2O4 nanoparticle Langmuir-Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamiya, Shuhei; Sato, Taiga; Kushida, Masahito

    2018-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) are suggested for utilization as a new catalyst support of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The independent control of the diameter and number density of VA-CNTs is essential for application in PEFCs. As the catalyst for VA-CNT growth, we fabricated CoFe2O4 nanoparticle (NP) films using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Using the LB technique, we were able to separately control the diameter and number density of VA-CNTs. The number density of VA-CNTs was changed by mixing with the filler moleculer, palmitic acid (C16). The VA-CNT diameter was changed by the adjusting the CoFe2O4 NP diameter. However, the heat-induced aggregation of CoFe2O4 NPs occurred in thermal chemical vapor deposition to synthesize VA-CNTs. Therefore, we examined how to minimize the effect of heat-induced aggregation of CoFe2O4 NPs. As a result, selection of the appropriate number density and diameter of CoFe2O4 NPs was found to be important for the control of VA-CNT diameter.

  8. By-controlled convection and field-aligned currents near midnight auroral oval for northward interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taguchi, S.; Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Winningham, J. D.; Slavin, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Using the Dynamics Explorer (DE) 2 magnetic and electric field and plasma data, B(sub y)- controlled convection and field-aligned currents in the midnight sector for northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) are examined. The results of an analysis of the electric field data show that when IMF is stable and when its magnitude is large, a coherent B(sub y)-controlled convection exists near the midnight auroral oval in the ionosphere having adequate conductivities. When B(sub y) is negative, the convection consists of a westward (eastward) plasma flow at the lower latitudes and an eastward (westward) plasma flow at the higher latitudes in the midnight sector in the northern (southern) ionosphere. When B(sub y) is positive, the flow directions are reversed. The distribution of the field-aligned currents associated with the B(sub y)-controlled convection, in most cases, shows a three-sheet structure. In accordance with the convection the directions of the three sheets are dependent on the sign of B(sub y). The location of disappearance of the precipitating intense electrons having energies of a few keV is close to the convection reversal surface. However, the more detailed relationship between the electron precipitation boundary and the convection reversal surface depends on the case. In some cases the precipitating electrons extend beyond the convection reversal surface, and in others the poleward boundary terminates at a latitude lower than the reversal surface. Previous studies suggest that the poleward boundary of the electrons having energies of a few keV is not necessarily coincident with an open/closed bounary. Thus the open/closed boundary may be at a latitude higher than the poleward boundary of the electron precipitation, or it may be at a latitude lower than the poleward boundary of the electron precipitation. We discuss relationships between the open/closed boundary and the convection reversal surface. When as a possible choice we adopt a view that the

  9. Control of Nonlinear Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    variables reinforce each other (positive feedback) as well as certain more general systems in which each pair of variables may affect each other in...characteristics, and applied to presented small-gain theorems guaranteeing the lack of oscillatory or more complicated behavior in a large class of Lotka ... Volterra systems with predator-prey interactions as well as chemostats, which describe the interaction between microbial species which are competing

  10. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  11. Dual annular rotating [open quotes]windowed[close quotes] nuclear reflector reactor control system

    DOEpatents

    Jacox, M.G.; Drexler, R.L.; Hunt, R.N.M.; Lake, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core. 4 figures.

  12. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  13. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  14. Dynamically controlled crystal growth system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Terry L. (Inventor); Kim, Larry J. (Inventor); Harrington, Michael (Inventor); DeLucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Crystal growth can be initiated and controlled by dynamically controlled vapor diffusion or temperature change. In one aspect, the present invention uses a precisely controlled vapor diffusion approach to monitor and control protein crystal growth. The system utilizes a humidity sensor and various interfaces under computer control to effect virtually any evaporation rate from a number of different growth solutions simultaneously by means of an evaporative gas flow. A static laser light scattering sensor can be used to detect aggregation events and trigger a change in the evaporation rate for a growth solution. A control/follower configuration can be used to actively monitor one chamber and accurately control replicate chambers relative to the control chamber. In a second aspect, the invention exploits the varying solubility of proteins versus temperature to control the growth of protein crystals. This system contains miniature thermoelectric devices under microcomputer control that change temperature as needed to grow crystals of a given protein. Complex temperature ramps are possible using this approach. A static laser light scattering probe also can be used in this system as a non-invasive probe for detection of aggregation events. The automated dynamic control system provides systematic and predictable responses with regard to crystal size. These systems can be used for microgravity crystallization projects, for example in a space shuttle, and for crystallization work under terrestial conditions. The present invention is particularly useful for macromolecular crystallization, e.g. for proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids, viruses and virus particles.

  15. Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine

    DOEpatents

    Walters, James E.

    2003-05-20

    Method and system for controlling the start of a permanent magnet machine are provided. The method allows to assign a parameter value indicative of an estimated initial rotor position of the machine. The method further allows to energize the machine with a level of current being sufficiently high to start rotor motion in a desired direction in the event the initial rotor position estimate is sufficiently close to the actual rotor position of the machine. A sensing action allows to sense whether any incremental changes in rotor position occur in response to the energizing action. In the event no changes in rotor position are sensed, the method allows to incrementally adjust the estimated rotor position by a first set of angular values until changes in rotor position are sensed. In the event changes in rotor position are sensed, the method allows to provide a rotor alignment signal as rotor motion continues. The alignment signal allows to align the estimated rotor position relative to the actual rotor position. This alignment action allows for operating the machine over a wide speed range.

  16. Control systems on Lie groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  17. Virtual Control Systems Environment (VCSE)

    ScienceCinema

    Atkins, Will

    2018-02-14

    Will Atkins, a Sandia National Laboratories computer engineer discusses cybersecurity research work for process control systems. Will explains his work on the Virtual Control Systems Environment project to develop a modeling and simulation framework of the U.S. electric grid in order to study and mitigate possible cyberattacks on infrastructure.

  18. Diffractive optics for precision alignment of Euclid space telescope optics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfour, Jean-Michel; Weidner, Frank; Bodendorf, Christof; Bode, Andreas; Poleshchuk, Alexander G.; Nasyrov, Ruslan K.; Grupp, Frank; Bender, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    We present a method for precise alignment of lens elements using specific Computer Generated Hologram (CGH) with an integrated Fizeau reference flat surface and a Fizeau interferometer. The method is used for aligning the so called Camera Lens Assembly for ESAs Euclid telescope. Each lens has a corresponding annular area on the diffractive optics, which is used to control the position of each lens. The lenses are subsequently positioned using individual annular rings of the CGH. The overall alignment accuracy is below 1 µm, the alignment sensitivity is in the range of 0.1 µm. The achieved alignment accuracy of the lenses relative to each other is mainly depending on the stability in time of the alignment tower. Error budgets when using computer generated holograms and physical limitations are explained. Calibration measurements of the alignment system and the typically reached alignment accuracies will be shown and discussed.

  19. Decentralized System Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    a Local Area Network Environment. Submitted for Publication. 1982. [Barrnger 791 Barringer . H,. P. C. Capon, and R . Phillips. The Portable Compiling...configuration and hardware. [Chesley 81 Chesley, Harry R . and Bruce V. Hunt., % Squire - A Communications-Oriented Operating System. Computer Networks 5(2...copying the information. Transfers between machines and copying " - r pages as necemry. [Nelson 80] Nelson, Bruce Jay. Remote Procedure Call. PhD Thesis

  20. Sled Control and Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    Computerized system for controlling motion of linear-track accelerator applied to other automated equipment, such as numerically-controlled machine tools and robot manipulators on assembly lines. System controls motions of sled with sine-wave signal created digitally by microprocessor. Dynamic parameters of sled motion are monitored so sled may be stopped safely if malfunction occurs. Sled is capable of sinusoidal accelerations up to 0.5 g with 125-kg load.

  1. The Effect of Professional Learning Activities on Implementation of California's Quality Professional Learning Standards in Alignment with the Local Control Funding Formula Priority 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinotti, Sadie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Delphi study was to identify the professional learning activities that experts perceive are necessary for local education agencies (LEAs) to effectively implement California's Quality Professional Learning Standards (QPLS) in alignment with the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) Priority 2. The study also examined the degree…

  2. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor); Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  3. Microprocessor control of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The present low power CMOS microprocessor controller for photovoltaic power systems possesses three programs, which are respectively intended for (1) conventional battery-charging systems with state-of-charge estimation and sequential shedding of subarrays and loads, (2) maximum power-controlled battery-charging systems, and (3) variable speed dc motor drives. Attention is presently given to the development of this terrestrial equipment for spacecraft use.

  4. Tissue-specific mechanical and geometrical control of cell viability and actin cytoskeleton alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Zheng, Wenfu; Xie, Yunyan; Gong, Peiyuan; Zhao, Fang; Yuan, Bo; Ma, Wanshun; Cui, Yan; Liu, Wenwen; Sun, Yi; Piel, Matthieu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-08-01

    Different tissues have specific mechanical properties and cells of different geometries, such as elongated muscle cells and polygonal endothelial cells, which are precisely regulated during embryo development. However, the mechanisms that underlie these processes are not clear. Here, we built an in vitro model to mimic the cellular microenvironment of muscle by combining both mechanical stretch and geometrical control. We found that mechanical stretch was a key factor that determined the optimal geometry of myoblast C2C12 cells under stretch, whereas vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts had no such dependency. We presented the first experimental evidence that can explain why myoblasts are destined to take the elongated geometry so as to survive and maintain parallel actin filaments along the stretching direction. The study is not only meaningful for the research on myogenesis but also has potential application in regenerative medicine.

  5. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  6. Antares alignment gimbal positioner

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.D.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Saxman, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam 40-TW carbon-dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser fusion system currently under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Antares alignment gimbal positioner (AGP) is an optomechanical instrument that will be used for target alignment and alignment of the 24 laser beams, as well as beam quality assessments. The AGP will be capable of providing pointing, focusing, and wavefront optical path difference, as well as aberration information at both helium-neon (He-Ne) and CO/sub 2/ wavelengths. It is designed to allow the laser beams to be aligned to any position within a 1-cm cube to a tolerance of 10more » ..mu..m.« less

  7. Adaptable state based control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert D. (Inventor); Dvorak, Daniel L. (Inventor); Gostelow, Kim P. (Inventor); Starbird, Thomas W. (Inventor); Gat, Erann (Inventor); Chien, Steve Ankuo (Inventor); Keller, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An autonomous controller, comprised of a state knowledge manager, a control executor, hardware proxies and a statistical estimator collaborates with a goal elaborator, with which it shares common models of the behavior of the system and the controller. The elaborator uses the common models to generate from temporally indeterminate sets of goals, executable goals to be executed by the controller. The controller may be updated to operate in a different system or environment than that for which it was originally designed by the replacement of shared statistical models and by the instantiation of a new set of state variable objects derived from a state variable class. The adaptation of the controller does not require substantial modification of the goal elaborator for its application to the new system or environment.

  8. Observation of a Unipolar Field-aligned Current System Associated With IMF By-triggered Theta Auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairston, M. R.; Watanabe, M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the existence of a specific field-aligned current (FAC) system predicted by numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations in a past study. The FAC system is expected to occur when a drifting theta aurora is formed in response to a stepwise transition of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By during strongly northward IMF periods. When the IMF By changes from positive to negative, a crossbar forms in the Northern Hemisphere that moves dawnward, while in the Southern Hemisphere the crossbar moves in the opposite direction. The crossbar motion reverses when the IMF By changes from negative to positive. The FAC system appears on the trailing side of the drifting crossbar of the theta aurora as it moves either dawnward or duskward. When the theta aurora is drifting dawnward, the FACs flow into the ionosphere. The FAC polarity reverses when the theta aurora is drifting duskward. Using low-altitude satellite data, we confirmed the real existence of the above model-predicted FAC system.

  9. Construction, alignment, and implementation of an acousto-optical deflector-based system for patterned uncaging with ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Civillico, Eugene F; Shoham, Shy; O'Connor, Daniel H; Sarkisov, Dmitry V; Wang, Samuel S-H

    2012-08-01

    The method of patterned photoactivation is a natural fit for the study of neuronal dendritic integration. Photoactivatable molecules that influence a wide range of extracellular and intracellular neurophysiological functions are available. The choice of photosensitive molecules depends on the research question and will influence the design of the experimental apparatus. An acousto-optical deflector (AOD)-based system can be used for rapid ultraviolet (UV) photolysis in arbitrary spatial and temporal patterns. Photolysis-activated "caged" diffusible molecules or newer light-sensitive membrane proteins can be used in this system. This protocol describes the addition of a UV beam for uncaging to a homebuilt two-photon microscope. The goal is to get UV light from the light source (laser) to the approximate center of the objective's back aperture, passing through a pair of perpendicularly oriented AODs along the way. The protocol also describes the fine alignment of the UV beam and the implementation of AOD-based beam steering. Performing the final alignment with the beam passing through the AODs will ensure that the system is optimized for the idiosyncrasies of the crystals.

  10. Adaptive control of periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhiling

    2009-12-01

    Adaptive control is needed to cope with parametric uncertainty in dynamical systems. The adaptive control of LTI systems in both discrete and continuous time has been studied for four decades and the results are currently used widely in many different fields. In recent years, interest has shifted to the adaptive control of time-varying systems. It is known that the adaptive control of arbitrarily rapidly time-varying systems is in general intractable, but systems with periodically time-varying parameters (LTP systems) which have much more structure, are amenable to mathematical analysis. Further, there is also a need for such control in practical problems which have arisen in industry during the past twenty years. This thesis is the first attempt to deal with the adaptive control of LTP systems. Adaptive Control involves estimation of unknown parameters, adjusting the control parameters based on the estimates, and demonstrating that the overall system is stable. System theoretic properties such as stability, controllability, and observability play an important role both in formulating of the problems, as well as in generating solutions for them. For LTI systems, these properties have been studied since 1960s, and algebraic conditions that have to be satisfied to assure these properties are now well established. In the case of LTP systems, these properties can be expressed only in terms of transition matrices that are much more involved than those for LTI systems. Since adaptive control problems can be formulated only when these properties are well understood, it is not surprising that systematic efforts have not been made thus far for formulating and solving adaptive control problems that arise in LTP systems. Even in the case of LTI systems, it is well recognized that problems related to adaptive discrete-time system are not as difficult as those that arise in the continuous-time systems. This is amply evident in the solutions that were derived in the 1980s and

  11. Manual control of unstable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Hogue, J. R.; Parseghian, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Under certain operational regimes and failure modes, air and ground vehicles can present the human operator with a dynamically unstable or divergent control task. Research conducted over the last two decades has explored the ability of the human operator to control unstable systems under a variety of circumstances. Past research is reviewed and human operator control capabilities are summarized. A current example of automobile directional control under rear brake lockup conditions is also reviewed. A control system model analysis of the driver's steering control task is summarized, based on a generic driver/vehicle model presented at last year's Annual Manual. Results from closed course braking tests are presented that confirm the difficulty the average driver has in controlling the unstable directional dynamics arising from rear wheel lockup.

  12. Position feedback control system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  13. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  14. Controllability of a multichannel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Sergei A.; Wang, Jun Min

    2018-02-01

    We consider the system consisting of K coupled acoustic channels with the different sound velocities cj. Channels are interacting at any point via the pressure and its time derivatives. Using the moment approach and the theory of exponential families with vector coefficients we establish two controllability results: the system is exactly controllable if (i) the control uj in the jth channel acts longer than the double travel time of a wave from the start to the end of the j-th channel; (ii) all controls uj act more than or equal to the maximal double travel time.

  15. Fiber-optic beam control systems using microelectromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    This dissertation, for the first time, proposes, studies, and experimentally demonstrated novel fiber-optic beam control systems based on the use of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology in which the miniaturized versions of mechanical systems can be obtained. Beam control modules include optical add/drop filters, optical switches, variable photonic delay lines (VPDLs), and variable optical attenuators (VOAs). The optical add/drop filter functions as a multiwavelength optical switch that offers the ability to drop and add a certain number of desired wavelengths at an intermediate location where access to all the propagating optical channels is not required between transmission terminals. The VOA can also be used in networks where stocking and tracking of fixed attenuators is difficult. Other specific applications of the VOA are optical gain equalization and polarization dependent loss and gain compensation required in high data-rate wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) lightwave systems. A VPDL can be used to adjust timing amongst multiwavelength optical signals in order to reduce timing jitter and burst traffic in photonic packet switching and parallel signal processing systems. In this dissertation, a small tilt micromirror device is proposed for the implementation of all fiber-optic beam control modules. In particular, the macro-pixel approach where several micromirrors are used to manipulate the desired optical beam is introduced to realize high speed and fault tolerant beam control modules. To eliminate the need of careful optical alignment, an all fiber-connectorized multiwavelength optical switch structure is presented and experimentally demonstrated by using a fiber-loop mirror concept with polarization control. In addition, liquid crystal (LC) devices are studied and are used to implement a compact retro- reflective 2 x 2 fiber-optic switch. Compared to MEMS- based mirror technology, the LC technology is more sensitive to temperature, thereby

  16. A universal heliostat control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Fabian; Geiger, Mark; Buck, Reiner

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a universal heliostat control system as part of the AutoR project [1]. The system can control multiple receivers and heliostat types in a single application. The system offers support for multiple operators on different machines and is designed to be as adaptive as possible. Thus, the system can be used for different heliostat field setups with only minor adaptations of the system's source code. This is achieved by extensive usage of modern programming techniques like reflection and dependency injection. Furthermore, the system features co-simulation of a ray tracer, a reference PID-controller implementation for open volumetric receivers and methods for heliostat calibration and monitoring.

  17. Lessons Learned in Systemic District Reform: A Cross-District Analysis from the Comprehensive Aligned Instructional System (CAIS) Benchmarking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Louise Bay; Vargo, Merrill

    2008-01-01

    Urban district reform has been hampered by the challenge of understanding and supporting the tremendous complexity of district change. Improving this understanding through actionable, practice-based research is the purpose of this study. The authors began the study with the hypothesis that achieving districts both align their instructional systems…

  18. Weld analysis and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Larry Z. (Inventor); Rodgers, Michael H. (Inventor); Powell, Bradley W. (Inventor); Burroughs, Ivan A. (Inventor); Goode, K. Wayne (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a Weld Analysis and Control System developed for active weld system control through real time weld data acquisition. Closed-loop control is based on analysis of weld system parameters and weld geometry. The system is adapted for use with automated welding apparatus having a weld controller which is capable of active electronic control of all aspects of a welding operation. Enhanced graphics and data displays are provided for post-weld analysis. The system provides parameter acquisition, including seam location which is acquired for active torch cross-seam positioning. Torch stand-off is also monitored for control. Weld bead and parent surface geometrical parameters are acquired as an indication of weld quality. These parameters include mismatch, peaking, undercut, underfill, crown height, weld width, puddle diameter, and other measurable information about the weld puddle regions, such as puddle symmetry, etc. These parameters provide a basis for active control as well as post-weld quality analysis and verification. Weld system parameters, such as voltage, current and wire feed rate, are also monitored and archived for correlation with quality parameters.

  19. Structure and method for controlling band offset and alignment at a crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor interface

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2003-11-25

    A crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor structure and a process for constructing the structure involves a substrate of silicon, germanium or a silicon-germanium alloy and an epitaxial thin film overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the thin film consists of a first epitaxial stratum of single atomic plane layers of an alkaline earth oxide designated generally as (AO).sub.n and a second stratum of single unit cell layers of an oxide material designated as (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m so that the multilayer film arranged upon the substrate surface is designated (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m wherein n is an integer repeat of single atomic plane layers of the alkaline earth oxide AO and m is an integer repeat of single unit cell layers of the A'BO.sub.3 oxide material. Within the multilayer film, the values of n and m have been selected to provide the structure with a desired electrical structure at the substrate/thin film interface that can be optimized to control band offset and alignment.

  20. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  1. An Alignment Method for the Integration of Underwater 3D Data Captured by a Stereovision System and an Acoustic Camera.

    PubMed

    Lagudi, Antonio; Bianco, Gianfranco; Muzzupappa, Maurizio; Bruno, Fabio

    2016-04-14

    The integration of underwater 3D data captured by acoustic and optical systems is a promising technique in various applications such as mapping or vehicle navigation. It allows for compensating the drawbacks of the low resolution of acoustic sensors and the limitations of optical sensors in bad visibility conditions. Aligning these data is a challenging problem, as it is hard to make a point-to-point correspondence. This paper presents a multi-sensor registration for the automatic integration of 3D data acquired from a stereovision system and a 3D acoustic camera in close-range acquisition. An appropriate rig has been used in the laboratory tests to determine the relative position between the two sensor frames. The experimental results show that our alignment approach, based on the acquisition of a rig in several poses, can be adopted to estimate the rigid transformation between the two heterogeneous sensors. A first estimation of the unknown geometric transformation is obtained by a registration of the two 3D point clouds, but it ends up to be strongly affected by noise and data dispersion. A robust and optimal estimation is obtained by a statistical processing of the transformations computed for each pose. The effectiveness of the method has been demonstrated in this first experimentation of the proposed 3D opto-acoustic camera.

  2. An Alignment Method for the Integration of Underwater 3D Data Captured by a Stereovision System and an Acoustic Camera

    PubMed Central

    Lagudi, Antonio; Bianco, Gianfranco; Muzzupappa, Maurizio; Bruno, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The integration of underwater 3D data captured by acoustic and optical systems is a promising technique in various applications such as mapping or vehicle navigation. It allows for compensating the drawbacks of the low resolution of acoustic sensors and the limitations of optical sensors in bad visibility conditions. Aligning these data is a challenging problem, as it is hard to make a point-to-point correspondence. This paper presents a multi-sensor registration for the automatic integration of 3D data acquired from a stereovision system and a 3D acoustic camera in close-range acquisition. An appropriate rig has been used in the laboratory tests to determine the relative position between the two sensor frames. The experimental results show that our alignment approach, based on the acquisition of a rig in several poses, can be adopted to estimate the rigid transformation between the two heterogeneous sensors. A first estimation of the unknown geometric transformation is obtained by a registration of the two 3D point clouds, but it ends up to be strongly affected by noise and data dispersion. A robust and optimal estimation is obtained by a statistical processing of the transformations computed for each pose. The effectiveness of the method has been demonstrated in this first experimentation of the proposed 3D opto-acoustic camera. PMID:27089344

  3. Effectiveness of Adaptive Assessment versus Learner Control in a Multimedia Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Huei; Chang, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of adaptive assessment versus learner control in a multimedia learning system designed to help secondary students learn science. Unlike other systems, this paper presents a workflow of adaptive assessment following instructional materials that better align with learners' cognitive…

  4. Guidance, navigation, and control systems performance analysis: Apollo 13 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The conclusions of the analyses of the inflight performance of the Apollo 13 spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control equipment are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) the command module systems, (2) the lunar module inertial measurement unit, (3) the lunar module digital autopilot, (4) the lunar module abort guidance system, (5) lunar module optical alignment checks, and (6) spacecraft component separation procedures.

  5. Integrated control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Paul Sai Keat; Baldwin, Darryl; Kim, Myoungjin

    2013-10-29

    An integrated control system for use with an engine connected to a generator providing electrical power to a switchgear is disclosed. The engine receives gas produced by a gasifier. The control system includes an electronic controller associated with the gasifier, engine, generator, and switchgear. A gas flow sensor monitors a gas flow from the gasifier to the engine through an engine gas control valve and provides a gas flow signal to the electronic controller. A gas oversupply sensor monitors a gas oversupply from the gasifier and provides an oversupply signal indicative of gas not provided to the engine. A power output sensor monitors a power output of the switchgear and provide a power output signal. The electronic controller changes gas production of the gasifier and the power output rating of the switchgear based on the gas flow signal, the oversupply signal, and the power output signal.

  6. Defining ‘Unhealthy’: A Systematic Analysis of Alignment between the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Health Star Rating System

    PubMed Central

    Rådholm, Karin; Neal, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs) and Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labelling system are two national interventions to promote healthier diets. Our aim was to assess the degree of alignment between the two policies. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 65,660 packaged foods available in The George Institute’s Australian FoodSwitch database. Products were classified ‘core’ or ‘discretionary’ based on the ADGs, and a HSR generated irrespective of whether currently displayed on pack. Apparent outliers were identified as those products classified ‘core’ that received HSR ≤ 2.0; and those classified ‘discretionary’ that received HSR ≥ 3.5. Nutrient cut-offs were applied to determine whether apparent outliers were ‘high in’ salt, total sugar or saturated fat, and outlier status thereby attributed to a failure of the ADGs or HSR algorithm. Results: 47,116 products (23,460 core; 23,656 discretionary) were included. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0 to 4.5) for core and 2.0 (1.0 to 3.0) for discretionary products. Overall alignment was good: 86.6% of products received a HSR aligned with their ADG classification. Among 6324 products identified as apparent outliers, 5246 (83.0%) were ultimately determined to be ADG failures, largely caused by challenges in defining foods as ‘core’ or ‘discretionary’. In total, 1078 (17.0%) were determined to be true failures of the HSR algorithm. Conclusion: The scope of genuine misalignment between the ADGs and HSR algorithm is very small. We provide evidence-informed recommendations for strengthening both policies to more effectively guide Australians towards healthier choices. PMID:29670024

  7. Pump control system for windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    A windmill control system having lever means, for varying length of stroke of the pump piston, and a control means, responsive to the velocity of the wind to operate the lever means to vary the length of stroke and hence the effective displacement of the pump in accordance with available wind energy, with the control means having a sensing member separate from the windmill disposed in the wind and displaceable thereby in accordance with wind velocity.

  8. Tumor Cell Invasion Can Be Blocked by Modulators of Collagen Fibril Alignment That Control Assembly of the Extracellular Matrix.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Moran; Ben-Chetrit, Nir; Zhuravlev, Alina; Afik, Ran; Bassat, Elad; Solomonov, Inna; Yarden, Yosef; Sagi, Irit

    2016-07-15

    Abnormal architectures of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM) are hallmarks of many invasive diseases, including cancer. Targeting specific stages of collagen assembly in vivo presents a great challenge due to the involvement of various crosslinking enzymes in the multistep, hierarchical process of ECM build-up. Using advanced microscopic tools, we monitored stages of fibrillary collagen assembly in a native fibroblast-derived 3D matrix system and identified anti-lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) antibodies that alter the natural alignment and width of endogenic fibrillary collagens without affecting ECM composition. The disrupted collagen morphologies interfered with the adhesion and invasion properties of human breast cancer cells. Treatment of mice bearing breast cancer xenografts with the inhibitory antibodies resulted in disruption of the tumorigenic collagen superstructure and in reduction of primary tumor growth. Our approach could serve as a general methodology to identify novel therapeutics targeting fibrillary protein organization to treat ECM-associated pathologies. Cancer Res; 76(14); 4249-58. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Dielectric tunability of vertically aligned ferroelectric-metal oxide nanocomposite films controlled by out-of-plane misfit strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaping; Ma, Xuefu; Zhang, Zheng; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Jie; Chai, Guozhong

    2016-04-01

    A nonlinear thermodynamic model based on the vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) thin films of ferroelectric-metal oxide system has been developed to investigate the physical properties of the epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) films containing vertical Sm2O3 (SmO) nanopillar arrays on the SrTiO3 substrate. The phase diagrams of out-of-plane lattice mismatch vs. volume fraction of SmO are calculated by minimizing the total free energy. It is found that the phase transformation and dielectric response of BST-SmO VAN systems are extremely dependent on the in-plane misfit strain, the out-of-plane lattice mismatch, the volume fraction of SmO phase, and the external electric field applied to the nanocomposite films at room temperature. In particular, the BST-SmO VAN systems exhibit higher dielectric properties than pure BST films. Giant dielectric response and maximum tunability are obtained near the lattice mismatch where the phase transition occurs. Under the in-plane misfit strain of umf=0.3 % and the out-of-plane lattice mismatch of u3=0.002 , the dielectric tunability can be dramatically enhanced to 90% with the increase of SmO volume fraction, which is well consistent with previous experimental results. This work represents an approach to further understand the dependence of physical properties on the lattice mismatch (in-plane and out-of-plane) and volume fraction, and to manipulate or optimize functionalities in the nanocomposite oxide thin films.

  10. Comparison of MRI-defined back muscles volume between patients with ankylosing spondylitis and control patients with chronic back pain: age and spinopelvic alignment matched study.

    PubMed

    Bok, Doo Hee; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    To compare MRI-defined back muscle volume between AS patients and age, and spinopelvic alignment matched control patients with chronic back pain. 51 male patients with AS were enrolled. Age and spinopelvic alignment matched controls (male) were found among non-AS patients with chronic back pain. After matching procedure, fully matched controls were found in 31 of 51 AS patients (60.8%), who represent AS patients without deformity. However, matched controls were not found in 20 of 51 AS patients (39.2%), who represent AS patients with deformity. MRI parameters of back muscle (paraspinal muscle and psoas muscle) at L4/5 disc level including cross-sectional area (CSA) and fat-free cross-sectional area (FCSA) were compared between AS patients and matched controls. Covariates, including BMI, self-reported physical activity, and the presence of chronic disease, which can influence back muscle volume, were also investigated. There were no statistical differences in age, body mass index, score of back pain (NRS), and spinopelvic alignment, and physical activity between matched AS patients and control patients except for duration of back pain. All MRI parameters for paraspinal muscle volume in matched AS patients (without deformity) were significantly less than those of control patients, and significantly larger than those of non-matched AS patients (with deformity). Body size adjusted MRI parameters (relative CSA and relative FCSA) of paraspinal muscle showed strong correlations with lumbar lordosis and sacral slope. Such relationship between paraspinal muscle and spinopelvic parameters remained significant even after multivariate adjustment. AS patients without deformity already have decreased paraspinal muscle volume compared with age and spinopelvic alignment matched non-AS patients with chronic back pain. Such decrease in paraspinal muscle volume was significantly associated with kyphotic deformity of AS patients even after multivariate adjustment. Although the result

  11. Alignment of dynamic networks.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V; Critchlow, D; Milenkovic, T

    2017-07-15

    Network alignment (NA) aims to find a node mapping that conserves similar regions between compared networks. NA is applicable to many fields, including computational biology, where NA can guide the transfer of biological knowledge from well- to poorly-studied species across aligned network regions. Existing NA methods can only align static networks. However, most complex real-world systems evolve over time and should thus be modeled as dynamic networks. We hypothesize that aligning dynamic network representations of evolving systems will produce superior alignments compared to aligning the systems' static network representations, as is currently done. For this purpose, we introduce the first ever dynamic NA method, DynaMAGNA ++. This proof-of-concept dynamic NA method is an extension of a state-of-the-art static NA method, MAGNA++. Even though both MAGNA++ and DynaMAGNA++ optimize edge as well as node conservation across the aligned networks, MAGNA++ conserves static edges and similarity between static node neighborhoods, while DynaMAGNA++ conserves dynamic edges (events) and similarity between evolving node neighborhoods. For this purpose, we introduce the first ever measure of dynamic edge conservation and rely on our recent measure of dynamic node conservation. Importantly, the two dynamic conservation measures can be optimized with any state-of-the-art NA method and not just MAGNA++. We confirm our hypothesis that dynamic NA is superior to static NA, on synthetic and real-world networks, in computational biology and social domains. DynaMAGNA++ is parallelized and has a user-friendly graphical interface. http://nd.edu/∼cone/DynaMAGNA++/ . tmilenko@nd.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Control system health test system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Baker, Thomas M.

    2006-08-15

    A method is provided for testing multiple elements of a work machine, including a control system, a component, a sub-component that is influenced by operations of the component, and a sensor that monitors a characteristic of the sub-component. In one embodiment, the method is performed by the control system and includes sending a command to the component to adjust a first parameter associated with an operation of the component. Also, the method includes detecting a sensor signal from the sensor reflecting a second parameter associated with a characteristic of the sub-component and determining whether the second parameter is acceptable based on the command. The control system may diagnose at least one of the elements of the work machine when the second parameter of the sub-component is not acceptable.

  13. Energy partitioning and impulse dispersion in the decorated, tapered, strongly nonlinear granular alignment: A system with many potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, Robert L.; Agui, Juan H.; Sen, Surajit

    2009-09-01

    Rapid absorption of impulses using light-weight, small, reusable systems is a challenging problem. An axially aligned set of progressively shrinking elastic spheres, a "tapered chain," has been shown to be a versatile and scalable shock absorber in earlier simulational, theoretical, and experimental works by several authors. We have recently shown (see R. L. Doney and S. Sen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 155502 (2006)) that the shock absorption ability of a tapered chain can be dramatically enhanced by placing small interstitial grains between the regular grains in the tapered chain systems. Here we focus on a detailed study of the problem introduced in the above mentioned letter, present extensive dynamical simulations using parameters for a titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy Ti6Al4V, derive attendant hard-sphere analyses based formulae to describe energy dispersion, and finally discuss some preliminary experimental results using systems with chrome spheres and small Nitinol interstitial grains to present the underlying nonlinear dynamics of this so-called decorated tapered granular alignment. We are specifically interested in small systems, comprised of several grains. This is because in real applications, mass and volume occupied must inevitably be minimized. Our conclusion is that the decorated tapered chain offers enhanced energy dispersion by locking in much of the input energy in the grains of the tapered chain rather than in the small interstitial grains. Thus, the present study offers insights into how the shock absorption capabilities of these systems can be pushed even further by improving energy absorption capabilities of the larger grains in the tapered chains. We envision that these scalable, decorated tapered chains may be used as shock absorbing components in body armor, armored vehicles, building applications and in perhaps even in applications in rehabilitation science.

  14. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  15. VETA x ray data acquisition and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Jones, Mark T.; Ljungberg, Malin; Nguyen, Dan T.; Roll, John B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the X-ray Data Acquisition and Control System (XDACS) used together with the X-ray Detection System (XDS) to characterize the X-ray image during testing of the AXAF P1/H1 mirror pair at the MSFC X-ray Calibration Facility. A variety of X-ray data were acquired, analyzed and archived during the testing including: mirror alignment, encircled energy, effective area, point spread function, system housekeeping and proportional counter window uniformity data. The system architecture is presented with emphasis placed on key features that include a layered UNIX tool approach, dedicated subsystem controllers, real-time X-window displays, flexibility in combining tools, network connectivity and system extensibility. The VETA test data archive is also described.

  16. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contino, Julie

    2013-02-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the standards. This study reports an analysis of the alignment between the National Science Education Standards (NSES), New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum (Core Curriculum) and New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Regents Examination (Regents Exam)—the sources teachers use for creating Earth Science curricula in New York State. The NSES were found to have a 49 % overlap with the Core Curriculum and a 27 % overlap with the Regents Exam. The Core Curriculum and Regents Exam, represented by matrices consisting of performance indicators and cognitive demands, were compared using the Porter Alignment Index. The alignment was 0.35, categorized as slightly aligned, due to the different emphases on cognitive levels. The Core focused on cognitive skills of Understand and Apply while the Regents concentrated more on Apply followed by Understand and Remember. It is suggested that the NSES be revised and the Core updated to include quantifiable emphasis on the major understandings such as percentage of time.

  17. The control system of synchronous movement of the gantry crane supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odnokopylov, I. G.; Gneushev, V. V.; Galtseva, O. V.; Natalinova, N. M.; Li, J.; Serebryakov, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents study findings on synchronization of the gantry crane support movement. Asynchrony moving speed bearings may lead to an emergency mode at the natural rate of deformed metal structure alignment. The use of separate control of asynchronous motors with the vector control method allows synchronizing the movement speed of crane supports and achieving a balance between the motors. Simulation results of various control systems are described. Recommendations regarding the system further application are given.

  18. Alignment telescope for Antares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appert, Q. D.; Swann, T. A.; Ward, J. H.; Hardesty, C.; Wright, L.

    The Antares Automatic Alignment System employs a specially designed telescope for alignment of its laser beamlines. There are two telescopes in the system, and since each telescope is a primary alignment reference, stringent boresight accuracy and stability over the focus range were required. Optical and mechanical designs, which meet this requirements as well as that of image quality over a wide wavelength band, are described. Special test techniques for initial assembly and alignment of the telescope are also presented. The telescope, which has a 180-mm aperture FK51-KZF2 type glass doublet objective, requires a boresight accuracy of 2.8 (SIGMA)rad at two focal lengths, and object distances between 11 meters and infinity. Travel of a smaller secondary doublet provides focus from 11 m to infinity with approximately 7.8 m effective focal length. By flipping in a third doublet, the effective focal length is reduced to 2.5 m. Telescope alignment was accomplished by using a rotary air bearing to establish an axis in front of the system and placing the focus of a Laser Unequal Path Interferometer (LUPI) at the image plane.

  19. Alignment Telescope For Antares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appert, Q. D.; Swann, T. A.; Ward, J. H.; Hardesty, C.; Wrignt, L.

    1983-11-01

    The Antares Automatic Alignment System employs a specially designed telescope for alignment of its laser beamlines. There are two telescopes in the system, and since eacn telescope is a primary alignment reference, stringent boresight accuracy and stability over the focus range were required. Optical and mechanical designs, which meet this requirement as well as that of image quality over a wide wavelength band, are described. Special test techniques for initial assembly and alignment of the telescope are also presented. The telescope, which has a 180-mm aperture FK51-KZF2 type glass doublet objective, requires a boresight accuracy of 2.8 prad at two focal lengths, and object distances between 11 meters and infinity. Travel of a smaller secondary doublet provides focus from 11 m to infinity with approximately 7.8 m effective focal length. By flipping in a third doublet, the effective focal length is reduced to 2.5 m. Telescope alignment was accomplished by using a rotary air bearing to establish an axis in front of the system and placing the focus of a Laser Unequal Path Interferometer (LUPI) at the image plane.

  20. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  1. The JCMT Observatory Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Nick; Economou, Frossie; Jenness, Tim; Kackley, Russell; Walther, Craig; Dent, Bill; Folger, Martin; Gao, Xiaofeng; Kelly, Dennis; Lightfoot, John; Pain, Ian; Hovey, Gary; Willis, Tony; Redman, Russell

    The JCMT, the world's largest sub-mm telescope, has had essentially the same VAX/VMS based control system since it was commissioned. For the next generation of instrumentation we are implementing a new Unix/VxWorks based system, based on the successful ORAC system that was recently released on UKIRT. This paper gives a broad overview of the system architecture and includes some discussion on the choices made. The pros and cons of using XML as an inherent part of the system architecture are also discussed.

  2. Balanced bridge feedback control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.

  3. Space construction base control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of an attitude control system were studied and developed for a large space base that is structurally flexible and whose mass properties change rather dramatically during its orbital lifetime. Topics of discussion include the following: (1) space base orbital pointing and maneuvering; (2) angular momentum sizing of actuators; (3) momentum desaturation selection and sizing; (4) multilevel control technique applied to configuration one; (5) one-dimensional model simulation; (6) N-body discrete coordinate simulation; (7) structural analysis math model formulation; and (8) discussion of control problems and control methods.

  4. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Crever, F.E.

    1962-05-01

    BS>A slow-acting shim rod for control of major variations in reactor neutron flux and a fast-acting control rod to correct minor flux variations are employed to provide a sensitive, accurate control system. The fast-acting rod is responsive to an error signal which is produced by changes in the neutron flux from a predetermined optimum level. When the fast rod is thus actuated in a given direction, means is provided to actuate the slow-moving rod in that direction to return the fast rod to a position near the midpoint of its control range. (AEC)

  5. 3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES INCREASINGLY AUTOMATED, EAGLE ROCK WILL BECOME MORE AND MORE THE CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. - Eagle Rock Operations Control Center, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  7. Control system for thermoelectric refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John L. (Inventor); Criscuolo, Lance (Inventor); Gilley, Michael D. (Inventor); Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus including a power supply (202) and control system is provided for maintaining the temperature within an enclosed structure (40) using thermoelectric devices (92). The apparatus may be particularly beneficial for use with a refrigerator (20) having superinsulation materials (46) and phase change materials (112) which cooperate with the thermoelectric device (92) to substantially enhance the overall operating efficiency of the refrigerator (20). The electrical power supply (202) and control system allows increasing the maximum power capability of the thermoelectric device (92) in response to increased heat loads within the refrigerator (20). The electrical power supply (202) and control system may also be used to monitor the performance of the cooling system (70) associated with the refrigerator (20).

  8. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  9. Alignment of dynamic networks

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V.; Critchlow, D.; Milenković, T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Motivation: Network alignment (NA) aims to find a node mapping that conserves similar regions between compared networks. NA is applicable to many fields, including computational biology, where NA can guide the transfer of biological knowledge from well- to poorly-studied species across aligned network regions. Existing NA methods can only align static networks. However, most complex real-world systems evolve over time and should thus be modeled as dynamic networks. We hypothesize that aligning dynamic network representations of evolving systems will produce superior alignments compared to aligning the systems’ static network representations, as is currently done. Results: For this purpose, we introduce the first ever dynamic NA method, DynaMAGNA ++. This proof-of-concept dynamic NA method is an extension of a state-of-the-art static NA method, MAGNA++. Even though both MAGNA++ and DynaMAGNA++ optimize edge as well as node conservation across the aligned networks, MAGNA++ conserves static edges and similarity between static node neighborhoods, while DynaMAGNA++ conserves dynamic edges (events) and similarity between evolving node neighborhoods. For this purpose, we introduce the first ever measure of dynamic edge conservation and rely on our recent measure of dynamic node conservation. Importantly, the two dynamic conservation measures can be optimized with any state-of-the-art NA method and not just MAGNA++. We confirm our hypothesis that dynamic NA is superior to static NA, on synthetic and real-world networks, in computational biology and social domains. DynaMAGNA++ is parallelized and has a user-friendly graphical interface. Availability and implementation: http://nd.edu/∼cone/DynaMAGNA++/. Contact: tmilenko@nd.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28881980

  10. Towards 3D ultrasound image based soft tissue tracking: a transrectal ultrasound prostate image alignment system.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael; Mozer, Pierre; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of real-time 3D ultrasound (US) makes it possible to consider image-based tracking of subcutaneous soft tissue targets for computer guided diagnosis and therapy. We propose a 3D transrectal US based tracking system for precise prostate biopsy sample localisation. The aim is to improve sample distribution, to enable targeting of unsampled regions for repeated biopsies, and to make post-interventional quality controls possible. Since the patient is not immobilized, since the prostate is mobile and due to the fact that probe movements are only constrained by the rectum during biopsy acquisition, the tracking system must be able to estimate rigid transformations that are beyond the capture range of common image similarity measures. We propose a fast and robust multi-resolution attribute-vector registration approach that combines global and local optimization methods to solve this problem. Global optimization is performed on a probe movement model that reduces the dimensionality of the search space and thus renders optimization efficient. The method was tested on 237 prostate volumes acquired from 14 different patients for 3D to 3D and 3D to orthogonal 2D slices registration. The 3D-3D version of the algorithm converged correctly in 96.7% of all cases in 6.5s with an accuracy of 1.41mm (r.m.s.) and 3.84mm (max). The 3D to slices method yielded a success rate of 88.9% in 2.3s with an accuracy of 1.37mm (r.m.s.) and 4.3mm (max).

  11. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  12. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  13. ALIGNING JIG

    DOEpatents

    Culver, J.S.; Tunnell, W.C.

    1958-08-01

    A jig or device is described for setting or aligning an opening in one member relative to another member or structure, with a predetermined offset, or it may be used for measuring the amount of offset with which the parts have previously been sct. This jig comprises two blocks rabbeted to each other, with means for securing thc upper block to the lower block. The upper block has fingers for contacting one of the members to be a1igmed, the lower block is designed to ride in grooves within the reference member, and calibration marks are provided to determine the amount of offset. This jig is specially designed to align the collimating slits of a mass spectrometer.

  14. Image alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishingmore » features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.« less

  15. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    process of preparation to a degree imocmpatible with fast moving technology. Undoubtedly something can be done to see that US authors produce papers...PDU provide a true "Up Front" system controller. Fast selection of Air to Air Mode is provided by 2 pushbuttons on the throttle. Pushing one or both...nature of the load snd its effect on the generation system. This calculation will include Load Power, Reactance, Nature - continuous or intermittent

  16. Skylab thruster attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmer, G. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Preflight activities and the Skylab mission support effort for the thruster attitude control system (TACS) are documented. The preflight activities include a description of problems and their solutions encountered in the development, qualification, and flight checkout test programs. Mission support effort is presented as it relates to system performance assessment, real-time problem solving, flight anomalies, and the daily system evaluation. Finally, the detailed flight evaluation is presented for each phase of the mission using system telemetry data. Data assert that the TACS met or exceeded design requirements and fulfilled its assigned mission objectives.

  17. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A [Riverside, CA; Beloussov, Alexandre V [Bernardino, CA; Bakir, Julide [Alta Loma, CA; Armon, Deganit [Redlands, CA; Olsen, Howard B [Colton, CA; Salem, Dana [Riverside, CA

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  18. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2010-09-21

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  19. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A; Beloussov, Alexandre V; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B; Salem, Dana

    2013-06-25

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  20. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A; Beloussov, Alexandre V; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B; Salem, Dana

    2013-12-03

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  1. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches providemore » high voltage switching device protection.« less

  2. The CMS tracker control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  3. Systemic Approach to Elevation Data Acquisition for Geophysical Survey Alignments in Hilly Terrains Using UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M. A. M.; Kumar, N. S.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Madun, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study is about systematic approach to photogrammetric survey that is applicable in the extraction of elevation data for geophysical surveys in hilly terrains using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The outcome will be to acquire high-quality geophysical data from areas where elevations vary by locating the best survey lines. The study area is located at the proposed construction site for the development of a water reservoir and related infrastructure in Kampus Pauh Putra, Universiti Malaysia Perlis. Seismic refraction surveys were carried out for the modelling of the subsurface for detailed site investigations. Study were carried out to identify the accuracy of the digital elevation model (DEM) produced from an UAV. At 100 m altitude (flying height), over 135 overlapping images were acquired using a DJI Phantom 3 quadcopter. All acquired images were processed for automatic 3D photo-reconstruction using Agisoft PhotoScan digital photogrammetric software, which was applied to all photogrammetric stages. The products generated included a 3D model, dense point cloud, mesh surface, digital orthophoto, and DEM. In validating the accuracy of the produced DEM, the coordinates of the selected ground control point (GCP) of the survey line in the imaging area were extracted from the generated DEM with the aid of Global Mapper software. These coordinates were compared with the GCPs obtained using a real-time kinematic global positioning system. The maximum percentage of difference between GCP’s and photogrammetry survey is 13.3 %. UAVs are suitable for acquiring elevation data for geophysical surveys which can save time and cost.

  4. Space construction base control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaczynski, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several approaches for an attitude control system are studied and developed for a large space construction base that is structurally flexible. Digital simulations were obtained using the following techniques: (1) the multivariable Nyquist array method combined with closed loop pole allocation, (2) the linear quadratic regulator method. Equations for the three-axis simulation using the multilevel control method were generated and are presented. Several alternate control approaches are also described. A technique is demonstrated for obtaining the dynamic structural properties of a vehicle which is constructed of two or more submodules of known dynamic characteristics.

  5. 14 CFR 27.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control system. 27.395 Section 27.395... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Control Surface and System Loads § 27.395 Control system. (a) The part of each control system from the pilot's controls to the control stops must be...

  6. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Peter T. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  7. Statistical average estimates of high latitude field-aligned currents from the STARE and SABRE coherent VHF radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.; Nielsen, E.

    Two bistatic VHF radar systems, STARE and SABRE, have been employed to estimate ionospheric electric fields in the geomagnetic latitude range 61.1 - 69.3° (geographic latitude range 63.8 - 72.6°) over northern Scandinavia. 173 days of good backscatter from all four radars have been analysed during the period 1982 to 1986, from which the average ionospheric divergence electric field versus latitude and time is calculated. The average magnetic field-aligned currents are computed using an AE-dependent empirical model of the ionospheric conductance. Statistical Birkeland current estimates are presented for high and low values of the Kp and AE indices as well as positive and negative orientations of the IMF B z component. The results compare very favourably to other ground-based and satellite measurements.

  8. Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B [Greensburg, PA; Singleton, Norman R [Murrysville, PA

    2009-11-10

    An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

  9. District Support Systems for the Alignment of Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment: Can We Predict Student Achievement in Reading and Writing for School Turnaround?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Laura Lynn Tanner

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative non-experimental predictive study was to determine if CIA alignment factors and related district support systems are associated with student achievement to enable the turnaround of schools in crisis. This study aimed to utilize the District Snapshot Tool to determine if the district systems that support CIA…

  10. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System | Energy Systems

    Science.gov Websites

    Integration Facility | NREL Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System Supervisory Control supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system monitors and controls safety systems and gathers real Energy Systems Integration Facility control room. The Energy Systems Integration Facility's SCADA system

  11. Low temperature superconductor and aligned high temperature superconductor magnetic dipole system and method for producing high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Ramesh; Scanlan, Ronald; Ghosh, Arup K.

    A dipole-magnet system and method for producing high-magnetic-fields, including an open-region located in a radially-central-region to allow particle-beam transport and other uses, low-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of low-temperature-superconducting-wire located in radially-outward-regions to generate high magnetic-fields, high-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of high-temperature-superconducting-tape located in radially-inward-regions to generate even higher magnetic-fields and to reduce erroneous fields, support-structures to support the coils against large Lorentz-forces, a liquid-helium-system to cool the coils, and electrical-contacts to allow electric-current into and out of the coils. The high-temperature-superconducting-tape may be comprised of bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper-oxide or rare-earth-metal, barium-copper-oxide (ReBCO) where the rare-earth-metal may be yttrium, samarium, neodymium, or gadolinium. Advantageously, alignment of themore » large-dimension of the rectangular-cross-section or curved-cross-section of the high-temperature-superconducting-tape with the high-magnetic-field minimizes unwanted erroneous magnetic fields. Alignment may be accomplished by proper positioning, tilting the high-temperature-superconducting-coils, forming the high-temperature-superconducting-coils into a curved-cross-section, placing nonconducting wedge-shaped-material between windings, placing nonconducting curved-and-wedge-shaped-material between windings, or by a combination of these techniques.« less

  12. Statistical Significance of Optical Map Alignments

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Deepayan; Goldstein, Steve; Schwartz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Optical Mapping System constructs ordered restriction maps spanning entire genomes through the assembly and analysis of large datasets comprising individually analyzed genomic DNA molecules. Such restriction maps uniquely reveal mammalian genome structure and variation, but also raise computational and statistical questions beyond those that have been solved in the analysis of smaller, microbial genomes. We address the problem of how to filter maps that align poorly to a reference genome. We obtain map-specific thresholds that control errors and improve iterative assembly. We also show how an optimal self-alignment score provides an accurate approximation to the probability of alignment, which is useful in applications seeking to identify structural genomic abnormalities. PMID:22506568

  13. Alignment of chirped-pulse compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, I V

    2012-11-30

    An original method of alignment of grating compressors for ultrahigh-power CPA laser systems is proposed. The use of this method for adjustment of the grating compressor of a PEARL subpetawatt laser complex made it possible to align the diffraction gratings with a second accuracy in all three angular degrees of freedom, including alignment of the grooves, and to adjust the angles of beam incidence on the grating with a high accuracy. A simple method for measuring the difference in the groove densities of gratings with accuracy better than 0.005 lines mm{sup -1} is proposed and tested. (control of laser radiationmore » parameters)« less

  14. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  15. Aligning with physicians to regionalize services.

    PubMed

    Fink, John

    2014-11-01

    When effectively designed and implemented, regionalization allows a health system to coordinate care, eliminate redundancies, reduce costs, optimize resource utilization, and improve outcomes. The preferred model to manage service lines regionally will depend on each facility's capabilities and the willingness of physicians to accept changes in clinical delivery. Health systems can overcome physicians' objections to regionalization by implementing a hospital-physician alignment structure that gives a measure of shared control in the management of the organization.

  16. IUS prerelease alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Space shuttle orbiter/IUS alignment transfer was evaluated. Although the orbiter alignment accuracy was originally believed to be the major contributor to the overall alignment transfer error, it was shown that orbiter alignment accuracy is not a factor affecting IUS alignment accuracy, if certain procedures are followed. Results are reported of alignment transfer accuracy analysis.

  17. Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

  18. Cockpit control system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a means for operating the ailerons, elevator, elevator trim, rudder, nosewheel steering, and brakes in the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate system and subsystem integration, control function ability, and producibility. Weight and maintenance goals were addressed.

  19. Fiber optic control system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.; Russell, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A total fiber optic, integrated propulsion/flight control system concept for advanced fighter aircraft is presented. Fiber optic technology pertaining to this system is identified and evaluated for application readiness. A fiber optic sensor vendor survey was completed, and the results are reported. The advantages of centralized/direct architecture are reviewed, and the concept of the protocol branch is explained. Preliminary protocol branch selections are made based on the F-18/F404 application. Concepts for new optical tools are described. Development plans for the optical technology and the described system are included.

  20. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  1. Fiberoptics for propulsion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    In aircraft systems with digital controls, fiberoptics has advantages over wire systems because of its inherent immunity to electromagnetic noise (EMI) and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). It also offers a weight benefit when metallic conductors are replaced by optical fibers. To take full advantage of the benefits of optical waveguides, passive optical sensors are also being developed to eliminate the need for electrical power to the sensor. Fiberoptics may also be used for controlling actuators on engine and airframe. In this application, the optical fibers, connectors, etc. will be subjected to high temperature and vibrations. This paper discussed the use of fiberoptics in aircraft propulsion systems together with the optical sensors and optically controlled actuators being developed to take full advantage of the benefits which fiberoptics offers. The requirements for sensors and actuators in advanced propulsion systems are identified. The benefits of using fiberoptics in place of conventional wire systems are discussed as well as the environmental conditions under which the optical components must operate.

  2. A time domain simulation of a beam control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J. R.

    1981-02-01

    The Airborne Laser Laboratory (ALL) is being developed by the Air Force to investigate the integration and operation of high energy laser components in a dynamic airborne environment and to study the propagation of laser light from an airborne vehicle to an airborne target. The ALL is composed of several systems; among these are the Airborne Pointing and Tracking System (APT) and the Automatic Alignment System (AAS). This report presents the results of performing a time domain dynamic simulation for an integrated beam control system composed of the APT and AAS. The simulation is performed on a digital computer using the MIMIC language. It includes models of the dynamics of the system and of disturbances. Also presented in the report are the rationales and developments of these models. The data from the simulation code is summarized by several plots. In addition results from massaging the data with waveform analysis packages are presented. The results are discussed and conclusions are drawn.

  3. Simultaneous prenoon and postnoon observations of three field-aligned current systems from Viking and DMSP-F7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohtani, S.; Potemra, T. A.; Newell, P. T.; Zanetti, L. J.; Iijima, T.; Watanabe, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Elphinstone, R. D.; De La Beauijardie, O.; Blomberg, L. G.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial structure of dayside large-scale field-aligned current (FAC) systems is examined by using Viking and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F7 (DMSP-F7) data. We focus on four events in which the satellites simultaneously observed postnoon and prenoon three FAC systems: the region 2, the region 1, and the mantle (referred to as midday region O) systems, from equatorward to poleward. These events provide the most solid evidence to date that the midday region O system is a separate and unique FAC system, and is not an extension of the region 1 system from other local times. The events are examined comprehensively by making use of a mulit-instrumental data set, which includes magnetic field, particle flux, electric field, auroral UV image data from the satellites, and the Sondrestrom convection data. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Region 2 currents flow mostly in the central plasma sheet (CPS) precipitation region, often overlapping with the boundary plasma sheet (BPD) at their poleward edge. (2) The region 1 system is located in the core part of the auroral oval and is confined in a relatively narrow range in latitude which includes the convection reversal. The low-latitude boundary layer, possibly including the outer part of the plasma sheet, and the external cusp are the major source regions of dayside region 1 currents. (2) Midday region O currents flow on open field lines and are collocated with the shear of antisunward convection flows with velocites decreasing poleward. On the basis of these results we support the view that both prenoon and postnoon current systems consist of the three-sheet structure when the disctortion ofthe convection pattern associated with interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B(sub Y) is small and both morningside and eveningside convection cells are crescent-shaped. We also propose that the midday region O and a part of the region 1 systems are closely coupled to the same source.

  4. In-motion initial alignment and positioning with INS/CNS/ODO integrated navigation system for lunar rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Lei, Chaohua; Yang, Yanqiang; Liu, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Many countries have been paying great attention to space exploration, especially about the Moon and the Mars. Autonomous and high-accuracy navigation systems are needed for probers and rovers to accomplish missions. Inertial navigation system (INS)/celestial navigation system (CNS) based navigation system has been used widely on the lunar rovers. Initialization is a particularly important step for navigation. This paper presents an in-motion alignment and positioning method for lunar rovers by INS/CNS/odometer integrated navigation. The method can estimate not only the position and attitude errors, but also the biases of the accelerometers and gyros using the standard Kalman filter. The differences between the platform star azimuth, elevation angles and the computed star azimuth, elevation angles, and the difference between the velocity measured by odometer and the velocity measured by inertial sensors are taken as measurements. The semi-physical experiments are implemented to demonstrate that the position error can reduce to 10 m and attitude error is within 2″ during 5 min. The experiment results prove that it is an effective and attractive initialization approach for lunar rovers.

  5. Fabrication of nanowire channels with unidirectional alignment and controlled length by a simple, gas-blowing-assisted, selective-transfer-printing technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Kwan; Kang, Pil Soo; Kim, Dae-Il; Shin, Gunchul; Kim, Gyu Tae; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2009-03-01

    A printing-based lithographic technique for the patterning of V(2)O(5) nanowire channels with unidirectional orientation and controlled length is introduced. The simple, directional blowing of a patterned polymer stamp with N(2) gas, inked with randomly distributed V(2)O(5) nanowires, induces alignment of the nanowires perpendicular to the long axis of the line patterns. Subsequent stamping on the amine-terminated surface results in the selective transfer of the aligned nanowires with a controlled length corresponding to the width of the relief region of the polymer stamp. By employing such a gas-blowing-assisted, selective-transfer-printing technique, two kinds of device structures consisting of nanowire channels and two metal electrodes with top contact, whereby the nanowires were aligned either parallel (parallel device) or perpendicular (serial device) to the current flow in the conduction channel, are fabricated. The electrical properties demonstrate a noticeable difference between the two devices, with a large hysteresis in the parallel device but none in the serial device. Systematic analysis of the hysteresis and the electrical stability account for the observed hysteresis in terms of the proton diffusion in the water layer of the V(2)O(5) nanowires, induced by the application of an external bias voltage higher than a certain threshold voltage.

  6. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Managementmore » Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information

  7. An aligned porous electrospun fibrous membrane with controlled drug delivery - An efficient strategy to accelerate diabetic wound healing with improved angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaozhi; Han, Yiming; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Yuqi; Yi, Zhengfang; Xu, He; Ke, Qinfei

    2018-04-01

    A chronic wound in diabetic patients is usually characterized by poor angiogenesis and delayed wound closure. The exploration of efficient strategy to significantly improve angiogenesis in the diabetic wound bed and thereby accelerate wound healing is still a significant challenge. Herein, we reported a kind of aligned porous poly (l-lactic acid) (PlLA) electrospun fibrous membranes containing dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DS) for diabetic wound healing. The PlLA electrospun fibers aligned in a single direction and there were ellipse-shaped nano-pores in situ generated onto the surface of fibers, while the DS were well distributed in the fibers and the DMOG as well as Si ion could be controlled released from the nanopores on the fibers. The in vitro results revealed that the aligned porous composite membranes (DS-PL) could stimulate the proliferation, migration and angiogenesis-related gene expression of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared with the pure PlLA membranes. The in vivo study further demonstrated that the prepared DS-PL membranes significantly improved neo-vascularization, re-epithelialization and collagen formation as well as inhibited inflammatory reaction in the diabetic wound bed, which eventually stimulated the healing of the diabetic wound. Collectively, these results suggest that the combination of hierarchical structures (nanopores on the aligned fibers) with the controllable released DMOG drugs as well as Si ions from the membranes, which could create a synergetic effect on the rapid stimulation of angiogenesis in the diabetic wound bed, is a potential novel therapeutic strategy for highly efficient diabetic wound healing. A chronic wound in diabetic patients is usually characterized by the poor angiogenesis and the delayed wound closure. The main innovation of this study is to design a new kind of skin tissue engineered scaffold, aligned porous poly (l-lactic acid) (PlLA) electrospun

  8. 14 CFR 29.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Control system. (a) The reaction to the loads prescribed in § 29.397 must be provided by— (1) The control... its limit of motion); (4) The attachment of the control system to the rotor blade pitch control horn... of its motion); and (5) The attachment of the control system to the control surface horn (with the...

  9. 14 CFR 29.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Control system. (a) The reaction to the loads prescribed in § 29.397 must be provided by— (1) The control... its limit of motion); (4) The attachment of the control system to the rotor blade pitch control horn... of its motion); and (5) The attachment of the control system to the control surface horn (with the...

  10. Isolation contactor state control system

    DOEpatents

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-05-16

    A controller area network (CAN) installed on a hybrid electric vehicle provides one node with control of high voltage power distribution system isolation contactors and the capacity to energize a secondary electro-mechanical relay device. The output of the secondary relay provides a redundant and persistent backup signal to the output of the node. The secondary relay is relatively immune to CAN message traffic interruptions and, as a result, the high voltage isolation contactor(s) are less likely to transition open in the event that the intelligent output driver should fail.

  11. Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    An up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille'95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station.

  12. Controlled transition dipole alignment of energy donor and energy acceptor molecules in doped organic crystals, and the effect on intermolecular Förster energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Yue, Bailing; Xie, Zengqi; Gao, Bingrong; Xu, Yuanxiang; Liu, Linlin; Sun, Hongbo; Ma, Yuguang

    2013-03-14

    The orientation factor κ(2) ranging from 0 to 4, which depends on the relative orientation of the transition dipoles of the energy donor (D) and the energy acceptor (A) in space, is one of the pivotal factors deciding the efficiency and directionality of resonance energy transfer (RET) in a D-A molecular system. In this work, tetracene (Tc) and pentacene (Pc) are successfully doped in a trans-1,4-distyrylbenzene (DSB) crystalline lattice to form definite D-A mutually perpendicular transition dipole orientations. The cross D-A dipole arrangement results in an extremely small orientation factor, which is about two orders smaller than that in the disordered films. The energy transfer properties from the host (DSB) to the guest (Tc/Pc) were investigated in detail by steady-state as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Our experimental research results show that the small value of κ(2) allows less or partial energy transfer from the host (DSB) to the guest (Tc) in a wide range of guest concentration, with the Förster distance of around 1.5 nm. By controlling the doping concentrations in the Tc and Pc doubly doped DSB crystals, we demonstrate, as an example, for the first time the application of the restricted energy transfer by D-A cross transition dipole arrangement for preparation of a large-size, white-emissive organic crystal with the CIE coordinates of (0.36, 0.37) approaching an ideal white light. In contrast, Tc is also doped in an anthracene crystalline lattice to form head-to-tail D-A transition dipole alignment, which is proved to be highly effective to promote the intermolecular energy transfer. In this doped system, the orientation factor is relatively large and the Förster distance is around 7 nm.

  13. Tracking spin-axis orbital alignment in selected binary systems: the Torun Rossiter-McLaughlin effect survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sybilski, P.; Pawłaszek, R. K.; Sybilska, A.; Konacki, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Kozłowski, S. K.; Ratajczak, M.

    2018-07-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectra of four eclipsing binary systems (FM Leo, NN Del, V963 Cen and AI Phe) with the view to gaining an insight into the relative orientations of their stellar spin axes and orbital axes. The so-called Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect, i.e. the fact that the broadening and the amount of blue or redshift in the spectra during an eclipse depends on the tilt of the spin axis of the background star, has the potential of reconciling observations and theoretical models if such a tilt is found. We analyse the RM effect by disentangling the spectra, removing the front component and measuring the remaining, distorted lines with a broadening function (BF) obtained from single-value decomposition (SVD), weighting by the intensity centre of the BF in the eclipse. All but one of our objects show no significant misalignment, suggesting that aligned systems are dominant. We provide stellar as well as orbital parameters for our systems. With five measured spin-orbit angles, we increase significantly (from 9 to 14) the number of stars for which it has been measured. The spin-orbit angle β calculated for AI Phe's secondary component shows a misalignment of 87±17°. NN Del, with a large separation of components and a long dynamical time-scale for circularization and synchronization, is an example of a close to primordial spin-orbit angle measurement.

  14. Knowledge-based expert systems and a proof-of-concept case study for multiple sequence alignment construction and analysis.

    PubMed

    Aniba, Mohamed Radhouene; Siguenza, Sophie; Friedrich, Anne; Plewniak, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Thompson, Julie Dawn

    2009-01-01

    The traditional approach to bioinformatics analyses relies on independent task-specific services and applications, using different input and output formats, often idiosyncratic, and frequently not designed to inter-operate. In general, such analyses were performed by experts who manually verified the results obtained at each step in the process. Today, the amount of bioinformatics information continuously being produced means that handling the various applications used to study this information presents a major data management and analysis challenge to researchers. It is now impossible to manually analyse all this information and new approaches are needed that are capable of processing the large-scale heterogeneous data in order to extract the pertinent information. We review the recent use of integrated expert systems aimed at providing more efficient knowledge extraction for bioinformatics research. A general methodology for building knowledge-based expert systems is described, focusing on the unstructured information management architecture, UIMA, which provides facilities for both data and process management. A case study involving a multiple alignment expert system prototype called AlexSys is also presented.

  15. Knowledge-based expert systems and a proof-of-concept case study for multiple sequence alignment construction and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aniba, Mohamed Radhouene; Siguenza, Sophie; Friedrich, Anne; Plewniak, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier; Marchler-Bauer, Aron

    2009-01-01

    The traditional approach to bioinformatics analyses relies on independent task-specific services and applications, using different input and output formats, often idiosyncratic, and frequently not designed to inter-operate. In general, such analyses were performed by experts who manually verified the results obtained at each step in the process. Today, the amount of bioinformatics information continuously being produced means that handling the various applications used to study this information presents a major data management and analysis challenge to researchers. It is now impossible to manually analyse all this information and new approaches are needed that are capable of processing the large-scale heterogeneous data in order to extract the pertinent information. We review the recent use of integrated expert systems aimed at providing more efficient knowledge extraction for bioinformatics research. A general methodology for building knowledge-based expert systems is described, focusing on the unstructured information management architecture, UIMA, which provides facilities for both data and process management. A case study involving a multiple alignment expert system prototype called AlexSys is also presented. PMID:18971242

  16. Heat engine generator control system

    DOEpatents

    Rajashekara, Kaushik; Gorti, Bhanuprasad Venkata; McMullen, Steven Robert; Raibert, Robert Joseph

    1998-01-01

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power.

  17. Heat engine generator control system

    DOEpatents

    Rajashekara, K.; Gorti, B.V.; McMullen, S.R.; Raibert, R.J.

    1998-05-12

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power. 8 figs.

  18. Autonomous grain combine control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  19. Nucleation, Growth Mechanism, and Controlled Coating of ZnO ALD onto Vertically Aligned N-Doped CNTs.

    PubMed

    Silva, R M; Ferro, M C; Araujo, J R; Achete, C A; Clavel, G; Silva, R F; Pinna, N

    2016-07-19

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc and water. The study demonstrates that doping CNTs with nitrogen is an effective approach for the "activation" of the CNTs surface for the ALD of metal oxides. Conformal ZnO coatings are already obtained after 50 ALD cycles, whereas at lower ALD cycles an island growth mode is observed. Moreover, the process allows for a uniform growth from the top to the bottom of the vertically aligned N-CNT arrays. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that ZnO nucleation takes place at the N-containing species on the surface of the CNTs by the formation of the Zn-N bonds at the interface between the CNTs and the ZnO film.

  20. Experimental research control software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  1. In place of fear: aligning health care planning with system objectives to achieve financial sustainability.

    PubMed

    Birch, Stephen; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cumming, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    The financial sustainability of publicly funded health care systems is a challenge to policymakers in many countries as health care absorbs an ever increasing share of both national wealth and government spending. New technology, aging populations and increasing public expectations of the health care system are often cited as reasons why health care systems need ever increasing funding as well as reasons why universal and comprehensive public systems are unsustainable. However, increases in health care spending are not usually linked to corresponding increases in need for care within populations. Attempts to promote financial sustainability of systems such as limiting the range of services is covered or the groups of population covered may compromise their political sustainability as some groups are left to seek private cover for some or all services. In this paper, an alternative view of financial sustainability is presented which identifies the failure of planning and management of health care to reflect needs for care in populations and to integrate planning and management functions for health care expenditure, health care services and the health care workforce. We present a Health Care Sustainability Framework based on disaggregating the health care expenditure into separate planning components. Unlike other approaches to planning health care expenditure, this framework explicitly incorporates population health needs as a determinant of health care requirements, and provides a diagnostic tool for understanding the sources of expenditure increase. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution via Band Alignment Tailoring: Controllable Transition from Type-I to Type-II.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongzhou; Wang, Fengmei; Shifa, Tofik Ahmed; Jiang, Chao; Liu, Quanlin; He, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Considering the sizable band gap and wide spectrum response of tin disulfide (SnS 2 ), ultrathin SnS 2 nanosheets are utilized as solar-driven photocatalyst for water splitting. Designing a heterostructure based on SnS 2 is believed to boost their catalytic performance. Unfortunately, it has been quite challenging to explore a material with suitable band alignment using SnS 2 nanomaterials for photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Herein, a new strategy is used to systematically tailor the band alignment in SnS 2 based heterostructure to realize efficient H 2 production under sunlight. A Type-I to Type-II band alignment transition is demonstrated via introducing an interlayer of Ce 2 S 3 , a potential photocatalyst for H 2 evolution, between SnS 2 and CeO 2 . Subsequently, this heterostructure demonstrates tunability in light absorption, charge transfer kinetics, and material stability. The optimized heterostructure (SnS 2 -Ce 2 S 3 -CeO 2 ) exhibits an incredibly strong light absorption ranging from deep UV to infrared light. Significantly, it also shows superior hydrogen generation with the rate of 240 µmol g -1 h -1 under the illumination of simulated sunlight with a very good stability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Automatic tool alignment in a backscatter X-ray scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas S.; Monda, Mark J.

    2015-11-17

    Technologies pertaining to backscatter x-ray scanning systems are described herein. The backscatter x-ray scanning system includes an x-ray source, which directs collimated x-rays along a plurality of output vectors towards a target. A detector detects diffusely reflected x-rays subsequent to respective collimated x-rays impacting the target, and outputs signals indicative of parameters of the detected x-rays. An image processing system generates an x-ray image based upon parameters of the detected x-rays, wherein each pixel in the image corresponds to a respective output vector. A user selects a particular portion of the image, and a medical device is positioned such that its directional axis is coincident with the output vector corresponding to at least one pixel in the portion of the image.

  4. Automatic tool alignment in a backscatter x-ray scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas S.; Monda, Mark J.

    2015-06-16

    Technologies pertaining to backscatter x-ray scanning systems are described herein. The backscatter x-ray scanning system includes an x-ray source, which directs collimated x-rays along a plurality of output vectors towards a target. A detector detects diffusely reflected x-rays subsequent to respective collimated x-rays impacting the target, and outputs signals indicative of parameters of the detected x-rays. An image processing system generates an x-ray image based upon parameters of the detected x-rays, wherein each pixel in the image corresponds to a respective output vector. A user selects a particular portion of the image, and a tool is positioned such that its directional axis is coincident with the output vector corresponding to at least one pixel in the portion of the image.

  5. Military Health System - Governance, Alignment and Configuration of Business Activities Task Group Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    requirements, etc. 2. Enhance the commitment and relationship with Veterans Affairs including shared clinic services and facilities, best evidence - based medicine and...health mission that applies best evidence - based medicine for stakeholders including: – Enhancing the medical readiness of all forces for all missions...hospitals and clinics) and are moving to common equipment, supplies, formularies, etc. • Applying best evidence - based medicine is helping to control supply

  6. The Fermilab Accelerator control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogert, Dixon

    1986-06-01

    With the advent of the Tevatron, considerable upgrades have been made to the controls of all the Fermilab Accelerators. The current system is based on making as large an amount of data as possible available to many operators or end-users. Specifically there are about 100 000 separate readings, settings, and status and control registers in the various machines, all of which can be accessed by seventeen consoles, some in the Main Control Room and others distributed throughout the complex. A "Host" computer network of approximately eighteen PDP-11/34's, seven PDP-11/44's, and three VAX-11/785's supports a distributed data acquisition system including Lockheed MAC-16's left from the original Main Ring and Booster instrumentation and upwards of 1000 Z80, Z8002, and M68000 microprocessors in dozens of configurations. Interaction of the various parts of the system is via a central data base stored on the disk of one of the VAXes. The primary computer-hardware communication is via CAMAC for the new Tevatron and Antiproton Source; certain subsystems, among them vacuum, refrigeration, and quench protection, reside in the distributed microprocessors and communicate via GAS, an in-house protocol. An important hardware feature is an accurate clock system making a large number of encoded "events" in the accelerator supercycle available for both hardware modules and computers. System software features include the ability to save the current state of the machine or any subsystem and later restore it or compare it with the state at another time, a general logging facility to keep track of specific variables over long periods of time, detection of "exception conditions" and the posting of alarms, and a central filesharing capability in which files on VAX disks are available for access by any of the "Host" processors.

  7. Simple and sensitive technique for alignment of the pinhole of a spatial filter of a high-energy, high-power laser system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Avnish Kumar; Patidar, Rajesh Kumar; Daiya, Deepak; Joshi, Anandverdhan; Naik, Prasad Anant; Gupta, Parshotam Dass

    2013-04-20

    In this paper, a new method for alignment of the pinhole of a spatial filter (SF) has been proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The effect of the misalignment of the pinhole on the laser beam profiles has been calculated for circular and elliptical Gaussian laser beams. Theoretical computation has been carried out to illustrate the effect of an intensity mask, placed before the focusing lens of the SF, on the spatial beam profile after the pinhole of the SF. It is shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that a simple intensity mask, consisting of a black dot, can be used to visually align the pinhole with a high accuracy of 5% of the pinhole diameter. The accuracy may be further improved using a computer-based image processing algorithm. Finally, the proposed technique has been demonstrated to align a vacuum SF of a compact 40 J Nd:phosphate glass laser system.

  8. Alignment of the system's chief nursing officer: staff or direct line structure?

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene M; Luquire, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    The role of the system chief nursing officer nationally and internationally has been traditionally structured as a staff model, a direct line model, or a hybrid that includes parts of each model. The choice of structure should be made after a thorough investigation of what outcomes the system wants this position to accomplish, developing the appropriate structure to achieve these outcomes, and then engaging a chief nursing officer with the skills indicated by the type of structure chosen. This article describes these 3 structures and the support infrastructure necessary for each model.

  9. Control Reconfiguration of Command and Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    decision errors and control action delays upon entering a state. These two undesirable effects can be intertwined. To quantify their individual impact...19 6) Effect of...Study of the Effect of Supervisory Control on a Redundant Database Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 (Metzler and Wu, Report to AFRL 2005) 9.1) Problem

  10. A Framework for Aligning Instructional Design Strategies with Affordances of CAVE Immersive Virtual Reality Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, Leah T.; Buss, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing availability of immersive virtual reality (IVR) systems, such as the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and head-mounted displays, for use in education contexts is providing new opportunities and challenges for instructional designers. By highlighting the affordances of IVR specific to the CAVE, the authors emphasize the…

  11. Preparing Information Systems Graduates for a Complex Society: Aligning IS Curricula with Liberal Education Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Jean A.; Keys, Anthony; Wirkus, Tyrrell

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to encourage Information Systems (IS) faculty to intentionally revise their curriculum to address (and assess) higher-order learning skills which are demanded by industry and society and are representative of a liberal arts based education. We substantiated the need for this proposed curriculum revision by first…

  12. Aim Higher: Lofty Goals and an Aligned System Keep a High Performer on Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCommons, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Every school district is feeling the pressure to ensure higher academic achievement for all students. A focus on professional learning for an administrative team not only improves student learning and achievement, but also assists in developing a systemic approach for continued success. This is how the Fox Chapel Area School District in…

  13. Towards Automatically Aligning German Compounds with English Word Groups in an Example-Based Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel; Alexa, Melina

    As part of the development of a completely sub-symbolic machine translation system, a method for automatically identifying German compounds was developed. Given a parallel bilingual corpus, German compounds are identified along with their English word groupings by statistical processing alone. The underlying principles and the design process are…

  14. Jig Aligns Shadow Mask On CCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Carlos V.

    1989-01-01

    Alignment viewed through microscope. Alignment jig positions shadow mask on charge-coupled device (CCD) so metal film deposited on it precisely. Allows CCD package to be inserted and removed without disturbing alignment of mask. Holds CCD packages securely and isolates it electrostatically while providing electrical contact to each of its pins. When alignment jig assembled with CCD, used to move mask under micrometer control.

  15. Level Alignment as Descriptor for Semiconductor/Catalyst Systems in Water Splitting: The Case of Hematite/Cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Hegner, Franziska Simone; Cardenas-Morcoso, Drialys; Giménez, Sixto; López, Núria; Galan-Mascaros, Jose Ramon

    2017-11-23

    The realization of artificial photosynthesis may depend on the efficient integration of photoactive semiconductors and catalysts to promote photoelectrochemical water splitting. Many efforts are currently devoted to the processing of multicomponent anodes and cathodes in the search for appropriate synergy between light absorbers and active catalysts. No single material appears to combine both features. Many experimental parameters are key to achieve the needed synergy between both systems, without clear protocols for success. Herein, we show how computational chemistry can shed some light on this cumbersome problem. DFT calculations are useful to predict adequate energy-level alignment for thermodynamically favored hole transfer. As proof of concept, we experimentally confirmed the limited performance enhancement in hematite photoanodes decorated with cobalt hexacyanoferrate as a competent water-oxidation catalyst. Computational methods describe the misalignment of their energy levels, which is the origin of this mismatch. Photoelectrochemical studies indicate that the catalyst exclusively shifts the hematite surface state to lower potentials, which therefore reduces the onset for water oxidation. Although kinetics will still depend on interface architecture, our simple theoretical approach may identify and predict plausible semiconductor/catalyst combinations, which will speed up experimental work towards promising photoelectrocatalytic systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. An investigation into the alignment of a South African physiotherapy curriculum and the expectations of the healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Ramklass, Serela S

    2009-09-01

    Until 1994, physiotherapy education and training were aligned with the expectations of the South African healthcare system. Subsequent to policy shifts since 1994, the professional role of physiotherapists has expanded. In the absence of guiding strategies to support this change, physiotherapy curricula have remained relatively static. The paper examines the discrepancies between physiotherapy education and training at a South African university post apartheid and the expectations of the healthcare system. Located within critical feminist research framings and employing narrative inquiry as the selected methodology, data were produced through multiple methods to obtain multiple perspectives and orientations. This multisectorial data production approach involving student physiotherapists, physiotherapy academics and practising physiotherapists included in-depth focus group interviews, individual interviews, life-history biographies and open-ended questionnaires. The data were analysed separately for each group of research participants (physiotherapy students, practitioners and academics), followed by a cross-sector analysis. The analysis illustrated current disciplinary trends and shortcomings of the physiotherapy undergraduate curriculum, whilst highlighting that which is considered valuable and progressive in physiotherapy and health care. The dominant themes that emerged included issues relating to physiotherapy theory and practice, and issues that influenced the construction of relationships in the curriculum. The significance of this study lies in the value of student and practitioner feedback to inform curriculum and professional development in the light of sociopolitical changes and healthcare expectations.

  17. Controlled Growth of Large-Area Aligned Single-Crystalline Organic Nanoribbon Arrays for Transistors and Light-Emitting Diodes Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Liang; Dai, Gaole; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Xiujuan; Jie, Jiansheng; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2017-10-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on organic micro-/nanocrystals have been widely reported with charge carrier mobility exceeding 1.0 cm2 V-1 s-1, demonstrating great potential for high-performance, low-cost organic electronic applications. However, fabrication of large-area organic micro-/nanocrystal arrays with consistent crystal growth direction has posed a significant technical challenge. Here, we describe a solution-processed dip-coating technique to grow large-area, aligned 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl) anthracene (BPEA) and 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN) single-crystalline nanoribbon arrays. The method is scalable to a 5 × 10 cm2 wafer substrate, with around 60% of the wafer surface covered by aligned crystals. The quality of crystals can be easily controlled by tuning the dip-coating speed. Furthermore, OFETs based on well-aligned BPEA and TIPS-PEN single-crystalline nanoribbons were constructed. By optimizing channel lengths and using appropriate metallic electrodes, the BPEA and TIPS-PEN-based OFETs showed hole mobility exceeding 2.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 (average mobility 1.2 cm2 V-1 s-1) and 3.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 (average mobility 2.0 cm2 V-1 s-1), respectively. They both have a high on/off ratio ( I on/ I off) > 109. The performance can well satisfy the requirements for light-emitting diodes driving.

  18. Computer Vision Evidence Supporting Craniometric Alignment of Rat Brain Atlases to Streamline Expert-Guided, First-Order Migration of Hypothalamic Spatial Datasets Related to Behavioral Control

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arshad M.; Perez, Jose G.; Wells, Claire E.; Fuentes, Olac

    2018-01-01

    neuronal cell bodies, axons, and chemoarchitecture; to generate data-constrained hypotheses difficult to formulate otherwise. The alignment strategies provided in this study constitute a basic starting point for first-order, user-guided data migration between PW and S reference spaces along three dimensions that is potentially extensible to other spatial reference systems for the rat brain. PMID:29765309

  19. Automated method and system for the alignment and correlation of images from two different modalities

    DOEpatents

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Armato, Samuel; Doi, Kunio

    1999-10-26

    A method and system for the computerized registration of radionuclide images with radiographic images, including generating image data from radiographic and radionuclide images of the thorax. Techniques include contouring the lung regions in each type of chest image, scaling and registration of the contours based on location of lung apices, and superimposition after appropriate shifting of the images. Specific applications are given for the automated registration of radionuclide lungs scans with chest radiographs. The method in the example given yields a system that spatially registers and correlates digitized chest radiographs with V/Q scans in order to correlate V/Q functional information with the greater structural detail of chest radiographs. Final output could be the computer-determined contours from each type of image superimposed on any of the original images, or superimposition of the radionuclide image data, which contains high activity, onto the radiographic chest image.

  20. Teamed for Success: The Imperative for Aligning Systems Engineering and Life Cycle Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    January-February 2013 Kobren is director of the DAU Logistics & Sustainment Center, and the DoD Product Support Assessment Human Capital IPT lead...engineering colleagues, here are 10 key life-cycle logistics, product support, and system sustainment tenets to be cognizant of: Decisions You Make Will...and updates to the Life Cycle Sustainment Plan (LCSP). A vast majority of a weapon systems’ total ownership costs are determined by decisions made

  1. Influence of alignment errors of a telescope system on its aberration field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shack, R. V.; Thompson, K.

    1980-01-01

    The study of aberrations in a system is considered. It is pointed out that a system in which the elements are tilted and decentered has no axial symmetry, and in fact no symmetry at all if the tilts, and decentrations are not coplanar. It is customary in such a case to give up on an aberration-theoretic treatment and simply trace enough rays to produce a set of spot diagrams for various points in the field. However, in connection with the lack of symmetry, it is necessary to select a relatively large number of points. The considered investigation is concerned with an aberration-theoretic approach which can be applied to such systems. This approach provides insight into the field behavior of the aberrations with great economy in the calculation. It is based on a concept suggested by Buchroeder (1976). In the given case, this concept considers for the component fields corresponding to the various surfaces centers of symmetry which do not coincide. Attention is given to the procedure for locating the centers of symmetry, aberrations fields, spherical aberration, and various types of astigmatism.

  2. Energy Systems Integration Facility Control Room | Energy Systems

    Science.gov Websites

    Integration Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility Control Room Energy Systems Integration Facility Control Room The Energy Systems Integration Facility control room allows system engineers as the monitoring point for the facility's integrated safety and control systems. Photo of employees

  3. 14 CFR 25.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control system. 25.395 Section 25.395... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.395 Control system. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and drag control system and their supporting structures must...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more, it...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more, it...

  6. 14 CFR 25.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control system. 25.395 Section 25.395... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.395 Control system. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and drag control system and their supporting structures must...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more, it...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more, it...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more, it...

  10. Control and automation of the Pegasus multi-point Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, G. M., E-mail: gbodner@wisc.edu; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.

    A new control system for the Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been deployed to automate the laser operation, data collection process, and interface with the system-wide Pegasus control code. Automation has been extended to areas outside of data collection, such as manipulation of beamline cameras and remotely controlled turning mirror actuators to enable intra-shot beam alignment. Additionally, the system has been upgraded with a set of fast (∼1 ms) mechanical shutters to mitigate contamination from background light. Modification and automation of the Thomson system have improved both data quality and diagnostic reliability.

  11. Control and automation of the Pegasus multi-point Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Grant M.; Bongard, Michael W.; Fonck, Raymond J.

    A new control system for the Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been deployed to automate the laser operation, data collection process, and interface with the system-wide Pegasus control code. Automation has been extended to areas outside of data collection, such as manipulation of beamline cameras and remotely controlled turning mirror actuators to enable intra-shot beam alignment. In addition, the system has been upgraded with a set of fast (~1 ms) mechanical shutters to mitigate contamination from background light. Modification and automation of the Thomson system have improved both data quality and diagnostic reliability.

  12. Control and automation of the Pegasus multi-point Thomson scattering system

    DOE PAGES

    Bodner, Grant M.; Bongard, Michael W.; Fonck, Raymond J.; ...

    2016-08-12

    A new control system for the Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been deployed to automate the laser operation, data collection process, and interface with the system-wide Pegasus control code. Automation has been extended to areas outside of data collection, such as manipulation of beamline cameras and remotely controlled turning mirror actuators to enable intra-shot beam alignment. In addition, the system has been upgraded with a set of fast (~1 ms) mechanical shutters to mitigate contamination from background light. Modification and automation of the Thomson system have improved both data quality and diagnostic reliability.

  13. Alignment of optical system components using an ADM beam through a null assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Joseph E. (Inventor); Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for testing an optical surface includes a rangefinder configured to emit a light beam and a null assembly located between the rangefinder and the optical surface. The null assembly is configured to receive and to reflect the emitted light beam toward the optical surface. The light beam reflected from the null assembly is further reflected back from the optical surface toward the null assembly as a return light beam. The rangefinder is configured to measure a distance to the optical surface using the return light beam.

  14. Thermal control system corrosion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Robert; Folsom, Rolfe A.; Mucha, Phillip E.

    1990-01-01

    During the development of an expert system for autonomous control of the Space Station Thermal Control System (TCS), the thermal performance of the Brassboard TCS began to gradually degrade. This degradation was due to filter clogging by metallic residue. A study was initiated to determine the source of the residue and the basic cause of the corrosion. The investigation focused on the TCS design, materials compatibility, Ames operating and maintenance procedures, and chemical analysis of the residue and of the anhydrous ammonia used as the principal refrigerant. It was concluded that the corrosion mechanisms involved two processes: the reaction of water alone with large, untreated aluminum parts in a high pH environment and the presence of chlorides and chloride salts. These salts will attack the aluminum oxide layer and may enable galvanic corrosion between the aluminum and the more noble stainless steel and other metallic elements present. Recommendations are made for modifications to the system design, the materials used, and the operating and maintenance procedures, which should largely prevent the recurrence of these corrosion mechanisms.

  15. Electrostatically Induced Carbon Nanotube Alignment for Polymer Composite Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapkin, Wesley Aaron

    We have developed a non-invasive technique utilizing polarized Raman spectroscopy to measure changes in carbon nanotube (CNT) alignment in situ and in real time in a polymer matrix. With this technique, we have confirmed the prediction of faster alignment for CNTs in higher electric fields. Real-time polarized Raman spectroscopy also allows us to demonstrate the loss of CNT alignment that occurs after the electric field is removed, which reveals the need for fast polymerization steps or the continued application of the aligning force during polymerization to lock in CNT alignment. Through a study on the effect of polymer viscosity on the rate of CNT alignment, we have determined that shear viscosity serves as the controlling mechanism for CNT rotation. This finding matches literature modeling of rigid rod mobility in a polymer melt and demonstrates that the rotational mobility of CNTs can be explained by a continuum model even though the diameters of single-walled CNTs are 1-2 nm. The viscosity dependence indicates that the manipulation of temperature (and indirectly viscosity) will have a direct effect on the rate of CNT alignment, which could prove useful in expediting the manufacturing of CNT-reinforced composites cured at elevated temperatures. Using real-time polarized Raman spectroscopy, we also demonstrate that electric fields of various strengths lead not only to different speeds of CNT rotation but also to different degrees of alignment. We hypothesize that this difference in achievable alignment results from discrete populations of nanotubes based on their length. The results are then explained by balancing the alignment energy for a given electric field strength with the randomizing thermal energy of the system. By studying the alignment dynamics of different CNT length distributions, we show that different degrees of alignment achieved as a function of the applied electric field strength are directly related to the square of the nanotube length. This

  16. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a majormore » center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.« less

  17. About development of automation control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Wenger, K. G.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, V. N.

    2018-05-01

    The shortcomings of approaches to the development of modern control automation systems and ways of their improvement are given: the correct formation of objects for study and optimization; a joint synthesis of control objects and control systems, an increase in the structural diversity of the elements of control systems. Diagrams of control systems with purposefully variable structure of their elements are presented. Structures of control algorithms for an object with a purposefully variable structure are given.

  18. Dynamic Centralized and Decentralized Control Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-09-01

    This report develops a systematic method for designing suboptimal decentralized control systems. The method is then applied to the design of a decentralized controller for a freeway-corridor system. A freeway corridor is considered to be a system of ...

  19. The Poleward Boundary Intensification (PBI) of Auroral Emission: Its Dynamics and Associated Field-aligned Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, S.; Motoba, T.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    The poleward boundary intensification (PBI) of aurora emission is often addressed in terms of distant reconnection. Recently, however, Ohtani and Yoshikawa [2016] proposed that the PBIs, at least at the initial stage of their formation, are actually the effect of ionospheric polarization in the presence of the enhanced convection in the polar cap and conductance gradient at the poleward boundary of the auroral oval. Whereas the ionospheric polarization itself is a transient process, it is known that the PBIs occasionally extend longitudinally suggesting that a 3D current system forms subsequently, which electrodynamically couples the magnetosphere and ionosphere. In the present study we observationally examine the associated field-aligned current (FAC) observed by the SWARM satellites and compare its characteristics with ground all-sky images. It is found that complex signatures of FACs as suggested by magnetic disturbances reflect the spatial structure of aurora (e.g., location and orientation), whereas the overall motion of PBIs is well explained in terms of the background convection suggested by the FAC distribution. We shall discuss the implications of these results for the responsible evolution process of the PBIs.

  20. Control and Information Systems for the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Brunton, Gordon; Casey, Allan; Christensen, Marvin; ...

    2017-03-23

    Orchestration of every National Ignition Facility (NIF) shot cycle is managed by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which uses a scalable software architecture running code on more than 1950 front-end processors, embedded controllers, and supervisory servers. The ICCS operates laser and industrial control hardware containing 66 000 control and monitor points to ensure that all of NIF’s laser beams arrive at the target within 30 ps of each other and are aligned to a pointing accuracy of less than 50 μm root-mean-square, while ensuring that a host of diagnostic instruments record data in a few billionths of a second.more » NIF’s automated control subsystems are built from a common object-oriented software framework that distributes the software across the computer network and achieves interoperation between different software languages and target architectures. A large suite of business and scientific software tools supports experimental planning, experimental setup, facility configuration, and post-shot analysis. Standard business services using open-source software, commercial workflow tools, and database and messaging technologies have been developed. An information technology infrastructure consisting of servers, network devices, and storage provides the foundation for these systems. Thus, this work is an overview of the control and information systems used to support a wide variety of experiments during the National Ignition Campaign.« less