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Sample records for alignment direction corresponds

  1. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  2. The size-brightness correspondence: evidence for crosstalk among aligned conceptual feature dimensions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter; Walker, Laura; Francis, Brian

    2015-11-01

    The same core set of cross-sensory correspondences connecting stimulus features across different sensory channels are observed, regardless of the modality of the stimulus with which the correspondences are probed. This observation suggests that correspondences involve modality-independent representations of aligned conceptual feature dimensions and predicts a size-brightness correspondence in which smaller is aligned with brighter. This suggestion accommodates cross-sensory congruity effects where contrasting feature values are specified verbally rather than perceptually (e.g., where the words WHITE and BLACK interact with the classification of high- and low-pitch sounds). Experiment 1 brings these two issues together in assessing a conceptual basis for correspondences. The names of bright/white and dark/black substances were presented in a speeded brightness classification task, in which the two alternative response keys differed in size. A size-brightness congruity effect was confirmed, with substance names classified more quickly when the relative size of the response key needing to be pressed was congruent with the brightness of the named substance (e.g., when yoghurt was classified as a bright substance by pressing the smaller of two keys). Experiment 2 assesses the proposed conceptual basis for this congruity effect by requiring the same named substances to be classified according to their edibility (with all of the bright/dark substances having been selected for their edibility/inedibility, respectively). The predicted absence of a size-brightness congruity effect, along with other aspects of the results, supports the proposed conceptual basis for correspondences and speaks against accounts in which modality-specific perceptuomotor representations are entirely responsible for correspondence-induced congruity effects.

  3. FAST/Polar Conjunction Study of Field-Aligned Auroral Acceleration and Corresponding Magnetotail Drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schriver, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Strangeway, R. J.; Richard, R. L.; Klezting, C.; Dotan, Y.; Wygant, J.

    2003-01-01

    The discrete aurora results when energized electrons bombard the Earth's atmosphere at high latitudes. This paper examines the physical processes that can cause field-aligned acceleration of plasma particles in the auroral region. A data and theoretical study has been carried out to examine the acceleration mechanisms that operate in the auroral zone and to identi@ the magnetospheric drivers of these acceleration mechanisms. The observations used in the study were collected by the Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) and Polar satellites when the two satellites were in approximate magnetic conjunction in the auroral region. During these events FAST was in the middle of the auroral zone and Polar was above the auroral zone in the near-Earth plasma sheet. Polar data were used to determine the conditions in the magnetotail at the time field-aligned acceleration was measured by FAST in the auroral zone. For each of the magnetotail drivers identified in the data study, the physics of field-aligned acceleration in the auroral region was examined using existing theoretical efforts and/or a long-system particle in cell simulation to model the magnetically connected region between the two satellites. Results from the study indicate that there are three main drivers of auroral acceleration: (1) field-aligned currents that lead to quasistatic parallel potential drops (parallel electric fields), (2) earthward flow of high-energy plasma beams from the magnetotail into the auroral zone that lead to quasistatic parallel potential drops, and (3) large-amplitude Alfven waves that propagate into the auroral region from the magnetotail. The events examined thus far confm the previously established invariant latitudinal dependence of the drivers and show a strong dependence on magnetic activity. Alfven waves tend to occur primarily at the poleward edge of the auroral region during more magnetically active times and are correlated with intense electron precipitation. At lower latitudes away

  4. A numerical model of ionospheric convection derived from field-alignment currents and the corresponding conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, L. G.; Marklund, G. T.

    1991-08-01

    A numerical model for the calculation of ionospheric convection patterns from given distributions of field aligned current and ionospheric conductivity is described. The model includes a coupling between the conductivity and the field aligned current. The input contributions, the field aligned current and the conductivity, are parametrized. From the primary model output a number of other quantities can be computed: the potential in the inertial frame, the potential in the magnetospheric equatorial plane, the distribution of ionosheric current, and the Joule heating in the ionosphere. This model was used together with a technique to caculate the high latitude potential distribution prevailing during a particular event by combining information from global auroral images and local measurements of fields and particles. The model potential variation along the satellite orbit was found to be in agreement with that calculated from the measured electric field. The model was also used to study some fundamental properties of the electrodynamics of the high latitude ionosphere.

  5. Direct numerical simulation of particle alignment in viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulsen, Martien; Jaensson, Nick; Anderson, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Rigid particles suspended in viscoelastic fluids under shear can align in string-like structures in flow direction. To unravel this phenomenon, we present 3D direct numerical simulations of the alignment of two and three rigid, non-Brownian particles in a shear flow of a viscoelastic fluid. The equations are solved on moving, boundary-fitted meshes, which are locally refined to accurately describe the polymer stresses around and in between the particles. A small minimal gap size between the particles is introduced. The Giesekus model is used and the effect of the Weissenberg number, shear thinning and solvent viscosity is investigated. Alignment of two and three particles is observed. Morphology plots have been created for various combinations of fluid parameters. Alignment is mainly governed by the value of the elasticity parameter S, defined as half of the ratio between the first normal stress difference and shear stress of the suspending fluid. Alignment appears to occur above a critical value of S, which decreases with increasing shear thinning. This result, together with simulations of a shear-thinning Carreau fluid, leads us to the conclusion that normal stress differences are essential for particle alignment to occur, but it is also strongly promoted by shear thinning.

  6. FAST/Polar Conjunction Study of Field-Aligned Auroral Acceleration and Corresponding Magnetotail Drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schriver, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Strangeway, R. J.; Richard, R. L.; Klezting, C.; Dotan, Y.; Wygant, J.

    2002-01-01

    The discrete aurora results when energized electrons bombard the Earth's atmosphere at high latitudes. This paper examines the physical processes that can cause field-aligned acceleration of plasma particles in the auroral region. A data and theoretical study has been carried out to examine the acceleration mechanisms that operate in the auroral zone and to identity the magnetospheric drivers of these acceleration mechanisms. The observations used in the study were collected by the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) and Polar satellites when the two satellites were in approximate magnetic conjunction in the auroral region. During these events FAST was in the middle of the auroral zone and Polar was above the auroral zone in the near-Earth plasma sheet. Polar data was used to determine the conditions in the magnetotail at the time field-aligned acceleration was measured by FAST in the auroral zone. For each of the magnetotail drivers identified in the data study, the physics of field-aligned acceleration in the auroral region was examined using existing theoretical efforts and a long-system particle-in-cell simulation to model the magnetically connected region between the two satellites.

  7. A numerical model of ionospheric convection derived from field-aligned currents and the corresponding conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, L. G.; Marklund, G. T.

    1988-03-01

    A numerical model for the calculation of ionospheric convection patterns from given distributions of field-aligned current and ionospheric conductivity is described. The model includes a coupling between the conductivity and the field-aligned current, so that the conductivity peaks in regions of upward current, as usually observed by measurements. The model is very flexible in that the input distributions, the field-aligned current, and the conductivity are parameterized in a convenient way. From the primary model output, namely the ionospheric electrostatic potential (or convection) in the corotating frame, a number of other quantities can be computed. These include: the potential in a Sun-fixed frame (the transformation takes into account the nonalignment of the Earth's magnetic and geographic axes); the potential in the magnetospheric equatorial plane (projected using either a dipole magnetic field model or the Tsyganenko-Usmanov model, and the assumption of vanishing parallel electric field); the distribution of ionospheric (horizontal) current; and Joule heating in the ionosphere. The model was used with input data inferred from satellite measurements to calculate the high-latitude potential distribution prevailing during a particular event. The model potential variation along the satellite orbit is found to be in excellent agreement with the measured electric field.

  8. Classical to quantum correspondence in dissipative directed transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo, Gabriel G.; Rivas, Alejandro M. F.; Spina, María E.

    2015-11-01

    We compare the quantum and classical properties of the (quantum) isoperiodic stable structures [(Q)ISSs], which organize the parameter space of a paradigmatic dissipative ratchet model, i.e., the dissipative modified kicked rotator. We study the spectral behavior of the corresponding classical Perron-Frobenius operators with thermal noise and the quantum superoperators without it for small ℏeff values. We find a remarkable similarity between the classical and quantum spectra. This finding significantly extends previous results—obtained for the mean currents and asymptotic distributions only—and, on the other hand, unveils a classical to quantum correspondence mechanism where the classical noise is qualitatively different from the quantum one. This is crucial not only for simple attractors but also for chaotic ones, where just analyzing the asymptotic distribution is revealed as insufficient. Moreover, we provide with a detailed characterization of relevant eigenvectors by means of the corresponding Weyl-Wigner distributions, in order to better identify similarities and differences. Finally, this model being generic, it allows us to conjecture that this classical to quantum correspondence mechanism is a universal feature of dissipative systems.

  9. The correspondence between water temperature and coiling direction in Bulimina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Laurel S.

    1990-06-01

    The influence of temperature on the direction of coiling in the benthic foraminifera Bulimina marginata d'Orbigny and B. aculeata d'Orbigny is investigated by direct comparison of specimens and temperature data measured at or near the sites of collection. Nine samples from the Gulf of Mexico and 16 samples from the Gulf of Maine south to New Jersey are used. These areas include cold temperate and subtropical regions, the continental shelf, slope, and a semirestricted gulf. Complicating factors of life cycle stage and possible ontogenetic change are eliminated. Dextrality is strongly associated with warm temperatures, but cold temperatures do not produce predominantly sinistrally coiled individuals. This is the first demonstration of an unambiguous correlation between temperature and coiling direction in benthic foraminifera.

  10. Direct growth of aligned carbon nanotubes on bulk metals.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, S; Kar, S; Pal, S K; Vajtai, R; Ci, L; Victor, P; Shaijumon, M M; Kaur, S; Nalamasu, O; Ajayan, P M

    2006-11-01

    There are several advantages of growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) directly on bulk metals, for example in the formation of robust CNT-metal contacts during growth. Usually, aligned CNTs are grown either by using thin catalyst layers predeposited on substrates or through vapour-phase catalyst delivery. The latter method, although flexible, is unsuitable for growing CNTs directly on metallic substrates. Here we report on the growth of aligned multiwalled CNTs on a metallic alloy, Inconel 600 (Inconel), using vapour-phase catalyst delivery. The CNTs are well anchored to the substrate and show excellent electrical contact with it. These CNT-metal structures were then used to fabricate double-layer capacitors and field-emitter devices, which demonstrated improved performance over previously designed CNT structures. Inconel coatings can also be used to grow CNTs on other metallic substrates. This finding overcomes the substrate limitation for nanotube growth which should assist the development of future CNT-related technologies.

  11. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

  12. Direct and alignment-insensitive measurement of cantilever curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Hermans, Rodolfo I.; Aeppli, Gabriel; Bailey, Joe M.

    2013-07-15

    We analytically derive and experimentally demonstrate a method for the simultaneous measurement of deflection for large arrays of cantilevers. The Fresnel diffraction patterns of a cantilever independently reveal tilt, curvature, cubic, and higher order bending of the cantilever. It provides a calibrated absolute measurement of the polynomial coefficients describing the cantilever shape, without careful alignment and could be applied to several cantilevers simultaneously with no added complexity. We show that the method is easily implemented, works in both liquid media and in air, for a broad range of displacements and is especially suited to the requirements for multi-marker biosensors.

  13. Aligned nanostructured polymers by magnetic-field-directed self-assembly of a polymerizable lyotropic mesophase.

    PubMed

    Tousley, Marissa E; Feng, Xunda; Elimelech, Menachem; Osuji, Chinedum O

    2014-11-26

    Magnetic-field-directed assembly of lyotropic surfactant mesophases provides a scalable approach for the fabrication of aligned nanoporous polymers by templated polymerization. We develop and characterize a lyotropic liquid crystalline system containing hexagonally packed cylindrical micelles of a polymerizable surfactant in a polymerizable solvent. The system exhibits negative magnetic anisotropy, resulting in the degenerate alignment of cylindrical micelles perpendicular to the magnetic field. Sample rotation during field alignment is used to effectively break this degeneracy and enable the production of uniformly well-aligned mesophases. High-fidelity retentions of the hexagonal structure and alignment were successfully achieved in polymer films produced upon UV exposure of the reactive system. The success of this effort provides a route for the fabrication of aligned nanoporous membranes suitable for highly selective separations, sensing, and templated nanomaterial synthesis.

  14. Optical Device for Converting a Laser Beam into Two Co-aligned but Oppositely Directed Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Optical systems consisting of a series of optical elements require alignment from the input end to the output end. The optical elements can be mirrors, lenses, sources, detectors, or other devices. Complex optical systems are often difficult to align from end-to-end because the alignment beam must be inserted at one end in order for the beam to traverse the entire optical path to the other end. The ends of the optical train may not be easily accessible to the alignment beam. Typically, when a series of optical elements is to be aligned, an alignment laser beam is inserted into the optical path with a pick-off mirror at one end of the series of elements. But it may be impossible to insert the beam at an end-point. It can be difficult to locate the pick-off mirror at the desired position because there is not enough space, there is no mounting surface, or the location is occupied by a source, detector, or other component. Alternatively, the laser beam might be inserted at an intermediate location (not at an end-point) and sent, first in one direction and then the other, to the opposite ends of the optical system for alignment. However, in this case, alignment must be performed in two directions and extra effort is required to co-align the two beams to make them parallel and coincident, i.e., to follow the same path as an end-to-end beam. An optical device has been developed that accepts a laser beam as input and produces two co-aligned, but counter-propagating beams. In contrast to a conventional alignment laser placed at one end of the optical path, this invention can be placed at a convenient position within the optical train and aligned to send its two beams simultaneously along precisely opposite paths that, taken together, trace out exactly the same path as the conventional alignment laser. This invention allows the user the freedom to choose locations within the optical train for placement of the alignment beam. It is also self-aligned by design and requires

  15. Alignment performance of a 0.6-NA 364-nm laser direct writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohan, Michael J.

    1990-06-01

    Alignment performance data is presented on a high resolution laser scanning lithography system. The alignment system is a through-the-lens on-axis design which features multiple optical paths such as bright-field and dark-field illumination and high and low magnification legs. Total system overlay is better than 0. 10 tm. 1. DW ALIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS Translating design data into patterned photoresist on wafers typically requires two lithographic steps. First data is transferred to a mask or reticle using either a laser scanning tool such as the ATEQ CORE-2500 or an e-beam system. Next the patterned mask or reticle is projected onto a wafer coated with resist. Throughout this paper I shall refer to systems which use two lithographic steps to transfer a pattern as Indirect Writers (1W). This is in contrast to Direct Writers (DW). As the name implies a DW patterns a wafer without the need for creation of a mask or reticle. 1W alignment systems must accurately register a wafer pattern to a reticle pattern. The most straightforward technique is to directly reference the reticle to the wafer through the projection lens. This approach eliminates baseline problems. 1W alignment systems require high precision. However since they have a reticle to reference (either directly or indirectly) absolute accuracy is not required. Measurements (alignments) are concerned only with the relative offset of the projected reticle image to a pattern on the wafer. The alignment system

  16. Localized α4 Integrin Phosphorylation Directs Shear Stress-Induced Endothelial Cell Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Goldfinger, Lawrence E.; Tzima, Eleni; Stockton, Rebecca; Kiosses, William B.; Kinbara, Kayoko; Tkachenko, Eugene; Gutierrez, Edgar; Groisman, Alex; Nguyen, Phu; Chien, Shu; Ginsberg1, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells respond to laminar shear stress by aligning in the direction of flow, a process which may contribute to athero-protection. Here we report that localized α4 integrin phosphorylation is a mechanism for establishing the directionality of shear stress-induced alignment in microvascular endothelial cells. Within 5 minutes of exposure to a physiological level of shear stress, endothelial α4 integrins became phosphorylated on Ser988. In wounded monolayers, phosphorylation was enhanced at the downstream edges of cells relative to the source of flow. The shear-induced α4 integrin phosphorylation was blocked by inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), an enzyme involved in the alignment of endothelial cells under prolonged shear. Moreover, shear-induced localized activation of the small GTPase Rac1, which specifies the directionality of endothelial alignment, was similarly blocked by PKA inhibitors. Furthermore, endothelial cells bearing a non-phosphorylatable α4(S988A) mutation failed to align in response to shear stress, thus establishing α4 as a relevant PKA substrate. We thereby show that shear-induced PKA-dependent α4 integrin phosphorylation at the downstream edge of endothelial cells promotes localized Rac1 activation, which in turn directs cytoskeletal alignment in response to shear stress. PMID:18583710

  17. Micro-scale and meso-scale architectural cues cooperate and compete to direct aligned tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Christopher L; Ruch, David S; Little, Dianne; Guilak, Farshid

    2014-12-01

    Tissue and biomaterial microenvironments provide architectural cues that direct important cell behaviors including cell shape, alignment, migration, and resulting tissue formation. These architectural features may be presented to cells across multiple length scales, from nanometers to millimeters in size. In this study, we examined how architectural cues at two distinctly different length scales, "micro-scale" cues on the order of ∼1-2 μm, and "meso-scale" cues several orders of magnitude larger (>100 μm), interact to direct aligned neo-tissue formation. Utilizing a micro-photopatterning (μPP) model system to precisely arrange cell-adhesive patterns, we examined the effects of substrate architecture at these length scales on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) organization, gene expression, and fibrillar collagen deposition. Both micro- and meso-scale architectures directed cell alignment and resulting tissue organization, and when combined, meso cues could enhance or compete against micro-scale cues. As meso boundary aspect ratios were increased, meso-scale cues overrode micro-scale cues and controlled tissue alignment, with a characteristic critical width (∼500 μm) similar to boundary dimensions that exist in vivo in highly aligned tissues. Meso-scale cues acted via both lateral confinement (in a cell-density-dependent manner) and by permitting end-to-end cell arrangements that yielded greater fibrillar collagen deposition. Despite large differences in fibrillar collagen content and organization between μPP architectural conditions, these changes did not correspond with changes in gene expression of key matrix or tendon-related genes. These findings highlight the complex interplay between geometric cues at multiple length scales and may have implications for tissue engineering strategies, where scaffold designs that incorporate cues at multiple length scales could improve neo-tissue organization and resulting functional outcomes.

  18. Micro-scale and meso-scale architectural cues cooperate and compete to direct aligned tissue formation

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Christopher L.; Ruch, David S.; Little, Dianne; Guilak, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Tissue and biomaterial microenvironments provide architectural cues that direct important cell behaviors including cell shape, alignment, migration, and resulting tissue formation. These architectural features may be presented to cells across multiple length scales, from nanometers to millimeters in size. In this study, we examined how architectural cues at two distinctly different length scales, “micro-scale” cues on the order of ~1–2 μm, and “meso-scale” cues several orders of magnitude larger (>100 μm), interact to direct aligned neo-tissue formation. Utilizing a micro-photopatterning (μPP) model system to precisely arrange cell-adhesive patterns, we examined the effects of substrate architecture at these length scales on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) organization, gene expression, and fibrillar collagen deposition. Both micro- and meso-scale architectures directed cell alignment and resulting tissue organization, and when combined, meso cues could enhance or compete against micro-scale cues. As meso boundary aspect ratios were increased, meso-scale cues overrode micro-scale cues and controlled tissue alignment, with a characteristic critical width (~500 μm) similar to boundary dimensions that exist in vivo in highly aligned tissues. Meso-scale cues acted via both lateral confinement (in a cell-density-dependent manner) and by permitting end-to-end cell arrangements that yielded greater fibrillar collagen deposition. Despite large differences in fibrillar collagen content and organization between μPP architectural conditions, these changes did not correspond with changes in gene expression of key matrix or tendon-related genes. These findings highlight the complex interplay between geometric cues at multiple length scales and may have implications for tissue engineering strategies, where scaffold designs that incorporate cues at multiple length scales could improve neo-tissue organization and resulting functional outcomes. PMID:25263687

  19. Directional Correlation of Nuclear-Collision Probability for Aligned Beams of Deformed Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Mitsunori; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yamaoka, Shintaro; Ohno, Junichi; Mihara, Mototsugu; Matsuta, Kensaku; Nishimura, Daiki; Yoshinaga, Kenta; Takechi, Maya; Ohtsubo, Takashi; Izumikawa, Takuji; Nagashima, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Sato, Shinji; Suzuki, Shinji; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Himac H093 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    In the long history of nuclear physics, a lot of observables have been discussed in connection with the nuclear deformation. In this work, an investigation have been carried out on the directional correlation of the nuclear-collision probability between the direction of beam of deformed nuclei and the deformation axis, to sense the nuclear deformation directly. Few experimental studies of this kind have been done because of the difficulties in producing aligned beams. We utilized the projectile fragmentation to produce the aligned nuclear beams. We tested these measurements for 9Be, 10B, and 26Al at the HIMAC facility. By selecting the parallel momentum using the separator, spin aligned beams were produced, with which the interaction cross sections were measured. The cross sections were precisely measured as a function of longitudinal momentum. We will report on the details of measurements and discussions on this intriguing result.

  20. Direct determination of the band alignment at the (Zn,Mg)O/CISSe interface

    SciTech Connect

    Erfurth, F.; Reinert, F.; Weinhardt, L.; Grimm, A.; Palm, J.; Niesen, T. P.; Umbach, E.

    2011-04-04

    The electronic and chemical properties of the (Zn{sub 1-x},Mg{sub x})O/CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} interface, prepared by sputtering of thin (Zn,Mg)O layers, were investigated with direct and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy on in situ prepared samples. With the combination of both techniques we have determined the band alignment at this interface as a function of Mg-content in the range 0{<=}x{<=}0.30. We find that the band alignment at the interface can be tailored between a ''cliff'' (downward step) in the conduction band for pure ZnO and a 'spike' (upward step) for high Mg-contents. A direct influence of the band alignment modifications on the solar cell parameters is found.

  1. Local extracellular matrix alignment directs cellular protrusion dynamics and migration through Rac1 and FAK.

    PubMed

    Carey, Shawn P; Goldblatt, Zachary E; Martin, Karen E; Romero, Bethsabe; Williams, Rebecca M; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2016-08-08

    Cell migration within 3D interstitial microenvironments is sensitive to extracellular matrix (ECM) properties, but the mechanisms that regulate migration guidance by 3D matrix features remain unclear. To examine the mechanisms underlying the cell migration response to aligned ECM, which is prevalent at the tumor-stroma interface, we utilized time-lapse microscopy to compare the behavior of MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells within randomly organized and well-aligned 3D collagen ECM. We developed a novel experimental system in which cellular morphodynamics during initial 3D cell spreading served as a reductionist model for the complex process of matrix-directed 3D cell migration. Using this approach, we found that ECM alignment induced spatial anisotropy of cells' matrix probing by promoting protrusion frequency, persistence, and lengthening along the alignment axis and suppressing protrusion dynamics orthogonal to alignment. Preference for on-axis behaviors was dependent upon FAK and Rac1 signaling and translated across length and time scales such that cells within aligned ECM exhibited accelerated elongation, front-rear polarization, and migration relative to cells in random ECM. Together, these findings indicate that adhesive and protrusive signaling allow cells to respond to coordinated physical cues in the ECM, promoting migration efficiency and cell migration guidance by 3D matrix structure.

  2. 76 FR 39260 - Direct Investment Surveys: Alignment of Regulations With Current Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Regulations With Current Practices AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... align its regulations for direct investment surveys with current practices. No comments on the proposed... Reduction Act. * * * * * (b) Display. Current OMB 15 CFR section where identified and described control...

  3. Alignment between seafloor spreading directions and absolute plate motions through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Simon E.; Flament, Nicolas; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-02-01

    The history of seafloor spreading in the ocean basins provides a detailed record of relative motions between Earth's tectonic plates since Pangea breakup. Determining how tectonic plates have moved relative to the Earth's deep interior is more challenging. Recent studies of contemporary plate motions have demonstrated links between relative plate motion and absolute plate motion (APM), and with seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Here we explore the link between spreading directions and APM since the Early Cretaceous. We find a significant alignment between APM and spreading directions at mid-ocean ridges; however, the degree of alignment is influenced by geodynamic setting, and is strongest for mid-Atlantic spreading ridges between plates that are not directly influenced by time-varying slab pull. In the Pacific, significant mismatches between spreading and APM direction may relate to a major plate-mantle reorganization. We conclude that spreading fabric can be used to improve models of APM.

  4. Direct induction of molecular alignment in liquid crystal polymer network film by photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisano, K.; Aizawa, M.; Ishizu, M.; Kurata, Y.; Shishido, A.

    2016-09-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) is the promising material for the fabrication of high-performance soft, flexible devices. The fascinating and useful properties arise from their cooperative effect that inherently allows the macroscopic integration and control of molecular alignment through various external stimuli. To date, light-matter interaction is the most attractive stimuli and researchers developed photoalignment through photochemical or photophysical reactions triggered by linearly polarized light. Here we show the new choice based on molecular diffusion by photopolymerization. We found that photopolymerization of a LC monomer and a crosslinker through a photomask enables to direct molecular alignment in the resultant LC polymer network film. The key generating the molecular alignment is molecular diffusion due to the difference of chemical potentials between irradiated and unirradiated regions. This concept is applicable to various shapes of photomask and two-dimensional molecular alignments can be fabricated depending on the spatial design of photomask. By virtue of the inherent versatility of molecular diffusion in materials, the process would shed light on the fabrication of various high-performance flexible materials with molecular alignment having controlled patterns.

  5. A method for quantitatively analyzing the angle of direction for arbitral c-axis alignment with retardation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoi, Norihiro; Tanaka, Yasumitsu

    2015-01-01

    c-axis alignment in a polymer or crystal structure has drawn attention in numerous scientific and technological applications, including crystals, thin film growth, electro-optic devices, and phase difference optics. We here demonstrate a new approach based on retardation measurement that can obtain the direction of the c-axis alignment. This is employed to visualize the three-dimensional direction of continuous crystals as a thin optical film utilizing a liquid crystal panel, using retardation analysis equipment with high resolution measurement capability. The direction of the c-axis alignment is shown so as to allow a detailed characterization of the direction perpendicular to the plane. In this analysis, the direction of the c-axis alignment is identified, and differences between molecules at inequivalent sites are quantified. The results suggest that the excellent lubrication properties of the c-axis alignment may be due to a significant localization in lateral directions.

  6. Correspondence behavior of classical and quantum dissipative directed transport via thermal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo, Gabriel G.; Ermann, Leonardo; Rivas, Alejandro M. F.; Spina, María E.

    2016-04-01

    We systematically study several classical-quantum correspondence properties of the dissipative modified kicked rotator, a paradigmatic ratchet model. We explore the behavior of the asymptotic currents for finite ℏeff values in a wide range of the parameter space. We find that the correspondence between the classical currents with thermal noise providing fluctuations of size ℏeff and the quantum ones without it is very good in general with the exception of specific regions. We systematically consider the spectra of the corresponding classical Perron-Frobenius operators and quantum superoperators. By means of an average distance between the classical and quantum sets of eigenvalues we find that the correspondence is unexpectedly quite uniform. This apparent contradiction is solved with the help of the Weyl-Wigner distributions of the equilibrium eigenvectors, which reveal the key role of quantum effects by showing surviving coherences in the asymptotic states.

  7. Correspondence behavior of classical and quantum dissipative directed transport via thermal noise.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Gabriel G; Ermann, Leonardo; Rivas, Alejandro M F; Spina, María E

    2016-04-01

    We systematically study several classical-quantum correspondence properties of the dissipative modified kicked rotator, a paradigmatic ratchet model. We explore the behavior of the asymptotic currents for finite ℏ_{eff} values in a wide range of the parameter space. We find that the correspondence between the classical currents with thermal noise providing fluctuations of size ℏ_{eff} and the quantum ones without it is very good in general with the exception of specific regions. We systematically consider the spectra of the corresponding classical Perron-Frobenius operators and quantum superoperators. By means of an average distance between the classical and quantum sets of eigenvalues we find that the correspondence is unexpectedly quite uniform. This apparent contradiction is solved with the help of the Weyl-Wigner distributions of the equilibrium eigenvectors, which reveal the key role of quantum effects by showing surviving coherences in the asymptotic states.

  8. Direct Writing of Patterned, Lead-Free Nanowire Aligned Flexible Piezoelectric Device.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Li, Lihong; Li, Wenbo; Zhou, Haihua; Song, Yanlin

    2016-08-01

    A high-performance flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) is fabricated by a direct writing method, which acquires both patterned piezoelectric structure and aligned piezoelectric nanowires simultaneously. The voltage output of the as-prepared PNG is nearly 400% compared with that of the traditional spin-coated device due to the effective utilization of stress. This facile printing approach provides an efficient strategy for significant improvement of the piezoresponse.

  9. Inner composition alignment for inferring directed networks from short time series.

    PubMed

    Hempel, S; Koseska, A; Kurths, J; Nikoloski, Z

    2011-07-29

    Identifying causal links (couplings) is a fundamental problem that facilitates the understanding of emerging structures in complex networks. We propose and analyze inner composition alignment-a novel, permutation-based asymmetric association measure to detect regulatory links from very short time series, currently applied to gene expression. The measure can be used to infer the direction of couplings, detect indirect (superfluous) links, and account for autoregulation. Applications to the gene regulatory network of E. coli are presented.

  10. Magnetic anisotropy induced by crystallographic orientation and morphological alignment in directionally-solidified eutectic Mn-Sb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Tie; Dong, Meng; Wu, Chun; Shao, Jian-Guo; Wang, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    The influences of the crystallographic orientation and morphological alignment upon the magnetic anisotropic behavior of polycrystalline materials were investigated. Microstructures obtained in eutectic Mn-Sb alloys via directional solidification simultaneously displayed crystallographic orientation and morphological alignment. Both the crystallographic orientation and the morphological alignment were able to induce magnetic anisotropy in the alloys, wherein the influence of the crystallographic orientation and the morphological alignment upon the magnetic anisotropic behavior of the alloys strongly depended upon their directions and exhibited either mutual promotion or competition. These findings may provide useful guidance for the fabrication design of functional magnetic materials.

  11. Directly measuring of thermal pulse transfer in one-dimensional highly aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guang; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2013-01-01

    Using a simple and precise instrument system, we directly measured the thermo-physical properties of one-dimensional highly aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A kind of CNT-based macroscopic materials named super aligned carbon nanotube (SACNT) buckypapers was measured in our experiment. We defined a new one-dimensional parameter, the “thermal transfer speed” to characterize the thermal damping mechanisms in the SACNT buckypapers. Our results indicated that the SACNT buckypapers with different densities have obviously different thermal transfer speeds. Furthermore, we found that the thermal transfer speed of high-density SACNT buckypapers may have an obvious damping factor along the CNTs aligned direction. The anisotropic thermal diffusivities of SACNT buckypapers could be calculated by the thermal transfer speeds. The thermal diffusivities obviously increase as the buckypaper-density increases. For parallel SACNT buckypapers, the thermal diffusivity could be as high as 562.2 ± 55.4 mm2/s. The thermal conductivities of these SACNT buckypapers were also calculated by the equation k = Cpαρ. PMID:23989589

  12. Determination of precise crystallographic directions for mask alignment in wet bulk micromachining for MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sajal Sagar; Pal, Prem; Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Xing, Yan; Sato, Kazuo

    2016-12-01

    In wet bulk micromachining, the etching characteristics are orientation dependent. As a result, prolonged etching of mask openings of any geometric shape on both Si{100} and Si{110} wafers results in a structure defined by the slowest etching planes. In order to fabricate microstructures with high dimensional accuracy, it is vital to align the mask edges along the crystal directions comprising of these slowest etching planes. Thus, precise alignment of mask edges is important in micro/nano fabrication. As a result, the determination of accurate crystal directions is of utmost importance and is in fact the first step to ensure dimensionally accurate microstructures for improved performance. In this review article, we have presented a comprehensive analysis of different techniques to precisely determine the crystallographic directions. We have covered various techniques proposed in the span of more than two decades to determine the crystallographic directions on both Si{100} and Si{110} wafers. Apart from a detailed discussion of each technique along with their design and implementation, we have provided a critical analysis of the associated constraints, benefits and shortcomings. We have also summed up the critical aspects of each technique and presented in a tabular format for easy reference for readers. This review article comprises of an exhaustive discussion and is a handy reference for researchers who are new in the field of wet anisotropic etching or who want to get abreast with the techniques of determination of crystal directions.

  13. Influence of repulsion zone in the directional alignment of self-propelled particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambui, Dorilson

    2014-04-01

    Collective behavior in animal groups such as schools of fish, swarms of insects or flocks of birds, although a phenomenon widely studied in biological systems, is subject of great interdisciplinary interest. An important tool to describe the dynamics of collective motion and ordered live organisms is the concept of self-propelled particles. Proposed by Vicsek and collaborators, it was considered in this model only as an (single) interaction rule, set as alignment, where particles align to motion the nearest neighbors. In this paper, we have considered a variant of this model by adding a second rule called repulsion zone, where particles repel each other at short distances, in order to investigate the influence of this zone on directional order of the particles.

  14. Direction dependent diffusion of aligned magnetic rods by means of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Joachim; Märkert, Christian; Fischer, Birgit; Müller, Leonard

    2013-01-25

    Rodlike hematite particles in suspension align perpendicular to an external magnetic field due to a negative anisotropy of their magnetic susceptibility Δχ. The diffusion tensor consists of two principal constants D(∥) and D(⊥) for the diffusion parallel and perpendicular to the long particle axis. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy is capable of probing the diffusive motion in optically opaque suspensions of rodlike hematite particles parallel to the direction of the scattering vector Q. Choosing Q parallel or perpendicular to the direction of an external magnetic field H the direction dependent intermediate scattering function is measured by means of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the intermediate scattering function in both directions the principal diffusion constants D(∥) and D(⊥) are determined. The ratio D(∥)/D(⊥) increases with increasing aspect ratio of the particles and can be described via a rescaled theoretical approach for prolate ellipsoids of revolution.

  15. The core planar cell polarity gene, Vangl2, directs adult corneal epithelial cell alignment and migration

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Amy S.; Panzica, D. Alessio; Walczysko, Petr; Holt, Amy B.; Henderson, Deborah J.; West, John D.; Rajnicek, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that the core planar cell polarity (PCP) genes direct the aligned cell migration in the adult corneal epithelium, a stratified squamous epithelium on the outer surface of the vertebrate eye. Expression of multiple core PCP genes was demonstrated in the adult corneal epithelium. PCP components were manipulated genetically and pharmacologically in human and mouse corneal epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of VANGL2 reduced the directional component of migration of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells without affecting speed. It was shown that signalling through PCP mediators, dishevelled, dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis and Rho-associated protein kinase directs the alignment of HCE cells by affecting cytoskeletal reorganization. Cells in which VANGL2 was disrupted tended to misalign on grooved surfaces and migrate across, rather than parallel to the grooves. Adult corneal epithelial cells in which Vangl2 had been conditionally deleted showed a reduced rate of wound-healing migration. Conditional deletion of Vangl2 in the mouse corneal epithelium ablated the normal highly stereotyped patterns of centripetal cell migration in vivo from the periphery (limbus) to the centre of the cornea. Corneal opacity owing to chronic wounding is a major cause of degenerative blindness across the world, and this study shows that Vangl2 activity is required for directional corneal epithelial migration. PMID:27853583

  16. Wrinkled, wavelength-tunable graphene-based surface topographies for directing cell alignment and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongying; Tonderys, Daniel; Leggett, Susan E.; Williams, Evelyn Kendall; Kiani, Mehrdad T.; Steinberg, Ruben Spitz; Qiu, Yang; Wong, Ian Y.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Textured surfaces with periodic topographical features and long-range order are highly attractive for directing cell-material interactions. They mimic physiological environments more accurately than planar surfaces and can fundamentally alter cell alignment, shape, gene expression, and cellular assembly into superstructures or microtissues. Here we demonstrate for the first time that wrinkled graphene-based surfaces are suitable as textured cell attachment substrates, and that engineered wrinkling can dramatically alter cell alignment and morphology. The wrinkled surfaces are fabricated by graphene oxide wet deposition onto pre-stretched elastomers followed by relaxation and mild thermal treatment to stabilize the films in cell culture medium. Multilayer graphene oxide films form periodic, delaminated buckle textures whose wavelengths and amplitudes can be systematically tuned by variation in the wet deposition process. Human and murine fibroblasts attach to these textured films and remain viable, while developing pronounced alignment and elongation relative to those on planar graphene controls. Compared to lithographic patterning of nanogratings, this method has advantages in the simplicity and scalability of fabrication, as well as the opportunity to couple the use of topographic cues with the unique conductive, adsorptive, or barrier properties of graphene materials for functional biomedical devices. PMID:25848137

  17. Directional conductivity in SWNT-collagen-fibrin composite biomaterials through strain-induced matrix alignment.

    PubMed

    Voge, Christopher M; Kariolis, Mihalis; MacDonald, Rebecca A; Stegemann, Jan P

    2008-07-01

    Composite biomaterials incorporating fibroblast cells, collagen Type I, fibrin, and 2 wt % carboxylated SWNT were created, and their properties were compared with similar control constructs without SWNT. Alignment of the matrix was stimulated by application of 8% cyclic strain for three 12-h periods over three days. All constructs underwent cell-mediated gel compaction to 15-20% of their initial volume, which was not affected by SWNT loading. Mechanical strain increased the rate of compaction, and strained constructs were significantly more compacted than unstrained controls by day 3. Cell viability and morphology were similar in both control and SWNT-loaded constructs, but unstrained samples exhibited a more stellate appearance with more numerous cellular projections. Application of mechanical strain caused clear alignment of both the cells and matrix in the direction of the applied strain. Bioimpedance measurements showed that SWNT loading increased the electrical conductivity of composite constructs, and that mechanically-induced alignment of the matrix/SWNT caused a further increase in conductivity. These results demonstrate that SWNT can be used to augment the electrical properties of 3D protein hydrogels, and that anisotropy in the matrix further enhances these properties. Such electrically conductive biopolymers may have a variety of applications in tissue engineering and biosensor development.

  18. Preparation of aligned porous chitin nanowhisker foams by directional freeze-casting technique.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiming; Fu, Shiyu; Pu, Yunqiao; Pan, Shaobo; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2014-11-04

    Structured biofoams with aligned porous structures were fabricated from nanosized chitin by employing a directional freeze-casting technique. The effects of the freezing conditions and slurry formulation on nanochitin foam morphology were investigated. The morphology of obtained foams was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the pore structure of the obtained foams was a likewise of the ice crystals formed during the directional freezing. The results indicate that directional freeze-casting protocol can significantly influence the morphological features and microstructures of the obtained biofoams which could have numerous applications, including engineered carriers, scaffolds, filters and specifically as a template for potential multi-layered composites after infusion with a second phase.

  19. Aligned carbon nanotube, graphene and graphite oxide thin films via substrate-directed rapid interfacial deposition.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Julio M; Tran, Henry D; Stieg, Adam Z; Gimzewski, James K; Kaner, Richard B

    2012-05-21

    A procedure for depositing thin films of carbon nanostructures is described that overcomes the limitations typically associated with solution based methods. Transparent and conductively continuous carbon coatings can be grown on virtually any type of substrate within seconds. Interfacial surface tension gradients result in directional fluid flow and film spreading at the water/oil interface. Transparent films of carbon nanostructures are produced including aligned ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes and assemblies of single sheets of chemically converted graphene and graphite oxide. Process scale-up, layer-by-layer deposition, and a simple method for coating non-activated hydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated.

  20. Directional Freezing of Nanocellulose Dispersions Aligns the Rod-Like Particles and Produces Low-Density and Robust Particle Networks.

    PubMed

    Munier, Pierre; Gordeyeva, Korneliya; Bergström, Lennart; Fall, Andreas B

    2016-05-09

    We show that unidirectional freezing of nanocellulose dispersions produces cellular foams with high alignment of the rod-like nanoparticles in the freezing direction. Quantification of the alignment in the long direction of the tubular pores with X-ray diffraction shows high orientation of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) at particle concentrations above 0.2 wt % (CNC) and 0.08 wt % (CNF). Aggregation of CNF by pH decrease or addition of salt significantly reduces the particle orientation; in contrast, exceeding the concentration where particles gel by mobility constraints had a relatively small effect on the orientation. The dense nanocellulose network formed by directional freezing was sufficiently strong to resist melting. The formed hydrogels were birefringent and displayed anisotropic laser diffraction patterns, suggesting preserved nanocellulose alignment and cellular structure. Nondirectional freezing of the hydrogels followed by sublimation generates foams with a pore structure and nanocellulose alignment resembling the structure of the initial directional freezing.

  1. Ordered arrays of vertically aligned [110] silicon nanowires by suppressing the crystallographically preferred <100> etching directions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhipeng; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Senz, Stephan; Zhang, Zhang; Zhang, Xuanxiong; Lee, Woo; Geyer, Nadine; Gösele, Ulrich

    2009-07-01

    The metal-assisted etching direction of Si(110) substrates was found to be dependent upon the morphology of the deposited metal catalyst. The etching direction of a Si(110) substrate was found to be one of the two crystallographically preferred 100 directions in the case of isolated metal particles or a small area metal mesh with nanoholes. In contrast, the etching proceeded in the vertical [110] direction, when the lateral size of the catalytic metal mesh was sufficiently large. Therefore, the direction of etching and the resulting nanostructures obtained by metal-assisted etching can be easily controlled by an appropriate choice of the morphology of the deposited metal catalyst. On the basis of this finding, a generic method was developed for the fabrication of wafer-scale vertically aligned arrays of epitaxial [110] Si nanowires on a Si(110) substrate. The method utilized a thin metal film with an extended array of pores as an etching catalyst based on an ultrathin porous anodic alumina mask, while a prepatterning of the substrate prior to the metal depostion is not necessary. The diameter of Si nanowires can be easily controlled by a combination of the pore diameter of the porous alumina film and varying the thickness of the deposited metal film.

  2. Effect of ion beam irradiation and rubbing on the directional behavior and alignment mechanism of liquid crystals on polyimide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang-Min; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Kim, Young-Hwan; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ion beam (IB) irradiation and rubbing on the directional behavior and alignment mechanism of liquid crystals (LCs) on polyimide (PI) surfaces. We found that the LC direction follows the IB irradiation alignment direction on the PI surface regardless of whether the irradiation occurs before or after rubbing. We assumed that the LC direction depends strongly on the C-O bonds created from C=O bonds on the PI surface broken by IB irradiation and conducted an investigation of the chemical bonding state of the PI surface by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  3. Source Driver Channel Reduction Schemes Employing Corresponding Pixel Alignments for Current Programming Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soon-Kwang; Oh, Du-Hwan; Jeong, Seok-Hee; Park, Young-Ju; Kim, Byeong-Koo; Ha, Yong-Min; Jang, Jin

    2008-03-01

    We propose two types of novel scheme for reducing the number of output channels of driver-integrated circuit (D-IC) for the current programming compensation pixel structures of active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs). One is a 2:1 data demultiplexing technique that can reduce the number of output channels of D-IC by half. The proposed second scheme is a vertically aligned red (R), green (G), and blue (B) subpixel scheme instead of a horizontally aligned R-G-B subpixel one, which is regarded as the conventional pixel alignment scheme. We have also successfully implemented these schemes in a 2.4-in.-sized QCIF + (176 × RGB × 220) AMOLED using p-type excimer laser annealing (ELA) low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) technology and evaluated key performance characteristics.

  4. Method and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry with alignment of dipole direction (IMS-ADD)

    DOEpatents

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-01-30

    Techniques and instrumentation are described for analyses of substances, including complex samples/mixtures that require separation prior to characterization of individual components. A method is disclosed for separation of ion mixtures and identification of ions, including protein and other macromolecular ions and their different structural isomers. Analyte ions are not free to rotate during the separation, but are substantially oriented with respect to the drift direction. Alignment is achieved by applying, at a particular angle to the drift field, a much stronger alternating electric field that "locks" the ion dipoles with moments exceeding a certain value. That value depends on the buffer gas composition, pressure, and temperature, but may be as low as .about.3 Debye under certain conditions. The presently disclosed method measures the direction-specific cross-sections that provide the structural information complementing that obtained from known methods, and, when coupled to those methods, increases the total peak capacity and specificity of gas-phase separations. Simultaneous 2-D separations by direction-specific cross sections along and orthogonally to the ion dipole direction are also possible.

  5. A direct method for computing extreme value (Gumbel) parameters for gapped biological sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Terrance; Sinkala, Zachariah

    2014-01-01

    We develop a general method for computing extreme value distribution (Gumbel, 1958) parameters for gapped alignments. Our approach uses mixture distribution theory to obtain associated BLOSUM matrices for gapped alignments, which in turn are used for determining significance of gapped alignment scores for pairs of biological sequences. We compare our results with parameters already obtained in the literature.

  6. Direct fabrication of aligned metal composite carbon nanofibers on copper substrate at room temperature and their field emission property.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pradip; Yusop, M Zamri; Ghosh, Debasish; Hayashi, Akari; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tanemura, Masaki

    2011-04-28

    Direct growth of aligned metal composite carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) was achieved by a highly reproducible room temperature growth process on cost effective electrically conductive copper (Cu) substrate without any catalyst. The direct fabrication of MCNFs on electrically conductive substrate might offer new perspectives in the field of field emission displays (FEDs).

  7. Effects of Tilt Angle, DNA Concentration, and Surface Potential on Directed Alignment of DNA Molecule for the Application to Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Hong, Byungyou

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports an efficient approach to control both the density and direction of highly aligned DNA molecules and thus DNA-templated gold nanowires (AuNWs) on Si chips. We utilized tilting method to prepare stretched DNA structures on SiO2/Si substrate and found important parameters in the alignment process that tilt angle, DNA concentration, and surface potential are controlled the density and structure of DNA aligned on the surface. In additional, we also can be directly connected DNA-templated AuNWs between two terminal electrodes on Si chips. This method also describes a simple way to form singled, bundled and networked DNA arrays on Si substrates.

  8. Direct alignment and patterning of silver nanowires by electrohydrodynamic jet printing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungdong; Seong, Baekhoon; Kim, Jihoon; Jang, Yonghee; Byun, Doyoung

    2014-10-15

    Highly aligned and patterned silver nanowires (Ag NWs) are investigated by using electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing. Interaction between the flow field and the electric field as well as the mechanical stretching of the fiber jet can successfully align the Ag NWs inside the jet fiber. This technique can be applied in fabricating 1D nanostructures-based printed micro/nanoscale devices.

  9. Neural-network-directed alignment of optical systems using the laser-beam spatial filter as an example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an effort at NASA Lewis Research Center to use artificial neural networks to automate the alignment and control of optical measurement systems. Specifically, it addresses the use of commercially available neural network software and hardware to direct alignments of the common laser-beam-smoothing spatial filter. The report presents a general approach for designing alignment records and combining these into training sets to teach optical alignment functions to neural networks and discusses the use of these training sets to train several types of neural networks. Neural network configurations used include the adaptive resonance network, the back-propagation-trained network, and the counter-propagation network. This work shows that neural networks can be used to produce robust sequencers. These sequencers can learn by example to execute the step-by-step procedures of optical alignment and also can learn adaptively to correct for environmentally induced misalignment. The long-range objective is to use neural networks to automate the alignment and operation of optical measurement systems in remote, harsh, or dangerous aerospace environments. This work also shows that when neural networks are trained by a human operator, training sets should be recorded, training should be executed, and testing should be done in a manner that does not depend on intellectual judgments of the human operator.

  10. Novel surface treatment materials for aligning block-co-polymer in directed self-assembly processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Yasunobu; Wakayama, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2014-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) process is one of the attractive processes for creating the very fine pitch pattern. Especially, the contact hole shrink processes with block-co-polymer (BCP) or polymer blend materials were attractive processes for creating very small size hole patterns with better CD uniformity compare to general photo-lithography patterning. In general contact hole shrink process, the pattern of Spin-on Carbon Hardmask (SOC) or the photo Resist pattern created by Negative-Tone Development (NTD) process were selected for guide patterns. Since the alignment property of BCP was affected by the surface of these guide materials, it is important to control the surface condition of guide in order to obtain good shrunk contact hole patterns. In this study, we will report the surface treatment materials to control the surface condition of guide patterns such as SOC or NTD resist to achieve the better contact hole shrink performance. These materials were attached to guide pattern surface and controlled the surface energy.

  11. Correspondence Principle Between Spherical and Euclidean Wavelets, and Fast Directional Correlation on the Sphere With Steerable Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiaux, Y.; Jacques, L.; Vandergheynst, P.

    2005-12-01

    Wavelets on the sphere are reintroduced and further developed on both the theoretical and the algorithmic grounds. A specific application to cosmology is also discussed. First, a new practical approach to the wavelet filtering of signals on the sphere is developed. Translations and rotations of the filters are naturally implemented through three-dimensional rotations of the group SO(3), and a unitary, radial, and conformal dilation operator is required. The resulting formalism is unique. A correspondence principle is also established, stating that the inverse stereographic projection of a wavelet on the plane (i.e., Euclidean wavelet) also uniquely leads to a wavelet on the sphere (i.e., spherical wavelet). It simplifies the construction of wavelets on the sphere and allows the transfer onto the sphere of properties of wavelets on the plane, such as directionality and steerability. Second, an exact fast algorithm is developed for the directional correlation on the sphere of band-limited signals of band limit L and steerable (wavelet) filters, on 2L×2L equi-angular grids in the coordinates (θ,φ). On the one hand, the algorithm is based on a technique of separation of variables in the Wigner D-functions, basis functions for the harmonic analysis on the rotation group SO(3). The asymptotic complexity of the algorithm is correspondingly reduced from O(L5) to O(L4). On the other hand, the filter steerability and the use of the Driscoll and Healy fast scalar spherical harmonics transform further reduce the algorithm complexity to a simple O(L2log22L). Finally, we consider the perspective of the wavelet analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies on the sphere of the sky. The notions of directionality and steerability are important tools for the identification of local directional features in the wavelet coefficients of the signal, and for their interpretation in cosmology. In this context, computation times for the exact

  12. A molecular design principle of lyotropic liquid-crystalline conjugated polymers with directed alignment capability for plastic electronics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong; Chung, Jong Won; Seo, Sungbaek; Koo, Bonwon; Kim, Jinsang

    2013-07-01

    Conjugated polymers with a one-dimensional p-orbital overlap exhibit optoelectronic anisotropy. Their unique anisotropic properties can be fully realized in device applications only when the conjugated chains are aligned. Here, we report a molecular design principle of conjugated polymers to achieve concentration-regulated chain planarization, self-assembly, liquid-crystal-like good mobility and non-interdigitated side chains. As a consequence of these intra- and intermolecular attributes, chain alignment along an applied flow field occurs. This liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer was realized by incorporating intramolecular sulphur-fluorine interactions and bulky side chains linked to a tetrahedral carbon having a large form factor. By optimizing the polymer concentration and the flow field, we could achieve a high dichroic ratio of 16.67 in emission from conducting conjugated polymer films. Two-dimensional grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction was performed to analyse a well-defined conjugated polymer alignment. Thin-film transistors built on highly aligned conjugated polymer films showed more than three orders of magnitude faster carrier mobility along the conjugated polymer alignment direction than the perpendicular direction.

  13. 76 FR 19282 - Direct Investment Surveys: Alignment of Regulations With Current Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Surveys: Alignment of Regulations With Current Practices AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce.... Current OMB 15 CFR section where identified and described Control No. 806.1 through 806.17 0608-0004...

  14. Alignment of Synaptic Vesicle Macromolecules with the Macromolecules in Active Zone Material that Direct Vesicle Docking

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Jung, Jae Hoon; Marshall, Robert M.; McMahan, Uel J.

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles dock at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of a neuron’s axon terminals as a precondition for fusing with the membrane and releasing their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Typically, docked vesicles are next to aggregates of plasma membrane-bound macromolecules called active zone material (AZM). Electron tomography on tissue sections from fixed and stained axon terminals of active and resting frog neuromuscular junctions has led to the conclusion that undocked vesicles are directed to and held at the docking sites by the successive formation of stable connections between vesicle membrane proteins and proteins in different classes of AZM macromolecules. Using the same nanometer scale 3D imaging technology on appropriately stained frog neuromuscular junctions, we found that ∼10% of a vesicle’s luminal volume is occupied by a radial assembly of elongate macromolecules attached by narrow projections, nubs, to the vesicle membrane at ∼25 sites. The assembly’s chiral, bilateral shape is nearly the same vesicle to vesicle, and nubs, at their sites of connection to the vesicle membrane, are linked to macromolecules that span the membrane. For docked vesicles, the orientation of the assembly’s shape relative to the AZM and the presynaptic membrane is the same vesicle to vesicle, whereas for undocked vesicles it is not. The connection sites of most nubs on the membrane of docked vesicles are paired with the connection sites of the different classes of AZM macromolecules that regulate docking, and the membrane spanning macromolecules linked to these nubs are also attached to the AZM macromolecules. We conclude that the luminal assembly of macromolecules anchors in a particular arrangement vesicle membrane macromolecules, which contain the proteins that connect the vesicles to AZM macromolecules during docking. Undocked vesicles must move in a way that aligns this arrangement with the AZM macromolecules for

  15. Correspondence standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This revised handbook covers the drafting, preparation, and review of NASA letters, memorandums, informal communications, electronic communications, envelopes and mailing, and classified correspondence. The appendices address specific guidelines for administrator's correspondence, White House and Congressional correspondance, Privacy Act correspondence, and foreign correspondence. Also incorporated as appendices are quick references for forms of address, compound words, and capitalization of words frequently used at NASA.

  16. Direct sample positioning and alignment methodology for strain measurement by diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, N.; Hughes, D. J.; King, A.; Malard, B.; Chen, Z.; Busby, P.; Webster, P. J.

    2005-05-01

    An ISO (International Organization for Standardization) TTA (Technology Trends Assessment) was published in 2001 for the determination of residual stress using neutron diffraction which identifies sample alignment and positioning as a key source of strain measurement error. Although the measurement uncertainty by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction for an individual measurement of lattice strain is typically of the order of 10-100×10-6, specimens commonly exhibit strain gradients of 1000×10-6mm-1 or more, making sample location a potentially considerable source of error. An integrated approach to sample alignment and positioning is described which incorporates standard base-plates and sample holders, instrument alignment procedures, accurate digitization using a coordinate measuring machine and automatic generation of instrument control scripts. The methodology that has been developed is illustrated by the measurement of the transverse residual strain field in a welded steel T-joint using neutrons.

  17. Direct determination of resonance energy transfer in photolyase: structural alignment for the functional state.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chuang; Guo, Lijun; Ai, Yuejie; Li, Jiang; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Luo, Yi; Zhong, Dongping

    2014-11-13

    Photoantenna is essential to energy transduction in photoinduced biological machinery. A photoenzyme, photolyase, has a light-harvesting pigment of methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) that transfers its excitation energy to the catalytic flavin cofactor FADH¯ to enhance DNA-repair efficiency. Here we report our systematic characterization and direct determination of the ultrafast dynamics of resonance energy transfer from excited MTHF to three flavin redox states in E. coli photolyase by capturing the intermediates formed through the energy transfer and thus excluding the electron-transfer quenching pathway. We observed 170 ps for excitation energy transferring to the fully reduced hydroquinone FADH¯, 20 ps to the fully oxidized FAD, and 18 ps to the neutral semiquinone FADH(•), and the corresponding orientation factors (κ(2)) were determined to be 2.84, 1.53 and 1.26, respectively, perfectly matching with our calculated theoretical values. Thus, under physiological conditions and over the course of evolution, photolyase has adopted the optimized orientation of its photopigment to efficiently convert solar energy for repair of damaged DNA.

  18. Walking Drosophila align with the e-vector of linearly polarized light through directed modulation of angular acceleration.

    PubMed

    Velez, Mariel M; Wernet, Mathias F; Clark, Damon A; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that link sensory stimuli to animal behavior is a central challenge in neuroscience. The quantitative description of behavioral responses to defined stimuli has led to a rich understanding of different behavioral strategies in many species. One important navigational cue perceived by many vertebrates and insects is the e-vector orientation of linearly polarized light. Drosophila manifests an innate orientation response to this cue ('polarotaxis'), aligning its body axis with the e-vector field. We have established a population-based behavioral paradigm for the genetic dissection of neural circuits guiding polarotaxis to both celestial as well as reflected polarized stimuli. However, the behavioral mechanisms by which flies align with a linearly polarized stimulus remain unknown. Here, we present a detailed quantitative description of Drosophila polarotaxis, systematically measuring behavioral parameters that are modulated by the stimulus. We show that angular acceleration is modulated during alignment, and this single parameter may be sufficient for alignment. Furthermore, using monocular deprivation, we show that each eye is necessary for modulating turns in the ipsilateral direction. This analysis lays the foundation for understanding how neural circuits guide these important visual behaviors.

  19. A unified statistical model of protein multiple sequence alignment integrating direct coupling and insertions

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Akira R.

    2016-01-01

    The multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of a protein family provides a wealth of information in terms of the conservation pattern of amino acid residues not only at each alignment site but also between distant sites. In order to statistically model the MSA incorporating both short-range and long-range correlations as well as insertions, I have derived a lattice gas model of the MSA based on the principle of maximum entropy. The partition function, obtained by the transfer matrix method with a mean-field approximation, accounts for all possible alignments with all possible sequences. The model parameters for short-range and long-range interactions were determined by a self-consistent condition and by a Gaussian approximation, respectively. Using this model with and without long-range interactions, I analyzed the globin and V-set domains by increasing the “temperature” and by “mutating” a site. The correlations between residue conservation and various measures of the system’s stability indicate that the long-range interactions make the conservation pattern more specific to the structure, and increasingly stabilize better conserved residues. PMID:27924257

  20. Statistical properties for directional alignment and chasing of players in football games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narizuka, Takuma; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Focusing on motion of two interacting players in football games, two velocity vectors for the pair of one player and the nearest opponent player exhibit strong alignment. Especially, we find that there exists a characteristic interpersonal distance r≃ 500 \\text{cm} below which the circular variance for their alignment decreases rapidly. By introducing the order parameter φ(t) in order to measure the degree of alignment of the players' velocity vectors, we also find that the angle distribution between the nearest players' velocity vectors becomes of wrapped Cauchy type (φ ≲ 0.7) and the mixture of von Mises and wrapped Cauchy distributions (φ ≳ 0.7) , respectively. To understand these findings, we construct a simple model for the motion of the two interacting players with the following rules: chasing between the players and the reset of the chasing. We numerically show that our model successfully reproduces the results obtained from the actual data. Moreover, from the numerical study, we find that there is another characteristic distance r≃ 1000 \\text{cm} below which player's chasing starts.

  1. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A.; Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Li, Yuhang; Tomic, Bojan; Huang, Jiyuan; Burns, Branden; Song, Jizhou; Huang, Yonggang

    2015-04-07

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups.

  2. Flume experiments on the alignment of transverse, oblique, and longitudinal dunes in directionally varying flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

      These experimental dunes follow the same rule of alignment as wind ripples studied in previous turntable experiments. In both sets of experiments, the bedforms developed with the orientation having the maximum gross bedform-normal transport (the orientation at which the sum of the bedform-normal components of the two transport vectors reaches its maximum value). In other words, the bedforms develop with an orientation that is as transverse as possible to the two flows. In those cases where the two flows diverge by more than 90° and transport equal amounts of sand, bedforms that are as transverse as possible to the two separate flows will be parallel to the resultant of the two flow vectors. Although such bedforms have been defined by previous work as longitudinal bedforms, they are intrinsically the same kind of bedform as transverse bedforms.

  3. Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays.

    PubMed

    Henry, Tania; Kim, Kyungkon; Ren, Zaiyuan; Yerino, Christopher; Han, Jung; Tang, Hong X

    2007-11-01

    We report the growth of horizontally aligned arrays and networks of GaN nanowires (NWs) as resonant components in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). A combination of top-down selective area growth (SAG) and bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis enables flexible fabrication of highly ordered nanowire arrays in situ with no postgrowth dispersion. Mechanical resonance of free-standing nanowires are measured, with quality factors (Q) ranging from 400 to 1000. We obtained a Young's modulus (E) of approximately 338 GPa from an array of NWs with varying diameters and lengths. The measurement allows detection of nanowire motion with a rotating frame and reveals dual fundamental resonant modes in two orthogonal planes. A universal ratio between the resonant frequencies of these two fundamental modes, irrespective of their dimensions, is observed and attributed to an isosceles cross section of GaN NWs.

  4. Future Directions for Dissemination and Implementation Science: Aligning Ecological Theory and Public Health to Close the Research to Practice Gap.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Marc S; Rusch, Dana; Mehta, Tara G; Lakind, Davielle

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science (DI) has evolved as a major research model for children's mental health in response to a long-standing call to integrate science and practice and bridge the elusive research to practice gap. However, to address the complex and urgent needs of the most vulnerable children and families, future directions for DI require a new alignment of ecological theory and public health to provide effective, sustainable, and accessible mental health services. We present core principles of ecological theory to emphasize how contextual factors impact behavior and allow for the reciprocal impact individuals have on the settings they occupy, and an alignment of these principles with a public health model to ensure that services span the prevention to intervention continuum. We provide exemplars from our ongoing work in urban schools and a new direction for research to address the mental health needs of immigrant Latino families. Through these examples we illustrate how DI can expand its reach by embedding within natural settings to build on local capacity and indigenous resources, incorporating the local knowledge necessary to more substantively address long-standing mental health disparities. This paradigm shift for DI, away from an overemphasis on promoting program adoption, calls for fitting interventions within settings that matter most to children's healthy development and for utilizing and strengthening available community resources. In this way, we can meet the challenge of addressing our nation's mental health burden by supporting the needs and values of families and communities within their own unique social ecologies.

  5. Search for signatures of magnetically-induced alignment in the arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of an analysis of data recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in which we search for groups of directionally-aligned events (or ''multiplets'') which exhibit a correlation between arrival direction and the inverse of the energy. These signatures are expected from sets of events coming from the same source after having been deflected by intervening coherent magnetic fields. The observation of several events from the same source would open the possibility to accurately reconstruct the position of the source and also measure the integral of the component of the magnetic field orthogonal to the trajectory of the cosmic rays. We describe the largest multiplets found and compute the probability that they appeared by chance from an isotropic distribution. We find no statistically significant evidence for the presence of multiplets arising from magnetic deflections in the present data.

  6. Search for signatures of magnetically-induced alignment in the arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcău, O.; Tavera Ruiz, C. G.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of data recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in which we search for groups of directionally-aligned events (or 'multiplets') which exhibit a correlation between arrival direction and the inverse of the energy. These signatures are expected from sets of events coming from the same source after having been deflected by intervening coherent magnetic fields. The observation of several events from the same source would open the possibility to accurately reconstruct the position of the source and also measure the integral of the component of the magnetic field orthogonal to the trajectory of the cosmic rays. We describe the largest multiplets found and compute the probability that they appeared by chance from an isotropic distribution. We find no statistically significant evidence for the presence of multiplets arising from magnetic deflections in the present data.

  7. Detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and corresponding dark energy constraints made with directional spherical wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, J. D.; Vielva, P.; Hobson, M. P.; Martínez-González, E.; Lasenby, A. N.

    2007-04-01

    Using a directional spherical wavelet analysis we detect the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, indicated by a positive correlation between the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) data. Detections are made using both a directional extension of the spherical Mexican hat wavelet and the spherical butterfly wavelet. We examine the possibility of foreground contamination and systematics in the WMAP data and conclude that these factors are not responsible for the signal that we detect. The wavelet analysis inherently enables us to localize on the sky those regions that contribute most strongly to the correlation. On removing these localized regions the correlation that we detect is reduced in significance, as expected, but it is not eliminated, suggesting that these regions are not the sole source of correlation between the data. This finding is consistent with predictions made using the ISW effect, where one would expect weak correlations over the entire sky. In a flat universe the detection of the ISW effect provides direct and independent evidence for dark energy. We use our detection to constrain dark energy parameters by deriving a theoretical prediction for the directional wavelet covariance statistic for a given cosmological model. Comparing these predictions with the data we place constraints on the equation-of-state parameter w and the vacuum energy density ΩΛ. We also consider the case of a pure cosmological constant, that is, w = -1. For this case we rule out a zero cosmological constant at greater than the 99.9 per cent significance level. All parameter estimates that we obtain are consistent with the standard cosmological concordance model values. Although wavelets perform very well when attempting to detect the ISW effect since one may probe only the regions where the signal is present, once all information is incorporated when computing parameter estimates, the performance of the wavelet analysis is

  8. Comparative Investigations of Light Transmission in Aligned and Non-aligned Textures of Homogeneous Mixtures of 4-n-alkyl-4'-Cyanibiphenyl Mesogens at Direct and Reverse smectic A ↔ isotropic liquid Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesrullajev, Arif

    2017-03-01

    The thermo-optical properties of various types of textures (the homeotropic, planar, and tilted aligned and non-aligned textures) in liquid crystalline materials with smectic A mesophase have been investigated. Investigations have been carried out for large temperature interval and at the direct smectic A mesophase-isotropic liquid (SmA-I) and isotropic liquid-smectic A mesophase (I-SmA) phase transitions that have been carried out. Homogeneous mixtures of 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl with 4-n-decyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl were the objects of the investigations. Temperature dependences of the optical transmission for aligned and non-aligned textures have been measured. Temperature widths of the heterophase regions for the SmA-I and I-SmA phase transitions have been determined. The temperature shift in the optical transmission dependences to low temperatures for the reverse I-SmA phase transition temperatures and the thermal hysteresis has been found for the aligned and non-aligned textures.

  9. Multifunctional bowtie-shaped ridge aperture for overlay alignment in plasmonic direct writing lithography using a contact probe.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seonghyeon; Lee, Taekyong; Hahn, Jae W

    2013-07-01

    We propose a scheme of overlay alignment for plasmonic lithography using a scanning contact probe. Using two resonances of a ridge aperture in a metal film, we introduce the aperture's multifunctional characteristics for patterning and alignment at different wavelengths. To verify this idea, we measure an image of an alignment mark using a scanning ridge aperture and determine the reference point for the alignment. We then analyze the uncertainty of the alignment method with respect to the image data noise and compare the numerical results with the experimental results. The uncertainty of the overlay alignment method is shown to be less than approximately 2 nm.

  10. Correspondencia (Correspondence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Robert

    The language of Spanish correspondence possesses particular characteristics that lie somewhere between the everyday conversational style and the more formal literary style. This minicourse contains three lessons intended to enable the student to learn the letter-writing style and to write letters in Spanish. It is also intended to encourage and…

  11. Correspondence analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correspondence analysis is a powerful exploratory multivariate technique for categorical variables with many levels. It is a data analysis tool that characterizes associations between levels of 2 or more categorical variables using graphical representations of the information in a contingency table...

  12. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber paper composite to support Pt nanoparticles for direct methanol fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Yi, Xi-bin; Liu, Shuo; Fan, Hui-Li; Ju, Wei; Wang, Qi-Chun; Ma, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) grown on carbon fiber paper (CFP) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is introduced as a catalyst support material for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Well dispersed Pt nanoparticles on VACNTs surface are prepared by impregnation-reduction method. The VACNTs on CFP possess well-maintained alignment, large surface area and good electrical conductivity, which leading to the formation of Pt particles with a smaller size and enhance the Pt utilization rate. The structure and nature of resulting Pt/VACNTs/CFP catalysts for methanol oxidation are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). With the aid of VACNTs, well-dispersed Pt catalysts enable the reversibly rapid redox kinetic since electron transport efficiently passes through a one-dimensional pathway, which leads to enhance the catalytic activity and Pt utilization rate. Compared with the Pt/XC-72/CFP electrode, the electrochemical measurements results display that the Pt/VACNTs/CFP catalyst shows much higher electrocatalytic activity and better stability for methanol oxidation. In addition, the oxidation current from 200 to 1200 s decayed more slowly for the Pt/VACNTs/CFP than that of the Pt/XC-72/CFP catalysts, indicating less accumulation of adsorbed CO species. All those results imply that the Pt/VACNTs/CFP has a great potential for applications in DMFCs.

  13. Future Directions for Dissemination and Implementation Science: Aligning Ecological Theory and Public Health to Close the Research to Practice Gap

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Dana; Mehta, Tara G.; Lakind, Davielle

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science (DI) has evolved as a major research model for children’s mental health in response to a longstanding call to integrate science and practice and bridge the elusive research to practice gap. However, to address the complex and urgent needs of the most vulnerable children and families, future directions for DI require a new alignment of ecological theory and public health to provide effective, sustainable, and accessible mental health services. We present core principles of ecological theory to emphasize how contextual factors impact behavior and allow for the reciprocal impact individuals have on the settings they occupy, and an alignment of these principles with a public health model to ensure that services span the prevention to intervention continuum. We provide exemplars from our ongoing work in urban schools, and a new direction for research to address the mental health needs of immigrant Latino families. Through these examples we illustrate how DI can expand its reach by embedding within natural settings to build on local capacity and indigenous resources, incorporating the local knowledge necessary to more substantively address long-standing mental health disparities. This paradigm shift for DI, away from an over-emphasis on promoting program adoption, calls for fitting interventions within settings that matter most to children’s healthy development, and utilizing and strengthening available community resources. In this way, we can meet the challenge of addressing our nation’s mental health burden by supporting the needs and values of families and communities within their own unique social ecologies. PMID:26155972

  14. Growth parameters for aligned microstructures in directionally solidified aluminum-bismuth monotectic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parr, R. A.; Johnston, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Microstructures are shown for directionally solidified Al-3.4 wt pct Bi alloys with 0.2 wt pct Fe and 0.6 wt pct Fe additions. The third element causes the LI/SI + LII growth interface to become cellular. The bismuth forms at the cell nodes, appearing either as uniformly spaced arrays of spheres in the case of 0.2 wt pct Fe, or as an irregular network in the case of 0.6 wt pct Fe. Changes in the growth conditions which are known to control cellular structure are seen to have a similar effect on the bismuth spacing, with the cross sectional spacing varying as the inverse of G (Temperature gradient) x R(Growth rate).

  15. Direct characterization of the energy level alignments and molecular components in an organic hetero-junction by integrated photoemission spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Shin, Weon-Ho; Bulliard, Xavier; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Seyun; Chung, Jae Gwan; Kim, Yongsu; Heo, Sung; Kim, Seong Heon

    2016-08-01

    A novel, direct method for the characterization of the energy level alignments at bulk-heterojunction (BHJ)/electrode interfaces on the basis of electronic spectroscopy measurements is proposed. The home-made in situ photoemission system is used to perform x-ray/ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy of organic-semiconductors (OSCs) deposited onto a Au substrate. Through this analysis system, we are able to obtain the electronic structures of a boron subphthalocyanine chloride:fullerene (SubPC:C60) BHJ and those of the separate OSC/electrode structures (SubPC/Au and C60/Au). Morphology and chemical composition analyses confirm that the original SubPC and C60 electronic structures remain unchanged in the electrodes prepared. Using this technique, we ascertain that the position and area of the nearest peak to the Fermi energy (EF = 0 eV) in the UPS (REELS) spectra of SubPC:C60 BHJ provide information on the highest occupied molecular orbital level (optical band gap) and combination ratio of the materials, respectively. Thus, extracting the adjusted spectrum from the corresponding SubPC:C60 BHJ UPS (REELS) spectrum reveals its electronic structure, equivalent to that of the C60 materials. This novel analytical approach allows complete energy-level determination for each combination ratio by separating its electronic structure information from the BHJ spectrum.

  16. Direct-Write, Self-Aligned Electrospinning on Paper for Controllable Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Structures.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guoxi; Teh, Kwok Siong; Liu, Yumeng; Zang, Xining; Wen, Zhiyu; Lin, Liwei

    2015-12-23

    Electrospinning, a process that converts a solution or melt droplet into an ejected jet under a high electric field, is a well-established technique to produce one-dimensional (1D) fibers or two-dimensional (2D) randomly arranged fibrous meshes. Nevertheless, the direct electrospinning of fibers into controllable three-dimensional (3D) architectures is still a nascent technology. Here, we apply near-field electrospinning (NFES) to directly write arbitrarily shaped 3D structures through consistent and spatially controlled fiber-by-fiber stacking of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibers. An element central to the success of this 3D electrospinning is the use of a printing paper placed on the grounded conductive plate and acting as a fiber collector. Once deposited on the paper, residual solvents from near-field electrospun fibers can infiltrate the paper substrate, enhancing the charge transfer between the deposited fibers and the ground plate via the fibrous network within the paper. Such charge transfer grounds the deposited fibers and turns them into locally fabricated electrical poles, which attract subsequent in-flight fibers to deposit in a self-aligned manner on top of each other. This process enables the design and controlled fabrication of electrospun 3D structures such as grids, walls, hollow cylinders, and other 3D logos. As such, this technique has the potential to advance the existing electrospinning technologies in constructing 3D structures for biomedical, microelectronics, and MEMS/NMES applications.

  17. Synthesis and alignment of silver nanorods and nanowires and the formation of Pt, Pd, and core/shell structures by galvanic exchange directly on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sławiński, Grzegorz W; Zamborini, Francis P

    2007-09-25

    Here we describe the synthesis of Ag nanorods (NRs) (aspect ratio <20) and nanowires (NWs) (aspect ratio > or =20) directly on surfaces by seed-mediated growth. The procedure involves attaching gold seed nanoparticles (Au NPs) to 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS)-functionalized silicon or glass surfaces and growing them into NRs/NWs by placing the substrates into a solution containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), silver nitrate, and ascorbic acid with the pH ranging from 7 to 12. Under our conditions, Ag NRs/NWs grow optimally at pH 10.6 with a 3% yield, where spherical, triangular, and hexagonal nanostructures represent the other byproducts. The length of Ag NRs/NWs ranges from 50 nm to more than 10 microm, the aspect ratio (AR) ranges from 1.4 to >300, and the average diameter is approximately 35 nm. Approximately 40% of the 1D structures are NRs, and 60% are NWs as defined by their ARs. We also report the alignment of Ag NRs/NWs directly on surfaces by growing the structures on amine-functionalized Si(100) surfaces after an amidation reaction with acetic acid and a method to improve the percentage of Ag NRs/NWs on the surface by removing structures of other shapes with adhesive tape. Surface-grown Ag NRs/NWs also react with salts of palladium, platinum, and gold via galvanic exchange reactions to form high-surface-area 1D structures of the corresponding metal. The combination of the seed-mediated growth of Ag on Au NRs followed by the galvanic exchange of Ag with Pd leads to interesting core/shell NRs grown directly on surfaces. We used scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize the surface-grown nanostructures.

  18. Rules to fly by: pigeons navigating horizontal obstacles limit steering by selecting gaps most aligned to their flight direction.

    PubMed

    Ros, Ivo G; Bhagavatula, Partha S; Lin, Huai-Ti; Biewener, Andrew A

    2017-02-06

    Flying animals must successfully contend with obstacles in their natural environments. Inspired by the robust manoeuvring abilities of flying animals, unmanned aerial systems are being developed and tested to improve flight control through cluttered environments. We previously examined steering strategies that pigeons adopt to fly through an array of vertical obstacles (VOs). Modelling VO flight guidance revealed that pigeons steer towards larger visual gaps when making fast steering decisions. In the present experiments, we recorded three-dimensional flight kinematics of pigeons as they flew through randomized arrays of horizontal obstacles (HOs). We found that pigeons still decelerated upon approach but flew faster through a denser array of HOs compared with the VO array previously tested. Pigeons exhibited limited steering and chose gaps between obstacles most aligned to their immediate flight direction, in contrast to VO navigation that favoured widest gap steering. In addition, pigeons navigated past the HOs with more variable and decreased wing stroke span and adjusted their wing stroke plane to reduce contact with the obstacles. Variability in wing extension, stroke plane and wing stroke path was greater during HO flight. Pigeons also exhibited pronounced head movements when negotiating HOs, which potentially serve a visual function. These head-bobbing-like movements were most pronounced in the horizontal (flight direction) and vertical directions, consistent with engaging motion vision mechanisms for obstacle detection. These results show that pigeons exhibit a keen kinesthetic sense of their body and wings in relation to obstacles. Together with aerodynamic flapping flight mechanics that favours vertical manoeuvring, pigeons are able to navigate HOs using simple rules, with remarkable success.

  19. Direct measurements and modeling of gradient-aligned cross-field ion flows near an absorbing boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. S.; Siddiqui, M. Umair; McIlvain, J. S.; Short, Z. D.; Scime, E. E.; Aguirre, E. M.; Henriquez, M. F.; McKee, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    Direct measurements of cross-field ion transport near boundaries are sought for validating transport models in magnetically confined plasmas. Using laser-induced fluorescence, we measured ion flows normal to an absorbing boundary that was aligned to be parallel to a uniform axial magnetic field in a helicon plasma. We used Langmuir and emissive probes to measure local density, temperature and plasma potential profiles in the same region. We then scanned ion-neutral collisionality by varying the ratio of the ion gyro-radius, ρi, and ion-neutral collision length, λ, over the range 0.34 <=ρi / λ <= 1.60. Classical diffusion along density and potential gradients is sufficient to describe flow profiles for most cases but did not describe measurements well for 0.44 <=ρi / λ <= 0.65. In these cases, cross-sections ~3 times the classical prediction produced acceptable fits, and flow to the boundary was enhanced significantly. These enhanced flow cases exhibit spectra with low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations (f <10 kHz) that are not observed in data described well by a classical diffusion model. This work is supported by US National Science Foundation grant number PHY-1360278.

  20. Directional alignment of FeCo crystallites in Si/NiFe/Ru/FeCoB multilayer with high anisotropy field above 500 Oe.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ken-Ichiro; Gomi, Shunsuke; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2011-03-01

    In-plane magnetic anisotropy and crystal structure of FeCoB layer on Si/NiFe/Ru underlayer were investigated by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurement. A pole-figure measurement of XRD showed directionally tilted alignment of FeCo crystallites in Si/NiFe/Ru/FeCoB multilayered film with high in-plane anisotropy field H(k) but no directional alignment was found in FeCoB single layered film. The higher H(k) appeared in the Si/NiFe/Ru/FeCoB multilayered configuration with the thicker FeCoB layer. Since Ru crystallites in a multiunderlayer configuration exhibited no directional alignment, the surface structure of underlayer should be no main reason for the directional alignment of FeCo crystallites deposited on it. The dependence of hickness of FeCoB layer in Si/NiFe/Ru/FeCoB film on H(k) indicated that the in-plane magnetic anisotropy is caused by not only the structure of Ru underlayer but also oblique incidence effect of sputtered particles, which is attained in configuration of Facing Targets Sputtering (FTS) system. From these experimental results, remarkably high H(k) of 540 Oe was obtained.

  1. Transcriptome fingerprint of bovine 2-cell stage blastomeres is directly correlated with the individual developmental competence of the corresponding sister blastomere.

    PubMed

    Held, Eva; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Linke, Matthias; Zechner, Ulrich; Rings, Franca; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Hoelker, Michael

    2012-06-01

    To date, gene expression profiles of bovine preimplantation embryos have only been indirectly related to developmental potential due to the invasive nature of such procedures. This study sought to find a direct correlation between transcriptome fingerprint of blastomeres of bovine 2-cell stage embryos with developmental competence of the corresponding sister blastomeres. Isolated blastomeres were classified according to the sister blastomere's development into three groups: two groups displayed developmental incompetency, including those blastomeres whose corresponding sister blastomeres either stopped cleaving after separation (2CB) or were blocked after two additional cleavages before embryonic genome activation (8CB). In the third group were competent blastomeres, which were defined as those whose sister blastomeres developed to the blastocyst stage (BL). As a result, developmental capacity of corresponding sister blastomeres was highly similar. Microarray analysis revealed 77 genes to be commonly differentially regulated among competent and incompetent blastomeres as well as blocked blastomeres. Clustering of differentially expressed genes according to molecular functions and pathways revealed antioxidant activity, NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, and oxidative phosphorylation to be the main ontologies affected. Expression levels of selected candidate genes were further characterized in an independent model for developmental competence based on the time of first cleavage postfertilization. Moreover, overall results of this study were confirmed by higher developmental rates and more beneficial expression of CAT and PRDX1 when cultured in an antioxidative environment. These results will help us to understand molecular mechanisms defining developmental destination of individual bovine preimplantation embryos.

  2. Ion-beam-spurted dimethyl-sulfate-doped PEDOT:PSS composite-layer-aligning liquid crystal with low residual direct-current voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Lee, Ju Hwan; Seo, Dae-Shik; Li, Xiang-Dan

    2016-09-01

    Thin ion-beam (IB)-spurted dimethyl sulfate/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (DMS/PEDOT:PSS) layers with improved electro-optic performance are presented for aligning liquid crystals. IB spurting is effective for enhancing the conductivity of such layers, as well as the anchoring energy of the liquid crystals sandwiched between them. Compared with a commercial twisted-nematic cell assembled with polyimide alignment layers, the same cell assembled with 3.0-keV IB-spurted DMS/PEDOT:PSS alignment layers shows a 38% faster switching and a 93% lower residual direct current. The improved electro-optic performance here is likely due to the enhanced electric field effect and the charge-releasing ability of thin IB-spurted DMS/PEDOT:PSS layers.

  3. Bi-directional-bi-dimensionality alignment of self-supporting Mn3O4 nanorod and nanotube arrays with different bacteriostasis and magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Wei, Chengzhen; Gao, Feng; Pang, Huan; Lu, Qingyi

    2013-11-01

    Self-supported Mn3O4 patterns of aligned nanorods and nanotubes were synthesized through a bi-directional-bi-dimensionality growth model by using sodium gluconate and urea as additives under mild hydrothermal conditions without the use of any substrates. In one direction, Mn3O4 grows to form one-dimensional nanorods or nanotubes, while in the other direction Mn3O4 grows into two-dimensional nanoplates to support the nanorods or nanotubes to align into arrays. These two kinds of new nanostructures, a nanotube pattern and a nanorod pattern, show similar and good bacteriostasis for Gram positive bacteria, but for Gram negative bacteria the nanotube pattern shows much better bacterial restraint than the nanorod pattern. Magnetic studies show that the nanorod arrays display similar magnetic properties to the commercial Mn3O4, while the nanotube arrays show different ferromagnetic behaviors with enhanced remnant magnetization and saturation magnetization (Ms) at low temperature.Self-supported Mn3O4 patterns of aligned nanorods and nanotubes were synthesized through a bi-directional-bi-dimensionality growth model by using sodium gluconate and urea as additives under mild hydrothermal conditions without the use of any substrates. In one direction, Mn3O4 grows to form one-dimensional nanorods or nanotubes, while in the other direction Mn3O4 grows into two-dimensional nanoplates to support the nanorods or nanotubes to align into arrays. These two kinds of new nanostructures, a nanotube pattern and a nanorod pattern, show similar and good bacteriostasis for Gram positive bacteria, but for Gram negative bacteria the nanotube pattern shows much better bacterial restraint than the nanorod pattern. Magnetic studies show that the nanorod arrays display similar magnetic properties to the commercial Mn3O4, while the nanotube arrays show different ferromagnetic behaviors with enhanced remnant magnetization and saturation magnetization (Ms) at low temperature. Electronic supplementary

  4. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. II. NO CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HOT-JUPITER SPIN-ORBIT MISALIGNMENT AND THE INCIDENCE OF DIRECTLY IMAGED STELLAR COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Batygin, Konstantin; Crepp, Justin R.; Bechter, Eric B.; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Morton, Timothy D.; Muirhead, Philip S.

    2015-02-20

    Multi-star systems are common, yet little is known about a stellar companion's influence on the formation and evolution of planetary systems. For instance, stellar companions may have facilitated the inward migration of hot Jupiters toward to their present day positions. Many observed short-period gas giant planets also have orbits that are misaligned with respect to their star's spin axis, which has also been attributed to the presence of a massive outer companion on a non-coplanar orbit. We present the results of a multi-band direct imaging survey using Keck NIRC2 to measure the fraction of short-period gas giant planets found in multi-star systems. Over three years, we completed a survey of 50 targets ('Friends of Hot Jupiters') with 27 targets showing some signature of multi-body interaction (misaligned or eccentric orbits) and 23 targets in a control sample (well-aligned and circular orbits). We report the masses, projected separations, and confirmed common proper motion for the 19 stellar companions found around 17 stars. Correcting for survey incompleteness, we report companion fractions of 48% ± 9%, 47% ± 12%, and 51% ± 13% in our total, misaligned/eccentric, and control samples, respectively. This total stellar companion fraction is 2.8σ larger than the fraction of field stars with companions approximately 50-2000 AU. We observe no correlation between misaligned/eccentric hot Jupiter systems and the incidence of stellar companions. Combining this result with our previous radial velocity survey, we determine that 72% ± 16% of hot Jupiters are part of multi-planet and/or multi-star systems.

  5. Liquid-theory analogy of direct-coupling analysis of multiple-sequence alignment and its implications for protein structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Akira R.

    2015-01-01

    The direct-coupling analysis is a powerful method for protein contact prediction, and enables us to extract “direct” correlations between distant sites that are latent in “indirect” correlations observed in a protein multiple-sequence alignment. I show that the direct correlation can be obtained by using a formulation analogous to the Ornstein-Zernike integral equation in liquid theory. This formulation intuitively illustrates how the indirect or apparent correlation arises from an infinite series of direct correlations, and provides interesting insights into protein structure prediction. PMID:27493860

  6. Implied alignment: a synapomorphy-based multiple-sequence alignment method and its use in cladogram search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Ward C.

    2003-01-01

    A method to align sequence data based on parsimonious synapomorphy schemes generated by direct optimization (DO; earlier termed optimization alignment) is proposed. DO directly diagnoses sequence data on cladograms without an intervening multiple-alignment step, thereby creating topology-specific, dynamic homology statements. Hence, no multiple-alignment is required to generate cladograms. Unlike general and globally optimal multiple-alignment procedures, the method described here, implied alignment (IA), takes these dynamic homologies and traces them back through a single cladogram, linking the unaligned sequence positions in the terminal taxa via DO transformation series. These "lines of correspondence" link ancestor-descendent states and, when displayed as linearly arrayed columns without hypothetical ancestors, are largely indistinguishable from standard multiple alignment. Since this method is based on synapomorphy, the treatment of certain classes of insertion-deletion (indel) events may be different from that of other alignment procedures. As with all alignment methods, results are dependent on parameter assumptions such as indel cost and transversion:transition ratios. Such an IA could be used as a basis for phylogenetic search, but this would be questionable since the homologies derived from the implied alignment depend on its natal cladogram and any variance, between DO and IA + Search, due to heuristic approach. The utility of this procedure in heuristic cladogram searches using DO and the improvement of heuristic cladogram cost calculations are discussed. c2003 The Willi Hennig Society. Published by Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  7. Implied alignment: a synapomorphy-based multiple-sequence alignment method and its use in cladogram search.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Ward C

    2003-06-01

    A method to align sequence data based on parsimonious synapomorphy schemes generated by direct optimization (DO; earlier termed optimization alignment) is proposed. DO directly diagnoses sequence data on cladograms without an intervening multiple-alignment step, thereby creating topology-specific, dynamic homology statements. Hence, no multiple-alignment is required to generate cladograms. Unlike general and globally optimal multiple-alignment procedures, the method described here, implied alignment (IA), takes these dynamic homologies and traces them back through a single cladogram, linking the unaligned sequence positions in the terminal taxa via DO transformation series. These "lines of correspondence" link ancestor-descendent states and, when displayed as linearly arrayed columns without hypothetical ancestors, are largely indistinguishable from standard multiple alignment. Since this method is based on synapomorphy, the treatment of certain classes of insertion-deletion (indel) events may be different from that of other alignment procedures. As with all alignment methods, results are dependent on parameter assumptions such as indel cost and transversion:transition ratios. Such an IA could be used as a basis for phylogenetic search, but this would be questionable since the homologies derived from the implied alignment depend on its natal cladogram and any variance, between DO and IA + Search, due to heuristic approach. The utility of this procedure in heuristic cladogram searches using DO and the improvement of heuristic cladogram cost calculations are discussed.

  8. Three-dimensional aligned nanofibers-hydrogel scaffold for controlled non-viral drug/gene delivery to direct axon regeneration in spinal cord injury treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lan Huong; Gao, Mingyong; Lin, Junquan; Wu, Wutian; Wang, Jun; Chew, Sing Yian

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) often lead to persistent neurological dysfunction due to failure in axon regeneration. Unfortunately, currently established treatments, such as direct drug administration, do not effectively treat SCI due to rapid drug clearance from our bodies. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional aligned nanofibers-hydrogel scaffold as a bio-functionalized platform to provide sustained non-viral delivery of proteins and nucleic acid therapeutics (small non-coding RNAs), along with synergistic contact guidance for nerve injury treatment. A hemi-incision model at cervical level 5 in the rat spinal cord was chosen to evaluate the efficacy of this scaffold design. Specifically, aligned axon regeneration was observed as early as one week post-injury. In addition, no excessive inflammatory response and scar tissue formation was triggered. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential of our scaffold for neural tissue engineering applications. PMID:28169354

  9. Three-dimensional aligned nanofibers-hydrogel scaffold for controlled non-viral drug/gene delivery to direct axon regeneration in spinal cord injury treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lan Huong; Gao, Mingyong; Lin, Junquan; Wu, Wutian; Wang, Jun; Chew, Sing Yian

    2017-02-07

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) often lead to persistent neurological dysfunction due to failure in axon regeneration. Unfortunately, currently established treatments, such as direct drug administration, do not effectively treat SCI due to rapid drug clearance from our bodies. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional aligned nanofibers-hydrogel scaffold as a bio-functionalized platform to provide sustained non-viral delivery of proteins and nucleic acid therapeutics (small non-coding RNAs), along with synergistic contact guidance for nerve injury treatment. A hemi-incision model at cervical level 5 in the rat spinal cord was chosen to evaluate the efficacy of this scaffold design. Specifically, aligned axon regeneration was observed as early as one week post-injury. In addition, no excessive inflammatory response and scar tissue formation was triggered. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential of our scaffold for neural tissue engineering applications.

  10. Direct evaluation of anisotropic carrier mobility in uniaxially aligned polymer semiconductor film by time-resolved microscopic optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kentaro; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2017-01-01

    Mobility anisotropy in uniaxially-aligned fluorene co-polymer thin film was directly observed by using time-resolved microscopic optical second-harmonic generation (TRM-SHG) imaging. Main-chain orientation of fluorene co-polymer was determined by polarized absorption measurement, and the mobilities in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the main-chain were respectively estimated as 4.8× {{10}-3} cm2 Vs-1 and 1.2× {{10}-3} cm2 Vs-1 from the visualized carrier motion starting from a round-shape electrode. These results indicate that the mobility anisotropy of this sample was 4.0. Activation energy for each direction was also evaluated by the temperature dependence measurement as 117 and 94 meV, respectively. The TRM-SHG method enables us to estimate mobility and activation energy of the oriented polymer film in all directions at once.

  11. Precise identification of <1 0 0> directions on Si{0 0 1} wafer using a novel self-aligning pre-etched technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. S.; Veerla, S.; Sharma, V.; Pandey, A. K.; Pal, P.

    2016-02-01

    Micromirrors with a tilt angle of 45° are widely used in optical switching and interconnect applications which require 90° out of plane reflection. Silicon wet bulk micromachining based on surfactant added TMAH is usually employed to fabricate 45° slanted walls at the < 1 0 0> direction on Si≤ft\\{0 0 1\\right\\} wafers. These slanted walls are used as 45° micromirrors. However, the appearance of a precise 45° ≤ft\\{0 1 1\\right\\} wall is subject to the accurate identification of the < 1 0 0> direction. In this paper, we present a simple technique based on pre-etched patterns for the identification of < 1 0 0> directions on the Si≤ft\\{0 0 1\\right\\} surface. The proposed pre-etched pattern self-aligns itself at the < 1 0 0> direction while becoming misaligned at other directions. The < 1 0 0> direction is determined by a simple visual inspection of pre-etched patterns and does not need any kind of measurement. To test the accuracy of the proposed method, we fabricated a 32 mm long rectangular opening with its sides aligned along the < 1 0 0> direction, which is determined using the proposed technique. Due to the finite etch rate of the ≤ft\\{1 1 0\\right\\} plane, undercutting occurred, which was measured at 12 different locations along the longer edge of the rectangular strip. The mean of these undercutting lengths, measured perpendicular to the mask edge, is found to be 13.41 μm with a sub-micron standard deviation of 0.38 μm. This level of uniform undercutting indicates that our method of identifying the < 1 0 0> direction is precise and accurate. The developed method will be extremely useful in fabricating arrays of 45° micromirrors.

  12. CAB-Align: A Flexible Protein Structure Alignment Method Based on the Residue-Residue Contact Area

    PubMed Central

    Terashi, Genki; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are flexible, and this flexibility has an essential functional role. Flexibility can be observed in loop regions, rearrangements between secondary structure elements, and conformational changes between entire domains. However, most protein structure alignment methods treat protein structures as rigid bodies. Thus, these methods fail to identify the equivalences of residue pairs in regions with flexibility. In this study, we considered that the evolutionary relationship between proteins corresponds directly to the residue–residue physical contacts rather than the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of proteins. Thus, we developed a new protein structure alignment method, contact area-based alignment (CAB-align), which uses the residue–residue contact area to identify regions of similarity. The main purpose of CAB-align is to identify homologous relationships at the residue level between related protein structures. The CAB-align procedure comprises two main steps: First, a rigid-body alignment method based on local and global 3D structure superposition is employed to generate a sufficient number of initial alignments. Then, iterative dynamic programming is executed to find the optimal alignment. We evaluated the performance and advantages of CAB-align based on four main points: (1) agreement with the gold standard alignment, (2) alignment quality based on an evolutionary relationship without 3D coordinate superposition, (3) consistency of the multiple alignments, and (4) classification agreement with the gold standard classification. Comparisons of CAB-align with other state-of-the-art protein structure alignment methods (TM-align, FATCAT, and DaliLite) using our benchmark dataset showed that CAB-align performed robustly in obtaining high-quality alignments and generating consistent multiple alignments with high coverage and accuracy rates, and it performed extremely well when discriminating between homologous and nonhomologous pairs of proteins in both

  13. CAB-Align: A Flexible Protein Structure Alignment Method Based on the Residue-Residue Contact Area.

    PubMed

    Terashi, Genki; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are flexible, and this flexibility has an essential functional role. Flexibility can be observed in loop regions, rearrangements between secondary structure elements, and conformational changes between entire domains. However, most protein structure alignment methods treat protein structures as rigid bodies. Thus, these methods fail to identify the equivalences of residue pairs in regions with flexibility. In this study, we considered that the evolutionary relationship between proteins corresponds directly to the residue-residue physical contacts rather than the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of proteins. Thus, we developed a new protein structure alignment method, contact area-based alignment (CAB-align), which uses the residue-residue contact area to identify regions of similarity. The main purpose of CAB-align is to identify homologous relationships at the residue level between related protein structures. The CAB-align procedure comprises two main steps: First, a rigid-body alignment method based on local and global 3D structure superposition is employed to generate a sufficient number of initial alignments. Then, iterative dynamic programming is executed to find the optimal alignment. We evaluated the performance and advantages of CAB-align based on four main points: (1) agreement with the gold standard alignment, (2) alignment quality based on an evolutionary relationship without 3D coordinate superposition, (3) consistency of the multiple alignments, and (4) classification agreement with the gold standard classification. Comparisons of CAB-align with other state-of-the-art protein structure alignment methods (TM-align, FATCAT, and DaliLite) using our benchmark dataset showed that CAB-align performed robustly in obtaining high-quality alignments and generating consistent multiple alignments with high coverage and accuracy rates, and it performed extremely well when discriminating between homologous and nonhomologous pairs of proteins in both

  14. Orbit IMU alignment: Error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and software systems to: (1) determine the expected Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) manual mode IMU alignment accuracy; (2) investigate the accuracy of alignments in later shuttle flights when the automatic mode of star acquisition may be used; and (3) verify that an analytical model previously used for estimating the alignment error is a valid model. The analysis results do not differ significantly from expectations. The standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 alignments was determined to the 68 arc seconds per axis. This corresponds to a 99.7% probability that the magnitude of the total alignment error is less than 258 arc seconds.

  15. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  16. Fully passive-alignment pluggable compact parallel optical interconnection modules based on a direct-butt-coupling structure for fiber-optic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kwon-Seob; Park, Hyoung-Jun; Kang, Hyun Seo; Kim, Young Sun; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-02-01

    A low-cost packaging method utilizing a fully passive optical alignment and surface-mounting method is demonstrated for pluggable compact and slim multichannel optical interconnection modules using a VCSEL/PIN-PD chip array. The modules are based on a nonplanar bent right-angle electrical signal path on a silicon platform and direct-butt-optical coupling without a bulky and expensive microlens array. The measured optical direct-butt-coupling efficiencies of each channel without any bulky optics are as high as 33% and 95% for the transmitter and receiver, respectively. Excellent lateral optical alignment tolerance of larger than 60 μm for both the transmitter and receiver module significantly reduces the manufacturing and material costs as well as the packaging time. The clear eye diagrams, extinction ratios higher than 8 dB at 10.3 Gbps for the transmitter module, and receiver sensitivity of better than -13.1 dBm at 10.3 Gbps and a bit error rate of 10-12 for all channels are demonstrated. Considering that the optical output power of the transmitter is greater than 0 dBm, the module has a sufficient power margin of about 13 dB for 10.3 Gbps operations for all channels.

  17. MP-Align: alignment of metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparing the metabolic pathways of different species is useful for understanding metabolic functions and can help in studying diseases and engineering drugs. Several comparison techniques for metabolic pathways have been introduced in the literature as a first attempt in this direction. The approaches are based on some simplified representation of metabolic pathways and on a related definition of a similarity score (or distance measure) between two pathways. More recent comparative research focuses on alignment techniques that can identify similar parts between pathways. Results We propose a methodology for the pairwise comparison and alignment of metabolic pathways that aims at providing the largest conserved substructure of the pathways under consideration. The proposed methodology has been implemented in a tool called MP-Align, which has been used to perform several validation tests. The results showed that our similarity score makes it possible to discriminate between different domains and to reconstruct a meaningful phylogeny from metabolic data. The results further demonstrate that our alignment algorithm correctly identifies subpathways sharing a common biological function. Conclusion The results of the validation tests performed with MP-Align are encouraging. A comparison with another proposal in the literature showed that our alignment algorithm is particularly well-suited to finding the largest conserved subpathway of the pathways under examination. PMID:24886436

  18. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  19. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Nelson E.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

  20. Self-directed growth of aligned adenine molecular chains on Si(111)7×7: direct imaging of hydrogen-bond mediated dimers and clusters at room temperature by scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Avisek; Zhang, Lei; Leung, K T

    2013-07-30

    The early stage of adsorption of adenine on Si(111)7×7 is studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Bright protrusions are observed in both empty-state and filled-state STM images, indicative of molecular adsorption of adenine through dative bonding. The majority of these bright protrusions appear as dimer pairs formed by hydrogen bonding at the initial adsorption stage. The formation of dative bonds between the substrate and adenine and the feasibility of the H-bond mediated dimers are supported by ab initio DFT/B3LYP/6-31G++(d,p) calculations, and are in excellent accord with our recent X-ray photoemission data. Remarkably, these dimers are found to undergo self-organization into aligned superstructures, evidently with common link arrangements, including straight, offset, and zigzag chains, square quartets, double quartets, and other multiple dimer structures. As the exposure of adenine increases, the populations of dimers as well as the self-organized double dimer and other higher-order structures also increase. The end-to-end dimer links are found to be most prominent in the growth of adenine molecular chains, most notably aligned along the Si dimer-wall or [-1 1 0] direction of the 7×7 unit cell. The self-aligned adenine dimer molecular chains offer a natural template for catch-and-release biosensing, lithography, and molecular electronic applications.

  1. Combining Multiple Pairwise Structure-based Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    CombAlign is a new Python code that generates a gapped, one-to-many, multiple structure-based sequence alignment(MSSA) given a set of pairwise structure-based alignments. In order to better define regions of similarity among related protein structures, it is useful to detect the residue-residue correspondences among a set of pairwise structure alignments. Few codes exist for constructing a one-to-many, multiple sequence alignment derived from a set of structure alignments, and we perceived a need for creating a new tool for combing pairwise structure alignments that would allow for insertion of gaps in the reference structure.

  2. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  3. On the alignment of shapes represented by Fourier descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Ericsson, Anders; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-03-01

    The representation of shapes by Fourier descriptors is a time-honored technique that has received relatively little attention lately. Nevertheless, it has its benefits and is suitable for describing a range of medical structures in two dimensions. Delineations in medical applications often consist of continuous outlines of structures, where no information of correspondence between samples exist. In this article, we discuss a Euclidean alignment method that works directly with the functional representation of Fourier descriptors, and that is optimal in a least-squares sense. With corresponding starting points, the alignment of one shape onto another consists of a single expression. If the starting points are arbitrary, we present a simple algorithm to bring a set of shapes into correspondence. Results are given for three different data sets; 62 outlines of the corpus callosum brain structure, 61 outlines of the brain ventricles, and 50 outlines of the right lung. The results show that even though starting points, translations, rotations and scales have been randomized, the alignment succeeds in all cases. As an application of the proposed method, we show how high-quality shape models represented by common landmarks can be constructed in an automatic fashion. If the aligned Fourier descriptors are inverse transformed from the frequency domain to the spatial domain, a set of roughly aligned landmarks are obtained. The positions of these are then adjusted along the contour of the objects using the minimum description length criterion, producing ample correspondences. Results on this are also presented for all three data sets.

  4. Aligning health care policy with evidence-based medicine: the case for funding direct oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Stone, James A; Earl, Karen M; O'Neill, Blair J; Sharma, Mukul; Huynh, Thao; Leblanc, Kori; Ward, Richard; Teal, Philip A; Cox, Jafna L

    2014-10-01

    Misalignment between evidence-informed clinical care guideline recommendations and reimbursement policy has created care gaps that lead to suboptimal outcomes for patients denied access to guideline-based therapies. The purpose of this article is to make the case for addressing this growing access barrier to optimal care. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) is discussed as an example. Stroke is an extremely costly disease, imposing a significant human, societal, and economic burden. Stroke in the setting of AF carries an 80% probability of death or disability. Although two-thirds of these strokes are preventable with appropriate anticoagulation, this has historically been underprescribed and poorly managed. National and international guidelines endorse the direct oral anticoagulants as first-line therapy for this indication. However, no Canadian province has provided these agents with an unrestricted listing. These decisions appear to be founded on silo-based cost assessment-the drug costs rather than the total system costs-and thus overlook several important cost-drivers in stroke. The discordance between best scientific evidence and public policy requires health care providers to use a potentially suboptimal therapy in contravention of guideline recommendations. It represents a significant obstacle for knowledge translation efforts that aim to increase the appropriate anticoagulation of Canadians with AF. As health care professionals, we have a responsibility to our patients to engage with policy-makers in addressing and resolving this barrier to optimal patient care.

  5. Optical See-Through Head Mounted Display Direct Linear Transformation Calibration Robustness in the Presence of User Alignment Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axholt, Magnus; Skoglund, Martin; Peterson, Stephen D.; Cooper, Matthew D.; Schoen, Thomas B.; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ellis, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technique by which computer generated signals synthesize impressions that are made to coexist with the surrounding real world as perceived by the user. Human smell, taste, touch and hearing can all be augmented, but most commonly AR refers to the human vision being overlaid with information otherwise not readily available to the user. A correct calibration is important on an application level, ensuring that e.g. data labels are presented at correct locations, but also on a system level to enable display techniques such as stereoscopy to function properly [SOURCE]. Thus, vital to AR, calibration methodology is an important research area. While great achievements already have been made, there are some properties in current calibration methods for augmenting vision which do not translate from its traditional use in automated cameras calibration to its use with a human operator. This paper uses a Monte Carlo simulation of a standard direct linear transformation camera calibration to investigate how user introduced head orientation noise affects the parameter estimation during a calibration procedure of an optical see-through head mounted display.

  6. Taxicab Correspondence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Choulakian, V

    2006-06-01

    Taxicab correspondence analysis is based on the taxicab singular value decomposition of a contingency table, and it shares some similar properties with correspondence analysis. It is more robust than the ordinary correspondence analysis, because it gives uniform weights to all the points. The visual map constructed by taxicab correspondence analysis has a larger sweep and clearer perspective than the map obtained by correspondence analysis. Two examples are provided.

  7. Analytical modeling to design the vertically aligned Si-nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor photosensors for direct color sensing with high spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, Subhrajit; Chowdhury, Basudev Nag; Ghosh, Ajay; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan

    2017-03-01

    In the current work, an analytical model for the design of vertically aligned silicon (Si) nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor based multi-color photodetectors has been developed for the detection of entire visible spectrum with high spectral resolution. The photogeneration phenomena within the nanostructures are analyzed in detail by developing a quantum field model associated with second quantization electron-photon field operators. The non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism is employed to solve the relevant equations. The study shows that the proposed device with specified design of diameter-voltage combinations is capable of detecting 64 spectral bands of the entire visible spectrum (380 nm to700 nm) directly with a very high resolution of 5 nm wavelength. Such direct sensing of each wavelength is observed to be independent of the fluctuations of illumination intensity. The device is designed to obtain a full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) smaller than the spectral resolution (5 nm) for each wavelength of the visible range, which indicates a very high quality digital imaging/sensing method. Such devices may be a potential alternative for the future nanoelectronics based photodevices for superior sensing/imaging applications.

  8. The alignment strategy of HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechenova, O.; Pechenov, V.; Galatyuk, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Kornakov, G.; Markert, J.; Müntz, C.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Stroth, J.

    2015-06-01

    The global as well as intrinsic alignment of any spectrometer impacts directly on its performance and the quality of the achievable physics results. An overview of the current alignment procedure of the DiElectron Spectrometer HADES is presented with an emphasis on its main features and its accuracy. The sequence of all steps and procedures is given, including details on photogrammetric and track-based alignment.

  9. Taxicab Correspondence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choulakian, V.

    2006-01-01

    Taxicab correspondence analysis is based on the taxicab singular value decomposition of a contingency table, and it shares some similar properties with correspondence analysis. It is more robust than the ordinary correspondence analysis, because it gives uniform weights to all the points. The visual map constructed by taxicab correspondence…

  10. Curriculum Alignment: Establishing Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagné, Philippe; Dumont, Laurence; Brunet, Sabine; Boucher, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a step-by-step guide to implement a curricular alignment project, directed at professional development and student support, and developed in a higher education French as a second language department. We outline best practices and preliminary results from our experience and provide ways to adapt our experience to other…

  11. Spontaneous magnetic alignment behaviour in free-living lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego-Rasilla, Francisco J.; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín; Pérez-Cembranos, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Several species of vertebrates exhibit spontaneous longitudinal body axis alignment relative to the Earth's magnetic field (i.e., magnetic alignment) while they are performing different behavioural tasks. Since magnetoreception is still not fully understood, studying magnetic alignment provides evidence for magnetoreception and broadens current knowledge of magnetic sense in animals. Furthermore, magnetic alignment widens the roles of magnetic sensitivity in animals and may contribute to shed new light on magnetoreception. In this context, spontaneous alignment in two species of lacertid lizards ( Podarcis muralis and Podarcis lilfordi) during basking periods was monitored. Alignments in 255 P. muralis and 456 P. lilfordi were measured over a 5-year period. The possible influence of the sun's position (i.e., altitude and azimuth) and geomagnetic field values corresponding to the moment in which a particular lizard was observed on lizards' body axis orientation was evaluated. Both species exhibited a highly significant bimodal orientation along the north-northeast and south-southwest magnetic axis. The evidence from this study suggests that free-living lacertid lizards exhibit magnetic alignment behaviour, since their body alignments cannot be explained by an effect of the sun's position. On the contrary, lizard orientations were significantly correlated with geomagnetic field values at the time of each observation. We suggest that this behaviour might provide lizards with a constant directional reference while they are sun basking. This directional reference might improve their mental map of space to accomplish efficient escape behaviour. This study is the first to provide spontaneous magnetic alignment behaviour in free-living reptiles.

  12. Net2Align: An Algorithm For Pairwise Global Alignment of Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwab, Gulshan; Upadhyayaa, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data on molecular interactions is growing at an enormous pace, whereas the progress of methods for analysing this data is still lacking behind. Particularly, in the area of comparative analysis of biological networks, where one wishes to explore the similarity between two biological networks, this holds a potential problem. In consideration that the functionality primarily runs at the network level, it advocates the need for robust comparison methods. In this paper, we describe Net2Align, an algorithm for pairwise global alignment that can perform node-to-node correspondences as well as edge-to-edge correspondences into consideration. The uniqueness of our algorithm is in the fact that it is also able to detect the type of interaction, which is essential in case of directed graphs. The existing algorithm is only able to identify the common nodes but not the common edges. Another striking feature of the algorithm is that it is able to remove duplicate entries in case of variable datasets being aligned. This is achieved through creation of a local database which helps exclude duplicate links. In a pervasive computational study on gene regulatory network, we establish that our algorithm surpasses its counterparts in its results. Net2Align has been implemented in Java 7 and the source code is available as supplementary files. PMID:28356678

  13. Direct measurements of classical and enhanced gradient-aligned cross-field ion flows in a helicon plasma source using laser-induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, M. Umair Thompson, Derek S.; McIlvain, Julianne M.; Short, Zachary D.; Scime, Earl E.

    2015-12-15

    Direct laser induced fluorescence measurements are shown of cross-field ion flows normal to an absorbing boundary that is aligned parallel to the axial magnetic field in a helicon plasma. We show Langmuir and emissive probe measurements of local density and plasma potential in the same region, as well as floating probe spectra near the boundary. With these measurements, we investigate the influence of ion-neutral collisionality on radial ion transport by varying the ratio of the ion gyro-radius, ρ{sub i}, to the ion-neutral collision length, λ, over the range 0.34 ≤ ρ{sub i}λ{sup −1} ≤ 1.60. Classical drift-diffusion transport along density and potential gradients is sufficient to describe flow profiles for most cases. For two parameter regimes (ρ{sub i}λ{sup −1} = 0.65 and 0.44), low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations (f < 10 kHz) and enhanced cross-field bulk ion flow to the boundary are observed.

  14. ALIGNING JIG

    DOEpatents

    Culver, J.S.; Tunnell, W.C.

    1958-08-01

    A jig or device is described for setting or aligning an opening in one member relative to another member or structure, with a predetermined offset, or it may be used for measuring the amount of offset with which the parts have previously been sct. This jig comprises two blocks rabbeted to each other, with means for securing thc upper block to the lower block. The upper block has fingers for contacting one of the members to be a1igmed, the lower block is designed to ride in grooves within the reference member, and calibration marks are provided to determine the amount of offset. This jig is specially designed to align the collimating slits of a mass spectrometer.

  15. Image alignment

    DOEpatents

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  16. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  17. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  18. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41....10 Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in... all other correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which...

  19. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  20. 37 CFR 41.10 - Correspondence addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence addresses. 41... Correspondence addresses. Except as the Board may otherwise direct, (a) Appeals. Correspondence in an application... correspondence in an application or a patent involved in an appeal to the Board for which an address is...

  1. Mask-to-wafer alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Tichenor, Daniel A.; Haney, Steven J.

    2003-11-04

    A modified beam splitter that has a hole pattern that is symmetric in one axis and anti-symmetric in the other can be employed in a mask-to-wafer alignment device. The device is particularly suited for rough alignment using visible light. The modified beam splitter transmits and reflects light from a source of electromagnetic radiation and it includes a substrate that has a first surface facing the source of electromagnetic radiation and second surface that is reflective of said electromagnetic radiation. The substrate defines a hole pattern about a central line of the substrate. In operation, an input beam from a camera is directed toward the modified beam splitter and the light from the camera that passes through the holes illuminates the reticle on the wafer. The light beam from the camera also projects an image of a corresponding reticle pattern that is formed on the mask surface of the that is positioned downstream from the camera. Alignment can be accomplished by detecting the radiation that is reflected from the second surface of the modified beam splitter since the reflected radiation contains both the image of the pattern from the mask and a corresponding pattern on the wafer.

  2. Alignments of Dark Matter Halos with Large-scale Tidal Fields: Mass and Redshift Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sijie; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Shi, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale tidal fields estimated directly from the distribution of dark matter halos are used to investigate how halo shapes and spin vectors are aligned with the cosmic web. The major, intermediate, and minor axes of halos are aligned with the corresponding tidal axes, and halo spin axes tend to be parallel with the intermediate axes and perpendicular to the major axes of the tidal field. The strengths of these alignments generally increase with halo mass and redshift, but the dependence is only on the peak height, ν \\equiv {δ }{{c}}/σ ({M}{{h}},z). The scaling relations of the alignment strengths with the value of ν indicate that the alignment strengths remain roughly constant when the structures within which the halos reside are still in a quasi-linear regime, but decreases as nonlinear evolution becomes more important. We also calculate the alignments in projection so that our results can be compared directly with observations. Finally, we investigate the alignments of tidal tensors on large scales, and use the results to understand alignments of halo pairs separated at various distances. Our results suggest that the coherent structure of the tidal field is the underlying reason for the alignments of halos and galaxies seen in numerical simulations and in observations.

  3. Demonstrating the Correspondence Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jennifer L.; Shepperd, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the best-known and most robust biases in person perception is the correspondence bias--the tendency for people to make dispositional, rather than situational, attributions for an actor's behavior. The correspondence bias appears in virtually every social psychology textbook and in many introductory psychology textbooks, yet the authors'…

  4. Complex Correspondence Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-02-12

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  5. Direct non-Born-Oppenheimer variational calculations of all bound vibrational states corresponding to the first rotational excitation of D{sub 2} performed with explicitly correlated all-particle Gaussian functions

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Keeper L.; Kirnosov, Nikita; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2015-05-07

    Direct variational calculations where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is not assumed are done for all rovibrational states of the D{sub 2} molecule corresponding to first excited rotational level (the N = 1 states). All-particle explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions are used in the calculations. The exponential parameters of the Gaussians are optimized with the aid of analytically calculated energy gradient determined with respect to these parameters. The results allow to determine the ortho-para spin isomerization energies as a function of the vibrational quantum number.

  6. Flow alignment phenomena in liquid crystals studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2009-10-01

    The flow alignment of a nematic liquid crystal has been studied as a function of temperature, beginning at high temperature in the nematic phase and down to the nematic-smectic A phase transition. The alignment angle is obtained by estimating the twist viscosities by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) methods. These estimates are cross-checked by evaluating the corresponding equilibrium fluctuation relations. As a further comparison, shear flow simulations are carried out by application of the SLLOD equations of motion (so named because of their close relationship to the Doll's equation of motion, which can be derived from the Doll's tensor Hamiltonian), whereby the alignment angle is obtained directly. All these methods give consistent results for the alignment angle. At low temperatures near the nematic-smectic A transition the system becomes flow unstable. In this region the alignment angle has been calculated as a function of time.

  7. Multiple protein structure alignment.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. R.; Flores, T. P.; Orengo, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    A method was developed to compare protein structures and to combine them into a multiple structure consensus. Previous methods of multiple structure comparison have only concatenated pairwise alignments or produced a consensus structure by averaging coordinate sets. The current method is a fusion of the fast structure comparison program SSAP and the multiple sequence alignment program MULTAL. As in MULTAL, structures are progressively combined, producing intermediate consensus structures that are compared directly to each other and all remaining single structures. This leads to a hierarchic "condensation," continually evaluated in the light of the emerging conserved core regions. Following the SSAP approach, all interatomic vectors were retained with well-conserved regions distinguished by coherent vector bundles (the structural equivalent of a conserved sequence position). Each bundle of vectors is summarized by a resultant, whereas vector coherence is captured in an error term, which is the only distinction between conserved and variable positions. Resultant vectors are used directly in the comparison, which is weighted by their error values, giving greater importance to the matching of conserved positions. The resultant vectors and their errors can also be used directly in molecular modeling. Applications of the method were assessed by the quality of the resulting sequence alignments, phylogenetic tree construction, and databank scanning with the consensus. Visual assessment of the structural superpositions and consensus structure for various well-characterized families confirmed that the consensus had identified a reasonable core. PMID:7849601

  8. 'Fixed-axis' magnetic orientation by an amphibian: non-shoreward-directed compass orientation, misdirected homing or positioning a magnetite-based map detector in a consistent alignment relative to the magnetic field?

    PubMed

    Phillips, John B; Borland, S Chris; Freake, Michael J; Brassart, Jacques; Kirschvink, Joseph L

    2002-12-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the earlier prediction that prolonged exposure to long-wavelength (>500 nm) light would eliminate homing orientation by male Eastern red-spotted newts Notophthalmus viridescens. As in previous experiments, controls held in outdoor tanks under natural lighting conditions and tested in a visually uniform indoor arena under full-spectrum light were homeward oriented. As predicted, however, newts held under long-wavelength light and tested under either full-spectrum or long-wavelength light (>500 nm) failed to show consistent homeward orientation. The newts also did not orient with respect to the shore directions in the outdoor tanks in which they were held prior to testing. Unexpectedly, however, the newts exhibited bimodal orientation along a more-or-less 'fixed' north-northeast-south-southwest magnetic axis. The orientation exhibited by newts tested under full-spectrum light was indistinguishable from that of newts tested under long-wavelength light, although these two wavelength conditions have previously been shown to differentially affect both shoreward compass orientation and homing orientation. To investigate the possibility that the 'fixed-axis' response of the newts was mediated by a magnetoreception mechanism involving single-domain particles of magnetite, natural remanent magnetism (NRM) was measured from a subset of the newts. The distribution of NRM alignments with respect to the head-body axis of the newts was indistinguishable from random. Furthermore, there was no consistent relationship between the NRM of individual newts and their directional response in the overall sample. However, under full-spectrum, but not long-wavelength, light, the alignment of the NRM when the newts reached the 20 cm radius criterion circle in the indoor testing arena (estimated by adding the NRM alignment measured from each newt to its magnetic bearing) was non-randomly distributed. These findings are consistent with the earlier

  9. Multiclass Continuous Correspondence Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Brian D,; Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Structural Correspondence Learning (SCL) domain adaptation algorithm of Blitzer er al. to the realm of continuous signals. Given a set of labeled examples belonging to a 'source' domain, we select a set of unlabeled examples in a related 'target' domain that play similar roles in both domains. Using these 'pivot samples, we map both domains into a common feature space, allowing us to adapt a classifier trained on source examples to classify target examples. We show that when between-class distances are relatively preserved across domains, we can automatically select target pivots to bring the domains into correspondence.

  10. Retention Time Alignment of LC/MS Data by a Divide-and-Conquer Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongqi

    2012-04-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has become the method of choice for characterizing complex mixtures. These analyses often involve quantitative comparison of components in multiple samples. To achieve automated sample comparison, the components of interest must be detected and identified, and their retention times aligned and peak areas calculated. This article describes a simple pairwise iterative retention time alignment algorithm, based on the divide-and-conquer approach, for alignment of ion features detected in LC/MS experiments. In this iterative algorithm, ion features in the sample run are first aligned with features in the reference run by applying a single constant shift of retention time. The sample chromatogram is then divided into two shorter chromatograms, which are aligned to the reference chromatogram the same way. Each shorter chromatogram is further divided into even shorter chromatograms. This process continues until each chromatogram is sufficiently narrow so that ion features within it have a similar retention time shift. In six pairwise LC/MS alignment examples containing a total of 6507 confirmed true corresponding feature pairs with retention time shifts up to five peak widths, the algorithm successfully aligned these features with an error rate of 0.2%. The alignment algorithm is demonstrated to be fast, robust, fully automatic, and superior to other algorithms. After alignment and gap-filling of detected ion features, their abundances can be tabulated for direct comparison between samples.

  11. The Correspondence Principle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liboff, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Addresses the question of frequency correspondence in the domain of large quantum numbers, with reference to periodic systems. Provides two simple counterexamples (a particle in a cubical box and a rigid rotator) to show that the classical result is not always recovered in the limit of large quantum numbers. (JM)

  12. A Framework for Higher Education Labor Market Alignment: Lessons and Future Directions in the Development of Jobs-­-Driven Strategies. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Jennifer; Van Noy, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession and several other factors have heightened concerns among policymakers and the public at large about higher education's role in employment, leading to a renewed wave of pressures, policies, and incentives to create job-driven strategies at all levels. Policymakers and the public often assume that aligning higher education with…

  13. A correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.

    2016-02-01

    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  14. Alignment limit of the NMSSM Higgs sector

    DOE PAGES

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; ...

    2016-02-17

    The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) with a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV can be compatible with stop masses of order of the electroweak scale, thereby reducing the degree of fine-tuning necessary to achieve electroweak symmetry breaking. Moreover, in an attractive region of the NMSSM parameter space, corresponding to the \\alignment limit" in which one of the neutral Higgs fields lies approximately in the same direction in field space as the doublet Higgs vacuum expectation value, the observed Higgs boson is predicted to have Standard- Model-like properties. We derive analytical expressions for the alignment conditions andmore » show that they point toward a more natural region of parameter space for electroweak symmetry breaking, while allowing for perturbativity of the theory up to the Planck scale. Additionally, the alignment limit in the NMSSM leads to a well defined spectrum in the Higgs and Higgsino sectors, and yields a rich and interesting Higgs boson phenomenology that can be tested at the LHC. Here, we discuss the most promising channels for discovery and present several benchmark points for further study.« less

  15. Alignment limit of the NMSSM Higgs sector

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2016-02-17

    The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) with a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV can be compatible with stop masses of order of the electroweak scale, thereby reducing the degree of fine-tuning necessary to achieve electroweak symmetry breaking. Moreover, in an attractive region of the NMSSM parameter space, corresponding to the \\alignment limit" in which one of the neutral Higgs fields lies approximately in the same direction in field space as the doublet Higgs vacuum expectation value, the observed Higgs boson is predicted to have Standard- Model-like properties. We derive analytical expressions for the alignment conditions and show that they point toward a more natural region of parameter space for electroweak symmetry breaking, while allowing for perturbativity of the theory up to the Planck scale. Additionally, the alignment limit in the NMSSM leads to a well defined spectrum in the Higgs and Higgsino sectors, and yields a rich and interesting Higgs boson phenomenology that can be tested at the LHC. Here, we discuss the most promising channels for discovery and present several benchmark points for further study.

  16. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success

  17. Correspondence: Searching sequence space

    SciTech Connect

    Youvan, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    This correspondence debates the efficiency and application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to search protein sequence space. The important experimental point is that such sparse searches utilize physically realistic syntheses. In this regard, all GA-based technologies are very similar; they {open_quotes}learn{close_quotes} from their initial sparse search and then generate interesting new proteins within a few iterations. Which GA-based technology is best? That probably depends on the protein and the specific engineering goal. Given the fact that the field of combinatorial chemistry is still in its infancy, it is probably wise to consider all of the proven mutagenesis methods. 19 refs.

  18. Dynamic Alignment at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2003-04-23

    The relative alignment of components in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) is guaranteed by mechanical means. The magnets are rigidly fixed to 48 girders by means of alignment rails with tolerances of less than {+-}15 {micro}m. The bending magnets, supported by 3 point ball bearings, overlap adjacent girders and thus establish virtual train links between the girders, located near the bending magnet centres. Keeping the distortion of the storage ring geometry within a tolerance of {+-}100 {micro}m in order to guarantee sufficient dynamic apertures, requires continuous monitoring and correction of the girder locations. Two monitoring systems for the horizontal and the vertical direction will be installed to measure displacements of the train link between girders, which are due to ground settings and temperature effects: The hydrostatic levelling system (HLS) gives an absolute vertical reference, while the horizontal positioning system (HPS), which employs low cost linear encoders with sub-micron resolution, measures relative horizontal movements. The girder mover system based on five DC motors per girder allows a dynamic realignment of the storage ring within a working window of more than {+-}1 mm for girder translations and {+-}1 mrad for rotations. We will describe both monitoring systems (HLS and HPS) as well as the applied correction scheme based on the girder movers. We also show simulations indicating that beam based girder alignment takes care of most of the static closed orbit correction.

  19. Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, Shahin; Gleich, David F.; Kolda, Tamara G.; Grama, Ananth

    2015-11-01

    Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.

  20. Alignment of Standards and Assessment: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Methods for Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasstrom, Gunilla; Henriksson, Widar

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In a standards-based school-system alignment of policy documents with standards and assessment is important. To be able to evaluate whether schools and students have reached the standards, the assessment should focus on the standards. Different models and methods can be used for measuring alignment, i.e. the correspondence between…

  1. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  3. Global multiple protein-protein interaction network alignment by combining pairwise network alignments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A wealth of protein interaction data has become available in recent years, creating an urgent need for powerful analysis techniques. In this context, the problem of finding biologically meaningful correspondences between different protein-protein interaction networks (PPIN) is of particular interest. The PPIN of a species can be compared with that of other species through the process of PPIN alignment. Such an alignment can provide insight into basic problems like species evolution and network component function determination, as well as translational problems such as target identification and elucidation of mechanisms of disease spread. Furthermore, multiple PPINs can be aligned simultaneously, expanding the analytical implications of the result. While there are several pairwise network alignment algorithms, few methods are capable of multiple network alignment. Results We propose SMAL, a MNA algorithm based on the philosophy of scaffold-based alignment. SMAL is capable of converting results from any global pairwise alignment algorithms into a MNA in linear time. Using this method, we have built multiple network alignments based on combining pairwise alignments from a number of publicly available (pairwise) network aligners. We tested SMAL using PPINs of eight species derived from the IntAct repository and employed a number of measures to evaluate performance. Additionally, as part of our experimental investigations, we compared the effectiveness of SMAL while aligning up to eight input PPINs, and examined the effect of scaffold network choice on the alignments. Conclusions A key advantage of SMAL lies in its ability to create MNAs through the use of pairwise network aligners for which native MNA implementations do not exist. Experiments indicate that the performance of SMAL was comparable to that of the native MNA implementation of established methods such as IsoRankN and SMETANA. However, in terms of computational time, SMAL was significantly faster

  4. Updated Principle of Corresponding States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Amotz, Dor; Gift, Alan D.; Levine, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The rule of corresponding states, which shows the connection between the thermodynamic properties of various liquids is re-examined. The overall likeness is observed by using an updated scaling technique of Lennard-Jones corresponding states (LJ-CS).

  5. Girder Alignment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  6. Direct determination of energy level alignment and charge transport at metal/Alq{sub 3} interfaces via ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J. S.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.

    2011-04-15

    Using ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy (BEES), we directly determined the energy barrier for electron injection at clean interfaces of Alq{sub 3} with Al and Fe to be 2.1 and 2.2 eV, respectively. We quantitatively modeled the sub-barrier BEES spectra with an accumulated space charge layer, and found that the transport of nonballistic electrons is consistent with random hopping over the injection barrier.

  7. Velocity alignment leads to high persistence in confined cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camley, Brian A.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2014-06-01

    Many cell types display random motility on two-dimensional substrates but crawl persistently in a single direction when confined in a microchannel or on an adhesive micropattern. Does this imply that the motility mechanism of confined cells is fundamentally different from that of unconfined cells? We argue that both free- and confined-cell migration may be described by a generic model of cells as "velocity-aligning" active Brownian particles previously proposed to solve a completely separate problem in collective cell migration. Our model can be mapped to a diffusive escape over a barrier and analytically solved to determine the cell's orientation distribution and repolarization rate. In quasi-one-dimensional confinement, velocity-aligning cells maintain their direction for times that can be exponentially larger than their persistence time in the absence of confinement. Our results suggest an important connection between single- and collective-cell migration: high persistence in confined cells corresponds with fast alignment of velocity to cell-cell forces.

  8. Free-space optical communication alignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariola, M.; Petruccione, F.

    2016-10-01

    Optical communication systems in free space require a coarse and fine alignment system to align the receiver and transmitter. In general a coarse alignment is not entirely accurate to transmit the laser beacon in the exact direction of the visible field of the camera. During this process, some algorithms such as the raster, spiral and raster spiral scan algorithm can be used to find the spot of the laser beacon. Applications that require to transmit data in form of polarization signals, such as quantum cryptography, requires a polarisation bases alignment system to transmit and receive the photons. In this paper we present a fine alignment system using a polarised laser beacon. The system proposed was subdivided into a coarse and fine alignment system. The coarse alignment was implemented by using the GPS to acquire the geographical position of the transmitter, receiver and a reference point. The fine alignment was achieved by using a polarised laser beacon from the receiver to the transmitter and a camera located on the transmitter side. The algorithm presented was capable of excluding the background noise. Furthermore the polarisation of the laser beacon was used to align the polarisation bases of the transmitter and the receiver.

  9. Alignment Cube with One Diffractive Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Sampler, Henry P.; Strojny, Carl R.; Hagopian, John G.; McMann, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    An enhanced alignment cube has been invented for use in a confined setting (e.g., a cryogenic chamber) in which optical access may be limited to a single line of sight. Whereas traditional alignment-cube practice entails the use of two theodolites aimed along two lines of sight, the enhanced alignment cube yields complete alignment information through use of a single theodolite aimed along a single line of sight. Typically, an alignment cube is placed in contact with a datum surface or other reference feature on a scientific instrument during assembly or testing of the instrument. The alignment cube is then used in measuring a small angular deviation of the feature from a precise required orientation. Commonly, the deviation is expressed in terms of rotations (Rx,Ry,Rz) of the cube about the corresponding Cartesian axes (x,y,z). In traditional practice, in order to measure all three rotations, it is necessary to use two theodolites aimed at two orthogonal faces of the alignment cube, as shown in the upper part of the figure. To be able to perform such a measurement, one needs optical access to these two faces. In the case of an alignment cube inside a cryogenic chamber or other enclosed space, the optical-access requirement translates to a requirement for two windows located along the corresponding two orthogonal lines of sight into the chamber. In a typical application, it is difficult or impossible to provide two windows. The present enhanced version of the alignment cube makes it possible to measure all three rotations by use of a single line of sight, thereby obviating a second window.

  10. Texture-Based Correspondence Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. The effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data is extended to the expression of the visual representation model in texture.

  11. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  12. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used 'nonlinear alignment model,' finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the 'GI' term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  13. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOEpatents

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  14. CMB maximum temperature asymmetry axis: Alignment with other cosmic asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, Antonio; Perivolaropoulos, Leandros

    2013-02-01

    We use a global pixel-based estimator to identify the axis of the residual Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (MTA) (after the dipole subtraction) of the WMAP seven-year Internal Linear Combination (ILC) cosmic microwave background temperature sky map. The estimator is based on considering the temperature differences between opposite pixels in the sky at various angular resolutions (4°-15°) and selecting the axis that maximizes this difference. We consider three large-scale HEALPix resolutions: Nside=16(3.7°), Nside=8(7.3°) and Nside=4(14.7°). We compare the direction and magnitude of this asymmetry with three other cosmic asymmetry axes (α dipole, dark energy dipole and dark flow) and find that the four asymmetry axes are abnormally close to each other. We compare the observed MTA axis with the corresponding MTA axes of 104 Gaussian isotropic simulated ILC maps (based on ΛCDM). The fraction of simulated ILC maps that reproduce the observed magnitude of the MTA asymmetry and alignment with the observed α dipole is in the range of 0.1%-0.5% (depending on the resolution chosen for the cosmic microwave background map). The corresponding magnitude+alignment probabilities with the other two asymmetry axes (dark energy dipole and dark flow) are at the level of about 1%. We propose Extended Topological Quintessence as a physical model qualitatively consistent with this coincidence of directions.

  15. The influence of nanofiller alignment on transverse percolation and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Tallman, T N; Wang, K W

    2015-01-16

    Nanocomposites have unprecedented potential for conductivity-based damage identification when used as matrices in structural composites. Recent research has investigated nanofiller alignment in structural composites, but because damage identification often requires in-plane measurements, percolation and conductivity transverse to the alignment direction become crucial considerations. We herein contribute indispensable guidance to the development of nanocomposites with aligned nanofiller networks and insights into percolation trends transverse to the alignment direction by studying the influence of alignment on transverse critical volume fraction, conductivity, and rate of transition from non-percolating to percolating in three-dimensional carbon nanotube composite systems.

  16. The Moscow Correspondence School in Quantum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, I. M., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Mathematics Correspondence School that was organized in late 1960s and still directed by the author, to serve about 1,000 Russian secondary students in small cities and remote villages. Discusses this project's extension to other disciplines, and the introduction of English versions of the school's textbooks via this regular journal…

  17. Shear alignment of a disordered lamellar mesophase.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, V; Raman, D S S

    2011-03-01

    The shear alignment of an initially disordered lamellar phase is examined using lattice Boltzmann simulations of a mesoscopic model based on a free-energy functional for the concentration modulation. For a small shear cell of width 8λ, the qualitative features of the alignment process are strongly dependent on the Schmidt number Sc=ν/D (ratio of kinematic viscosity and mass diffusion coefficient). Here, λ is the wavelength of the concentration modulation. At low Schmidt number, it is found that there is a significant initial increase in the viscosity, coinciding with the alignment of layers along the extensional axis, followed by a decrease at long times due to the alignment along the flow direction. At high Schmidt number, alignment takes place due to the breakage and reformation of layers because diffusion is slow compared to shear deformation; this results in faster alignment. The system size has a strong effect on the alignment process; perfect alignment takes place for a small systems of width 8λ and 16λ, while a larger system of width 32λ does not align completely even at long times. In the larger system, there appears to be a dynamical steady state in which the layers are not perfectly aligned--where there is a balance between the annealing of defects due to shear and the creation due to an instability of the aligned lamellar phase under shear. We observe two types of defect creation mechanisms: the buckling instability under dilation, which was reported earlier, as well as a second mechanism due to layer compression.

  18. Quantifying the Displacement of Mismatches in Multiple Sequence Alignment Benchmarks

    PubMed Central

    Bawono, Punto; van der Velde, Arjan; Abeln, Sanne; Heringa, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) methods are typically benchmarked on sets of reference alignments. The quality of the alignment can then be represented by the sum-of-pairs (SP) or column (CS) scores, which measure the agreement between a reference and corresponding query alignment. Both the SP and CS scores treat mismatches between a query and reference alignment as equally bad, and do not take the separation into account between two amino acids in the query alignment, that should have been matched according to the reference alignment. This is significant since the magnitude of alignment shifts is often of relevance in biological analyses, including homology modeling and MSA refinement/manual alignment editing. In this study we develop a new alignment benchmark scoring scheme, SPdist, that takes the degree of discordance of mismatches into account by measuring the sequence distance between mismatched residue pairs in the query alignment. Using this new score along with the standard SP score, we investigate the discriminatory behavior of the new score by assessing how well six different MSA methods perform with respect to BAliBASE reference alignments. The SP score and the SPdist score yield very similar outcomes when the reference and query alignments are close. However, for more divergent reference alignments the SPdist score is able to distinguish between methods that keep alignments approximately close to the reference and those exhibiting larger shifts. We observed that by using SPdist together with SP scoring we were able to better delineate the alignment quality difference between alternative MSA methods. With a case study we exemplify why it is important, from a biological perspective, to consider the separation of mismatches. The SPdist scoring scheme has been implemented in the VerAlign web server (http://www.ibi.vu.nl/programs/veralignwww/). The code for calculating SPdist score is also available upon request. PMID:25993129

  19. Environmental Geometry Aligns the Hippocampal Map during Spatial Reorientation.

    PubMed

    Keinath, Alex T; Julian, Joshua B; Epstein, Russell A; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2017-02-06

    When a navigator's internal sense of direction is disrupted, she must rely on external cues to regain her bearings, a process termed spatial reorientation. Extensive research has demonstrated that the geometric shape of the environment exerts powerful control over reorientation behavior, but the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Whereas some theories claim that geometry controls behavior through an allocentric mechanism potentially tied to the hippocampus, others postulate that disoriented navigators reach their goals by using an egocentric view-matching strategy. To resolve this debate, we characterized hippocampal representations during reorientation. We first recorded from CA1 cells as disoriented mice foraged in chambers of various shapes. We found that the alignment of the recovered hippocampal map was determined by the geometry of the chamber, but not by nongeometric cues, even when these cues could be used to disambiguate geometric ambiguities. We then recorded hippocampal activity as disoriented mice performed a classical goal-directed spatial memory task in a rectangular chamber. Again, we found that the recovered hippocampal map aligned solely to the chamber geometry. Critically, we also found a strong correspondence between the hippocampal map alignment and the animal's behavior, making it possible to predict the search location of the animal from neural responses on a trial-by-trial basis. Together, these results demonstrate that spatial reorientation involves the alignment of the hippocampal map to local geometry. We hypothesize that geometry may be an especially salient cue for reorientation because it is an inherently stable aspect of the environment.

  20. Statistical appearance models based on probabilistic correspondences.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Julia; Ehrhardt, Jan; Handels, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Model-based image analysis is indispensable in medical image processing. One key aspect of building statistical shape and appearance models is the determination of one-to-one correspondences in the training data set. At the same time, the identification of these correspondences is the most challenging part of such methods. In our earlier work, we developed an alternative method using correspondence probabilities instead of exact one-to-one correspondences for a statistical shape model (Hufnagel et al., 2008). In this work, a new approach for statistical appearance models without one-to-one correspondences is proposed. A sparse image representation is used to build a model that combines point position and appearance information at the same time. Probabilistic correspondences between the derived multi-dimensional feature vectors are used to omit the need for extensive preprocessing of finding landmarks and correspondences as well as to reduce the dependence of the generated model on the landmark positions. Model generation and model fitting can now be expressed by optimizing a single global criterion derived from a maximum a-posteriori (MAP) approach with respect to model parameters that directly affect both shape and appearance of the considered objects inside the images. The proposed approach describes statistical appearance modeling in a concise and flexible mathematical framework. Besides eliminating the demand for costly correspondence determination, the method allows for additional constraints as topological regularity in the modeling process. In the evaluation the model was applied for segmentation and landmark identification in hand X-ray images. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the model to detect hand contours as well as the positions of the joints between finger bones for unseen test images. Further, we evaluated the model on brain data of stroke patients to show the ability of the proposed model to handle partially corrupted data and to

  1. Computing posterior probabilities for score-based alignments using ppALIGN.

    PubMed

    Wolfsheimer, Stefan; Hartmann, Alexander; Rabus, Ralf; Nuel, Gregory

    2012-05-16

    Score-based pairwise alignments are widely used in bioinformatics in particular with molecular database search tools, such as the BLAST family. Due to sophisticated heuristics, such algorithms are usually fast but the underlying scoring model unfortunately lacks a statistical description of the reliability of the reported alignments. In particular, close to gaps, in low-score or low-complexity regions, a huge number of alternative alignments arise which results in a decrease of the certainty of the alignment. ppALIGN is a software package that uses hidden Markov Model techniques to compute position-wise reliability of score-based pairwise alignments of DNA or protein sequences. The design of the model allows for a direct connection between the scoring function and the parameters of the probabilistic model. For this reason it is suitable to analyze the outcomes of popular score based aligners and search tools without having to choose a complicated set of parameters. By contrast, our program only requires the classical score parameters (the scoring function and gap costs). The package comes along with a library written in C++, a standalone program for user defined alignments (ppALIGN) and another program (ppBLAST) which can process a complete result set of BLAST. The main algorithms essentially exhibit a linear time complexity (in the alignment lengths), and they are hence suitable for on-line computations. We have also included alternative decoding algorithms to provide alternative alignments. ppALIGN is a fast program/library that helps detect and quantify questionable regions in pairwise alignments. Due to its structure, the input/output interface it can to be connected to other post-processing tools. Empirically, we illustrate its usefulness in terms of correctly predicted reliable regions for sequences generated using the ROSE model for sequence evolution, and identify sensor-specific regions in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum.

  2. Spatial and Kinematic Alignments between Central and Satellite Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltenbacher, A.; Jing, Y. P.; Li, Cheng; Mao, Shude; Mo, H. J.; Pasquali, Anna; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2008-03-01

    Based on a cosmological N-body simulation, we analyze spatial and kinematic alignments of satellite halos within 6 times the virial radius of group-sized host halos (rvir). We measure three different types of spatial alignment: halo alignment between the orientation of the group central substructure (GCS) and the distribution of its satellites, radial alignment between the orientation of a satellite and the direction toward its GCS, and direct alignment between the orientation of the GCS and that of its satellites. Analogously, we use the directions of satellite velocities and probe three further types of alignment: the radial velocity alignment between the satellite velocity and the connecting line between the satellite and GCS, the halo velocity alignment between the orientation of the GCS and satellite velocities, and the autovelocity alignment between the satellite orientations and their velocities. We find that satellites are preferentially located along the major axis of the GCS within at least 6rvir (the range probed here). Furthermore, satellites preferentially point toward the GCS. The most pronounced signal is detected on small scales, but a detectable signal extends out to ~6rvir. The direct alignment signal is weaker; however, a systematic trend is visible at distances lesssim2rvir. All velocity alignments are highly significant on small scales. The halo velocity alignment is constant within 2rvir and declines rapidly beyond. The halo and the autovelocity alignments are maximal at small scales and disappear beyond 1rvir and 1.5rvir, respectively. Our results suggest that the halo alignment reflects the filamentary large-scale structure that extends far beyond the virial radii of the groups. In contrast, the main contribution to the radial alignment arises from the adjustment of the satellite orientations in the group tidal field. The projected data reveal good agreement with recent results derived from large galaxy surveys.

  3. Flow-Field Matrix Solution for Direct Problem of Flow along S1 Relative Stream Surface Employing Non-Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates and Corresponding Non-Orthogonal Velocity Components,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-18

    two level fan , when the aerodynamic parameters are identical and only the mesh densities in the streamline direction are different, there are the...verifying computation of a highly loaded axial-flow two stage fan showed that the computed results and experimental results are in agreement. The principal...The condition used is that in the bladeless regions. Var remains a constant along the streamline. The tgy in the blade array varies according to the

  4. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  5. Quantum Painleve-Calogero correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Zabrodin, A.; Zotov, A.

    2012-07-15

    The Painleve-Calogero correspondence is extended to auxiliary linear problems associated with Painleve equations. The linear problems are represented in a new form which has a suggestive interpretation as a 'quantized' version of the Painleve-Calogero correspondence. Namely, the linear problem responsible for the time evolution is brought into the form of non-stationary Schroedinger equation in imaginary time, {partial_derivative}{sub t}{psi}=((1/2) {partial_derivative}{sub x}{sup 2}+V(x,t)){psi}, whose Hamiltonian is a natural quantization of the classical Calogero-like Hamiltonian H=(1/2) p{sup 2}+V(x,t) for the corresponding Painleve equation. In present paper, we present explicit constructions for the first five equations from the Painleve list.

  6. Complex object correspondence construction in two-dimensional animation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Liu, Dongquan; Tao, Dacheng; Seah, Hock Soon

    2011-11-01

    Correspondence construction of objects in key frames is the precondition for inbetweening and coloring in 2-D computer-assisted animation production. Since each frame of an animation consists of multiple layers, objects are complex in terms of shape and structure. Therefore, existing shape-matching algorithms specifically designed for simple structures such as a single closed contour cannot perform well on objects constructed by multiple contours with an open shape. This paper introduces a semisupervised patch alignment framework for complex object correspondence construction. In particular, the new framework constructs local patches for each point on an object and aligns these patches in a new feature space, in which correspondences between objects can be detected by the subsequent clustering. For local patch construction, pairwise constraints, which indicate the corresponding points (must link) or unfitting points (cannot link), are introduced by users to improve the performance of correspondence construction. This kind of input is convenient for animation software users via user-friendly interfaces. A dozen of experimental results on our cartoon data set that is built on industrial production suggest the effectiveness of the proposed framework for constructing correspondences of complex objects. As an extension of our framework, additional shape retrieval experiments on MPEG-7 data set show that its performance is comparable with that of a prominent algorithm published in T-PAMI 2009.

  7. Differential Heating of Magnetically Aligned Dust Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillancourt, John E.; Andersson, B.

    2013-01-01

    We use far-infrared photometric maps from IRAS and Herschel to search for the differential heating of asymmetric dust grains aligned with respect to an interstellar magnetic field and heated by a localized radiation source. The grains are known to be asymmetric and have a net alignment of their axes from observations of background starlight polarization. Modern theories on grain alignment suggest that photons from stars embedded in the foreground cloud are a key ingredient of the physical mechanism responsible for alignment (i.e., radiative torques). This theory predicts a relation between the grain alignment efficiency and the angle between the magnetic field and the direction to the aligning radiation source. This effect has been tentatively observed in a source with a very simple geometry (Andersson et al. 2011): the aligning photons are primarily from a single localized source (i.e., a single star) and the local magnetic field direction is known to be fairly uniform. Such a region also has consequences for the distribution of grain heating. For example, asymmetric grains whose largest cross-sections are normal to the incident stellar radiation will reach warmer equilibrium temperatures compared to grains whose largest cross-section is parallel to that direction. This should be observed as an azimuthal dependence of the dust color temperature. We present evidence of such a dependence using IRAS data at 60 and 100 micron. We expect this effect to be stronger using longer wavelength (i.e., 160 micron) data better coupled to the "big-grain" dust population, grains which are also more efficiently aligned with the local magnetic field. Here we also present the results of our on-going work to search for this signal using Herschel maps towards three candidate stars.

  8. Alignment of CEBAF cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, W.J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Fischer, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, when completed, will house a 4 GeV recirculating accelerator. Each of the accelerator`s two linacs contains 160 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) 1497 MHz niobium cavities in 20 cryomodules. Alignments of the cavities within the cryomodule with respect to beam axis is critical to achieving the optimum accelerator performance. This paper discusses the rationale for the current specification on cavity mechanical alignment: 2 mrad (rms) applied to the 0.5 m active length cavities. We describe the tooling that was developed to achieve the tolerance at the time of cavity pair assembly, to preserve and integrate alignment during cryomodule assembly, and to translate alignment to appropriate installation in the beam line.

  9. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Daily, PNNL

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  10. The Traps of Formal Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Sandor

    The dangers of translation are discussed when the translator does not try to create textual equivalence, but settles for formal correspondence (i.e., with simple transcoding at a linguistic level) during the process of translating. Difficulties of explaining, commenting, or summarizing rather than translating are also discussed. Pedagogical and…

  11. Correspondence Journals: Talk That Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloem, Patricia L.

    2004-01-01

    Correspondence journals between adults and elementary-school students promote child-centered discussion and learning that is often squeezed out of the curricula. Through an extended example of an exchange of letters between a fifth-grade classroom, including several English-language learners and a university classroom of preservice teachers, the…

  12. National Security Management Correspondence Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Coll. of the Armed Forces (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A course of study on the fundamental aspects of the areas of knowledge which are essential to effective management of national security is presented. The course presents the substance of the Industrial College resident curriculum adapted to the correspondence method of study. The subject matter is designed to impart knowledge and understanding of…

  13. Control rod housing alignment and repair method

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to the aperture. It comprises providing a welding cylinder dependent from the alignment device such that the elevation of the top of the welding cylinder is in a fixed relationship to the alignment device and is gas-proof; pressurizing the welding cylinder with inert welding gas sufficient to maintain the interior of the welding cylinder dry; lowering the welding cylinder through the aperture in the core plate by depending the cylinder with respect to the alignment device, the lowering including lowering through and adjusting the elevation relationship of the welding cylinder to the alignment device such that when the alignment device is in position to measure the elevation and angularity of the new control rod drive housing, the lower distal end of the welding cylinder extends below the upper periphery of the stub where welding is to occur; inserting a new control rod drive housing through the stub tube and positioning the control rod drive housing to a predetermined relationship to the anticipated final position of the control rod drive housing; providing welding implements transversely rotatably mounted interior of the welding cylinder relative to the alignment device such that the welding implements may be accurately positioned for dispensing weldment around the periphery of the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing; measuring the elevation and angularity of the control rod drive housing; and dispensing weldment along the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing.

  14. Uniaxially aligned nanofibrous cylinders by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Jana, Soumen; Cooper, Ashleigh; Ohuchi, Fumio; Zhang, Miqin

    2012-09-26

    Aligned nanofibers have drawn increasing interest for applications in biomedical engineering, electronics, and energy storage systems owing to the unique physicochemical properties provided by their anisotropy and high surface-to-volume ratio. Nevertheless, direct fabrication or assembly of aligned nanofibers into a 3-dimensional standalone construct with practically applicable dimensions presents an enormous challenge. We report a facile method to fabricate aligned nanofibrous cylinders, a widely used geometric form, by electrospinning aligned nanofibers across the gap between a pair of pin electrodes placed apart uniaxially. With this approach, cylindrical nanofibrous constructs of several millimeters in diameter and several centimeters in length can be readily produced. The versatility of the approach was demonstrated with several commonly used polymeric and ceramic materials, including polycaprolactone (PCL), chitosan/PCL, polyvinylidene fluoride, and titania. For a model application in tissue engineering, skeletal muscle cells were cultured on nanofibrous cylinders, which effectively produced highly aligned and densely populated myotubes along the nanofiber orientation, favorable for muscle tissue regeneration. With high structural integrity and stability, these can be directly integrated into devices or implanted in vivo as a standalone construct without the support of a substrate, thus increasing the portability, efficiency, and applicability of aligned nanofibers.

  15. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives.

  16. Fabrication of macromolecular gradients in aligned fiber scaffolds using a combination of in-line blending and air-gap electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Kishan, Alysha P; Robbins, Andrew B; Mohiuddin, Sahar F; Jiang, Mingliang; Moreno, Michael R; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-22

    Although a variety of fabrication methods have been developed to generate electrospun meshes with gradient properties, no platform has yet to achieve fiber alignment in the direction of the gradient that mimics the native tendon-bone interface. In this study, we present a method combining in-line blending and air-gap electrospinning to address this limitation in the field. A custom collector with synced rotation permitted fiber collection with uniform mesh thickness and periodic copper wires were used to induce fiber alignment. Two poly(ester urethane ureas) with different hard segment contents (BPUR 50, BPUR 10) were used to generate compositional gradient meshes with and without fiber alignment. The compositional gradient across the length of the mesh was characterized using a fluorescent dye and the results indicated a continuous transition from the BPUR 50 to the BPUR 10. As expected, the fiber alignment of the gradient meshes induced a corresponding alignment of adherent cells in static culture. Tensile testing of the sectioned meshes confirmed a graded transition in mechanical properties and an increase in anisotropy with fiber alignment. Finite element modeling was utilized to illustrate the gradient mechanical properties across the full length of the mesh and lay the foundation for future computational development work. Overall, these results indicate that this electrospinning method permits the fabrication of macromolecular gradients in the direction of fiber alignment and demonstrate its potential for use in interfacial tissue engineering.

  17. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  18. Heterogeneous Data Fusion via Space Alignment Using Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Jaegul; Bohn, Shawn J.; Nakamura, Grant C.; White, Amanda M.; Park, Haesun

    2012-04-26

    Heterogeneous data sets are typically represented in different feature spaces, making it difficult to analyze relationships spanning different data sets even when they are semantically related. Data fusion via space alignment can remedy this task by integrating multiple data sets lying in different spaces into one common space. Given a set of reference correspondence data that share the same semantic meaning across different spaces, space alignment attempts to place the corresponding reference data as close together as possible, and accordingly, the entire data are aligned in a common space. Space alignment involves optimizing two potentially conflicting criteria: minimum deformation of the original relationships and maximum alignment between the different spaces. To solve this problem, we provide a novel graph embedding framework for space alignment, which converts each data set into a graph and assigns zero distance between reference correspondence pairs resulting in a single graph. We propose a graph embedding method for fusion based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). Its criteria using the rank order rather than the distance allows nonmetric MDS to effectively handle both deformation and alignment. Experiments using parallel data sets demonstrate that our approach works well in comparison to existing methods such as constrained Laplacian eigenmaps, Procrustes analysis, and tensor decomposition. We also present standard cross-domain information retrieval tests as well as interesting visualization examples using space alignment.

  19. Measurement of dichroism in aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavorel, B.; Babilotte, Ph.; Karras, G.; Billard, F.; Hertz, E.; Faucher, O.

    2016-10-01

    We present dichroism measurements in molecules prealigned with a short and intense laser pulse, using a balanced detection and a pump-probe scheme. The birefringence signal is recorded under the same irradiation conditions along with the dichroism one. Our results show that the dichroism signal is of comparable order of magnitude as the one originating from birefringence and reflects the degree of alignment. The balanced detection scheme directly provides an heterodyne signal for both birefringence and dichroism. Experiments are first conducted in air and then in pure nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases. A general approach allows us to explain the temporal shape of the dichroic response and to extract the imaginary part of the polarizability anisotropy. Furthermore, a simple model invoking the finite response time of the molecule to the probe excitation provides a complementary perspective. Using this model, the phase shift between the oscillations of the probe electric field and the induced polarization can be estimated. We find that the phase shift corresponds to a time delay of about 130 as (10-18s) in both molecules. Calculation of the energy flow between the probe field and the molecules taking into account the phase shift is compared to the experimental data.

  20. Precise 3D image alignment in micro-axial tomography.

    PubMed

    Matula, P; Kozubek, M; Staier, F; Hausmann, M

    2003-02-01

    Micro (micro-) axial tomography is a challenging technique in microscopy which improves quantitative imaging especially in cytogenetic applications by means of defined sample rotation under the microscope objective. The advantage of micro-axial tomography is an effective improvement of the precision of distance measurements between point-like objects. Under certain circumstances, the effective (3D) resolution can be improved by optimized acquisition depending on subsequent, multi-perspective image recording of the same objects followed by reconstruction methods. This requires, however, a very precise alignment of the tilted views. We present a novel feature-based image alignment method with a precision better than the full width at half maximum of the point spread function. The features are the positions (centres of gravity) of all fluorescent objects observed in the images (e.g. cell nuclei, fluorescent signals inside cell nuclei, fluorescent beads, etc.). Thus, real alignment precision depends on the localization precision of these objects. The method automatically determines the corresponding objects in subsequently tilted perspectives using a weighted bipartite graph. The optimum transformation function is computed in a least squares manner based on the coordinates of the centres of gravity of the matched objects. The theoretically feasible precision of the method was calculated using computer-generated data and confirmed by tests on real image series obtained from data sets of 200 nm fluorescent nano-particles. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are its speed and accuracy, which means that if enough objects are included, the real alignment precision is better than the axial localization precision of a single object. The alignment precision can be assessed directly from the algorithm's output. Thus, the method can be applied not only for image alignment and object matching in tilted view series in order to reconstruct (3D) images, but also to validate the

  1. Dense depth maps from correspondences derived from perceived motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Richard; Whitaker, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Many computer vision applications require finding corresponding points between images and using the corresponding points to estimate disparity. Today's correspondence finding algorithms primarily use image features or pixel intensities common between image pairs. Some 3-D computer vision applications, however, do not produce the desired results using correspondences derived from image features or pixel intensities. Two examples are the multimodal camera rig and the center region of a coaxial camera rig. We present an image correspondence finding technique that aligns pairs of image sequences using optical flow fields. The optical flow fields provide information about the structure and motion of the scene, which are not available in still images but can be used in image alignment. We apply the technique to a dual focal length stereo camera rig consisting of a visible light-infrared camera pair and to a coaxial camera rig. We test our method on real image sequences and compare our results with the state-of-the-art multimodal and structure from motion (SfM) algorithms. Our method produces more accurate depth and scene velocity reconstruction estimates than the state-of-the-art multimodal and SfM algorithms.

  2. Alignment method for spectrograms of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Anca; van Leeuwen, Jasper; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Mittal, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    DNA spectrograms express the periodicities of each of the four nucleotides A, T, C, and G in one or several genomic sequences to be analyzed. DNA spectral analysis can be applied to systematically investigate DNA patterns, which may correspond to relevant biological features. As opposed to looking at nucleotide sequences, spectrogram analysis may detect structural characteristics in very long sequences that are not identifiable by sequence alignment. Alignment of DNA spectrograms can be used to facilitate analysis of very long sequences or entire genomes at different resolutions. Standard clustering algorithms have been used in spectral analysis to find strong patterns in spectra. However, as they use a global distance metric, these algorithms can only detect strong patterns coexisting in several frequencies. In this paper, we propose a new method and several algorithms for aligning spectra suitable for efficient spectral analysis and allowing for the easy detection of strong patterns in both single frequencies and multiple frequencies.

  3. Silicon Alignment Pins: An Easy Way to Realize a Wafer-To-Wafer Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung-Kubiak, Cecile (Inventor); Reck, Theodore (Inventor); Thomas, Bertrand (Inventor); Lin, Robert H. (Inventor); Peralta, Alejandro (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Siles, Jose V. (Inventor); Toda, Risaku (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A silicon alignment pin is used to align successive layers of components made in semiconductor chips and/or metallic components to make easier the assembly of devices having a layered structure. The pin is made as a compressible structure which can be squeezed to reduce its outer diameter, have one end fit into a corresponding alignment pocket or cavity defined in a layer of material to be assembled into a layered structure, and then allowed to expand to produce an interference fit with the cavity. The other end can then be inserted into a corresponding cavity defined in a surface of a second layer of material that mates with the first layer. The two layers are in registry when the pin is mated to both. Multiple layers can be assembled to create a multilayer structure. Examples of such devices are presented.

  4. Magnetically Aligned Supramolecular Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Matthew; Cardoso, Andre Zamith; Frith, William J; Iggo, Jonathan A; Adams, Dave J

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic-field-induced alignment of the fibrillar structures present in an aqueous solution of a dipeptide gelator, and the subsequent retention of this alignment upon transformation to a hydrogel upon the addition of CaCl2 or upon a reduction in solution pH is reported. Utilising the switchable nature of the magnetic field coupled with the slow diffusion of CaCl2, it is possible to precisely control the extent of anisotropy across a hydrogel, something that is generally very difficult to do using alternative methods. The approach is readily extended to other compounds that form viscous solutions at high pH. It is expected that this work will greatly expand the utility of such low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWG) in areas where alignment is key. PMID:25345918

  5. Improved docking alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Improved techniques are provided for the alignment of two objects. The present invention is particularly suited for 3-D translation and 3-D rotational alignment of objects in outer space. A camera is affixed to one object, such as a remote manipulator arm of the spacecraft, while the planar reflective surface is affixed to the other object, such as a grapple fixture. A monitor displays in real-time images from the camera such that the monitor displays both the reflected image of the camera and visible marking on the planar reflective surface when the objects are in proper alignment. The monitor may thus be viewed by the operator and the arm manipulated so that the reflective surface is perpendicular to the optical axis of the camera, the roll of the reflective surface is at a selected angle with respect to the camera, and the camera is spaced a pre-selected distance from the reflective surface.

  6. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  7. Alignment of Tractograms As Graph Matching.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Emanuele; Sharmin, Nusrat; Avesani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The white matter pathways of the brain can be reconstructed as 3D polylines, called streamlines, through the analysis of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data. The whole set of streamlines is called tractogram and represents the structural connectome of the brain. In multiple applications, like group-analysis, segmentation, or atlasing, tractograms of different subjects need to be aligned. Typically, this is done with registration methods, that transform the tractograms in order to increase their similarity. In contrast with transformation-based registration methods, in this work we propose the concept of tractogram correspondence, whose aim is to find which streamline of one tractogram corresponds to which streamline in another tractogram, i.e., a map from one tractogram to another. As a further contribution, we propose to use the relational information of each streamline, i.e., its distances from the other streamlines in its own tractogram, as the building block to define the optimal correspondence. We provide an operational procedure to find the optimal correspondence through a combinatorial optimization problem and we discuss its similarity to the graph matching problem. In this work, we propose to represent tractograms as graphs and we adopt a recent inexact sub-graph matching algorithm to approximate the solution of the tractogram correspondence problem. On tractograms generated from the Human Connectome Project dataset, we report experimental evidence that tractogram correspondence, implemented as graph matching, provides much better alignment than affine registration and comparable if not better results than non-linear registration of volumes.

  8. PILOT optical alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longval, Y.; Mot, B.; Ade, P.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Baustista, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bray, N.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Charra, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J.-P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Gélot, P.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P..; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Misawa, R.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J.-M.; Pajot, F.; Parot, G.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tapie, P.; Tauber, J.; Torre, J.-P.; Tucker, C.

    2016-07-01

    PILOT is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the polarization of dust emission in the diffuse interstellar medium in our Galaxy at wavelengths 240 μm with an angular resolution about two arcminutes. Pilot optics is composed an off-axis Gregorian type telescope and a refractive re-imager system. All optical elements, except the primary mirror, are in a cryostat cooled to 3K. We combined the optical, 3D dimensional measurement methods and thermo-elastic modeling to perform the optical alignment. The talk describes the system analysis, the alignment procedure, and finally the performances obtained during the first flight in September 2015.

  9. Mechanical alignment of substrates to a mask

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Honan, Michael; Amato, Luigi G.; Grant, Christopher Neil; Strassner, James D.

    2016-11-08

    A plurality of masks is attached to the underside of a mask frame. This attachment is made such that each mask can independently move relative to the mask frame in three directions. This relative movement allows each mask to adjust its position to align with respective alignment pins disposed on a working surface. In one embodiment, each mask is attached to the mask frame using fasteners, where the fasteners have a shaft with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the mounting hole disposed on the mask. A bias element may be used to allow relative movement between the mask and the mask frame in the vertical direction. Each mask may also have kinematic features to mate with the respective alignment pins on the working surface.

  10. Multiple network alignment on quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-01

    Comparative analyses of graph-structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each -tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext-Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.

  11. Observational Evidence for Radiative Interstellar Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.; Potter, S. B.; Andersson, B.; Potter, S.

    2011-11-01

    The alignment mechanisms of interstellar dust grains is a long standing astrophysical problem. Interstellar polarization was first discovered in 1949 and soon thereafter attributed to dichroic extinction caused by asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. For a long time the alignment mechanism was thought to involve paramagnetic relaxation in rapidly spinning dust grains. Modern theory indicates that the classical alignment mechanisms are likely not efficient, but rather favor alignment through direct radiative torques. We have used multi-band polarimetry towards stars probing six nearby clouds to show that the wavelength of maximum polarization is linearly correlated with the visual extinction (Andersson & Potter 2007; AP07; where further details can be found). We find a universal relation with a common positive slope between the clouds and a DC offset correlated with the average of the total-to-selective extinction < RV > . These results provide strong observational support for radiatively driven grain alignment. Recent observations of an additional set of ≍60 sightlines in the Taurus cloud confirm and strengthen these results.

  12. Mindfulness reduces the correspondence bias.

    PubMed

    Hopthrow, Tim; Hooper, Nic; Mahmood, Lynsey; Meier, Brian P; Weger, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    The correspondence bias (CB) refers to the idea that people sometimes give undue weight to dispositional rather than situational factors when explaining behaviours and attitudes. Three experiments examined whether mindfulness, a non-judgmental focus on the present moment, could reduce the CB. Participants engaged in a brief mindfulness exercise (the raisin task), a control task, or an attention to detail task before completing a typical CB measure involving an attitude-attribution paradigm. The results indicated that participants in the mindfulness condition experienced a significant reduction in the CB compared to participants in the control or attention to detail conditions. These results suggest that mindfulness training can play a unique role in reducing social biases related to person perception.

  13. On the Theorem of Correspondence.

    PubMed

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    2017-03-01

    In a recent paper, Mammen (Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 50, 196-233, 2016a) brought novel arguments into the discussion concerning the importance of being able to single out and track objects through space and time. Mammen offered a formal account of two basic, yet distinct, ways in which we as human beings encounter objects in the real world, that is, sense and choice categories. In this paper I discuss aspects of his theory and in particular the Theorem of Correspondence. I shall attempt to argue that Mammen's formal account is indeed a novel and powerful analytical generic tool allowing us to see the important relevance in different domains of being able to establish choice categories. Meanwhile, I will attempt to show that evidence from the so-called multiple object tracking studies -- even though these use highly artificial stimuli -- provide compelling evidence in support of Mammen's formal account.

  14. Aligned-or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Jo Ellen; Koppal, Mary

    2015-01-01

    When state leaders and national partners in the development of the Next Generation Science Standards met to consider implementation strategies, states and school districts wanted to know which materials were aligned to the new standards. The answer from the developers was short but not sweet: You won't find much now, and it's going to…

  15. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  16. Self-Aligning, Spline-Locking Fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Self-aligning, spline-locking fastener is two-part mechanism operated by robot, using one tool and simple movements. Spline nut on springloaded screw passes through mating spline fitting. Operator turns screw until vertical driving surfaces on spline nut rest against corresponding surfaces of spline fitting. Nut rides upward, drawing pieces together. Used to join two parts of structure, to couple vehicles, or to mount payload in vehicle.

  17. Laser alignment of rotating equipment at PNL

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, R.H.

    1994-05-01

    Lateral vibration in direct-drive equipment is usually caused by misalignment. Over the years, because of the need to improve on techniques and ways of working more efficiently, various types of alignment methods have evolved. In the beginning, craftsmen used a straight-edge scale across the coupling with a feeler gauge measuring the misalignment error. This is still preferred today for aligning small couplings. The industry has since decided that alignment of large direct-drive equipment needed a more accurate type of instrumentation. Rim and face is another of the first alignment methods and is used on all sizes of equipment. A disadvantage of the rim and face method is that in most cases the coupling has to be disassembled. This can cause alignment problems when the coupling is reassembled. Also, the rim and face method is not fast enough to work satisfactorily on alignment of thermally hot equipment. Another concern is that the coupling has to be manufactured accurately for correct rim and face readings. Reverse dial alignment is an improvement over the rim and face method, and depending on the operator`s experience, this method can be very accurate. A good training program along with field experience will bring the operator to a proper level of proficiency for a successful program. A hand-held computer with reverse dial calculations in memory is a must for job efficiency. An advantage over the rim and face method is that the coupling is not disassembled and remains locked together. Reverse dial instrumentation measures from both shaft center lines, rather than the coupling surface so the machining of the coupling during manufacture is not a major concern.

  18. Using automatic alignment to analyze endangered language data: testing the viability of untrained alignment.

    PubMed

    DiCanio, Christian; Nam, Hosung; Whalen, Douglas H; Bunnell, H Timothy; Amith, Jonathan D; García, Rey Castillo

    2013-09-01

    While efforts to document endangered languages have steadily increased, the phonetic analysis of endangered language data remains a challenge. The transcription of large documentation corpora is, by itself, a tremendous feat. Yet, the process of segmentation remains a bottleneck for research with data of this kind. This paper examines whether a speech processing tool, forced alignment, can facilitate the segmentation task for small data sets, even when the target language differs from the training language. The authors also examined whether a phone set with contextualization outperforms a more general one. The accuracy of two forced aligners trained on English (hmalign and p2fa) was assessed using corpus data from Yoloxóchitl Mixtec. Overall, agreement performance was relatively good, with accuracy at 70.9% within 30 ms for hmalign and 65.7% within 30 ms for p2fa. Segmental and tonal categories influenced accuracy as well. For instance, additional stop allophones in hmalign's phone set aided alignment accuracy. Agreement differences between aligners also corresponded closely with the types of data on which the aligners were trained. Overall, using existing alignment systems was found to have potential for making phonetic analysis of small corpora more efficient, with more allophonic phone sets providing better agreement than general ones.

  19. Skeletal shape correspondence via entropy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Liyun; Styner, Martin; Vicory, Jared; Paniagua, Beatriz; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Yang, Dan; Pizer, Stephen M.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Improving the shape statistics of medical image objects by generating correspondence of interior skeletal points. Data: Synthetic objects and real world lateral ventricles segmented from MR images. Method(s): Each object's interior is modeled by a skeletal representation called the s-rep, which is a quadrilaterally sampled, folded 2-sided skeletal sheet with spoke vectors proceeding from the sheet to the boundary. The skeleton is divided into three parts: up-side, down-side and fold-curve. The spokes on each part are treated separately and, using spoke interpolation, are shifted along their skeletal parts in each training sample so as to tighten the probability distribution on those spokes' geometric properties while sampling the object interior regularly. As with the surface-based correspondence method of Cates et al., entropy is used to measure both the probability distribution tightness and sampling regularity. The spokes' geometric properties are skeletal position, spoke length and spoke direction. The properties used to measure the regularity are the volumetric subregions bounded by the spokes, their quadrilateral sub-area and edge lengths on the skeletal surface and on the boundary. Results: Evaluation on synthetic and real world lateral ventricles demonstrated improvement in the performance of statistics using the resulting probability distributions, as compared to methods based on boundary models. The evaluation measures used were generalization, specificity, and compactness. Conclusions: S-rep models with the proposed improved correspondence provide significantly enhanced statistics as compared to standard boundary models.

  20. The Framework for an Information Technology Strategic Roadmap for the United States Marine Corps: How Current Acquisitions Align to the Current Strategic Direction of the Department of Defense, Department of the Navy, and United States Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    environmental) and internal organizational components affect and determine overall performance (Senge, 2006). Broadbent and Weill (1993) refer to alignment...base_level. Boot, M. (2007). War made new: Weapons, warfare, and the making of the modern world. New York, NY: Gotham Books. Broadbent , M

  1. Structural re-alignment in an immunologic surface region of ricin A chain

    SciTech Connect

    Zemla, A T; Zhou, C E

    2007-07-24

    We compared structure alignments generated by several protein structure comparison programs to determine whether existing methods would satisfactorily align residues at a highly conserved position within an immunogenic loop in ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Using default settings, structure alignments generated by several programs (CE, DaliLite, FATCAT, LGA, MAMMOTH, MATRAS, SHEBA, SSM) failed to align the respective conserved residues, although LGA reported correct residue-residue (R-R) correspondences when the beta-carbon (Cb) position was used as the point of reference in the alignment calculations. Further tests using variable points of reference indicated that points distal from the beta carbon along a vector connecting the alpha and beta carbons yielded rigid structural alignments in which residues known to be highly conserved in RIPs were reported as corresponding residues in structural comparisons between ricin A chain, abrin-A, and other RIPs. Results suggest that approaches to structure alignment employing alternate point representations corresponding to side chain position may yield structure alignments that are more consistent with observed conservation of functional surface residues than do standard alignment programs, which apply uniform criteria for alignment (i.e., alpha carbon (Ca) as point of reference) along the entirety of the peptide chain. We present the results of tests that suggest the utility of allowing user-specified points of reference in generating alternate structural alignments, and we present a web server for automatically generating such alignments.

  2. Ontology Alignment Repair through Modularization and Confidence-Based Heuristics.

    PubMed

    Santos, Emanuel; Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Couto, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    Ontology Matching aims at identifying a set of semantic correspondences, called an alignment, between related ontologies. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in efficient and effective matching methods for large ontologies. However, alignments produced for large ontologies are often logically incoherent. It was only recently that the use of repair techniques to improve the coherence of ontology alignments began to be explored. This paper presents a novel modularization technique for ontology alignment repair which extracts fragments of the input ontologies that only contain the necessary classes and relations to resolve all detectable incoherences. The paper presents also an alignment repair algorithm that uses a global repair strategy to minimize both the degree of incoherence and the number of mappings removed from the alignment, while overcoming the scalability problem by employing the proposed modularization technique. Our evaluation shows that our modularization technique produces significantly small fragments of the ontologies and that our repair algorithm produces more complete alignments than other current alignment repair systems, while obtaining an equivalent degree of incoherence. Additionally, we also present a variant of our repair algorithm that makes use of the confidence values of the mappings to improve alignment repair. Our repair algorithm was implemented as part of AgreementMakerLight, a free and open-source ontology matching system.

  3. Ontology Alignment Repair through Modularization and Confidence-Based Heuristics

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Emanuel; Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Couto, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    Ontology Matching aims at identifying a set of semantic correspondences, called an alignment, between related ontologies. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in efficient and effective matching methods for large ontologies. However, alignments produced for large ontologies are often logically incoherent. It was only recently that the use of repair techniques to improve the coherence of ontology alignments began to be explored. This paper presents a novel modularization technique for ontology alignment repair which extracts fragments of the input ontologies that only contain the necessary classes and relations to resolve all detectable incoherences. The paper presents also an alignment repair algorithm that uses a global repair strategy to minimize both the degree of incoherence and the number of mappings removed from the alignment, while overcoming the scalability problem by employing the proposed modularization technique. Our evaluation shows that our modularization technique produces significantly small fragments of the ontologies and that our repair algorithm produces more complete alignments than other current alignment repair systems, while obtaining an equivalent degree of incoherence. Additionally, we also present a variant of our repair algorithm that makes use of the confidence values of the mappings to improve alignment repair. Our repair algorithm was implemented as part of AgreementMakerLight, a free and open-source ontology matching system. PMID:26710335

  4. Fine alignment of a large segmented mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, Thomas William (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for aligning a segmented mirror includes a source of radiation directed along a first axis to the segmented mirror and a beamsplitter removably inserted along the first axis for redirecting radiation from the first axis to a second axis, substantially perpendicular to the first axis. An imaging array is positioned along the second axis for imaging the redirected radiation, and a knife-edge configured for cutting the redirected radiation is serially positioned to occlude and not occlude the redirected radiation, effectively providing a variable radiation pattern detected by the imaging array for aligning the segmented mirror.

  5. Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, Daniel G.; Gerth, Howard L.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint.

  6. Deterministically Polarized Fluorescence from Single Dye Molecules Aligned in Liquid Crystal Host

    SciTech Connect

    Lukishova, S.G.; Schmid, A.W.; Knox, R.; Freivald, P.; Boyd, R. W.; Stroud, Jr., C. R.; Marshall, K.L.

    2005-09-30

    We demonstrated for the first time to our konwledge deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules. Planar aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts provide deterministic alignment of single dye molecules in a preferred direction.

  7. Active Brownian particles with velocity-alignment and active fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Großmann, R.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Romanczuk, P.

    2012-07-01

    We consider a model of active Brownian particles (ABPs) with velocity alignment in two spatial dimensions with passive and active fluctuations. Here, active fluctuations refers to purely non-equilibrium stochastic forces correlated with the heading of an individual active particle. In the simplest case studied here, they are assumed to be independent stochastic forces parallel (speed noise) and perpendicular (angular noise) to the velocity of the particle. On the other hand, passive fluctuations are defined by a noise vector independent of the direction of motion of a particle, and may account, for example, for thermal fluctuations. We derive a macroscopic description of the ABP gas with velocity-alignment interaction. Here, we start from the individual-based description in terms of stochastic differential equations (Langevin equations) and derive equations of motion for the coarse-grained kinetic variables (density, velocity and temperature) via a moment expansion of the corresponding probability density function. We focus here on the different impact of active and passive fluctuations on onset of collective motion and show how active fluctuations in the active Brownian dynamics can change the phase-transition behaviour of the system. In particular, we show that active angular fluctuations lead to an earlier breakdown of collective motion and to the emergence of a new bistable regime in the mean-field case.

  8. Inflation by alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.P.; Roest, Diederik

    2015-06-08

    Pseudo-Goldstone bosons (pGBs) can provide technically natural inflatons, as has been comparatively well-explored in the simplest axion examples. Although inflationary success requires trans-Planckian decay constants, f≳M{sub p}, several mechanisms have been proposed to obtain this, relying on (mis-)alignments between potential and kinetic energies in multiple-field models. We extend these mechanisms to a broader class of inflationary models, including in particular the exponential potentials that arise for pGB potentials based on noncompact groups (and so which might apply to moduli in an extra-dimensional setting). The resulting potentials provide natural large-field inflationary models and can predict a larger primordial tensor signal than is true for simpler single-field versions of these models. In so doing we provide a unified treatment of several alignment mechanisms, showing how each emerges as a limit of the more general setup.

  9. Genome Data Exploration Using Correspondence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tekaia, Fredj

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments of sequencing technologies that allow the production of massive amounts of genomic and genotyping data have highlighted the need for synthetic data representation and pattern recognition methods that can mine and help discovering biologically meaningful knowledge included in such large data sets. Correspondence analysis (CA) is an exploratory descriptive method designed to analyze two-way data tables, including some measure of association between rows and columns. It constructs linear combinations of variables, known as factors. CA has been used for decades to study high-dimensional data, and remarkable inferences from large data tables were obtained by reducing the dimensionality to a few orthogonal factors that correspond to the largest amount of variability in the data. Herein, I review CA and highlight its use by considering examples in handling high-dimensional data that can be constructed from genomic and genetic studies. Examples in amino acid compositions of large sets of species (viruses, phages, yeast, and fungi) as well as an example related to pairwise shared orthologs in a set of yeast and fungal species, as obtained from their proteome comparisons, are considered. For the first time, results show striking segregations between yeasts and fungi as well as between viruses and phages. Distributions obtained from shared orthologs show clusters of yeast and fungal species corresponding to their phylogenetic relationships. A direct comparison with the principal component analysis method is discussed using a recently published example of genotyping data related to newly discovered traces of an ancient hominid that was compared to modern human populations in the search for ancestral similarities. CA offers more detailed results highlighting links between modern humans and the ancient hominid and their characterizations. Compared to the popular principal component analysis method, CA allows easier and more effective interpretation of results

  10. Genome Data Exploration Using Correspondence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tekaia, Fredj

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments of sequencing technologies that allow the production of massive amounts of genomic and genotyping data have highlighted the need for synthetic data representation and pattern recognition methods that can mine and help discovering biologically meaningful knowledge included in such large data sets. Correspondence analysis (CA) is an exploratory descriptive method designed to analyze two-way data tables, including some measure of association between rows and columns. It constructs linear combinations of variables, known as factors. CA has been used for decades to study high-dimensional data, and remarkable inferences from large data tables were obtained by reducing the dimensionality to a few orthogonal factors that correspond to the largest amount of variability in the data. Herein, I review CA and highlight its use by considering examples in handling high-dimensional data that can be constructed from genomic and genetic studies. Examples in amino acid compositions of large sets of species (viruses, phages, yeast, and fungi) as well as an example related to pairwise shared orthologs in a set of yeast and fungal species, as obtained from their proteome comparisons, are considered. For the first time, results show striking segregations between yeasts and fungi as well as between viruses and phages. Distributions obtained from shared orthologs show clusters of yeast and fungal species corresponding to their phylogenetic relationships. A direct comparison with the principal component analysis method is discussed using a recently published example of genotyping data related to newly discovered traces of an ancient hominid that was compared to modern human populations in the search for ancestral similarities. CA offers more detailed results highlighting links between modern humans and the ancient hominid and their characterizations. Compared to the popular principal component analysis method, CA allows easier and more effective interpretation of results

  11. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-05-06

    Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures.

  12. Automatic Word Alignment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    strategy was evalu­ ated in the context of English -to-Pashto (E2P) and Pashto-to- English (P2E), a low-resource language pair. For E2P, the training and...improves the quality of automatic word alignment, for example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT...example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY

  13. Reducing beam shaper alignment complexity: diagnostic techniques for alignment and tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-10-01

    methodology showing how it is possible to reduce complex alignment directions into a simplified set of instructions for layman service engineers.

  14. Correspondence principle in cochlear mechanics.

    PubMed

    de Boer, E

    1982-06-01

    When only long waves play the most important part in the cochlea, the response can be described by a most simplified model, the one-dimensional model. When short waves are to be included, a more complex model is needed. The response then depends on the dimensionality of the model and is much harder to obtain. This applies especially to the region in the neighborhood of the point where the basilar membrane shows resonance. Both two- and three-dimensional models have been studied to assess the effects of short and long waves. The relative importance of the part played by short waves depends on the damping constant (or loss factor )delta associated with the resonance of the basilar membrane (BM). For very small delta a three-dimensional model is really necessary, it cannot be replaced by a model of lower dimensionality. When delta is small, but not too small, the three-dimensional model can be made equivalent to a two-dimensional one, provided the latter is modified ina specific manner. This paper shows why this is so and which conditions have to be met. The two-dimensional model must undergo two modifications to effect this equivalence. The first modification ensures that the model has the same long-wave behavior. In the second place, a specific additional mass ("added mass") reactance should be added to Z(kappa). An expression for the limiting value of delta, above which this correspondence is valid, is given in the paper. A second, larger, limit is presented as well: when delta is above this limit, the responses of both the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional model are equivalent to that of an appropriately chosen one-dimensional model. In this case too, long-wave behavior must be matched and an "added mass" reactance must be included in Z(kappa). This holds true for the entire cochlea including the region of resonance. For both types of transition the amount of "added mass" is given.

  15. Superposition and alignment of labeled point clouds.

    PubMed

    Fober, Thomas; Glinca, Serghei; Klebe, Gerhard; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    2011-01-01

    Geometric objects are often represented approximately in terms of a finite set of points in three-dimensional euclidean space. In this paper, we extend this representation to what we call labeled point clouds. A labeled point cloud is a finite set of points, where each point is not only associated with a position in three-dimensional space, but also with a discrete class label that represents a specific property. This type of model is especially suitable for modeling biomolecules such as proteins and protein binding sites, where a label may represent an atom type or a physico-chemical property. Proceeding from this representation, we address the question of how to compare two labeled points clouds in terms of their similarity. Using fuzzy modeling techniques, we develop a suitable similarity measure as well as an efficient evolutionary algorithm to compute it. Moreover, we consider the problem of establishing an alignment of the structures in the sense of a one-to-one correspondence between their basic constituents. From a biological point of view, alignments of this kind are of great interest, since mutually corresponding molecular constituents offer important information about evolution and heredity, and can also serve as a means to explain a degree of similarity. In this paper, we therefore develop a method for computing pairwise or multiple alignments of labeled point clouds. To this end, we proceed from an optimal superposition of the corresponding point clouds and construct an alignment which is as much as possible in agreement with the neighborhood structure established by this superposition. We apply our methods to the structural analysis of protein binding sites.

  16. A New Analytic Alignment Method for a SINS.

    PubMed

    Tan, Caiming; Zhu, Xinhua; Su, Yan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhiqiang; Gu, Dongbing

    2015-11-04

    Analytic alignment is a type of self-alignment for a Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) that is based solely on two non-collinear vectors, which are the gravity and rotational velocity vectors of the Earth at a stationary base on the ground. The attitude of the SINS with respect to the Earth can be obtained directly using the TRIAD algorithm given two vector measurements. For a traditional analytic coarse alignment, all six outputs from the inertial measurement unit (IMU) are used to compute the attitude. In this study, a novel analytic alignment method called selective alignment is presented. This method uses only three outputs of the IMU and a few properties from the remaining outputs such as the sign and the approximate value to calculate the attitude. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the validity of this method, and the precision of yaw is improved using the selective alignment method compared to the traditional analytic coarse alignment method in the vehicle experiment. The selective alignment principle provides an accurate relationship between the outputs and the attitude of the SINS relative to the Earth for a stationary base, and it is an extension of the TRIAD algorithm. The selective alignment approach has potential uses in applications such as self-alignment, fault detection, and self-calibration.

  17. Spent fuel container alignment device and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Stewart D.; Chapek, George V.

    1996-01-01

    An alignment device is used with a spent fuel shipping container including a plurality of fuel pockets for spent fuel arranged in an annular array and having a rotatable cover including an access opening therein. The alignment device includes a lightweight plate which is installed over the access opening of the cover. A laser device is mounted on the plate so as to emit a laser beam through a laser admittance window in the cover into the container in the direction of a pre-established target associated with a particular fuel pocket. An indexing arrangement on the container provides an indication of the angular position of the rotatable cover when the laser beam produced by the laser is brought into alignment with the target of the associated fuel pocket.

  18. 28 CFR 540.14 - General correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General correspondence. 540.14 Section... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.14 General correspondence. (a) Institution staff shall open and inspect all incoming general correspondence. Incoming general correspondence may...

  19. 28 CFR 540.14 - General correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General correspondence. 540.14 Section... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.14 General correspondence. (a) Institution staff shall open and inspect all incoming general correspondence. Incoming general correspondence may...

  20. Method for alignment of microwires

    DOEpatents

    Beardslee, Joseph A.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Sadtler, Bryce

    2017-01-24

    A method of aligning microwires includes modifying the microwires so they are more responsive to a magnetic field. The method also includes using a magnetic field so as to magnetically align the microwires. The method can further include capturing the microwires in a solid support structure that retains the longitudinal alignment of the microwires when the magnetic field is not applied to the microwires.

  1. Alignment as a Teacher Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John; Blank, Rolf; Zeidner, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of the procedures developed by Porter and colleagues (Porter, 2002), other methods of defining and measuring alignment are essentially limited to alignment between tests and standards. Porter's procedures have been generalized to investigating the alignment between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom…

  2. Local and nonlocal strain rate fields and vorticity alignment in turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Hamlington, Peter E; Schumacher, Jörg; Dahm, Werner J A

    2008-02-01

    Local and nonlocal contributions to the total strain rate tensor S(ij) at any point x in a flow are formulated from an expansion of the vorticity field in a local spherical neighborhood of radius R centered on x. The resulting exact expression allows the nonlocal (background) strain rate tensor S(ij)(B)(x) to be obtained from S(ij)(x). In turbulent flows, where the vorticity naturally concentrates into relatively compact structures, this allows the local alignment of vorticity with the most extensional principal axis of the background strain rate tensor to be evaluated. In the vicinity of any vortical structure, the required radius R and corresponding order n to which the expansion must be carried are determined by the viscous length scale lambda(nu). We demonstrate the convergence to the background strain rate field with increasing R and n for an equilibrium Burgers vortex, and show that this resolves the anomalous alignment of vorticity with the intermediate eigenvector of the total strain rate tensor. We then evaluate the background strain field S(ij)(B)(x) in direct numerical simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence where, even for the limited R and n corresponding to the truncated series expansion, the results show an increase in the expected equilibrium alignment of vorticity with the most extensional principal axis of the background strain rate tensor.

  3. Advances in mask fabrication and alignment for masked ion-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumbo, David P.; Damm, George A.; Engler, D. W.; Fong, F. O.; Sen, S.; Wolfe, John C.; Randall, John N.; Mauger, Phillip E.; Shimkunas, Alex R.; Loeschne, Hans

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes recent developments in three areas ofmasked ion beam lithography (MIBL). These are 1) fabrication oflarge area, low distortion, silicon stencilmasks for demagnifying ion projection lithography, 2) fabrication ofstencil masks with nanometer scale resolution for 1:1 proximity printing, and 3) development of a direct method of alignment using the ion beam induced fluorescence of Si02. These topics are discussed below. Demagnifying ion projection masks: We describe the fabrication of stencil masks in large area, low stress (10 MPa), n-type silicon membranes. The projection masks have a silicon foil area 95 mm in diameter, thicknesses between 1.5-5 and resolution of0.6um. Measured distortion (3a) in the IPL masks ranges between 0.23gm and 0.65,um, with an experimental error of 0.20 1um. Proximity printing masks: A process is described for fabricating stencil masks with 50 nm resolution in low stress, n-type silicon membranes. Membranes less than 0.5 ,ttm thick are shown to be free of the sidewall taper that limits resolution in thicker masks. These thin membranes show a slightly flared profile due to the imperfectly collimated etching ions. Alignment: A direct method of alignment is being developed which uses the ion beam induced fluorescence of Si02 marks. Fluorescence yield is characterized as a function of ion energy and resist coating thickness. The yield for Si02 is in the range between 0.1-1.0 photons/proton, while the yields for Si, Al, and photoresist are negligibly small. Thus, a simple alignment technique can be implemented where registration of a grating in the mask with a corresponding oxide pattern is detected as a fluorescence maximum. A simple model predicts that 50 nm alignment can be accomplished, following a 1 im prealignment, in 2 seconds.

  4. The Alignment of Galaxy Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacka, M.; Panko, E.; Bajan, K.; Godłowski, W.; Flin, P.

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the orientation of the sample of ACO galaxy clusters. We examined the alignment in a subsample of 1056 galaxy structures taken from the Panko-Flin (2006) Catalog with known BM morphological types. We were looking for a correlation between the orientation of the cluster and the positions of neighboring clusters. The Binggeli effect (the excess of small values of the Δθ angles between the direction toward neighboring clusters and the cluster position angle) is observed, having a range up to about 45 h-1 Mpc. The strongest effect was found for elongated BM type I clusters. This is probably connected with the origins of the supergiant galaxy and with cluster formation along a long filament or plane in a supercluster.

  5. AIMFAST: Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    AIMFAST is a software code used to align facets on a dish concentrator to a specific aimpoint strategy to minimize peak fluxes and maximize system optical performance. AIMFAST uses a large monitor or projections screen to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject dish mirrors. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. This fitted comparison is then used to develop a single vector representing the orientation of the facets relative to the design orientation, and provide near-real-time adjustment information to a communicating computer. The communicating computer can display adjustments or directly interface with adjustment tools. The software for the communicating computer is specific to the implementation and is not a part of AIMFAST.

  6. IAIMFAST: Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, Charles E.

    2013-08-29

    AIMFAST is a software code used to align facets on a dish concentrator to a specific aimpoint strategy to minimize peak fluxes and maximize system optical performance. AIM FAST uses a large monitor to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject dish mirrors. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. This fitted comparison is then used to develop a single vector representing the orientation of the facets relative to the design orientation, and provide near-real-time adjustment information to a communicating computer. The communicating computer can display adjustments or directly interface with adjustment tools.

  7. Leveraging FPGAs for Accelerating Short Read Alignment.

    PubMed

    Arram, James; Kaplan, Thomas; Luk, Wayne; Jiang, Peiyong

    2016-02-29

    One of the key challenges facing genomics today is how to efficiently analyse the massive amounts of data produced by next-generation sequencing platforms. With general-purpose computing systems struggling to address this challenge, specialised processors such as the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) are receiving growing interest. The means by which to leverage this technology for accelerating genomic data analysis is however largely unexplored. In this paper we present a runtime reconfigurable architecture for accelerating short read alignment using FPGAs. This architecture exploits the reconfigurability of FPGAs to allow the development of fast yet flexible alignment designs. We apply this architecture to develop an alignment design which supports exact and approximate alignment with up to 2 mismatches. Our design is based on the FM-index, with optimisations to improve the alignment performance. In particular, the n-step FM-index, index oversampling, a seedand- compare stage, and bi-directional backtracking are included. Our design is implemented and evaluated on a 1U Maxeler MPC-X2000 dataflow node with 8 Altera Stratix-V FPGAs. Measurements show that our design is 28 times faster than Bowtie2 running with 16 threads on dual Intel Xeon E5-2640 CPUs, and 9 times faster than Soap3-dp running on an NVIDIA Tesla C2070 GPU.

  8. Kernel Manifold Alignment for Domain Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tuia, Devis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of sensory data coming from different modalities has opened numerous opportunities for data analysis. The data are of increasing volume, complexity and dimensionality, thus calling for new methodological innovations towards multimodal data processing. However, multimodal architectures must rely on models able to adapt to changes in the data distribution. Differences in the density functions can be due to changes in acquisition conditions (pose, illumination), sensors characteristics (number of channels, resolution) or different views (e.g. street level vs. aerial views of a same building). We call these different acquisition modes domains, and refer to the adaptation problem as domain adaptation. In this paper, instead of adapting the trained models themselves, we alternatively focus on finding mappings of the data sources into a common, semantically meaningful, representation domain. This field of manifold alignment extends traditional techniques in statistics such as canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to deal with nonlinear adaptation and possibly non-corresponding data pairs between the domains. We introduce a kernel method for manifold alignment (KEMA) that can match an arbitrary number of data sources without needing corresponding pairs, just few labeled examples in all domains. KEMA has interesting properties: 1) it generalizes other manifold alignment methods, 2) it can align manifolds of very different complexities, performing a discriminative alignment preserving each manifold inner structure, 3) it can define a domain-specific metric to cope with multimodal specificities, 4) it can align data spaces of different dimensionality, 5) it is robust to strong nonlinear feature deformations, and 6) it is closed-form invertible, which allows transfer across-domains and data synthesis. To authors' knowledge this is the first method addressing all these important issues at once. We also present a reduced-rank version of KEMA for computational

  9. Kernel Manifold Alignment for Domain Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Tuia, Devis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of sensory data coming from different modalities has opened numerous opportunities for data analysis. The data are of increasing volume, complexity and dimensionality, thus calling for new methodological innovations towards multimodal data processing. However, multimodal architectures must rely on models able to adapt to changes in the data distribution. Differences in the density functions can be due to changes in acquisition conditions (pose, illumination), sensors characteristics (number of channels, resolution) or different views (e.g. street level vs. aerial views of a same building). We call these different acquisition modes domains, and refer to the adaptation problem as domain adaptation. In this paper, instead of adapting the trained models themselves, we alternatively focus on finding mappings of the data sources into a common, semantically meaningful, representation domain. This field of manifold alignment extends traditional techniques in statistics such as canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to deal with nonlinear adaptation and possibly non-corresponding data pairs between the domains. We introduce a kernel method for manifold alignment (KEMA) that can match an arbitrary number of data sources without needing corresponding pairs, just few labeled examples in all domains. KEMA has interesting properties: 1) it generalizes other manifold alignment methods, 2) it can align manifolds of very different complexities, performing a discriminative alignment preserving each manifold inner structure, 3) it can define a domain-specific metric to cope with multimodal specificities, 4) it can align data spaces of different dimensionality, 5) it is robust to strong nonlinear feature deformations, and 6) it is closed-form invertible, which allows transfer across-domains and data synthesis. To authors’ knowledge this is the first method addressing all these important issues at once. We also present a reduced-rank version of KEMA for computational

  10. Accurate multiple network alignment through context-sensitive random walk

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Comparative network analysis can provide an effective means of analyzing large-scale biological networks and gaining novel insights into their structure and organization. Global network alignment aims to predict the best overall mapping between a given set of biological networks, thereby identifying important similarities as well as differences among the networks. It has been shown that network alignment methods can be used to detect pathways or network modules that are conserved across different networks. Until now, a number of network alignment algorithms have been proposed based on different formulations and approaches, many of them focusing on pairwise alignment. Results In this work, we propose a novel multiple network alignment algorithm based on a context-sensitive random walk model. The random walker employed in the proposed algorithm switches between two different modes, namely, an individual walk on a single network and a simultaneous walk on two networks. The switching decision is made in a context-sensitive manner by examining the current neighborhood, which is effective for quantitatively estimating the degree of correspondence between nodes that belong to different networks, in a manner that sensibly integrates node similarity and topological similarity. The resulting node correspondence scores are then used to predict the maximum expected accuracy (MEA) alignment of the given networks. Conclusions Performance evaluation based on synthetic networks as well as real protein-protein interaction networks shows that the proposed algorithm can construct more accurate multiple network alignments compared to other leading methods. PMID:25707987

  11. Precision alignment and mounting apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alignment and mounting apparatus for mounting two modules (10,12) includes a first portion having a cylindrical alignment pin (16) projecting normal to a module surface, a second portion having a three-stage alignment guide (18) including a shoehorn flange (34), a Y-slot (42) and a V-block (22) which sequentially guide the alignment pin (16) with successively finer precision and a third portion in the form of a spring-loaded captive fastener (20) for connecting the two modules after alignment is achieved.

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF ENHANCED RADIATIVE GRAIN ALIGNMENT NEAR HD 97300

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B-G; Potter, S. B. E-mail: sbp@saao.ac.z

    2010-09-10

    We have obtained optical multi-band polarimetry toward sightlines through the Chamaeleon I cloud, particularly in the vicinity of the young B9/A0 star HD 97300. We show, in agreement with earlier studies, that the radiation field impinging on the cloud in the projected vicinity of the star is dominated by the flux from the star, as evidenced by a local enhancement in the grain heating. By comparing the differential grain heating with the differential change in the location of the peak of the polarization curve, we show that the grain alignment is enhanced by the increase in the radiation field. We also find a weak, but measurable, variation in the grain alignment with the relative angle between the radiation field anisotropy and the magnetic field direction. Such an anisotropy in the grain alignment is consistent with a unique prediction of modern radiative alignment torque theory and provides direct support for radiatively driven grain alignment.

  13. Engineering cell alignment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhui; Huang, Guoyou; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Du, Yanan; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Cell alignment plays a critical role in various cell behaviors including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane protein relocation, nucleus gene expression, and ECM remodeling. Cell alignment is also known to exert significant effects on tissue regeneration (e.g., neuron) and modulate mechanical properties of tissues including skeleton, cardiac muscle and tendon. Therefore, it is essential to engineer cell alignment in vitro for biomechanics, cell biology, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. With advances in nano- and micro-scale technologies, a variety of approaches have been developed to engineer cell alignment in vitro, including mechanical loading, topographical patterning, and surface chemical treatment. In this review, we first present alignments of various cell types and their functionality in different tissues in vivo including muscle and nerve tissues. Then, we provide an overview of recent approaches for engineering cell alignment in vitro. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are addressed for future improvement of engineering cell alignment.

  14. TSGC and JSC Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

  15. Growth of horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes on anisotropically etched silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orofeo, Carlo M.; Ago, Hiroki; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takahasi, Koji; Tsuji, Masaharu

    2010-09-01

    Directional controllability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is an important issue for future nanoelectronics applications. For direct integration of carbon nanotubes with modern electronics, aligned growth of carbon nanotubes on SiO2/Si is desirable. We developed a new method to horizontally align SWNTs directly on SiO2/Si substrate by creating trenches on Si(100) through anisotropic etching followed by thermal oxidation. The V-shaped trenches highly improved the alignment of SWNTs and the degree of alignment is comparable to the step-templated alignment of carbon nanotubes on crystals. The trenches also improved the density of aligned nanotubes due to the combination of ``trench-guided'' and gas-flow guided alignment. Our new insights on carbon nanotube alignment on SiO2/Si will greatly contribute to future large-scale nanoelectronic applications.Directional controllability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is an important issue for future nanoelectronics applications. For direct integration of carbon nanotubes with modern electronics, aligned growth of carbon nanotubes on SiO2/Si is desirable. We developed a new method to horizontally align SWNTs directly on SiO2/Si substrate by creating trenches on Si(100) through anisotropic etching followed by thermal oxidation. The V-shaped trenches highly improved the alignment of SWNTs and the degree of alignment is comparable to the step-templated alignment of carbon nanotubes on crystals. The trenches also improved the density of aligned nanotubes due to the combination of ``trench-guided'' and gas-flow guided alignment. Our new insights on carbon nanotube alignment on SiO2/Si will greatly contribute to future large-scale nanoelectronic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of SWNTs grown under different CVD conditions. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00170h

  16. Alignment of Tractograms As Graph Matching

    PubMed Central

    Olivetti, Emanuele; Sharmin, Nusrat; Avesani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The white matter pathways of the brain can be reconstructed as 3D polylines, called streamlines, through the analysis of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data. The whole set of streamlines is called tractogram and represents the structural connectome of the brain. In multiple applications, like group-analysis, segmentation, or atlasing, tractograms of different subjects need to be aligned. Typically, this is done with registration methods, that transform the tractograms in order to increase their similarity. In contrast with transformation-based registration methods, in this work we propose the concept of tractogram correspondence, whose aim is to find which streamline of one tractogram corresponds to which streamline in another tractogram, i.e., a map from one tractogram to another. As a further contribution, we propose to use the relational information of each streamline, i.e., its distances from the other streamlines in its own tractogram, as the building block to define the optimal correspondence. We provide an operational procedure to find the optimal correspondence through a combinatorial optimization problem and we discuss its similarity to the graph matching problem. In this work, we propose to represent tractograms as graphs and we adopt a recent inexact sub-graph matching algorithm to approximate the solution of the tractogram correspondence problem. On tractograms generated from the Human Connectome Project dataset, we report experimental evidence that tractogram correspondence, implemented as graph matching, provides much better alignment than affine registration and comparable if not better results than non-linear registration of volumes. PMID:27994537

  17. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each.... (b) The inmate is responsible for advising any attorney that correspondence will be handled...

  18. 48 CFR 852.236-76 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correspondence. 852.236-76... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.236-76 Correspondence. As prescribed in 836.570, insert the following clause: Correspondence (APR 1984) All correspondence relative...

  19. 21 CFR 20.103 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Correspondence. 20.103 Section 20.103 Food and... Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.103 Correspondence. (a) All correspondence to and from... for public disclosure. (b) Any such correspondence is available for public disclosure at the time...

  20. 48 CFR 852.236-76 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Correspondence. 852.236-76... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.236-76 Correspondence. As prescribed in 836.570, insert the following clause: Correspondence (APR 1984) All correspondence relative...

  1. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each.... (b) The inmate is responsible for advising any attorney that correspondence will be handled...

  2. 21 CFR 20.103 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Correspondence. 20.103 Section 20.103 Food and... Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.103 Correspondence. (a) All correspondence to and from... for public disclosure. (b) Any such correspondence is available for public disclosure at the time...

  3. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each.... (b) The inmate is responsible for advising any attorney that correspondence will be handled...

  4. 21 CFR 20.103 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Correspondence. 20.103 Section 20.103 Food and... Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.103 Correspondence. (a) All correspondence to and from... for public disclosure. (b) Any such correspondence is available for public disclosure at the time...

  5. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each.... (b) The inmate is responsible for advising any attorney that correspondence will be handled...

  6. 48 CFR 852.236-76 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Correspondence. 852.236-76... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.236-76 Correspondence. As prescribed in 836.570, insert the following clause: Correspondence (APR 1984) All correspondence relative...

  7. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each.... (b) The inmate is responsible for advising any attorney that correspondence will be handled...

  8. 21 CFR 20.103 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Correspondence. 20.103 Section 20.103 Food and... Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.103 Correspondence. (a) All correspondence to and from... for public disclosure. (b) Any such correspondence is available for public disclosure at the time...

  9. 48 CFR 852.236-76 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Correspondence. 852.236-76... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.236-76 Correspondence. As prescribed in 836.570, insert the following clause: Correspondence (APR 1984) All correspondence relative...

  10. 21 CFR 20.103 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Correspondence. 20.103 Section 20.103 Food and... Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.103 Correspondence. (a) All correspondence to and from... for public disclosure. (b) Any such correspondence is available for public disclosure at the time...

  11. 48 CFR 852.236-76 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Correspondence. 852.236-76... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.236-76 Correspondence. As prescribed in 836.570, insert the following clause: Correspondence (APR 1984) All correspondence relative...

  12. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  13. Tool for Inspecting Alignment of Twinaxial Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    A proposed tool would be used to inspect alignments of mating twinaxial-connector assemblies on interconnecting wiring harnesses. More specifically, the tool would be used to inspect the alignment of each contact pin of each connector on one assembly with the corresponding socket in the corresponding connector on the other assembly. It is necessary to inspect the alignment because if mating of the assemblies is attempted when any pin/socket pair is misaligned beyond tolerance, the connection will not be completed and the dielectric material in the socket will be damaged (see Figure 1). Although the basic principle of the tool is applicable to almost any type of mating connector assemblies, the specific geometry of the tool must match the pin-and-socket geometry of the specific mating assemblies to be inspected. In the original application for which the tool was conceived, each of the mating assemblies contains eight twinaxial connectors; the pin diameter is 0.014 in. (.0.35 mm), and the maximum allowable pin/socket misalignment is 0.007 in. (.0.18 mm). Incomplete connections can result in loss of flight data within the functional path to the space shuttle crew cockpit displays. The tool (see Figure 2) would consist mainly of a transparent disk with alignment clocking tabs that can be fitted onto either connector assembly. Sets of circles or equivalent reference markings are affixed to the face of the tool, located at the desired positions of the mating contact pairs. An inspector would simply fit the tool onto a connector assembly, engaging the clocking tabs until the tool fits tightly. The inspector would then align one set of circles positioning a line of sight perpendicular to one contact within the connector assembly. Mis alignments would be evidenced by the tip of a pin contact straying past the inner edge of the circle. Socket contact misalignments would be evidenced by a crescent-shaped portion of the white dielectric appearing within the circle. The tool

  14. Direct comparative study on the energy level alignments in unoccupied/occupied states of organic semiconductor/electrode interface by constructing in-situ photoemission spectroscopy and Ar gas cluster ion beam sputtering integrated analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Dong-Jin Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, Yongsu; Park, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Heon; Heo, Sung

    2014-10-21

    Through the installation of electron gun and photon detector, an in-situ photoemission and damage-free sputtering integrated analysis system is completely constructed. Therefore, this system enables to accurately characterize the energy level alignments including unoccupied/occupied molecular orbital (LUMO/HOMO) levels at interface region of organic semiconductor/electrode according to depth position. Based on Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS), Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPES), and reflective electron energy loss spectroscopy, the occupied/unoccupied state of in-situ deposited Tris[4-(carbazol-9-yl)phenyl]amine (TCTA) organic semiconductors on Au (E{sub LUMO}: 2.51 eV and E{sub HOMO}: 1.35 eV) and Ti (E{sub LUMO}: 2.19 eV and E{sub HOMO}: 1.69 eV) electrodes are investigated, and the variation of energy level alignments according to work function of electrode (Au: 4.81 eV and Ti: 4.19 eV) is clearly verified. Subsequently, under the same analysis condition, the unoccupied/occupied states at bulk region of TCTA/Au structures are characterized using different Ar gas cluster ion beam (Ar GCIB) and Ar ion sputtering processes, respectively. While the Ar ion sputtering process critically distorts both occupied and unoccupied states in UPS/IPES spectra, the Ar GCIB sputtering process does not give rise to damage on them. Therefore, we clearly confirm that the in-situ photoemission spectroscopy in combination with Ar GCIB sputtering allows of investigating accurate energy level alignments at bulk/interface region as well as surface region of organic semiconductor/electrode structure.

  15. PASS2 database for the structure-based sequence alignment of distantly related SCOP domain superfamilies: update to version 5 and added features

    PubMed Central

    Gandhimathi, Arumugam; Ghosh, Pritha; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Mathew, Oommen K.; Sowdhamini, R.

    2016-01-01

    Structure-based sequence alignment is an essential step in assessing and analysing the relationship of distantly related proteins. PASS2 is a database that records such alignments for protein domain superfamilies and has been constantly updated periodically. This update of the PASS2 version, named as PASS2.5, directly corresponds to the SCOPe 2.04 release. All SCOPe structural domains that share less than 40% sequence identity, as defined by the ASTRAL compendium of protein structures, are included. The current version includes 1977 superfamilies and has been assembled utilizing the structure-based sequence alignment protocol. Such an alignment is obtained initially through MATT, followed by a refinement through the COMPARER program. The JOY program has been used for structural annotations of such alignments. In this update, we have automated the protocol and focused on inclusion of new features such as mapping of GO terms, absolutely conserved residues among the domains in a superfamily and inclusion of PDBs, that are absent in SCOPe 2.04, using the HMM profiles from the alignments of the superfamily members and are provided as a separate list. We have also implemented a more user-friendly manner of data presentation and options for downloading more features. PASS2.5 version is available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/pass2/. PMID:26553811

  16. Sensorimotor alignment effects in the learning environment and in novel environments.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jonathan W; Avraamides, Marios N; Loomis, Jack M

    2007-11-01

    Four experiments investigated the conditions contributing to sensorimotor alignment effects (i.e., the advantage for spatial judgments from imagined perspectives aligned with the body). Through virtual reality technology, participants learned object locations around a room (learning room) and made spatial judgments from imagined perspectives aligned or misaligned with their actual facing direction. Sensorimotor alignment effects were found when testing occurred in the learning room but not after walking 3 m into a neighboring (novel) room. Sensorimotor alignment effects returned after returning to the learning room or after providing participants with egocentric imagery instructions in the novel room. Additionally, visual and spatial similarities between the test and learning environments were independently sufficient to cause sensorimotor alignment effects. Memory alignment effects, independent from sensorimotor alignment effects, occurred in all testing conditions. Results are interpreted in the context of two-system spatial memory theories positing separate representations to account for sensorimotor and memory alignment effects.

  17. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  18. Nova laser alignment control system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-03-29

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system.

  19. Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2009-11-10

    An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

  20. Maximizing Learning through Course Alignment and Experience with Different Types of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2009-01-01

    Consistency among the objectives, learning activities, and assessment exercises results in aligned courses, which give students direction and clarity and yield increased learning. However, instructors may not check for course alignment. This article describes a concrete way to determine course alignment by plotting the course components on a table…

  1. Aligned Defrosting Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    17 August 2004 This July 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of aligned barchan sand dunes in the martian north polar region. At the time, the dunes were covered with seasonal frost, but the frost had begun to sublime away, leaving dark spots and dark outlines around the dunes. The surrounding plains exhibit small, diffuse spots that are also the result of subliming seasonal frost. This northern spring image, acquired on a descending ground track (as MGS was moving north to south on the 'night' side of Mars) is located near 78.8oN, 34.8oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  2. Study on the scale distribution of the field-aligned irregularities in E-region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wanlin; Qi, Hao

    2016-12-01

    The field-aligned backscattering region in the ionospheric E-region is considered to contain many small irregularities, which are arrayed along the magnetic lines. The scale and number of these irregularities in the backscattering region are different. The irregularities of a certain scale can reflect the radio wave of the corresponding wavelength on the basis of the Bragg scattering theory. The more the irregularities of a scale, the stronger is the backscattered power. Thus, the scale distribution can be estimated by the function relationship between the scale and the echo amplitude, while the incidence direction of the wave path is perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Moreover, the echoes with oblique incidence direction can also be used to estimate the scale distribution, considering the factor of the angle between the wave path and the perpendicular field direction.

  3. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  4. Alignment of Helical Membrane Protein Sequences Using AlignMe

    PubMed Central

    Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2013-01-01

    Few sequence alignment methods have been designed specifically for integral membrane proteins, even though these important proteins have distinct evolutionary and structural properties that might affect their alignments. Existing approaches typically consider membrane-related information either by using membrane-specific substitution matrices or by assigning distinct penalties for gap creation in transmembrane and non-transmembrane regions. Here, we ask whether favoring matching of predicted transmembrane segments within a standard dynamic programming algorithm can improve the accuracy of pairwise membrane protein sequence alignments. We tested various strategies using a specifically designed program called AlignMe. An updated set of homologous membrane protein structures, called HOMEP2, was used as a reference for optimizing the gap penalties. The best of the membrane-protein optimized approaches were then tested on an independent reference set of membrane protein sequence alignments from the BAliBASE collection. When secondary structure (S) matching was combined with evolutionary information (using a position-specific substitution matrix (P)), in an approach we called AlignMePS, the resultant pairwise alignments were typically among the most accurate over a broad range of sequence similarities when compared to available methods. Matching transmembrane predictions (T), in addition to evolutionary information, and secondary-structure predictions, in an approach called AlignMePST, generally reduces the accuracy of the alignments of closely-related proteins in the BAliBASE set relative to AlignMePS, but may be useful in cases of extremely distantly related proteins for which sequence information is less informative. The open source AlignMe code is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/alignme/, and at http://www.forrestlab.org, along with an online server and the HOMEP2 data set. PMID:23469223

  5. Aligned genomic data compression via improved modeling.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Idoia; Hernaez, Mikel; Weissman, Tsachy

    2014-12-01

    With the release of the latest Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) machine, the HiSeq X by Illumina, the cost of sequencing the whole genome of a human is expected to drop to a mere $1000. This milestone in sequencing history marks the era of affordable sequencing of individuals and opens the doors to personalized medicine. In accord, unprecedented volumes of genomic data will require storage for processing. There will be dire need not only of compressing aligned data, but also of generating compressed files that can be fed directly to downstream applications to facilitate the analysis of and inference on the data. Several approaches to this challenge have been proposed in the literature; however, focus thus far has been on the low coverage regime and most of the suggested compressors are not based on effective modeling of the data. We demonstrate the benefit of data modeling for compressing aligned reads. Specifically, we show that, by working with data models designed for the aligned data, we can improve considerably over the best compression ratio achieved by previously proposed algorithms. Our results indicate that the pareto-optimal barrier for compression rate and speed claimed by Bonfield and Mahoney (2013) [Bonfield JK and Mahoneys MV, Compression of FASTQ and SAM format sequencing data, PLOS ONE, 8(3):e59190, 2013.] does not apply for high coverage aligned data. Furthermore, our improved compression ratio is achieved by splitting the data in a manner conducive to operations in the compressed domain by downstream applications.

  6. GS-align for glycan structure alignment and similarity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Sun; Jo, Sunhwan; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Park, Sang-Jun; Skolnick, Jeffrey; Lee, Jooyoung; Im, Wonpil

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Glycans play critical roles in many biological processes, and their structural diversity is key for specific protein-glycan recognition. Comparative structural studies of biological molecules provide useful insight into their biological relationships. However, most computational tools are designed for protein structure, and despite their importance, there is no currently available tool for comparing glycan structures in a sequence order- and size-independent manner. Results: A novel method, GS-align, is developed for glycan structure alignment and similarity measurement. GS-align generates possible alignments between two glycan structures through iterative maximum clique search and fragment superposition. The optimal alignment is then determined by the maximum structural similarity score, GS-score, which is size-independent. Benchmark tests against the Protein Data Bank (PDB) N-linked glycan library and PDB homologous/non-homologous N-glycoprotein sets indicate that GS-align is a robust computational tool to align glycan structures and quantify their structural similarity. GS-align is also applied to template-based glycan structure prediction and monosaccharide substitution matrix generation to illustrate its utility. Availability and implementation: http://www.glycanstructure.org/gsalign. Contact: wonpil@ku.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25857669

  7. SPAM: A precision alignment device for spectrometer sightlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, A. T.; Bartolick, J. M.

    1990-10-01

    As fusion devices become larger and their environments become harsher for instruments, diagnostics find themselves farther and farther away from the plasma. On TFTR, the UV survey spectrometer SPRED is over 9 m from the plasma. In these conditions, the alignment of the optical axis of the spectrometer to the desired portion of the plasma becomes both more critical and more difficult. We have developed a device which allows visual alignment along an optical axis both back into the spectrometer and toward the plasma. This SPRED alignment mechanism (SPAM) generates forward and backward laser alignment beams which are exactly coaxial, and gives coincident visual sightlines, also coaxial, in both directions. It is compact, hardy, precise, and cheap. SPAM also has been used to align visible and UV spectrometers with equal success.

  8. Automation of the targeting and reflective alignment concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redfield, Robin C.

    1992-01-01

    The automated alignment system, described herein, employs a reflective, passive (requiring no power) target and includes a PC-based imaging system and one camera mounted on a six degree of freedom robot manipulator. The system detects and corrects for manipulator misalignment in three translational and three rotational directions by employing the Targeting and Reflective Alignment Concept (TRAC), which simplifies alignment by decoupling translational and rotational alignment control. The concept uses information on the camera and the target's relative position based on video feedback from the camera. These relative positions are converted into alignment errors and minimized by motions of the robot. The system is robust to exogenous lighting by virtue of a subtraction algorithm which enables the camera to only see the target. These capabilities are realized with relatively minimal complexity and expense.

  9. Improved thermoplastic composite by alignment of vapor-grown carbon fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriger, Rex Jerrald

    2000-10-01

    Vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) is a new and inexpensive carbon fiber produced by vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on metal catalysts. Unlike continuous conventional PAN or pitch-derived carbon fibers, VGCF is discontinuous with diameters of about 200 nanometers and lengths ranging from 10 to 200 micrometers. The microscopic size and random entanglement of the fibers create several problems when processing VGCF composites. It is particularly difficult to disperse the entangled fibers in the matrix and orient them along a preferred axis to provide directional reinforcement. This work introduces a technique to produce an improved polymeric composite by alignment of vapor grown carbon nano-fibers in a polypropylene matrix. A twin-screw extruder was used to shear mix and disperse the fibers in the polymer matrix. The composite mixtures were extruded through a converging-annular die that generates flow-induced fiber alignment along the extrusion direction. The effect that the various extrusion conditions have on the bulk properties of the extrudate was investigated. It was found that the extrusion process is strongly dependent on the fiber content of the composite. The extrusion pressure increased and the flow rate decreased with fiber volume fraction. The tensile strength and modulus for the composite samples varied with extrusion temperature and screw speed, and the void content increased with fiber volume fraction. It was shown that fiber alignment could be improved by increasing the residence time in the die channel and was verified using x-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties of the aligned samples increased with fiber content. Also, the tensile strength improved with greater fiber orientation; however, more fiber alignment had little affect on the modulus. To better predict the strength of these partially aligned fiber composites, an experimental and theoretical approach was introduced. The experimental data correspond reasonably well when compared with the

  10. A Dialogical Model for Business Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Combines the ideas of Erasmus, the Renaissance humanist, and Bakhtin, the twentieth-century Russian philosopher, into a unified theory of business correspondence. Presents both a set of guidelines and a model for the practice of dialogical correspondence. (SR)

  11. Communication: The Readability of Business Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitzner, Carol; Schramm, Dwayne

    1980-01-01

    A study that examined correspondence from 15 different business areas found the writing of that correspondence to be at a reading level higher than the average educational level of U.S. citizens. (LRA)

  12. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  13. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... § 690.66 Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not...

  14. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... § 690.66 Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not...

  15. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... § 690.66 Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not...

  16. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... § 690.66 Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not...

  17. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not including...

  18. 38 CFR 4.24 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence. 4.24 Section 4.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.24 Correspondence. All correspondence relative to the...

  19. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract correspondence... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Correspondence and Visits 42.401 Contract correspondence. (a) The contracting officer (or other contracting agency personnel) normally shall (1)...

  20. 38 CFR 4.24 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence. 4.24 Section 4.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.24 Correspondence. All correspondence relative to the...

  1. 38 CFR 4.24 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence. 4.24 Section 4.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.24 Correspondence. All correspondence relative to the...

  2. 48 CFR 836.570 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Correspondence. 836.570... OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.570 Correspondence. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-76, Correspondence, in solicitations...

  3. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract correspondence... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Correspondence and Visits 42.401 Contract correspondence. (a) The contracting officer (or other contracting agency personnel) normally shall (1)...

  4. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract correspondence... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Correspondence and Visits 42.401 Contract correspondence. (a) The contracting officer (or other contracting agency personnel) normally shall (1)...

  5. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract correspondence... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Correspondence and Visits 42.401 Contract correspondence. (a) The contracting officer (or other contracting agency personnel) normally shall (1)...

  6. 48 CFR 836.570 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Correspondence. 836.570... OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.570 Correspondence. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-76, Correspondence, in solicitations...

  7. 48 CFR 836.570 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Correspondence. 836.570... OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.570 Correspondence. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-76, Correspondence, in solicitations...

  8. 76 FR 9338 - List of Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... of Correspondence AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Department of Education. ACTION: List of Correspondence from July 1, 2010 through September 30, 2010. SUMMARY: The... publish in the Federal Register a list of correspondence from the U.S. Department of Education...

  9. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract correspondence... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Correspondence and Visits 42.401 Contract correspondence. (a) The contracting officer (or other contracting agency personnel) normally shall (1)...

  10. 38 CFR 4.24 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence. 4.24 Section 4.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.24 Correspondence. All correspondence relative to the...

  11. 48 CFR 836.570 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Correspondence. 836.570... OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.570 Correspondence. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-76, Correspondence, in solicitations...

  12. 38 CFR 4.24 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence. 4.24 Section 4.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.24 Correspondence. All correspondence relative to the...

  13. 48 CFR 836.570 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correspondence. 836.570... OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.570 Correspondence. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-76, Correspondence, in solicitations...

  14. Lexical alignment in triadic communication

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one’s interlocutor’s lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants’ lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  15. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  16. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    PubMed

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow.

  17. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  18. Alignments of galaxies within cosmic filaments from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lei; Mo, H. J.; Van den Bosch, Frank C. E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2013-12-20

    Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large-scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. The strength of this alignment signal is strongest for red, central galaxies, and in good agreement with that of dark matter halos in N-body simulations. This suggests that red, central galaxies are well aligned with their host halos, in quantitative agreement with previous studies based on the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies. There is a luminosity and mass dependence that brighter and more massive galaxies in filaments and sheets have stronger alignment signals. We also find that the orientation of galaxies is aligned with the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the tidal tensor. These observational results indicate that galaxy formation is affected by large-scale environments and strongly suggest that galaxies are aligned with each other over scales comparable to those of sheets and filaments in the cosmic web.

  19. The Alignment effect of brightest cluster galaxies in the SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, R. S. J.; Annis, J.; Strauss, M. A.; Lupton, R. H.; Bahcall, N. A.; Gunn, J. E.; Kepner, J. V.; Postman, M.

    2001-10-01

    One of the most vital observational clues for unraveling the origin of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) is the observed alignment of the BCGs with their host cluster and its surroundings. We have examined the BCG-cluster alignment effect, using clusters of galaxies detected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that the BCGs are preferentially aligned with the principal axis of their hosts, to a much higher redshift (z >~ 0.3) than probed by previous studies (z <~ 0.1). The alignment effect strongly depends on the magnitude difference of the BCG and the second and third brightest cluster members: we find a strong alignment effect for the dominant BCGs, while less dominant BCGs do not show any departure from random alignment with respect to the cluster. We therefore claim that the alignment process originates from the same process that makes the BCG grow dominant, be it direct mergers in the early stage of cluster formation, or a later process that resembles the galactic cannibalism scenario. We do not find strong evidence for (or against) redshift evolution between 0alignment with redshift, richness and morphology of both the cluster and the BCG.

  20. Alignment of the MINOS FD

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.; Boehnlein, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    The results and procedure of the alignment of the MINOS Far Detector are presented. The far detector has independent alignments of SM1 and SM2. The misalignments have an estimated uncertainty of {approx}850 {micro}m for SM1 and {approx}750 {micro}m for SM2. The alignment has as inputs the average rotations of U and V as determined by optical survey and strip positions within modules measured from the module mapper. The output of this is a module-module correction for transverse mis-alignments. These results were verified by examining an independent set of data. These alignment constants on average contribute much less then 1% to the total uncertainty in the transverse strip position.

  1. A transsynaptic nanocolumn aligns neurotransmitter release to receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ai-Hui; Chen, Haiwen; Li, Tuo P.; Metzbower, Sarah R.; MacGillavry, Harold D.; Blanpied, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic transmission is maintained by a delicate, subsynaptic molecular architecture, and even mild alterations in synapse structure drive functional changes during experience-dependent plasticity and pathological disorder1,2. Key to this architecture is how the distribution of presynaptic vesicle fusion sites corresponds to the position of receptors in the postsynaptic density. However, despite long recognition that this spatial relationship modulates synaptic strength3, it has not been precisely described, due in part to the limited resolution of light microscopy. Using localization microscopy, we report here that key proteins mediating vesicle priming and fusion are mutually co-enriched within nanometer-scaled subregions of the presynaptic active zone. Through development of a new method to map vesicle fusion positions within single synapses, we found that action potential evoked fusion was guided by this protein gradient and occurred preferentially in confined areas with higher local density of RIM within the active zones. These presynaptic RIM nanoclusters closely aligned with concentrated postsynaptic receptors and scaffolding proteins4–6, suggesting a transsynaptic molecular “nanocolumn.” Thus, we propose that the nanoarchitecture of the active zone directs action potential evoked vesicle fusion to occur preferentially at sites directly opposing postsynaptic receptor-scaffold ensembles. Remarkably, NMDA receptor activation triggered distinct phases of plasticity in which postsynaptic reorganization was followed by transsynaptic nanoscale realignment. This architecture thus suggests a simple organizational principle of CNS synapses to maintain and modulate synaptic efficiency. PMID:27462810

  2. On universality in human correspondence activity.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, R Dean; Stouffer, Daniel B; Campanharo, Andriana S L O; Amaral, Luís A Nunes

    2009-09-25

    The identification and modeling of patterns of human activity have important ramifications for applications ranging from predicting disease spread to optimizing resource allocation. Because of its relevance and availability, written correspondence provides a powerful proxy for studying human activity. One school of thought is that human correspondence is driven by responses to received correspondence, a view that requires a distinct response mechanism to explain e-mail and letter correspondence observations. We demonstrate that, like e-mail correspondence, the letter correspondence patterns of 16 writers, performers, politicians, and scientists are well described by the circadian cycle, task repetition, and changing communication needs. We confirm the universality of these mechanisms by rescaling letter and e-mail correspondence statistics to reveal their underlying similarity.

  3. Magnetic alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, L. V.; Schenz, R. F.; Sommargren, G. E.

    1990-08-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This article begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100-μm accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The 100-μm accuracy is an error circle about an ideal axis for 300 m or more. The article describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axes of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development of a straight-line reference based on the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. The Poisson alignment reference system should be accurate to 25 μm over 300 m, which is believed to be a factor-of-4 improvement over earlier techniques. An error budget shows that only 25% of the total budgeted tolerance is used for the alignment reference system, so the remaining tolerances should fall within the allowable range for FEL alignment.

  4. Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Nico M.; Pier, Naomi M.; Reeder, Deeann M.; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2–317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3–483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across

  5. Testing the tidal alignment model of galaxy intrinsic alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; McQuinn, Matthew E-mail: mmcquinn@berkeley.edu

    2011-05-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of large-scale structure and cosmological parameters. Precision weak lensing measurements require an understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxy ellipticities, which can in turn inform models of galaxy formation. It is hypothesized that elliptical galaxies align with the background tidal field and that this alignment mechanism dominates the correlation between ellipticities on cosmological scales (in the absence of lensing). We use recent large-scale structure measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to test this picture with several statistics: (1) the correlation between ellipticity and galaxy overdensity, w{sub g+}; (2) the intrinsic alignment auto-correlation functions; (3) the correlation functions of curl-free, E, and divergence-free, B, modes, the latter of which is zero in the linear tidal alignment theory; (4) the alignment correlation function, w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ), a recently developed statistic that generalizes the galaxy correlation function to account for the angle between the galaxy separation vector and the principle axis of ellipticity. We show that recent measurements are largely consistent with the tidal alignment model and discuss dependence on galaxy luminosity. In addition, we show that at linear order the tidal alignment model predicts that the angular dependence of w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ) is simply w{sub g+}(r{sub p})cos (2θ) and that this dependence is consistent with recent measurements. We also study how stochastic nonlinear contributions to galaxy ellipticity impact these statistics. We find that a significant fraction of the observed LRG ellipticity can be explained by alignment with the tidal field on scales ∼> 10 \\hMpc. These considerations are relevant to galaxy formation and evolution.

  6. Effects of diatomic reagent alignment on the A + BC reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattengill, M. D.; Zare, R. N.; Jaffe, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A computational study is reported on the A + BC - AB + C bimolecular exchange reaction in which BC is aligned with respect to the approach direction of atom A so that the initial rotational angular momentum vector of BC is either parallel (or equivalently antiparallel) or perpendicular to the initial velocity vector of A. The calculations employ a modification of the extended LEPS potential, which permits straightforward generation of noncollinear minimum energy reaction paths. The calculations clearly demonstrate that diatomic reagent alignment can markedly affect the nature of reaction product early partitioning; they also demonstrate that diatomic reagent alignment affects reactive cross sections.

  7. Phantom and Clinical Study of Differences in Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Registration When Aligned to Maximum and Average Intensity Projection

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Kiyonori; Nishiyama, Kinji; Katsuda, Toshizo; Teshima, Teruki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Tsujii, Katsutomo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether maximum or average intensity projection (MIP or AIP, respectively) reconstructed from 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is preferred for alignment to cone beam CT (CBCT) images in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Stationary CT and 4DCT images were acquired with a target phantom at the center of motion and moving along the superior–inferior (SI) direction, respectively. Motion profiles were asymmetrical waveforms with amplitudes of 10, 15, and 20 mm and a 4-second cycle. Stationary CBCT and dynamic CBCT images were acquired in the same manner as stationary CT and 4DCT images. Stationary CBCT was aligned to stationary CT, and the couch position was used as the baseline. Dynamic CBCT was aligned to the MIP and AIP of corresponding amplitudes. Registration error was defined as the SI deviation of the couch position from the baseline. In 16 patients with isolated lung lesions, free-breathing CBCT (FBCBCT) was registered to AIP and MIP (64 sessions in total), and the difference in couch shifts was calculated. Results: In the phantom study, registration errors were within 0.1 mm for AIP and 1.5 to 1.8 mm toward the inferior direction for MIP. In the patient study, the difference in the couch shifts (mean, range) was insignificant in the right-left (0.0 mm, ≤1.0 mm) and anterior–posterior (0.0 mm, ≤2.1 mm) directions. In the SI direction, however, the couch position significantly shifted in the inferior direction after MIP registration compared with after AIP registration (mean, −0.6 mm; ranging 1.7 mm to the superior side and 3.5 mm to the inferior side, P=.02). Conclusions: AIP is recommended as the reference image for registration to FBCBCT when target alignment is performed in the presence of asymmetrical respiratory motion, whereas MIP causes systematic target positioning error.

  8. Homogeneous alignment of liquid crystalline dendrimers confined in a slit-pore. A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workineh, Zerihun G.; Vanakaras, Alexandros G.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present results from isobaric-isothermal (NPT) Monte Carlo simulation studies of model liquid crystalline dendrimer (LCDr) systems confined in a slit-pore made of two parallel flat walls. The dendrimers are modelled as a collection of spherical and ellipsoidal particles corresponding to the junction points of the dendritic core and to the mesogenic units respectively. Assuming planar uniform (unidirectional) soft anchoring of the mesogenic units on the substrates we investigate the conformational and alignment properties of the LCDr system at different thermodynamic state points. Tractable coarse grained force fields have been used from our previous work. At low pressures the interior of the pore is almost empty, since almost all LCDrs are anchored to the substrates forming two-dimensional smectic-like structures with the mesogens aligned along the aligning direction of the substrates. As the pressure grows the LCDrs occupy the whole pore. However, even at low temperatures, the smectic organization does not transmit in the interior of the pore and is preserved for distances of 2-3 mesogenic diameters from the walls. For this reason, the global orientational order decreases with increasing pressure (density). In the vicinity (2-3 mesogenic diameters) of the pore walls, mesogenic units preserve the smectic structure whose layers are separated by layers of spherical beads. In this region individual LCDrs possess a rod like shape.

  9. Intrinsic alignments of galaxies in the EAGLE and cosmo-OWLS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velliscig, Marco; Cacciato, Marcello; Schaye, Joop; Hoekstra, Henk; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; van Daalen, Marcel P.; Furlong, Michelle; McCarthy, I. G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2015-12-01

    We report results for the alignments of galaxies in the EAGLE and cosmo-OWLS hydrodynamical cosmological simulations as a function of galaxy separation (-1 ≤ log10(r/[ h-1 Mpc]) ≤ 2) and halo mass (10.7 ≤ log10(M200/[h-1 M⊙]) ≤ 15). We focus on two classes of alignments: the orientations of galaxies with respect to either the directions to, or the orientations of, surrounding galaxies. We find that the strength of the alignment is a strongly decreasing function of the distance between galaxies. For galaxies hosted by the most massive haloes in our simulations the alignment can remain significant up to ˜100 Mpc. Galaxies hosted by more massive haloes show stronger alignment. At a fixed halo mass, more aspherical or prolate galaxies exhibit stronger alignments. The spatial distribution of satellites is anisotropic and significantly aligned with the major axis of the main host halo. The major axes of satellite galaxies, when all stars are considered, are preferentially aligned towards the centre of the main host halo. The predicted projected direction-orientation alignment, ɛg+(rp), is in broad agreement with recent observations. We find that the orientation-orientation alignment is weaker than the orientation-direction alignment on all scales. Overall, the strength of galaxy alignments depends strongly on the subset of stars that are used to measure the orientations of galaxies and it is always weaker than the alignment of dark matter haloes. Thus, alignment models that use halo orientation as a direct proxy for galaxy orientation overestimate the impact of intrinsic galaxy alignments.

  10. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  11. TranslatorX: multiple alignment of nucleotide sequences guided by amino acid translations.

    PubMed

    Abascal, Federico; Zardoya, Rafael; Telford, Maximilian J

    2010-07-01

    We present TranslatorX, a web server designed to align protein-coding nucleotide sequences based on their corresponding amino acid translations. Many comparisons between biological sequences (nucleic acids and proteins) involve the construction of multiple alignments. Alignments represent a statement regarding the homology between individual nucleotides or amino acids within homologous genes. As protein-coding DNA sequences evolve as triplets of nucleotides (codons) and it is known that sequence similarity degrades more rapidly at the DNA than at the amino acid level, alignments are generally more accurate when based on amino acids than on their corresponding nucleotides. TranslatorX novelties include: (i) use of all documented genetic codes and the possibility of assigning different genetic codes for each sequence; (ii) a battery of different multiple alignment programs; (iii) translation of ambiguous codons when possible; (iv) an innovative criterion to clean nucleotide alignments with GBlocks based on protein information; and (v) a rich output, including Jalview-powered graphical visualization of the alignments, codon-based alignments coloured according to the corresponding amino acids, measures of compositional bias and first, second and third codon position specific alignments. The TranslatorX server is freely available at http://translatorx.co.uk.

  12. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Thin Films from Liquid Crystal Polyelectrolyte Inks.

    PubMed

    Tune, Daniel D; Blanch, Adam J; Shearer, Cameron J; Moore, Katherine E; Pfohl, Moritz; Shapter, Joseph G; Flavel, Benjamin S

    2015-11-25

    Single walled carbon nanotube thin films are fabricated by solution shearing from high concentration sodium nanotubide polyelectrolyte inks. The solutions are produced by simple stirring of the nanotubes with elemental sodium in dimethylacetamide, and the nanotubes are thus not subject to any sonication-induced damage. At such elevated concentrations (∼4 mg mL(-1)), the solutions exist in the liquid crystal phase and during deposition this order is transferred to the films, which are well aligned in the direction of shear with a 2D nematic order parameter of ∼0.7 determined by polarized absorption measurements. Compared to similarly formed films made from superacids, the polyelectrolyte films contain smaller bundles and a much narrower distribution of bundle diameters. After p-doping with an organic oxidizer, the films exhibit a very high DC electrical to optical conductivity ratio of σ(DC)/σ(OP) ∼ 35, corresponding to a calculated DC conductivity of over 7000 S cm(-1). When very thin (T550 ∼ 96%), smooth (RMS roughness, R(q) ∼ 2.2 nm), and highly aligned films made via this new route are used as the front electrodes of carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells, the power conversion efficiency is almost an order of magnitude greater than that obtained when using the much rougher (R(q) ∼ 20-30 nm) and less conductive (peak σ(DC)/σ(OP) ∼ 2.5) films formed by common vacuum filtration of the same starting material, and having the same transmittance.

  13. Automated Point Cloud Correspondence Detection for Underwater Mapping Using AUVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Marcus; Clark, Ashley; Mahajan, Aditya; Sharma, Sumant; Rock, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm for automating correspondence detection between point clouds composed of multibeam sonar data is presented. This allows accurate initialization for point cloud alignment techniques even in cases where accurate inertial navigation is not available, such as iceberg profiling or vehicles with low-grade inertial navigation systems. Techniques from computer vision literature are used to extract, label, and match keypoints between "pseudo-images" generated from these point clouds. Image matches are refined using RANSAC and information about the vehicle trajectory. The resulting correspondences can be used to initialize an iterative closest point (ICP) registration algorithm to estimate accumulated navigation error and aid in the creation of accurate, self-consistent maps. The results presented use multibeam sonar data obtained from multiple overlapping passes of an underwater canyon in Monterey Bay, California. Using strict matching criteria, the method detects 23 between-swath correspondence events in a set of 155 pseudo-images with zero false positives. Using less conservative matching criteria doubles the number of matches but introduces several false positive matches as well. Heuristics based on known vehicle trajectory information are used to eliminate these.

  14. BAYESIAN PROTEIN STRUCTURE ALIGNMENT1

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUEZ, ABEL; SCHMIDLER, SCOTT C.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the three-dimensional structure of proteins is an important topic in molecular biochemistry. Structure plays a critical role in defining the function of proteins and is more strongly conserved than amino acid sequence over evolutionary timescales. A key challenge is the identification and evaluation of structural similarity between proteins; such analysis can aid in understanding the role of newly discovered proteins and help elucidate evolutionary relationships between organisms. Computational biologists have developed many clever algorithmic techniques for comparing protein structures, however, all are based on heuristic optimization criteria, making statistical interpretation somewhat difficult. Here we present a fully probabilistic framework for pairwise structural alignment of proteins. Our approach has several advantages, including the ability to capture alignment uncertainty and to estimate key “gap” parameters which critically affect the quality of the alignment. We show that several existing alignment methods arise as maximum a posteriori estimates under specific choices of prior distributions and error models. Our probabilistic framework is also easily extended to incorporate additional information, which we demonstrate by including primary sequence information to generate simultaneous sequence–structure alignments that can resolve ambiguities obtained using structure alone. This combined model also provides a natural approach for the difficult task of estimating evolutionary distance based on structural alignments. The model is illustrated by comparison with well-established methods on several challenging protein alignment examples. PMID:26925188

  15. Issues Related to Judging the Alignment of Curriculum Standards and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    A process for judging the alignment between curriculum standards and assessments developed by the author is presented. This process produces information on the relationship of standards and assessments on four alignment criteria: Categorical Concurrence, Depth of Knowledge Consistency, Range of Knowledge Correspondence, and Balance of…

  16. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  17. The magnetic properties of aligned M hexa-ferrite fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullar, R. C.; Bhattacharya, A. K.

    2006-05-01

    Aligned and random fibres of strontium hexaferrite (SrM, SrFe 12O 19) and barium hexaferrite (BaM, BaFe 12O 19) were manufactured by blow spinning from an aqueous inorganic sol-gel precursor, which was then fired to give the hexagonal ferrite fibre. Their magnetic properties were studied by VSM, investigating the evolution of these properties with firing and measurement temperature, and in particular the effects of fibre alignment. It has been predicted that aligned ferrite fibres will demonstrate an enhanced magnetisation along the axis of alignment with respect to perpendicular to the axis, and this has been demonstrated here for the first time. The optimum firing temperature was 1000 °C, at which point they still had submicron grains. In BaM random fibres Ms=63.8 emu g -1 and Hc=428.1 kA m -1, and in SrM random fibres Ms=63.3 emu g -1 and Hc=452.8 kA m -1, high values for polycrystalline materials. Fibres aligned parallel to the applied field had saturation magnetisation ( Ms) values equal to those of the random fibres, whilst fibres aligned perpendicular to the field had Ms values 62% and 75% lower, for BaM and SrM, respectively. There was no change in coercivity ( Hc) between random or aligned fibres of any orientation, and fibres aligned 45° and parallel to H appeared identical. Therefore, properties along the axis of alignment were superior when compared to measurements perpendicular to the axis of alignment, giving a directionality to the magnetisation in an otherwise randomly oriented ferrite material.

  18. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  19. Advanced Multifunctional Properties of Aligned Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Composites from Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thang; Liu, Peng; Fan, Zeng; Ngern, Nigel; Duong, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Unlike previous methods of making carbon nanotube (CNT) thin films, aligned CNT thin films in this work are synthesized directly from CNT aerogels in a CVD process. CH4/H2/He gases and ferrocene/thiophene catalysts are mixed and reacted in the reactor at 1200 °C to form CNT aerogel socks. By pulling out the socks with a metal rod, CNT thin films with 15-nm diameter MWNTs are aligned and produced continuously at a speed of a few meters per minute. The number of the aligned CNT thin film layers/ thickness can also be controlled well. The as-synthesized aligned CNT films are further condensed by acetone spray and post-treated by UV light. The aligned CNT films without any above post-treatment have a high electrical conductivity of 400S/cm. We also develop aligned CNT-epoxy composites by infiltrating epoxy into the above aligned CNT thin films using Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) method. Our cost-effective fabrication method of the aligned CNT films is more advanced for developing the composites having CNT orientation control. The mechanical, electrical and optical properties of the aligned CNT epoxy composites are measured. About 2% of the aligned CNTs can enhance significantly the electrical conductivity and hardness of aligned CNT-epoxy composite films. Effects of morphologies, volume fraction, and alignment of the CNTs on the advanced multifunctional properties of the aligned CNT-epoxy composites are also quantified.

  20. Multi-subject Manifold Alignment of Functional Network Structures via Joint Diagonalization.

    PubMed

    Nenning, Karl-Heinz; Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Schöpf, Veronika; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging group studies rely on the ability to establish correspondence across individuals. This enables location specific comparison of functional brain characteristics. Registration is often based on morphology and does not take variability of functional localization into account. This can lead to a loss of specificity, or confounds when studying diseases. In this paper we propose multi-subject functional registration by manifold alignment via coupled joint diagonalization. The functional network structure of each subject is encoded in a diffusion map, where functional relationships are decoupled from spatial position. Two-step manifold alignment estimates initial correspondences between functionally equivalent regions. Then, coupled joint diagonalization establishes common eigenbases across all individuals, and refines the functional correspondences. We evaluate our approach on fMRI data acquired during a language paradigm. Experiments demonstrate the benefits in matching accuracy achieved by coupled joint diagonalization compared to previously proposed functional alignment approaches, or alignment based on structural correspondences.

  1. Magnetic axis alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Lee V.; Schenz, Richard F.; Sommargren, Gary E.

    1989-01-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This paper begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100 micrometer accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The paper describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axis of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development and use of the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. An error budget shows that the Poisson alignment reference system will make it possible to meet the alignment tolerances for an FEL.

  2. Vortex-aligned fullerene nanowhiskers as a scaffold for orienting cell growth.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Venkata; Kasuya, Yuki; Ji, Qingmin; Sathish, Marappan; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Minami, Kosuke; Morita, Hiromi; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Acharya, Somobrata; Nakanishi, Waka; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2015-07-22

    A versatile method for the rapid fabrication of aligned fullerene C60 nanowhiskers (C60NWs) at the air-water interface is presented. This method is based on the vortex motion of a subphase (water), which directs floating C60NWs to align on the water surface according to the direction of rotational flow. Aligned C60NWs could be transferred onto many different flat substrates, and, in this case, aligned C60NWs on glass substrates were employed as a scaffold for cell culture. Bone forming human osteoblast MG63 cells adhered well to the C60NWs, and their growth was found to be oriented with the axis of the aligned C60NWs. Cells grown on aligned C60NWs were more highly oriented with the axis of alignment than when grown on randomly oriented nanowhiskers. A study of cell proliferation on the C60NWs revealed their low toxicity, indicating their potential for use in biomedical applications.

  3. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOEpatents

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency. 2 figures.

  4. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOEpatents

    Steinmeyer, Peter A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for minitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency.

  5. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, C.R.; Hammond, R.B.

    The disclosure related to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  6. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, Charles R.; Hammond, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  7. Theory of grain alignment in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Wayne G.

    1993-01-01

    Research accomplishments are presented and include the following: (1) mathematical theory of grain alignment; (2) super-paramagnetic alignment of molecular cloud grains; and (3) theory of grain alignment by ambipolar diffusion.

  8. Breaking Object Correspondence Across Saccadic Eye Movements Deteriorates Object Recognition.

    PubMed

    Poth, Christian H; Herwig, Arvid; Schneider, Werner X

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask). Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object's contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013). Postsaccadic object recognition is

  9. Cultural Framing: Foreign Correspondents and Their Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starck, Kenneth; Villanueva, Estela

    With the notion of cultural framing as a theoretical backdrop, a study examined the role of culture in the work of foreign correspondents. The aim was to explore cultural aspects of international news reporting that may suggest avenues for more systematic inquiry into the role of culture in the work of the foreign correspondent. Of 75 examined…

  10. 32 CFR 845.11 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence. 845.11 Section 845.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION COUNSEL FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES IN FOREIGN TRIBUNALS § 845.11 Correspondence. Judge advocates who advise...

  11. 32 CFR 845.11 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence. 845.11 Section 845.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION COUNSEL FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES IN FOREIGN TRIBUNALS § 845.11 Correspondence. Judge advocates who advise...

  12. 32 CFR 845.11 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence. 845.11 Section 845.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION COUNSEL FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES IN FOREIGN TRIBUNALS § 845.11 Correspondence. Judge advocates who advise...

  13. 32 CFR 845.11 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence. 845.11 Section 845.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION COUNSEL FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES IN FOREIGN TRIBUNALS § 845.11 Correspondence. Judge advocates who advise...

  14. 32 CFR 845.11 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence. 845.11 Section 845.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION COUNSEL FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES IN FOREIGN TRIBUNALS § 845.11 Correspondence. Judge advocates who advise...

  15. Computer Networking with the Victorian Correspondence School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conboy, Ian

    During 1985 the Education Department installed two-way radios in 44 remote secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, to improve turn-around time for correspondence assignments. Subsequently, teacher supervisors at Melbourne's Correspondence School sought ways to further augument audio interactivity with computer networking. Computer equipment was…

  16. Teaching by Correspondence. UNESCO Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdos, Renee F.

    This resource book contains practical advice on all aspects of correspondence study, contributed by countries in which correspondence teaching has become an integral adjunct to the regular educational system. Included are discussions of school organization; writing, editing, and correction of studies; cost of production of materials; school…

  17. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  18. Stellar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Fortuitous stellar alignments can be fitted to structural orientations with relative ease by the unwary. Nonetheless, cautious approaches taking into account a broader range of cultural evidence, as well as paying due attention to potential methodological pitfalls, have been successful in identifying credible stellar alignments—and constructing plausible assessments of their cultural significance—in a variety of circumstances. These range from single instances of alignments upon particular asterisms where the corroborating historical or ethnographic evidence is strong to repeated instances of oriented structures with only limited independent cultural information but where systematic, data-driven approaches can be productive. In the majority of cases, the identification and interpretation of putative stellar alignments relates to groups of similar monuments or complex single sites and involves a balance between systematic studies of the alignments themselves, backed up by statistical analysis where appropriate, and the consideration of a range of contextual evidence, either derived from the archaeological record alone or from other relevant sources.

  19. RF Jitter Modulation Alignment Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, L. F.; Fulda, P.; Diaz-Ortiz, M.; Perez Sanchez, G.; Ciani, G.; Voss, D.; Mueller, G.; Tanner, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will present the numerical and experimental results of a new alignment sensing scheme which can reduce the complexity of alignment sensing systems currently used, while maintaining the same shot noise limited sensitivity. This scheme relies on the ability of electro-optic beam deflectors to create angular modulation sidebands in radio frequency, and needs only a single-element photodiode and IQ demodulation to generate error signals for tilt and translation degrees of freedom in one dimension. It distances itself from current techniques by eliminating the need for beam centering servo systems, quadrant photodetectors and Gouy phase telescopes. RF Jitter alignment sensing can be used to reduce the complexity in the alignment systems of many laser optical experiments, including LIGO and the ALPS experiment.

  20. Spatio-temporal alignment of pedobarographic image sequences.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Francisco P M; Sousa, Andreia; Santos, Rubim; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a methodology to align plantar pressure image sequences simultaneously in time and space. The spatial position and orientation of a foot in a sequence are changed to match the foot represented in a second sequence. Simultaneously with the spatial alignment, the temporal scale of the first sequence is transformed with the aim of synchronizing the two input footsteps. Consequently, the spatial correspondence of the foot regions along the sequences as well as the temporal synchronizing is automatically attained, making the study easier and more straightforward. In terms of spatial alignment, the methodology can use one of four possible geometric transformation models: rigid, similarity, affine, or projective. In the temporal alignment, a polynomial transformation up to the 4th degree can be adopted in order to model linear and curved time behaviors. Suitable geometric and temporal transformations are found by minimizing the mean squared error (MSE) between the input sequences. The methodology was tested on a set of real image sequences acquired from a common pedobarographic device. When used in experimental cases generated by applying geometric and temporal control transformations, the methodology revealed high accuracy. In addition, the intra-subject alignment tests from real plantar pressure image sequences showed that the curved temporal models produced better MSE results (P < 0.001) than the linear temporal model. This article represents an important step forward in the alignment of pedobarographic image data, since previous methods can only be applied on static images.

  1. Groupwise surface correspondence using particle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangxu; Kim, Hyoungseop; Tan, Joo Kooi; Ishikawa, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    To obtain an effective interpretation of organic shape using statistical shape models (SSMs), the correspondence of the landmarks through all the training samples is the most challenging part in model building. In this study, a coarse-tofine groupwise correspondence method for 3-D polygonal surfaces is proposed. We manipulate a reference model in advance. Then all the training samples are mapped to a unified spherical parameter space. According to the positions of landmarks of the reference model, the candidate regions for correspondence are chosen. Finally we refine the perceptually correct correspondences between landmarks using particle filter algorithm, where the likelihood of local surface features are introduced as the criterion. The proposed method was performed on the correspondence of 9 cases of left lung training samples. Experimental results show the proposed method is flexible and under-constrained.

  2. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  3. The Rigors of Aligning Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    bearing in mind customer perceptions. Recommendations include employee training centered on goal alignment, which is vital to highlight the...appeared to be lacking in some areas when bearing in mind customer perceptions. Recommendations include employee training centered on goal alignment...through the strategic plan and CONOPS. However, the extent of goal accomplishment appears to be lacking in some areas when bearing in mind the

  4. National Ignition Facility system alignment.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, S C; Bliss, E; Di Nicola, P; Kalantar, D; Lowe-Webb, R; McCarville, T; Nelson, D; Salmon, T; Schindler, T; Villanueva, J; Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-03-10

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest optical instrument, comprising 192 37 cm square beams, each generating up to 9.6 kJ of 351 nm laser light in a 20 ns beam precisely tailored in time and spectrum. The Facility houses a massive (10 m diameter) target chamber within which the beams converge onto an ∼1 cm size target for the purpose of creating the conditions needed for deuterium/tritium nuclear fusion in a laboratory setting. A formidable challenge was building NIF to the precise requirements for beam propagation, commissioning the beam lines, and engineering systems to reliably and safely align 192 beams within the confines of a multihour shot cycle. Designing the facility to minimize drift and vibration, placing the optical components in their design locations, commissioning beam alignment, and performing precise system alignment are the key alignment accomplishments over the decade of work described herein. The design and positioning phases placed more than 3000 large (2.5 m×2 m×1 m) line-replaceable optics assemblies to within ±1 mm of design requirement. The commissioning and alignment phases validated clear apertures (no clipping) for all beam lines, and demonstrated automated laser alignment within 10 min and alignment to target chamber center within 44 min. Pointing validation system shots to flat gold-plated x-ray emitting targets showed NIF met its design requirement of ±50 μm rms beam pointing to target chamber. Finally, this paper describes the major alignment challenges faced by the NIF Project from inception to present, and how these challenges were met and solved by the NIF design and commissioning teams.

  5. Patterned silk film scaffolds for aligned lamellar bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Lee W.; Gil, Eun Seok; Park, Sang-Hyug; Mandal, Biman B.; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Various porous biomaterial scaffolds have been utilized for bone tissue engineering; however, they are often limited in their ability to replicate the structural hierarchy and mechanics of native cortical bone. In this study, the alignment and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on patterned silk films (PF) was investigated as a bottom-up, biomimetic approach toward engineering cortical bone lamellae. Screening films cast with nine different micro and nano scale groove patterns showed that cellular alignment was mediated by an interplay between the width and depth of the patterns. MSCs were differentiated in osteogenic medium for four weeks on the PF that induced the highest degree of alignment, while flat films (FF) served as controls. Gene expression analysis and calcium quantification indicated that the PF supported osteogenic differentiation while also inducing robust lamellar alignment of cells and matrix deposition. A secondary alignment effect was noted on the PF where a new layer of aligned cells grew over the first layer, but rotated obliquely to the underlying pattern direction and first layer orientation. This layering and rotation of the aligned MSCs resembled the characteristic structural organization observed in native lamellar bone. The ability to control multilayered lamellar structural hierarchy from the interplay between a patterned 2D surface and cells suggests intriguing options for future biomaterial scaffolds designed to mimic native tissue structures. PMID:23070941

  6. Binocular collimation vs conditional alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, William J.

    2012-10-01

    As binocular enthusiasts share their passion, topics related to collimation abound. Typically, we find how observers, armed only with a jeweler's screwdriver, can "perfectly collimate" his or her binocular, make it "spot on," or other verbiage of similar connotation. Unfortunately, what most are addressing is a form of pseudo-collimation I have referred to since the mid-1970s as "Conditional Alignment." Ignoring the importance of the mechanical axis (hinge) in the alignment process, this "condition," while having the potential to make alignment serviceable, or even outstanding—within a small range of IPD (Interpupillary Distance) settings relative to the user's spatial accommodation (the ability to accept small errors in parallelism of the optical axes)—may take the instrument farther from the 3-axis collimation conscientious manufacturers seek to implement. Becoming more optically savvy—and especially with so many mechanically inferior binoculars entering the marketplace— the consumer contemplating self-repair and alignment has a need to understand the difference between clinical, 3-axis "collimation" (meaning both optical axes are parallel with the axis of the hinge) and "conditional alignment," as differentiated in this paper. Furthermore, I believe there has been a long-standing need for the term "Conditional Alignment," or some equivalent, to be accepted as part of the vernacular of those who use binoculars extensively, whether for professional or recreational activities. Achieving that acceptance is the aim of this paper.

  7. Projection-Based Volume Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingbo; Snapp, Robert R.; Ruiz, Teresa; Radermacher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    When heterogeneous samples of macromolecular assemblies are being examined by 3D electron microscopy (3DEM), often multiple reconstructions are obtained. For example, subtomograms of individual particles can be acquired from tomography, or volumes of multiple 2D classes can be obtained by random conical tilt reconstruction. Of these, similar volumes can be averaged to achieve higher resolution. Volume alignment is an essential step before 3D classification and averaging. Here we present a projection-based volume alignment (PBVA) algorithm. We select a set of projections to represent the reference volume and align them to a second volume. Projection alignment is achieved by maximizing the cross-correlation function with respect to rotation and translation parameters. If data are missing, the cross-correlation functions are normalized accordingly. Accurate alignments are obtained by averaging and quadratic interpolation of the cross-correlation maximum. Comparisons of the computation time between PBVA and traditional 3D cross-correlation methods demonstrate that PBVA outperforms the traditional methods. Performance tests were carried out with different signal-to-noise ratios using modeled noise and with different percentages of missing data using a cryo-EM dataset. All tests show that the algorithm is robust and highly accurate. PBVA was applied to align the reconstructions of a subcomplex of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, followed by classification and averaging. PMID:23410725

  8. Correspondence between Soft and Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, Alexey A.

    2017-02-01

    We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multiparticle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multiparton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of the conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way, provides one with a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multiparton scattering [including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization as a special case]. As a by-product, we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop expressions for TMD and a general multiparton scattering rapidity anomalous dimension are derived.

  9. Correspondence between Soft and Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, Alexey A

    2017-02-10

    We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multiparticle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multiparton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of the conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way, provides one with a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multiparton scattering [including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization as a special case]. As a by-product, we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop expressions for TMD and a general multiparton scattering rapidity anomalous dimension are derived.

  10. Building dynamic population graph for accurate correspondence detection.

    PubMed

    Du, Shaoyi; Guo, Yanrong; Sanroma, Gerard; Ni, Dong; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    In medical imaging studies, there is an increasing trend for discovering the intrinsic anatomical difference across individual subjects in a dataset, such as hand images for skeletal bone age estimation. Pair-wise matching is often used to detect correspondences between each individual subject and a pre-selected model image with manually-placed landmarks. However, the large anatomical variability across individual subjects can easily compromise such pair-wise matching step. In this paper, we present a new framework to simultaneously detect correspondences among a population of individual subjects, by propagating all manually-placed landmarks from a small set of model images through a dynamically constructed image graph. Specifically, we first establish graph links between models and individual subjects according to pair-wise shape similarity (called as forward step). Next, we detect correspondences for the individual subjects with direct links to any of model images, which is achieved by a new multi-model correspondence detection approach based on our recently-published sparse point matching method. To correct those inaccurate correspondences, we further apply an error detection mechanism to automatically detect wrong correspondences and then update the image graph accordingly (called as backward step). After that, all subject images with detected correspondences are included into the set of model images, and the above two steps of graph expansion and error correction are repeated until accurate correspondences for all subject images are established. Evaluations on real hand X-ray images demonstrate that our proposed method using a dynamic graph construction approach can achieve much higher accuracy and robustness, when compared with the state-of-the-art pair-wise correspondence detection methods as well as a similar method but using static population graph.

  11. Magnetic alignment of block copolymer microdomains by intrinsic chain anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Yager, Kevin G.; Gopinadhan, Manesh; ...

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ ≈ 2×10–8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈ 1.2 μm are present during alignment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropymore » is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.« less

  12. Magnetic alignment of block copolymer microdomains by intrinsic chain anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Yager, Kevin G.; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Pawel W.

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ ≈ 2×10–8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈ 1.2 μm are present during alignment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  13. Experiments in Aligning Threaded Parts Using a Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Walker, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    Techniques for determining and correcting threaded part alignment using force and angular position data are developed to augment currently limited techniques for align- ing threaded parts. These new techniques are based on backspinning a nut with respect to a bolt and measuring the force change that occurs when the bolt "falls" into the nut. Kinematic models that describe the relationship between threaded parts during backspinning are introduced and are used to show how angular alignment may be determined. The models indicate how to distinguish between the aligned and misaligned cases of a bolt and a nut connection by using axial force data only. In addition, by tracking the in-plane relative attitude of the bolt during spinning, data can be obtained on the direction of the angular misalignment which, in turn, is used to correct the misalignment. Results from experiments using a bolt held in a specialized fixture and a three fingers Stanford/JPL hand are presented.

  14. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δ χ , that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δ χ ≈2 ×1 0-8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2 μ m are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  15. Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Alan L.; Mondy, Lisa A.; Guell, David C.

    1993-01-01

    High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic.

  16. Individually addressable vertically aligned carbon nanofiber-based electrochemical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillorn, M. A.; McKnight, T. E.; Melechko, A.; Merkulov, V. I.; Britt, P. F.; Austin, D. W.; Lowndes, D. H.; Simpson, M. L.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication and initial testing results of high aspect ratio vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF)-based electrochemical probes. Electron beam lithography was used to define the catalytic growth sites of the VACNFs. Following catalyst deposition, VACNF were grown using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. Photolithography was performed to realize interconnect structures. These probes were passivated with a thin layer of SiO2, which was then removed from the tips of the VACNF, rendering them electrochemically active. We have investigated the functionality of completed devices using cyclic voltammetry (CV) of ruthenium hexammine trichloride, a highly reversible, outer sphere redox system. The faradaic current obtained during CV potential sweeps shows clear oxidation and reduction peaks at magnitudes that correspond well with the geometry of these nanoscale electrochemical probes. Due to the size and the site-specific directed synthesis of the VACNFs, these probes are ideally suited for characterizing electrochemical phenomena with an unprecedented degree of spatial resolution.

  17. 45 CFR 170.405 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence....

  18. 45 CFR 170.505 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT § 170.505 Correspondence....

  19. 45 CFR 170.405 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Department of Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence....

  20. 45 CFR 170.405 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence....

  1. 45 CFR 170.505 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.505 Correspondence....

  2. 45 CFR 170.405 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence....

  3. 45 CFR 170.505 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Department of Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.505 Correspondence....

  4. 45 CFR 170.505 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT § 170.505 Correspondence....

  5. 45 CFR 170.405 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence....

  6. Evidence for scene-based motion correspondence.

    PubMed

    Hein, Elisabeth; Moore, Cathleen M

    2014-04-01

    To maintain stable object representations as our eyes or the objects themselves move, the visual system must determine how newly sampled information relates to existing object representations. To solve this correspondence problem, the visual system uses not only spatiotemporal information (e.g., the spatial and temporal proximity between elements), but also feature information (e.g., the similarity in size or luminance between elements). Here we asked whether motion correspondence relies solely on image-based feature information, or whether it is influenced by scene-based information (e.g., the perceived sizes of surfaces or the perceived illumination conditions). We manipulated scene-based information separately from image-based information in the Ternus display, an ambiguous apparent-motion display, and found that scene-based information influences how motion correspondence is resolved, indicating that theories of motion correspondence that are based on "scene-blind" mechanisms are insufficient.

  7. 48 CFR 871.210 - Correspondence courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... institution for training veterans must not be used in any way to advertise the institution. References in the advertising media or correspondence of the institution shall be limited to a list of courses under 38...

  8. 48 CFR 871.210 - Correspondence courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... institution for training veterans must not be used in any way to advertise the institution. References in the advertising media or correspondence of the institution shall be limited to a list of courses under 38...

  9. 48 CFR 871.210 - Correspondence courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... institution for training veterans must not be used in any way to advertise the institution. References in the advertising media or correspondence of the institution shall be limited to a list of courses under 38...

  10. 48 CFR 871.210 - Correspondence courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... institution for training veterans must not be used in any way to advertise the institution. References in the advertising media or correspondence of the institution shall be limited to a list of courses under 38...

  11. 48 CFR 871.210 - Correspondence courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... institution for training veterans must not be used in any way to advertise the institution. References in the advertising media or correspondence of the institution shall be limited to a list of courses under 38...

  12. DAPS: Database of Aligned Protein Structures

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mallick, Parag; Rice, Danny; Eisenberg, David

    DAPS is based on the FSSP, DSSP, PDB and CATH databases. There also exists a subset of DAPS known as DDAPS (also pronounced DAPS) - Database of Distant Aligned Protein Structures. It is a database of structures that have low sequence similarity but share a similar fold. There are a number of filters used to make the DDAPS list more useful. The algorithm requires that an FSSP file exists for one of the members of a pair and that the other member is listed in that FSSP file. It requires that each member of the pair be within the CATH database and share a common CAT classification. It also requires that the secondary structure can be determined by DSSP. How is DAPS constructed? We begin with the set of all chains from the current release of the PDB. An all on all search is done on the list to find pairs that have the same fold acoording to both the FSSP and CATH databases and clustered into groups by a representative structure (representative structures have less than 25% sequence identity to each other). For each protein pair, regions aligned by the DALI program are extracted from the corresponding FSSP file, or recomputed using DALI-lite. In domain DAPS, only regions that are called "domains" by CATH are included in the alignment. The amino acid type, secondary structure type, and solvent accessibility are extracted from the DSSP file and written pairwise into the database. DAPS is updated with updates of CATH.[Taken from http://nihserver.mbi.ucla.edu/DAPS/daps_help.html

  13. Laser beam alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Kasner, William H.; Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.

    1984-01-01

    A plurality of pivotal reflectors direct a high-power laser beam onto a workpiece, and a rotatable reflector is movable to a position wherein it intercepts the beam and deflects a major portion thereof away from its normal path, the remainder of the beam passing to the pivotal reflectors through an aperture in the rotating reflector. A plurality of targets are movable to positions intercepting the path of light traveling to the pivotal reflectors, and a preliminary adjustment of the latter is made by use of a low-power laser beam reflected from the rotating reflector, after which the same targets are used to make a final adjustment of the pivotal reflectors with the portion of the high-power laser beam passed through the rotating reflector.

  14. The contributions of rare objects in correspondence analysis.

    PubMed

    Greenacre, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Correspondence analysis, when used to understand relationships in a table of counts (for example, abundance data in ecology), has been criticized as being too sensitive to objects (for example, species) that occur with very low frequency or in very few samples. Here I show that this criticism is generally unfounded. This is demonstrated in several data sets by calculating the actual contributions of rare objects to the results of correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis, both to the determination of the ordination axes and to the chi-square distance. It is a fact that rare objects are often positioned as outliers in correspondence analysis ordinations, which gives the impression that they are highly influential, but their low weight offsets their distant positions and reduces their effect on the results. An alternative scaling of the correspondence analysis solution, the contribution biplot, is proposed as a way of displaying the results in order to avoid the problem of outlying and low contributing rare objects. In this new scaling of the biplot (or triplot in canonical correspondence analysis), species points have coordinates that are directly related to their contributions to the solution.

  15. Cavity alignment using fringe scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkunaite, Laura Paulina; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael

    2017-01-01

    LIGO employs two 4-km long Fabry-Pérot arm cavities, which need to be aligned in order for an interferometer to be locked on a TEM00 mode. Once the cavity is locked, alignment signals can be derived from wave-front sensors which measure the TEM01 mode content. However, the alignment state is not always good enough for locking on TEM00. Even when this is the case, the alignment can be evaluated using a free swinging cavity, that shows flashes when higher-order modes become resonant. By moving test masses, small changes are made to the mirror orientation, and hence the TEM00 mode can be optimized iteratively. Currently, this is a manual procedure, and thus it is very time-consuming. Therefore, this project is aimed to study another possible way to lock the cavity on the TEM00 mode. Misalignment information can also be extracted from the power of the higher-order modes transmitted through the cavity. This talk will present an algorithm for this alternative and faster way to derive the alignment state of the arm cavities. Supported by APS FIP, NSF, and Caltech SFP.

  16. Parallel sequence alignment in limited space.

    PubMed

    Grice, J A; Hughey, R; Speck, D

    1995-01-01

    Sequence comparison with affine gap costs is a problem that is readily parallelizable on simple single-instruction, multiple-data stream (SIMD) parallel processors using only constant space per processing element. Unfortunately, the twin problem of sequence alignment, finding the optimal character-by-character correspondence between two sequences, is more complicated. While the innovative O(n2)-time and O(n)-space serial algorithm has been parallelized for multiple-instruction, multiple-data stream (MIMD) computers with only a communication-time slowdown, typically O(log n), it is not suitable for hardware-efficient SIMD parallel processors with only local communication. This paper proposes several methods of computing sequence alignments with limited memory per processing element. The algorithms are also well-suited to serial implementation. The simpler algorithms feature, for an arbitrary integer L, a factor of L slowdown in exchange for reducing space requirements from O(n) to O(L square root of n) per processing element. Using this result, we describe an O(n log n) parallel time algorithm that requires O(log n) space per processing element on O(n) SIMD processing elements with only a mesh or linear interconnection network.

  17. A Nonlinear Observer for Gyro Alignment Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, J.; Sanner, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear observer for gyro alignment estimation is presented. The observer is composed of two error terms, an attitude error and an alignment error. The observer is globally stable with exponential convergence of the attitude errors. The gyro alignment estimate converges to the true alignment when the system is completely observable.

  18. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  19. An introduction to the Lagan alignment toolkit.

    PubMed

    Brudno, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Lagan Toolkit is a software package for comparison of genomic sequences. It includes the CHAOS local alignment program, LAGAN global alignment program for two, or more sequences and Shuffle-LAGAN, a "glocal" alignment method that handles genomic rearrangements in a global alignment framework. The alignment programs included in the Lagan Toolkit have been widely used to compare genomes of many organisms, from bacteria to large mammalian genomes. This chapter provides an overview of the algorithms used by the LAGAN programs to construct genomic alignments, explains how to build alignments using either the standalone program or the web server, and discusses some of the common pitfalls users encounter when using the toolkit.

  20. Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering.

    PubMed Central

    Corpet, F

    1988-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the multiple alignment of sequences, either proteins or nucleic acids, that is both accurate and easy to use on microcomputers. The approach is based on the conventional dynamic-programming method of pairwise alignment. Initially, a hierarchical clustering of the sequences is performed using the matrix of the pairwise alignment scores. The closest sequences are aligned creating groups of aligned sequences. Then close groups are aligned until all sequences are aligned in one group. The pairwise alignments included in the multiple alignment form a new matrix that is used to produce a hierarchical clustering. If it is different from the first one, iteration of the process can be performed. The method is illustrated by an example: a global alignment of 39 sequences of cytochrome c. PMID:2849754

  1. Factorization of correspondence and camera error for unconstrained dense correspondence applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knoblauch, D; Hess-Flores, M; Duchaineau, M; Kuester, F

    2009-09-29

    A correspondence and camera error analysis for dense correspondence applications such as structure from motion is introduced. This provides error introspection, opening up the possibility of adaptively and progressively applying more expensive correspondence and camera parameter estimation methods to reduce these errors. The presented algorithm evaluates the given correspondences and camera parameters based on an error generated through simple triangulation. This triangulation is based on the given dense, non-epipolar constraint, correspondences and estimated camera parameters. This provides an error map without requiring any information about the perfect solution or making assumptions about the scene. The resulting error is a combination of correspondence and camera parameter errors. An simple, fast low/high pass filter error factorization is introduced, allowing for the separation of correspondence error and camera error. Further analysis of the resulting error maps is applied to allow efficient iterative improvement of correspondences and cameras.

  2. Feature-driven deformation for dense correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Deboshmita; Sharf, Andrei; Amenta, Nina

    2009-02-01

    Establishing reliable correspondences between object surfaces is a fundamental operation, required in many contexts such as cleaning up and completing imperfect captured data, texture and deformation trans- fer, shape-space analysis and exploration, and the automatic generation of realistic distributions of objects. We present a method for matching a template to a collection of possibly target meshes. Our method uses a very small number of user-placed landmarks, which we augment with automatically detected feature correspondences, found using spin images. We deform the template onto the data using an ICP-like framework, smoothing the noisy correspondences at each step so as to produce an averaged motion. The deformation uses a dierential representation of the mesh, with which the deformation can be computed at each iteration by solving a sparse linear system. We have applied our algorithm to a variety of data sets. Using only 11 landmarks between a template and one of the scans from the CEASAR data set, we are able to deform the template, and correctly identify and transfer distinctive features, which are not identied by user-supplied landmarks. We have also successfully established correspondences between several scans of monkey skulls, which have dangling triangles, non-manifold vertices, and self intersections. Our algorithm does not require a clean target mesh, and can even generate correspondence without trimming our extraneous pieces from the target mesh, such as scans of teeth.

  3. The alignment-distribution graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment-distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  4. The alignment-distribution graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  5. Alignment Tool For Inertia Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, easy-to-use tool aligns drive bar of inertia welder over hole in stub. Ensures drive bar concentric to hole within 0.002 in. (0.051 mm.). Holds two batteries and light bulb. Electrical circuit completed, providing current to bulb when pin in contact with post. When pin centered in post hole, it does not touch post, and lamp turns off. Built for use in making repair welds on liquid-oxygen-injector posts in Space Shuttle main engine. Version having suitably modified dimensions used to facilitate alignment in other forests of post.

  6. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  7. Eigenvalues properties of terms correspondences matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarchuk, Dmitry; Timofeeva, Galina

    2016-12-01

    Vector model representations of text documents are widely used in the intelligent search. In this approach a collection of documents is represented in the form of the term-document matrix, reflecting the frequency of terms. In the latent semantic analysis the dimension of the vector space is reduced by the singular value decomposition of the term-document matrix. Authors use a matrix of terms correspondences, reflecting the relationship between the terms, to allocate a semantic core and to obtain more simple presentation of the documents. With this approach, reducing the number of terms is based on the orthogonal decomposition of the matrix of terms correspondences. Properties of singular values of the term-document matrix and eigenvalues of the matrix of terms correspondences are studied in the case when documents differ substantially in length.

  8. The Average-Value Correspondence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Philip

    2007-12-01

    In previous work [1], we have presented an attempt to derive the finite-dimensional abstract quantum formalism from a set of physically comprehensible assumptions. In this paper, we continue the derivation of the quantum formalism by formulating a correspondence principle, the Average-Value Correspondence Principle, that allows relations between measurement outcomes which are known to hold in a classical model of a system to be systematically taken over into the quantum model of the system, and by using this principle to derive many of the correspondence rules (such as operator rules, commutation relations, and Dirac's Poisson bracket rule) that are needed to apply the abstract quantum formalism to model particular physical systems.

  9. DNA Sequence Alignment during Homologous Recombination.

    PubMed

    Greene, Eric C

    2016-05-27

    Homologous recombination allows for the regulated exchange of genetic information between two different DNA molecules of identical or nearly identical sequence composition, and is a major pathway for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. A key facet of homologous recombination is the ability of recombination proteins to perfectly align the damaged DNA with homologous sequence located elsewhere in the genome. This reaction is referred to as the homology search and is akin to the target searches conducted by many different DNA-binding proteins. Here I briefly highlight early investigations into the homology search mechanism, and then describe more recent research. Based on these studies, I summarize a model that includes a combination of intersegmental transfer, short-distance one-dimensional sliding, and length-specific microhomology recognition to efficiently align DNA sequences during the homology search. I also suggest some future directions to help further our understanding of the homology search. Where appropriate, I direct the reader to other recent reviews describing various issues related to homologous recombination.

  10. The research of the precoding matrices of interference alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yuelin; Xue, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of wireless communication industry, how to manage the interference become a central problem in modern communication system. Actually, this problem mostly comes from the less and less spectrum resource and increasing demand for high data rates. Although many interference management techniques have been proposed, because the interference can exist in any part of wireless communication, some basic problems of network interference are not able to be solved until the emergence of interference alignment technology. Interference alignment, in theory, can enable a performance that all the interference signals fall into the subspace of interference and all the useful signal also fall into the corresponding subspace. In this paper, we focus on the problem of signal transmitted over an interference channel, along the lines of the recently proposed methods of interference alignment. From the basic principle of interference alignment, we can see each receiver maintains its corresponding subspace, the transmitters mold their transmissions regularly in order to make all the interference signal received by a particular receiver and then falls into its interference subspace. The remaining part of the receiver space can be used to get the useful signal. For the general interference channel, compared with the previous method, this kind of technique not only minimizes the interference power that is overflowed out the interference subspace, but also minimizes the power of useful signal that is fell into the interference subspace.

  11. Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, João Gama; Barabási, Albert-László

    2005-10-27

    In an era when letters were the main means of exchanging scientific ideas and results, Charles Darwin (1809-82) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were notably prolific correspondents. But did their patterns of communication differ from those associated with the instant-access e-mail of modern times? Here we show that, although the means have changed, the communication dynamics have not: Darwin's and Einstein's patterns of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. However, the response times of their surface-mail communication is described by a different scaling exponent from e-mail communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena in human dynamics.

  12. Local coordinates alignment with global preservation for dimensionality reduction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Ma, Zhengming; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction is vital in many fields, and alignment-based methods for nonlinear dimensionality reduction have become popular recently because they can map the high-dimensional data into a low-dimensional subspace with the property of local isometry. However, the relationships between patches in original high-dimensional space cannot be ensured to be fully preserved during the alignment process. In this paper, we propose a novel method for nonlinear dimensionality reduction called local coordinates alignment with global preservation. We first introduce a reasonable definition of topology-preserving landmarks (TPLs), which not only contribute to preserving the global structure of datasets and constructing a collection of overlapping linear patches, but they also ensure that the right landmark is allocated to the new test point. Then, an existing method for dimensionality reduction that has good performance in preserving the global structure is used to derive the low-dimensional coordinates of TPLs. Local coordinates of each patch are derived using tangent space of the manifold at the corresponding landmark, and then these local coordinates are aligned into a global coordinate space with the set of landmarks in low-dimensional space as reference points. The proposed alignment method, called landmarks-based alignment, can produce a closed-form solution without any constraints, while most previous alignment-based methods impose the unit covariance constraint, which will result in the deficiency of global metrics and undesired rescaling of the manifold. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Surface-controlled patterned vertical alignment mode with reactive mesogen.

    PubMed

    Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Young-Ki; Jo, Soo In; Gwag, Jin Seog; Yu, Chang-Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2009-06-08

    We proposed a patterned vertical alignment (PVA) mode controlled by a modified surface with ultraviolet (UV) curable reactive mesogen (RM) mixed with vertical alignment material for a liquid crystal display (LCD) with fast response time. In the surface-controlled PVA (SC-PVA) mode, the RM monomers in the alignment layer are polymerized along the LC directors by UV exposure under an applied voltage. The polymerized RMs produce a pretilt against the substrate normal depending on the applied field direction in the patterned electrode configuration. In such SC-PVA mode, fast response time was achieved at whole grey levels with the predetermined rotational preference of the LC directors governed by the pretilt direction.

  14. Aligned Nanofibers for Regenerating Arteries, Nerves, and Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClendon, Mark Trosper

    Cells are the fundamental unit of the human body, and therefore the ability to control cell behavior is the most important challenge in regenerative medicine. Peptides are the language of biology which is why synthetic peptide amphiphile (PA) molecules hold great potential as a biomaterial. The work presented in this dissertation explores a variety of liquid crystalline PA nanofibers as a means for directing cell growth. Shaping the alignment of these nanofiber networks requires a deep understanding of their rheological properties which presents a difficult challenge as they exist in complex solid and liquid environments. Using PA molecules that self-assemble into high aspect ratio nanofibers and liquid crystalline solutions, this work investigates the influence of shear flow on macroscopic and microscopic nanofiber alignment. To this end, a shear force applied to PA solutions was systematically varied while the alignment was probed using small angle x-ray scattering. Nanofibers were found to respond to shear flow by aligning parallel to the flow direction. By changing pH and PA chemical sequence it was observed that increasing the interfiber electrostatic repulsive interactions resulted in a greater dependence on shear rate. Nanofiber solutions having greater repulsion did not drastically increase in alignment when the applied strain was increased by two orders of magnitude (1 s -1 to 100 s-1), while solutions with nanofibers having less repulsion increased there alignment four fold with the same strain increase. say exactly what you mean by resulted in greater dependence: did it result in fibers aligning under lower shear rates or higher rates--give the results Anionic PA solutions typically used to encapsulate living cells at neutral pH were found to require minimal shear rates, <1s-1, to achieve significant nanofiber alignment. In an effort to produce tubular hydrogels composed of circumferentially aligned nanofibers, a procedure was designed that used an

  15. A two-stage approach to automatic face alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Ai, Haizhou; Huang, Gaofeng

    2003-09-01

    Face alignment is very important in face recognition, modeling and synthesis. Many approaches have been developed for this purpose, such as ASM, AAM, DAM and TC-ASM. After a brief review of all those methods, it is pointed out that these approaches all require a manual initialization to the positions of the landmarks and are very sensitive to it, and despite of all those devoted works the outline of a human face remains a difficult task to be localized precisely. In this paper, a two-stage method to achieve frontal face alignment fully automatically is introduced. The first stage is landmarks' initialization called coarse face alignment. In this stage, after a face is detected by an Adaboost cascade face detector, we use Simple Direct Appearance Model (SDAM) to locate a few key points of human face from the texture according which all the initial landmarks are setup as the coarse alignment. The second stage is fine face alignment that uses a variant of AAM method in which shape variation is predicted from texture reconstruction error together with an embedded ASM refinement for the outline landmarks of the face to achieve the fine alignment. Experiments on a face database of 500 people show that this method is very effective for practical applications.

  16. Physically motivated global alignment method for electron tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Sanders, Toby; Prange, Micah; Akatay, Cem; ...

    2015-04-08

    Electron tomography is widely used for nanoscale determination of 3-D structures in many areas of science. Determining the 3-D structure of a sample from electron tomography involves three major steps: acquisition of sequence of 2-D projection images of the sample with the electron microscope, alignment of the images to a common coordinate system, and 3-D reconstruction and segmentation of the sample from the aligned image data. The resolution of the 3-D reconstruction is directly influenced by the accuracy of the alignment, and therefore, it is crucial to have a robust and dependable alignment method. In this paper, we develop amore » new alignment method which avoids the use of markers and instead traces the computed paths of many identifiable ‘local’ center-of-mass points as the sample is rotated. Compared with traditional correlation schemes, the alignment method presented here is resistant to cumulative error observed from correlation techniques, has very rigorous mathematical justification, and is very robust since many points and paths are used, all of which inevitably improves the quality of the reconstruction and confidence in the scientific results.« less

  17. Physically motivated global alignment method for electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Toby; Prange, Micah; Akatay, Cem; Binev, Peter

    2015-04-08

    Electron tomography is widely used for nanoscale determination of 3-D structures in many areas of science. Determining the 3-D structure of a sample from electron tomography involves three major steps: acquisition of sequence of 2-D projection images of the sample with the electron microscope, alignment of the images to a common coordinate system, and 3-D reconstruction and segmentation of the sample from the aligned image data. The resolution of the 3-D reconstruction is directly influenced by the accuracy of the alignment, and therefore, it is crucial to have a robust and dependable alignment method. In this paper, we develop a new alignment method which avoids the use of markers and instead traces the computed paths of many identifiable ‘local’ center-of-mass points as the sample is rotated. Compared with traditional correlation schemes, the alignment method presented here is resistant to cumulative error observed from correlation techniques, has very rigorous mathematical justification, and is very robust since many points and paths are used, all of which inevitably improves the quality of the reconstruction and confidence in the scientific results.

  18. ALIGN_MTX--an optimal pairwise textual sequence alignment program, adapted for using in sequence-structure alignment.

    PubMed

    Vishnepolsky, Boris; Pirtskhalava, Malak

    2009-06-01

    The presented program ALIGN_MTX makes alignment of two textual sequences with an opportunity to use any several characters for the designation of sequence elements and arbitrary user substitution matrices. It can be used not only for the alignment of amino acid and nucleotide sequences but also for sequence-structure alignment used in threading, amino acid sequence alignment, using preliminary known PSSM matrix, and in other cases when alignment of biological or non-biological textual sequences is required. This distinguishes it from the majority of similar alignment programs that make, as a rule, alignment only of amino acid or nucleotide sequences represented as a sequence of single alphabetic characters. ALIGN_MTX is presented as downloadable zip archive at http://www.imbbp.org/software/ALIGN_MTX/ and available for free use. As application of using the program, the results of comparison of different types of substitution matrix for alignment quality in distantly related protein pair sets were presented. Threading matrix SORDIS, based on side-chain orientation in relation to hydrophobic core centers with evolutionary change-based substitution matrix BLOSUM and using multiple sequence alignment information position-specific score matrices (PSSM) were taken for test alignment accuracy. The best performance shows PSSM matrix, but in the reduced set with lower sequence similarity threading matrix SORDIS shows the same performance and it was shown that combined potential with SORDIS and PSSM can improve alignment quality in evolutionary distantly related protein pairs.

  19. Alignment of galaxies relative to their local environment in SDSS-DR8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirv, A.; Pelt, J.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Tamm, A.; Tempel, E.; Einasto, M.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We study the alignment of galaxies relative to their local environment in SDSS-DR8 and, using these data, we discuss evolution scenarios for different types of galaxies. Methods: We defined a vector field of the direction of anisotropy of the local environment of galaxies. We summed the unit direction vectors of all close neighbours of a given galaxy in a particular way to estimate this field. We found the alignment angles between the spin axes of disc galaxies, or the minor axes of elliptical galaxies, and the direction of anisotropy. The distributions of cosines of these angles are compared to the random distributions to analyse the alignment of galaxies. Results: Sab galaxies show perpendicular alignment relative to the direction of anisotropy in a sparse environment, for single galaxies and galaxies of low luminosity. Most of the parallel alignment of Scd galaxies comes from dense regions, from 2...3 member groups and from galaxies with low luminosity. The perpendicular alignment of S0 galaxies does not depend strongly on environmental density nor luminosity; it is detected for single and 2...3 member group galaxies, and for main galaxies of 4...10 member groups. The perpendicular alignment of elliptical galaxies is clearly detected for single galaxies and for members of ≤10 member groups; the alignment increases with environmental density and luminosity. Conclusions: We confirm the existence of fossil tidally induced alignment of Sab galaxies at low z. The alignment of Scd galaxies can be explained via the infall of matter to filaments. S0 galaxies may have encountered relatively massive mergers along the direction of anisotropy. Major mergers along this direction can explain the alignment of elliptical galaxies. Less massive, but repeated mergers are possibly responsible for the formation of elliptical galaxies in sparser areas and for less luminous elliptical galaxies.

  20. Improving pairwise sequence alignment accuracy using near-optimal protein sequence alignments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While the pairwise alignments produced by sequence similarity searches are a powerful tool for identifying homologous proteins - proteins that share a common ancestor and a similar structure; pairwise sequence alignments often fail to represent accurately the structural alignments inferred from three-dimensional coordinates. Since sequence alignment algorithms produce optimal alignments, the best structural alignments must reflect suboptimal sequence alignment scores. Thus, we have examined a range of suboptimal sequence alignments and a range of scoring parameters to understand better which sequence alignments are likely to be more structurally accurate. Results We compared near-optimal protein sequence alignments produced by the Zuker algorithm and a set of probabilistic alignments produced by the probA program with structural alignments produced by four different structure alignment algorithms. There is significant overlap between the solution spaces of structural alignments and both the near-optimal sequence alignments produced by commonly used scoring parameters for sequences that share significant sequence similarity (E-values < 10-5) and the ensemble of probA alignments. We constructed a logistic regression model incorporating three input variables derived from sets of near-optimal alignments: robustness, edge frequency, and maximum bits-per-position. A ROC analysis shows that this model more accurately classifies amino acid pairs (edges in the alignment path graph) according to the likelihood of appearance in structural alignments than the robustness score alone. We investigated various trimming protocols for removing incorrect edges from the optimal sequence alignment; the most effective protocol is to remove matches from the semi-global optimal alignment that are outside the boundaries of the local alignment, although trimming according to the model-generated probabilities achieves a similar level of improvement. The model can also be used to

  1. Some Klamath-Sahaptian Grammatical Correspondences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Noel

    Evidence is presented that suggests a genetic relationship between the Klamath and Sahaptian languages. The current list of potential Klamath-Sahaptian cognates contains core lexical material sufficient to demonstrate the validity of a genetic relationship, although many details of sound correspondence have yet to be worked out. But it is not only…

  2. On the Langlands correspondence for symplectic motives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, B. H.

    2016-08-01

    We present a refinement of the global Langlands correspondence for symplectic motives. Using the local theory of generic representations of odd orthogonal groups, we define a new vector in the associated automorphic representation, which is the tensor product of test vectors for the Whittaker functionals.

  3. 34 CFR 686.25 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence study. 686.25 Section 686.25 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION...

  4. 34 CFR 686.25 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence study. 686.25 Section 686.25 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION...

  5. 34 CFR 686.25 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence study. 686.25 Section 686.25 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT...

  6. 34 CFR 686.25 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence study. 686.25 Section 686.25 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION...

  7. High School Credit by Contract: Correspondence Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    A series of fifteen correspondence studies for high school credit by contract are presented. Contracts are included for boating skills and seamanship; boatbuilding; food and food preparation; gardening; livestock raising; salmon aquaculture; sewing, knitting, and needlework; small engine repair; taxidermy and tanning; trapping; training animals;…

  8. 34 CFR 686.25 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence study. 686.25 Section 686.25 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION...

  9. Detecting Discrimination in Audit and Correspondence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David

    2012-01-01

    Audit studies testing for discrimination have been criticized because applicants from different groups may not appear identical to employers. Correspondence studies address this criticism by using fictitious paper applicants whose qualifications can be made identical across groups. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show that group differences…

  10. Correspondence Education Through a National Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, R. F.

    The Department of Extra-Mural Studies of Makerere University College, Uganda, experimented with developing correspondence courses in several subjects which were published in the weekly newspaper "The People" during 1967. Three 30-week courses (Communication, Elements of Government, and Economics) were included in a special supplement to…

  11. Fundamentals of Solar Heating. Correspondence Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Vienna, VA.

    This course is designed for the use of employees of the air conditioning industry, and offers supervised correspondence instruction about solar technology. The following aspects of applied solar technology are covered: solar heating and cooling, solar radiation, solar collectors, heat storage control devices and specialty items, sizing solar…

  12. Correspondence Training: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevill-Davis, Alicia; Clees, Tom J.; Gast, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Correspondence training involves modification of nonverbal behavior via changes in verbal behavior. The procedure has a long history of effectiveness with a wide range of learners, but its potential for use with young children with disabilities remains largely unrealized. In an effort to identify the most appropriate applications of correspondence…

  13. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS...

  14. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND...

  15. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND...

  16. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND...

  17. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND...

  18. Microcapillary sign of flap alignment in femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Fathy; Wahba, Sherine S; Fawzy, Nader

    2016-01-01

    We present an observational sign that ensures perfect alignment during femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS LASIK). Alignment is assured when a microsponge is used to dry the flap and the area of dryness exceeds the area of direct touch of the microsponge. The area might even reach the whole circumference of the flap at the first touch. This sign of alignment can be explained by microcapillary action. This sign was not elicited in flaps created by a microkeratome. PMID:27799731

  19. Feature-based multiexposure image-sequence fusion with guided filter and image alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang; Du, Junping; Zhang, Zhenhong

    2015-01-01

    Multiexposure fusion images have a higher dynamic range and reveal more details than a single captured image of a real-world scene. A clear and intuitive feature-based fusion technique for multiexposure image sequences is conceptually proposed. The main idea of the proposed method is to combine three image features [phase congruency (PC), local contrast, and color saturation] to obtain weight maps of the images. Then, the weight maps are further refined using a guided filter which can improve their accuracy. The final fusion result is constructed using the weighted sum of the source image sequence. In addition, for multiexposure image-sequence fusion involving dynamic scenes containing moving objects, ghost artifacts can easily occur if fusion is directly performed. Therefore, an image-alignment method is first used to adjust the input images to correspond to a reference image, after which fusion is performed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a superior performance compared to the existing methods.

  20. Tonal Alignment in Irish Dialects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Martha; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the contour alignment of nuclear and initial prenuclear accents was carried out for the Irish dialects of Gaoth Dobhair in Ulster (GD-U) and Cois Fharraige in Connaught (CF-C). This was done across conditions where the number of unstressed syllables following the nuclear and preceding the initial prenuclear accents was varied from…

  1. Alignment in Second Language Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Pickering, Martin; Sorace, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the nature of second language dialogues, involving at least one non-native (L2) speaker. We assume that dialogue is characterised by a process in which interlocutors develop similar mental states to each other (Pickering & Garrod, 2004). We first consider various means in which interlocutors align their mental states, and…

  2. Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…

  3. Correspondence effects with torches: grasping affordance or visual feature asymmetry?

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaolei; Chen, Jing; Proctor, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine whether an object-based correspondence effect for torch (flashlight) stimuli reported by Pellicano et al. [( 2010 ). Simon-like and functional affordance effects with tools: The effects of object perceptual discrimination and object action state. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 2190-2201] is due to a grasping affordance provided by the handle or asymmetry of feature markings on the torch. In Experiment 1 the stimuli were the same as those from Pellicano et al.'s Experiment 2, whereas in Experiments 2 and 3 the stimuli were modified versions with the graspable handle removed. Participants in all experiments performed upright/inverted orientation judgements on the torch stimuli. The results of Experiment 1 replicated those of Pellicano et al.: A small but significant object-based correspondence effect was evident, mainly when the torch was in an active state. With the handle of the torch removed in Experiment 2, making the barrel markings more asymmetric in the display, the correspondence effect was larger. Experiment 3 directly demonstrated an effect of barrel-marking asymmetry on the correspondence effect: When only the half of the markings nearest the light end of the torch was included, the correspondence effect reversed to favour the light end. The results are in agreement with a visual feature-asymmetry account and are difficult to reconcile with a grasping-affordance account.

  4. Superemission in vertically-aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelinskii, Igor; Makarov, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Presently we used two samples of vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes (VA SWCNTs) with parallelepiped geometry, sized 0.02 cm × 0.2 cm × 1.0 cm and 0.2 cm × 0.2 cm × 1.0 cm. We report absorption and emission properties of the VA SWCNTs, including strong anisotropy in both their absorption and emission spectra. We found that the emission spectra extend from the middle-IR range to the near-IR range, with such extended spectra being reported for the first time. Pumping the VA SWCNTs in the direction normal to their axis, superemission (SE) was observed in the direction along their axis. The SE band maximum is located at 7206 ± 0.4 cm-1. The energy and the power density of the superemission were estimated, along with the diffraction-limited divergence. At the pumping energy of 3 mJ/pulse, the SE energy measured by the detector was 0.74 mJ/pulse, corresponding to the total SE energy of 1.48 mJ/pulse, with the energy density of 18.5 mJ cm-2/pulse and the SE power density of 1.2 × 105 W cm-2/pulse. We report that a bundle of VA SWCNTs is an emitter with a relatively small divergence, not exceeding 3.9 × 10-3 rad. We developed a theoretical approach to explain such absorption and emission spectra. The developed theory is based on the earlier proposed SSH theory, which we extended to include the exchange interactions between the closest SWCNT neighbors. The developed theoretical ideas were implemented in a homemade FORTRAN code. This code was successfully used to calculate and reproduce the experimental spectra and to determine the SWCNT species that originate the respective absorption bands, with acceptable agreement between theory and experiment.

  5. Aligning carbon fibers in micro-extruded composite ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Chaitanya G.

    Direct write processes include a wide range of additive manufacturing techniques with the ability to fabricate structures directly onto planar and non-planar surfaces. Most additive manufacturing techniques use unreinforced polymers to produce parts. By adding carbon fiber as a reinforcing material, properties such as mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity can be enhanced. Carbon fibers can be long and continuous, or short and discontinuous. The strength of carbon fiber composite parts is greatly increased when the fibers are preferentially aligned. This research focuses on increasing the strength of additively manufactured parts reinforced using discontinuous carbon fibers that have been aligned during the micro extrusion process. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used to identify significant process parameters affecting fiber alignment. Factors such as the length of carbon fibers, nozzle diameter, fiber loading fraction, air pressure, translational speed and standoff distance were considered. A two dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D FFT) was used to quantify the degree of fiber alignment in the extruded composite inks. ImageJ software supported by an oval profile plugin was used with micrographs of printed samples to obtain the carbon fiber alignment values. The optimal value for the factors was derived by identifying the significant main and interaction effects. Based on the results of the DOE, tensile test samples were printed with fibers aligned parallel and perpendicular to the tensile axis. A standard test method for tensile properties of plastic revealed that the extruded parts with fibers aligned along the tensile axis were better in tensile strength and modulus.

  6. Laser-optic instruments improve machinery alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1987-10-12

    Laser-optic alignment systems are fast becoming cost-effective devices that improve the accuracy and speed of machinery shaft alignment. Because of the difficulty, if not impossibility, of aligning operating machinery, cold alignment specifications must be determined to compensate for thermal growth so that the shaft alignment remains within tolerances when the machine reaches normal operating temperature. Some methods for accomplishing this are reviewed here. Three years' field experience with laser-optic alignment systems shows that many of these limitations can be eliminated, resulting in a more accurate alignment in less time. Some actual field alignments are given as examples of the improvement achieved by the use of laser equipment, and a procedure is given that shows how the laser-optic system may be used to determine running alignment changes caused by thermal growth.

  7. Shear-induced alignment and dynamics of elongated granular particles.

    PubMed

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Szabó, Balázs; Wegner, Sandra; Harth, Kirsten; Török, János; Somfai, Ellák; Bien, Tomasz; Stannarius, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    The alignment, ordering, and rotation of elongated granular particles was studied in shear flow. The time evolution of the orientation of a large number of particles was monitored in laboratory experiments by particle tracking using optical imaging and x-ray computed tomography. The experiments were complemented by discrete element simulations. The particles develop an orientational order. In the steady state the time- and ensemble-averaged direction of the main axis of the particles encloses a small angle with the streamlines. This shear alignment angle is independent of the applied shear rate, and it decreases with increasing grain aspect ratio. At the grain level the steady state is characterized by a net rotation of the particles, as dictated by the shear flow. The distribution of particle rotational velocities was measured both in the steady state and also during the initial transients. The average rotation speed of particles with their long axis perpendicular to the shear alignment angle is larger, while shear aligned particles rotate slower. The ratio of this fast/slow rotation increases with particle aspect ratio. During the initial transient starting from an unaligned initial condition, particles having an orientation just beyond the shear alignment angle rotate opposite to the direction dictated by the shear flow.

  8. Cell flexibility affects the alignment of model myxobacteria.

    PubMed

    Janulevicius, Albertas; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Simone, Angelo; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2010-11-17

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that exhibit a complex life cycle culminating in the development of multicellular fruiting bodies. The alignment of rod-shaped myxobacteria cells within populations is crucial for development to proceed. It has been suggested that myxobacteria align due to mechanical interactions between gliding cells and that cell flexibility facilitates reorientation of cells upon mechanical contact. However, these suggestions have not been based on experimental or theoretical evidence. Here we created a computational mass-spring model of a flexible rod-shaped cell that glides on a substratum periodically reversing direction. The model was formulated in terms of experimentally measurable mechanical parameters, such as engine force, bending stiffness, and drag coefficient. We investigated how cell flexibility and motility engine type affected the pattern of cell gliding and the alignment of a population of 500 mechanically interacting cells. It was found that a flexible cell powered by engine force at the rear of the cell, as suggested by the slime extrusion hypothesis for myxobacteria motility engine, would not be able to glide in the direction of its long axis. A population of rigid reversing cells could indeed align due to mechanical interactions between cells, but cell flexibility impaired the alignment.

  9. Progressive multiple sequence alignments from triplets

    PubMed Central

    Kruspe, Matthias; Stadler, Peter F

    2007-01-01

    Background The quality of progressive sequence alignments strongly depends on the accuracy of the individual pairwise alignment steps since gaps that are introduced at one step cannot be removed at later aggregation steps. Adjacent insertions and deletions necessarily appear in arbitrary order in pairwise alignments and hence form an unavoidable source of errors. Research Here we present a modified variant of progressive sequence alignments that addresses both issues. Instead of pairwise alignments we use exact dynamic programming to align sequence or profile triples. This avoids a large fractions of the ambiguities arising in pairwise alignments. In the subsequent aggregation steps we follow the logic of the Neighbor-Net algorithm, which constructs a phylogenetic network by step-wisely replacing triples by pairs instead of combining pairs to singletons. To this end the three-way alignments are subdivided into two partial alignments, at which stage all-gap columns are naturally removed. This alleviates the "once a gap, always a gap" problem of progressive alignment procedures. Conclusion The three-way Neighbor-Net based alignment program aln3nn is shown to compare favorably on both protein sequences and nucleic acids sequences to other progressive alignment tools. In the latter case one easily can include scoring terms that consider secondary structure features. Overall, the quality of resulting alignments in general exceeds that of clustalw or other multiple alignments tools even though our software does not included heuristics for context dependent (mis)match scores. PMID:17631683

  10. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment

    PubMed Central

    Bertone, Matthew A.; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J.; Seltmann, Katja C.; Balhoff, James P.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group’s anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process. Database URL: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/hao/2012-07-18/arthropod-mappings.obo PMID:23303300

  11. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment.

    PubMed

    Bertone, Matthew A; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Seltmann, Katja C; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group's anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process.

  12. An efficient method for multiple sequence alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Pramanik, S.

    1994-12-31

    Multiple sequence alignment has been a useful method in the study of molecular evolution and sequence-structure relationships. This paper presents a new method for multiple sequence alignment based on simulated annealing technique. Dynamic programming has been widely used to find an optimal alignment. However, dynamic programming has several limitations to obtain optimal alignment. It requires long computation time and cannot apply certain types of cost functions. We describe detail mechanisms of simulated annealing for multiple sequence alignment problem. It is shown that simulated annealing can be an effective approach to overcome the limitations of dynamic programming in multiple sequence alignment problem.

  13. Bokeh mirror alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, S. A.; Adam, J.; Ahnen, M. L.; Baack, D.; Balbo, M.; Bergmann, M.; Biland, A.; Blank, M.; Bretz, T.; Bruegge, K. A.; Buss, J.; Dmytriiev, A.; Dorner, D.; Einecke, S.; Hempfling, C.; Hildebrand, D.; Hughes, G.; Linhoff, L.; Mannheim, K.; Neise, D.; Neronov, A.; Noethe, M.; Paravac, A.; Pauss, F.; Rhode, W.; Shukla, A.; Temme, F.; Thaele, J.; Walter, R.

    2016-08-01

    Segmented imaging reflectors are a great choice for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). However, the alignment of the individual mirror facets is challenging. We align a segmented reflector by observing and optimizing its Bokeh function. Bokeh alignment can already be done with very little resources and little preparation time. Further, Bokeh alignment can be done anytime, even during the day. We present a first usage of Bokeh alignment on FACT, a 4m IACT on Canary Island La Palma, Spain and further a first Bokeh alignment test on the CTA MST IACT prototype in Brelin Adlershof.

  14. Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanov, Igor R.

    2008-07-28

    This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

  15. SU-E-J-33: Comparison Between Soft Tissue Alignment and Bony Alignment for Pancreatic Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Y; Crane, C; Krishnan, S; Das, P; Koay, E; Beddar, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose An IGRT modality for pancreatic cancer treatment with dose escalation at our institution is in-room daily CT imaging. The purpose of this study is to assess the difference between soft tissue alignment and bony alignment for pancreatic tumor localization. Methods Eighteen patients with pancreatic tumors who underwent IMRT treatment with an inspiration breath-hold technique between July 2012 and February 2015 are included in this study. Prior to each treatment, a CT scan was acquired. The CT image guidance started with auto-alignment to either the bony anatomy (vertebral bodies) or fiducials (for the six patients with the stent in/near the tumor) and then, when necessary, manual adjustments were made based on soft tissue alignment using clinical software (CT-Assisted Targeting system). The difference between soft tissue alignment and bony/fiducial alignment was evaluated. Results Of all 380 treatments, manual adjustment was made in 225 treatments, ranging from 11% (3 treatments out of 28) to 96% (27 treatments out of 28) per patient. The mean of the difference between soft tissue alignment and bony/fiducial alignment per patient ranged from −3.6 to 0.3 mm, −1.5 to 2.8 mm, and −3.3 to 3.4 mm in the AP, SI, and RL directions, respectively. The maximum difference over all treatments was −9.5, −14.6, and −14.6 mm in the AP, SI, and RL directions, respectively. Conclusion About 60% of the time, manual adjustment based on soft tissue alignment was required. The extent of manual adjustment was usually small but varied significantly from patient to patient. The ultimate goal of the IGRT modality using daily CT imaging is not to fully cover the target but to spare organs-at-risk as much as possible to avoid them moving into higher dose gradients than accepted in the treatment plan. To this end, manual adjustment based on soft tissue alignment is critically important.

  16. Jules Janssen's in and out correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launay, Françoise

    2001-10-01

    When she died in 1924, Miss Antoinette Janssen, the only daughter of Jules Janssen (1824-1907), bequeathed all the letters her parents had received at home to the Library of the Institut de France in Paris. That correspondence is still preserved there, in guard-books containing about 1700 letters, the transcription of which is in progress. It is not so easy to trace the outgoing letters and transcribe them, and any help would be much appreciated!

  17. Dense Correspondences across Scenes and Scales.

    PubMed

    Tau, Moria; Hassner, Tal

    2016-05-01

    We seek a practical method for establishing dense correspondences between two images with similar content, but possibly different 3D scenes. One of the challenges in designing such a system is the local scale differences of objects appearing in the two images. Previous methods often considered only few image pixels; matching only pixels for which stable scales may be reliably estimated. Recently, others have considered dense correspondences, but with substantial costs associated with generating, storing and matching scale invariant descriptors. Our work is motivated by the observation that pixels in the image have contexts-the pixels around them-which may be exploited in order to reliably estimate local scales. We make the following contributions. (i) We show that scales estimated in sparse interest points may be propagated to neighboring pixels where this information cannot be reliably determined. Doing so allows scale invariant descriptors to be extracted anywhere in the image. (ii) We explore three means for propagating this information: using the scales at detected interest points, using the underlying image information to guide scale propagation in each image separately, and using both images together. Finally, (iii), we provide extensive qualitative and quantitative results, demonstrating that scale propagation allows for accurate dense correspondences to be obtained even between very different images, with little computational costs beyond those required by existing methods.

  18. A procedural analysis of correspondence training techniques

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Freddy A.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of names have been given to procedures used in correspondence training, some more descriptive than others. In this article I argue that a terminology more accurately describing actual procedures, rather than the conceptual function that those procedures are assumed to serve, would benefit the area of correspondence training. I identify two documented procedures during the reinforcement of verbalization phase and five procedures during the reinforcement of correspondence phase and suggest that those procedures can be classified, or grouped into nonoverlapping categories, by specifying the critical dimensions of those procedures belonging to a single category. I suggest that the names of such nonoverlapping categories should clearly specify the dimensions on which the classification is based in order to facilitate experimental comparison of procedures, and to be able to recognize when a new procedure (as opposed to a variant of one already in existence) is developed. Future research involving comparative analysis across and within procedures is discussed within the framework of the proposed classification. PMID:22478059

  19. Alignment of muscle precursor cells on the vertical edges of thick carbon nanotube films.

    PubMed

    Holt, Ian; Gestmann, Ingo; Wright, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    The development of scaffolds and templates is an essential aspect of tissue engineering. We show that thick (>0.5 mm) vertically aligned carbon nanotube films, made by chemical vapour deposition, can be used as biocompatible substrates for the directional alignment of mouse muscle cells where the cells grow on the exposed sides of the films. Ultra high resolution scanning electron microscopy reveals that the films themselves consist mostly of small diameter (10 nm) multi-wall carbon nanotubes of wavy morphology with some single wall carbon nanotubes. Our findings show that for this alignment to occur the nanotubes must be in pristine condition. Mechanical wiping of the films to create directional alignment is detrimental to directional bioactivity. Larger areas for study have been formed from a composite of multiply stacked narrow strips of nanotubes wipe-transferred onto elastomer supports. These composite substrates appear to show a useful degree of alignment of the cells.

  20. For the Problem of the Correspondence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalanov, Temur Z.

    2003-04-01

    The correct solution of the problem of the correspondence principle is suggested. It represents the new point of view which has arisen from the critical analysis of the foundations of physics (classical and quantum mechanics, statistical physics and physical kinetics) and philosophy. The main idea following from the analysis is that the concepts (the categories) and the principles (in particular, the gnosiological principle) of dialectical materialism represent a key to understanding of the problem. The gnosiological principle is briefly formulated as follows. The purpose of science is to know the laws of the Nature. The law is a form of scientific knowledge of the essence and the phenomenon. The essence is the internal basis of the phenomenon, and the phenomenon is the manifestation of the essence. In other words, the essence determines the phenomenon, and the phenomenon characterizes the essence. Dialectics of essence and phenomenon is that the essence and the phenomenon are mutually dependent and can transit into each other. The measurements are the main way of studying of the phenomenon, and the abstract thinking is the main way of understanding of the essence. Human practice is a basis of knowledge and a criterion of truth. The principles of dialectical materialism lead to the following statements representing the solution of the problem of the correspondence principle. (1) The objective physical theories are divided into two opposite (non intersecting) classes: a class of essence theories and a class of phenomenon theories. These classes are bounds of each other. (2) The class of essence theories is represented, for example, by the new quantum theory [1]. The class of phenomenon theories is represented, for example, by quantum statistical physics and physical kinetics [2, 3]. The averaging of the quantized physical quantity representing the essence corresponds to manifestation (measurement) of this quantity, i.e. the averaging corresponds to transition of the

  1. Normalized entropy measure for multimodality image alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studholme, Colin; Hawkes, David J.; Hill, Derek L.

    1998-06-01

    Automated multi-modality 3D medical image alignment has been an active area of research for many years. There have been a number of recent papers proposing and investigating the use of entropy derived measures of brain image alignment. Any registration measure must allow us to choose between transformation estimates based on the similarity of images within their volume of overlap. Since 3D medical images often have a limited extent and overlap, the similarity measure for the two transformation estimates may be derived from two very different regions within the images. Direct measures of information such as the joint entropy and mutual information will therefore be a function of, not only image similarity in the region of overlap, but also of the local image content within the overlap. In this paper we present a new measure, normalized mutual information, which is simply the ratio of the sum of the marginal entropies and the joint entropy. The effect of changing overlap on current entropy measures and this normalized measure are compared using a simple image model and experiments on clinical MR-PET and MR-CT image data. Results indicate that the normalized entropy measure provides significantly improved behavior over a range of imaged fields of view.

  2. Product Grammars for Alignment and Folding.

    PubMed

    Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L; Stadler, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory of algebraic operations over linear and context-free grammars that makes it possible to combine simple "atomic" grammars operating on single sequences into complex, multi-dimensional grammars. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by constructing the search spaces of complex alignment problems on multiple input sequences explicitly as algebraic expressions of very simple one-dimensional grammars. In particular, we provide a fully worked frameshift-aware, semiglobal DNA-protein alignment algorithm whose grammar is composed of products of small, atomic grammars. The compiler accompanying our theory makes it easy to experiment with the combination of multiple grammars and different operations. Composite grammars can be written out in L(A)T(E)X for documentation and as a guide to implementation of dynamic programming algorithms. An embedding in Haskell as a domain-specific language makes the theory directly accessible to writing and using grammar products without the detour of an external compiler. Software and supplemental files available here: http://www.bioinf. uni-leipzig.de/Software/gramprod/.

  3. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rahul; Riley, Michael; Lee, Sabrina; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  4. Theory of the deformation of aligned polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, A.; Swinburne, T. D.; Hasan, H.; Del Rosso, S.; Iannucci, L.; Sutton, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Solitons are proposed as the agents of plastic and viscoelastic deformation in aligned polyethylene. Interactions between straight, parallel molecules are mapped rigorously onto the Frenkel–Kontorova model. It is shown that these molecular interactions distribute an applied load between molecules, with a characteristic transfer length equal to the soliton width. Load transfer leads to the introduction of tensile and compressive solitons at the chain ends to mark the onset of plasticity at a well-defined yield stress, which is much less than the theoretical pull-out stress. Interaction energies between solitons and an equation of motion for solitons are derived. The equation of motion is based on Langevin dynamics and the fluctuation–dissipation theorem and it leads to the rigorous definition of an effective mass for solitons. It forms the basis of a soliton dynamics in direct analogy to dislocation dynamics. Close parallels are drawn between solitons in aligned polymers and dislocations in crystals, including the configurational force on a soliton. The origins of the strain rate and temperature dependencies of the viscoelastic behaviour are discussed in terms of the formation energy of solitons. A failure mechanism is proposed involving soliton condensation under a tensile load. PMID:26339196

  5. The Stonehenge technique. A method for aligning coherent bremsstrahlung radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Ken

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a technique for the alignment of crystal radiators used to produce high energy, linearly polarized photons via coherent bremsstrahlung scattering at electron beam facilities. In these experiments the crystal is mounted on a goniometer which is used to adjust its orientation relative to the electron beam. The angles and equations which relate the crystal lattice, goniometer and electron beam direction are presented here, and the method of alignment is illustrated with data taken at MAMI (the Mainz microtron). A practical guide to setting up a coherent bremsstrahlung facility and installing new crystals using this technique is also included.

  6. Preferential alignment of birefringent tissue measured with polarization sensitive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella-Roman, J. C.; Ruiz, T.; Ghassemi, P.; Travis, T. E.; Shupp, J. W.; Chue-Sang, J.; Bai, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Assessing collagen alignment is of interest when evaluating a therapeutic strategy and evaluating its outcome in scar management. In this work we introduce a theoretical and experimental methodology for the quantification of collagen and birefringent media alignment based on polarized light transport. The technique relies on the fact that these materials exhibit directional anisotropy. A polarized Monte Carlo model and a spectro-polarimetric imaging system were devised to predict and measure the impact of birefringence on an impinging polarized light beam. Experiments conducted on birefringent phantoms, and biological samples consisting of highly packed parallel birefringent fibers, showed a good agreement with the analytical results.

  7. Tilted Liquid Crystal Alignment on Asymmetrically Grooved Porous Alumina Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Hiroshima, Kohki

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports the achievement of tilted liquid crystal (LC) alignment on an anodic porous alumina (APA) film using microgrooves with asymmetric shapes and dozens of minute pores. The microgrooves with asymmetric shapes were formed by a rubbing technique. The minute pores were then produced by anodization. The LC pretilt angle was controlled by the shapes of the microgrooves and pores. The LC director was orientated in the same inclining direction as that of a rubbed polyimide (PI) film. The pretilt angle was in the range of 20 to 90°. This tilted LC alignment remains very stable against external forces such as thermal shock and intense light.

  8. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  9. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  10. Aligned mesoporous architectures and devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng

    2011-03-01

    This is the final report for the Presidential Early Career Award for Science and Engineering - PECASE (LDRD projects 93369 and 118841) awarded to Professor Yunfeng Lu (Tulane University and University of California-Los Angeles). During the last decade, mesoporous materials with tunable periodic pores have been synthesized using surfactant liquid crystalline as templates, opening a new avenue for a wide spectrum of applications. However, the applications are somewhat limited by the unfavorabe pore orientation of these materials. Although substantial effort has been devoted to align the pore channels, fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicular pore channels remains challenging. This project focused on fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicularly aligned pore channels. We demonstrated structures for use in water purification, separation, sensors, templated synthesis, microelectronics, optics, controlled release, and highly selective catalysts.

  11. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

    1997-08-19

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

  12. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Warren, Mial Evans; Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton; Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe; Word, V., James Cole

    1997-01-01

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

  13. Threaded pilot insures cutting tool alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, R.; Schneider, W. E.

    1966-01-01

    Threaded pilot allows machining of a port component, or boss, after the reciprocating hole has been threaded. It is used to align cutting surfaces with the boss threads, thus insuring precision alignment.

  14. A look at the Salomé-Freud correspondence.

    PubMed

    Sirois, F

    1998-04-01

    The author notes that the changing emphasis of the correspondence between Lou Andreas-Salomé and Sigmund Freud over the years reflects certain aspects of the development of every analyst. Her contributions are shown to illustrate the evolution of the analyst's relationship with theory and the growth of his or her clinical capacity and involvement. Two phases in the analyst's clinical progression are stated to be discernible in the correspondence, marked by changes of direction that mirror the changing nature of her relationship with Freud. Theoretical considerations predominate in the first phase, while clinical aspects gradually come to the fore in the second. Freud is seen to be offering Salomé a kind of supervision by letter. Lou's underlying transference to Freud also emerges from the correspondence, its two aspects being the relationship to a big brother and to a father respectively. Freud's complementary transference to Salomé is also discussed, partly in connection with her relationship with his daughter Anna. The author's arguments are supported by extensive quotations from the correspondence, biographical works and Lou Andreas-Salomé's published diaries and reminiscences. Last but not least, her relationship with Freud in the author's view indirectly raises the issue of that of any analyst to the founder of psychoanalysis.

  15. Fluid/gravity correspondence for massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fluid/gravity correspondence in the framework of massive Einstein gravity. Treating the gravitational mass terms as an effective energy-momentum tensor and utilizing the Petrov-like boundary condition on a timelike hypersurface, we find that the perturbation effects of massive gravity in bulk can be completely governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation living on the cutoff surface under the near horizon and nonrelativistic limits. Furthermore, we have concisely computed the ratio of dynamical viscosity to entropy density for two massive Einstein gravity theories, and found that they still saturate the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) bound.

  16. Aligning Plasma-Arc Welding Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeff; Fairley, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Tool aids in alignment of oscillator probe on variable-polarity plasma-arc welding torch. Probe magnetically pulls arc from side to side as it moves along joint. Tensile strength of joint depends on alignment of weld bead and on alignment of probe. Operator installs new tool on front of torch body, levels it with built-in bubble glass, inserts probe in slot on tool, and locks probe in place. Procedure faster and easier and resulting alignment more accurate and repeatable.

  17. Use laser-optics for machinery alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1987-10-01

    Many sources attribute most bearing overload and destructive vibration in industrial machinery to shaft misalignment. There is considerable disagreement as to the alignment quality required. There is also little agreement on suitable calculation methods and achievable accuracy for anticipated thermal growth of machinery (necessary if running alignment is to remain acceptable). This article examines existing alignment quality guidelines for relevance and consistency, and reviews the application of laser-optic alignment systems based on three years of field experience.

  18. L-GRAAL: Lagrangian graphlet-based network aligner

    PubMed Central

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Discovering and understanding patterns in networks of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is a central problem in systems biology. Alignments between these networks aid functional understanding as they uncover important information, such as evolutionary conserved pathways, protein complexes and functional orthologs. A few methods have been proposed for global PPI network alignments, but because of NP-completeness of underlying sub-graph isomorphism problem, producing topologically and biologically accurate alignments remains a challenge. Results: We introduce a novel global network alignment tool, Lagrangian GRAphlet-based ALigner (L-GRAAL), which directly optimizes both the protein and the interaction functional conservations, using a novel alignment search heuristic based on integer programming and Lagrangian relaxation. We compare L-GRAAL with the state-of-the-art network aligners on the largest available PPI networks from BioGRID and observe that L-GRAAL uncovers the largest common sub-graphs between the networks, as measured by edge-correctness and symmetric sub-structures scores, which allow transferring more functional information across networks. We assess the biological quality of the protein mappings using the semantic similarity of their Gene Ontology annotations and observe that L-GRAAL best uncovers functionally conserved proteins. Furthermore, we introduce for the first time a measure of the semantic similarity of the mapped interactions and show that L-GRAAL also uncovers best functionally conserved interactions. In addition, we illustrate on the PPI networks of baker's yeast and human the ability of L-GRAAL to predict new PPIs. Finally, L-GRAAL's results are the first to show that topological information is more important than sequence information for uncovering functionally conserved interactions. Availability and implementation: L-GRAAL is coded in C++. Software is available at: http://bio-nets.doc.ic.ac.uk/L-GRAAL/. Contact: n

  19. Apse-Alignment of the Uranian Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosqueira, I.; Estrada, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    An explanation of the dynamical mechanism for apse-alignment of the eccentric Uranian rings is necessary before observations can be used to determine properties such as ring masses, particle sizes, and elasticities. The leading model relies on the ring self-gravity to accomplish this task, yet it yields equilibrium masses which are not in accord with Voyager radio measurements. We explore possible solutions such that the self-gravity and the collisional terms are both involved in the process of apse-alignment. We consider limits that correspond to a hot and a cold ring, and show that pressure terms may play a significant role in the equilibrium conditions for the narrow Uranian rings. In the cold ring case, where the scale height of the ring near periapse is comparable to the ring particle size, we introduce a new pressure correction pertaining to a region of the ring where the particles are locked in their relative positions and jammed against their neighbors, and the velocity dispersion is so low that the collisions are nearly elastic. In this case, we find a solution such that the ring self-gravity maintains apse-alignment against both differential precession (m = 1 mode) and the fluid pressure. We apply this model to the Uranian alpha ring, and show that, compared to the previous self-gravity model, the mass estimate for this ring increases by an order of magnitude. In the case of a hot ring, where the scale height can reach a value as much as fifty times larger than a particle size, we find velocity dispersion profiles that result in pressure forces which act in such a way as to alter the ring equilibrium conditions, again leading to a ring mass increase of an order of magnitude; however, such a velocity dispersion profile would require a different mechanism than is currently envisioned for establishing heating/cooling balance in a finite-sized, inelastic particle ring. Finally, we introduce an important correction to the model of Chiang and Goldreich.

  20. Optimizing parameters on alignment of PCL/PGA nanofibrous scaffold: An artificial neural networks approach.

    PubMed

    Paskiabi, Farnoush Asghari; Mirzaei, Esmaeil; Amani, Amir; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Saber, Reza; Faridi-Majidi, Reza

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes an artificial neural networks approach to finding the effects of electrospinning parameters on alignment of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/poly(glycolic acid) blend nanofibers. Four electrospinning parameters, namely total polymer concentration, working distance, drum speed and applied voltage were considered as input and the standard deviation of the angles of nanofibers, introducing fibers alignments, as the output of the model. The results demonstrated that drum speed and applied voltage are two critical factors influencing nanofibers alignment, however their effect are entirely interdependent. Their effects also are not independent of other electrospinning parameters. In obtaining aligned electrospun nanofibers, the concentration and working distance can also be effective. In vitro cell culture study on random and aligned nanofibers showed directional growth of cells on aligned fibers.

  1. Chaotic inflation with kinetic alignment of axion fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.; Dias, Mafalda; Frazer, Jonathan; McAllister, Liam

    2015-01-01

    N-flation is a radiatively stable scenario for chaotic inflation in which the displacements of N ≫1 axions with decay constants f1≤…≤fNalignment, allowing for effective displacements as large as √{N }fN≥fPy, even if f1,…,fN -1 are arbitrarily small. At the level of kinematics, the necessary alignment occurs with very high probability, because of eigenvector delocalization. We present conditions under which inflation can take place along an aligned direction. Our construction sharply reduces the challenge of realizing N-flation in string theory.

  2. Linguistic alignment in adults with and without Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, Katie E; Alvarez, Ivan; Branigan, Holly P; Jellema, Tjeerd; Burnett, Hollie G; Fischer, Anja; Li, Yan Hei; Garrod, Simon; Levita, Liat

    2013-06-01

    Individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS) often have difficulties with social interactions and conversations. We investigated if these difficulties could be attributable to a deficit in the ability to linguistically converge with an interlocutor, which is posited to be important for successful communication. To that end, participants completed two cooperative tasks with a confederate, which allowed us to measure linguistic alignment with the confederate in terms of lexical choice, syntactic structure and spatial frame of reference. There was no difference in the performance of individuals with AS and matched controls and both groups showed significant alignment with the confederate at all three levels. We conclude that linguistic alignment is intact in adults with AS engaged in structured, goal-directed social interactions.

  3. Dark Field Technology - A Practical Approach To Local Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, David R.; Hellebrekers, Paul P.

    1987-01-01

    A fully automated direct reticle reference alignment system for use in step and repeat camera systems is described. The technique, first outlined by Janus S. Wilczynski, ("Optical Step and Repeat Camera with Dark Field Alignment", J. Vac. Technol., 16(6), Nov./Dec. 1979), has been implemented on GCA Corporation's DSW Wafer Stepper. Results from various process levels covering the typical CMOS process have shown that better than ±0.2μm alignment accuracy can be obtained with minimal process sensitivity. The technique employs fixed illumination and microscope optics to achieve excellent registration stability and maintenance-free operation. Latent image techniques can be exploited for intra-field, grid and focus characterization.

  4. Proposal for the Alignment of the 'Loose End'

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, Georg

    2010-12-01

    The 'loose end' of the girder presents an alignment problem because there is no beam based alignment procedure available to position it. The positioning always depends on the fiducialization of the undulator. A direct way to position the 'loose end' to the next quadrupole is to measure their fiducials in relation to each other. By spanning a wire over a distance of several girders, each undulator and quadrupole can be measured by reading its distance to the wire with a portable wire sensor. The pitch of a girder can be determined by measuring height differences at different points on the girder. To measure the height differences a portable HLS is used. During the measurements of the portable system the permanent Wire Position Monitor and the permanent HLS are used to monitor the interim movements of the girder. After the initial alignment the position of the 'loose end' can be monitored with the permanent systems in relation to the quadrupoles.

  5. RegiStax: Alignment, stacking and processing of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrevoets, Cor; DeClerq, Bart; George, Tony; Makolkin, Dmitry; Maxson, Paul; Pilz, Bob; Presnyakov, Pavel; Roel, Eric; Weiller, Sylvain

    2012-06-01

    RegiStax is software for alignment/stacking/processing of images; it was released over 10 years ago and continues to be developed and improved. The current version is RegiStax 6, which supports the following formats: AVI, SER, RFL (RegiStax Framelist), BMP, JPG, TIF, and FIT. This version has a shorter and simpler processing sequence than its predecessor, and optimizing isn't necessary anymore as a new image alignment method optimizes directly. The interface of RegiStax 6 has been simplified to look more uniform in appearance and functionality, and RegiStax 6 now uses Multi-core processing, allowing the user to have up to have multiple cores(recommended to use maximally 4) working simultaneous during alignment/stacking.

  6. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  7. Ultrafast electron diffraction from aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Centurion, Martin

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this project was to record time-resolved electron diffraction patterns of aligned molecules and to reconstruct the 3D molecular structure. The molecules are aligned non-adiabatically using a femtosecond laser pulse. A femtosecond electron pulse then records a diffraction pattern while the molecules are aligned. The diffraction patterns are then be processed to obtain the molecular structure.

  8. Dynamical Correspondence in a Generalized Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niestegge, Gerd

    2015-05-01

    In order to figure out why quantum physics needs the complex Hilbert space, many attempts have been made to distinguish the C*-algebras and von Neumann algebras in more general classes of abstractly defined Jordan algebras (JB- and JBW-algebras). One particularly important distinguishing property was identified by Alfsen and Shultz and is the existence of a dynamical correspondence. It reproduces the dual role of the selfadjoint operators as observables and generators of dynamical groups in quantum mechanics. In the paper, this concept is extended to another class of nonassociative algebras, arising from recent studies of the quantum logics with a conditional probability calculus and particularly of those that rule out third-order interference. The conditional probability calculus is a mathematical model of the Lüders-von Neumann quantum measurement process, and third-order interference is a property of the conditional probabilities which was discovered by Sorkin (Mod Phys Lett A 9:3119-3127, 1994) and which is ruled out by quantum mechanics. It is shown then that the postulates that a dynamical correspondence exists and that the square of any algebra element is positive still characterize, in the class considered, those algebras that emerge from the selfadjoint parts of C*-algebras equipped with the Jordan product. Within this class, the two postulates thus result in ordinary quantum mechanics using the complex Hilbert space or, vice versa, a genuine generalization of quantum theory must omit at least one of them.

  9. Corresponding-states laws for protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Katsonis, Panagiotis; Brandon, Simon; Vekilov, Peter G

    2006-09-07

    The solvent around protein molecules in solutions is structured and this structuring introduces a repulsion in the intermolecular interaction potential at intermediate separations. We use Monte Carlo simulations with isotropic, pair-additive systems interacting with such potentials. We test if the liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase lines in model protein solutions can be predicted from universal curves and a pair of experimentally determined parameters, as done for atomic and colloid materials using several laws of corresponding states. As predictors, we test three properties at the critical point for liquid-liquid separation: temperature, as in the original van der Waals law, the second virial coefficient, and a modified second virial coefficient, all paired with the critical volume fraction. We find that the van der Waals law is best obeyed and appears more general than its original formulation: A single universal curve describes all tested nonconformal isotropic pair-additive systems. Published experimental data for the liquid-liquid equilibrium for several proteins at various conditions follow a single van der Waals curve. For the solid-liquid equilibrium, we find that no single system property serves as its predictor. We go beyond corresponding-states correlations and put forth semiempirical laws, which allow prediction of the critical temperature and volume fraction solely based on the range of attraction of the intermolecular interaction potential.

  10. Probing the Energy Level Alignment and the Correlation with Open-Circuit Voltage in Solution-Processed Polymeric Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-Dan; Li, Ho-Wa; Cheng, Yuanhang; Guan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Taili; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tsang, Sai-Wing

    2016-03-23

    Energy level alignment at the organic donor and acceptor interface is a key to determine the photovoltaic performance in organic solar cells, but direct probing of such energy alignment is still challenging especially for solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) thin films. Here we report a systematic investigation on probing the energy level alignment with different approaches in five commonly used polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) BHJ systems. We find that by tuning the weight ratio of polymer to PCBM the electronic features from both polymer and PCBM can be obtained by photoemission spectroscopy. Using this approach, we find that some of the BHJ blends simply follow vacuum level alignment, but others show strong energy level shifting as a result of Fermi level pinning. Independently, by measuring the temperature-dependent open-circuit voltage (VOC), we find that the effective energy gap (Eeff), the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of the polymer donor (EHOMO-D) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the PCBM acceptor (ELUMO-A), obtained by photoemission spectroscopy in all polymer:PCBM blends has an excellent agreement with the extrapolated VOC at 0 K. Consequently, the photovoltage loss of various organic BHJ photovoltaic devices at room temperature is in a range of 0.3-0.6 V. It is believed that the demonstrated direct measurement approach of the energy level alignment in solution-processed organic BHJ will bring deeper insight into the origin of the VOC and the corresponding photovoltage loss mechanism in organic photovoltaic cells.

  11. Active alignment scheme for the MPTS array

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, R.

    1980-01-01

    In order to maximize the efficiency of the microwave power transmission system (MPTS), the surface of the array antenna must be extremely flat, which is difficult to achieve using passive techniques over the 1 km dimensions of the array. In order to achieve and maintain this required flatness, a rotating laser beam used for leveling applications on earth has been utilized as a reference system. A photoconductive sensor with a reflective collecting surface is used to determine the displacement and polarity of any misalignment and automatically engage a stepping motor to drive a variable-length mechanism to make the necessary corrections. A three-point subarray alignment arrangement is described which independently adjusts, in the three orthogonal directions, the height and tilt of subarrays within the MPTS array and readily adapts to any physical distortions of the secondary structure (such as that resulting from severe temperature extremes caused by an eclipse of the sun.

  12. ALIGNMENT OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARY ORBITS AND SPINS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M. Coleman; Krolik, Julian H.

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies of accretion onto supermassive black hole binaries suggest that much, perhaps most, of the matter eventually accretes onto one hole or the other. If so, then for binaries whose inspiral from {approx}1 pc to {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} pc is driven by interaction with external gas, both the binary orbital axis and the individual black hole spins can be reoriented by angular momentum exchange with this gas. Here we show that, unless the binary mass ratio is far from unity, the spins of the individual holes align with the binary orbital axis in a time {approx}few-100 times shorter than the binary orbital axis aligns with the angular momentum direction of the incoming circumbinary gas; the spin of the secondary aligns more rapidly than that of the primary by a factor {approx}(m{sub 1}/m{sub 2}){sup 1/2} > 1. Thus the binary acts as a stabilizing agent, so that for gas-driven systems, the black hole spins are highly likely to be aligned (or counteraligned if retrograde accretion is common) with each other and with the binary orbital axis. This alignment can significantly reduce the recoil speed resulting from subsequent black hole merger.

  13. Mechanism for Collective Cell Alignment in Myxococcus xanthus Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Balagam, Rajesh; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2015-08-01

    Myxococcus xanthus cells self-organize into aligned groups, clusters, at various stages of their lifecycle. Formation of these clusters is crucial for the complex dynamic multi-cellular behavior of these bacteria. However, the mechanism underlying the cell alignment and clustering is not fully understood. Motivated by studies of clustering in self-propelled rods, we hypothesized that M. xanthus cells can align and form clusters through pure mechanical interactions among cells and between cells and substrate. We test this hypothesis using an agent-based simulation framework in which each agent is based on the biophysical model of an individual M. xanthus cell. We show that model agents, under realistic cell flexibility values, can align and form cell clusters but only when periodic reversals of cell directions are suppressed. However, by extending our model to introduce the observed ability of cells to deposit and follow slime trails, we show that effective trail-following leads to clusters in reversing cells. Furthermore, we conclude that mechanical cell alignment combined with slime-trail-following is sufficient to explain the distinct clustering behaviors observed for wild-type and non-reversing M. xanthus mutants in recent experiments. Our results are robust to variation in model parameters, match the experimentally observed trends and can be applied to understand surface motility patterns of other bacterial species.

  14. Mechanism for Collective Cell Alignment in Myxococcus xanthus Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Balagam, Rajesh; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus cells self-organize into aligned groups, clusters, at various stages of their lifecycle. Formation of these clusters is crucial for the complex dynamic multi-cellular behavior of these bacteria. However, the mechanism underlying the cell alignment and clustering is not fully understood. Motivated by studies of clustering in self-propelled rods, we hypothesized that M. xanthus cells can align and form clusters through pure mechanical interactions among cells and between cells and substrate. We test this hypothesis using an agent-based simulation framework in which each agent is based on the biophysical model of an individual M. xanthus cell. We show that model agents, under realistic cell flexibility values, can align and form cell clusters but only when periodic reversals of cell directions are suppressed. However, by extending our model to introduce the observed ability of cells to deposit and follow slime trails, we show that effective trail-following leads to clusters in reversing cells. Furthermore, we conclude that mechanical cell alignment combined with slime-trail-following is sufficient to explain the distinct clustering behaviors observed for wild-type and non-reversing M. xanthus mutants in recent experiments. Our results are robust to variation in model parameters, match the experimentally observed trends and can be applied to understand surface motility patterns of other bacterial species. PMID:26308508

  15. Sim4cc: a cross-species spliced alignment program.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Leming; Pertea, Mihaela; Delcher, Arthur L; Florea, Liliana

    2009-06-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have accelerated the sequencing of new genomes, far outpacing the generation of gene and protein resources needed to annotate them. Direct comparison and alignment of existing cDNA sequences from a related species is an effective and readily available means to determine genes in the new genomes. Current spliced alignment programs are inadequate for comparing sequences between different species, owing to their low sensitivity and splice junction accuracy. A new spliced alignment tool, sim4cc, overcomes problems in the earlier tools by incorporating three new features: universal spaced seeds, to increase sensitivity and allow comparisons between species at various evolutionary distances, and powerful splice signal models and evolutionarily-aware alignment techniques, to improve the accuracy of gene models. When tested on vertebrate comparisons at diverse evolutionary distances, sim4cc had significantly higher sensitivity compared to existing alignment programs, more than 10% higher than the closest competitor for some comparisons, while being comparable in speed to its predecessor, sim4. Sim4cc can be used in one-to-one or one-to-many comparisons of genomic and cDNA sequences, and can also be effectively incorporated into a high-throughput annotation engine, as demonstrated by the mapping of 64,000 Fagus grandifolia 454 ESTs and unigenes to the poplar genome.

  16. Alignment of continuous video onto 3D point clouds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenyi; Nister, David; Hsu, Steve

    2005-08-01

    We propose a general framework for aligning continuous (oblique) video onto 3D sensor data. We align a point cloud computed from the video onto the point cloud directly obtained from a 3D sensor. This is in contrast to existing techniques where the 2D images are aligned to a 3D model derived from the 3D sensor data. Using point clouds enables the alignment for scenes full of objects that are difficult to model; for example, trees. To compute 3D point clouds from video, motion stereo is used along with a state-of-the-art algorithm for camera pose estimation. Our experiments with real data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed registration algorithm for texturing models in large-scale semiurban environments. The capability to align video before a 3D model is built from the 3D sensor data offers new practical opportunities for 3D modeling. We introduce a novel modeling-through-registration approach that fuses 3D information from both the 3D sensor and the video. Initial experiments with real data illustrate the potential of the proposed approach.

  17. Alignment of Supermassive Black Hole Binary Orbits and Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Krolik, Julian H.

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies of accretion onto supermassive black hole binaries suggest that much, perhaps most, of the matter eventually accretes onto one hole or the other. If so, then for binaries whose inspiral from ~1 pc to ~10-3-10-2 pc is driven by interaction with external gas, both the binary orbital axis and the individual black hole spins can be reoriented by angular momentum exchange with this gas. Here we show that, unless the binary mass ratio is far from unity, the spins of the individual holes align with the binary orbital axis in a time ~few-100 times shorter than the binary orbital axis aligns with the angular momentum direction of the incoming circumbinary gas; the spin of the secondary aligns more rapidly than that of the primary by a factor ~(m 1/m 2)1/2 > 1. Thus the binary acts as a stabilizing agent, so that for gas-driven systems, the black hole spins are highly likely to be aligned (or counteraligned if retrograde accretion is common) with each other and with the binary orbital axis. This alignment can significantly reduce the recoil speed resulting from subsequent black hole merger.

  18. Alignment and Load Transfer in Carbon Nanotube and Dicyclopentadiene Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severino, Joseph Vincent

    Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the strongest materials available but their macroscopic assemblies are weak. This work establishes a new thermosetting dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and CNT composite that increases the strength of CNT assemblies. These high volume fraction and void free structures constitute advanced materials that could one day replace traditional composite systems. To further the understanding of physical interactions between polymer and CNTs, a novel "capstan" load transfer mechanism is also introduced. Self-supporting assemblies of interconnected carbon nanotubes were stretched, twisted and compressed to fashion composites by the infusion and polymerization of low viscosity DCPD based monomeric resins. The properties of the CNTs, polymer and composite were characterized with thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and Raman spectroscopy. The microstructure was analyzed by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Sheets were drawn at 15 m/min from a growth furnace to impart alignment then stretched to further modify alignment. The mechanical properties were determined in five orientations with respect to the growth direction. The strength was nearly three times higher along this growth direction than it was perpendicular, and modulus was nearly six times higher. Transverse stretching achieved 1.5 times the elongation but alignment was inferior due to CNT kinking that prevented alignment and consolidation. Composites yarns and sheets were investigated for the mechanical properties, microstructure and load transfer. The DCPD resin was found to wet the CNTs and lubricated deformation. This reduced loads during processing, and curing solidified the aligned and consolidated structure. The stretched and twisted composite yarns increased the failure stress 51%. In aligned composite sheet, the failure stress increased 200%. The increased stresses

  19. Retinal pigment epithelium cell alignment on nanostructured collagen matrices.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Stefan; Friedrichs, Jens; Valtink, Monika; Murovski, Simo; Franz, Clemens M; Müller, Daniel J; Funk, Richard H W; Engelmann, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    We investigated attachment and migration of human retinal pigment epithelial cells (primary, SV40-transfected and ARPE-19) on nanoscopically defined, two-dimensional matrices composed of parallel-aligned collagen type I fibrils. These matrices were used non-cross-linked (native) or after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking to study cell attachment and migration by time-lapse video microscopy. Expression of collagen type I and IV, MMP-2 and of the collagen-binding integrin subunit α(2) were examined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. SV40-RPE cells quickly attached to the nanostructured collagen matrices and aligned along the collagen fibrils. However, they disrupted both native and cross-linked collagen matrices within 5 h. Primary RPE cells aligned more slowly without destroying either native or cross-linked substrates. Compared to primary RPE cells, ARPE-19 cells showed reduced alignment but partially disrupted the matrices within 20 h after seeding. Expression of the collagen type I-binding integrin subunit α(2) was highest in SV40-RPE cells, lower in primary RPE cells and almost undetectable in ARPE-19 cells. Thus, integrin α(2) expression levels directly correlated with the degree of cell alignment in all examined RPE cell types. Specific integrin subunit α(2)-mediated matrix binding was verified by preincubation with an α(2)-function-blocking antibody, which impaired cell adhesion and alignment to varying degrees in primary and SV40-RPE cells. Since native matrices supported extended and directed primary RPE cell growth, optimizing the matrix production procedure may in the future yield nanostructured collagen matrices serving as transferable cell sheet carriers.

  20. Fluid shear, intercellular stress, and endothelial cell alignment.

    PubMed

    Steward, Robert; Tambe, Dhananjay; Hardin, C Corey; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2015-04-15

    Endothelial cell alignment along the direction of laminar fluid flow is widely understood to be a defining morphological feature of vascular homeostasis. While the role of associated signaling and structural events have been well studied, associated intercellular stresses under laminar fluid shear have remained ill-defined and the role of these stresses in the alignment process has remained obscure. To fill this gap, we report here the tractions as well as the complete in-plane intercellular stress fields measured within the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer subjected to a steady laminar fluid shear of 1 Pa. Tractions, intercellular stresses, as well as their time course, heterogeneity, and anisotropy, were measured using monolayer traction microscopy and monolayer stress microscopy. Prior to application of laminar fluid flow, intercellular stresses were largely tensile but fluctuated dramatically in space and in time (317 ± 122 Pa). Within 12 h of the onset of laminar fluid flow, the intercellular stresses decreased substantially but continued to fluctuate dramatically (142 ± 84 Pa). Moreover, tractions and intercellular stresses aligned strongly and promptly (within 1 h) along the direction of fluid flow, whereas the endothelial cell body aligned less strongly and substantially more slowly (12 h). Taken together, these results reveal that steady laminar fluid flow induces prompt reduction in magnitude and alignment of tractions and intercellular stress tensor components followed by the retarded elongation and alignment of the endothelial cell body. Appreciably smaller intercellular stresses supported by cell-cell junctions logically favor smaller incidence of gap formation and thus improved barrier integrity.

  1. Intrinsic alignments in redMaPPer clusters - I. Central galaxy alignments and angular segregation of satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hung-Jin; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Freeman, Peter E.; Chen, Yen-Chi; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Baxter, Eric J.

    2016-11-01

    The shapes of cluster central galaxies are not randomly oriented, but rather exhibit coherent alignments with the shapes of their parent clusters as well as with the surrounding large-scale structures. In this work, we aim to identify the galaxy and cluster quantities that most strongly predict the central galaxy alignment phenomenon among a large parameter space with a sample of 8237 clusters and 94 817 members within 0.1 < z < 0.35, based on the red-sequence Matched-filter Probabilistic Percolation cluster catalogue constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We first quantify the alignment between the projected central galaxy shapes and the distribution of member satellites, to understand what central galaxy and cluster properties most strongly correlate with these alignments. Next, we investigate the angular segregation of satellites with respect to their central galaxy major axis directions, to identify the satellite properties that most strongly predict their angular segregation. We find that central galaxies are more aligned with their member galaxy distributions in clusters that are more elongated and have higher richness, and for central galaxies with larger physical size, higher luminosity and centring probability, and redder colour. Satellites with redder colour, higher luminosity, located closer to the central galaxy, and with smaller ellipticity show a stronger angular segregation towards their central galaxy major axes. Finally, we provide physical explanations for some of the identified correlations, and discuss the connection to theories of central galaxy alignments, the impact of primordial alignments with tidal fields, and the importance of anisotropic accretion.

  2. Intrinsic alignments in redMaPPer clusters – I. Central galaxy alignments and angular segregation of satellites

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Hung -Jin; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Freeman, Peter E.; ...

    2016-08-11

    The shapes of cluster central galaxies are not randomly oriented, but rather exhibit coherent alignments with the shapes of their parent clusters as well as with the surrounding large-scale structures. In this work, we aim to identify the galaxy and cluster quantities that most strongly predict the central galaxy alignment phenomenon among a large parameter space with a sample of 8237 clusters and 94 817 members within 0.1 < z < 0.35, based on the red-sequence Matched-filter Probabilistic Percolation cluster catalogue constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We first quantify the alignment between the projected central galaxy shapes andmore » the distribution of member satellites, to understand what central galaxy and cluster properties most strongly correlate with these alignments. Next, we investigate the angular segregation of satellites with respect to their central galaxy major axis directions, to identify the satellite properties that most strongly predict their angular segregation. We find that central galaxies are more aligned with their member galaxy distributions in clusters that are more elongated and have higher richness, and for central galaxies with larger physical size, higher luminosity and centring probability, and redder colour. Satellites with redder colour, higher luminosity, located closer to the central galaxy, and with smaller ellipticity show a stronger angular segregation towards their central galaxy major axes. Lastly, we provide physical explanations for some of the identified correlations, and discuss the connection to theories of central galaxy alignments, the impact of primordial alignments with tidal fields, and the importance of anisotropic accretion.« less

  3. Intrinsic alignments in redMaPPer clusters – I. Central galaxy alignments and angular segregation of satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hung -Jin; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Freeman, Peter E.; Chen, Yen -Chi; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Baxter, Eric J.

    2016-08-11

    The shapes of cluster central galaxies are not randomly oriented, but rather exhibit coherent alignments with the shapes of their parent clusters as well as with the surrounding large-scale structures. In this work, we aim to identify the galaxy and cluster quantities that most strongly predict the central galaxy alignment phenomenon among a large parameter space with a sample of 8237 clusters and 94 817 members within 0.1 < z < 0.35, based on the red-sequence Matched-filter Probabilistic Percolation cluster catalogue constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We first quantify the alignment between the projected central galaxy shapes and the distribution of member satellites, to understand what central galaxy and cluster properties most strongly correlate with these alignments. Next, we investigate the angular segregation of satellites with respect to their central galaxy major axis directions, to identify the satellite properties that most strongly predict their angular segregation. We find that central galaxies are more aligned with their member galaxy distributions in clusters that are more elongated and have higher richness, and for central galaxies with larger physical size, higher luminosity and centring probability, and redder colour. Satellites with redder colour, higher luminosity, located closer to the central galaxy, and with smaller ellipticity show a stronger angular segregation towards their central galaxy major axes. Lastly, we provide physical explanations for some of the identified correlations, and discuss the connection to theories of central galaxy alignments, the impact of primordial alignments with tidal fields, and the importance of anisotropic accretion.

  4. Directed 3D Cell Alignment and Elongation in Microengineered Hydrogels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Immortalized human liver carcinoma cells (Hep-G2) were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 1% P/S and were passaged twice per week. 2.4. Prepolymer ... prepolymer (20% (w/v) in DPBS) was used to coat TMSPMA treated glass slides as previously described [28]. 2.5. Cell encapsulation and micropatterning Cell... prepolymer was pipetted between a TMSPMA coated glass slide and an untreated coverslip (18 mm (w) 18 mm (l)), then exposed to 6.9 mW/cm2 UV light

  5. Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment film using ion-beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hong-Gyu; Kim, Young-Hwan; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Lee, Won-Kyu; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Seo, Dae-Shik; Hwang, Jeong-Yeon

    2008-12-08

    Using ion-beam (IB) irradiation, liquid crystals (LCs) were vertically aligned (VA) on a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment film. Atomic-layer deposition was used to orient the LCs on high-quality {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films. The LC molecule orientation indicates the vertical direction of the atomic-layer-deposited {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that IB irradiation changed the chemical structure, shifting the Al-O binding energy and altering the Al-O bonding intensity. The low-voltage transmittance characteristics of the VA LC displays on the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alignment films were also measured, showing reduced voltage and power requirements.

  6. Electrospinning of aligned fibers with adjustable orientation using auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arras, Matthias M. L.; Grasl, Christian; Bergmeister, Helga; Schima, Heinrich

    2012-06-01

    A conventional electrospinning setup was upgraded by two turnable plate-like auxiliary high-voltage electrodes that allowed aligned fiber deposition in adjustable directions. Fiber morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The auxiliary electric field constrained the jet bending instability and the fiber deposition became controllable. At target speeds of 0.9 m s-1 90% of the fibers had aligned within 2°, whereas the angular spread was 70° without the use of auxiliary electrodes. It was even possible to orient fibers perpendicular to the rotational direction of the target. The fiber diameter became smaller and its distribution narrower, while according to the FTIR-ATR measurement the molecular orientation of the polymer was unaltered. This study comprehensively documents the feasibility of directed fiber deposition and offers an easy upgrade to existing electrospinning setups.

  7. 28 CFR 540.14 - General correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sign insurance papers, but may not operate a mortgage or insurance business while in the institution... of an inmate's business (See § 541.13, Prohibited Act No. 408). An inmate, unless a pre-trial detainee, may not direct a business while confined. This does not, however, prohibit...

  8. 28 CFR 540.14 - General correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sign insurance papers, but may not operate a mortgage or insurance business while in the institution... of an inmate's business (See § 541.13, Prohibited Act No. 408). An inmate, unless a pre-trial detainee, may not direct a business while confined. This does not, however, prohibit...

  9. 75 FR 23764 - Correspondent Concentration Risks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... prudent ] risk management policies and procedures.\\2\\ Credit (asset) risk is the potential that an obligation will not be paid in a timely manner or in full. Credit concentration risk arises whenever an... plans and internal risk limits. The Agencies generally consider credit exposures arising from direct...

  10. The dS/dS Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Karch, Andreas; Silverstein, Eva; Tong, David

    2004-12-01

    We present a holographic duality for the de Sitter static patch which consolidates basic features of its geometry and the behavior of gravity and brane probes, valid on timescales short compared to the decay or Poincare recurrence times. Namely de Sitter spacetime dSd(R) in d dimensions with curvature radius R is holographically dual to two conformal field theories on dSd-1(R), cut off at an energy scale 1/R where they couple to each other and to d - 1 dimensional gravity. As part of our analysis, we study brane probes in de Sitter and thermal Anti de Sitter spaces, and interpret the terms in the corresponding DBI action via strongly coupled thermal field theory. This provides a dual field theoretic interpretation of the fact that probes take forever to reach a horizon in general relativity.

  11. Aligning Two Genomic Sequences That Contain Duplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Minmei; Riemer, Cathy; Berman, Piotr; Hardison, Ross C.; Miller, Webb

    It is difficult to properly align genomic sequences that contain intra-species duplications. With this goal in mind, we have developed a tool, called TOAST (two-way orthologous alignment selection tool), for predicting whether two aligned regions from different species are orthologous, i.e., separated by a speciation event, as opposed to a duplication event. The advantage of restricting alignment to orthologous pairs is that they constitute the aligning regions that are most likely to share the same biological function, and most easily analyzed for evidence of selection. We evaluate TOAST on 12 human/mouse gene clusters.

  12. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  13. A simple method for fabrication of electrospun fibers with controlled degree of alignment having potential for nerve regeneration applications.

    PubMed

    Vimal, Sunil Kumar; Ahamad, Nadim; Katti, Dhirendra S

    2016-06-01

    In peripheral nerve injuries where direct suturing of nerve endings is not feasible, nerve regeneration has been facilitated through the use of artificially aligned fibrous scaffolds that provide directional growth of neurons to bridge the gap. The degree of fiber alignment is crucial and can impact the directionality of cells in a fibrous scaffold. While there have been multiple approaches that have been used for controlling fiber alignment, however, they have been associated with a compromised control on other properties, such as diameter, morphology, curvature, and topology of fibers. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a modified electrospinning set-up, that enabled fabrication of electrospun fibers with controlled degree of alignment from non-aligned (NA), moderately aligned (MA, 75%) to highly aligned (HA, 95%) sub-micron fibers while keeping other physical properties unchanged. The results demonstrate that the aligned fibers (MA and HA) facilitated directional growth of human astrocytoma cells (U373), wherein the aspect ratio of cells was found to increase with an increase in degree of fibers alignment. In contrast to NA and MA fibers, the HA fibers showed improved contact guidance to U373 cells that was demonstrated by a significantly higher cell aspect ratio and nuclear aspect ratio. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated a modified electrospinning setup to fabricate differentially aligned fibrous scaffolds with the HA fibers showing potential for use in neural tissue engineering.

  14. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO/sub 2/ fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO/sub 2/ alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence.

  15. FOGSAA: Fast Optimal Global Sequence Alignment Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Angana; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2013-04-01

    In this article we propose a Fast Optimal Global Sequence Alignment Algorithm, FOGSAA, which aligns a pair of nucleotide/protein sequences faster than any optimal global alignment method including the widely used Needleman-Wunsch (NW) algorithm. FOGSAA is applicable for all types of sequences, with any scoring scheme, and with or without affine gap penalty. Compared to NW, FOGSAA achieves a time gain of (70-90)% for highly similar nucleotide sequences (> 80% similarity), and (54-70)% for sequences having (30-80)% similarity. For other sequences, it terminates with an approximate score. For protein sequences, the average time gain is between (25-40)%. Compared to three heuristic global alignment methods, the quality of alignment is improved by about 23%-53%. FOGSAA is, in general, suitable for aligning any two sequences defined over a finite alphabet set, where the quality of the global alignment is of supreme importance.

  16. CYLINDER LENS ALIGNMENT IN THE LTP

    SciTech Connect

    TAKACS, P.Z.

    2005-07-26

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), is well-suited for the measurement of the axial figure of cylindrical mirrors that usually have a long radius of curvature in the axial direction but have a short radius of curvature in the sagittal direction. The sagittal curvature causes the probe beam to diverge in the transverse direction without coming to a focus on the detector, resulting in a very weak signal. It is useful to place a cylinder lens into the optical system above the mirror under test to refocus the sagittal divergence and increase the signal level. A positive cylinder lens can be placed at two positions above the surface: the Cat's Eye reflection position and the Wavefront-Matching position. The Cat's Eye position, is very tolerant to mirror misalignment, which is not good if absolute axial radius of curvature is to be measured. Lateral positioning and rotational misalignments of lens and the mirror combine to produce unusual profile results. This paper looks at various alignment issues with measurements and by raytrace simulations to determine the best strategy to minimize radius of curvature errors in the measurement of cylindrical aspheres.

  17. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  18. Quantum-Classical Correspondence of Shortcuts to Adiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Manaka; Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    We formulate the theory of shortcuts to adiabaticity in classical mechanics. For a reference Hamiltonian, the counterdiabatic term is constructed from the dispersionless Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy. Then the adiabatic theorem holds exactly for an arbitrary choice of time-dependent parameters. We use the Hamilton-Jacobi theory to define the generalized action. The action is independent of the history of the parameters and is directly related to the adiabatic invariant. The dispersionless KdV hierarchy is obtained from the classical limit of the KdV hierarchy for the quantum shortcuts to adiabaticity. This correspondence suggests some relation between the quantum and classical adiabatic theorems.

  19. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  20. MEANS FOR DETERMINING CENTRIFUGE ALIGNMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, W.Q.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for remotely determining the alignment of a centrifuge. The centrifage shaft is provided with a shoulder, upon which two followers ride, one for detecting radial movements, and one upon the shoulder face for determining the axial motion. The followers are attached to separate liquid filled bellows, and a tube connects each bellows to its respective indicating gage at a remote location. Vibrations produced by misalignment of the centrifuge shaft are transmitted to the bellows, and tbence through the tubing to the indicator gage. This apparatus is particularly useful for operation in a hot cell where the materials handled are dangerous to the operating personnel.