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Sample records for aliivibrio salmonicida strain

  1. Recombinant expression and purification of an ATP-dependent DNA ligase from Aliivibrio salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adele; Pedersen, Hege

    2014-05-01

    The genome of the psychrophilic fish-pathogen Aliivibrio salmonicida encodes a putative ATP-dependent DNA ligase in addition to a housekeeping NAD-dependent enzyme. In order to study the structure and activity of the ATP dependent ligase in vitro we have undertaken its recombinant production and purification from an Escherichia coli based expression system. Expression and purification of this protein presented two significant challenges. First, the gene product was moderately toxic to E. coli cells, second it was necessary to remove the large amounts of E. coli DNA present in bacterial lysates without contamination of the protein preparation by nucleases which might interfere with future assaying. The toxicity problem was overcome by fusion of the putative ligase to large solubility tags such as maltose-binding protein (MBP) or Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and DNA was removed by treatment with a nuclease which could be inhibited by reducing agents. As the A. salmonicida ATP-dependent DNA ligase gene encodes a predicted leader peptide, both the full-length and mature forms of the protein were produced. Both possessed ATP-dependent DNA ligase activity, but the truncated form was significantly more active. Here we detail the first reported production, purification and preliminary characterization of active A. salmonicida ATP-dependent DNA ligase.

  2. LitR Is a Repressor of syp Genes and Has a Temperature-Sensitive Regulatory Effect on Biofilm Formation and Colony Morphology in Vibrio (Aliivibrio) salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Bjelland, Ane Mohn; Ronessen, Maria; Robertsen, Espen; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio (Aliivibrio) salmonicida is the etiological agent of cold water vibriosis, a disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that is kept under control due to an effective vaccine. A seawater temperature below 12°C is normally required for disease development. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-regulated communication system that bacteria use to coordinate activities involved in colonization and pathogenesis, and we have previously shown that inactivation of the QS master regulator LitR attenuates the V. salmonicida strain LFI1238 in a fish model. We show here that strain LFI1238 and a panel of naturally occurring V. salmonicida strains are poor biofilm producers. Inactivation of litR in the LFI1238 strain enhances medium- and temperature-dependent adhesion, rugose colony morphology, and biofilm formation. Chemical treatment and electron microscopy of the biofilm identified an extracellular matrix consisting mainly of a fibrous network, proteins, and polysaccharides. Further, by microarray analysis of planktonic and biofilm cells, we identified a number of genes regulated by LitR and, among these, were homologues of the Vibrio fischeri symbiosis polysaccharide (syp) genes. The syp genes were regulated by LitR in both planktonic and biofilm lifestyle analyses. Disruption of syp genes in the V. salmonicida ΔlitR mutant alleviated adhesion, rugose colony morphology, and biofilm formation. Hence, LitR is a repressor of syp transcription that is necessary for expression of the phenotypes examined. The regulatory effect of LitR on colony morphology and biofilm formation is temperature sensitive and weak or absent at temperatures above the bacterium's upper threshold for pathogenicity. PMID:24973072

  3. Expression profiling reveals Spot 42 small RNA as a key regulator in the central metabolism of Aliivibrio salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spot 42 was discovered in Escherichia coli nearly 40 years ago as an abundant, small and unstable RNA. Its biological role has remained obscure until recently, and is today implicated in having broader roles in the central and secondary metabolism. Spot 42 is encoded by the spf gene. The gene is ubiquitous in the Vibrionaceae family of gamma-proteobacteria. One member of this family, Aliivibrio salmonicida, causes cold-water vibriosis in farmed Atlantic salmon. Its genome encodes Spot 42 with 84% identity to E. coli Spot 42. Results We generated a A. salmonicida spf deletion mutant. We then used microarray and Northern blot analyses to monitor global effects on the transcriptome in order to provide insights into the biological roles of Spot 42 in this bacterium. In the presence of glucose, we found a surprisingly large number of ≥ 2X differentially expressed genes, and several major cellular processes were affected. A gene encoding a pirin-like protein showed an on/off expression pattern in the presence/absence of Spot 42, which suggests that Spot 42 plays a key regulatory role in the central metabolism by regulating the switch between fermentation and respiration. Interestingly, we discovered an sRNA named VSsrna24, which is encoded immediately downstream of spf. This new sRNA has an expression pattern opposite to that of Spot 42, and its expression is repressed by glucose. Conclusions We hypothesize that Spot 42 plays a key role in the central metabolism, in part by regulating the pyruvat dehydrogenase enzyme complex via pirin. PMID:22272603

  4. Expression and characterization of a codon-optimized alkaline-stable carbonic anhydrase from Aliivibrio salmonicida for CO2 sequestration applications.

    PubMed

    Jun, So-Young; Kim, Sung Ho; Kanth, Bashista Kumar; Lee, Jinwon; Pack, Seung Pil

    2017-03-01

    The CO2 mineralization process, accelerated by carbonic anhydrase (CA) was proposed for the efficient capture and storage of CO2, the accumulation of which in the atmosphere is the main cause of global warming. Here, we characterize a highly stable form of the cloned CA from the Gram-negative marine bacterium Aliivibrio salmonicida, named ASCA that can promote CO2 absorption in an alkaline solvent required for efficient carbon capture. We designed a mature form of ASCA (mASCA) using a codon optimization of ASCA gene and removal of ASCA signal peptide. mASCA was highly expressed (255 mg/L) with a molecular weight of approximately 26 kDa. The mASCA enzyme exhibited stable esterase activity within a temperature range of 10-60 °C and a pH range of 6-11. mASCA activity remained stable for 48 h at pH 10. We also investigated its inhibition profiles using inorganic anions, such as acetazolamide, sulfanilamide, iodide, nitrate, and azide. We also demonstrate that mASCA is capable of catalyzing the conversion of CO2 to CaCO3 (calcite form) in the presence of Ca(2+). It should be noted that mASCA enzyme exhibits high production yield and sufficient stabilities against relatively high temperature and alkaline pH, which are required conditions for the development of more efficient enzymatic CCS systems.

  5. Infection of sea lamprey with an unusual strain of Aeromonas salmonicida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamanka, Arfang; Loch, Thomas P.; Cipriano, Rocco C.; Winters, Andrew D.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes by the fish-parasitic sea lamprey has led to catastrophic consequences, including the potential introduction of fish pathogens. Aeromonas salmonicida is a bacterial fish pathogen that causes devastating losses worldwide. Currently, there are five accepted subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida: A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, and pectinolytica. We discuss the discovery of an isolate of A. salmonicida that is pathogenic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and exhibits unique phenotypic and molecular characteristics. We examined 181 adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Humber River (Lake Ontario watershed) and 162 adult sea lamprey from Duffins Creek (Lake Ontario watershed) during the spring seasons of 2005–11. Among those, 4/343 (1.2%) sea lamprey were culture positive for A. salmonicida, whereby biochemical and molecular studies identified three of the isolates as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The remaining isolate (As-SL1) recovered from Humber River sea lamprey was phenotypically more similar to A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida than to the four other A. salmonicida subspecies. However, unlike A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, As-SL1 was sucrose positive, produced an acid-over-acid reaction on triple-sugar iron medium and did not amplify with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial stretches of the 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B genes further confirmed that the As-SL1 isolate was not A. salmonicida subsp. masoucida, smithia, achromogenes, or pectinolytica. Based on our analyses, the As-SL1 isolate is either an unusual strain of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or a novel A. salmonicida subspecies. The four A. salmonicida isolates that were recovered from sea lamprey were pathogenic to rainbow trout in experimental challenge studies. Our study also underscores the potential role of sea lamprey in the ecology of

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens ML11A, an Endogenous Strain from Brook Charr with Antagonistic Properties against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Charette, Steve J.; Derome, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas fluorescens ML11A, isolated from brook charr, showed a strong in vitro inhibitory effect against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a bacterial fish pathogen. Its genome harbors gene clusters for siderophore and bacteriocin biosynthesis and shares 99% whole-genome identity with P. fluorescens A506, a biological control strain used in agriculture. PMID:28254983

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliivibrio fischeri Strain 5LC, a Bacterium Retrieved from Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Larvae Reared in Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Califano, Gianmaria; Franco, Telma; Gonçalves, Ana C S; Castanho, Sara; Soares, Florbela; Ribeiro, Laura; Mata, Leonardo; Costa, Rodrigo

    2015-06-04

    To shed light on the putative host-mediated lifestyle of the quintessential marine symbiont Aliivibrio fischeri, and on the symbiosis versus potentially pathogenic features of bacteria associated with farmed fish, we report the draft genome sequence of A. fischeri strain 5LC, a bacterium retrieved from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliivibrio fischeri Strain 5LC, a Bacterium Retrieved from Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Larvae Reared in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Califano, Gianmaria; Franco, Telma; Gonçalves, Ana C. S.; Castanho, Sara; Soares, Florbela; Ribeiro, Laura; Mata, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    To shed light on the putative host-mediated lifestyle of the quintessential marine symbiont Aliivibrio fischeri, and on the symbiosis versus potentially pathogenic features of bacteria associated with farmed fish, we report the draft genome sequence of A. fischeri strain 5LC, a bacterium retrieved from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae. PMID:26044435

  9. Draft genome sequence of the Chilean isolate Aeromonas salmonicida strain CBA100.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Natalia; Espinoza, Carolina; Sanhueza, Loreto; Gonzalez, Alex; Corsini, Gino; Tello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    We report the draft genome sequence from Aeromonas salmonicida sp. strain CBA100, which was characterized as an antibiotic-resistant bacterium isolated from infected rainbow trout. The total size of the genome is 4,788,109 bp, with a G + C content of 60.55%. Comparison of its open reading frames shows that the closest homologue to one third of the genes of strain CBA100 are found in A. hydrophila. The strain contains several efflux pumps and putative genes that confer resistance to multiclass antibiotics, including macrolide, β-lactamics, florfenicol and quinolones. The antibiogram profile suggests that efflux pumps are the main mechanism of resistance to non-β-lactamic antibiotics. This is the first genome of a Chilean isolate of A. salmonicida, which should shed light on the design of strain-specific vaccines against this pathogen and reduce the use of antibiotics for preventive treatment in Chilean aquaculture.

  10. Clustering subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida using IS630 typing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The insertion element IS630 found in Aeromonas salmonicida belongs to the IS630-Tc1-mariner superfamily of transposons. It is present in multiple copies and represents approximately half of the IS present in the genome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449. Results By using High Copy Number IS630 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (HCN-IS630-RFLP), strains of various subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida showed conserved or clustering patterns, thus allowing their differentiation from each other. Fingerprints of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida showed the highest homogeneity while ‘atypical’ A. salmonicida strains were more heterogeneous. IS630 typing also differentiated A. salmonicida from other Aeromonas species. The copy number of IS630 in Aeromonas salmonicida ranges from 8 to 35 and is much lower in other Aeromonas species. Conclusions HCN-IS630-RFLP is a powerful tool for subtyping of A. salmonicida. The high stability of IS630 insertions in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida indicates that it might have played a role in pathoadaptation of A. salmonicida which has reached an optimal configuration in the highly virulent and specific fish pathogen A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:23406017

  11. Analysis of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur) knockout mutant in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Ebanks, Roger O; Goguen, Michel; Knickle, Leah; Dacanay, Andrew; Leslie, Andrew; Ross, Neil W; Pinto, Devanand M

    2013-03-23

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis; a serious infectious disease in aquaculture raised salmonids. Iron acquisition has been shown to be critical for the survival of pathogenic bacteria during the course of infection. Previous work has demonstrated that A. salmonicida expresses iron-repressible IROMP proteins, suggesting the presence of iron acquisition systems that are under the control of a ferric uptake regulator (Fur). In this study, the A. salmonicida fur has been sequenced and a fur deletion strain generated. The A. salmonicida fur gene has an open reading frame of 428 bp, coding for a protein of 143 amino acids, and with high homology to previously described Fur proteins. The Fur protein product had a 94% sequence identity and 96% sequence similarity to the Aeromonas hydrophila Fur protein product. Transcription of the A. salmonicida fur gene was not regulated by the iron status of the bacterium and is not autoregulated, as in Escherichia coli. Proteomic analysis of the A. salmonicida fur mutant, fails to repress iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in the presence of iron. The A. salmonicida fur::KO mutant shows significantly reduced pathogenicity compared to the wild-type parental strain. In addition, the A. salmonicida fur mutant provides an important tool for further investigation of the iron acquisition mechanisms utilized by A. salmonicida.

  12. Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Garduño, R A; Thornton, J C; Kay, W W

    1993-01-01

    The virulent fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida was rapidly killed in vivo when restricted inside a diffusion chamber implanted intraperitoneally in rainbow trout. After a period of regrowth, the survivors had acquired resistance to host-mediated bacteriolysis, phagocytosis, and oxidative killing, properties which were subsequently lost by growth in vitro. Resistance to bacteriolysis and phagocytosis was associated with a newly acquired capsular layer revealed by acidic polysaccharide staining and electron microscopy. This capsular layer shielded the underlying, regular surface array (S-layer) from immunogold labeling with a primary antibody to the S-layer protein. Resistance to oxidative killing was mediated by a mechanism not associated with the presence of the capsular layer. An attenuated vaccine strain of A. salmonicida grown in vivo failed to express the capsular layer. Consequently, the in vivo-grown cells of this attenuated strain remained as sensitive to bacteriolysis, and as avidly adherent to macrophages, as the in vitro-grown cells. The importance of these new virulence determinants and their relation to the known virulence factors of A. salmonicida are discussed. Images PMID:8359906

  13. Development of a SYBR green I real-time PCR assay for specific identification of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Álvarez, Clara; González, Santiago F; Santos, Ysabel

    2016-12-01

    A SYBR Green I real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol for specific detection of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was developed and validated for rapid diagnosis of typical furunculosis. The sequence of the aopO gene of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, which encodes for a serine/threonine protein kinase linked to virulence, was chosen for primer design. The selected primers amplified a 119-bp internal fragment of the aopO gene. The specificity test proved that 100 % (40/40) of the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains tested showed a positive amplification with subspecies-specific melting temperatures (Tm) of 80.75 ± 0.35 °C. Atypical A. salmonicida subspecies and other non-related bacterial fish pathogens did not amplify or showed unspecific melting profiles, except for one strain of A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and one strain of A. salmonicida subsp. smithia. The detection sensitivity was 21 fg of purified bacterial DNA per reaction, corresponding to 1-2 bacterial cells and 6-60 bacteria per reaction for seeded kidney and blood. The assay was highly reproducible with low variation coefficient values for intra-run and inter-run assays. The assay also allowed the specific detection of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in tissues of fish naturally and experimentally infected. No amplification was detected when tissues from healthy fish or fish affected by other diseases were tested. The SYBR Green real-time PCR and melt curve analysis developed in this study is a rapid and accurate method for the specific identification of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates and its detection on tissues of fish affected by furunculosis.

  14. Biological control of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Aeromonas phage PAS-1.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Choresca, C H; Shin, S P; Han, J E; Jun, J W; Park, S C

    2015-02-01

    The potential control efficacy of Aeromonas phage PAS-1 was evaluated against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) model in this study. The phage was co-cultured with the virulent A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain AS05 that possesses the type III secretion system (TTSS) ascV gene, and efficient bacteriolytic activity was observed against the bacteria. The administration of PAS-1 in rainbow trout demonstrated that the phage was cleared from the fish within 200 h post-administration, and a temporal neutralizing activity against the phage was detected in the sera of phage-administrated fish. The administration of PAS-1 (multiplicity of infection: 10 000) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infected rainbow trout model showed notable protective effects, with increased survival rates and mean times to death. These results demonstrated that Aeromonas phage PAS-1 could be considered as an alternative biological control agent against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout culture.

  15. Triclosan Resistance in a Bacterial Fish Pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is Mediated by an Enoyl Reductase, FabV.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raees; Lee, Myung Hwan; Joo, Hae-Jin; Jung, Yong-Hoon; Ahmad, Shabir; Choi, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2015-04-01

    Triclosan, the widely used biocide, specifically targets enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) in the bacterial fatty acid synthesis system. Although the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida exhibits triclosan resistance, the nature of this resistance has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to characterize the triclosan resistance of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causing furunculosis. The fosmid library of triclosan-resistant A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was constructed to select a fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance. With the fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance, a subsequent secondary library search resulted in the selection of subclone pTSR-1. DNA sequence analysis of pTSR-1 revealed the presence of a chromosomal-borne fabV-encoding ENR homolog. The ENR of A. salmonicida (FabVas) exhibited significant homology with previously known FabV, including the catalytic domain YX(8)K. fabVas introduction into E. coli dramatically increased its resistance to triclosan. Heterologous expression of FabVas might functionally replace the triclosan-sensitive FabI in vivo to confer E. coli with triclosan resistance. A genome-wide search for fabVas homologs revealed the presence of an additional fabV gene (fabVas2) paralog in A. salmonicida strains and the fabVas orthologs from other gram-negative fish pathogens. Both of the potential FabV ENRs expressed similarly with or without triclosan supplement. This is the first report about the presence of two potential FabV ENRs in a single pathogenic bacterium. Our result suggests that triclosan-resistant ENRs are widely distributed in various bacteria in nature, and the wide use of this biocide can spread these triclosan-tolerant ENRs among fish pathogens and other pathogenic bacteria.

  16. The Aeromonas salmonicida Lipopolysaccharide Core from Different Subspecies: The Unusual subsp. pectinolytica.

    PubMed

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Initial hydridization tests using Aeromonas salmonicida typical and atypical strains showed the possibility of different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer cores among these strains. By chemical structural analysis, LPS-core SDS-PAGE gel migration, and functional and comparative genomics we demonstrated that typical A. salmonicida (subsp. salmonicida) strains and atypical subsp. masoucida and probably smithia strains showed the same LPS outer core. A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes strains show a similar LPS outer core but lack one of the most external residues (a galactose linked α1-6 to heptose), not affecting the O-antigen LPS linkage. A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strains show a rather changed LPS outer core, which is identical to the LPS outer core from the majority of the A. hydrophila strains studied by genomic analyses. The LPS inner core in all tested A. salmonicida strains, typical and atypical, is well-conserved. Furthermore, the LPS inner core seems to be conserved in all the Aeromonas (psychrophilic or mesophilic) strains studied by genomic analyses.

  17. The mosaic architecture of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida pAsa4 plasmid and its consequences on antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Katherine H.; Vincent, Antony T.; Trudel, Mélanie V.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Frenette, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonids, is an issue especially because many isolates of this bacterium display antibiotic resistances, which limit treatments against the disease. Recent results suggested the possible existence of alternative forms of pAsa4, a large plasmid found in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and bearing multiple antibiotic resistance genes. The present study reveals the existence of two newly detected pAsa4 variants, pAsa4b and pAsa4c. We present the extensive characterization of the genomic architecture, the mobile genetic elements and the antimicrobial resistance genes of these plasmids in addition to the reference pAsa4 from the strain A449. The analysis showed differences between the three architectures with consequences on the content of resistance genes. The genomic plasticity of the three pAsa4 variants could be partially explained by the action of mobile genetic elements like insertion sequences. Eight additional isolates from Canada and Europe that bore similar antibiotic resistance patterns as pAsa4-bearing strains were genotyped and specific pAsa4 variants could be attributed to phenotypic profiles. pAsa4 and pAsa4c were found in Europe, while pAsa4b was found in Canada. In accordance with their content in conjugative transfer genes, only pAsa4b and pAsa4c can be transferred by conjugation in Escherichia coli. The plasticity of pAsa4 variants related to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance indicates that these plasmids may pose a threat in terms of the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida bacteria. PMID:27812409

  18. Two Catechol Siderophores, Acinetobactin and Amonabactin, Are Simultaneously Produced by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida Sharing Part of the Biosynthetic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Balado, Miguel; Souto, Alba; Vences, Ana; Careaga, Valeria P; Valderrama, Katherine; Segade, Yuri; Rodríguez, Jaime; Osorio, Carlos R; Jiménez, Carlos; Lemos, Manuel L

    2015-12-18

    The iron uptake mechanisms based on siderophore synthesis used by the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida are still not completely understood, and the precise structure of the siderophore(s) is unknown. The analysis of genome sequences revealed that this bacterium possesses two gene clusters putatively involved in the synthesis of siderophores. One cluster is a candidate to encode the synthesis of acinetobactin, the siderophore of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, while the second cluster shows high similarity to the genes encoding amonabactin synthesis in Aeromonas hydrophila. Using a combination of genomic analysis, mutagenesis, biological assays, chemical purification, and structural determination procedures, here we demonstrate that most A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains produce simultaneously the two siderophores, acinetobactin and amonabactin. Interestingly, the synthesis of both siderophores relies on a single copy of the genes encoding the synthesis of the catechol moiety (2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid) and on one encoding a phosphopantetheinyl transferase. These genes are present only in the amonabactin cluster, and a single mutation in any of them abolishes production of both siderophores. We could also demonstrate that some strains, isolated from fish raised in seawater, produce only acinetobactin since they present a deletion in the amonabactin biosynthesis gene amoG. Our study represents the first evidence of simultaneous production of acinetobactin and amonabactin by a bacterial pathogen and reveals the plasticity of bacterial genomes and biosynthetic pathways. The fact that the same siderophore is produced by unrelated pathogens highlights the importance of these systems and their interchangeability between different bacteria.

  19. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species: a review.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, T; Dalsgaard, I

    1998-02-26

    Bacterial strains of Aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. acromogenes, subsp. masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical A. salmonicida. The atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteasess. Consequently, the present taxonomy of the species A. salmonicida is rather ambiguous. Atypical A. salmonicida has been isolated from a wide range of cultivated and wild fish species, non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations. The best known diseases associated with atypical A. salmonicida are carp Cyprinus carpio erythrodermatitis, goldfish Carassius auratus ulcer disease, and ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus, but atypical strains are apparently involved in more disease outbreaks than previously suspected. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of ulcerated fish indicate internal organs are infrequently invaded by atypical A. salmonicida. This view is supported by the fact that atypical strains are irregularly isolated from visceral organs of ulcerated fish. High mortality caused by atypical A. salmonicida has been observed in populations of wild non-salmonids and farmed salmonids, although the association between the mortality in the wild fish stocks and atypical A. salmonicida has not always been properly assessed. In injection experiments the pathogenicity of the atypical strains examined showed large variation. An extacellular A-layer has been detected in different atypical strains, but virulence mechanisms different from those described for (typical) A. salmonicida subsp

  20. Comparative genomics profiling of clinical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida using DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Nash, John HE; Findlay, Wendy A; Luebbert, Christian C; Mykytczuk, Oksana L; Foote, Simon J; Taboada, Eduardo N; Carrillo, Catherine D; Boyd, Jessica M; Colquhoun, Duncan J; Reith, Michael E; Brown, Laura L

    2006-01-01

    Background Aeromonas salmonicida has been isolated from numerous fish species and shows wide variation in virulence and pathogenicity. As part of a larger research program to identify virulence genes and candidates for vaccine development, a DNA microarray was constructed using a subset of 2024 genes from the draft genome sequence of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain A449. The microarray included genes encoding known virulence-associated factors in A. salmonicida and homologs of virulence genes of other pathogens. We used microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH) to compare selected A. salmonicida sub-species and other Aeromonas species from different hosts and geographic locations. Results Results showed variable carriage of virulence-associated genes and generally increased variation in gene content across sub-species and species boundaries. The greatest variation was observed among genes associated with plasmids and transposons. There was little correlation between geographic region and degree of variation for all isolates tested. Conclusion We have used the M-CGH technique to identify subsets of conserved genes from amongst this set of A. salmonicida virulence genes for further investigation as potential vaccine candidates. Unlike other bacterial characterization methods that use a small number of gene or DNA-based functions, M-CGH examines thousands of genes and/or whole genomes and thus is a more comprehensive analytical tool for veterinary or even human health research. PMID:16522207

  1. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Holm Mattsson, Andreas; Dalsgaard, Inger; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis and a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Injection vaccination with commercial mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterin vaccines has been partly successful in preventing the disease but in Danish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The fish were exposed to virulent A. salmonicida 7 weeks after immunization. To assess the efficacy of the subunit vaccines we evaluated the immune response in fish after immunization and challenge infection by measuring the antibody levels and monitoring the survival of fish in different groups. The survival of fish at 3 weeks after challenge infection showed that all 3 groups of fish immunized with 3 different protein combinations exhibited significantly lower mortalities (17–30%) compared to the control groups (48% and 56%). The ELISA results revealed significantly elevated antibody levels in fish against several protein antigens, which in some cases were positively correlated to the survival. PMID:28182704

  2. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  3. Infection routes of Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout monitored in vivo by real-time bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Bartkova, S; Kokotovic, B; Dalsgaard, I

    2017-01-01

    Recent development of imaging tools has facilitated studies of pathogen infections in vivo in real time. This trend can be exemplified by advances in bioluminescence imaging (BLI), an approach that helps to visualize dissemination of pathogens within the same animal over several time points. Here, we employ bacterial BLI for examining routes of entry and spread of Aeromonas salmonicida susbp. salmonicida in rainbow trout. A virulent Danish A. salmonicida strain was tagged with pAKgfplux1, a dual-labelled plasmid vector containing the mutated gfpmut3a gene from Aequorea victoria and the luxCDABE genes from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The resulting A. salmonicida transformant exhibited growth properties and virulence identical to the wild-type A. salmonicida, which made it suitable for an experimental infection, mimicking natural conditions. Fish were infected with pAKgfplux1 tagged A. salmonicida via immersion bath. Colonization and subsequent tissue dissemination was followed over a 24-h period using the IVIS spectrum imaging workstation. Results suggest the pathogen's colonization sites are the dorsal and pectoral fin and the gills, followed by a progression through the internal organs and an ensuing exit via the anal opening. This study provides a tool for visualizing colonization of A. salmonicida and other bacterial pathogens in fish.

  4. Identification of the Ferric-Acinetobactin Outer Membrane Receptor in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and Structure-Activity Relationships of Synthetic Acinetobactin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Balado, Miguel; Segade, Yuri; Rey, Diego; Osorio, Carlos R; Rodríguez, Jaime; Lemos, Manuel L; Jiménez, Carlos

    2017-02-17

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis in several fish species, produces acinetobactin and amonabactin as siderophores. In a previous study, we chemically characterized these siderophores and proposed a biosynthetic pathway based on genetic analysis. However, the internalization mechanisms of ferric-acinetobactin and ferric-amonabactin remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that the outer membrane protein FstB is the ferric-acinetobactin receptor in A. salmonicida since an fstB defective mutant is unable to grow under iron limitation and does not use acinetobactin as an iron source. In order to study the effect that structural changes in acinetobactin have on its siderophore activity, a collection of acinetobactin-based analogues was synthesized, including its enantiomer and four demethylated derivatives. The biological activity of these analogues on an fstB(+) strain compared to an fstB(-) strain allowed structure-activity relationships to be elucidated. We found a lack of enantiomer preference on the siderophore activity of acinetobactin over A. salmonicida or on the molecular recognition by FstB protein receptor. In addition, it was observed that A. salmonicida could not use acinetobactin analogues when imidazole or a similar heterocyclic ring was absent from the structure. Surprisingly, removal of the methyl group at the isoxazolidinone ring induced a higher biological activity, thus suggesting alternative route(s) of entry into the cell that must be further investigated. It is proposed that some of the synthetic acinetobactin analogues described here could be used as starting points in the development of novel drugs against A. salmonicida and probably against other acinetobactin producers like the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

  5. Design of a toxicity biosensor based on Aliivibrio fischeri entrapped in a disposable card.

    PubMed

    Jouanneau, Sulivan; Durand-Thouand, Marie-José; Thouand, Gérald

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of the marine environment is a subject of concern for the European authorities primarily because of its contamination by hydrocarbons. The traditional methods (ISO 11348 standard) of general toxicity assessment are unsuitable in a context of in situ monitoring, such as seaports or bathing zones. Consequently, to address this issue, bacterial biosensors appear to be pertinent tools. This article presents the design of an innovative bioluminescent biosensor dedicated to in situ toxicity monitoring. This biosensor is based on the entrapment of the wild marine bioluminescent bacterial strain Aliivibrio fischeri ATCC® 49387™ in an agarose matrix within a disposable card. A pre-study was needed to select the most biological parameters. In particular, the regenerating medium's composition and the hydrogel concentration needed for the bacterial entrapment (mechanical resistance) were optimized. Based on these data, the ability of the bacterial reporter to assess the sample toxicity was demonstrated using naphthalene as a chemical model. The biosensor's results show a lower sensitivity to naphthalene (EC50 = 95 mg/L) compared with the results obtained using the reference method (EC50 = 43 mg/L). With this architecture, the biosensor is an interesting compromise among low maintenance, ease of use, appropriate sensitivity, relatively low cost and the ability to control online toxicity.

  6. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in the light of its type-three secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Bergh, Philippe; Frey, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is an important pathogen in salmonid aquaculture and is responsible for the typical furunculosis. The type-three secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence system. In this work, we review structure and function of this highly sophisticated nanosyringe in A. salmonicida. Based on the literature as well as personal experimental observations, we document the genetic (re)organization, expression regulation, anatomy, putative functional origin and roles in the infectious process of this T3SS. We propose a model of pathogenesis where A. salmonicida induces a temporary immunosuppression state in fish in order to acquire free access to host tissues. Finally, we highlight putative important therapeutic and vaccine strategies to prevent furunculosis of salmonid fish. PMID:24119189

  7. The impact of Aeromonas salmonicida infection on innate immune parameters of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L).

    PubMed

    Du, Yishuai; Yi, Mengmeng; Xiao, Peng; Meng, Lingjie; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Enzyme activities and gene expression of a number of innate immune parameters in the serum, mucus and skin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were investigated after challenge with a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas salmonicida (A. salmonicida). Fish were injected in the dorsal muscle with either 100 μl bacterium solution, about 3.05 × 10(7) CFU/ml A. salmonicida, or 100 μl 0.9% NaCl (as control group) and tissue samples were collected at days 0, 2, 4 and 6 post-injection. Lysozyme (LSZ) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities in serum, mucus and skin, and LSZ and AKP mRNA expression in skin of the challenged fish were higher than those of the control at most of the experimental time, with significant differences at several time points (P < 0.05), indicating the involvement of LSZ and AKP in the innate immunity of Atlantic salmon to A. salmonicida. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in mucus and skin, along with the SOD, POD and CAT mRNA expression in skin significantly decreased at day 4 and 6, indicating the decreased antioxidant capacity of the challenged fish. Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities in serum, mucus and skin of the challenged group were all higher than those of the control after the injection, and at several time points significant differences were found between the two groups, suggesting organs of fish were impaired after the pathogen infection. The changes of the GPT and GOT activities could be used as potential biomarkers for the impairment of physiological functions caused by the pathogen infection. Identified biomarkers of the immune responses will contribute to the early-warning system of the disease. So this study will not only provide a theoretical basis for vaccine development, but also provide basic data for the establishment of early warning systems for diseases caused by A. salmonicida in Atlantic salmon rearing.

  8. Hydrogenosomes in the diplomonad Spironucleus salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Jerlström-Hultqvist, Jon; Einarsson, Elin; Xu, Feifei; Hjort, Karin; Ek, Bo; Steinhauf, Daniel; Hultenby, Kjell; Bergquist, Jonas; Andersson, Jan O.; Svärd, Staffan G.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of the mitochondrion is a key event in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, but diversification of the organelle has occurred during eukaryotic evolution. One example of such mitochondria-related organelles (MROs) are hydrogenosomes, which produce ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation with hydrogen as a byproduct. The diplomonad parasite Giardia intestinalis harbours mitosomes, another type of MRO. Here we identify MROs in the salmon parasite Spironucleus salmonicida with similar protein import and Fe–S cluster assembly machineries as in Giardia mitosomes. We find that hydrogen production is prevalent in the diplomonad genus Spironucleus, and that S. salmonicida MROs contain enzymes characteristic of hydrogenosomes. Evolutionary analyses of known hydrogenosomal components indicate their presence in the diplomonad ancestor, and subsequent loss in Giardia. Our results suggest that hydrogenosomes are metabolic adaptations predating the split between parabasalids and diplomonads, which is deeper than the split between animals and fungi in the eukaryotic tree. PMID:24042146

  9. Interaction of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida with rainbow trout macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Garduño, R A; Kay, W W

    1992-01-01

    A procedure was developed to culture rainbow trout macrophages (M phi) on supported glass coverslips. Using this method and a variety of well-characterized Aeromonas salmonicida strains with normal or altered cell surfaces, we investigated the role of this unusual bacterial surface in the bacterium-M phi interaction. An intact crystalline protein array, the A-layer, mediated adherence of A. salmonicida cells to M phi even in the absence of opsonins. In contrast, unopsonized cells of an A-layer-negative (A-) mutant with a smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer were unable to interact with M phi. However, this ability was recovered when the A-layer was reconstituted onto the smooth LPS surface of these A- LPS+ cells. Two A. salmonicida mutants possessing the A-layer in different disorganized states had a reduced ability to interact with M phi. A+ cells grown under calcium limitation produced A-layers locked into an alternative conformation which mediated the highest levels of M phi association in the absence of opsonins or any other surface coating. Coating A+ cells with hemin greatly increased their levels of M phi association, and bacterial cells grown on trout blood agar plates also had a dramatic increase in their ability to interact with M phi. Only A+ A. salmonicida cells were highly cytotoxic to trout M phi, especially after being coated with hemin, presumably due to a more focused targeting of the bacterial cell onto the M phi surface and/or into the intracellular regions of the M phi. Images PMID:1398975

  10. Screening microorganisms for insulin binding reveals binding by Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cenocepacia and novel attachment of insulin to Aeromonas salmonicida via the A-layer.

    PubMed

    Nisr, Raid B; Moody, A John; Gilpin, Martyn L

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to microorganisms is considered an environmental factor that can contribute to Type 1 diabetes. Insulin-binding proteins (IBPs) on microorganisms may induce production of antibodies that can react with the human insulin receptor (HIR) with possible consequences in developing a diabetic autoimmune response against HIR and insulin. The interaction of insulin with microorganisms was studied by screening 45 microbial species for their ability to bind insulin. Binding assays were performed using labelled insulin to identify insulin-binding components on the microorganisms. Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cenocepacia isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida were the only strains of those tested, which showed insulin-binding components on their cell surfaces. Further work with A. salmonicida suggested that the insulin-binding activity of A. salmonicida is due to the A-layer. A mutant of A. salmonicida lacking the A-layer showed binding, but at a much reduced rate suggesting another insulin-binding component in addition to the high affinity of the A-protein. Soluble protein lysates were subjected to Western ligand blotting using peroxidase-labelled insulin to detect IBPs. Two positive IBPs were apparent at approximately 30 and 20 kDa in lysates from Burkholderia strains, but no IBP was detected in A. salmonicida lysates.

  11. Differential partition of virulent Aeromonas salmonicida and attenuated derivatives possessing specific cell surface alterations in polymer aqueous-phase systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Alstine, J. M.; Trust, T. J.; Brooks, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Two-polymer aqueous-phase systems in which partitioning of biological matter between the phases occurs according to surface properties such as hydrophobicity, charge, and lipid composition are used to compare the surface properties of strains of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. The differential ability of strains to produce a surface protein array crucial to their virulence, the A layer, and to produce smooth lipopolysaccharide is found to be important in the partitioning behavior of Aeromonas salmonicida. The presence of the A layer is shown to decrease the surface hydrophilicity of the pathogen, and to increase specifically its surface affinity for fatty acid esters of polyethylene glycol. The method has application to the analysis of surface properties crucial to bacterial virulence, and to the selection of strains and mutants with specific surface characteristics.

  12. A Novel lux Operon in the Cryptically Bioluminescent Fish Pathogen Vibrio salmonicida Is Associated with Virulence▿

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Eric J.; Tunsjø, Hege S.; Fidopiastis, Pat M.; Sørum, Henning; Ruby, Edward G.

    2007-01-01

    The cold-water-fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida expresses a functional bacterial luciferase but produces insufficient levels of its aliphatic-aldehyde substrate to be detectably luminous in culture. Our goals were to (i) better explain this cryptic bioluminescence phenotype through molecular characterization of the lux operon and (ii) test whether the bioluminescence gene cluster is associated with virulence. Cloning and sequencing of the V. salmonicida lux operon revealed that homologs of all of the genes required for luminescence are present: luxAB (luciferase) and luxCDE (aliphatic-aldehyde synthesis). The arrangement and sequence of these structural lux genes are conserved compared to those in related species of luminous bacteria. However, V. salmonicida strains have a novel arrangement and number of homologs of the luxR and luxI quorum-sensing regulatory genes. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis suggests that this novel arrangement of quorum-sensing genes generates antisense transcripts that may be responsible for the reduced production of bioluminescence. In addition, infection with a strain in which the luxA gene was mutated resulted in a marked delay in mortality among Atlantic salmon relative to infection with the wild-type parent in single-strain challenge experiments. In mixed-strain competition between the luxA mutant and the wild type, the mutant was attenuated up to 50-fold. It remains unclear whether the attenuation results from a direct loss of luciferase or a polar disturbance elsewhere in the lux operon. Nevertheless, these findings document for the first time an association between a mutation in a structural lux gene and virulence, as well as provide a new molecular system to study Vibrio pathogenesis in a natural host. PMID:17277225

  13. Integron-containing IncU R plasmids pRAS1 and pAr-32 from the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Sørum, Henning; L'Abée-Lund, Trine M; Solberg, Asta; Wold, Anette

    2003-04-01

    A 45-kb R plasmid, pRAS1, that confers resistance to tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides was isolated in 1989 from an atypical strain of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. This plasmid could be transferred by conjugation to Escherichia coli with a high degree of efficiency (frequency, 0.48). The following year pRAS1 was isolated from A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in the same area. Incompatibility group U plasmid pRAS1 contained a drug resistance-determining region of 12 kb consisting of a class 1 integron similar to In4 of Tn1696 but with a dfrA16 gene cassette inserted. Close to IS6100 at the right end of Tn4 was a truncated Tn1721. Restriction enzyme analysis showed that R plasmid pAr-32, isolated from A. salmonicida in Japan in 1970, had the same backbone structure as pRAS1, while the drug resistance-determining region contained a complex class 1 integron with an aadA2 cassette; the chloramphenicol resistance gene catA2, as in In6 of pSa; and a duplicate of the 3' conserved segment of the integron.

  14. Diversity and Homogeneity among Small Plasmids of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida Linked with Geographical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Attéré, Sabrina A.; Vincent, Antony T.; Trudel, Mélanie V.; Chanut, Romain; Charette, Steve J.

    2015-01-01

    Furunculosis, which is caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is a major salmonid disease in fish farms worldwide. Several plasmids found in this bacterium confer phenotypes such drug resistance and virulence. Small plasmids (pAsa1, pAsa2, pAsa3, and pAsal1) related to ColE1- and ColE2-type replicons are usually present in its normal plasmidome. In the present study, with the objective to investigate if these plasmids display particularities related to the origin of the isolates bearing them, a total of 153 isolates, including 78 new and 75 previously described, were analyzed for the presence of small plasmids by PCR and DNA restriction fragment profiling. A geographical dichotomy between Canadian and European isolates for their propensity to do not have pAsa3 or pAsal1 was found. In addition, the genotyping analysis led to the identification of two European isolates harboring an unusual pAsal1. An investigation by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of these two isolates shed light on two pAsal1 variants (pAsal1C and pAsal1D). As with pAsal1B, another pAsal1 variant previously described, these two new variants bore a second insertion sequence (ISAS5) in addition to the usual ISAS11. The characterization of these variants suggested that they could predominate over the wild-type pAsal1 in stressful conditions such as growth at temperatures of 25°C and above. To obtain a comprehensive portrait of the mutational pressure on small plasmids, 26 isolates whose DNA had been sequenced by NGS were investigated. pAsa3 and pAsal1 were more prone to mutations than pAsa1 and pAsa2, especially in the mobA gene, which encodes a relaxase and a primase. Lastly, the average copy number of each plasmid per cell was assessed using raw sequencing data. A clear trend with respect to the relative proportion per cell of each plasmid was identified. Our large-scale study revealed a geographical dichotomy in small plasmid repertoire in addition to a clear trend for pAsa3 and p

  15. Effects of temperature on biochemical reactions and drug resistance of virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation temperatures of 11°, 18° and 28° did not substantially affect biochemical reactions of either virulent or avirulent forms of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida. The only change observed, amygdalin fermentation, was positive at 11° and 18° but negative at 28°C. Several isolates utilized sucrose, a characteristic not normally recognized for A. salmonicida subspecies salmonicida.Antimicrobial susceptibility screening indicated resistance to novobiocin increased at the higher incubation temperatures. Standardized drug sensitivity testing procedures and precise zone diameter interpretive standards for bacterial fish pathogens are needed.

  16. QTL detection for Aeromonas salmonicida resistance related traits in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interactions between fish and pathogens, that may be harmless under natural conditions, often result in serious diseases in aquaculture systems. This is especially important due to the fact that the strains used in aquaculture are derived from wild strains that may not have had enough time to adapt to new disease pressures. The turbot is one of the most promising European aquaculture species. Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, produces important losses to turbot industry. An appealing solution is to achieve more robust broodstock, which can prevent or diminish the devastating effects of epizooties. Genomics strategies have been developed in turbot to look for candidate genes for resistance to furunculosis and a genetic map with appropriate density to screen for genomic associations has been also constructed. In the present study, a genome scan for QTL affecting resistance and survival to A. salmonicida in four turbot families was carried out. The objectives were to identify consistent QTL using different statistical approaches (linear regression and maximum likelihood) and to locate the tightest associated markers for their application in genetic breeding strategies. Results Significant QTL for resistance were identified by the linear regression method in three linkage groups (LGs 4, 6 and 9) and for survival in two LGs (6 and 9). The maximum likelihood methodology identified QTL in three LGs (5, 6 and 9) for both traits. Significant association between disease traits and genotypes was detected for several markers, some of them explaining up to 17% of the phenotypic variance. We also identified candidate genes located in the detected QTL using data from previously mapped markers. Conclusions Several regions controlling resistance to A. salmonicida in turbot have been detected. The observed concordance between different statistical methods at particular linkage groups gives consistency to our results. The detected associated

  17. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of Cr₂O₃ nanoparticles using Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Puerari, Rodrigo Costa; da Costa, Cristina H; Vicentini, Denice S; Fuzinatto, Cristiane F; Melegari, Silvia P; Schmidt, Éder C; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Matias, William G

    2016-06-01

    Chromium III oxide (Cr2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) are used in pigments for ceramics, dyes, paints and cosmetics. However, few studies addressing the toxic potential of these NPs have been reported in the literature. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of Cr2O3 NPs through acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna. Cr2O3 NPs were synthesized by the sol-gel method and characterized through TEM, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential (ZP) and surface area analysis. In the acute toxicity tests the EC(50,48h) value obtained with D. magna was 6.79 mg L(-1) and for A. fischeri the EC(50,15min) value was 16.10 mg L(-1) and the EC(50,30min) value was 12.91 mg L(-1). Regarding the chronic toxicity tests with D. magna, effects on longevity (OEC=1.00 mg L(-1)), reproduction (OEC=1.00 mg L(-1)) and growth (OEC=0.50 mg L(-1)) were observed. On the SEM and TEM images, ultrastructural alterations in the organelles of exposed organisms were also observed. Thus, toxicological studies with NPs are of great importance in order to reduce the risk of environmental contamination.

  18. Diversity of antibiotic-resistance genes in Canadian isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida: dominance of pSN254b and discovery of pAsa8

    PubMed Central

    Trudel, Mélanie V.; Vincent, Antony T.; Attéré, Sabrina A.; Labbé, Myriam; Derome, Nicolas; Culley, Alexander I.; Charette, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a common pathogen in fish farms worldwide. Since the antibiotic resistance of this bacterial species is on the increase, it is important to have a broader view on this issue. In the present study, we tested the presence of known plasmids conferring multi-drug resistance as well as antibiotic resistance genes by a PCR approach in 100 Canadian A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates. Our study highlighted the dominance of the conjugative pSN254b plasmid, which confers multi-drug resistance. We also identified a new multi-drug plasmid named pAsa8, which has been characterized by a combination of sequencing technologies (Illumina and Oxford nanopore). This new plasmid harbors a complex class 1 integron similar to the one of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) found in Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis. Consequently, in addition to providing an update on the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates that are resistant to antibiotics, our data suggest that this bacterium is potentially an important reservoir of drug resistance genes and should consequently be monitored more extensively. In addition, we describe a screening method that has the potential to become a diagnostic tool that is complementary to other methods currently in use. PMID:27752114

  19. The impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida towards burbot (Lota lota L.) larvae.

    PubMed

    Natrah, F M I; Alam, Md Iftakharul; Pawar, Sushant; Harzevili, A Shiri; Nevejan, Nancy; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2012-09-14

    In this study, the link between quorum sensing in Aeromonas spp. and its virulence towards burbot (Lota lota) was investigated. High mortality occurred in burbot juveniles challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida HN-00, but not in juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila AH-1N. Meanwhile, both A. hydrophila AH-1N and A. salmonicida HN-00 were virulent towards larvae. The effect of quorum sensing on the virulence of A. hydrophila AH-1N towards burbot larvae was further investigated using quorum sensing mutants (N-(butyryl)-L-homoserine lactone production and receptor mutants). Challenge with these mutants resulted in higher survival of burbot larvae when compared to challenge with the wild type, and the addition of the signal molecule N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone restored the virulence of the quorum sensing production mutant. Moreover, quorum sensing inhibitors protected the burbot larvae from both Aeromonas strains. Finally, the freshwater micro-algae Chlorella saccharophila and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which are able to interfere with quorum sensing, also protected burbot from the pathogens. However, QS interference was unlikely to be the only mechanism. This study revealed that the virulence of Aeromonas spp. towards burbot is regulated by quorum sensing and that quorum sensing inhibitors and micro-algae are promising biocontrol agents.

  20. Microencapsulated Aliivibrio fischeri in alginate microspheres for monitoring heavy metal toxicity in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Futra, Dedi; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Ahmad, Asmat; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-12-05

    In this article a luminescence fiber optic biosensor for the microdetection of heavy metal toxicity in waters based on the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (A. fischeri) encapsulated in alginate microspheres is described. Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Co(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Fe(II) were selected as sample toxic heavy metal ions for evaluation of the performance of this toxicity microbiosensor. The loss of bioluminescence response from immobilized A. fischeri bacterial cells corresponds to changes in the toxicity levels. The inhibition of the luminescent biosensor response collected at excitation and emission wavelengths of 287 ± 2 nm and 487 ± 2 nm, respectively, was found to be reproducible and repeatable within the relative standard deviation (RSD) range of 2.4-5.7% (n = 8). The toxicity biosensor based on alginate micropsheres exhibited a lower limit of detection (LOD) for Cu(II) (6.40 μg/L), Cd(II) (1.56 μg/L), Pb(II) (47 μg/L), Ag(I) (18 μg/L) than Zn(II) (320 μg/L), Cr(VI) (1,000 μg/L), Co(II) (1700 μg/L), Ni(II) (2800 μg/L), and Fe(III) (3100 μg/L). Such LOD values are lower when compared with other previous reported whole cell toxicity biosensors using agar gel, agarose gel and cellulose membrane biomatrices used for the immobilization of bacterial cells. The A. fischeri bacteria microencapsulated in alginate biopolymer could maintain their metabolic activity for a prolonged period of up to six weeks without any noticeable changes in the bioluminescence response. The bioluminescent biosensor could also be used for the determination of antagonistic toxicity levels for toxicant mixtures. A comparison of the results obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and using the proposed luminescent A. fischeri-based biosensor suggests that the optical toxicity biosensor can be used for quantitative microdetermination of heavy metal toxicity in environmental water samples.

  1. Microencapsulated Aliivibrio fischeri in Alginate Microspheres for Monitoring Heavy Metal Toxicity in Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Futra, Dedi; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Ahmad, Asmat; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-01-01

    In this article a luminescence fiber optic biosensor for the microdetection of heavy metal toxicity in waters based on the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (A. fischeri) encapsulated in alginate microspheres is described. Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Co(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Fe(II) were selected as sample toxic heavy metal ions for evaluation of the performance of this toxicity microbiosensor. The loss of bioluminescence response from immobilized A. fischeri bacterial cells corresponds to changes in the toxicity levels. The inhibition of the luminescent biosensor response collected at excitation and emission wavelengths of 287 ± 2 nm and 487 ± 2 nm, respectively, was found to be reproducible and repeatable within the relative standard deviation (RSD) range of 2.4–5.7% (n = 8). The toxicity biosensor based on alginate micropsheres exhibited a lower limit of detection (LOD) for Cu(II) (6.40 μg/L), Cd(II) (1.56 μg/L), Pb(II) (47 μg/L), Ag(I) (18 μg/L) than Zn(II) (320 μg/L), Cr(VI) (1,000 μg/L), Co(II) (1700 μg/L), Ni(II) (2800 μg/L), and Fe(III) (3100 μg/L). Such LOD values are lower when compared with other previous reported whole cell toxicity biosensors using agar gel, agarose gel and cellulose membrane biomatrices used for the immobilization of bacterial cells. The A. fischeri bacteria microencapsulated in alginate biopolymer could maintain their metabolic activity for a prolonged period of up to six weeks without any noticeable changes in the bioluminescence response. The bioluminescent biosensor could also be used for the determination of antagonistic toxicity levels for toxicant mixtures. A comparison of the results obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and using the proposed luminescent A. fischeri-based biosensor suggests that the optical toxicity biosensor can be used for quantitative microdetermination of heavy metal toxicity in environmental water samples. PMID:25490588

  2. The Genome of Spironucleus salmonicida Highlights a Fish Pathogen Adapted to Fluctuating Environments

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feifei; Jerlström-Hultqvist, Jon; Einarsson, Elin; Ástvaldsson, Ásgeir; Svärd, Staffan G.; Andersson, Jan O.

    2014-01-01

    Spironucleus salmonicida causes systemic infections in salmonid fish. It belongs to the group diplomonads, binucleated heterotrophic flagellates adapted to micro-aerobic environments. Recently we identified energy-producing hydrogenosomes in S. salmonicida. Here we present a genome analysis of the fish parasite with a focus on the comparison to the more studied diplomonad Giardia intestinalis. We annotated 8067 protein coding genes in the ∼12.9 Mbp S. salmonicida genome. Unlike G. intestinalis, promoter-like motifs were found upstream of genes which are correlated with gene expression, suggesting a more elaborate transcriptional regulation. S. salmonicida can utilise more carbohydrates as energy sources, has an extended amino acid and sulfur metabolism, and more enzymes involved in scavenging of reactive oxygen species compared to G. intestinalis. Both genomes have large families of cysteine-rich membrane proteins. A cluster analysis indicated large divergence of these families in the two diplomonads. Nevertheless, one of S. salmonicida cysteine-rich proteins was localised to the plasma membrane similar to G. intestinalis variant-surface proteins. We identified S. salmonicida homologs to cyst wall proteins and showed that one of these is functional when expressed in Giardia. This suggests that the fish parasite is transmitted as a cyst between hosts. The extended metabolic repertoire and more extensive gene regulation compared to G. intestinalis suggest that the fish parasite is more adapted to cope with environmental fluctuations. Our genome analyses indicate that S. salmonicida is a well-adapted pathogen that can colonize different sites in the host. PMID:24516394

  3. Aeromonas salmonicida Ati2 is an effector protein of the type three secretion system.

    PubMed

    Dallaire-Dufresne, Stéphanie; Barbeau, Xavier; Sarty, Darren; Tanaka, Katherine H; Denoncourt, Alix M; Lagüe, Patrick; Reith, Michael E; Charette, Steve J

    2013-09-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, a fish pathogen, uses the type three secretion system (TTSS) to inject effector proteins into host cells to promote the infection. The study of the genome of A. salmonicida has revealed the existence of Ati2, a potential TTSS effector protein. In the present study, a structure-function analysis of Ati2 has been done to determine its role in the virulence of A. salmonicida. Biochemical assays revealed that Ati2 is secreted into the medium in a TTSS-dependent manner. Protein sequence analyses, molecular modelling and biochemical assays demonstrated that Ati2 is an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, which hydrolyses PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in a way similar to VPA0450, a protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus having high sequence similarity with Ati2. Mutants of Ati2 with altered amino acids at two different locations in the catalytic site displayed no phosphatase activity. Wild-type and mutant forms of Ati2 were cloned into expression systems for Dictyostelium discoideum, a soil amoeba used as an alternative host to study A. salmonicida virulence. Expression tests allowed us to demonstrate that Ati2 is toxic for the host cell in a catalytic-dependent manner. Finally, this study demonstrated the existence of a new TTSS effector protein in A. salmonicida.

  4. Detection and quantification of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Bartkova, S; Kokotovic, B; Skall, H F; Lorenzen, N; Dalsgaard, I

    2017-02-01

    Furunculosis, a septicaemic infection caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, currently causes problems in Danish seawater rainbow trout production. Detection has mainly been achieved by bacterial culture, but more rapid and sensitive methods are needed. A previously developed real-time PCR assay targeting the plasmid encoded aopP gene of A. salmonicida was, in parallel with culturing, used for the examination of five organs of 40 fish from Danish freshwater and seawater farms. Real-time PCR showed overall a higher frequency of positives than culturing (65% of positive fish by real-time PCR compared to 30% by a culture approach). Also, no real-time PCR-negative samples were found positive by culturing. A. salmonicida was detected by real-time PCR, though not by culturing, in freshwater fish showing no signs of furunculosis, indicating possible presence of carrier fish. In seawater fish examined after an outbreak and antibiotics treatment, real-time PCR showed the presence of the bacterium in all examined organs (1-482 genomic units mg(-1) ). With a limit of detection of 40 target copies (1-2 genomic units) per reaction, a high reproducibility and an excellent efficiency, the present real-time PCR assay provides a sensitive tool for the detection of A. salmonicida.

  5. Living in an Extremely Polluted Environment: Clues from the Genome of Melanin-Producing Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E.; López, Nancy I.; Levin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34melT can be considered an extremophile due to the characteristics of the heavily polluted river from which it was isolated. While four subspecies of A. salmonicida are known fish pathogens, 34melT belongs to the only subspecies isolated solely from the environment. Genome analysis revealed a high metabolic versatility, the capability to cope with diverse stress agents, and the lack of several virulence factors found in pathogenic Aeromonas. The most relevant phenotypic characteristics of 34melT are pectin degradation, a distinctive trait of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, and melanin production. Genes coding for three pectate lyases were detected in a cluster, unique to this microorganism, that contains all genes needed for pectin degradation. Melanin synthesis in 34melT is hypothesized to occur through the homogentisate pathway, as no tyrosinases or laccases were detected and the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene is inactivated by a transposon insertion, leading to the accumulation of the melanin precursor homogentisate. Comparative genome analysis of other melanogenic Aeromonas strains revealed that this gene was inactivated by transposon insertions or point mutations, indicating that melanin biosynthesis in Aeromonas occurs through the homogentisate pathway. Horizontal gene transfer could have contributed to the adaptation of 34melT to a highly polluted environment, as 13 genomic islands were identified in its genome, some of them containing genes coding for fitness-related traits. Heavy metal resistance genes were also found, along with others associated with oxidative and nitrosative stresses. These characteristics, together with melanin production and the ability to use different substrates, may explain the ability of this microorganism to live in an extremely polluted environment. PMID:26025898

  6. Correlation between acute toxicity for Daphnia magna, Aliivibrio fischeri and physicochemical variables of the leachate produced in landfill simulator reactors.

    PubMed

    Barrios Restrepo, José J; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Silvia P; da Costa, Cristina H; Fuzinatto, Cristiane F; de Castilhos, Armando B; Matias, William G

    2017-02-03

    Due to the diversified nature of municipal solid waste and the different stages of its decomposition, the formed leachates result in a complex chemical mixture with toxic potential. These chemicals can cause environmental problems, such as the contamination of surface or groundwater, thus affecting the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of our study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of leachates in Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri and to identify the main physicochemical variables that influence the toxicity of the landfill leachates produced in reactors within pilot simulations. Acute toxicity tests carried out on D. magna and A. fischeri showed that the leachates produced inside the reactors are highly toxic, presenting EC5048h < 1% for D. magna and EC5015min < 12% for A. fischeri. This result indicates that microcrustaceans are more sensitive to leachates, making them more suitable to our study. Pb showed the highest correlation with EC5048h, suggesting that Pb is the main chemical variable indicative of toxicity for the conditions of the experiment. In smaller scale, phosphate (PO4(3-)) and nitrate (NO(3-)) were the macronutrients that most influenced the toxicity. Clearly, this correlation should be viewed with caution because the synergistic effects of this complex mixture are difficult to observe.

  7. In vitro studies of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) foregut: tissue responses and evidence of protection against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida epithelial damage.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Irene; Myklebust, Reidar; Esteban, Maria Angeles; Olsen, Rolf Erik; Meseguer, José; Ringø, Einar

    2008-04-01

    Probiotic bacteria increase the host health status and protect mucosal tissue against pathogen-caused damage in mammalian models. Using an in vitro (intestinal sac) method this study aimed to address (a) the in vitro ability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis to remain in the gastrointestinal tract of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and (b) its ability to prevent cellular damage caused by successive incubation with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida the causative agent of furunculosis. Short in vitro incubation of salmon foregut with (TRITC)-labelled L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis showed that the probiont was able to colonize the enterocyte surface as studied by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, foregut incubated with the probiotic bacteria only, resulted in a healthy intestinal barrier whereas exposure to A. salmonicida disrupted its integrity. However, pre-treatment of salmon intestine with L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis prevented Aeromonas damaging effects. These results are promising in the context of the use of non-autochthonous probiotic bacteria as prophylactic agents against fish bacterial infections in the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Evaluation of commercially prepared transport systems for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Bullock, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro studies indicated that commercially prepared transport systems containing Amies, Stuart's, and Cary-Blair media worked equally well in sustaining the viability of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida, which causes furunculosis. The bacterium remained viable without significant increase or decrease in cell numbers for as long as 48 h of incubation at 18-20??C in Stuart's transport medium; consequently, obtaining mucus samples in such tubes were comparable to on-site detection of A. salmonicida by dilution plate counts on Coomassie Brilliant Blue agar. In three different assays of 100 samples of mucus from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infected subclinically with A. salmonicida, dilution counts conducted on-site proved more reliable for detecting the pathogen than obtaining the samples in the transport system. In the on-site assays, dilution counts detected the pathogen in 34, 41, and 22 samples, whereas this was accomplished in only 15, 15, and 3 of the respective samples when the transport system was used. In an additional experiment, Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus sustaining a frank epizootic of furunculosis were sampled similarly. Here, too, dilution counts were more predictive of the prevalence of A. salmonicida and detected the pathogen in 46 mucus samples; in comparison, only 6 samples collected by using the transport system were positive. We also observed that the transport system supported the growth of the normal mucus bacterial flora. Particularly predominant among these were motile aeromonads and Pseudomonas fluorescens. In studies of mixed culture growth, two representatives of both of the latter genera of bacteria outgrew A. salmonicida - in some cases, to the total exclusion of the pathogen itself.

  9. Quarantine of Aeromonas salmonicida-harboring ebonyshell mussels (Fusconaia ebena) prevents transmission of the pathogen to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, was artificially induced in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in an experimental tank. Ebonyshells (Fusconaia ebena) were placed to cohabit with these fish to acquire the pathogen through siphoning. After 2 wk of cohabitation, 10 of the mussels were assayed by bacterial culture and all were found to harbor A. salmonicida. The mean cell count from soft tissue homogenates was 1.84 ?? 105 cfu/g, which comprised an average 14.41% of the total bacteria isolated from tissues. From the fluids, a mean of 2.84 ?? 105 A. salmonicida cfu/mL was isolated, which comprised an average of 17.29% of the total bacterial flora. The mussels were removed from the cohabitation tank and distributed equally among five previously disinfected tanks, 35 per tank. The F. ebena in each tank were allowed to depurate A. salmonicida for various durations: 1, 5, 10, 15 or 30 days. After each group had depurated for their assigned time, 10 were assayed for bacteria, tank water was tested, and 20 pathogen-free bioindicator brook trout were added to cohabit with the remaining mussels. Depuration was considered successful if A. salmonicida was not isolated from tank water or the mussels, and there was no infection or mortality to bioindicator fish. After 1 day of depuration, A. salmonicida was not isolated from the soft tissues; however, it was isolated from one of the paired fluids (10% prevalence). The tank water tested positive, and the bioindicator fish became infected and died. From the 5-day depuration group, A. salmonicida was not isolated from soft tissues, but was isolated from three fluids (30%; mean = 1.56 ?? 102 cfu/mL). Tank water from the 5-day group was negative, and there was no mortality among the bioindicator fish. However, A. salmonicida was isolated from 2 of 20 fish at the end of the 14-day observation period. One F. ebena fluid sample was positive for A. salmonicida from the 10-day depuration group, but none of the

  10. Toxicity of individual pharmaceuticals and their mixtures to Aliivibrio fischeri: Evidence of toxicological interactions in binary combinations.

    PubMed

    Di Nica, Valeria; Villa, Sara; Finizio, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The combined toxicities of binary mixtures of veterinary pharmaceutical active compounds were examined using the bioluminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri as a test organism (Microtox® test). Mixtures were prepared at an equitoxic ratio that corresponded to the inhibitory concentration, 10% (IC10) of individual pharmaceutical active compounds. In addition, the toxicity was determined of a multicomponent mixture that contained all of the investigated pharmaceutical active compounds mixed at a ratio corresponding to their individual predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) values. The experimental results were successively compared with those obtained by applying the 2 most widely used models for predicting mixture toxicity, the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models. Although the toxicity of the multicomponent mixture tested was well predicted by the CA and IA models, deviations from the model predictions were found for almost all of the binary mixtures. The deviations from the CA and IA models were greater at lower concentrations, particularly when diclofenac sodium and amoxicillin were present in the mixture. Based on these results, another hypothesis was tested, that of toxicological interactions occurring in binary mixtures (in the direction of synergistic or antagonistic effects), by applying the combination index method, which allowed for computerized quantification of synergism, the additive effect and antagonism. The application of this method confirmed, for at least half of the binary combinations, the clear presence of synergistic deviations at the lowest tested concentrations, with a tendency toward antagonism at the higher ones. In 1 case, a relevant antagonistic interaction was observed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:815-822. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Aeromonas salmonicida Binds Differentially to Mucins Isolated from Skin and Intestinal Regions of Atlantic Salmon in an N-Acetylneuraminic Acid-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Padra, János T.; Sundh, Henrik; Jin, Chunsheng; Karlsson, Niclas G.; Sundell, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection, also known as furunculosis disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality in salmonid aquaculture. The first line of defense the pathogen encounters is the mucus layer, which is predominantly comprised of secreted mucins. Here we isolated and characterized mucins from the skin and intestinal tract of healthy Atlantic salmon and studied how A. salmonicida bound to them. The mucins from the skin, pyloric ceca, and proximal and distal intestine mainly consisted of mucins soluble in chaotropic agents. The mucin density and mucin glycan chain length from the skin were lower than were seen with mucin from the intestinal tract. A. salmonicida bound to the mucins isolated from the intestinal tract to a greater extent than to the skin mucins. The mucins from the intestinal regions had higher levels of sialylation than the skin mucins. Desialylating intestinal mucins decreased A. salmonicida binding, whereas desialylation of skin mucins resulted in complete loss of binding. In line with this, A. salmonicida also bound better to mammalian mucins with high levels of sialylation, and N-acetylneuraminic acid appeared to be the sialic acid whose presence was imperative for binding. Thus, sialylated structures are important for A. salmonicida binding, suggesting a pivotal role for sialylation in mucosal defense. The marked differences in sialylation as well as A. salmonicida binding between the skin and intestinal tract suggest interorgan differences in the host-pathogen interaction and in the mucin defense against A. salmonicida. PMID:25287918

  12. Precipitating antibody against Aeromonas salmonicida in serums of inbred albino Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Douglas P.; Klontz, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Precipitins in albino rainbow trout serums were demonstrated by gel diffusion after a single parenteral exposure to the soluble antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida. The fraction of the serum containing antibody activity against the presented antigens was shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be in the nonmigrating region. This corresponded to the beta-2 fraction of rabbit serum. An antibody-containing component comparable with rabbit gamma globulin was not detected.

  13. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, Thy-My; Behrens, Sascha; Wienke, Andreas; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L

    2015-04-08

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harming the fish. Successful disinfectants (like PAA) should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed.

  14. Antimicrobial effect of the Biotronic® Top3 supplement and efficacy in protecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from infection by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; Krauss, Ines; Goncalves, Rui Alexandre; Weber, Barbara; Santos, Gonçalo Abreu; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2017-03-18

    Demand for more environmentally friendly practices have led to the adoption of several feed supplements by the fish farming industry. In the present study, we investigated a commercially available formula that includes a mixture of three compounds: organic acids, a phytochemical and Biomin® Permeabilizing Complex. This mixture demonstrated antimicrobial properties in vitro and was able to inhibit growth of multiple species of aquatic bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida. Bacterial challenge was performed using A. salmonicida and three exposure routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion, and cohabitation. Mortality rates following infection by injection were significantly decreased in the fish that had received the supplemented feed. Fish infected through the other routes did not show a significant difference in mortality. In term of farming performance, while the fish that had received the feed supplement showed an improvement in weight gain and final weight, these changes were not found to be statistically significant. Similarly, no significant difference was observed in the feed conversion ratio. The results of this study suggest that this feed supplement may be effective at protecting rainbow trout from fish furunculosis.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance and Plasmid Profile of Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Urbanized Eltsovka-1 River (Russia).

    PubMed

    Lobova, Tatiana I; Yemelyanova, Elena; Andreeva, Irina S; Puchkova, Larisa I; Repin, Vladimir Ye

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profile of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains isolated from the urbanized Eltsovka-1 River (Russia) were investigated. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA of of G+ strains showed 99-100% identity to that of Bacillus aerophilus, Bacillus altitudinis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus anthrancis, Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus flexus, Bacillus indriensis, Bacillus stratosphericus, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Streptomyces albidoflavus, Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces exfoliatus, Streptomyces odorifer, and Streptomyces sampsonii. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA of G-strains was similar in 99-100% to that of Aeromonas bestiarum, Aeromonas encheleia, Aeromonas hydrophila, A. hydrophila subsp. anaerogenes, A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis, Aeromonas media, Aeromonas molluscorum, Aeromonas popoffii, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. masoucida, A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Aeromonas punctata, Aeromonas sobria, and Shewanella putrefaciens. The highest percentage (88.4%) of strains was resistant to polymyxin B followed by 69% to lincomycin, 61.5% to benzilpenicillin, 57.7% to ampicillin, and 50% to carbenicillin. A low level of resistance (4%) was found to kanamycin (8%), to streptomycin (11.5%), to neomycin and tetracycline, and (15%) to erythromycin. No resistance was found to gentamycin, monomycin, and chloroamphenicol. The majority (80.7%) of strains was multidrug-resistant. Ninety-two percent of all strains carried plasmid DNA of various sizes.

  16. Historical record of Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida among sea-run Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Coll, J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite restoration efforts, only about 2,000 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) salmon have annually returned to New England Rivers and more than 71% of these fish migrate to the Penobscot River alone. This report provides a historical compilation on the prevalence's of both Yersinia ruckeri, cause of enteric redmouth disease, and Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis, among mature sea-run Atlantic salmon that returned to the Penobscot River from 1976 to 2003. Aeromonas salmonicida was detected in 28.6% and Yersinia ruckeri was detected among 50% of the yearly returns. Consequently, Atlantic salmon that return to the river are potential reservoirs of infection.

  17. Survival of two bacterial fish pathogens (Aeromonas salmonicida and the Enteric Redmouth Bacterium) in ozonated, chlorinated, and untreated waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Nelson, Nancy C.

    1977-01-01

    Ozone and chlorine inactivation curves were determined in three water types at 20 °C for the destruction of the fish pathogens Aeromonas salmonicida, the etiologic agent of furunculosis, and the enteric redmouth bacterium (ERM). In phosphate-buffered distilled water, 0.01 mg/ℓ ozone inactivated 103 cells/ml of ERM and A. salmonicida in 1/2 and 10 min, respectively. Chlorine at this concentration had little effect on either pathogen and a residual of at least 0.05 mg/ℓ was needed to achieve a complete kill within a 10-min contact time. In soft lake water (30 mg/ℓ as CaCO3) a chlorine residual of 0.1 mg/ℓ rapidly  inactivated A. salmonicida and ERM but in hard water (120 mg/ℓ) A. salmonicida was more resistant and 0.2 mg/ℓ chlorine was required. Ozonation of the two lake waters at 90 mg O3∙h−1∙ℓ−1 (equivalent to a 0.01 mg/ℓ residual in ozone demand-free water) was required to destroy both pathogens within 10 min.In untreated soft lake water 103 cells/ml of A. salmonicida survived only 2 days, while the ERM bacterium (103 cells/ml) survived even after 20 day s in soft and hard untreated lake waters.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of aquatic bacteria: quality control disk diffusion ranges for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 at 22 and 28 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Miller, R A; Walker, R D; Baya, A; Clemens, K; Coles, M; Hawke, J P; Henricson, B E; Hsu, H M; Mathers, J J; Oaks, J L; Papapetropoulou, M; Reimschuessel, R

    2003-09-01

    Quality control (QC) ranges for disk diffusion susceptibility testing of aquatic bacterial isolates were proposed as a result of a multilaboratory study conducted according to procedures established by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Ranges were proposed for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 at 22 and 28 degrees C for nine different antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, gentamicin, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). All tests were conducted on standard Mueller-Hinton agar. With >/=95% of all data points fitting within the proposed QC ranges, the results from this study comply with NCCLS guidelines and have been accepted by the NCCLS Subcommittee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. These QC guidelines will permit greater accuracy in interpreting results and, for the first time, the ability to reliably compare susceptibility test data between aquatic animal disease diagnostic laboratories.

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Aquatic Bacteria: Quality Control Disk Diffusion Ranges for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 at 22 and 28°C

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R. A.; Walker, R. D.; Baya, A.; Clemens, K.; Coles, M.; Hawke, J. P.; Henricson, B. E.; Hsu, H. M.; Mathers, J. J.; Oaks, J. L.; Papapetropoulou, M.; Reimschuessel, R.

    2003-01-01

    Quality control (QC) ranges for disk diffusion susceptibility testing of aquatic bacterial isolates were proposed as a result of a multilaboratory study conducted according to procedures established by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Ranges were proposed for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 at 22 and 28°C for nine different antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, gentamicin, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). All tests were conducted on standard Mueller-Hinton agar. With ≥95% of all data points fitting within the proposed QC ranges, the results from this study comply with NCCLS guidelines and have been accepted by the NCCLS Subcommittee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. These QC guidelines will permit greater accuracy in interpreting results and, for the first time, the ability to reliably compare susceptibility test data between aquatic animal disease diagnostic laboratories. PMID:12958263

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a cold-adapted catalase from Vibrio salmonicida

    SciTech Connect

    Riise, Ellen Kristin; Lorentzen, Marit Sjo; Helland, Ronny; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2006-01-01

    Monoclinic (P2{sub 1}) crystals of a His-tagged form of V. salmonicida catalase without cofactor diffract X-rays to 1.96 Å. Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen. Recombinant Vibrio salmonicida catalase (VSC) possesses typical cold-adapted features, with higher catalytic efficiency, lower thermal stability and a lower temperature optimum than its mesophilic counterpart from Proteus mirabilis. Crystals of VSC were produced by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.15, b = 217.76, c = 99.28 Å, β = 110.48°. Data were collected to 1.96 Å and a molecular-replacement solution was found with eight molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and Yersinia ruckeri, Three Major Fish Pathogens, by Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    del Cerro, A.; Marquez, I.; Guijarro, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA genes was developed for the simultaneous detection of three major fish pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and Yersinia ruckeri. The assay proved to be specific and as sensitive as each single PCR assay, with detection limits in the range of 6, 0.6, and 27 CFU for A. salmonicida, F. psychrophilum, and Y. ruckeri, respectively. The assay was useful for the detection of the bacteria in artificially infected fish as well as in fish farm outbreaks. Results revealed that this multiplex PCR system permits a specific, sensitive, reproducible, and rapid method for the routine laboratory diagnosis of infections produced by these three bacteria. PMID:12324372

  2. Immunization of pacific salmon: comparison of intraperitoneal injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida bacterins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antipa, Ross; Amend, Donald F.

    1977-01-01

    Two methods of immunizing fish, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and hyperosmotic infiltration, were compared for control of vibriosis and furunculosis in pen-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Both methods provided significant protection against vibriosis under field test conditions. In coho salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration provided the best protection and fastest rise in antibody titer of seven treatments tested. In chinook salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida vaccines resulted in 83.3% survival in comparison with 28.7% survival in controls. Both i.p. injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of V. anguillarum and A. salmonicida bacterins resulted in production of serum antibodies specific for each respective pathogen. Vaccination with bivalent V. anguillarum–A.salmonicida vaccines produced antibodies to both pathogens, and provided protection against vibriosis. Growth rates of vaccinated coho salmon were not significantly different from controls.

  3. General baseline toxicity QSAR for nonpolar, polar and ionisable chemicals and their mixtures in the bioluminescence inhibition assay with Aliivibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Baumer, Andreas; Bittermann, Kai; Henneberger, Luise; König, Maria; Kühnert, Christin; Klüver, Nils

    2017-03-22

    The Microtox assay, a bioluminescence inhibition assay with the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri, is one of the most popular bioassays for assessing the cytotoxicity of organic chemicals, mixtures and environmental samples. Most environmental chemicals act as baseline toxicants in this short-term screening assay, which is typically run with only 30 min of exposure duration. Numerous Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) exist for the Microtox assay for nonpolar and polar narcosis. However, typical water pollutants, which have highly diverse structures covering a wide range of hydrophobicity and speciation from neutral to anionic and cationic, are often outside the applicability domain of these QSARs. To include all types of environmentally relevant organic pollutants we developed a general baseline toxicity QSAR using liposome-water distribution ratios as descriptors. Previous limitations in availability of experimental liposome-water partition constants were overcome by reliable prediction models based on polyparameter linear free energy relationships for neutral chemicals and the COSMOmic model for charged chemicals. With this QSAR and targeted mixture experiments we could demonstrate that ionisable chemicals fall in the applicability domain. Most investigated water pollutants acted as baseline toxicants in this bioassay, with the few outliers identified as uncouplers or reactive toxicants. The main limitation of the Microtox assay is that chemicals with a high melting point and/or high hydrophobicity were outside of the applicability domain because of their low water solubility. We quantitatively derived a solubility cut-off but also demonstrated with mixture experiments that chemicals inactive on their own can contribute to mixture toxicity, which is highly relevant for complex environmental mixtures, where these chemicals may be present at concentrations below the solubility cut-off.

  4. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the susceptibility of Onchorhynchus mykiss to Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Menanteau-Ledouble, S; Krauss, I; Santos, G; Fibi, S; Weber, B; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-06-29

    In recent years, feed additives have increasingly been adopted by the aquaculture industry. These supplements not only offer an alternative to antibiotics but have also been linked to enhanced growth performance. However, the literature is still limited and provides contradictory information on their effectiveness. This is mainly due to the wide variety of available products and their complex mechanisms of action. Phytogenic feed additives have been shown to have antimicrobial effects and can improve growth performance. In the present study, we investigated the susceptibility of several fish pathogenic bacteria to a phytogenic essential oil product in vitro. In addition, we determined the protective effect of a commercial phytogenic feed additive containing oregano, anis and citrus oils on the resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida. The bacterium was administered through 3 different routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion in a bacterial solution and cohabitation with infected fish. Mortality rates were significantly lower in infected rainbow trout that had received the feed additive: the overall mortality rate across all routes of infection was 18% in fish fed a diet containing the additive compared to 37% in fish that received unsupplemented feed. The route of infection also significantly impacted mortality, with average mortality rates of 60, 17.5 and 5% for intra-peritoneal injection, immersion and cohabitation, respectively. In general, fish were better protected against infection by immersion than infection by injection.

  5. Recovery of a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, from ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena using nondestructive sample collection procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Refugia are increasingly being used to maintain and propagate imperiled freshwater mussels for future population augmentations. Success for this endeavor is dependent on good husbandry, including a holistic program of resource health management. A significant aspect to optimal health is the prevention or control of infectious diseases. Describing and monitoring pathogens and diseases in mussels involves examination of tissues or samples collected from an appropriate number of individuals that satisfies a certain confidence level for expected prevalences of infections. In the present study, ebonyshell mussels Fusconaia ebena were infected with a fish pathogenic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, through their cohabitation with diseased brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. At a 100% prevalence of infection, the F. ebena were removed from the cohabitation tank to clean tanks that were supplied with pathogen-free water, which initiated their depuration of A. salmonicida. Three samples (nondestructive fluid, mantle, hemolymph) collected using nondestructive procedures were compared with fluids and soft tissue homogenates collected after sacrificing the mussels for recovery of the bacterium during this period of depuration. Nondestructive sample collections, especially ND fluid, provide a comparable alternative to sacrificing mussels to determine pathogen status.

  6. The adjuvant effect of low frequency ultrasound when applied with an inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cobo Labarca, Cristóbal; Makhutu, Mary; Lumsdon, Alexander E; Thompson, Kim D; Jung, Rainer; Kloas, Werner; Knopf, Klaus

    2015-03-10

    Vaccine adjuvants are classified according to their properties of either inducing the persistence of antigens within the animal after immunisation and/or activation of the animal's immune response. The adjuvant effect of low intensity low frequency sonophoresis (LFS) was tested in rainbow trout using an Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin vaccine administered by immersion vaccination using LFS at 37 kHz. The adjuvant effect obtained with LFS was compared with that of normal immersion or intraperitoneal injection vaccination. Quantitative PCR was used to measure bacterial DNA in vaccinated fish up to 35 days post-vaccination, while RT-qPCR was used to assess gene expression during the early and late immune response post-vaccination. Results showed that antigen uptake in the gills was significantly higher in the group exposed to low intensity LFS compared to the other two vaccination groups 15 min post-vaccination, but this initially high uptake did not persist over the rest of the experiment. In the kidney, by comparison, the vast majority of the samples analysed did not show the presence or persistence of the bacterin. Showing that the route of vaccine uptake using the A. salmonicida bacterin, does not influence the persistence of the bacterin in the gills or the kidney. On the other hand, LFS induced a higher inflammatory response and T-helper cell activation, characterized by a significant up-regulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1ß and CD-4, respectively. The expression of Ig-M, Ig-T and Ig-D was up-regulated in gills (being significant for Ig-M), but not in the spleen and kidney of the sonicated group. Conversely, Ig-M was up-regulated in the spleen of the non-sonicated groups, but not in the sonicated group. This highlights the ability of ultrasound to enhance mucosal immunity. It remains to be established whether the up-regulation of Ig-M in gills would be sufficient to offer protection in fish infected with A. salmonicida.

  7. Optimization of nested polymerase chain reaction assays for identification of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri and Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, P.W.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed using first-round primers complementary to highly conserved regions within the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene (universal eubacterial primers) and second-round primers specific for sequences within the 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, andFlavobacterium psychrophilum. Following optimization of the MgCl2 concentration and primer annealing temperature, PCR employing the universal eubacterial primers was used to amplify a 1,500-base-pair (bp) product visible in agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. The calculated detection limit of this single-round assay was less than 1.4 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU) per reaction for all bacterial species tested. Single-round PCR using primer sets specific for A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri, and F. psychrophilumamplified bands of 271, 575, and 1,100 bp, respectively, with detection limits of less than 1.4 × 104, 1.4 × 105, and 1.4 × 105 CFU per reaction. Using the universal eubacterial primers in the first round and the species-specific primer sets in the second round of nested PCR assays improved the detection ability by approximately four orders of magnitude to fewer than 14 CFU per sample for each of the three bacterial species. Such nested assays could be adapted to a wide variety of bacterial fish pathogens for which 16S sequences are available.

  8. Differences in detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in covertly infected salmonid fishes by the stress-inducible furunculosis test and culture-based assays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Ford, L.A.; Smith, D.R.; Schachte, J.H.; Petrie, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate detection of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (the cause of furunculosis disease) in covertly infected salmonids is difficult and is a cause of concern for those involved in fish health inspection and resource management programs. In this study, we examined populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that previously sustained natural episodes of furunculosis. Consequently, the sampled fish were presumed to harbor latent infections. Mucus, gill, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine samples (N = 100 fish per group sampled) were processed and examined by (1) direct dilution counts and (2) quadrant streaking after a 48-h pre-enrichment in trypticase soy broth (TSB). Another subsample of fish from each group was then subjected to stress-inducible furunculosis tests. Stress tests detected A. salmonicida in three of four groups of fish that were examined whereas the pathogen was detected in only two of the groups analyzed with culture-based assays. Although pre-enrichment in TSB enhanced detection within internal sampling sites including the liver, heart, spleen, and kidney, enrichment did not enhance detection from mucus, gill, or intestinal samples.

  9. Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

  10. Toxicity of individual pharmaceuticals and their mixtures to Aliivibrio fischeri: Experimental results for single compounds and considerations of their mechanisms of action and potential acute effects on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Di Nica, Valeria; Villa, Sara; Finizio, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In the first part of a broader study on the effects of individual and multicomponent mixtures of pharmaceutical active compounds, the authors used the Microtox(®) test system to analyze in detail the effects of 10 widely used human and veterinary pharmaceutical active compounds toward the bioluminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri. The experimental results indicated moderate toxicity for the majority of the tested compounds. Comparison between experimental 50% inhibitory concentrations and those predicted from the quantitative structure-activity relationship models indicated that most of the tested pharmaceutical active compounds behave as polar narcotic compounds toward A. fischeri (only the antibiotic chlortetracycline seemed to have a specific mechanism of action). A comparison between the experimental results and a collection of acute toxicity data on other nontarget organisms indicated that in general A. fischeri has a comparable sensitivity to other aquatic species. However, according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the majority of the investigated chemicals can be classified as harmful or nontoxic for aquatic ecosystems. Finally, based on comparisons among the 95th percentile of measured environmental concentrations found in European Union water bodies and acute toxicity data on various aquatic organisms, no risk to aquatic life exists when the tested pharmaceutical active compounds are assessed as individual chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:807-814. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Effect of dietary β-glucan on growth, survival and regulation of immune processes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) infected by Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Ji, Liqin; Sun, Guoxiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Yi; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Liu, Ying

    2017-03-07

    The present study evaluated the effects of dietary β-glucan (0, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) on growth performance after 42 days of feeding. Thereafter, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were infected with Aeromonas salmonicida, and survival rates as well as the regulating processes of stress- and immune-related factors were analyzed. In general, higher dietary β-glucan levels obviously improved specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) (P ≤ 0.05). Survival rates in β-glucan groups increased significantly compared with the control group after A. salmonicida infection (P ≤ 0.05). Serum total superoxide dimutase (T-SOD), peroxidase (POD) as well as catalase (CAT) activities, and their mRNA expressions in the head kidney of fish in the β-glucan groups generally increased to higher levels after infection, and more quickly, compared with in the control group. Serum lysozyme (LSZ) and its expression in the head kidney in β-glucan groups reached a higher peak earlier than in the control group. Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels in the β-glucan groups were significantly lower than in the control group (P ≤ 0.05). The peak of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in the 0.2% β-glucan group was higher and occurred earlier than in other groups (P ≤ 0.05). These results confirm that 0.1% and 0.2% dietary β-glucan are beneficial for promoting growth in rainbow trout and enhancing resistance against A. salmonicida. Furthermore, β-glucan could play an important role in regulating stress- and immune-related factors in rainbow trout to more quickly fight against bacterial infection.

  12. Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida, causal agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish, from the tank effluent of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, D; Mooney, J; Ryan, D; Powell, E; Hiney, M; Smith, P R; Powell, R

    1994-01-01

    The fish pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida, could be detected only by bacteriological culture from the kidney of dead or moribund fish in one tank in a hatchery rearing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts. However, by using a DNA probe specific for this species, allied to a PCR assay, the pathogen could be detected in water, feces and effluent samples taken from this fish tank. Also, the presence of the pathogen was found in effluent samples from two fish tanks containing apparently healthy fish. Subsequently, the presence of pathogen in these tanks was confirmed by an increase in the daily mortality rate and by a plate culture from moribund fish. Images PMID:7527205

  13. Enhanced Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin uptake and side effects caused by low frequency sonophoresis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cobo, Cristóbal; Makosch, Katarzyna; Jung, Rainer; Kohlmann, Klaus; Knopf, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Low frequency sonophoresis (LFS) has been recognized as one of the most advanced technologies in transdermal delivery of substances, due to the modification of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer, in focal skin applications in mammals. Based on these findings, LFS has been suggested as a potential technology to be used for enhancement in immersion fish vaccination. In contrast to mammals where LFS is applied to discrete regions of the skin, in fish the whole individual needs to be exposed for practical purposes. The current study evaluated the impact of LFS at 37 kHz on the uptake of an Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin and side effects of the treatment in rainbow trout. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to examine the bacterin uptake into skin and gill tissue. Side effects were assessed by behavioural examination, histology and blood serum analysis. The sonication intensity of 171 mW/cm² was enough for increasing skin permeability, but caused heavy erratic swimming and gill haemorrhages. Sonication intensities as low as 105 mW/cm² did not modify skin permeability and enhanced the bacterin uptake into the gill tissue by factor 15 compared to conventional immersion. Following sonication, the gill permeability for the bacterin decreased after 20 min and 120 min by factor 3 and 2, respectively. However, during sonication, erratic swimming of the fish raised some concerns. Further reduction of the sonication intensity to 57 mW/cm² did not induce erratic swimming, and the bacterin uptake into the gill tissue was still increased by factor 3. In addition, a decreasing albumin-globulin ratio in the serum of the rainbow trout within 40 min revealed that LFS leads to an inflammatory response. Consequently, based on both increased bacterin uptake and the inflammatory response, low intensity LFS has the potential to enhance vaccine immunity without significant side effects.

  14. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  15. Characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, Lota lota (L.), to IHNV, IPNV, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida and Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed

    Polinski, M P; Fehringer, T R; Johnson, K A; Snekvik, K R; Lapatra, S E; Lafrentz, B R; Ireland, S C; Cain, K D

    2010-07-01

    In this study, susceptibility and potential carrier status of burbot, Lota lota, were assessed for five important fish pathogens. Burbot demonstrated susceptibility and elevated mortality following challenge with infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) by immersion and to Aeromonas salmonicida by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. IHNV persisted in fish for at least 28 days, whereas A. salmonicida was not re-isolated beyond 17 days post-challenge. In contrast, burbot appeared refractory to Flavobacterium psychrophilum following intramuscular (i.m.) injection and to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) by immersion. However, i.p injection of IPNV resulted in re-isolation of virus from fish for the duration of the 28 day challenge. Renibacterium salmoninarum appeared to induce an asymptomatic carrier state in burbot following i.p. injection, but overt manifestation of disease was not apparent. Viable bacteria persisted in fish for at least 41 days, and bacterial DNA isolated by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction was detected from burbot kidney tissue 90 days after initial exposure. This study is the first to investigate susceptibility of burbot to selected fish pathogens, and this information will aid in efforts to culture and manage this species.

  16. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking.

    PubMed

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-07-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra- or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A. salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A. salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presence of Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1. We propose that the biosurfactant, or the lipid structures interact with the N-acyl homoserine lactones, inhibiting their function. This could be used as a strategy to interfere with the quorum sensing systems of bacterial fish pathogens, which represents an attractive alternative to classical antimicrobial therapies in fish aquaculture.

  17. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking

    PubMed Central

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra-or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A. salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A. salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presence of Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1. We propose that the biosurfactant, or the lipid structures interact with the N-acyl homoserine lactones, inhibiting their function. This could be used as a strategy to interfere with the quorum sensing systems of bacterial fish pathogens, which represents an attractive alternative to classical antimicrobial therapies in fish

  18. Use of human cDNA microarrays for identification of differentially expressed genes in Atlantic salmon liver during Aeromonas salmonicida infection.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Stephen C M; Cale, Jacqueline M; Bird, Ian M; Ewart, Vanya; Brown, Laura L; Douglas, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Commercially available human complementary DNA microarrays were used to compare differential expression in the livers of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) infected with Aeromonas salmonicida and of healthy fish. Complementary DNA probes were prepared from total RNA isolated from livers of control salmon and infected salmon by reverse transcription in the presence of (33)P-dCTP and independently hybridized to human GENE-FILTERS GF211 microarrays. Of the 4131 known genes on the microarray, 241 spots gave clearly detectable signals using labeled RNA from the control salmon liver. Of these, 4 spots were consistently found to have a greater than 2-fold increase in infected salmon compared with controls when using the same pair of filters to generate hybridization data from triplicates. These up-regulated genes were ADP/ATP translocase (AAT2), Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDFG-A). A BlastN search revealed an AAT2 homolog from Atlantic salmon, and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay using primers based on this sequence confirmed its up-regulation (approx. 1.8-fold) during early infection. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using human microarrays to facilitate the discovery of differentially expressed genes in Atlantic salmon, for which no homologous microarrays are available.

  19. Lipopolysaccharides isolated from Aeromonas salmonicida and Vibrio anguillarum show quantitative but not qualitative differences in inflammatory outcome in Sparus aurata (Gilthead seabream).

    PubMed

    Boltaña, S; Tridico, R; Teles, M; Mackenzie, S; Tort, L

    2014-08-01

    In fish, the defence system recognises pathogenic microorganisms via pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense particular structures of the pathogens; the so-called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). The result of the PAMP-PRR interactions leads to complex and orchestrated immune responses. In this study, Sparus aurata (Gilthead seabream) were intraperitoneally injected with purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Aeromonas salmonicida (As)- and Vibrio anguillarum (Va) (1 mg*Kgfish(-1)), both Gram negative bacteria responsible for vibriosis and furunculosis respectively, therefore causing an impact upon marine fish cultures. Head-kidney, intestine, spleen, liver and blood samples were collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-injection. Plasma levels of cortisol, prostaglandins and lactate were measured and were significantly increased after As-LPS and Va-LPS treatment. Furthermore, tissue-specific differences of the gene regulatory patterns were evident for each LPS. When monocyte/macrophage cell cultures were challenged with As-LPS and Va-LPS, the pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA abundances present a similar pattern of response. However, As-LPS always triggered a stronger response concerning TNFα, IL1β and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) mRNA abundance as well as PGE2 levels in the supernatant. Overall, the results indicate that specific LPSs do not activate different pro-inflammatory responses and that the observed gene expression pattern is tissue and concentration dependent.

  20. Identification of differentially expressed protective genes in liver of two rainbow trout strains.

    PubMed

    Rebl, Alexander; Verleih, Marieke; Korytář, Thomáš; Kühn, Carsten; Wimmers, Klaus; Köllner, Bernd; Goldammer, Tom

    2012-01-15

    Since 1975, the rainbow trout strain BORN (Germany) has been bred in brackish water from a coastal form imported from Denmark. Accompanying phenotypic monitoring of the adapted BORN trout until now revealed that this selection strain manifested a generally elevated resistance towards high stress and pathogenic challenge including lower susceptibility towards Aeromonas salmonicida infections in comparison to other trout strains in local aqua farms. We focus on the elucidation of both, genetic background and immunological basis for the increased survivorship to infections. A first comparison of gene expression profiles in liver tissue of healthy rainbow trout from the local selection strain BORN and imported trout using a GRASP 16K cDNA microarray revealed six differentially expressed genes evoking pathogen and wounding responses, LEAP2A (encoding for liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide), SERPINA1 (alpha-1 antitrypsin), FTH1 (middle subunit of ferritin), FGL2 (fibroleukin), CLEC4E (macrophage-inducible C-type lectin), and SERPINF2 (alpha-2 antiplasmin). Since the latter gene is not described in salmonid species so far, our first aim was to characterize the respective sequence in rainbow trout. Two trout SERPINF2 genes were identified, which share only 48% identical amino acid residues and a characteristic SERPIN domain. Second, we aimed to analyse the expression of those genes after temperature challenge (8 °C and 23 °C). Only FTH1 was upregulated in BORN and import trout after increase of temperature, while SERPINA1 and FGL2 were only elevated in import trout. Third, the expression of all named genes was analyzed after pathogen challenge with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. As a main finding, we detected a comparably faster regeneration of LEAP2A mRNA abundance in BORN trout following bacterial infection. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis suggested a functional interplay among the mentioned factors and the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF, whose stronger expression

  1. Steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss metabolic rate is affected by dietary Aloe vera inclusion but not by mounting an immune response against formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Zanuzzo, F S; Urbinati, E C; Nash, G W; Gamperl, A K

    2015-07-01

    The oxygen consumption (MO2) of two groups of 10° C acclimated steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was measured for 72 h after they were given a 100 µl kg(-1) intraperitoneal injection of formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida (ASAL) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish from both groups prior to, and 1 and 3 h after, they were given a 30 s net stress. The first group was fed an unaltered commercial diet for 4 weeks, whereas the second group was fed the same diet but with 0·5% (5 g kg(-1) ) Aloe vera powder added; A. vera has potential as an immunostimulant for use in aquaculture, but its effects on basal and acute phase response (APR)-related metabolic expenditures and stress physiology, are unknown. Injection of ASAL v. PBS had no measurable effect on the MO2 of O. mykiss indicating that the APR in this species is not associated with any net increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, incorporating 0·5% A. vera powder into the feed decreased routine metabolic rate by c. 8% in both injection groups and standard metabolic rate in the ASAL-injected group (by c. 4 mg O2 kg(-1) h(-1) ; 5%). Aloe vera fed fish had resting cortisol levels that were approximately half of those in fish on the commercial diet (c. 2·5 v. 5·0 ng ml(-1) ), but neither this difference nor those post-stress reached statistical significance (P > 0·05).

  2. Distribution and retention of antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) vaccinated with a DeltaaroA mutant or formalin-inactivated bacteria in oil-adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Grove, S; Høie, S; Evensen, Ø

    2003-10-01

    In this study we report the differences in distribution and retention of Aeromonas salmonicida antigens after vaccination with two different vaccines. Parr of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were given intraperitoneal injections of either a commercial, monovalent furunculosis vaccine (Apoject) or live, attenuated A. salmonicida (DeltaaroA). Fish were sampled at weeks 2, 4 and 12 post-vaccination and head kidney and spleen were collected. Presence of LPS and 16S rDNA in isolated leukocytes were investigated by immunocytochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).16S rDNA was detected in head kidney and spleen of all DeltaaroA vaccinated and most Apoject-vaccinated fish at weeks 2 and 4. At week 12, 16S rDNA was detected in none of the DeltaaroA vaccinated fish, but it was detected in head kidney of 75% of Apoject-vaccinated fish. LPS was detected in both vaccination groups at all sampling times, but most frequently in the DeltaaroA vaccinated fish (in head kidney 75-83% vs. 50%, in spleen 58-67% vs. 17-25%).

  3. Biodegradation and detoxification of olive mill wastewater by selected strains of the mushroom genera Ganoderma and Pleurotus.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Nerud, Frantisek; Antoniou, Theodoros; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2012-07-01

    Thirty-nine white-rot fungi belonging to nine species of Agaricomycotina (Basidiomycota) were initially screened for their ability to decrease olive-mill wastewater (OMW) phenolics. Four strains of Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were selected and further examined for key-aspects of the OMW biodegradation process. Fungal growth in OMW-containing batch cultures resulted in significant decolorization (by 40-46% and 60-65% for Ganoderma and Pleurotus spp. respectively) and reduction of phenolics (by 64-67% and 74-81% for Ganoderma and Pleurotus spp. respectively). COD decrease was less pronounced (12-29%). Cress-seeds germination increased by 30-40% when OMW was treated by Pleurotus strains. Toxicity expressed as inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri luminescence was reduced in fungal-treated OMW samples by approximately 5-15 times compared to the control. As regards the pertinent enzyme activities, laccase and Mn-independent peroxidase were detected for Ganoderma spp. during the entire incubation period. In contrast, Pleurotus spp. did not exhibit any enzyme activities at early growth stages; instead, high laccase (five times greater than those of Ganoderma spp.) and Mn peroxidases activities were determined at the end of treatment. OMW decolorization by Ganoderma strains was strongly correlated to the reduction of phenolics, whereas P. eryngii laccase activity was correlated with the effluent's decolorization.

  4. Quorum sensing in Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida: identification of the LuxRI homologs AhyRI and AsaRI and their cognate N-acylhomoserine lactone signal molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Swift, S; Karlyshev, A V; Fish, L; Durant, E L; Winson, M K; Chhabra, S R; Williams, P; Macintyre, S; Stewart, G S

    1997-01-01

    Spent culture supernatants from both Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida activate a range of biosensors responsive to N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). The genes for a quorum sensing signal generator and a response regulator were cloned from each Aeromonas species and termed ahyRI and asaRI, respectively. Protein sequence homology analysis places the gene products within the growing family of LuxRI homologs. ahyR and asaR are transcribed divergently from ahyI and asaI, respectively, and in both Aeromonas species, the genes downstream have been identified by DNA sequence and PCR analysis. Downstream of both ahyI and asaI is a gene with close homology to iciA, an inhibitor of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli, a finding which implies that in Aeromonas, cell division may be linked to quorum sensing. The major signal molecule synthesized via both AhyI and AsaI was purified from spent culture supernatants and identified as N-(butanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (BHL) by thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis, and mass spectrometry. In addition, a second, minor AHL, N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, was identified. Transcriptional reporter studies with ahyI::luxCDABE fusions indicate that AhyR and BHL are both required for ahyI transcription. For A. salmonicida, although the addition of exogenous BHL gives only a small stimulation of the production of serine protease with comparison to the control culture, the incorporation of a longer-chain AHL, N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, reduced the final level (by approximately 50%) and delayed the appearance (from an A650 of 0.9 in the control to an A650 of 1.2 in the test) of protease in the culture supernatant. These data add A. hydrophila and A. salmonicida to the growing family of gram-negative bacteria now known to control gene expression through quorum sensing. PMID:9286976

  5. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  6. Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  7. Experimental Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Strains L20 and JL03 Heptosyltransferases, Evidence for a New Heptosyltransferase Signature Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally identified the activities of six predicted heptosyltransferases in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genome serotype 5b strain L20 and serotype 3 strain JL03. The initial identification was based on a bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid similarity between these putative heptosyltrasferases with others of known function from enteric bacteria and Aeromonas. The putative functions of all the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae heptosyltrasferases were determined by using surrogate LPS acceptor molecules from well-defined A. hydrophyla AH-3 and A. salmonicida A450 mutants. Our results show that heptosyltransferases APL_0981 and APJL_1001 are responsible for the transfer of the terminal outer core D-glycero-D-manno-heptose (D,D-Hep) residue although they are not currently included in the CAZY glycosyltransferase 9 family. The WahF heptosyltransferase group signature sequence [S(T/S)(GA)XXH] differs from the heptosyltransferases consensus signature sequence [D(TS)(GA)XXH], because of the substitution of D261 for S261, being unique. PMID:23383222

  8. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  9. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    DOEpatents

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  10. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  11. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  12. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Smith, D.L.; Sinha, D.N.

    1988-06-28

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element. 8 figs.

  13. Superlattice strain gage

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Smith, Darryl L.; Sinha, Dipen N.

    1990-01-01

    A strain gage comprising a strained-layer superlattice crystal exhibiting piezoelectric properties is described. A substrate upon which such a strained-layer superlattice crystal has been deposited is attached to an element to be monitored for strain. A light source is focused on the superlattice crystal and the light reflected from, passed through, or emitted from the crystal is gathered and compared with previously obtained optical property data to determine the strain in the element.

  14. Characteristics of bacterial strains inhabiting the wood of coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Julitta; Miszczyk, Anita; Markiewicz, Zdzisław

    2004-01-01

    The presented studies embraced samples of wood chips from coniferous trees which contained layers of duramen, alburnum and bark. Microbiological analysis involved qualitative and quantitative determination of bacterial flora inhabiting the studied wood material. The wood chips were found to contain primarily species belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas. The presence of the potentially pathogenic species Bacillus cereus 1, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Aeromonas salmonicida and Chryseomonas luteola was also demonstrated.

  15. Elevated temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittain, J. O.; Geslin, D.; Lei, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Materials were evaluated that could be used in manufacturing electrical resistance strain gages for static strain measurements at temperatures at or above 1273 K. Strain gage materials must have a characteristic response to strain, temperature and time that is reproducible or that varies in a predictable manner within specified limits. Several metallic alloys were evaluated, as well as a series of transition metal carbides, nitrides and silicides.

  16. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePlus

    ... happens. A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. Twisting or pulling these tissues can ... suddenly or develop over time. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Many people get strains playing ...

  17. Strain powered antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domann, John P.; Carman, Greg P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of strain powered antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy by mechanically vibrating a piezoelectric or piezomagnetic material. A closed form analytic model of electromagnetic radiation from a strain powered electrically small antenna is derived and analyzed. Fundamental scaling laws and the frequency dependence of strain powered antennas are discussed. The radiation efficiency of strain powered electrically small antennas is contrasted with a conventional electric dipole. Analytical results show that operating at the first mechanical resonance produces the most efficient strain powered radiation relative to electric dipole antennas. A resonant analysis is exploited to determine the material property space that produces efficient strain powered antennas. These results show how a properly designed strain powered antenna can radiate more efficiently than an equally sized electric dipole antenna.

  18. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  19. Strain sensor comprising a strain sensitive, two-mode optical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio Oliveira (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A strain sensor uses an optical fiber including a strain sensitive portion and at least one strain insensitive portion. The strain sensitive portion is mounted on the surface of a structure at a location where a strain is desired to be measured. The strain insensitive portion(s) may be fused to the strain sensitive portion to transmit light therethrough, so that the resulting pattern may be detected to determine the amount of strain by comparison with a similar fiber not subjected to strain, or with the light pattern produced when the fiber is not under strain.

  20. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A strain transducer system and process for making the same is disclosed. A beryllium copper ring having four strain gages is electrically connected in Wheatstone bridge fashion to the output instrumentation. Tabs are bonded to a balloon or like surface with strain on the surface causing bending of a ring which provides an electrical signal through the gages proportional to the surface strain. A photographic pattern of a one half ring segment as placed on a sheet of beryllium copper for chem-mill etch formation is illustrated.

  1. Mechanical strain isolator mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Gordon E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

  2. Light intensity strain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A process is described for the analysis of the strain field of structures subjected to large deformations involving a low modulus substrate having a high modulus, relatively thin coating. The optical properties of transmittance and reflectance are measured for the coated substrate while stressed and unstressed to indicate the strain field for the coated substrate.

  3. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous attempts to develop an appropriate sensor for measuring the stress or strain of high altitude balloons during flight are reviewed as well as the various conditions that must be met by such a device. The design, development and calibration of a transducer which promises to satisfy the necessary design constraints are described. The thin film strain transducer has a low effective modulus so as not to interfere with the strain that would naturally occur in the balloon. In addition, the transducer has a high sensitivity to longitudinal strain (7.216 mV/V/unit strain) which is constant for all temperature from room temperature to -80 C and all strains from 5 percent compression to 10 percent tensile strain. At the same time, the sensor is relatively insensitive (0.27 percent) to transverse forces. The device has a standard 350 ohm impedance which is compatible with available bridge balance, amplification and telemetry instrumentation now available for balloon flight. Recommendations are included for improved coatings to provide passive thermal control as well as model, tethered and full scale flight testing.

  4. Strain gauge installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Conard, Lisa Marie

    1998-01-01

    A tool and a method for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool.

  5. Sprains and Strains

    MedlinePlus

    ... Typically, people with a strain experience pain, limited motion, muscle spasms, and possibly muscle weakness. They also ... program designed to prevent stiffness, improve range of motion, and restore the joint's normal flexibility and strength. ...

  6. Strains and Sprains

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the joint or muscle swelling and bruising warmth and redness of the injured area difficulty moving ... looks "bent" or misshapen signs of infection (increased warmth, redness, streaks, swelling, and pain) a strain or ...

  7. Strain and magnetic remanence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, Graham John

    1993-05-01

    Experimental data may be compatible with the hypothesis that a single direction of magnetic remanence rotates as a rigid marker with strains up to 40% shortening in coaxial, perfect flattening ( X = Y > Z). Detailed agreement with the passive line model is relatively poor for the specimens in which remanance is carried by magnetite. However, for this range of strains the differences with the passive line model (Wettstein's equation) are so slight that the latter model may be more easily employed to de-strain or restore deformed remanance to its original attitude. In the case of hematite-bearing remanences, the differences between the passive line and rigid marker model are even smaller because of the higher aspect ratios of grains of hematite. Therefore it is suggested that Wettstein's equation may be safely used to restore remanence after even higher strains, where the remanence is carried by hematite.

  8. Strain isolated ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolokan, R. P.; Brady, J. B.; Jarrabet, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are used in gas turbine engines to improve component temperature capability and cooling air efficiency. A compliant metal fiber strain isolator between a plasma sprayed ceramic coating and a metal substrate improves ceramic durability while allowing thicker coatings for better insulation. Development of strain isolated coatings has concentrated on design and fabrication of coatings and coating evaluation via thermal shock testing. In thermal shock testing, five types of failure are possible: buckling failure im compression on heat up, bimetal type failure, isothermal expansion mismatch failure, mudflat cracking during cool down, and long term fatigue. A primary failure mode for thermally cycled coatings is designated bimetal type failure. Bimetal failure is tensile failure in the ceramic near the ceramic-metal interface. One of the significant benefits of the strain isolator is an insulating layer protecting the metal substrate from heat deformation and thereby preventing bimetal type failure.

  9. Strain avalanches in plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argon, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Plastic deformation at the mechanism level in all solids occurs in the form of discrete thermally activated individual stress relaxation events. While there are clear differences in mechanisms between dislocation mediated events in crystalline solids and by individual shear transformations in amorphous metals and semiconductors, such relaxation events interact strongly to form avalanches of strain bursts. In all cases the attendant distributions of released energy as amplitudes of acoustic emissions, or in serration amplitudes in flow stress, the levels of strain bursts are of fractal character with fractal exponents in the range from -1.5 to -2.0, having the character of phenomena of self-organized criticality, SOC. Here we examine strain avalanches in single crystals of ice, hcp metals, the jerky plastic deformations of nano-pillars of fcc and bcc metals deforming in compression, those in the plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses, all demonstrating the remarkable universality of character of plastic relaxation events.

  10. Strain gauge installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Conard, L.M.

    1998-06-16

    A tool and a method are disclosed for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maintaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool. 6 figs.

  11. Radio frequency strain monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor); Holben, Jr., Milford S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A radio frequency strain monitor includes a voltage controlled oscillator for generating an oscillating signal that is input into a propagation path. The propagation path is preferably bonded to the surface of a structure to be monitored and produces a propagated signal. A phase difference between the oscillating and propagated signals is detected and maintained at a substantially constant value which is preferably a multiple of 90.degree. by changing the frequency of the oscillating signal. Any change in frequency of the oscillating signal provides an indication of strain in the structure to which the propagation path is bonded.

  12. Muscle strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  13. Isolation of a pigment-producing strain of Aeromonas liquefaciens from silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.

    1962-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, is distinctive in the field of fish diseases in that it may readily be recognized by the water-soluble reddish-brown pigment formed on culture media containing tyrosine. Additional tests for the identification of this organism include blackening of the colonial growth when flooded with an aqueous solution of p-phenylenediamine and a lack of motility (Griffin, Progressive Fish Culturist 14:74, 1952).

  14. Sadovskii vortex in strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Sadovskii vortices are patches of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. They were first constructed as models for wakes behind bluff objects. We investigate the Sadovskii vortex in a straining field and examine limiting cases to validate our computational method. One limit is the patch vortex in strain (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971), where there is no vortex sheet. We solve this as a free-boundary problem, and show that a simple method using the Biot-Savart law quickly gives solutions for stable shapes. When used for the more elongated (stronger straining field) situations, the method also leads to new vortex shapes. In the hollow vortex case, where there is no vortex patch and the circulation is entirely due to the vortex sheet (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691 2012), we use the Birkhoff-Rott equation to calculate the velocity of the fluid on the vortex boundary. The combination of these two methods can then be used to calculate the shape and velocity field of the Sadovksii vortex in strain.

  15. Strain gage barometric transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viton, P.

    1977-01-01

    A strain gage barometric transmitter for measuring the atmospheric pressure in severe environmental conditions is described. This equipment specifications are presented and its performance assessed. It is shown that this barometric sensor can measure the atmospheric pressure with a precision of 0.5 mb during a 6 month period.

  16. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... not to push yourself too hard or too fast. A hamstring strain can recur, or your hamstring may tear. Talk to your provider before returning to work or any physical activity. Returning to normal activity too early can cause re-injury.

  17. Repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, S T

    2001-05-01

    Repetitive strain injury is a group of musculoskeletal disorders affecting muscles, tendons, nerves and blood vessels. These disorders could be attributed to occupational causes; however non-occupational causes should be excluded. The management of these cases required a multidisciplinary team approach.

  18. Balloon film strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, James L.

    In order to understand the state of stress in scientific balloons, a need exists for the measurement of film deformation in flight. The results of a flight test program are reported where material strain was measured for the first time during the inflation, launch, ascent and float of a typical natural shape, zero pressure scientific balloon.

  19. Highly stretchable miniature strain sensor for large dynamic strain measurement

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Bo; Yao, Shurong; Nie, Xu; ...

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of highly stretchable strain sensor was developed to measure large strains. The sensor was based on the piezo-resistive response of carbon nanotube (CNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite thin films. The piezo-resistive response of CNT composite gives accurate strain measurement with high frequency response, while the ultra-soft PDMS matrix provides high flexibility and ductility for large strain measurement. Experimental results show that the CNT/PDMS sensor measures large strains (up to 8 %) with an excellent linearity and a fast frequency response. The new miniature strain sensor also exhibits much higher sensitivities than the conventional foil strain gages,more » as its gauge factor is 500 times of that of the conventional foil strain gages.« less

  20. Highly stretchable miniature strain sensor for large dynamic strain measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Yao, Shurong; Nie, Xu; Yu, Xun; Blecke, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of highly stretchable strain sensor was developed to measure large strains. The sensor was based on the piezo-resistive response of carbon nanotube (CNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite thin films. The piezo-resistive response of CNT composite gives accurate strain measurement with high frequency response, while the ultra-soft PDMS matrix provides high flexibility and ductility for large strain measurement. Experimental results show that the CNT/PDMS sensor measures large strains (up to 8 %) with an excellent linearity and a fast frequency response. The new miniature strain sensor also exhibits much higher sensitivities than the conventional foil strain gages, as its gauge factor is 500 times of that of the conventional foil strain gages.

  1. Strain patterns and strain accumulation along plate margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of strain accumulation along plate margins in Japan, New Zealand, and the United States indicate that: (1) a typical maximum rate of secular strain accumulation is on the order of 0.3 ppm/a, (2) a substantial part of the strain accumulation process can be attributed to slip at depth on the major plate boundary faults, and (3) some plastic deformation in a zone 100 km or more in width is apparently involved in the strain accumulation process.

  2. High temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A ceramic strain gage based on reactively sputtered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films is used to monitor the structural integrity of components employed in aerospace propulsion systems operating at temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the thick ITO sensors reveals a partially sintered microstructure comprising a contiguous network of submicron ITO particles with well defined necks and isolated nanoporosity. Densification of the ITO particles was retarded during high temperature exposure with nitrogen thus stabilizing the nanoporosity. ITO strain sensors were prepared by reactive sputtering in various nitrogen/oxygen/argon partial pressures to incorporate more nitrogen into the films. Under these conditions, sintering and densification of the ITO particles containing these nitrogen rich grain boundaries was retarded and a contiguous network of nano-sized ITO particles was established.

  3. Strained Ring Energetic Binders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-27

    polyhomobenzvalene ( PHBV ). PHBV was not found to have the mechanical instability problems of PBV, but was still thermally unstable (Tonset - 660C, Tmax - 1090C...DISCUSSION 4 Polybenzvalene (PBV) 4 Polyhomobenzvalene ( PHBV ) 6 Chain-Transfer Studies 11 CONCLUSIONS 15 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 16 .F 4E 19 APPENDICES A...strained ring polymers similar to PBV are known. The investigation of one of these polymers, polyhomobenzvalene ( PHBV ), is also described in this report

  4. Strain Gage Signal Interpretation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    blades and vanes in many engines have been collected, played back and examined. The engine types encompass GE’s stable of turbine engines from the small...aeromechanical engineer . 1.3 SUMMARY OF RESULTS Strain gage signals from vibrating rotor blades and vanes were collected, examined, classified, and generalized...turboprops, to turbojets and to the large high bypass turbofan engines . Test conditions include all the phases that are investigated

  5. Strain Measurement - Unidirectional.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-20

    a ballpoint pen or a rounded piece of brass rod. If critical alignment is not necessary, gage lines may be located outside the immediate gage location...supplemented as needed by tabulated values. If the test design includes specification limits for the values, they should be included on the plots. Plots of...enough baseline before the event to allow estimation of the noise and stability. If the strain is to be correlated to specific events, the events should

  6. What Are Sprains and Strains?

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands and arms a lot. Examples are gymnastics, tennis, rowing, and golf. People who play these sports sometimes strain their hand or arm. Elbow strains can also happen when playing sports. What ...

  7. Strain balanced quantum posts

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Alvarez, D.; Alen, B.; Ripalda, J. M.; Llorens, J. M.; Taboada, A. G.; Briones, F.; Roldan, M. A.; Hernandez-Saz, J.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D.; Herrera, M.; Molina, S. I.

    2011-04-25

    Quantum posts are assembled by epitaxial growth of closely spaced quantum dot layers, modulating the composition of a semiconductor alloy, typically InGaAs. In contrast with most self-assembled nanostructures, the height of quantum posts can be controlled with nanometer precision, up to a maximum value limited by the accumulated stress due to the lattice mismatch. Here, we present a strain compensation technique based on the controlled incorporation of phosphorous, which substantially increases the maximum attainable quantum post height. The luminescence from the resulting nanostructures presents giant linear polarization anisotropy.

  8. Sadovskii vortex in strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    A Sadovskii vortex is a patch of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. Using a boundary element type method, we investigate the steady states of this flow in an incompressible, inviscid straining flow. Outside the vortex, the fluid is irrotational. In the limiting case where the entire circulation is due to the vortex patch, this is a patch vortex (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971). In the other limiting case, where all the circulation is due to the vortex sheet, this is a hollow vortex (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691, 2012). This flow has two governing nondimensional parameters, relating the strengths of the straining field, vortex sheet, and patch vorticity. We study the relationship between these two parameters, and examine the shape of the resulting vortices. We also work towards a bifurcation diagram of the steady states of the Sadovskii vortex in an attempt to understand the connection between vortex sheet and vortex patch desingularizations of the point vortex. Support from NSF-CMMI-0970113.

  9. Repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    van Tulder, Maurits; Malmivaara, Antti; Koes, Bart

    2007-05-26

    Repetitive strain injury remains a controversial topic. The term repetitive strain injury includes specific disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, Guyon canal syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and tendonitis of the wrist or hand. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of history and clinical examination. Large high-quality studies using newer imaging techniques, such as MRI and ultrasonography are few. Consequently, the role of such imaging in diagnosis of upper limb disorders remains unclear. In many cases, no specific diagnosis can be established and complaints are labelled as non-specific. Little is known about the effectiveness of treatment options for upper limb disorders. Strong evidence for any intervention is scarce and the effect, if any, is mainly short-term pain relief. Exercise is beneficial for non-specific upper limb disorders. Immobilising hand braces and open carpal tunnel surgery release are beneficial for carpal tunnel syndrome, and topical and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections are helpful for lateral epicondylitis. Exercise is probably beneficial for neck pain, as are corticosteroid injections and exercise for shoulder pain. Although upper limb disorders occur frequently in the working population, most trials have not exclusively included a working population or assessed effects on work-related outcomes. Further high-quality trials should aim to include sufficient sample sizes, working populations, and work-related outcomes.

  10. Strain Pattern in Supercooled Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Hajnal, David; Klix, Christian; Keim, Peter; Fuchs, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Investigations of strain correlations at the glass transition reveal unexpected phenomena. The shear strain fluctuations show an Eshelby-strain pattern [˜cos (4 θ ) /r2 ], characteristic of elastic response, even in liquids, at long times. We address this using a mode-coupling theory for the strain fluctuations in supercooled liquids and data from both video microscopy of a two-dimensional colloidal glass former and simulations of Brownian hard disks. We show that the long-ranged and long-lived strain signatures follow a scaling law valid close to the glass transition. For large enough viscosities, the Eshelby-strain pattern is visible even on time scales longer than the structural relaxation time τ and after the shear modulus has relaxed to zero.

  11. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    DOEpatents

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  12. Strain relaxation in nanopatterned strained silicon round pillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himcinschi, C.; Singh, R.; Radu, I.; Milenin, A. P.; Erfurth, W.; Reiche, M.; Gösele, U.; Christiansen, S. H.; Muster, F.; Petzold, M.

    2007-01-01

    Periodic arrays of strained Si (sSi) round nanopillars were fabricated on sSi layers deposited on SiGe virtual substrates by electron-beam lithography and subsequent reactive-ion etching. The strain in the patterned sSi nanopillars was determined using high-resolution UV micro-Raman spectroscopy. The strain relaxes significantly upon nanostructuring: from 0.9% in the unpatterned sSi layer to values between 0.22% and 0.57% in the round sSi pillars with diameters from 100 up to 500nm. The strain distribution in the sSi nanopillars was analyzed by finite element (FE) modeling. The FE calculations confirm the strain relaxation after patterning, in agreement with the results obtained from Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Adaptor for Measuring Principal Strains with Tuckerman Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, A E

    1943-01-01

    An adapter is described which uses three Tuckerman optical strain gages to measure the displacement of the three vortices of an equilateral triangle along lines 120 degrees apart. These displacements are substituted in well-known equations in order to compute the magnitude and direction of the principal strains. Tests of the adaptor indicate that principal strains over a gage length of 1.42 inch may be measured with a systematic error not exceeding 4 percent and a mean observational error of the order of + or minus 0.000006. The maximum observed error in strain was of the order of 0.00006. The directions of principal strains for unidirectional stress were measured with the adaptor with an average error of the order of 1 degree.

  14. Strained graphene Hall bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanović, S. P.; Peeters, F. M.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of strain, induced by a Gaussian bump, on the magnetic field dependent transport properties of a graphene Hall bar are investigated. The numerical simulations are performed using both classical and quantum mechanical transport theory and we found that both approaches exhibit similar characteristic features. The effects of the Gaussian bump are manifested by a decrease of the bend resistance, R B, around zero-magnetic field and the occurrence of side-peaks in R B. These features are explained as a consequence of bump-assisted scattering of electrons towards different terminals of the Hall bar. Using these features we are able to give an estimate of the size of the bump. Additional oscillations in R B are found in the quantum description that are due to the population/depopulation of Landau levels. The bump has a minor influence on the Hall resistance even for very high values of the pseudo-magnetic field. When the bump is placed outside the center of the Hall bar valley polarized electrons can be collected in the leads.

  15. Biomechanical strain of goldsmiths.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Paula Emanuela Fernandes; Teixeira, Juliana Vieira Schmidt; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira; Gontijo, Leila Amaral

    2012-01-01

    The work of the goldsmiths consists in the manufacture of jewelry. The piece, be it an earring, bracelet or necklace, is hand-assembled. This task requires precision, skill, kindness and patience. In this work, we make use of tools such as cuticle clippers and rounded tip, beads or precious stones and also pieces of metal. This type of activity requires a biomechanical stress of hands and wrists. In order to quantify the biomechanical stress, we performed a case study to measure the movements performed by an assembly of pieces of jewelry. As method for research, filming was done during assembly of parts to a paste, using a Nikon digital camera, for 1 (one) hour. The film was edited by Kinovea software, and the task was divided into cycles, each cycle corresponds to a complete object. In one cycle, there are four two movements of supination and pronation movements of the forearm. The cycle lasts approximately sixteen seconds, totaling 1800 cycles in eight hours. Despite the effort required of the wrists, the activity shows no complaints from the employees, but this fact does not mischaracterizes the ability of employees to acquire repetitive strain injuries and work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  16. Characterization of Salmonella enteritidis strains.

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, C; McFadden, K A; Brouwer, A M; Demczuk, W

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to characterize 318 Salmonella enteritidis strains that were mainly isolated from poultry and their environment in Canada. Biotype, phagetype (PT), plasmid profile (PP), hybridization with a plasmid-derived virulence sequence probe, antibiotic resistance, outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles were determined. Relationships of these properties to one another, and their diagnostic and pathogenic significance were assessed. Biotyping indicated that failure to ferment rhamnose was sometimes useful as a marker for epidemiologically related strains. Phagetyping was the most effective method for subdividing S. enteritidis; it distinguished 12 PTs. Phagetype 13 was occasionally associated with septicemia and mortality in chickens. The strains belonged to 15 PPs. A 36 megadalton (MDa) plasmid was found in 97% of the strains. Only the 36 MDa plasmid hybridized with the probe. Seventeen percent of the strains were drug resistant; all strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Thirty-five of 36 strains possessed the same OMP profile, and 36 of 41 strains contained smooth LPS. Images Fig. 1. PMID:8358678

  17. Difference Between Strain and Sprain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Provided in this description of the differences between a strain (damage to the muscle or tendon) and a sprain (damage to the ligament) are definitions of mild, moderate, and severe (first, second, and third degree) strains and sprains. A final caution is given that these are two separate and distinct problems and should be treated as such. (DC)

  18. Hypothetical strain-free oligoradicals

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Roald; Eisenstein, Odile; Balaban, Alexandru T.

    1980-01-01

    Several new classes of oligoradicals free of angle strain are suggested and examined by means of molecular orbital calculations. The collapse products of these hypothetical radicals are highly strained molecules. Various electronic strategies for the stabilization of these oligoradicals have been explored. PMID:16592882

  19. Strain gage system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolleris, G. W.; Mazur, H. J.; Kokoszka, E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine the reliability of various strain gage systems when applied to rotating compressor blades in an aircraft gas turbine engine. A survey of current technology strain gage systems was conducted to provide a basis for selecting candidate systems for evaluation. Testing and evaluation was conducted in an F 100 engine. Sixty strain gage systems of seven different designs were installed on the first and third stages of an F 100 engine fan. Nineteen strain gage failures occurred during 62 hours of engine operation, for a survival rate of 68 percent. Of the failures, 16 occurred at blade-to-disk leadwire jumps (84 percent), two at a leadwire splice (11 percent), and one at a gage splice (5 percent). Effects of erosion, temperature, G-loading, and stress levels are discussed. Results of a post-test analysis of the individual components of each strain gage system are presented.

  20. Strain Insensitive Optical Phase Locked Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A strain sensor uses optical fibers including strain insensitive portions and a strain sensitive portion. The optical fibers form a sensitive arm of an optical phase locked loop (OPLL). The use of the OPLL allows for multimode optical fiber to be used in a strain insensitive configuration. Only strain information for the strain sensitive portion is monitored rather than the integrated strain measurements commonly made with optical fiber sensors.

  1. High temperature strain measurement with a resistance strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Fichtel, ED; Mcdaniel, Amos

    1993-01-01

    A PdCr based electrical resistance strain gage was demonstrated in the laboratory to be a viable sensor candidate for static strain measurement at high temperatures. However, difficulties were encountered while transferring the sensor to field applications. This paper is therefore prepared for recognition and resolution of the problems likely to be encountered with PdCr strain gages in field applications. Errors caused by the measurement system, installation technique and lead wire attachment are discussed. The limitations and some considerations related to the temperature compensation technique used for this gage are also addressed.

  2. Recent advances in echocardiography: strain and strain rate imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mirea, Oana; Duchenne, Jurgen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Deformation imaging by echocardiography is a well-established research tool which has been gaining interest from clinical cardiologists since the introduction of speckle tracking. Post-processing of echo images to analyze deformation has become readily available at the fingertips of the user. New parameters such as global longitudinal strain have been shown to provide added diagnostic value, and ongoing efforts of the imaging societies and industry aimed at harmonizing methods will improve the technique further. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of echocardiographic strain and strain rate imaging, and provides an overview on its current and potential future clinical applications. PMID:27158476

  3. Low TCR nanocomposite strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); Chen, Ximing (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high temperature thin film strain gage sensor capable of functioning at temperatures above 1400.degree. C. The sensor contains a substrate, a nanocomposite film comprised of an indium tin oxide alloy, zinc oxide doped with alumina or other oxide semiconductor and a refractory metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ni, W, Ir, NiCrAlY and NiCoCrAlY deposited onto the substrate to form an active strain element. The strain element being responsive to an applied force.

  4. Virtual strain gage size study

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.

    2015-09-22

    DIC is a non-linear low-pass spatial filtering operation; whether we consider the effect of the subset and shape function, the strain window used in the strain calculation, of other post-processing of the results, each decision will impact the spatial resolution, of the measurement. More fundamentally, the speckle size limits, the spatial resolution by dictating the smallest possible subset. After this decision the processing settings are controlled by the allowable noise level balanced by possible bias errors created by the data filtering. This article describes a process to determine optimum DIC software settings to determine if the peak displacements or strains are being found.

  5. Radio Frequency (RF) strain monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor); Holben, Milford S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus for measuring strain in a structure. In particular, the invention detects strain in parts per million to over ten percent along an entire length (or other dimension) of a structure measuring a few millimeters to several kilometers. By using a propagation path bonded to the structure, the invention is not limited by the signal attenuation characteristics of the structure and thus frequencies in the megahertz to gigahertz range may be used to detect strain in part per million to over ten percent with high precision.

  6. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nori, Franco; Ronchetti, Marco; Elser, Veit

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of two-dimensional quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously is studied. Whereas ideal, quasi-periodic networks are stable against such perturbations, significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process are found. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation observed in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate is found.

  7. PLASTICITY AND NON-LINEAR ELASTIC STRAINS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conditions existing in plane waves in an extended medium to give the time rate of change of stress as a function of the time rate of change of strain, the stress invariants, the total strain and the plastic strain. (Author)

  8. Magnetic Domain Strain Sensor Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    static strain measurement at elevated temperatures. 2.2 Magnetic Strain Measurement Theory The initial work at GED investigated the Barkhausen effect...including large and small Barkhausen jumps. This is a wave propaga- tion phenomenon in which a magnetic wave velocity is measured. The wave velocity in a...theory explaining the phenomenon that deviates from the Barkhausen effect. Some basic concepts had to be examined to better understand magnetic phenomena

  9. HIGH-TEMPERATURE STRAIN GAGE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent involves a high-temperature tensometer consisting of a strain-sensitive wire grid, a connecting and insulating material, a sub-layer of...heat-resistant material, deposited on the part being investigated or on a backing by gas flame deposition, and a connector to fasten the strain...adhesion, the tension-sensitive wire grid is fastened through the sub-layer to the part being tested by the connecting and insulating material. (Author)

  10. NUTRITION OF FIVE BACTEROIDES STRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Quinto, Grace

    1962-01-01

    Quinto, Grace (University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington). Nutrition of five Bacteroides strains. J. Bacteriol. 84:559–562. 1962.—Some of the nutritional requirements of five gram-negative anaerobic bacilli, including Ristella perfoetens, Zuberella clostridiformis, and three Bacteroides strains freshly isolated from clinical exudates, were investigated. A fluid maintenance medium was developed in which the three freshly isolated strains, C-4, C-7, and C-2795, grew maximally in 12 to 24 hr. The maintenance medium contained 2.0% Trypticase and Proteose Peptone, 0.5% glucose, and 0.1% sodium thioglycolate; it was adjusted to pH 7.2 and supplemented with 0.1 μg of hemin/ml. Strains C-4, C-7, and C-2795 were cultivated through 14 serial cultures in fluid maintenance medium containing 0.1 μg of hemin/ml. The most satisfactory inoculum was a 1:100 or 1:1,000 dilution of a 24-hr seed culture. All the strains except Z. clostridiformis grew serially in a defined medium. R. perfoetens required pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and the following amino acids: histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, phenylalanine, cystine, and probably arginine, glutamic acid, methionine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, and lysine. The C-4, C-7, and C-2795 strains required the hemin supplement in defined medium, but not vitamins, purines, or pyrimidines. PMID:13972793

  11. Applications of strained layer superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Laurich, B. K.; Mailhiot, C.

    1990-04-01

    Because of different band edge lineups, strain conditions, and growth orientations, various strained layer superlattice (SLS) materials can exhibit qualitatively new physical behavior in their optical properties. Two examples are given of new physical behavior in SLS: strain generated electric fields in polar growth axis superlattices and strained type 2 superlattices. In SLS, large electric fields can be generated by the piezoelectric effect. The fields are largest for SLS with a (111) growth axis; they vanish for SLS with a (100) growth axis. The strain generated electric fields strongly modify the optical properties of the superlattice. Photogenerated electron-hole pairs screen the fields leading to a large nonlinear optical response. Application of an external electric field leads to a large linear electrooptical response. The absorption edge can be either red or blue shifted. Optical studies of (100), (111), and (211) oriented GaInAs/GaAs superlattices confirm the existence of the strain generated electric fields. Small band gap semiconductors are useful for making intrinsic long wavelength infrared detectors. Arbitrarily small band gaps can be reached in the type 2 superlattice InAs/GaSb. However, for band gaps less than 0.1 eV, the layer thicknesses are large and the overlap of electron and hole wavefunctions are small. Thus, the absorption coefficient is too small for useful infrared (IR) detection. Including In in the GaSb introduces strain in he InAs/GaInSb superlattice which shifts the band edges so that small band gaps can be reached in thin layer superlattices. Good absorption at long IR wavelengths is thus achieved.

  12. Magnetic susceptibility, petrofabrics and strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, Graham John

    1988-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is a non-destructive technique for quantifying the average fabric of a small sample of rock. The interpretation of the magnetic fabric is not always straightforward. However, the principal directions of the magnitude ellipsoid of susceptibility commonly show orientations consistent with the kinematic interpretations of folds, shear zones and other structural features. The directions may correspond with the orientations of strained objects or with the planar-linear mineral orientations. There will usually be multiple mineralogical sources of susceptibility, often involving silicates. If the sources are known, or if the susceptibility can be attributed to a single mineral species, it may be possible to establish a correlation between the strain ellipsoid and the susceptibility ellipsoid. This correlation will be of principal directions in many instances and occasionally there may be a weak correlation of strain magnitudes as well. In other circumstances it may be possible to establish a correlation between changes in susceptibility and the strain. Nevertheless magnetic fabric studies are not routine substitutes for strain analysis. Even where information on strain is not provided, the magnetic fabrics (and subfabrics) yield a measure of the preferred crystallographic orientation or preferred dimensional orientation of the minerals that may be integrated profitably with other petrofabric data. Experimental deformation of certain synthetic aggregates indicates that directions of magnetic susceptibility spin rapidly with advancing strain, especially where the matrix grains undergo crystal-plastic deformation. In certain experiments, simple shear appears to change the intensity of magnetic fabric more effectively than pure shear. Experiments indicate also that the initial anisotropy of a rock-like material is not easily overprinted by deformation whereas field studies are equivocal.

  13. Optical Strain Measurement System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lant, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of physical phenomena affecting the durability of SSME components require measurement systems operational in hostile environments. The need for such instrumentation caused the definition and operation of an optical strain measurement system. This optical strain measurement system based on the speckle shift method is being developed. This is a noncontact, automatic method of measuring surface strain in one dimension that corrects for error due to rigid body motion. It provides a gauge length of 1 to 2 mm and allows the region of interest on the test specimen to be mapped point by point. The output is a graphics map of the points inspected on the specimen; data points is stored in quasi-real time. This is the first phase of a multiphase effort in optical strain measurement. The speckle pattern created by the test specimen is interpreted as high order interference fringes resulting from a random diffraction grating, being the natural surface roughness of the specimen. Strain induced on the specimen causes a change in spacing of the surface roughness, which in turn shifts the position of the interference pattern (speckles).

  14. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    DOEpatents

    Steblay, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

  15. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of Entamoeba histolytica strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Avalos, D.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Silva, E. F.; Orozco, E.; de Menezes, L. F.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    Pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of E. histolytica are studied using photoacoustic spectroscopy. It is shown that the pathogenic strain presents a spectrum similar to that of iron sulfur proteins. The non-pathogenic strain does not show any relevant absorption at the studied wavelength range. The differences observed between the optical absorption spectra of both strains opens the possibility of using photoacoustic spectroscopy as a reliable and simple technique to identify different types of E. histolytica strains.

  16. Characterization of strains of Corynebacterium bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A

    1984-01-01

    The biochemical and morphological characteristics of 104 strains of Corynebacterium bovis isolated from bovine milk samples and the C. bovis reference strain were found to be uniform. Valuable criteria for identification were presence of catalase and oxidase, production of acid from glucose and fructose and a requirement for enriched basal media. Six strains of human and three strains of bovine origin were found to be inconsistent with the reference strain. PMID:6722650

  17. Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, B. A.; Forsythe, M. E.; Stanish, W. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. CONCLUSION: Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management. PMID:11228032

  18. Trials with a Strain Gauge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    1996-01-01

    Describes an attempt to match the goals of the practical demonstration of the use of a strain gauge and the technical applications of science and responding to student questions in early trials, while keeping within the level of electronics in advanced physics. (Author/JRH)

  19. Bacteriocins and novel bacterial strains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry is thought to be a significant source of Campylobacter in human disease. We evaluated anti-Campylobacter activity among 365 Bacillus and Paenibacillus isolates from poultry. One novel antagonistic Bacillus circulans and three Paenibacillus polymyxa strains were identified and further studi...

  20. Extreme Temperature Strain Measurement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    Electrix Industries, Inc., P.O. Box 306, Lombard, IL 60148, Phone (312) 627-6802 38 Foil Strain gages. ° HiTEC Corp., Nardone Industrial Park...Planer Ltd., CERL-Planer Capacitive Transducer, Windmill Road, Sunbury -on- Thames, Middx., England, Phone: Sunbury 86262-3-4-5 • HiTEC Corp., Nardone

  1. A NEW STRAIN OF TRANSMISSIBLE LEUCEMIA IN FOWLS (STRAIN H).

    PubMed

    Ellermann, V

    1921-03-31

    1. A new strain of fowl leucosis has been transmitted through twelve generations of fowls. 2. An increase in virulence was observed during its passage. This was shown in a shortening of the interval between inoculation and death. The increase in virulence does not affect the number of successful inoculations, which remains approximately constant in from 20 to 40 per cent of the birds employed. 3. As with former strains, the disease manifests itself in various forms; i.e., myeloid and intravascular lymphoid types. A single lymphatic case was observed. 4. In several intravascular cases a diminution in the hemolytic power of the serum was established. This phenomenon was absent in a number of myeloid cases. 5. Active immunization cannot be produced by means of the subcutaneous injection of virulent material. 6. The finding of previous experiments that the virus is filterable has been confirmed. 7. The inoculation of human leucemic material into fowls gave negative results.

  2. Material mechanical characterization method for multiple strains and strain rates

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmand, III, Donald L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Simunovic, Srdjan; Wang, Yanli

    2016-01-19

    A specimen for measuring a material under multiple strains and strain rates. The specimen including a body having first and second ends and a gage region disposed between the first and second ends, wherein the body has a central, longitudinal axis passing through the first and second ends. The gage region includes a first gage section and a second gage section, wherein the first gage section defines a first cross-sectional area that is defined by a first plane that extends through the first gage section and is perpendicular to the central, longitudinal axis. The second gage section defines a second cross-sectional area that is defined by a second plane that extends through the second gage section and is perpendicular to the central, longitudinal axis and wherein the first cross-sectional area is different in size than the second cross-sectional area.

  3. Strains

    MedlinePlus

    Pulled muscle ... can include: Pain and difficulty moving the injured muscle Discolored and bruised skin Swelling ... if you still have pain. Rest the pulled muscle for at least a day. If possible, keep ...

  4. Modelling to very high strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, P. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Griera, A.; Evans, L. A.; Wilson, C. J. L.

    2009-04-01

    Ductile strains in shear zones often reach extreme values, resulting in typical structures, such as winged porphyroclasts and several types of shear bands. The numerical simulation of the development of such structures has so far been inhibited by the low maximum strains that numerical models can normally achieve. Typical numerical models collapse at shear strains in the order of one to three. We have implemented a number of new functionalities in the numerical platform "Elle" (Jessell et al. 2001), which significantly increases the amount of strain that can be achieved and simultaneously reduces boundary effects that become increasingly disturbing at higher strain. Constant remeshing, while maintaining the polygonal phase regions, is the first step to avoid collapse of the finite-element grid required by finite-element solvers, such as Basil (Houseman et al. 2008). The second step is to apply a grain-growth routine to the boundaries of polygons that represent phase regions. This way, the development of sharp angles is avoided. A second advantage is that phase regions may merge or become separated (boudinage). Such topological changes are normally not possible in finite element deformation codes. The third step is the use of wrapping vertical model boundaries, with which optimal and unchanging model boundaries are maintained for the application of stress or velocity boundary conditions. The fourth step is to shift the model by a random amount in the vertical direction every time step. This way, the fixed horizontal boundary conditions are applied to different material points within the model every time step. Disturbing boundary effects are thus averaged out over the whole model and not localised to e.g. top and bottom of the model. Reduction of boundary effects has the additional advantage that model can be smaller and, therefore, numerically more efficient. Owing to the combination of these existing and new functionalities it is now possible to simulate the

  5. Strain tolerant microfilamentary superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Miller, Theodore A.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Schwartzkopf, Louis A.; Sanders, Steven C.

    1993-02-23

    A strain tolerant microfilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  6. Virtual strain gage size study

    DOE PAGES

    Reu, Phillip L.

    2015-09-22

    DIC is a non-linear low-pass spatial filtering operation; whether we consider the effect of the subset and shape function, the strain window used in the strain calculation, of other post-processing of the results, each decision will impact the spatial resolution, of the measurement. More fundamentally, the speckle size limits, the spatial resolution by dictating the smallest possible subset. After this decision the processing settings are controlled by the allowable noise level balanced by possible bias errors created by the data filtering. This article describes a process to determine optimum DIC software settings to determine if the peak displacements or strainsmore » are being found.« less

  7. Strain softening in stretched DNA

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Binquan; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2010-01-01

    The microscopic mechanics of DNA stretching was characterized using extensive molecular dynamics simulations. By employing an anisotropic pressure control method, realistic force-extension dependences of effectively infinite DNA molecules were obtained. A coexistence of B- and S-DNA domains was observed during the overstretching transition. The simulations revealed that strain softening may occur in the process of stretching torsionally constrained DNA. The latter observation was qualitatively reconciled with available experimental data using a random-field Ising model. PMID:18851334

  8. High Temperature Capacitive Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnuk, Stephen P., Jr.; Wnuk, Stephen P., III; Wnuk, V. P.

    1990-01-01

    Capacitive strain gages designed for measurements in wind tunnels to 2000 F were built and evaluated. Two design approaches were followed. One approach was based on fixed capacitor plates with a movable ground plane inserted between the plates to effect differential capacitive output with strain. The second approach was based on movable capacitor plates suspended between sapphire bearings, housed in a rugged body, and arranged to operate as a differential capacitor. A sapphire bearing gage (1/4 in. diameter x 1 in. in size) was built with a range of 50,000 and a resolution of 200 microstrain. Apparent strain on Rene' 41 was less than + or - 1000 microstrain from room temperature to 2000 F. Three gage models were built from the Ground Plane Differential concept. The first was 1/4 in. square by 1/32 in. high and useable to 700 F. The second was 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high and useable to 1440 F. The third, also 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high was expected to operate in the 1600 to 2000 F range, but was not tested because time and funding ended.

  9. High temperature capacitive strain gage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, Stephen P., Jr.; Wnuk, Stephen P., III; Wnuk, V. P.

    1990-01-01

    Capacitive strain gages designed for measurements in wind tunnels to 2000 F were built and evaluated. Two design approaches were followed. One approach was based on fixed capacitor plates with a movable ground plane inserted between the plates to effect differential capacitive output with strain. The second approach was based on movable capacitor plates suspended between sapphire bearings, housed in a rugged body, and arranged to operate as a differential capacitor. A sapphire bearing gage (1/4 in. diameter x 1 in. in size) was built with a range of 50,000 and a resolution of 200 microstrain. Apparent strain on Rene' 41 was less than + or - 1000 microstrain from room temperature to 2000 F. Three gage models were built from the Ground Plane Differential concept. The first was 1/4 in. square by 1/32 in. high and useable to 700 F. The second was 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high and useable to 1440 F. The third, also 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high was expected to operate in the 1600 to 2000 F range, but was not tested because time and funding ended.

  10. Strain-Detecting Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Terryl A. (Inventor); Smith, Stephen W. (Inventor); Piascik, Robert S. (Inventor); Horne, Michael R. (Inventor); Messick, Peter L. (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor); Glaessgen, Edward H. (Inventor); Hailer, Benjamin T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composite material includes a structural material and a shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite in response to a predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. In a second embodiment, the composite material includes a plurality of particles of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite and changes magnetic phase in response to the predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. A method of forming a composite material for sensing the predefined critical macroscopic average strain includes providing the shape-memory alloy having an austenite crystallographic phase, changing a size and shape of the shape-memory alloy to thereby form a plurality of particles, and combining the structural material and the particles at a temperature of from about 100-700.degree. C. to form the composite material.

  11. Strains and Sprains Are a Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... strain at some point. Strains and sprains are common injuries, especially for kids who are very active or ... such as twisting your ankle. This kind of injury is common in sports, but also can happen any time ...

  12. Strain Monitoring of Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litteken, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    , such as tensile testing, fatigue testing, and shear testing, but common measurement techniques cannot be used on fabric. Measuring strain in a material and during a test is a critical parameter for an engineer to monitor the structure during the test and correlate to an analytical model. The ability to measure strain in fabric structures is a challenge for NASA. Foil strain gauges, for example, are commonplace on metallic structures testing, but are extremely difficult to interface with a fabric substrate. New strain measuring techniques need to be developed for use with fabric structures. This paper investigates options for measuring strain in fabric structures for both ground testing and in-space structural health monitoring. It evaluates current commercially available options and outlines development work underway to build custom measurement solutions for NASA's fabric structures.

  13. Turbulent Plane Wakes Subjected to Successive Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Six direct numerical simulations of turbulent time-evolving strained plane wakes have been examined to investigate the response of a wake to successive irrotational plane strains of opposite sign. The orientation of the applied strain field has been selected so that the flow is the time-developing analogue of a spatially developing wake evolving in the presence of either a favourable or an adverse streamwise pressure gradient. The magnitude of the applied strain rate a is constant in time t until the total strain e(sup at) reaches about four. At this point, a new simulation is begun with the sign of the applied strain being reversed (the original simulation is continued as well). When the total strain is reduced back to its original value of one, yet another simulation is begun with the sign of the strain being reversed again back to its original sign. This process is done for both initially "favourable" and initially "adverse" strains, providing simulations for each of these strain types from three different initial conditions. The evolution of the wake mean velocity deficit and width is found to be very similar for all the adversely strained cases, with both measures rapidly achieving exponential growth at the rate associated with the cross-stream expansive strain e(sup at). In the "favourably" strained cases, the wake widths approach a constant and the velocity deficits ultimately decay rapidly as e(sup -2at). Although all three of these cases do exhibit the same asymptotic exponential behaviour, the time required to achieve this is longer for the cases that have been previously adversely strained (by at approx. equals 1). These simulations confirm the generality of the conclusions drawn in Rogers (2002) regarding the response of plane wakes to strain. The evolution of strained wakes is not consistent with the predictions of classical self-similar analysis; a more general equilibrium similarity solution is required to describe the results. At least for the cases

  14. Using BEEM To Probe Strains In Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, L. Douglas; Milliken, Autumn M.; Manion, Stephen J.; Kaiser, William J.

    1996-01-01

    Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) useful in determining strains in semiconductors under some conditions. More specifically, BEEM is variant of scanning tunneling microscopy and sensitive to electronic structure of probed material. In present approach, BEEM used to obtain data on those aspects of variations in electronic structures related to variations in strains. Then by use of mathematical modeling of relationships between electronic structures and strains, variations in strains deduced from BEEM data.

  15. Temperature-Compensating Inactive Strain Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal contribution to output of active gauge canceled. High-temperature strain gauges include both active gauge wires sensing strains and inactive gauge wires providing compensation for thermal contributions to gauge readings. Inactive-gauge approach to temperature compensation applicable to commercially available resistance-type strain gauges operating at temperatures up to 700 degrees F and to developmental strain gauges operating at temperatures up to 2,000 degrees F.

  16. Optical Fibers Would Sense Local Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fiber-optic transducers measure local strains. Includes lead-in and lead-out lengths producing no changes in phase shifts, plus short sensing length in which phase shift is sensitive to strain. Phase shifts in single-mode fibers vary with strains. In alternative version, multiple portions of optical fiber sensitive to strains characteristic of specific vibrational mode of object. Same principle also used with two-mode fiber.

  17. Strain Rate Effects on Ultimate Strain of Copper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    34Dogbone" Specimen Used for Quasi-Static 5 and Intermediate Rate Tests 2 Schematic of Split Hopkinso’v Bar Apparatus 7 3a PETN Filled Tube Specimen...48 Experiment 25 Calculated Stress Components in Copper Cylinder 52 Expanded by PETN 26 Fracture of Explosively Expanded Cylindrical 54 Tube A-la...Record of Shot No. 10 73 A7b Framing Camera Record of Shot No. 10 74 A-8 Strain Versus Time for Copper Tube Expanded 75 by PETN vi

  18. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains

    PubMed Central

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Webb, Kristen M.; Humphreys, Tricia L.; Fortney, Kate R.; Toh, Evelyn; Tai, Albert; Katz, Samantha S.; Pillay, Allan; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Roberts, Sally A.; Munson, Robert S.; Spinola, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although cutaneous ulcers (CU) in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H. ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. H. ducreyi also causes genital ulcers (GU) and was thought to be exclusively transmitted by microabrasions that occur during sex. In human volunteers, the GU strain 35000HP does not infect intact skin; wounds are required to initiate infection. These data led to several questions: Are CU strains a new variant of H. ducreyi or did they evolve from GU strains? Do CU strains contain additional genes that could allow them to infect intact skin? Are CU strains susceptible to azithromycin? Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions, we performed whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 5 CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu and 9 archived class I and class II GU strains. Except for single nucleotide polymorphisms, the CU strains were genetically almost identical to the class I strain 35000HP and had no additional genetic content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that class I and class II strains formed two separate clusters and CU strains evolved from class I strains. Class I strains diverged from class II strains ~1.95 million years ago (mya) and CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP ~0.18 mya. CU and GU strains evolved under similar selection pressures. Like 35000HP, the CU strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions. PMID:26147869

  19. Antigenic differentiation of classical swine fever vaccinal strain PAV-250 from other strains, including field strains from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Susana; Correa-Giron, Pablo; Aguilera, Edgar; Colmenares, Germán; Torres, Oscar; Cruz, Tonatiuh; Romero, Andres; Hernandez-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Ciprián, Abel

    2007-10-10

    Twenty-nine classical swine fever virus (CSFv) strains were grown in the PK15 or SK6 cell lines. Antigenic differentiation studies were performed using monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), produced at Lelystad (CDI-DLO), The Netherlands. The monoclonals which were classified numerically as monoclonals 2-13. Epitope map patterns that resulted from the reactivity with McAbs were found to be unrelated to the pathogenicity of the viruses studied. Antigenic determinants were recognized by McAbs 5 and 8, were not detected in some Mexican strains; however, sites for McAb 6 were absent in all strains. The PAV-250 vaccine strain was recognized by all MAbs, except by MAb 6. Furthermore, the Chinese C-S vaccine strain was found to be very similar to the GPE(-) vaccine. None of the studied Mexican vaccines or field strains was found to be similar to the PAV-250 vaccine strain.

  20. Effect of strain and strain rate on residual microstructures in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, M.F.; Follansbee, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Several specimens of OFE Cu were deformed in compression to study the resulting microstructures at equivalent levels of threshold stress and strain. Equiaxed, diffuse dislocation cells are more persistent in Cu when tested at strain rates exceeding 10/sup 3/ sec/sup -1/. At quasi-static strain rates, dislocation collapse into more distinct, narrow microbands occurs at lower strain levels.

  1. Error quantification in strain mapping methods.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Elisa; Galindo, Pedro; Yáñez, Andrés; Ben, Teresa; Molina, Sergio I

    2007-10-01

    In this article a method for determining errors of the strain values when applying strain mapping techniques has been devised. This methodology starts with the generation of a thickness/defocus series of simulated high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of InAsxP1-x/InP heterostructures and the application of geometric phase. To obtain optimal defocusing conditions, a comparison of different defocus values is carried out by the calculation of the strain profile standard deviations among different specimen thicknesses. Finally, based on the analogy of real state strain to a step response, a characterization of strain mapping error near an interface is proposed.

  2. Tests of strain analysis by experimental deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.; McArthur, J.

    1991-01-01

    The linearisation method and Robin's method of strain analysis of granular materials yield accurate strain estimates for a variety of materials deformed experimentally in pure shear. The breakdown of continuum behaviour at high pore fluid pressures causes the methods to overestimate the strain because they do not take added rigid-body rotation into account. Both methods tolerate some variation in initial shape ratio and some degree of initial preferred orientation at modest strains. Results of tests on polymict sandstone indicate that the lower than average ductility of competent clasts may be balanced against an unfavourable degree of preferred orientation to yield an improved strain estimate.

  3. Radio-Frequency Strain Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Rogowski, Robert S.; Holben, Milford S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) strain monitor developed to measure lengths of objects. RF waveguide or cable bonded to structure monitored. Propagation of RF signal along waveguide results in phase shift proportional to length of path traveled. Impedance mismatches placed in RF cable at nodes of structure. Records mismatches and detects overall length of line and lengths of intervals between nodes. Used to detect changes in elements of large structure with single cable. Monitor has potential for many applications, including monitoring stability of such large structures as aircraft, bridges, and buildings in Earthquake zones.

  4. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    A demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages as well as a feasibility test of an optical speckle technique for strain measurement are presented. The strain gage results are reported. Ten Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages were used for low cycle fatigue strain measurements to 950 K and .002 apparent strain on a JT12D burner can in a high pressure (10 atmospheres) burner test. The procedure for use of the strain gages involved extensive precalibration and postcalibration to correct for cooling rate dependence, drift, and temperature effects. Results were repeatable within + or - .0002 to .0006 strain, with best results during fast decels from 950 K. The results agreed with analytical prediction based on an axisymmetric burner model, and results indicated a non-uniform circumferential distribution of axial strain, suggesting temperature streaking.

  5. Strain engineering of graphene: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Chen; Sun, Zhimei; Liu, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Graphene has intrigued the science community by many unique properties not found in conventional materials. In particular, it is the strongest two-dimensional material ever measured, being able to sustain reversible tensile elastic strain larger than 20%, which yields an interesting possibility to tune the properties of graphene by strain and thus opens a new field called ``straintronics''. In this article, the current progress in the strain engineering of graphene is reviewed. We first summarize the strain effects on the electronic structure and Raman spectra of graphene. We then highlight the electron-phonon coupling greatly enhanced by the biaxial strain and the strong pseudomagnetic field induced by the non-uniform strain with specific distribution. Finally, the potential application of strain-engineering in the self-assembly of foreign atoms on the graphene surface is also discussed. Given the short history of graphene straintronics research, the current progress has been notable, and many further advances in this field are expected.

  6. Multiplicative earthquake likelihood models incorporating strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, D. A.; Christophersen, A.; Gerstenberger, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe examine the potential for <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate variables to improve long-term earthquake likelihood models. We derive a set of multiplicative hybrid earthquake likelihood models in which cell rates in a spatially uniform baseline model are scaled using combinations of covariates derived from earthquake catalogue data, fault data, and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates for the New Zealand region. Three components of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate estimated from GPS data over the period 1991-2011 are considered: the shear, rotational and dilatational <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. The hybrid model parameters are optimised for earthquakes of M 5 and greater over the period 1987-2006 and tested on earthquakes from the period 2012-2015, which is independent of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate estimates. The shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate is overall the most informative individual covariate, as indicated by Molchan error diagrams as well as multiplicative modelling. Most models including <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates are significantly more informative than the best models excluding <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates in both the fitting and testing period. A hybrid that combines the shear and dilatational <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates with a smoothed seismicity covariate is the most informative model in the fitting period, and a simpler model without the dilatational <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate is the most informative in the testing period. These results have implications for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and can be used to improve the background model component of medium-term and short-term earthquake forecasting models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25503536','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25503536"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> effects on oxygen migration in perovskites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>Fast oxygen transport materials are necessary for a range of technologies, including efficient and cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells, gas separation membranes, oxygen sensors, chemical looping devices, and memristors. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> is often proposed as a method to enhance the performance of oxygen transport materials, but the magnitude of its effect and its underlying mechanisms are not well-understood, particularly in the widely-used perovskite-structured oxygen conductors. This work reports on an ab initio prediction of <span class="hlt">strain</span> effects on migration energetics for nine perovskite systems of the form LaBO3, where B = [Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Ga]. Biaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span>, as might be easily produced in epitaxial systems, is predicted to lead to approximately linear changes in migration energy. We find that tensile biaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> reduces the oxygen vacancy migration barrier across the systems studied by an average of 66 meV per percent <span class="hlt">strain</span> for a single selected hop, with a low of 36 and a high of 89 meV decrease in migration barrier per percent <span class="hlt">strain</span> across all systems. The estimated range for the change in migration barrier within each system is ±25 meV per percent <span class="hlt">strain</span> when considering all hops. These results suggest that <span class="hlt">strain</span> can significantly impact transport in these materials, e.g., a 2% tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> can increase the diffusion coefficient by about three orders of magnitude at 300 K (one order of magnitude at 500 °C or 773 K) for one of the most <span class="hlt">strain</span>-responsive materials calculated here (LaCrO3). We show that a simple elasticity model, which assumes only dilative or compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> in a cubic environment and a fixed migration volume, can qualitatively but not quantitatively model the <span class="hlt">strain</span> dependence of the migration energy, suggesting that factors not captured by continuum elasticity play a significant role in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4222745','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4222745"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Aim Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) cause increasingly serious infections especially in immunosuppressive patients by direct transmission from the environment or after colonization. However, identification of these species is difficult because of the cost and difficulties in defining to species level. Identification and distribution of these species can help clinician in the choice of treatment. Materials and methods A total of 90 MOTT <span class="hlt">strains</span> obtained from four different centers were included in the study. These <span class="hlt">strains</span> were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and Hsp65 genetic regions. Results Accordingly, within the 90 MOTT <span class="hlt">strains</span>, 17 different species were identified. In order of frequency, these species were M. gordonea (n = 21), M. abscessus (n = 13), M. lentiflavum (n = 9), M. fortuitum (n = 8), M. intracellulare (n = 6), M. kumamotonense (n = 6), M. neoaurum (n = 5), M. chimaera (n = 5), M. alvei (n = 5), M. peregrinum (n = 3), M. canariasense (n = 3), M. flavescens (n = 1), M. mucogenicum (n = 1), M. chelona (n = 1), M. elephantis (n = 1), M. terrae (n = 1) and M. xenopi (n = 1). Most frequently identified MOTT species according to the geographical origin were as follows: M. abscessus was the most common species either in Istanbul or Malatya regions (n = 6, n = 6, consequently). While M. kumamotonense was the most frequent species isolated from Ankara region (n = 6), M. gordonea was the most common for Samsun region (n = 14). Conclusion Our study revealed that frequency of MOTT varies depending on the number of clinical samples and that frequency of these species were affected by the newly identified species as a result of the use of novel molecular methods. In conclusion, when establishing diagnosis and treatment methods, it is important to know that infections caused by unidentified MOTT species may vary according to the regions in Turkey. The results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26902321','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26902321"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rosettes and Digital Image Correlation for Measuring Vertebral Body <span class="hlt">Strain</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gustafson, Hannah; Siegmund, Gunter; Cripton, Peter</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span> gages are commonly used to measure bone <span class="hlt">strain</span>, but only provide <span class="hlt">strain</span> at a single location. Digital image correlation (DIC) is an optical technique that provides the displacement, and therefore <span class="hlt">strain</span>, over an entire region of interest on the bone surface. This study compares vertebral body <span class="hlt">strains</span> measured using <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages and DIC. The anterior surfaces of 15 cadaveric porcine vertebrae were prepared with a <span class="hlt">strain</span> rosette and a speckled paint pattern for DIC. The vertebrae were loaded in compression with a materials testing machine, and two high-resolution cameras were used to image the anterior surface of the bones. The mean noise levels for the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rosette and DIC were 1 με and 24 με, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare <span class="hlt">strain</span> from the DIC and rosette (excluding 44% of trials with some evidence of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rosette failure or debonding); the mean difference ± 2 standard deviations (SDs) was -108 με ± 702 με for the minimum (compressive) principal <span class="hlt">strain</span> and -53 με ± 332 με for the maximum (tensile) principal <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Although the DIC has higher noise, it avoids the relatively high risk we observed of <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage debonding. These results can be used to develop guidelines for selecting a method to measure <span class="hlt">strain</span> on bone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1723b0001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1723b0001D"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling competition between yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518385"><span id="translatedtitle">The many shades of prion <span class="hlt">strain</span> adaptation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baskakov, Ilia V</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In several recent studies transmissible prion disease was induced in animals by inoculation with recombinant prion protein amyloid fibrils produced in vitro. Serial transmission of amyloid fibrils gave rise to a new class of prion <span class="hlt">strains</span> of synthetic origin. Gradual transformation of disease phenotypes and PrP(Sc) properties was observed during serial transmission of synthetic prions, a process that resembled the phenomenon of prion <span class="hlt">strain</span> adaptation. The current article discusses the remarkable parallels between phenomena of prion <span class="hlt">strain</span> adaptation that accompanies cross-species transmission and the evolution of synthetic prions occurring within the same host. Two alternative mechanisms underlying prion <span class="hlt">strain</span> adaptation and synthetic <span class="hlt">strain</span> evolution are discussed. The current article highlights the complexity of the prion transmission barrier and <span class="hlt">strain</span> adaptation and proposes that the phenomenon of prion adaptation is more common than previously thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA571154','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA571154"><span id="translatedtitle">SNIT: SNP Identification for <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Typing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Durkin S, Schneewind O, Nierman WC: Genome sequencing and analysis of Yersina pestis KIM D27, an avirulent <span class="hlt">strain</span> exempt from select agent regulation. PLoS...gener- ated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, we selected the recently published Yersinia pestis KIM D27 genome [12]. The Y. pestis D27 <span class="hlt">strain</span>...is a deriva- tive of Y. pestis KIM 10 <span class="hlt">strain</span> (accession no. NC_004088). The Y. pestis KIM D27 draft genome (accession no. ADDC00000000) was generated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840000339&hterms=vibrational+modes&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvibrational%2Bmodes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840000339&hterms=vibrational+modes&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvibrational%2Bmodes"><span id="translatedtitle">Deriving <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Modes From Vibrational Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Young, J. W.; Joanides, J. C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Measurements and theoretical analysis complement each other. Experimental acceleration and <span class="hlt">strain</span> data used to calculate coefficients of low-frequency vibrational modes of object under test. An iterative comparison of experimental and calculated <span class="hlt">strains</span> give modal model of improved accuracy that predicts <span class="hlt">strains</span> under operating conditions. Method useful in fatigue life and reliability analyses of buildings, pumps, engines, vehicles, and other systems subject to vibrations and loud noises during operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MsT.........54S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MsT.........54S"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of an Optical Fiber <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gauge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sulaiman, Najwa</p> <p></p> <p>This project is focused on the construction of an optical fiber <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge that is based on a <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge described by Butter and Hocker. Our gauge is designed to generate an interference pattern from the signals carried on two bare single-mode fibers that are fastened to an aluminum cantilever. When the cantilever experiences flexural stress, the interference pattern should change. By observing this change, it is possible to determine the <span class="hlt">strain</span> experienced by the cantilever. I describe the design and construction of our optical fiber <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge as well as the characterization of different parts of the apparatus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/912475','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/912475"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of Sorption-Induced <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eric P. Robertson; Richard L. Christiansen</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span> caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A. and high-volatile bituminous coal from east-central Utah, U.S.A. using an apparatus developed jointly at the Idaho National Laboratory (Idaho Falls, Idaho, U.S.A.) and Colorado School of Mines (Golden, Colorado, U.S.A.). The apparatus can be used to measure <span class="hlt">strain</span> on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal <span class="hlt">strain</span> instead of the more common usage of <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges, which require larger samples and longer equilibration times. With this apparatus, we showed that the swelling and shrinkage processes were reversible and that accurate <span class="hlt">strain</span> data could be obtained in a shortened amount of time. A suite of <span class="hlt">strain</span> curves was generated for these coals using gases that included carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and various mixtures of these gases. A Langmuir-type equation was applied to satisfactorily model the <span class="hlt">strain</span> data obtained for pure gases. The sorption-induced <span class="hlt">strain</span> measured in the subbituminous coal was larger than the high-volatile bituminous coal for all gases tested over the range of pressures used in the experimentation, with the CO2-induced <span class="hlt">strain</span> for the subbituminous coal over twice as great at the bituminous coal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000697','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000697"><span id="translatedtitle">Acceleration and Velocity Sensing from Measured <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pak, Chan-Gi; Truax, Roger</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A simple approach for computing acceleration and velocity of a structure from the <span class="hlt">strain</span> is proposed in this study. First, deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the <span class="hlt">strain</span> using a two-step theory. Frequencies of the structure are computed from the time histories of <span class="hlt">strain</span> using a parameter estimation technique together with an Autoregressive Moving Average model. From deflection, slope, and frequencies of the structure, acceleration and velocity of the structure can be obtained using the proposed approach. shape sensing, fiber optic <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor, system equivalent reduction and expansion process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20976649','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20976649"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> accommodation in inelastic deformation of glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murali, P.; Ramamurty, U.; Shenoy, Vijay B.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Motivated by recent experiments on metallic glasses, we examine the micromechanisms of <span class="hlt">strain</span> accommodation including crystallization and void formation during inelastic deformation of glasses by employing molecular statics simulations. Our atomistic simulations with Lennard-Jones-like potentials suggests that a softer short range interaction between atoms favors crystallization. Compressive hydrostatic <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the presence of a shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> promotes crystallization whereas a tensile hydrostatic <span class="hlt">strain</span> is found to induce voids. The deformation subsequent to the onset of crystallization includes partial reamorphization and recrystallization, suggesting important atomistic mechanisms of plastic dissipation in glasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/366503','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/366503"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of a noncontact <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Damiano, B.; Talarico, L.J.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of a new noncontact technique for directly and continuously monitoring peak <span class="hlt">strain</span> in rotating components. The technique utilizes the unique <span class="hlt">strain</span>-sensitive magnetic material properties of transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel alloys to measure <span class="hlt">strain</span>. These alloys are weakly magnetic when unstrained but become strongly ferromagnetic after mechanical deformation. A computer study was performed to determine whether the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced change in the magnetic material properties of a TRIP steel gage bonded to a rotating component would cause significant perturbations in the magnetic flux of a stationary electromagnet. The effects of <span class="hlt">strain</span> level, distance between the rotating component and the stationary electromagnet, and motion-induced eddy currents on flux perturbation magnitude were investigated. The calculated results indicate that a TRIP steel <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensing element can cause a significant perturbation in the magnetic flux of a stationary electromagnet. The magnetic flux perturbation magnitude was found to be inversely proportional to the distance between the magnet face and the TRIP steel element and directly proportional to the TRIP steel <span class="hlt">strain</span> level. The effect of motion-induced eddy currents on the magnetic flux was found to be negligible. It appears that the technique can be successfully applied to measure peak <span class="hlt">strain</span> in rotating components; however, the sensitivity of the magnetic flux perturbation magnitude to the distance between the <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensing element and the electromagnet may require making an independent proximity measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7453585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7453585"><span id="translatedtitle">[Antigenic relationships between Debaryomyces <span class="hlt">strains</span> (author's transl)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aksoycan, N</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The results of the agglutinations between homologous and heterologous Debaryomyces <span class="hlt">strains</span> and their agglutinating sera are shown in table I. According to these findings, D. hansenii and D. marama are antigenically different from other Debaryomyces <span class="hlt">strains</span> in this genus. In a previous study Aksoycan et al. have shown a common antigenic factor between D. hansenii, D. marama <span class="hlt">strains</span> and Salmonella 0:7 antigen. This factor was not present in other six <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Debaryomyces. These results also show that D. tamarii does not have any antigenic relationship with the other seven species of Debaryomyces in this genus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARV27001L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARV27001L"><span id="translatedtitle">Making Novel Materials Using <span class="hlt">Strain</span> in Nanomembranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lagally, Max G.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The controlled introduction of <span class="hlt">strain</span> in materials offers an important degree of freedom for fundamental studies of materials as well as advanced device engineering. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> in a crystalline solid modifies the lattice constants and reduces the crystal symmetry. Because <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy is proportional to thickness, a free-standing crystalline thin sheet, which we call a nanomembrane (NM), can be <span class="hlt">strained</span> to a greater degree that a bulk material with the same surface area. I show the use of nanomembrane <span class="hlt">strain</span> engineering to make defect-free single crystals that cannot be grown any other way, and materials with <span class="hlt">strain</span> symmetries that they do not have naturally, in both cases alloys of Si and Ge. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> in NMs causes significant shifts in energy band edges, splitting of degenerate states, and changes in effective masses. These effects can be used to produce a desired band offset between different materials, to increase carrier mobility, and to change relative energy positions of valleys. In the latter respect, through the use of NMs it has recently become possible, using tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span>, to make Ge direct-bandgap and light emitting at room temperature. Periodic local stress can produce <span class="hlt">strain</span> superlattices and thus single-element heterojunctions. Work performed with the Roberto Paiella, Mark Eriksson, Feng Liu, and Irena Knezevic research groups.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867015','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867015"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical fiber sensor technique for <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Butler, Michael A.; Ginley, David S.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Laser light from a common source is split and conveyed through two similar optical fibers and emitted at their respective ends to form an interference pattern, one of the optical fibers having a portion thereof subjected to a <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Changes in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> cause changes in the optical path length of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> fiber, and generate corresponding changes in the interference pattern. The interference pattern is received and transduced into signals representative of fringe shifts corresponding to changes in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> experienced by the <span class="hlt">strained</span> one of the optical fibers. These signals are then processed to evaluate <span class="hlt">strain</span> as a function of time, typical examples of the application of the apparatus including electrodeposition of a metallic film on a conductive surface provided on the outside of the optical fiber being <span class="hlt">strained</span>, so that <span class="hlt">strains</span> generated in the optical fiber during the course of the electrodeposition are measurable as a function of time. In one aspect of the invention, signals relating to the fringe shift are stored for subsequent processing and analysis, whereas in another aspect of the invention the signals are processed for real-time display of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> changes under study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcMSn..29..543X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcMSn..29..543X"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of surface wettability via <span class="hlt">strain</span> engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Wei; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Zhen, Quan-Shui</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Reversible control of surface wettability has wide applications in lab-on-chip systems, tunable optical lenses, and microfluidic tools. Using a graphene sheet as a sample material and molecular dynamic simulations, we demonstrate that <span class="hlt">strain</span> engineering can serve as an effective way to control the surface wettability. The contact angles θ of water droplets on a graphene vary from 72.5° to 106° under biaxial <span class="hlt">strains</span> ranging from -10% to 10% that are applied on the graphene layer. For an intrinsic hydrophilic surface (at zero <span class="hlt">strain</span>), the variation of θ upon the applied <span class="hlt">strains</span> is more sensitive, i.e., from 0° to 74.8°. Overall the cosines of the contact angles exhibit a linear relation with respect to the <span class="hlt">strains</span>. In light of the inherent dependence of the contact angle on liquid-solid interfacial energy, we develop an analytic model to show the cos θ as a linear function of the adsorption energy E ads of a single water molecule over the substrate surface. This model agrees with our molecular dynamic results very well. Together with the linear dependence of E ads on biaxial <span class="hlt">strains</span>, we can thus understand the effect of <span class="hlt">strains</span> on the surface wettability. Thanks to the ease of reversibly applying mechanical <span class="hlt">strains</span> in micro/nano-electromechanical systems, we believe that <span class="hlt">strain</span> engineering can be a promising means to achieve the reversibly control of surface wettability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840004375','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840004375"><span id="translatedtitle">Inflatable device for installing <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage bridges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cook, C. E.; Smith, G. E.; Monaghan, R. C. (Inventor)</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Methods and devices for installing in a tubular shaft multiple <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages are disclosed with focus on a method and a device for pneumatically forcing <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages into seated engagement with the internal surfaces of a tubular shaft in an installation of multiple <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages in a tubular shaft. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages or other electron devices are seated in a template-like component which is wrapped about a pneumatically expansible body. The component is inserted into a shaft and the body is pneumatically expanded after a suitable adhesive was applied to the surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4700..304A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4700..304A"><span id="translatedtitle">Microminiature temperature-compensated magnetoelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arms, Steven W.; Townsend, Christopher P.</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>Our objective was to demonstrate a microminiature magnetoelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge that provides both <span class="hlt">strain</span> and temperature signals without additional sensors. Iron based magnetoelastic materials were embedded within superelastic nickel/titanium (NiTi) tubing. NiTi stress was transferred to the ferrite, causing a permeability change sensed by a tiny coil. The coil/bridge was excited (70 KHz AC), synchronously demodulated, and amplified to produce a voltage output proportional to coil/ferrite impedance. A DC voltage was also applied and separately conditioned to provide an output proportional to coil resistance; this signal was used to provide thermal compensation. Controlled <span class="hlt">strains</span> were applied and 6 Hz cyclic outputs recorded simultaneously from the magnetoelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge and conventional foil <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges. The magnetoelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge tracked the foil gauge with minimal hysteresis and good linearity over 600 microstrain; repeatability was approximately 1.5 microstrain. The magnetoelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge's gauge factor was computed from delta inductance/original inductance under static <span class="hlt">strain</span> conditions. Temperatures of 25-140 deg C resulted in an uncompensated shift of 15 microstrain/deg C, and compensated shift of 1.0 microstrain/deg C. A sensitive micro-magnetoelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge was demonstrated using the same sensor to detect stress and temperature with no moving parts, high gauge factor, and good thermal stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9061E..31R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9061E..31R"><span id="translatedtitle">Distributed <span class="hlt">strain</span> monitoring for bridges: temperature effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Regier, Ryan; Hoult, Neil A.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>To better manage infrastructure assets as they reach the end of their service lives, quantitative data is required to better assess structural behavior and allow for more informed decision making. Distributed fiber optic <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors are one sensing technology that could provide comprehensive data for use in structural assessments as these systems potentially allow for <span class="hlt">strain</span> to be measured with the same accuracy and gage lengths as conventional <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors. However, as with many sensor technologies, temperature can play an important role in terms of both the structure's and sensor's performance. To investigate this issue a fiber optic distributed <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor system was installed on a section of a two span reinforced concrete bridge on the TransCanada Highway. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> data was acquired several times a day as well as over the course of several months to explore the effects of changing temperature on the data. The results show that the <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements are affected by the bridge behavior as a whole. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements due to temperature are compared to <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements that were taken during a load test on the bridge. The results show that even a small change in temperature can produce crack width and <span class="hlt">strain</span> changes similar to those due to a fully loaded transport truck. Future directions for research in this area are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4644690','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4644690"><span id="translatedtitle">Skeletal muscle tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> dependence: hyperviscoelastic nonlinearity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wheatley, Benjamin B; Morrow, Duane A; Odegard, Gregory M; Kaufman, Kenton R; Donahue, Tammy L Haut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Computational modeling of skeletal muscle requires characterization at the tissue level. While most skeletal muscle studies focus on hyperelasticity, the goal of this study was to examine and model the nonlinear behavior of both time-independent and time-dependent properties of skeletal muscle as a function of <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Materials and Methods Nine tibialis anterior muscles from New Zealand White rabbits were subject to five consecutive stress relaxation cycles of roughly 3% <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Individual relaxation steps were fit with a three-term linear Prony series. Prony series coefficients and relaxation ratio were assessed for <span class="hlt">strain</span> dependence using a general linear statistical model. A fully nonlinear constitutive model was employed to capture the <span class="hlt">strain</span> dependence of both the viscoelastic and instantaneous components. Results Instantaneous modulus (p<0.0005) and mid-range relaxation (p<0.0005) increased significantly with <span class="hlt">strain</span> level, while relaxation at longer time periods decreased with <span class="hlt">strain</span> (p<0.0005). Time constants and overall relaxation ratio did not change with <span class="hlt">strain</span> level (p>0.1). Additionally, the fully nonlinear hyperviscoelastic constitutive model provided an excellent fit to experimental data, while other models which included linear components failed to capture muscle function as accurately. Conclusions Material properties of skeletal muscle are <span class="hlt">strain</span>-dependent at the tissue level. This <span class="hlt">strain</span> dependence can be included in computational models of skeletal muscle performance with a fully nonlinear hyperviscoelastic model. PMID:26409235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2951977','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2951977"><span id="translatedtitle">Prion <span class="hlt">strain</span> interactions are highly selective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Winson, Olivia; Sigurdson, Christina J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Various misfolded and aggregated neuronal proteins commonly co-exist in neurodegenerative disease, but whether the proteins co-aggregate and alter the disease pathogenesis is unclear. Here we used mixtures of distinct prion <span class="hlt">strains</span>, which are believed to differ in conformation, to test the hypothesis that two different aggregates interact and change the disease in vivo. We tracked two prion <span class="hlt">strains</span> in mice histopathologically and biochemically, as well as by spectral analysis of plaque-bound polythiophene acetic acid (PTAA), a conformation-sensitive fluorescent amyloid ligand. We found that prion <span class="hlt">strains</span> interacted in a highly selective and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-specific manner, with either (i) no interaction, (ii) hybrid plaque formation, or (iii) blockage of one <span class="hlt">strain</span> by a second (interference). The hybrid plaques were maintained upon further passage in vivo and each <span class="hlt">strain</span> seemed to maintain its original conformational properties, suggesting that one <span class="hlt">strain</span> served only as a scaffold for aggregation of the second <span class="hlt">strain</span>. These findings not only further our understanding of prion <span class="hlt">strain</span> interactions, but also directly demonstrate interactions that may occur in other protein aggregate mixtures. PMID:20826672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9749560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9749560"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> amplification in the bone mechanosensory system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowin, S C; Weinbaum, S</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>This article discusses the potential mechanisms by which the <span class="hlt">strain</span> induced at the membrane of an osteocyte may be amplified from the <span class="hlt">strain</span> experienced by the whole bone due to mechanical loading. These mechanisms address the question of how these mechanical load-induced small <span class="hlt">strains</span> of (typically) about 0.1% (but up to 0.5%) applied to a whole bone are amplified to <span class="hlt">strains</span> of 1% or larger at the membrane of the osteocyte buried in its lacuna in the bone matrix. The answer to this question is an important link in the mechanosensory system in bone and in relating in vitro cell studies to in vivo cellular response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10878089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10878089"><span id="translatedtitle">Surveillance of rotavirus <span class="hlt">strains</span> in the United States: identification of unusual <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The National Rotavirus <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Surveillance System collaborating laboratories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Griffin, D D; Kirkwood, C D; Parashar, U D; Woods, P A; Bresee, J S; Glass, R I; Gentsch, J R</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>Rotavirus <span class="hlt">strains</span> from 964 fecal specimens collected from children at 11 U.S. hospital laboratories from November 1997 to March 1998 and from samples collected at 12 laboratories from November 1998 to March 1999 were typed for G and P proteins. Serotype G1 was the predominant serotype in 1997-1998 (88%), followed by G2 (6.2%), G9 (3.3%), and G3 (1.5%). This pattern was similar to that seen in 1998-1999: G1 (79%), G2 (15%), G9 (3.0%), G4 (1.6%), and G3 (0.3%). Novel P[9] <span class="hlt">strains</span> were identified in both seasons, and analysis of a 364-nucleotide fragment from gene segment 4 of one of the <span class="hlt">strains</span> demonstrated 97.3% nucleotide identity with the prototype P3[9],G3 <span class="hlt">strain</span>, AU1, isolated in Japan. This is the first report of a human AU1-like <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the United States. These results reinforce our initial findings that serotype G9 persists in the United States but has not become a predominant <span class="hlt">strain</span> and that the common serotypes G1 to G4 account for almost 90% of <span class="hlt">strains</span> in circulation. Other uncommon <span class="hlt">strains</span> exist in the United States but may have been overlooked before because of their low prevalence and the use of inadequate diagnostic tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047316&hterms=seismic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dseismic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047316&hterms=seismic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dseismic"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of eastern North American seismic <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates to glacial rebound <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>James, Thomas S.; Bent, Allison L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Glacial rebound <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates computed using a simple Laurentide glacial loading model are of the order of 10(exp -9) per year within the region of glaciation and extending several hundred kilometers beyond. The horizontal <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates receive approximately equal contributions from horizontal and vertical velocities, a consequence of the spherical geometry adopted for the Earth model. In the eastern United States and southeastern Canada the computed <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates are 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than an estimate of the average seismic <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate (Anderson, 1986) and approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than predicted erosional <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates. The predicted glacial rebound <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates are not, in general, oriented in such a way as to augment the observed state of deviatoric stress, possibly explaining why the seismic <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates are much smaller than the glacial rebound <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rates. An exception to this may be seismically active regions in the St. Lawrence valley.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJN....1560005S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJN....1560005S"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation and Analysis of <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Sensitivity of CNT-Based <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sapra, Gaurav; Vig, Renu; Sharma, Manu</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Carbon nanotubes (CNT) is turning out to be a replacement to all the existing traditional sensors due to their high gauge factor, multidirectional sensing capability, high flexibility, low mass density, high dynamic range and high sensitivity to <span class="hlt">strains</span> at nano and macro- scales. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensitivity of CNT-based <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors depends on number of parameters; quality and quantity of CNT used, type of polymer used, deposition and dispersion technique adopted and also on environmental conditions. Due to all these parameters, the piezoresistive behavior of CNT is diversified and it needs to be explored. This paper theoretically analyses the <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensitivity of CNT-based <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensitivity response of CNT <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor is a result of change in total resistance of CNT network with respect to applied <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The total resistance of CNT network consists of intrinsic resistance and inter-tube resistance. It has been found that the change in intrinsic resistance under <span class="hlt">strain</span> is due to the variation of bandgap of individual, which depends on the chirality of the tube and it varies exponentially with <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The inter-tube resistance of CNT network changes nonlinearly due to change in distance between neighboring CNTs with respect to applied <span class="hlt">strain</span>. As the distance d between CNTs increases due to applied <span class="hlt">strain</span>, tunneling resistance Rtunnel increases nonlinearly in exponential manner. When the concentration of CNTs in composite is close to percolation threshold, then the change of inter-tube resistances is more dominant than intrinsic resistance. At percolation threshold, the total resistance of CNT networks changes nonlinearly and this effect of nonlinearity is due to tunneling effect. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensitivity of CNT-based <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors also varies nonlinearly with the change in temperature. For the change of temperature from -20∘C to 50∘C, there is more than 100% change in <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensitivity of CNT/polymer composite <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor. This change is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/495681','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/495681"><span id="translatedtitle">Bicrystals with <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shu, J.Y.</p> <p>1997-01-09</p> <p>Boundary between two perfectly bonded single crystals plays an important role in determining the deformation of the bicrystals. This work addresses the role of the grain boundary by considering the elevated hardening of a slip system due to a slip gradient. The slip gradients are associated with geometrically necessary dislocations and their effects become pronounced when a representative length scale of the deformation field is comparable to the dominant microstructural length scale of a material. A new rate-dependent crystal plasticity theory is presented and has been implemented within the finite element method framework. A planar bicrystal under uniform in-plane loading is studied using the new crystal theory. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> is found to be continuous but nonuniform within a boundary layer around the interface. The lattice rotation is also nonuniform within the boundary layer. The width of the layer is determined by the misorientation of the grains, the hardening of slip systems, and most importantly by the characteristic material length scales. The overall yield strength of the bicrystal is also obtained. A significant grain-size dependence of the yield strength, the Hall- Petch effect is predicted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=punishment+AND+child&pg=7&id=EJ808655','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=punishment+AND+child&pg=7&id=EJ808655"><span id="translatedtitle">General <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Theory and Delinquency: Focusing on the Influences of Key <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Characteristics on Delinquency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moon, Byongook; Blurton, David; McCluskey, John D.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The study examines the effects of recent, older, and chronic <span class="hlt">strains</span> and of perceived injustice of <span class="hlt">strain</span> on delinquency, sampling 777 Korean youth. Seven key <span class="hlt">strains</span> most likely leading to delinquency, some of which were often overlooked in previous research, were included, and these are family conflict, parental punishment, teachers' punishment,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1426..167J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1426..167J"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate behavior of polyurea compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joshi, Vasant S.; Milby, Christopher</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>High-<span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate response of three polyurea compositions with varying molecular weights has been investigated using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar arrangement equipped with aluminum bars. Three polyurea compositions were synthesized from polyamines (Versalink, Air Products) with a multi-functional isocyanate (Isonate 143L, Dow Chemical). Amines with molecular weights of 1000, 650, and a blend of 250/1000 have been used in the current investigation. These materials have been tested to <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates of over 6000/s. High <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate results from these tests have shown varying trends as a function of increasing <span class="hlt">strain</span>. While higher molecular weight composition show lower yield, they do not show dominant hardening behavior at lower <span class="hlt">strain</span>. On the other hand, the blend of 250/1000 show higher load bearing capability but lower <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening effects than the 600 and 1000 molecular weight amine based materials. Results indicate that the initial increase in the modulus of the blend of 250/1000 may lead to the loss of <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening characteristics as the material is compressed to 50% <span class="hlt">strain</span>, compared to 1000 molecular weight amine based material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090011203','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090011203"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanocomposite <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gauges Having Small TCRs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregory, Otto; Chen, Ximing</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Ceramic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges in which the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-sensitive electrically conductive strips made from nanocomposites of noble metal and indium tin oxide (ITO) are being developed for use in gas turbine engines and other power-generation systems in which gas temperatures can exceed 1,500 F (about 816 C). In general, <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges exhibit spurious thermally induced components of response denoted apparent <span class="hlt">strain</span>. When temperature varies, a <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gauge material that has a nonzero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) exhibits an undesired change in electrical resistance that can be mistaken for the change in resistance caused by a change in <span class="hlt">strain</span>. It would be desirable to formulate straingauge materials having TCRs as small as possible so as to minimize apparent <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Most metals exhibit positive TCRs, while most semiconductors, including ITO, exhibit negative TCRs. The present development is based on the idea of using the negative TCR of ITO to counter the positive TCRs of noble metals and of obtaining the benefit of the ability of both ITO and noble metals to endure high temperatures. The noble metal used in this development thus far has been platinum. Combinatorial libraries of many ceramic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges containing nanocomposites of various proportions of ITO and platinum were fabricated by reactive co-sputtering from ITO and platinum targets onto alumina- and zirconia-based substrates mounted at various positions between the targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000068&hterms=phase+locked+loop&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dphase%2Blocked%2Bloop','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810000068&hterms=phase+locked+loop&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dphase%2Blocked%2Bloop"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulsed Phase-Locked-Loop <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heyman, J. S.; Stone, F. D.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>P2sup.L2sup. <span class="hlt">strain</span> monitor measures <span class="hlt">strain</span> by monitoring change in phase of acoustic signal that passes through stressed sample. Phase sample causes shift in frequency of VCO. As with other monitors of this type, instrument is only accurate in elastic range of material. Monitor is expected to have broad application in materials testing, structural design, fabrication and assembly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9426568W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9426568W"><span id="translatedtitle">Attachment techniques for high temperature <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wnuk, Steve P., Jr.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Attachment methods for making resistive <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements to 2500 F were studied. A survey of available <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages and attachment techniques was made, and the results are compiled for metal and carbon composite test materials. A theoretical analysis of <span class="hlt">strain</span> transfer into a bonded <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage was made, and the important physical parameters of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> transfer medium, the ceramic matrix, were identified. A pull tester to measure pull-out tests on commonly used <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage cements indicated that all cements tested displayed adequate strength for good <span class="hlt">strain</span> transfer. Rokide flame sprayed coatings produced significantly stronger bonds than ceramic cements. An in-depth study of the flame spray process produced simplified installation procedures which also resulted in greater reliability and durability. Application procedures incorporating improvements made during this program are appended to the report. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> gages installed on carbon composites, Rene' 41, 316 stainless steel, and TZM using attachment techniques developed during this program were successfully tested to 2500 F. Photographs of installation techniques, test procedures, and graphs of the test data are included in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8719177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8719177"><span id="translatedtitle">A natural vaccine candidate <span class="hlt">strain</span> against cholera.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Y Q; Qi, G M; Wang, S X; Yu, Y M; Duan, G C; Zhang, L J; Gao, S Y</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>E1 Tor Vibrio cholerae (EVC) <span class="hlt">strains</span> may be classified into two kinds-epidemigenic (EEVC) <span class="hlt">strains</span> and non-epidemigenic (NEEVC) <span class="hlt">strains</span>-based on a phage-biotyping system. A large number of EEVC <span class="hlt">strains</span> have been screened for toxigenic and putative colonization attributes. One such naturally occurring <span class="hlt">strains</span> (designated IEM101) has been found which is devoid of genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), accessory cholera enterotoxin (ACE), zonula occludens toxin (ZOT), but possesses RS1 sequences and toxin-coregulated pilus A gene (icpA) although icpA is poorly expressed. It expresses type B pili but does not possess type C pili. It is an E1 Tor Ogawa <span class="hlt">strain</span> and does not cause fluid accumulation in rabbit ilcal loop tests. Active immunization of rabbits with <span class="hlt">strain</span> IEM101 elicited good protection against challenge with virulent <span class="hlt">strains</span> of V. cholerae O1. Oral administration caused no side effects in 15 human volunteers, colonized the gut for four to ten days and elicited good immune responses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nursing+AND+care&id=EJ1001107','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nursing+AND+care&id=EJ1001107"><span id="translatedtitle">Medically Complex Home Care and Caregiver <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moorman, Sara M.; Macdonald, Cameron</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of the study: To examine (a) whether the content of caregiving tasks (i.e., nursing vs. personal care) contributes to variation in caregivers' <span class="hlt">strain</span> and (b) whether the level of complexity of nursing tasks contributes to variation in <span class="hlt">strain</span> among caregivers providing help with such tasks. Design and methods: The data came from the Cash…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19700000207','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19700000207"><span id="translatedtitle">Inorganic bonding of semiconductor <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Woodruff, N. L.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Inorganic bonding materials minimize outgassing and improve electrical and mechanical properties of semiconductor <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gage transducers in high-vacuum and high-temperature operations. The two basic methods described are ceramic-glass-bonding and metallic bond formation between the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage and the substrate.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/82645','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/82645"><span id="translatedtitle">On certain aspects of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate sensitivity of sheet metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shi, M.F.; Meuleman, D.J.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The formability of a material depends upon the <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate hardening of the material. In this study, constitutive parameters using the power law constitutive equation are determined for six different strength steels and two aluminum alloys over different <span class="hlt">strain</span> ranges, including approximations of the postuniform elongation range. Constitutive parameters are found to be different at different <span class="hlt">strain</span> ranges. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening of steels increases with <span class="hlt">strain</span> at low <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels (less than 5%) and decreases at high <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels (greater than 10%). <span class="hlt">Strain</span> rate hardening decreases with <span class="hlt">strain</span> for all steels and aluminum alloys. Uniform elongation depends only on <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening, and postuniform elongation depends only on <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate hardening. However, the total elongation depends on both <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate hardening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090018&hterms=Mechanosensitive+channels&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMechanosensitive%2Bchannels','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090018&hterms=Mechanosensitive+channels&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMechanosensitive%2Bchannels"><span id="translatedtitle">Transduction of mechanical <span class="hlt">strain</span> in bone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duncan, R. L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>One physiologic consequence of extended periods of weightlessness is the rapid loss of bone mass associated with skeletal unloading. Conversely, mechanical loading has been shown to increase bone formation and stimulate osteoblastic function. The mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction, or how the osteoblast senses and converts biophysical stimuli into cellular responses has yet to be determined. For non-innervated mechanosensitive cells like the osteoblast, mechanotransduction can be divided into four distinct phases: 1) mechanocoupling, or the characteristics of the mechanical force applied to the osteoblast, 2) biochemical coupling, or the mechanism through which mechanical <span class="hlt">strain</span> is transduced into a cellular biochemical signal, 3) transmission of signal from sensor to effector cell and 4) the effector cell response. This review examines the characteristics of the mechanical <span class="hlt">strain</span> encountered by osteoblasts, possible biochemical coupling mechanisms, and how the osteoblast responds to mechanical <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Differences in osteoblastic responses to mechanical <span class="hlt">strain</span> are discussed in relation to the types of <span class="hlt">strain</span> encountered and the possible transduction pathways involved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26649476"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical <span class="hlt">strain</span> effects on black phosphorus nanoresonators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Cui-Xia; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Park, Harold S; Rabczuk, Timon</p> <p>2016-01-14</p> <p>We perform classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of mechanical <span class="hlt">strain</span> on single-layer black phosphorus nanoresonators at different temperatures. We find that the resonant frequency is highly anisotropic in black phosphorus due to its intrinsic puckered configuration, and that the quality factor in the armchair direction is higher than in the zigzag direction at room temperature. The quality factors are also found to be intrinsically larger than those in graphene and MoS2 nanoresonators. The quality factors can be increased by more than a factor of two by applying tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span>, with uniaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the armchair direction being the most effective. However, there is an upper bound for the quality factor increase due to nonlinear effects at large <span class="hlt">strains</span>, after which the quality factor decreases. The tension induced nonlinear effect is stronger along the zigzag direction, resulting in a smaller maximum <span class="hlt">strain</span> for quality factor enhancement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24799688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24799688"><span id="translatedtitle">Extraordinary <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening by gradient structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, XiaoLei; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Liu; Yuan, Fuping; Zhu, Yuntian T</p> <p>2014-05-20</p> <p>Gradient structures have evolved over millions of years through natural selection and optimization in many biological systems such as bones and plant stems, where the structures change gradually from the surface to interior. The advantage of gradient structures is their maximization of physical and mechanical performance while minimizing material cost. Here we report that the gradient structure in engineering materials such as metals renders a unique extra <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening, which leads to high ductility. The grain-size gradient under uniaxial tension induces a macroscopic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient and converts the applied uniaxial stress to multiaxial stresses due to the evolution of incompatible deformation along the gradient depth. Thereby the accumulation and interaction of dislocations are promoted, resulting in an extra <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening and an obvious <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening rate up-turn. Such extraordinary <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening, which is inherent to gradient structures and does not exist in homogeneous materials, provides a hitherto unknown strategy to develop strong and ductile materials by architecting heterogeneous nanostructures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6565562','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6565562"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> rate effects in stress corrosion cracking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Parkins, R.N. . Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials)</p> <p>1990-03-01</p> <p>Slow <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate testing (SSRT) was initially developed as a rapid, ad hoc laboratory method for assessing the propensity for metals an environments to promote stress corrosion cracking. It is now clear, however, that there are good theoretical reasons why <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate, as opposed to stress per se, will often be the controlling parameter in determining whether or not cracks are nucleated and, if so, are propagated. The synergistic effects of the time dependence of corrosion-related reactions and microplastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> provide the basis for mechanistic understanding of stress corrosion cracking in high-pressure pipelines and other structures. However, while this may be readily comprehended in the context of laboratory slow <span class="hlt">strain</span> tests, its extension to service situations may be less apparent. Laboratory work involving realistic stressing conditions, including low-frequency cyclic loading, shows that <span class="hlt">strain</span> or creep rates give good correlation with thresholds for cracking and with crack growth kinetics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810513Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810513Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Micro-scale <span class="hlt">strain</span> mapping technique: a tool to quantify <span class="hlt">strain</span> partitioning during creep deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quintanilla-Terminel, Alejandra; Zimmerman, Mark; Evans, Brian; Kohlstedt, David</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Several deformation mechanisms interact to accommodate plastic deformation. Quantifying the contribution of each to the total <span class="hlt">strain</span> is necessary for establishing a better link between observed microstructures and mechanical data, as well as to allow more confident extrapolation from laboratory to natural conditions. In this contribution, we present the experimental and computational technique involved in micro-scale <span class="hlt">strain</span> mapping (MSSM). The MSSM technique relies on analyzing the relative displacement of initially regularly spaced markers after deformation. We present several microfabrication techniques that permit us to pattern various rocks with micrometric and nanometric metal markers, as well as the challenges faced in working at high temperatures and pressures. A Hough transform algorithm was used to detect the markers and automate as much as possible the <span class="hlt">strain</span> analysis. The von Mises <span class="hlt">strain</span> is calculated for a set of n-points and their relative displacements, which allow us to map the <span class="hlt">strain</span> at different length scales. We applied the MSSM technique to study <span class="hlt">strain</span> partitioning during deformation creep of Carrara marble and San Carlos olivine at a confining pressure, Pc, of 300 MPa and homologous temperatures of 0.3 to 0.6. We measured the local <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> heterogeneity produced during creep deformation of split cylinders of Carrara marble under conventional triaxial loading to inelastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> of 11 to 36% at a <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate of 3x10-5s-1, Pc = 300 MPa and 400o < T <700oC. We conclude that the evolution of deformation structures in marble takes place over a substantial interval in <span class="hlt">strain</span> and that the duration of this interval depends on <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate, temperature, and pressure. Our first results on <span class="hlt">strain</span> mapping of olivine deformed at T = 1150oC and Pc = 300 MPa demonstrate promise for characterizing intragranular <span class="hlt">strain</span> and better defining the contribution of grain boundary sliding to the total <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2551748','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2551748"><span id="translatedtitle">Amerindian Helicobacter pylori <span class="hlt">Strains</span> Go Extinct, as European <span class="hlt">Strains</span> Expand Their Host Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Domínguez-Bello, Maria G.; Pérez, Maria E.; Bortolini, Maria C.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Pericchi, Luis R.; Zambrano-Guzmán, Orlisbeth; Linz, Bodo</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We studied the diversity of bacteria and host in the H. pylori-human model. The human indigenous bacterium H. pylori diverged along with humans, into African, European, Asian and Amerindian groups. Of these, Amerindians have the least genetic diversity. Since niche diversity widens the sets of resources for colonizing species, we predicted that the Amerindian H. pylori <span class="hlt">strains</span> would be the least diverse. We analyzed the multilocus sequence (7 housekeeping genes) of 131 <span class="hlt">strains</span>: 19 cultured from Africans, 36 from Spanish, 11 from Koreans, 43 from Amerindians and 22 from South American Mestizos. We found that all <span class="hlt">strains</span> that had been cultured from Africans were African <span class="hlt">strains</span> (hpAfrica1), all from Spanish were European (hpEurope) and all from Koreans were hspEAsia but that Amerindians and Mestizos carried mixed <span class="hlt">strains</span>: hspAmerind and hpEurope <span class="hlt">strains</span> had been cultured from Amerindians and hpEurope and hpAfrica1 were cultured from Mestizos. The least genetically diverse H. pylori <span class="hlt">strains</span> were hspAmerind. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> hpEurope were the most diverse and showed remarkable multilocus sequence mosaicism (indicating recombination). The lower genetic structure in hpEurope <span class="hlt">strains</span> is consistent with colonization of a diversity of hosts. If diversity is important for the success of H. pylori, then the low diversity of Amerindian <span class="hlt">strains</span> might be linked to their apparent tendency to disappear. This suggests that Amerindian <span class="hlt">strains</span> may lack the needed diversity to survive the diversity brought by non-Amerindian hosts. PMID:18830403</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28049090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28049090"><span id="translatedtitle">New regime in the mechanical behavior of skin: <span class="hlt">strain</span>-softening occurring before <span class="hlt">strain</span>-hardening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicolle, S; Decorps, J; Fromy, B; Palierne, J-F</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We report linear and non-linear shear tests on rat skin, evidencing a <span class="hlt">strain</span>-softening regime, from 1% to 50% <span class="hlt">strain</span>, followed by a strong <span class="hlt">strain</span>-hardening regime, leading to a 'deck chair-shaped' stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> curve. The <span class="hlt">strain</span>-softening regime was never reported as such in the literature, possibly mistaken for the linear regime in experiments starting above 1% deformation. The time-dependent response is akin to that of a gel, with a power-law frequency-dependent dynamic shear modulus ranging from ~5.6kPa to ~10kPa between 0.1Hz and 10Hz. We present an analytical non-linear viscoelastic model that accounts for both time-dependent and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-dependent features of the skin. This eight-parameter model extends the one we proposed for parenchymatous organs by including <span class="hlt">strain</span>-softening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030102"><span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropic <span class="hlt">strain</span> enhanced hydrogen solubility in bcc metals: the independence on the sign of <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Hong-Bo; Jin, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong; Liu, Feng</p> <p>2012-09-28</p> <p>When an impurity is doped in a solid, it inevitably induces a local stress, tending to expand or contract the lattice. Consequently, <span class="hlt">strain</span> can be applied to change the solubility of impurity in a solid. Generally, the solubility responds to <span class="hlt">strain</span> "monotonically," increasing (decreasing) with the tensile (compressive) <span class="hlt">strain</span> if the impurity induces a compressive stress or vice versa. Using first-principles calculations, however, we discovered that the H solubility can be enhanced by anisotropic <span class="hlt">strain</span> in some bcc metals, almost independent of the sign of <span class="hlt">strain</span>. This anomalous behavior is found to be caused by a continuous change of H location induced by anisotropic <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Our finding suggests a cascading effect of H bubble formation in bcc metals: the H solution leads to H bubble formation that induces anisotropic <span class="hlt">strain</span> that in turn enhances H solubility to further facilitate bubble growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJMPB..22.1255K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJMPB..22.1255K"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Tensile Properties of Iron and Steels for a Wide Range of <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rates and <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kojima, Nobusato; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Terumi; Mimura, Koji; Tanimura, Shinji</p> <p></p> <p>The tensile stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> curves of iron and a variety of steels, covering a wide range of strength level, over a wide <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate range on the order of 10-3 ~ 103 s-1, were obtained systematically by using the Sensing Block Type High Speed Material Testing System (SBTS, Saginomiya). Through intensive analysis of these results, the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate sensitivity of the flow stress for the large <span class="hlt">strain</span> region, including the viscous term at high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates, the true fracture strength and the true fracture <span class="hlt">strain</span> were cleared for the material group of the ferrous metals. These systematical data may be useful to develop a practical constitutive model for computer codes, including a fracture criterion for simulations of the dynamic behavior in crash worthiness studies and of work-pieces subjected to dynamic plastic working for a wide <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IJMSp.259..140K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IJMSp.259..140K"><span id="translatedtitle">Specific identification of Bacillus anthracis <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krishnamurthy, Thaiya; Deshpande, Samir; Hewel, Johannes; Liu, Hongbin; Wick, Charles H.; Yates, John R., III</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Accurate identification of human pathogens is the initial vital step in treating the civilian terrorism victims and military personnel afflicted in biological threat situations. We have applied a powerful multi-dimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) along with newly generated software termed Profiler to identify the sequences of specific proteins observed for few <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Bacillus anthracis, a human pathogen. Software termed Profiler was created to initially screen the MudPIT data of B. anthracis <span class="hlt">strains</span> and establish the observed proteins specific for its <span class="hlt">strains</span>. A database was also generated using Profiler containing marker proteins of B. anthracis and its <span class="hlt">strains</span>, which in turn could be used for detecting the organism and its corresponding <span class="hlt">strains</span> in samples. Analysis of the unknowns by our methodology, combining MudPIT and Profiler, led to the accurate identification of the anthracis <span class="hlt">strains</span> present in samples. Thus, a new approach for the identification of B. anthracis <span class="hlt">strains</span> in unknown samples, based on the molecular mass and sequences of marker proteins, has been ascertained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PMB....51.5245T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PMB....51.5245T"><span id="translatedtitle">Resolution of axial shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> elastography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thitaikumar, Arun; Righetti, Raffaella; Krouskop, Thomas A.; Ophir, Jonathan</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the <span class="hlt">strain</span> value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> profile oriented at 45° to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (ΔW) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 45° orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26529510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26529510"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly Invasive Listeria monocytogenes <span class="hlt">Strains</span> Have Growth and Invasion Advantages in <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Competition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Rychli, Kathrin; Manthou, Evanthia; Ciolacu, Luminita; Wagner, Martin; Skandamis, Panagiotis N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Multiple Listeria monocytogenes <span class="hlt">strains</span> can be present in the same food sample; moreover, infection with more than one L. monocytogenes <span class="hlt">strain</span> can also occur. In this study we investigated the impact of <span class="hlt">strain</span> competition on the growth and in vitro virulence potential of L. monocytogenes. We identified two strong competitor <span class="hlt">strains</span>, whose growth was not (or only slightly) influenced by the presence of other <span class="hlt">strains</span> and two weak competitor <span class="hlt">strains</span>, which were outcompeted by other <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Cell contact was essential for growth inhibition. In vitro virulence assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells showed a correlation between the invasion efficiency and growth inhibition: the strong growth competitor <span class="hlt">strains</span> showed high invasiveness. Moreover, invasion efficiency of the highly invasive <span class="hlt">strain</span> was further increased in certain combinations by the presence of a low invasive <span class="hlt">strain</span>. In all tested combinations, the less invasive <span class="hlt">strain</span> was outcompeted by the higher invasive <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Studying the effect of cell contact on in vitro virulence competition revealed a complex pattern in which the observed effects depended only partially on cell-contact suggesting that competition occurs at two different levels: i) during co-cultivation prior to infection, which might influence the expression of virulence factors, and ii) during infection, when bacterial cells compete for the host cell. In conclusion, we show that growth of L. monocytogenes can be inhibited by <span class="hlt">strains</span> of the same species leading potentially to biased recovery during enrichment procedures. Furthermore, the presence of more than one L. monocytogenes <span class="hlt">strain</span> in food can lead to increased infection rates due to synergistic effects on the virulence potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4631365','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4631365"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly Invasive Listeria monocytogenes <span class="hlt">Strains</span> Have Growth and Invasion Advantages in <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Competition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Manthou, Evanthia; Ciolacu, Luminita; Wagner, Martin; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Multiple Listeria monocytogenes <span class="hlt">strains</span> can be present in the same food sample; moreover, infection with more than one L. monocytogenes <span class="hlt">strain</span> can also occur. In this study we investigated the impact of <span class="hlt">strain</span> competition on the growth and in vitro virulence potential of L. monocytogenes. We identified two strong competitor <span class="hlt">strains</span>, whose growth was not (or only slightly) influenced by the presence of other <span class="hlt">strains</span> and two weak competitor <span class="hlt">strains</span>, which were outcompeted by other <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Cell contact was essential for growth inhibition. In vitro virulence assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells showed a correlation between the invasion efficiency and growth inhibition: the strong growth competitor <span class="hlt">strains</span> showed high invasiveness. Moreover, invasion efficiency of the highly invasive <span class="hlt">strain</span> was further increased in certain combinations by the presence of a low invasive <span class="hlt">strain</span>. In all tested combinations, the less invasive <span class="hlt">strain</span> was outcompeted by the higher invasive <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Studying the effect of cell contact on in vitro virulence competition revealed a complex pattern in which the observed effects depended only partially on cell-contact suggesting that competition occurs at two different levels: i) during co-cultivation prior to infection, which might influence the expression of virulence factors, and ii) during infection, when bacterial cells compete for the host cell. In conclusion, we show that growth of L. monocytogenes can be inhibited by <span class="hlt">strains</span> of the same species leading potentially to biased recovery during enrichment procedures. Furthermore, the presence of more than one L. monocytogenes <span class="hlt">strain</span> in food can lead to increased infection rates due to synergistic effects on the virulence potential. PMID:26529510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.5736Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.5736Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneity of inelastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> during creep of Carrara marble: Microscale <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quintanilla-Terminel, Alejandra; Evans, Brian</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We combined the split cylinder technique with microfabrication technology to observe <span class="hlt">strain</span> heterogeneities that were produced during high-pressure transient creep of Carrara marble. Samples were patterned with a custom-designed grid of markers spaced 10 µm apart and containing an embedded coordinate system. The microscale <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement (MSSM) technique described here allowed us to analyze the local <span class="hlt">strain</span> distribution with unprecedented detail over large regions. The description of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> field is a function of the area over which <span class="hlt">strain</span> is being computed. The scale at which the <span class="hlt">strain</span> field can be considered homogeneous can provide insight into the deformation processes taking place. At 400-500°C, when twinning production is prolific, we observe highly <span class="hlt">strained</span> bands that span several grains. One possible cause for the multigrain bands is the need to relieve <span class="hlt">strain</span> incompatibilities that result when twins impinge on neighboring grains. At 600-700°C, the <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields are still quite heterogeneous, and local <span class="hlt">strain</span> varies substantially within grains and near grain boundaries, but the multigrain slip bands are not present. Deformation is concentrated in much smaller areas within grains and along some grain boundaries. The disappearance of the multigrain slip bands occurs when the deformation conditions allow additional slip systems to be activated. At 600°C, when the total <span class="hlt">strain</span> is varied from 0.11 to 0.36, the spatial scale of the heterogeneity does not vary, but there are increases in the standard deviation of the distribution of local <span class="hlt">strains</span> normalized by the total <span class="hlt">strain</span>; thus, we conclude that the microstructure does not achieve a steady state in this <span class="hlt">strain</span> interval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10888638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10888638"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic diversity among Lassa virus <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bowen, M D; Rollin, P E; Ksiazek, T G; Hustad, H L; Bausch, D G; Demby, A H; Bajani, M D; Peters, C J; Nichol, S T</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>The arenavirus Lassa virus causes Lassa fever, a viral hemorrhagic fever that is endemic in the countries of Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea and perhaps elsewhere in West Africa. To determine the degree of genetic diversity among Lassa virus <span class="hlt">strains</span>, partial nucleoprotein (NP) gene sequences were obtained from 54 <span class="hlt">strains</span> and analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Lassa viruses comprise four lineages, three of which are found in Nigeria and the fourth in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Overall <span class="hlt">strain</span> variation in the partial NP gene sequence was found to be as high as 27% at the nucleotide level and 15% at the amino acid level. Genetic distance among Lassa <span class="hlt">strains</span> was found to correlate with geographic distance rather than time, and no evidence of a "molecular clock" was found. A method for amplifying and cloning full-length arenavirus S RNAs was developed and used to obtain the complete NP and glycoprotein gene (GP1 and GP2) sequences for two representative Nigerian <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Lassa virus. Comparison of full-length gene sequences for four Lassa virus <span class="hlt">strains</span> representing the four lineages showed that the NP gene (up to 23.8% nucleotide difference and 12.0% amino acid difference) is more variable than the glycoprotein genes. Although the evolutionary order of descent within Lassa virus <span class="hlt">strains</span> was not completely resolved, the phylogenetic analyses of full-length NP, GP1, and GP2 gene sequences suggested that Nigerian <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Lassa virus were ancestral to <span class="hlt">strains</span> from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Compared to the New World arenaviruses, Lassa and the other Old World arenaviruses have either undergone a shorter period of diverisification or are evolving at a slower rate. This study represents the first large-scale examination of Lassa virus genetic variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V12A0552Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V12A0552Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructural Analysis of Welding: Deformation and <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quane, S. L.; Russell, K.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Welding in pyroclastic deposits involves the sintering, compaction and flattening of hot glassy particles and is attended by systematic changes in physical properties. Welded materials contain implicit information regarding the total accumulated <span class="hlt">strain</span> as well as the mechanisms of deformation. Here, we use detailed microstructural analysis of synthetic and natural welded materials to make quantitative estimates of <span class="hlt">strain</span> and constrain the rheology of these materials during the welding process. Part one of our study comprises microstructural analysis of end products from unconfined high temperature deformation experiments on sintered cores of soda-lime silica glass spheres. This analogue material has relatively simple and well-characterized starting properties. Furthermore, the initially spherical shapes of particles provide excellent <span class="hlt">strain</span> markers. Experiments were run at a variety of temperatures, <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates and stresses resulting in end products with varying degrees of total <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The nature of <span class="hlt">strain</span> partitioning and accumulation are evaluated using image analysis techniques on scanned images and photomicrographs of thin sections cut perpendicular to the loading direction of each experimental product. Shapes of the individual deformed particles (e.g., oblate spheroids) were determined and the Scion image analysis program was used to create a best-fit ellipse for each particle. Statistics collected on each particle include: axial dimension (a), vertical dimension (c) and angle from the horizontal. The data are used to calculate the oblateness of each particle (1-c/a) and the angle of deformation induced foliation. Furthermore, the relative proportions of visible blue epoxy in the sample scans determine bulk porosity. The average oblateness of the particles is a direct, independent measure of the accumulated <span class="hlt">strain</span> in each sample. Results indicate that these measured values are equal to calculated theoretical values of oblateness for spheroids undergoing the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6239469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6239469"><span id="translatedtitle">Differentiation of pathogenic and saprophytic leptospira <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bazovská, S; Kmety, E; Rak, J</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>Comparative studies of 249 pathogenic and 80 saprophytic leptospira <span class="hlt">strains</span>, including 2 <span class="hlt">strains</span> of the illini type, using the 8-azaguanine test, growth at 13 degrees C and growth on trypticase soy broth revealed their good differentiating potency if the recommended conditions were carefully observed. The same results were obtained by a simple hemolytic test using sheep and rat blood cells, having the advantage of providing results within 24 h. This test is suggested to replace the 8-azaguanine and the growth test at 13 degrees C. In these investigations, the first European <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the illini type was recognized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21506808','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21506808"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> Determination Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krause, M.; Graff, A.; Altmann, F.</p> <p>2010-11-24</p> <p>In the present paper we demonstrate the use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) for high resolution elastic <span class="hlt">strain</span> determination. Here, we focus on analysis methods based on determination of small shifts in EBSD pattern with respect to a reference pattern using cross-correlation algorithms. Additionally we highlight the excellent spatial and depth resolution of EBSD and introduce the use of simulated diffraction patterns based on dynamical diffraction theory for sensitivity estimation. Moreover the potential of EBSD for <span class="hlt">strain</span> analysis of <span class="hlt">strained</span> thin films with particular emphasis on appropriate target preparation which respect to occurring lattice defects is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10543843','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10543843"><span id="translatedtitle">Genotypic diversity among Brevibacillus laterosporus <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zahner, V; Rabinovitch, L; Suffys, P; Momen, H</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>In comparison with other entomopathogenic Bacillus species, the genome of Brevibacillus laterosporus is poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to examine genetic variability in B. laterosporus by using a range of typing methodologies. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> of B. laterosporus were examined for variation in 13 chromosomal genes encoding enzymes by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Optimal conditions of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA were established that allowed analysis of the genome of B. laterosporus. None of these techniques allowed the identification of a convenient molecular marker for entomopathogenic <span class="hlt">strains</span>, although one specific primer amplified only DNA from almost all mosquitocidal <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol24-sec180-1209.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol24-sec180-1209.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 and <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1209 Section 180.1209... <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 and <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... Bacillus subtilis <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 and <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 variant soil when used in or on all food commodities....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol25-sec180-1209.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol25-sec180-1209.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 and <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1209 Section 180.1209... <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 and <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... Bacillus subtilis <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 and <span class="hlt">strain</span> QST 713 variant soil when used in or on all food commodities....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9040E..15Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9040E..15Y"><span id="translatedtitle">A new radial <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate estimation method using autocorrelation for carotid artery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ye, Jihui; Kim, Hoonmin; Park, Jongho; Yeo, Sunmi; Shim, Hwan; Lim, Hyungjoon; Yoo, Yangmo</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. The early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is of clinical interest since it can prevent any adverse effects of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. In this paper, a new carotid artery radial <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimation method based on autocorrelation is presented. In the proposed method, the <span class="hlt">strain</span> is first estimated by the autocorrelation of two complex signals from the consecutive frames. Then, the angular phase from autocorrelation is converted to <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and they are analyzed over time. In addition, a 2D <span class="hlt">strain</span> image over region of interest in a carotid artery can be displayed. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed radial <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimation method, radiofrequency (RF) data of 408 frames in the carotid artery of a volunteer were acquired by a commercial ultrasound system equipped with a research package (V10, Samsung Medison, Korea) by using a L5-13IS linear array transducer. From in vivo carotid artery data, the mean <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimate was -0.1372 while its minimum and maximum values were -2.961 and 0.909, respectively. Moreover, the overall <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimates are highly correlated with the reconstructed M-mode trace. Similar results were obtained from the estimation of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate change over time. These results indicate that the proposed carotid artery radial <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimation method is useful for assessing the arterial wall's stiffness noninvasively without increasing the computational complexity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25769835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25769835"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Ralstonia solanacearum Outcompete race 3 biovar 2 <span class="hlt">strains</span> at lowland tropical temperatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huerta, Alejandra I; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>Bacterial wilt, caused by members of the heterogenous Ralstonia solanacearum species complex, is an economically important vascular disease affecting many crops. Human activity has widely disseminated R. solanacearum <span class="hlt">strains</span>, increasing their global agricultural impact. However, tropical highland race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2) <span class="hlt">strains</span> do not cause disease in tropical lowlands, even though they are virulent at warm temperatures. We tested the hypothesis that differences in temperature adaptation and competitive fitness explain the uneven geographic distribution of R. solanacearum <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Using three phylogenetically and ecologically distinct <span class="hlt">strains</span>, we measured competitive fitness at two temperatures following paired-<span class="hlt">strain</span> inoculations of their shared host, tomato. Lowland tropical <span class="hlt">strain</span> GMI1000 was only weakly virulent on tomato under temperate conditions (24°C for day and 19°C for night [24/19°C]), but highland tropical R3bv2 <span class="hlt">strain</span> UW551 and U.S. warm temperate <span class="hlt">strain</span> K60 were highly virulent at both 24/19°C and 28°C. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> K60 was significantly more competitive than both GMI1000 and UW551 in tomato rhizospheres and stems at 28°C, and GMI1000 also outcompeted UW551 at 28°C. The results were reversed at cooler temperatures, at which highland <span class="hlt">strain</span> UW551 generally outcompeted GMI1000 and K60 in planta. The superior competitive index of UW551 at 24/19°C suggests that adaptation to cool temperatures could explain why only R3bv2 <span class="hlt">strains</span> threaten highland agriculture. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> K60 and GMI1000 each produced different bacteriocins that inhibited growth of UW551 in culture. Such interstrain inhibition could explain why R3bv2 <span class="hlt">strains</span> do not cause disease in tropical lowlands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4407210','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4407210"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical <span class="hlt">Strains</span> of Ralstonia solanacearum Outcompete Race 3 Biovar 2 <span class="hlt">Strains</span> at Lowland Tropical Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huerta, Alejandra I.; Milling, Annett</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Bacterial wilt, caused by members of the heterogenous Ralstonia solanacearum species complex, is an economically important vascular disease affecting many crops. Human activity has widely disseminated R. solanacearum <span class="hlt">strains</span>, increasing their global agricultural impact. However, tropical highland race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2) <span class="hlt">strains</span> do not cause disease in tropical lowlands, even though they are virulent at warm temperatures. We tested the hypothesis that differences in temperature adaptation and competitive fitness explain the uneven geographic distribution of R. solanacearum <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Using three phylogenetically and ecologically distinct <span class="hlt">strains</span>, we measured competitive fitness at two temperatures following paired-<span class="hlt">strain</span> inoculations of their shared host, tomato. Lowland tropical <span class="hlt">strain</span> GMI1000 was only weakly virulent on tomato under temperate conditions (24°C for day and 19°C for night [24/19°C]), but highland tropical R3bv2 <span class="hlt">strain</span> UW551 and U.S. warm temperate <span class="hlt">strain</span> K60 were highly virulent at both 24/19°C and 28°C. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> K60 was significantly more competitive than both GMI1000 and UW551 in tomato rhizospheres and stems at 28°C, and GMI1000 also outcompeted UW551 at 28°C. The results were reversed at cooler temperatures, at which highland <span class="hlt">strain</span> UW551 generally outcompeted GMI1000 and K60 in planta. The superior competitive index of UW551 at 24/19°C suggests that adaptation to cool temperatures could explain why only R3bv2 <span class="hlt">strains</span> threaten highland agriculture. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> K60 and GMI1000 each produced different bacteriocins that inhibited growth of UW551 in culture. Such interstrain inhibition could explain why R3bv2 <span class="hlt">strains</span> do not cause disease in tropical lowlands. PMID:25769835</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5373..173T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5373..173T"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous narrowband ultrasonic <span class="hlt">strain</span>-flow imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsou, Jean K.; Mai, Jerome J.; Lupotti, Fermin A.; Insana, Michael F.</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>We are summarizing new research aimed at forming spatially and temporally registered combinations of <span class="hlt">strain</span> and color-flow images using echo data recorded from a commercial ultrasound system. Applications include diagnosis of vascular diseases and tumor malignancies. The challenge is to meet the diverse needs of each measurement. The approach is to first apply eigenfilters that separate echo components from moving tissues and blood flow, and then estimate blood velocity and tissue displacement from the filtered-IQ-signal phase modulations. At the cost of a lower acquisition frame rate, we find the autocorrelation <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimator yields higher resolution <span class="hlt">strain</span> estimate than the cross-correlator since estimates are made from ensembles at a single point in space. The technique is applied to in vivo carotid imaging, to demonstrate the sensitivity for <span class="hlt">strain</span>-flow vascular imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/broken-bones.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/broken-bones.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Broken Bones, Sprains, and <span class="hlt">Strains</span> (For Parents)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones, Sprains, and <span class="hlt">Strains</span> KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones, ... home. What to Do: For a Suspected Broken Bone: Do not move a child whose injury involves ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107s3102G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107s3102G"><span id="translatedtitle">Tuning <span class="hlt">strain</span> in flexible graphene nanoelectromechanical resonators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, Fen; Kumaravadivel, Piranavan; Averin, Dmitri V.; Du, Xu</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The structural flexibility of low dimensional nanomaterials offers unique opportunities for studying the impact of <span class="hlt">strain</span> on their physical properties and for developing innovative devices utilizing <span class="hlt">strain</span> engineering. A key towards such goals is a device platform which allows the independent tuning and reliable calibration of the <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of graphene nanoelectromechanical resonators (GNEMRs) on flexible substrates. Combining substrate bending and electrostatic gating, we achieve the independent tuning of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> and sagging in graphene and explore the nonlinear dynamics over a wide parameter space. Analytical and numerical studies of a continuum mechanics model, including the competing higher order nonlinear terms, reveal a comprehensive nonlinear dynamics phase diagram, which quantitatively explains the complex behaviors of GNEMRs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=243113','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=243113"><span id="translatedtitle">Carotene-superproducing <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Phycomyces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Murillo, F J; Calderón, I L; López-Díaz, I; Cerdá-Olmedo, E</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Production of beta-carotene by wild-type Phycomyces blakesleeanus can be stimulated by light, chemicals, regulatory mutations, and sexual interaction between mycelia of opposite sex. Through genetic manipulations, we have isolated <span class="hlt">strains</span> which have simultaneously and constitutively incorporated several of these stimulatory effects. In the dark and in a simple medium, some of the <span class="hlt">strains</span> produce up to 25 mg of beta-carotene per g (dry weight), or about 500 times the wild-type production under the same conditions. High lycopene-producing <span class="hlt">strains</span> have also been isolated by using carR mutants, which are blocked in the conversion of lycopene to beta-carotene. These <span class="hlt">strains</span> should be useful in both industrial production of these pigments and basic research related to carotenogenesis. PMID:727783</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008401','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008401"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> sensing technology for high temperature applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, W. Dan</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This review discusses the status of <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensing technology for high temperature applications. Technologies covered are those supported by NASA such as required for applications in hypersonic vehicles and engines, advanced subsonic engines, as well as material and structure development. The applications may be at temperatures of 540 C (1000 F) to temperatures in excess of 1400 C (2500 F). The most promising technologies at present are the resistance <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage and remote sensing schemes. Resistance <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages discussed include the BCL gage, the LaRC compensated gage, and the PdCr gage. Remote sensing schemes such as laser based speckle <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement, phase-shifling interferometry, and x-ray extensometry are discussed. Present status and limitations of these technologies are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARZ39008B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARZ39008B"><span id="translatedtitle">Can a <span class="hlt">strain</span> yield a qubit?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benjamin, Colin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>A Josepshon qubit is designed via the application of a tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> to a topological insulator surface, sandwiched between two s-wave superconductors. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> applied leads to a shift in Dirac point without changing the conducting states existing on the surface of a topological insulator. This <span class="hlt">strain</span> applied can be tuned to form a π-junction in such a structure. Combining two such junctions in a ring architecture leads to the ground state of the ring being in a doubly degenerate state- ``0'' and ``1'' states of the qubit. A qubit designed this way is easily controlled via the tunable <span class="hlt">strain</span>. We report on the conditions necessary to design such a qubit. Finally the operating time of a single qubit phase gate is derived. This work was supported by funds from Dept. of Science and Technology (Nanomission), Govt. of India, Grant No. SR/NM/NS-1101/2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25817029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25817029"><span id="translatedtitle">Survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dueholm, Morten S; Marques, Irina G; Karst, Søren M; D'Imperio, Seth; Tale, Vaibhav P; Lewis, Derrick; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Successful application of bioaugmentation for enhanced degradation of environmental pollutants is often limited by the lack of methods to monitor the survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation <span class="hlt">strains</span>. However, recent advancements in sequencing technologies and molecular techniques now allow us to address these limitations. Here a complementing set of general applicable molecular methods are presented that provides detailed information on the performance of individual bioaugmentation <span class="hlt">strains</span> under in situ conditions. The approach involves genome sequencing to establish highly specific qPCR and RT-qPCR tools for cell enumerations and expression of involved genes, stable isotope probing to follow growth on the target compounds and GFP-tagging to visualize the bioaugmentation <span class="hlt">strains</span> directly in samples, all in combination with removal studies of the target compounds. The concept of the approach is demonstrated through a case study involving degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in activated sludge augmented with the bioaugmentation <span class="hlt">strain</span> Pseudomonas monteilii SB3078.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050163141','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050163141"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strained</span> Hydrocarbons as Potential Hypergolic Fuels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A storable combination of high-energy hypergolic fuel and oxidizer is advantageous to the future of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). The combination will allow an increase in energy per unit volume of fuel and eliminate the need for an external ignition system. <span class="hlt">Strained</span> systems have been studied as potential high-density fuels. Adding hypergolic functional groups, such as amino groups, to these hydrocarbons will potentially allow auto ignition of <span class="hlt">strained</span> systems with hydrogen peroxide. Several straight chain amines and their <span class="hlt">strained</span> counterparts containing an equivalent number of carbon atoms have been purchased and synthesized. These amines provide initial studies to determine the effects of fuel vapor pressure, <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy, fuel miscibility, and amine substitution upon fuel ignition time and hypergolicity with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=strain+AND+gauges&id=EJ095175','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=strain+AND+gauges&id=EJ095175"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Force Measurement with <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gauges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lee, Bruce E.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the use of four <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges, a Wheatstone bridge, and an oscilloscope to measure forces dynamically. Included is an example of determining the centripetal force of a pendulum in a general physics laboratory. (CC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870019450','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870019450"><span id="translatedtitle">Thin film <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage development program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Anderson, W. L.; Claing, R. G.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Sputtered thin-film dynamic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages of 2 millimeter (0.08 in) gage length and 10 micrometer (0.0004 in) thickness were fabricated on turbojet engine blades and tested in a simulated compressor environment. Four designs were developed, two for service to 600 K (600 F) and two for service to 900 K (1200 F). The program included a detailed study of guidelines for formulating <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gage alloys to achieve superior dynamic and static gage performance. The tests included gage factor, fatigue, temperature cycling, spin to 100,000 G, and erosion. Since the installations are 30 times thinner than conventional wire <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage installations, and any alteration of the aerodynamic, thermal, or structural performance of the blade is correspondingly reduced, dynamic <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement accuracy higher than that attained with conventional gages is expected. The low profile and good adherence of the thin film elements is expected to result in improved durability over conventional gage elements in engine tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013558','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013558"><span id="translatedtitle">Method of transferring <span class="hlt">strained</span> semiconductor structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nastasi, Michael A.; Shao, Lin</p> <p>2009-12-29</p> <p>The transfer of <span class="hlt">strained</span> semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure and allowed to diffuse to the interface. Afterward, the deposited multilayer structure is bonded to a second substrate and is separated away at the interface, which results in transferring a multilayer structure from one substrate to the other substrate. The multilayer structure includes at least one <span class="hlt">strained</span> semiconductor layer and at least one <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced seed layer. The <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced seed layer can be optionally etched away after the layer transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820059659&hterms=Durbin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDurbin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820059659&hterms=Durbin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDurbin"><span id="translatedtitle">The premixed flame in uniform <span class="hlt">straining</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Durbin, P. A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Characteristics of the premixed flame in uniform <span class="hlt">straining</span> flow are investigated by the technique of activation-energy asymptotics. An inverse method is used, which avoids some of the restrictions of previous analyses. It is shown that this method recovers known results for adiabatic flames. New results for flames with heat loss are obtained, and it is shown that, in the presence of finite heat loss, <span class="hlt">straining</span> can extinguish flames. A stability analysis shows that <span class="hlt">straining</span> can suppress the cellular instability of flames with Lewis number less than unity. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> can produce instability of flames with Lewis number greater than unity. A comparison shows quite good agreement between theoretical deductions and experimental observations of Ishizuka, Miyasaka & Law (1981).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21882791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21882791"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat <span class="hlt">strain</span> during explosive ordnance disposal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stewart, Ian B; Rojek, Amanda M; Hunt, Andrew P</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Bomb technicians perform their work while encapsulated in explosive ordnance disposal suits. Designed primarily for safety, these suits have an unintended consequence of impairing the body's natural mechanisms for heat dissipation. Consequently, bomb technicians are known to experience symptoms of heat illness while performing their work. This research provides the first field based analysis of heat <span class="hlt">strain</span> in bomb technicians. Six participants undertook simulated operational tasks across 2 days of variable climate. All subjects demonstrated high levels of heat <span class="hlt">strain</span> as evidenced by elevated heart rate, core body temperature, and physiological <span class="hlt">strain</span> index. Participants also reported signs and symptoms associated with heat illness. These results were exacerbated by more intense physical activity despite being undertaken in a cooler environment. The universal experience of heat <span class="hlt">strain</span> in this sample has significant implications for the health of bomb technicians and additional research examining methods to improve temperature regulation and performance is warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NaPho...7...86L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NaPho...7...86L"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical physics: Magnetic appeal in <span class="hlt">strained</span> lattice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lepetit, Thomas</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Using <span class="hlt">strain</span> to induce a pseudomagnetic field in a photonic lattice at optical frequencies might bring improvements to fields such as photonic crystal fibres, supercontinuum generation and frequency combs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081520','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081520"><span id="translatedtitle">The Development of Electrical <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>De Forest, A V; Leaderman, H</p> <p>1940-01-01</p> <p>The design, construction, and properties of an electrical-resistance <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage consisting of fine wires molded in a laminated plastic are described. The properties of such gages are discussed and also the problems of molding of wires in plastic materials, temperature compensation, and cementing and removal of the gages. Further work to be carried out on the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage, together with instrument problems, is discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050179347&hterms=Adhesives&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DAdhesives','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050179347&hterms=Adhesives&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DAdhesives"><span id="translatedtitle">High-Temperature Adhesive <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gage Developed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pereira, J. Michael; Roberts, Gary D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have developed a unique <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage and adhesive system for measuring the mechanical properties of polymers and polymer composites at elevated temperatures. This system overcomes some of the problems encountered in using commercial <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages and adhesives. For example, typical commercial <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage adhesives require a postcure at temperatures substantially higher than the maximum test temperature. The exposure of the specimen to this temperature may affect subsequent results, and in some cases may be higher than the glass-transition temperature of the polymer. In addition, although typical commercial <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages can be used for short times at temperatures up to 370 C, their long-term use is limited to 230 C. This precludes their use for testing some high-temperature polyimides near their maximum temperature capability. Lewis' <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage and adhesive system consists of a nonencapsulated, unbacked gage grid that is bonded directly to the polymer after the specimen has been cured but prior to the normal postcure cycle. The gage is applied with an adhesive specially formulated to cure under the specimen postcure conditions. Special handling, mounting, and electrical connection procedures were developed, and a fixture was designed to calibrate each <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage after it was applied to a specimen. A variety of tests was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the gages at elevated temperatures on PMR-15 neat resin and titanium specimens. For these tests, which included static tension, thermal exposure, and creep tests, the gage and adhesive system performed within normal <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage specifications at 315 C. An example of the performance characteristics of the gage can be seen in the figure, which compares the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage measurement on a polyimide specimen at 315 C with an extensometer measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3647418','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3647418"><span id="translatedtitle">Feline Origin of Rotavirus <span class="hlt">Strain</span>, Tunisia, 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fredj, Mouna Ben Hadj; Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Fodha, Imene; Benhamida-Rebai, Meriam; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In Tunisia in 2008, an unusual G6P[9] rotavirus, RVA/human-wt/TUN/17237/2008/G6P[9], rarely found in humans, was detected in a child. To determine the origin of this <span class="hlt">strain</span>, we conducted phylogenetic analyses and found a unique genotype constellation resembling rotaviruses belonging to the feline BA222-like genotype constellation. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> probably resulted from direct cat-to-human transmission. PMID:23631866</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10161061','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10161061"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermographic phosphor <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allison, S.W.; Capps, G.J.; Smith, D.B.; Cates, M.R.; Gleason, J.; Turley, W.D.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>This report describes the first phase of research aimed at developing a high-temperature <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge for power equipment use based on materials whose fluorescence characteristics are affected by <span class="hlt">strain</span>. In electric power generating plants, the combined effect of temperature and <span class="hlt">strain</span> on equipment and structures is a critical factor in safe, efficient operation and component lifetime. For the first part of this project, the pressure responses of phosphor and crystalline materials were surveyed. Next, pressure measurements on some promising materials, YVO{sub 4}:Dy and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, were performed. The latter phosphor appears to exhibit the greatest change with pressure. Its fluorescence lifetime decreases by a factor of 10 with pressure increase of 20 kbar. In a <span class="hlt">strain</span> test configuration, a tapered sapphire rod compressed a similar phosphor material, La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu. The intensity level increased, as expected for this material, with compression. Both of the oxysulfide materials possess potential for use in an optical <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge for temperatures up to at least 300{degrees}C. It is suggested that a mixture of these two materials may be a useful way to obtain the maximum pressure or <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H43E1060P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H43E1060P"><span id="translatedtitle">Colloid <span class="hlt">Straining</span> within Saturated Heterogeneous Porous Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porubcan, A.; Walczak, J.; Xu, S.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>A thorough understanding of colloid movement in the subsurface system is critical to the assessment of groundwater pollution by pathogenic bacteria and colloid-bound contaminants. It is increasingly recognized that <span class="hlt">straining</span>, a process that occurs when the pore space is too small to allow for a particle's passage, represents an important process in colloid immobilization within groundwater systems. Previously published studies have focused on the kinetics of colloid <span class="hlt">straining</span> within sand packs composed of uniform mineral grains. Natural aquifers, however, are usually characterized by physically heterogeneous sediments. In this study, we conducted column transport experiments with carboxylated latex particles and quartz sand to investigate the impact of sediment texture (i.e., the size distribution of mineral grains) on colloid <span class="hlt">straining</span> kinetics. The quartz sands used in the experiment were thoroughly cleaned and the strong repulsive interactions between colloid particles and quartz sands resulted in minimal physicochemical deposition so the <span class="hlt">straining</span> kinetics can be quantified unambiguously. Sand packs of different textures were prepared by mixing sands of various sizes (mesh sizes of 20-25, 35-40 and 60-70). Our results suggested that the ratio of colloid size and the median sand grain size was insufficient to predict colloid <span class="hlt">straining</span> within heterogeneous sediments. Soil texture, which was related to the size distribution of the sand grains, must be considered. A relationship between colloid <span class="hlt">straining</span> kinetics and the heterogeneity of porous media that can be useful for the prediction of colloid transport within heterogeneous sediments was presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptMa..33..408F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptMa..33..408F"><span id="translatedtitle">Flexible photonic crystals for <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fortes, Luís M.; Gonçalves, M. Clara; Almeida, Rui M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (3-D) photonic crystals (PCs) have been studied as possible <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensing materials, based on <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced stop band frequency shifting. Self-assembly of polystyrene microspheres, achieved by sedimentation over a flexible polyimide tape substrate whose surface hydrophilicity was optimized in order to achieve maximum wettability, led to an organized 3-D direct opal template. This was infiltrated with a silica sol-gel solution by dip-coating or by chemical vapour deposition and an inverse opal structure was ultimately obtained by chemical dissolution of the polymer template. The structural and optical properties of these PCs have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV/visible spectroscopy under variable degrees of <span class="hlt">strain</span>. FE-SEM showed the presence of ordered domains up to ∼30 μm2. A mechano-optical effect was evidenced by <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced shifting of the photonic stop band peak wavelength of the direct, infiltrated and inverse opals up to 50 nm in transmission mode, due to changes in interplanar spacing upon bending the flexible PCs. Optical response <span class="hlt">strain</span> cycles were studied, suggesting the possible use of these structures in reversible photonic <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors integrated in sensor/actuator devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6722711','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6722711"><span id="translatedtitle">Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/902633','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/902633"><span id="translatedtitle">Load cell having <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges of arbitrary location</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spletzer, Barry</p> <p>2007-03-13</p> <p>A load cell utilizes a plurality of <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-<span class="hlt">strain</span> sensitivity matrix to a measured <span class="hlt">strain</span> vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18689636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18689636"><span id="translatedtitle">Pathogenesis of XJ and Romero <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Junin virus in two <span class="hlt">strains</span> of guinea pigs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yun, Nadezhda E; Linde, Nathaniel S; Dziuba, Natallia; Zacks, Michele A; Smith, Jeanon N; Smith, Jennifer K; Aronson, Judy F; Chumakova, Olga V; Lander, Heather M; Peters, Clarence J; Paessler, Slobodan</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), a systemic infectious disease caused by infection with Junin virus, affects several organs, and patients can show hematologic, cardiovascular, renal, or neurologic symptoms. We compared the virulence of two Junin virus <span class="hlt">strains</span> in inbred and outbred guinea pigs with the aim of characterizing this animal model better for future vaccine/antiviral efficacy studies. Our data indicate that this passage of the XJ <span class="hlt">strain</span> is attenuated in guinea pigs. In contrast, the Romero <span class="hlt">strain</span> is highly virulent in <span class="hlt">Strain</span> 13 as well as in Hartley guinea pigs, resulting in systemic infection, thrombocytopenia, elevated aspartate aminotransferase levels, and ultimately, uniformly lethal disease. We detected viral antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Thus, both guinea pig <span class="hlt">strains</span> are useful animal models for lethal Junin virus (Romero <span class="hlt">strain</span>) infection and potentially can be used for preclinical trials in vaccine or antiviral drug development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021041','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021041"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular typing of Brucella melitensis endemic <span class="hlt">strains</span> and differentiation from the vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> Rev-1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noutsios, Georgios T; Papi, Rigini M; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Minas, Anastasios; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>In the present study forty-four Greek endemic <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Br. melitensis and three reference <span class="hlt">strains</span> were genotyped by Multi locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat (ML-VNTR) analysis based on an eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence that was revealed in eight loci of Br. melitensis genome. The forty-four <span class="hlt">strains</span> were discriminated from the vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> Rev-1 by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The ML-VNTR analysis revealed that endemic, reference and vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span> are genetically closely related, while most of the loci tested (1, 2, 4, 5 and 7) are highly polymorphic with Hunter-Gaston Genetic Diversity Index (HGDI) values in the range of 0.939 to 0.775. Analysis of ML-VNTRs loci stability through in vitro passages proved that loci 1 and 5 are non stable. Therefore, vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> can be discriminated from endemic <span class="hlt">strains</span> by allele's clusters of loci 2, 4, 6 and 7. RFLP and DGGE were also employed to analyse omp2 gene and reveled different patterns among Rev-1 and endemic <span class="hlt">strains</span>. In RFLP, Rev-1 revealed three fragments (282, 238 and 44 bp), while endemic <span class="hlt">strains</span> two fragments (238 and 44 bp). As for DGGE, the electrophoretic mobility of Rev-1 is different from the endemic <span class="hlt">strains</span> due to heterologous binding of DNA chains of omp2a and omp2b gene. Overall, our data show clearly that it is feasible to genotype endemic <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Br. melitensis and differentiate them from vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> Rev-1 with ML-VNTR, RFLP and DGGE techniques. These tools can be used for conventional investigations in brucellosis outbreaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87j2506M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87j2506M"><span id="translatedtitle">On the use of <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor technologies for <span class="hlt">strain</span> modal analysis: Case studies in aeronautical applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marques dos Santos, Fábio Luis; Peeters, Bart</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the use of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and piezo <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors for structural dynamic measurements. For certain industrial applications, there is an interest to use <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors rather than in combination with accelerometers for experimental modal analysis. Classical electrical <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges can be used hereto, but other types of <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors are an interesting alternative with some very specific advantages. This work gives an overview of two types of dynamic <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors, applied to two industrial applications (a helicopter main rotor blade and an F-16 aircraft), FBG sensors and dynamic piezo <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors, discussing their use and benefits. Moreover, the concept of <span class="hlt">strain</span> modal analysis is introduced and it is shown how it can be beneficial to apply <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements to experimental modal analysis. Finally, experimental results for the two applications are shown, with an experimental modal analysis carried out on the helicopter main rotor blade using FBG sensors and a similar experiment is done with the aircraft but using piezo <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors instead.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26360021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26360021"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome-Wide Transcription Study of Cryptococcus neoformans H99 Clinical <span class="hlt">Strain</span> versus Environmental <span class="hlt">Strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Movahed, Elaheh; Munusamy, Komathy; Tan, Grace Min Yi; Looi, Chung Yeng; Tay, Sun Tee; Wong, Won Fen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The infection of Cryptococcus neoformans is acquired through the inhalation of desiccated yeast cells and basidiospores originated from the environment, particularly from bird's droppings and decaying wood. Three environmental <span class="hlt">strains</span> of C. neoformans originated from bird droppings (H4, S48B and S68B) and C. neoformans reference clinical <span class="hlt">strain</span> (H99) were used for intranasal infection in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that the H99 <span class="hlt">strain</span> demonstrated higher virulence compared to H4, S48B and S68B <span class="hlt">strains</span>. To examine if gene expression contributed to the different degree of virulence among these <span class="hlt">strains</span>, a genome-wide microarray study was performed to inspect the transcriptomic profiles of all four <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Our results revealed that out of 7,419 genes (22,257 probes) examined, 65 genes were significantly up-or down-regulated in H99 versus H4, S48B and S68B <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The up-regulated genes in H99 <span class="hlt">strain</span> include Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (MVA1), Mitochondrial matrix factor 1 (MMF1), Bud-site-selection protein 8 (BUD8), High affinity glucose transporter 3 (SNF3) and Rho GTPase-activating protein 2 (RGA2). Pathway annotation using DAVID bioinformatics resource showed that metal ion binding and sugar transmembrane transporter activity pathways were highly expressed in the H99 <span class="hlt">strain</span>. We suggest that the genes and pathways identified may possibly play crucial roles in the fungal pathogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26063842','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26063842"><span id="translatedtitle">Bone <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude is correlated with bone <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate in tetrapods: implications for models of mechanotransduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aiello, B R; Iriarte-Diaz, J; Blob, R W; Butcher, M T; Carrano, M T; Espinoza, N R; Main, R P; Ross, C F</p> <p>2015-07-07</p> <p>Hypotheses suggest that structural integrity of vertebrate bones is maintained by controlling bone <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude via adaptive modelling in response to mechanical stimuli. Increased tissue-level <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude and rate have both been identified as potent stimuli leading to increased bone formation. Mechanotransduction models hypothesize that osteocytes sense bone deformation by detecting fluid flow-induced drag in the bone's lacunar-canalicular porosity. This model suggests that the osteocyte's intracellular response depends on fluid-flow rate, a product of bone <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and gradient, but does not provide a mechanism for detection of <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude. Such a mechanism is necessary for bone modelling to adapt to loads, because <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude is an important determinant of skeletal fracture. Using <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge data from the limb bones of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, we identified strong correlations between <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and magnitude across clades employing diverse locomotor styles and degrees of rhythmicity. The breadth of our sample suggests that this pattern is likely to be a common feature of tetrapod bone loading. Moreover, finding that bone <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude is encoded in <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate at the tissue level is consistent with the hypothesis that it might be encoded in fluid-flow rate at the cellular level, facilitating bone adaptation via mechanotransduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4567374','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4567374"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome-Wide Transcription Study of Cryptococcus neoformans H99 Clinical <span class="hlt">Strain</span> versus Environmental <span class="hlt">Strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Movahed, Elaheh; Munusamy, Komathy; Tan, Grace Min Yi; Looi, Chung Yeng; Tay, Sun Tee; Wong, Won Fen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The infection of Cryptococcus neoformans is acquired through the inhalation of desiccated yeast cells and basidiospores originated from the environment, particularly from bird’s droppings and decaying wood. Three environmental <span class="hlt">strains</span> of C. neoformans originated from bird droppings (H4, S48B and S68B) and C. neoformans reference clinical <span class="hlt">strain</span> (H99) were used for intranasal infection in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that the H99 <span class="hlt">strain</span> demonstrated higher virulence compared to H4, S48B and S68B <span class="hlt">strains</span>. To examine if gene expression contributed to the different degree of virulence among these <span class="hlt">strains</span>, a genome-wide microarray study was performed to inspect the transcriptomic profiles of all four <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Our results revealed that out of 7,419 genes (22,257 probes) examined, 65 genes were significantly up-or down-regulated in H99 versus H4, S48B and S68B <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The up-regulated genes in H99 <span class="hlt">strain</span> include Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (MVA1), Mitochondrial matrix factor 1 (MMF1), Bud-site-selection protein 8 (BUD8), High affinity glucose transporter 3 (SNF3) and Rho GTPase-activating protein 2 (RGA2). Pathway annotation using DAVID bioinformatics resource showed that metal ion binding and sugar transmembrane transporter activity pathways were highly expressed in the H99 <span class="hlt">strain</span>. We suggest that the genes and pathways identified may possibly play crucial roles in the fungal pathogenesis. PMID:26360021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850013288','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850013288"><span id="translatedtitle">Thin film <span class="hlt">strain</span> transducer. [suitable for in-flight measurement of scientific balloon <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rand, J. L. (Inventor)</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">strain</span> transducer system and process for making same is disclosed wherein a beryllium-copper ring having four <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages disposed thereon is electrically connected in Wheatstone bridge fashion to output instrumentation. Tabs are bonded to a balloon or like surface with <span class="hlt">strain</span> on the surface causing bending of the ring and providing an electrical signal through the gages proportional to the surface <span class="hlt">strain</span>. A figure is provided which illustrates a pattern of a one-half ring segment as placed on a sheet of beryllium-copper for chem-mill etch formation, prior to bending and welding of a pair of the segments to form a ring structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/762874','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/762874"><span id="translatedtitle">Imploding Liner Material Strength Measurements at High-<span class="hlt">Strain</span> and High <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bartsch, R.R.; Lee, H.; Holtkamp, D.; Wright, B.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.; Anderson, W.; Broste, W.</p> <p>1998-10-18</p> <p>Imploding, cylindrical liners provide a unique, shockless means of simultaneously accessing high <span class="hlt">strain</span> and high-<span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate for measurement of strength of materials in plastic flow. The radial convergence in the liner geometry results in the liner thickening as the circumference becomes smaller. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> of up to {approximately}1.25 and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates of up to {approximately}10{sup 6} sec{sup -1} can be readily achieved in a material sample placed inside of an aluminum driver liner, using the Pegasus II capacitor bank. This provides yield strength data at conditions where none presently exists. The heating from work done against the yield strength is measured with multichannel pyrometry from infrared radiation emitted by the material sample. The temperature data as a function of liner position are unfolded to give the yield strength along the <span class="hlt">strain</span>, <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate trajectory. Proper design of the liner and sample configuration ensures that the current diffused into the sample adds negligible heating. An important issue, in this type of temperature measurement, is shielding of the pickup optics from other sources of radiation. At <span class="hlt">strains</span> greater than those achievable on Pegasus, e.g. the LANL Atlas facility, some materials may be heated all the way to melt by this process. Recent data on 6061-T6 Aluminum will be compared with an existing model for <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate heating. The liner configuration and pyrometry diagnostic will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/960184','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/960184"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress-<span class="hlt">Strain</span> Relation and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-Induced Crystallization in Rubber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Toki,S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Rubber is composed of flexible chains and network points. Theory of rubber elasticity succeeds to elucidate stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relation of rubber using the inverse Langevin equation of entropy modulus. However, actual rubber is much different from ideal networks composed of ideal rubber chains. Network points may not distribute homogeneously and the molecular weight between two network points may show wide distribution. Flexible chains show <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced crystallization. Recent synchrotron X-ray and simultaneous stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements reveal that <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced crystallization reduces the stress by increasing the length of molecules along the stretching direction. Also, <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced crystals are created not at the middle of the network points, but at the close location to the network points. The hybrid structure of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced crystallites and network points may be stronger than network points alone. Therefore, <span class="hlt">strain</span> induced crystallization may increase the tensile strength of rubber by two mechanisms, they are, increase of elongation at break and reinforcement of network points. Natural rubber has biotic network points in nature. After vulcanization, the biotic network may contribute the superior toughness of NR, comparing to IR. Carbon filled NR also shows <span class="hlt">strain</span> induced crystallization. In order to acquire high tensile strength, molecules should have higher flexibility to perform <span class="hlt">strain</span> induced crystallization by selecting a kind of carbon blacks, an accelerator and a curing condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590470','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590470"><span id="translatedtitle">Bone <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude is correlated with bone <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate in tetrapods: implications for models of mechanotransduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aiello, B. R.; Iriarte-Diaz, J.; Blob, R. W.; Butcher, M. T.; Carrano, M. T.; Espinoza, N. R.; Main, R. P.; Ross, C. F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hypotheses suggest that structural integrity of vertebrate bones is maintained by controlling bone <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude via adaptive modelling in response to mechanical stimuli. Increased tissue-level <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude and rate have both been identified as potent stimuli leading to increased bone formation. Mechanotransduction models hypothesize that osteocytes sense bone deformation by detecting fluid flow-induced drag in the bone's lacunar–canalicular porosity. This model suggests that the osteocyte's intracellular response depends on fluid-flow rate, a product of bone <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and gradient, but does not provide a mechanism for detection of <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude. Such a mechanism is necessary for bone modelling to adapt to loads, because <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude is an important determinant of skeletal fracture. Using <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge data from the limb bones of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, we identified strong correlations between <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and magnitude across clades employing diverse locomotor styles and degrees of rhythmicity. The breadth of our sample suggests that this pattern is likely to be a common feature of tetrapod bone loading. Moreover, finding that bone <span class="hlt">strain</span> magnitude is encoded in <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate at the tissue level is consistent with the hypothesis that it might be encoded in fluid-flow rate at the cellular level, facilitating bone adaptation via mechanotransduction. PMID:26063842</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APLM....4f4107S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APLM....4f4107S"><span id="translatedtitle">Elastocaloric cooling processes: The influence of material <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate on efficiency and temperature span</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Marvin; Schütze, Andreas; Seelecke, Stefan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the influence of material <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate on efficiency and temperature span of elastocaloric cooling processes. The elastocaloric material, a newly developed quaternary Ni-Ti-Cu-V alloy, is characterized at different maximum <span class="hlt">strains</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. The experiments are performed with a specially designed test setup, which enables the measurement of mechanical and thermal process parameters. The material efficiency is compared to the efficiency of the Carnot process at equivalent thermal operation conditions. This method allows for a direct comparison of the investigated material with other caloric materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/305920','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/305920"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and hydrogen on the plane-<span class="hlt">strain</span> ductility of Zircaloy cladding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Link, T.M.; Motta, A.T.; Koss, D.A.</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>The authors studied the ductility of unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding under loading conditions prototypical of those found in reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), i.e.: near plane-<span class="hlt">strain</span> deformation in the hoop direction (transverse to the cladding axis) at room temperature and 300 C and high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. To conduct these studies, they developed a specimen configuration in which near plane-<span class="hlt">strain</span> deformation is achieved in the gage section, and a testing methodology that allows one to determine both the limit <span class="hlt">strain</span> at the onset of localized necking and the fracture <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The experiments indicate that there is little effect of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate (10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1}) on the ductility of unhydrided Zircaloy tubing deformed under near plane-<span class="hlt">strain</span> conditions at either room temperature or 300 C. Preliminary experiments on cladding containing 190 ppm hydrogen show only a small loss of fracture <span class="hlt">strain</span> but no clear effect on limit <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The experiments also indicate that there is a significant loss of Zircaloy ductility when surface flaws are present in the form of thickness imperfections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0220160155','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0220160155"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">strains</span> for earthquake source characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Barbour, Andrew; Crowell, Brendan W</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Strainmeters measure elastodynamic deformation associated with earthquakes over a broad frequency band, with detection characteristics that complement traditional instrumentation, but they are commonly used to study slow transient deformation along active faults and at subduction zones, for example. Here, we analyze dynamic <span class="hlt">strains</span> at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeters (BSM) associated with 146 local and regional earthquakes from 2004–2014, with magnitudes from M 4.5 to 7.2. We find that peak values in seismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> can be predicted from a general regression against distance and magnitude, with improvements in accuracy gained by accounting for biases associated with site–station effects and source–path effects, the latter exhibiting the strongest influence on the regression coefficients. To account for the influence of these biases in a general way, we include crustal‐type classifications from the CRUST1.0 global velocity model, which demonstrates that high‐frequency <span class="hlt">strain</span> data from the PBO BSM network carry information on crustal structure and fault mechanics: earthquakes nucleating offshore on the Blanco fracture zone, for example, generate consistently lower dynamic <span class="hlt">strains</span> than earthquakes around the Sierra Nevada microplate and in the Salton trough. Finally, we test our dynamic <span class="hlt">strain</span> prediction equations on the 2011 M 9 Tohoku‐Oki earthquake, specifically continuous <span class="hlt">strain</span> records derived from triangulation of 137 high‐rate Global Navigation Satellite System Earth Observation Network stations in Japan. Moment magnitudes inferred from these data and the <span class="hlt">strain</span> model are in agreement when Global Positioning System subnetworks are unaffected by spatial aliasing.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20215607','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20215607"><span id="translatedtitle">Volume <span class="hlt">strain</span> within the Geysers geothermal field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mossop, Antony; Segall, Paul</p> <p>1999-12-10</p> <p>During the 1970s and 1980s. The Geysers geothermal region was rapidly developed as a site of geothermal power production. The likelihood that this could cause significant <span class="hlt">strain</span> within the reservoir, with corresponding surface displacements, led to a series of deformation monitoring surveys. In 1973, 1975, 1977, and 1980, The Geysers region was surveyed using first-order, class I, spirit leveling. In 1994, 1995, and 1996, many of the leveling control monuments were resurveyed using high-precision Global Positioning System receivers. The two survey methods are reconciled using the GEOID96 geoid model. The displacements are inverted to determine volume <span class="hlt">strain</span> within the reservoir. For the period 1980-1994, peak volume <span class="hlt">strains</span> in excess of 5x10{sup -4} are imaged. There is an excellent correlation between the observed changes in reservoir steam pressures and the imaged volume <span class="hlt">strain</span>. If reservoir pressure changes are inducing volume <span class="hlt">strain</span>, then the reservoir quasi-static bulk modulus K must be <4.6x10{sup 9} Pa. However, seismic velocities indicate a much stiffer reservoir with K=3.4x10{sup 10} Pa. This apparent discrepancy is shown to be consistent with predicted frequency dependence in K for fractured and water-saturated rock. Inversion of surface deformation data therefore appears to be a powerful method for imaging pressure change within the body of the reservoir. Correlation between induced seismicity at The Geysers and volume <span class="hlt">strain</span> is observed. However, earthquake distribution does not appear to have a simple relationship with volume <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17093023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17093023"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span>-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism assays for the Bacillus anthracis Ames <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Ert, Matthew N; Easterday, W Ryan; Simonson, Tatum S; U'Ren, Jana M; Pearson, Talima; Kenefic, Leo J; Busch, Joseph D; Huynh, Lynn Y; Dukerich, Megan; Trim, Carla B; Beaudry, Jodi; Welty-Bernard, Amy; Read, Timothy; Fraser, Claire M; Ravel, Jacques; Keim, Paul</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Highly precise diagnostics and forensic assays can be developed through a combination of evolutionary analysis and the exhaustive examination of genomic sequences. In Bacillus anthracis, whole-genome sequencing efforts revealed ca. 3,500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among eight different <span class="hlt">strains</span> and evolutionary analysis provides the identification of canonical SNPs. We have previously shown that SNPs are highly evolutionarily stable, and the clonal nature of B. anthracis makes them ideal signatures for subtyping this pathogen. Here we identified SNPs that define the lineage of B. anthracis that contains the Ames <span class="hlt">strain</span>, the <span class="hlt">strain</span> used in the 2001 bioterrorist attacks in the United States. Sequencing and real-time PCR were used to validate these SNPs across B. anthracis <span class="hlt">strains</span>, including (i) 88 globally and genetically diverse isolates; (ii) isolates that were shown to be genetic relatives of the Ames <span class="hlt">strain</span> by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA); and (iii) several different lab stocks of the Ames <span class="hlt">strain</span>, including a clinical isolate from the 2001 letter attack. Six SNPs were found to be highly specific for the Ames <span class="hlt">strain</span>; four on the chromosome, one on the pX01 plasmid, and one on the pX02 plasmid. All six SNPs differentiated the B. anthracis Ames <span class="hlt">strain</span> from the 88 unique B. anthracis <span class="hlt">strains</span>, while five of the six separated Ames from its close genetic relatives. The use of these SNPs coupled with real-time PCR allows specific and sensitive (<100 fg of template DNA) identification of the Ames <span class="hlt">strain</span>. This evolutionary and genomics-based approach provides an effective means for the discovery of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-specific SNPs in B. anthracis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810062035&hterms=behavior+analysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbehavior%2Banalysis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810062035&hterms=behavior+analysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbehavior%2Banalysis"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the tensile stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior of elastomers at constant <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. I - Criteria for separability of the time and <span class="hlt">strain</span> effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hong, S. D.; Fedors, R. F.; Schwarzl, F.; Moacanin, J.; Landel, R. F.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A theoretical analysis of the tensile stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relation of elastomers at constant <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate is presented which shows that the time and the stress effect are separable if the experimental time scale coincides with a segment of the relaxation modulus that can be described by a single power law. It is also shown that time-<span class="hlt">strain</span> separability is valid if the <span class="hlt">strain</span> function is linearly proportional to the Cauchy <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and that when time-<span class="hlt">strain</span> separability holds, two <span class="hlt">strain</span>-dependent quantities can be obtained experimentally. In the case where time and <span class="hlt">strain</span> effect are not separable, superposition can be achieved only by using temperature and <span class="hlt">strain</span>-dependent shift factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3942497','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3942497"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Ivermectin in Seven <span class="hlt">Strains</span> of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Including a Genetically Diverse Laboratory <span class="hlt">Strain</span> and Three Permethrin Resistant <span class="hlt">Strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deus, K. M.; Saavedra-rodriguez, K.; Butters, M. P.; Black, W. C.; Foy, B. D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Seven different <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Aedes aegypti (L.), including a genetically diverse laboratory <span class="hlt">strain</span>, three laboratory-selected permethrin-resistant <span class="hlt">strains</span>, a standard reference <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and two recently colonized <span class="hlt">strains</span> were fed on human blood containing various concentrations of ivermectin. Ivermectin reduced adult survival, fecundity, and hatch rate of eggs laid by ivermectin-treated adults in all seven <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The LC50 of ivermectin for adults and the concentration that prevented 50% of eggs from hatching was calculated for all <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Considerable variation in adult survival after an ivermectin-bloodmeal occurred among <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and all three permethrin-resistant <span class="hlt">strains</span> were significantly less susceptible to ivermectin than the standard reference <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The hatch rate after an ivermectin bloodmeal was less variable among <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and only one of the permethrin-resistant <span class="hlt">strains</span> differed significantly from the standard reference <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Our studies suggest that ivermectin induces adult mortality and decreases the hatch rate of eggs through different mechanisms. A correlation analysis of log-transformed LC50 among <span class="hlt">strains</span> suggests that permethrin and ivermectin cross-resistance may occur. PMID:22493855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......536S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......536S"><span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropic nature of radially <span class="hlt">strained</span> metal tubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strickland, Julie N.</p> <p></p> <p>Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the material. The amount of <span class="hlt">strain</span> is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of <span class="hlt">strained</span> pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates <span class="hlt">strained</span> pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic <span class="hlt">strain</span>, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of <span class="hlt">strained</span> material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for <span class="hlt">strained</span> pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the <span class="hlt">strained</span> metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after <span class="hlt">strain</span> aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the <span class="hlt">strained</span> and 9% anisotropy in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11874722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11874722"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth <span class="hlt">strain</span> in coconut palm trees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yan S; Chen, Shin S; Lin, Tsan P; Chen, Yuh S</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Until recently, growth stress studies have been made only on coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. Growth stress of trees is thought to be initiated in newly formed secondary xylem cells. This stress can accumulate for years and is distributed inside the trunk. Major characteristics of the trunk of monocotyledonous trees include numerous vascular bundles scattered inside the ground tissue and the lack of secondary growth for enlarging the diameter of the trunk. We used the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge method to measure the released growth <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the monocotyledonous woody palm, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and to investigate the surface growth <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the trunk and central cylinder at different trunk heights. The internal <span class="hlt">strains</span> of both vertical and leaning trunks were measured and compared with those of coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. We found that tensile stress existed longitudinally on the surface of vertically growing trunks, whereas compression stress was found at the bending position of leaning trunks. Compression stress was found in the outer part of the central cylinder, whereas tensile stress is generally found in the outer part of the trunk in coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. The distribution of <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the palm trunk is similar to that of compression wood of the leaning trunk of a conifer. Specific gravity was greater in the outer part of the trunk than in the inner part of the trunk. This difference may be related to the distribution of growth stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1015378','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1015378"><span id="translatedtitle">Brittle superconducting magnets: an equivilent <span class="hlt">strain</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barzi, E.; Danuso, M.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>To exceed fields of 10 T in accelerator magnets, brittle superconductors like A15 Nb{sub 3}Sn and Nb{sub 3}Al or ceramic High Temperature Superconductors have to be used. For such brittle superconductors it is not their maximum tensile yield stress that limits their structural resistance as much as <span class="hlt">strain</span> values that provoke deformations in their delicate lattice, which in turn affect their superconducting properties. Work on the sensitivity of Nb{sub 3}Sn cables to <span class="hlt">strain</span> has been conducted in a number of stress states, including uniaxial and multi-axial, producing usually different results. This has made the need of a constituent design criterion imperative for magnet builders. In conventional structural problems an equivalent stress model is typically used to verify mechanical soundness. In the superconducting community a simple scalar equivalent <span class="hlt">strain</span> to be used in place of an equivalent stress would be an extremely useful tool. As is well known in fundamental mechanics, there is not one single way to reduce a multiaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> state as represented by a 2nd order tensor to a scalar. The conceptual experiment proposed here will help determine the best scalar representation to use in the identification of an equivalent <span class="hlt">strain</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860008318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860008318"><span id="translatedtitle">Closure of fatigue cracks at high <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Iyyer, N. S.; Dowling, N. E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Experiments were conducted on smooth specimens to study the closure behavior of short cracks at high cyclic <span class="hlt">strains</span> under completely reversed cycling. Testing procedures and methodology, and closure measurement techniques, are described in detail. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels chosen for the study cover from predominantly elastic to grossly plastic <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Crack closure measurements are made at different crack lengths. The study reveals that, at high <span class="hlt">strains</span>, cracks close only as the lowest stress level in the cycle is approached. The crack opening is observed to occur in the compressive part of the loading cycle. The applied stress needed to open a short crack under high <span class="hlt">strain</span> is found to be less than for cracks under small scale yielding. For increased plastic deformations, the value of sigma sub op/sigma sub max is observed to decrease and approaches the value of R. Comparison of the experimental results with existing analysis is made and indicates the limitations of the small scale yielding approach where gross plastic deformation behavior occurs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22398929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22398929"><span id="translatedtitle">Secretome analysis of Clostridium difficile <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boetzkes, Alexander; Felkel, Katharina Wiebke; Zeiser, Johannes; Jochim, Nelli; Just, Ingo; Pich, Andreas</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Clostridium difficile causes infections ranging from mild C. difficile-associated diarrhea to severe pseudomembranous colitis. Since 2003 new hypervirulent C. difficile <span class="hlt">strains</span> (PCR ribotype 027) emerged characterized by a dramatically increased mortality. The secretomes of the three C. difficile <span class="hlt">strains</span> CDR20291, CD196, and CD630 were analyzed and compared. Proteins were separated and analyzed by means of SDS--PAGE and LC-MS. MS data were analyzed using Mascot and proteins were checked for export signals with SecretomeP and SignalP. LC-MS analysis revealed 158 different proteins in the supernatant of C. difficile. Most of the identified proteins originate from the cytoplasm. Thirty-two proteins in CDR20291, 36 in CD196 and 26 in CD630 were identified to be secreted by C. difficile <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Those were mainly S-layer proteins, substrate-binding proteins of ABC-transporters, cell wall hydrolases, pilin and unknown hypothetical proteins. Toxin A and toxin B were identified after growth in brain heart infusion medium using immunological techniques. The ADP-ribosyltransferase-binding component protein, which is a part of the binary toxin CDT, was only identified in the hypervirulent ribotype 027 <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Further proteins that are secreted specifically by hypervirulent <span class="hlt">strains</span> were identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575016','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575016"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast flexible electronics with <span class="hlt">strained</span> silicon nanomembranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Han; Seo, Jung-Hun; Paskiewicz, Deborah M.; Zhu, Ye; Celler, George K.; Voyles, Paul M.; Zhou, Weidong; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Fast flexible electronics operating at radio frequencies (>1 GHz) are more attractive than traditional flexible electronics because of their versatile capabilities, dramatic power savings when operating at reduced speed and broader spectrum of applications. Transferrable single-crystalline Si nanomembranes (SiNMs) are preferred to other materials for flexible electronics owing to their unique advantages. Further improvement of Si-based device speed implies significant technical and economic advantages. While the mobility of bulk Si can be enhanced using <span class="hlt">strain</span> techniques, implementing these techniques into transferrable single-crystalline SiNMs has been challenging and not demonstrated. The past approach presents severe challenges to achieve effective doping and desired material topology. Here we demonstrate the combination of <span class="hlt">strained</span>- NM-compatible doping techniques with self-sustained-<span class="hlt">strain</span> sharing by applying a <span class="hlt">strain</span>-sharing scheme between Si and SiGe multiple epitaxial layers, to create <span class="hlt">strained</span> print-transferrable SiNMs. We demonstrate a new speed record of Si-based flexible electronics without using aggressively scaled critical device dimensions. PMID:23416347</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25111022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25111022"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomics of Clostridium botulinum group III <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Oguma, Keiji</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In Clostridium botulinum, the characteristics of type C and D <span class="hlt">strains</span> are quite different from other types, and they are classified as group III. They produce C2 binary toxin and C3 exoenzyme in addition to type C and D neurotoxins. Two different phages and many plasmids are identified in the organisms. The genes of neurotoxin and C3 exoenzyme are converted from toxigenic <span class="hlt">strains</span> to non-toxigenic <span class="hlt">strains</span> by the specific bacteriophages (phages), whereas, the C2 toxin gene is carried by large or small plasmids. Classification of type C and D <span class="hlt">strains</span> has been in confusion because 1) antigenicity of type C and D neurotoxins is complex, 2) the cells produce two types of toxins, neurotoxin and C2 toxin, and 3) some non-toxigenic <span class="hlt">strains</span> can be converted to produce C or D neurotoxin by the infection with phages. Until now, entire nucleotide sequences of cell chromosomes, phages, and plasmids have been determined. Since both genetic and protein-chemical analyses have been clarifying the above confusions, these data are reviewed historically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27585446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27585446"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer modelling of bone's adaptation: the role of normal <span class="hlt">strain</span>, shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> and fluid flow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tiwari, Abhishek Kumar; Prasad, Jitendra</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Bone loss is a serious health problem. In vivo studies have found that mechanical stimulation may inhibit bone loss as elevated <span class="hlt">strain</span> in bone induces osteogenesis, i.e. new bone formation. However, the exact relationship between mechanical environment and osteogenesis is less clear. Normal <span class="hlt">strain</span> is considered as a prime stimulus of osteogenic activity; however, there are some instances in the literature where osteogenesis is observed in the vicinity of minimal normal <span class="hlt">strain</span>, specifically near the neutral axis of bending in long bones. It suggests that osteogenesis may also be induced by other or secondary components of mechanical environment such as shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> or canalicular fluid flow. As it is evident from the literature, shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> and fluid flow can be potent stimuli of osteogenesis. This study presents a computational model to investigate the roles of these stimuli in bone adaptation. The model assumes that bone formation rate is roughly proportional to the normal, shear and fluid shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> energy density above their osteogenic thresholds. In vivo osteogenesis due to cyclic cantilever bending of a murine tibia has been simulated. The model predicts results close to experimental findings when normal <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> or fluid shear were combined. This study also gives a new perspective on the relation between osteogenic potential of micro-level fluid shear and that of macro-level bending shear. Attempts to establish such relations among the components of mechanical environment and corresponding osteogenesis may ultimately aid in the development of effective approaches to mitigating bone loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPL...625...69R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPL...625...69R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> in <span class="hlt">strain</span>-free benzenoid hydrocarbons: The case of phenanthrene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Radenković, Slavko; Gutman, Ivan; Đorđević, Slađana</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Benzenoid molecules possessing bays are traditionally considered as '<span class="hlt">strain</span>-free'. Yet, repulsion between the two bay H-atoms affects the length of the near-lying carbon-carbon bonds. A method is developed to estimate the energy of this <span class="hlt">strain</span>. In the case of phenanthrene its value was found to be about 7 kJ/mol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306125','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306125"><span id="translatedtitle">MRI-based <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate analysis of left ventricle: a modified hierarchical transformation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Different from other indicators of cardiac function, such as ejection fraction and transmitral early diastolic velocity, myocardial <span class="hlt">strain</span> is promising to capture subtle alterations that result from early diseases of the myocardium. In order to extract the left ventricle (LV) myocardial <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate from cardiac cine-MRI, a modified hierarchical transformation model was proposed. Methods A hierarchical transformation model including the global and local LV deformations was employed to analyze the <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate of the left ventricle by cine-MRI image registration. The endocardial and epicardial contour information was introduced to enhance the registration accuracy by combining the original hierarchical algorithm with an Iterative Closest Points using Invariant Features algorithm. The hierarchical model was validated by a normal volunteer first and then applied to two clinical cases (i.e., the normal volunteer and a diabetic patient) to evaluate their respective function. Results Based on the two clinical cases, by comparing the displacement fields of two selected landmarks in the normal volunteer, the proposed method showed a better performance than the original or unmodified model. Meanwhile, the comparison of the radial <span class="hlt">strain</span> between the volunteer and patient demonstrated their apparent functional difference. Conclusions The present method could be used to estimate the LV myocardial <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate during a cardiac cycle and thus to quantify the analysis of the LV motion function. PMID:25602778</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830024945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830024945"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">strain</span> isolator pad modulus on inplane <span class="hlt">strain</span> in Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sawyer, J. W.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The thermal protection system used on the Space Shuttle orbiter to determine <span class="hlt">strains</span> in the reusable surface insulation tiles under simulated flight loads was investigated. The effects of changes in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> isolator pad (SIP) moduli on the <span class="hlt">strains</span> in the tile were evaluated. To analyze the SIP/tile system, it was necessary to conduct tests to determine inplane tension and compression modulus and inplane failure <span class="hlt">strain</span> for the densified layer of the tiles. It is shown that densification of the LI-900 tile material increases the modulus by a factor of 6 to 10 and reduces the failure <span class="hlt">strain</span> by about 50%. It is indicated that the inplane <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels in the Shuttle tiles in the highly loaded regions are approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than the failure <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the material. It is concluded that most of the LI-900 tiles on the Shuttle could be mounted on a SIP with tensile and shear stiffnesses 10 times those of the present SIP without inplane <span class="hlt">strain</span> failure in the tile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22840216','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22840216"><span id="translatedtitle">Hepatitis E virus <span class="hlt">strains</span> in rabbits and evidence of a closely related <span class="hlt">strain</span> in humans, France.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Izopet, Jacques; Dubois, Martine; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Lhomme, Sébastien; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Boucher, Samuel; Kamar, Nassim; Abravanel, Florence; Guérin, Jean-Luc</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) <span class="hlt">strains</span> from rabbits indicate that these mammals may be a reservoir for HEVs that cause infection in humans. To determine HEV prevalence in rabbits and the <span class="hlt">strains</span>' genetic characteristics, we tested bile, liver, and additional samples from farmed and wild rabbits in France. We detected HEV RNA in 7% (14/200) of bile samples from farmed rabbits (in 2009) and in 23% (47/205) of liver samples from wild rabbits (in 2007-2010). Full-length genomic sequences indicated that all rabbit <span class="hlt">strains</span> belonged to the same clade (nucleotide sequences 72.2%-78.2% identical to HEV genotypes 1-4). Comparison with HEV sequences of human <span class="hlt">strains</span> and reference sequences identified a human <span class="hlt">strain</span> closely related to rabbit <span class="hlt">strain</span> HEV. We found a 93-nt insertion in the X domain of open reading frame 1 of the human <span class="hlt">strain</span> and all rabbit HEV <span class="hlt">strains</span>. These findings indicate that the host range of HEV in Europe is expanding and that zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits is possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850007898','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850007898"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of high temperature <span class="hlt">strain</span> by the laser-speckle <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yamaguchi, I.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>By using the laser-speckle <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge, the <span class="hlt">strain</span> of metal at the temperature lower than 250 C is measured. The principle of the gauge is to measure the expansion or contraction of the fine structures of surface by detecting the resultant speckle displacement in an optoelectronic way, whereby the effect of rigid-body motion is automatically cancelled out with the aid of a differential detection system. A transportable apparatus was built and a comparison experiment performed with a resistance <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge at room temperature. It has a <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensitivity of .00002, a gauge length smaller than 1 mm, and no upper limit in a range of <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement. In the measurement of high-temperature <span class="hlt">strain</span> it is free from the need for a dummy gauge and insensitive to an electric drift effect. As examples of <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement at high-temperature, thermal expansion and contraction of a top of a soldering iron are measured. The interval of the measurement can be made at shortest 1.6 sec. and the change in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> is clearly followed until the ultimate stationary temperature is reached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16178463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16178463"><span id="translatedtitle">[Deoxyribonuclease activity detection in Clostridium chauvoei <span class="hlt">strains</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carloni, G H; Bentancor, L D; De Torres, R A</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Beta toxin of C. chauvoei has desoxiribonuclease (DNase) activity which is regarded as one of its virulence factors. The production of DNase was detected in <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from bovines, using as controls C. chauvoei ATCC 10092, and C. perfringens Type A and C. septicum, both laboratory isolates. The enzyme activity was made evident on a DNA substrate observing the macroscopic degradation. A simple methodology was developed using a commercial medium for DNase test, with the incorporation of sterile horse serum. Each <span class="hlt">strain</span> was streaked on the surface of the medium, incubated in anaerobic atmosphere at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. The plates were revealed with HCI 1 N. The appearance of a clear and transparent zone around and under the microbial growing was considered a positive reaction. Enzyme activity was detected in 10 of 12 <span class="hlt">strains</span> and also in the controls. The serum addition to the commercial basal medium allows the optimum development of the microorganism showing the enzymatic digestion zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21666210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21666210"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic characterization of measles vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bankamp, Bettina; Takeda, Makoto; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Wenbo; Rota, Paul A</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The complete genomic sequences of 9 measles vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span> were compared with the sequence of the Edmonston wild-type virus. AIK-C, Moraten, Rubeovax, Schwarz, and Zagreb are vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span> of the Edmonston lineage, whereas CAM-70, Changchun-47, Leningrad-4 and Shanghai-191 were derived from 4 different wild-type isolates. Nucleotide substitutions were found in the noncoding regions of the genomes as well as in all coding regions, leading to deduced amino acid substitutions in all 8 viral proteins. Although the precise mechanisms involved in the attenuation of individual measles vaccines remain to be elucidated, in vitro assays of viral protein functions and recombinant viruses with defined genetic modifications have been used to characterize the differences between vaccine and wild-type <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Although almost every protein contributes to an attenuated phenotype, substitutions affecting host cell tropism, virus assembly, and the ability to inhibit cellular antiviral defense mechanisms play an especially important role in attenuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.F4002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.F4002B"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffraction Correlation to Reconstruct Highly <span class="hlt">Strained</span> Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, Douglas; Harder, Ross; Clark, Jesse; Kim, J. W.; Kiefer, Boris; Fullerton, Eric; Shpyrko, Oleg; Fohtung, Edwin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Through the use of coherent x-ray diffraction a three-dimensional diffraction pattern of a highly <span class="hlt">strained</span> nano-crystal can be recorded in reciprocal space by a detector. Only the intensities are recorded, resulting in a loss of the complex phase. The recorded diffraction pattern therefore requires computational processing to reconstruct the density and complex distribution of the diffracted nano-crystal. For highly <span class="hlt">strained</span> crystals, standard methods using HIO and ER algorithms are no longer sufficient to reconstruct the diffraction pattern. Our solution is to correlate the symmetry in reciprocal space to generate an a priori shape constraint to guide the computational reconstruction of the diffraction pattern. This approach has improved the ability to accurately reconstruct highly <span class="hlt">strained</span> nano-crystals.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981RScI...52.1417R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981RScI...52.1417R"><span id="translatedtitle">Simple and sensitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge displacement transducer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramana, Y. V.; Sarma, L. P.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>We describe a simple and sensitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge displacement transducer. It is based on the linear movement of a shaft (with two cantilevers and four <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges) in a tapered chamber, resulting in a change in resistance proportional to the cantilever deformation. The transducer with its Wheatstone full bridge configuration is calibrated against a mechanical dial indicator of 0.002 mm accuracy for both ac and dc voltage excitations. Its output is linear for measurements of full range displacement up to 25 mm. It has a sensitivity of ±0.0082 mm for ac excitation with a <span class="hlt">strain</span> indicator whose resolution is ±1 μɛ. It has a dc full range sensitivity of 1.5 mV/V for excitation levels up to 5 V. It can have varied field and laboratory applications wherever displacements are precisely read, recorded, or monitored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286197','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286197"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome sequence of Coxiella burnetii <span class="hlt">strain</span> Namibia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present the whole genome sequence and annotation of the Coxiella burnetii <span class="hlt">strain</span> Namibia. This <span class="hlt">strain</span> was isolated from an aborting goat in 1991 in Windhoek, Namibia. The plasmid type QpRS was confirmed in our work. Further genomic typing placed the <span class="hlt">strain</span> into a unique genomic group. The genome sequence is 2,101,438 bp long and contains 1,979 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes, including one rRNA operon. To overcome the poor yield from cell culture systems, an additional DNA enrichment with whole genome amplification (WGA) methods was applied. We describe a bioinformatics pipeline for improved genome assembly including several filters with a special focus on WGA characteristics. PMID:25593636</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19777804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19777804"><span id="translatedtitle">[Novel methods and strategies for <span class="hlt">strain</span> improvement].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Wenting; Zou, Yi; Hu, Changhua</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Improvement of the productivity of industrial <span class="hlt">strains</span> is an important field in micro-biology, because wild-type <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from nature usually produce only a low level of antibiotics. Although random screening and simple rational screening are still effective without using genomic information, they are always time- and labor-consuming. With the broad application of recombinant DNA technology, protoplast fusion and X-omics, novel methods and strategies such as metabolic engineering, genome shuffling, system biology and system biotechnology, ribosome engineering, epigenetic modification are being exploited for the industry microbiology. In this review, we will focus on the progress of these novel methods and strategies for <span class="hlt">strain</span> improvement in recent years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SMaS...25j5008X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SMaS...25j5008X"><span id="translatedtitle">High sensitivity knitted fabric <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Juan; Long, Hairu; Miao, Menghe</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Wearable sensors are increasingly used in smart garments for detecting and transferring vital signals and body posture, movement and respiration. Existing fabric <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors made from metallized yarns have low sensitivity, poor comfort and low durability to washing. Here we report a knitted fabric <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor made from a cotton/stainless steel (SS) fibre blended yarn which shows much higher sensitivity than sensors knitted from metallized yarns. The fabric feels softer than pure cotton textiles owing to the ultrafine stainless steel fibres and does not lose its electrical property after washing. The reason for the high sensitivity of the cotton/SS knitted fabric sensor was explored by comparing its sensing mechanism with the knitted fabric sensor made from metallized yarns. The results show that the cotton/SS yarn-to-yarn contact resistance is highly sensitive to <span class="hlt">strain</span> applied to hooked yarn loops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000844','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000844"><span id="translatedtitle">Wing Shape Sensing from Measured <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pak, Chan-Gi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new two step theory is investigated for predicting the deflection and slope of an entire structure using <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements at discrete locations. In the first step, a measured <span class="hlt">strain</span> is fitted using a piecewise least squares curve fitting method together with the cubic spline technique. These fitted <span class="hlt">strains</span> are integrated twice to obtain deflection data along the fibers. In the second step, computed deflection along the fibers are combined with a finite element model of the structure in order to extrapolate the deflection and slope of the entire structure through the use of System Equivalent Reduction and Expansion Process. The theory is first validated on a computational model, a cantilevered rectangular wing. It is then applied to test data from a cantilevered swept wing model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26424643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26424643"><span id="translatedtitle">Epstein-Barr Virus <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Variation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farrell, Paul J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>What is wild-type Epstein-Barr virus and are there genetic differences in EBV <span class="hlt">strains</span> that contribute to some of the EBV-associated diseases? Recent progress in DNA sequencing has resulted in many new Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome sequences becoming available. EBV isolates worldwide can be grouped into type 1 and type 2, a classification based on the EBNA2 gene sequence. Type 1 transforms human B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines much more efficiently than type 2 EBV and molecular mechanisms that may account for this difference in cell transformation are now becoming understood. Study of geographic variation of EBV <span class="hlt">strains</span> independent of the type 1/type 2 classification and systematic investigation of the relationship between viral <span class="hlt">strains</span>, infection and disease are now becoming possible. So we should consider more directly whether viral sequence variation might play a role in the incidence of some EBV-associated diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11712610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11712610"><span id="translatedtitle">Conservative treatment for repetitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> injury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Konijnenberg, H S; de Wilde, N S; Gerritsen, A A; van Tulder, M W; de Vet, H C</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>Various conservative treatment options for repetitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> injury are widely used, despite questionable evidence of their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of these treatment options for relieving symptoms of repetitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> injury and improving activities of daily living. Searches in Medline and Embase, with additional reference checking resulted in 15 eligible trials for this review. Methodological quality was assessed, and data-extraction was performed. With the use of a "best-evidence synthesis", no strong evidence was found for the effectiveness of any of the treatment options. There is limited evidence that multidisciplinary rehabilitation, ergonomic intervention measures, exercises, and spinal manipulation combined with soft tissue therapy are effective in providing symptom relief or improving activities of daily living. There is conflicting evidence for the effectiveness of behavioral therapy. In conclusion, little is known about the effectiveness of conservative treatment options for repetitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> injury. To establish strong evidence, more high-quality trials are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956356','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956356"><span id="translatedtitle">The breaking <span class="hlt">strain</span> of neutron star crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kadau, Kai; Horowitz, C J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking <span class="hlt">strain</span> of neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking <span class="hlt">strain</span> of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking <span class="hlt">strain</span> to around 0.1. Due to the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gTavitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in Magnetar Giant and Micro Flares.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3586687','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3586687"><span id="translatedtitle">Convergent Replication of Mouse Synthetic Prion <span class="hlt">Strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ghaemmaghami, Sina; Colby, David W.; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Hayashi, Shigenari; Oehler, Abby; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the aberrant folding of endogenous proteins into self-propagating pathogenic conformers. Prion disease can be initiated in animal models by inoculation with amyloid fibrils formed from bacterially derived recombinant prion protein. The synthetic prions that accumulated in infected organisms are structurally distinct from the amyloid preparations used to initiate their formation and change conformationally on repeated passage. To investigate the nature of synthetic prion transformation, we infected mice with a conformationally diverse set of amyloids and serially passaged the resulting prion <span class="hlt">strains</span>. At each passage, we monitored changes in the biochemical and biological properties of the adapting <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The physicochemical properties of each synthetic prion <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradually changed on serial propagation until attaining a common adapted state with shared physicochemical characteristics. These results indicate that synthetic prions can assume multiple intermediate conformations before converging into one conformation optimized for in vivo propagation. PMID:23438476</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6217136','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6217136"><span id="translatedtitle">Glycerol production of various <span class="hlt">strains</span> of saccharomyces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Radler, F.; Schuetz, H.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The quantity of glycerol as principal by-product of the alcoholic fermentation depends to a large extent on the yeast <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Different <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to form amounts of glycerol varying between 4.2 to 10.4 g/L. The formation of glycerol is regarded as a result of the competition between alcohol dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that compete for the reduced coenzyme NADH/sub 2/. High and low glycerol forming yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> showed large differences in the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and only small variation in the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase. The total amount of glycerol formed was also influenced by amino acids. In thiamine deficient media a decrease in glycerol formation was observed. Experiments indicate a correlation between the formation of acetaldehyde and glycerol and the production of cell mass that may be of practical interest. (Refs. 12).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950022297','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950022297"><span id="translatedtitle">Test load verification through <span class="hlt">strain</span> data analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Verderaime, V.; Harrington, F.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A traditional binding acceptance criterion on polycrystalline structures is the experimental verification of the ultimate factor of safety. At fracture, the induced <span class="hlt">strain</span> is inelastic and about an order-of-magnitude greater than designed for maximum expected operational limit. At this extreme <span class="hlt">strained</span> condition, the structure may rotate and displace at the applied verification load such as to unknowingly distort the load transfer into the static test article. Test may result in erroneously accepting a submarginal design or rejecting a reliable one. A technique was developed to identify, monitor, and assess the load transmission error through two back-to-back surface-measured <span class="hlt">strain</span> data. The technique is programmed for expediency and convenience. Though the method was developed to support affordable aerostructures, the method is also applicable for most high-performance air and surface transportation structural systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28068587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28068587"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative assessment of viable cells of Lactobacillus plantarum <span class="hlt">strains</span> in single, dual and multi-<span class="hlt">strain</span> biofilms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernández Ramírez, Mónica D; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Smid, Eddy J; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Abee, Tjakko</p> <p>2017-03-06</p> <p>Biofilms of Lactobacillus plantarum are a potential source for contamination and recontamination of food products. Although biofilms have been mostly studied using single species or even single <span class="hlt">strains</span>, it is conceivable that in a range of environmental settings including food processing areas, biofilms are composed of multiple species with each species represented by multiple <span class="hlt">strains</span>. In this study six spoilage related L. plantarum <span class="hlt">strains</span> FBR1-FBR6 and the model <span class="hlt">strain</span> L. plantarum WCFS1 were characterised in single, dual and multiple <span class="hlt">strain</span> competition models. A quantitative PCR approach was used with added propidium monoazide (PMA) enabling quantification of intact cells in the biofilm, representing the viable cell fraction that determines the food spoilage risk. Our results show that the performance of individual <span class="hlt">strains</span> in multi-<span class="hlt">strain</span> cultures generally correlates with their performance in pure culture, and relative <span class="hlt">strain</span> abundance in multi-<span class="hlt">strain</span> biofilms positively correlated with the relative <span class="hlt">strain</span> abundance in suspended (planktonic) cultures. Performance of individual <span class="hlt">strains</span> in dual-<span class="hlt">strain</span> biofilms was highly influenced by the presence of the secondary <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and in most cases no correlation between the relative contributions of viable planktonic cells and viable cells in the biofilm was noted. The total biofilm quantified by CV staining of the dual and multi-<span class="hlt">strain</span> biofilms formed was mainly correlated to CV values of the dominant <span class="hlt">strain</span> obtained in single <span class="hlt">strain</span> studies. However, the combination of <span class="hlt">strain</span> FBR5 and <span class="hlt">strain</span> WCFS1 showed significantly higher CV values compared to the individual performances of both <span class="hlt">strains</span> indicating that total biofilm formation was higher in this specific condition. Notably, L. plantarum FBR5 was able to outgrow all other <span class="hlt">strains</span> and showed the highest relative abundance in dual and multi-<span class="hlt">strain</span> biofilms. All the dual and multi-<span class="hlt">strain</span> biofilms contained a considerable number of viable cells, representing a potential</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880012129','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880012129"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled-<span class="hlt">strain</span> rate tests at very low <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates of 2618 aluminum at 200 C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ding, J. L.; Lee, S. R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Constant <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate tests and constant load creep tests were performed on 2618 aluminum at 200 C. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates used in the constant <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate tests were 10 to the minus 6, 10 to the minus 7, 10 to the minum 8, and 10 to the minus 9/sec. Due to the fact that the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates in both tests were comparable to each other, the similarities between them can therefore be studied. It was concluded that metals are essentially rate sensitive at elevated temperatures. The traditional definition of creep and plasticity used in the classical creep analysis is actually a reflection of the material behavior under different loading conditions. A constitutive equation based on the test data under one loading condition should work well for other loading conditions as long as the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates are in the same range as those under which the material constants are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24c6801S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24c6801S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> analysis of free-standing <span class="hlt">strained</span> silicon-on-insulator nanomembrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Gao-Di; Dong, Lin-Xi; Xue, Zhong-Ying; Chen, Da; Guo, Qing-Lei; Mu, Zhi-Qiang</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Based on the ultra-thin <span class="hlt">strained</span> silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) technology, by creatively using a hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor corrosion system to dry etch the SiO2 layer, a large area of suspended <span class="hlt">strained</span> silicon (sSi) nanomembrane with uniform <span class="hlt">strain</span> distribution is fabricated. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> state in the implemented nanomembrane is comprehensively analyzed by using an UV-Raman spectrometer with different laser powers. The results show that the inherent <span class="hlt">strain</span> is preserved while there are artificial Raman shifts induced by the heat effect, which is proportional to the laser power. The suspended sSOI nanomembrane will be an important material for future novel high-performance devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61376117 and 61107025) and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LY13F040004).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4982289','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4982289"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete Genome Sequence of the Oncolytic Sendai virus <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Moscow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zainutdinov, Sergei S.; Tikunov, Artem Y.; Matveeva, Olga V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We report here the complete genome sequence of Sendai virus Moscow <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Anecdotal evidence for the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy exists for this <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The RNA genome of the Moscow <span class="hlt">strain</span> is 15,384 nucleotides in length and differs from the nearest <span class="hlt">strain</span>, BB1, by 18 nucleotides and 11 amino acids. PMID:27516510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740031112&hterms=magnesium+oxide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmagnesium%2Boxide','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740031112&hterms=magnesium+oxide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmagnesium%2Boxide"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">strain</span> aging in magnesium oxide single crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasan, M.; Stoebe, T. G.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span> rate change transients are considered together with aspects of serrated flow, questions of flow stress and work hardening during dynamic <span class="hlt">strain</span> aging, and time, temperature, and prestrain dependence of <span class="hlt">strain</span> aging. On continuing the deformation process after aging for certain periods of time for a particular <span class="hlt">strain</span>, a subsidiary load drop is sometimes observed in addition to the main yield drops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26769927','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26769927"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> SUL3, Microbacterium sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> GCS4, Shinella sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> GWS1, and Shinella sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Katy J; Moore, Karen; Sambles, Christine; Love, John; Studholme, David J; Aves, Stephen J</p> <p>2016-01-14</p> <p>A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> SUL3, Microbacterium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> GCS4, and Shinella sp. <span class="hlt">strains</span> GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, <span class="hlt">strain</span> Guadeloupe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000024984&hterms=new+madrid+seismic+zone&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnew%2Bmadrid%2Bseismic%2Bzone','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000024984&hterms=new+madrid+seismic+zone&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnew%2Bmadrid%2Bseismic%2Bzone"><span id="translatedtitle">Stresses and <span class="hlt">Strains</span> within the "Stable" North American Plate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Engeln, Joe</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a final report on "Stresses and <span class="hlt">Strains</span> within the "Stable" North American Plate". The topics include: 1) <span class="hlt">Strain</span> rates near the New Madrid seismic zone; 2) Signal Processing of intermediate term data; and 3) Transform fault stresses and <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The paper also includes graphs of the stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=287069','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=287069"><span id="translatedtitle">Pheromonal divergence between two <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Spodoptera frugiperda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Abstract- Spodoptera frugiperda consists of two genetically and behaviorally different <span class="hlt">strains</span>, the corn- and the rice-<span class="hlt">strain</span>, which seem to be in the process of sympatric speciation. We investigated the role of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-specific sexual communication as a prezygotic mating barrier between both <span class="hlt">strains</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22328768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22328768"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome sequence of Brevibacillus laterosporus <span class="hlt">strain</span> GI-9.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Pradip K; Midha, Samriti; Ranjan, Manish; Korpole, Suresh; Patil, Prabhu B</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We report the 5.18-Mb genome sequence of Brevibacillus laterosporus <span class="hlt">strain</span> GI-9, isolated from a subsurface soil sample during a screen for novel <span class="hlt">strains</span> producing antimicrobial compounds. The draft genome of this <span class="hlt">strain</span> will aid in biotechnological exploitation and comparative genomics of Brevibacillus laterosporus <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3768671','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3768671"><span id="translatedtitle">Ciprofloxacin susceptibility reduction of Salmonella <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Souza, Roberta B.; Ferrari, Rafaela G.; Magnani, Marciane; Kottwitz, Luciana B. M.; Alcocer, Iliana; Tognim, Maria Cristina B.; Oliveira, Tereza C. R. M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The antimicrobial susceptibility of 212 Salmonella <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from patients and foods was evaluated and 45% were found to be resistant to nalidixic acid. Nalidixic acid resistant <span class="hlt">strains</span> showed a higher minimal inhibitory concentration for ciprofloxacin than sensitive <span class="hlt">strains</span>. During the study an increase of <span class="hlt">strains</span> with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was also observed. PMID:24031522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20375237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20375237"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclomodulins in urosepsis <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Escherichia coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dubois, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Cady, Anne; Robin, Frédéric; Sivignon, Adeline; Oswald, Eric; Bonnet, Richard</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Determinants of urosepsis in Escherichia coli remain incompletely defined. Cyclomodulins (CMs) are a growing functional family of toxins that hijack the eukaryotic cell cycle. Four cyclomodulin types are actually known in E. coli: cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNFs), cycle-inhibiting factor (Cif), cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), and the pks-encoded toxin. In the present study, the distribution of CM-encoding genes and the functionality of these toxins were investigated in 197 E. coli <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from patients with community-acquired urosepsis (n = 146) and from uninfected subjects (n = 51). This distribution was analyzed in relation to the phylogenetic background, clinical origin, and antibiotic resistance of the <span class="hlt">strains</span>. It emerged from this study that <span class="hlt">strains</span> harboring the pks island and the cnf1 gene (i) were strongly associated with the B2 phylogroup (P, <0.001), (ii) frequently harbored both toxin-encoded genes in phylogroup B2 (33%), and (iii) were predictive of a urosepsis origin (P, <0.001 to 0.005). However, the prevalences of the pks island among phylogroup B2 <span class="hlt">strains</span>, in contrast to those of the cnf1 gene, were not significantly different between fecal and urosepsis groups, suggesting that the pks island is more important for the colonization process and the cnf1 gene for virulence. pks- or cnf1-harboring <span class="hlt">strains</span> were significantly associated with susceptibility to antibiotics (amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, and quinolones [P, <0.001 to 0.043]). Otherwise, only 6% and 1% of all <span class="hlt">strains</span> harbored the cdtB and cif genes, respectively, with no particular distribution by phylogenetic background, antimicrobial susceptibility, or clinical origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S21A2372B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S21A2372B"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">Strains</span> Associated with Fluid Extraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbour, A. J.; Agnew, D. C.; Wyatt, F. K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A class of <span class="hlt">strain</span> signals found in data from a number of borehole strainmeters in the Plate Boundary Observatory network is believed to be associated with pumping of nearby water wells. In order to test the connection between fluid extraction and deformation, we have collected a multi- year record of the pump activity at two actively-pumped wells near the pair of strainmeters at the Pathfinder Ranch, a summer camp located in the Garner Valley in southern California. The data we have collected indicate strong correlations between (1) times of fluid extraction and the onset of significant <span class="hlt">strain</span> and pore-fluid pressure changes, and (2) cumulative extraction volumes and the sizes of the pressure and <span class="hlt">strain</span> perturbations. In order to model these observations, we use a sum of K autoregressive models to create a statistical description of the effect, and a poroelastic model to create a physical description. We show that for K = 2 the mixture model adequately preserves both long- and short-term effects, and can be used to construct a ';correction series' from the binary pumping series in a numerically efficient manner. Spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">strain</span> and pore- fluid pressure fields associated with episodes of fluid extraction are simulated in a layered, radially extensive poroelastic medium. Based on the interpretations of our parameter exploration, the simplest model which fits the observed <span class="hlt">strains</span> and pressures is a two layer model where rigid bedrock having relatively high diffusivity is overlain by roughly 100 meters of alluvium having slightly higher diffusivity and behaving as an unconfined aquifer system. The lack of a strong contrast in diffusivity between lithologic units suggests that the bedrock material has a relatively high density of hydraulically conductive fractures; borehole logging data and drillers' logs corroborate this. Further, the requirement that both layers have high conductivity helps explain the relatively low sensitivity of the aquifer system to dynamic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3224125','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3224125"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome organization of epidemic Acinetobacter baumannii <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for hospital-acquired infections. A. baumannii epidemics described world-wide were caused by few genotypic clusters of <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The occurrence of epidemics caused by multi-drug resistant <span class="hlt">strains</span> assigned to novel genotypes have been reported over the last few years. Results In the present study, we compared whole genome sequences of three A. baumannii <span class="hlt">strains</span> assigned to genotypes ST2, ST25 and ST78, representative of the most frequent genotypes responsible for epidemics in several Mediterranean hospitals, and four complete genome sequences of A. baumannii <span class="hlt">strains</span> assigned to genotypes ST1, ST2 and ST77. Comparative genome analysis showed extensive synteny and identified 3068 coding regions which are conserved, at the same chromosomal position, in all A. baumannii genomes. Genome alignments also identified 63 DNA regions, ranging in size from 4 o 126 kb, all defined as genomic islands, which were present in some genomes, but were either missing or replaced by non-homologous DNA sequences in others. Some islands are involved in resistance to drugs and metals, others carry genes encoding surface proteins or enzymes involved in specific metabolic pathways, and others correspond to prophage-like elements. Accessory DNA regions encode 12 to 19% of the potential gene products of the analyzed <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The analysis of a collection of epidemic A. baumannii <span class="hlt">strains</span> showed that some islands were restricted to specific genotypes. Conclusion The definition of the genome components of A. baumannii provides a scaffold to rapidly evaluate the genomic organization of novel clinical A. baumannii isolates. Changes in island profiling will be useful in genomic epidemiology of A. baumannii population. PMID:21985032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26655590','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26655590"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasound <span class="hlt">strain</span> mapping of Achilles tendon compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> patterns during dorsiflexion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chimenti, Ruth L; Flemister, A Samuel; Ketz, John; Bucklin, Mary; Buckley, Mark R; Richards, Michael S</p> <p>2016-01-04</p> <p>Heel lifts are commonly prescribed to patients with Achilles tendinopathy, yet little is known about the effect on tendon compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The purposes of the current study were to (1) develop a valid and reliable ultrasound elastography technique and algorithm to measure compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> of human Achilles tendon in vivo, (2) examine the effects of ankle dorsiflexion (lowering via controlled removal of a heel lift and partial squat) on compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the Achilles tendon insertion and (3) examine the relative compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> between the deep and superficial regions of the Achilles tendon insertion. All tasks started in a position equivalent to standing with a 30mm heel lift. An ultrasound transducer positioned over the Achilles tendon insertion was used to capture radiofrequency images. A non-rigid image registration-based algorithm was used to estimate compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the tendon, which was divided into 2 regions (superficial, deep). The bland-Altman test and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to test validity and reliability. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> between regions and across tasks. Compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> was accurately and reliably (ICC>0.75) quantified. There was greater compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> during the combined task of lowering and partial squat compared to the lowering (P=.001) and partial squat (P<.001) tasks separately. There was greater compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the deep region of the tendon compared to the superficial for all tasks (P=.001). While these findings need to be examined in a pathological population, heel lifts may reduce tendon compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> during daily activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2293154','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2293154"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-Specific Molecular Method for Quantitating Individual Campylobacter <span class="hlt">Strains</span> in Mixed Populations▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elvers, Karen T.; Helps, Christopher R.; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Allen, Vivien M.; Newell, Diane G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The identification of sites resulting in cross-contamination of poultry flocks in the abattoir and determination of the survival and persistence of campylobacters at these sites are essential for the development of intervention strategies aimed at reducing the microbial burden on poultry at retail. A novel molecule-based method, using <span class="hlt">strain</span>- and genus-specific oligonucleotide probes, was developed to detect and enumerate specific campylobacter <span class="hlt">strains</span> in mixed populations. <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-specific oligonucleotide probes were designed for the short variable regions (SVR) of the flaA gene in individual Campylobacter jejuni <span class="hlt">strains</span>. A 16S rRNA Campylobacter genus-specific probe was also used. Both types of probes were used to investigate populations of campylobacters by colony lift hybridization. The specificity and proof of principle of the method were tested using <span class="hlt">strains</span> with closely related SVR sequences and mixtures of these <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Colony lifts of campylobacters were hybridized sequentially with up to two labeled <span class="hlt">strain</span>-specific probes, followed by the generic 16S rRNA probe. SVR probes were highly specific, differentiating down to 1 nucleotide in the target sequence, and were sufficiently sensitive to detect colonies of a single <span class="hlt">strain</span> in a mixed population. The 16S rRNA probe detected all Campylobacter spp. tested but not closely related species, such as Arcobacter skirrowi and Helicobacter pullorum. Preliminary field studies demonstrated the application of this technique to target <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from poultry transport crate wash tank water. This method is quantitative, sensitive, and highly specific and allows the identification and enumeration of selected <span class="hlt">strains</span> among all of the campylobacters in environmental samples. PMID:18281428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApPhL..91y1912C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApPhL..91y1912C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> responsive concave and convex microlens arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chandra, Dinesh; Yang, Shu; Lin, Pei-Chun</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>We report the fabrication of single-component, <span class="hlt">strain</span> responsive microlens arrays with real-time tunability. The concave lens array is fabricated by patterning hard oxide layer on a bidirectionally prestretched soft elastomer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) followed by confined buckling upon release of the prestrain. The convex microlens array is replica molded from the concave lenses in PDMS. Due to difference in lens formation mechanisms, the two types of lenses show different tunable range of focal length in response to the applied <span class="hlt">strain</span>: large focal length change is observed from the concave microlens array, whereas that from the convex microlens array is much smaller.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750023410','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750023410"><span id="translatedtitle">NASTRAN modifications for recovering <span class="hlt">strains</span> and curvatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hennrich, C. W.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Modifications to the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program are described. The modifications allow the recovery of <span class="hlt">strain</span> and curvature data for the general two-dimensional elements, in addition to the usual stress data. Option features allow the transformation of the <span class="hlt">strain</span>/curvature (or stress) data to a common coordinate system and representation at the grid points of the structural model rather than at the conventional element center locations. Usage information is provided which will allow present users of NASTRAN to easily utilize the new capability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009719','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009719"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of high temperature <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lemcoe, M. M.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>High temperature electric resistance wire <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages were developed and evaluated for use at temperatures exceeding 922 K (1200 F). A special high temperature <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage alloy (Fe-25Cr-7.5A1), designated BCL-3, was used to fabricate the gages. Pertinent gage characteristics were determined at temperatures up to 1255 K (1800 F). The results of the evaluation were reported in graphical and tabular form. It was concluded that the gages will perform satisfactorily at temperatures to at least 1089 K (1500 F) for at least one hour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22267707','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22267707"><span id="translatedtitle">Tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> mapping in flat germanium membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rhead, S. D. Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Shah, V. A.; Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Reparaz, J. S.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.</p> <p>2014-04-28</p> <p>Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the <span class="hlt">strain</span> distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic <span class="hlt">strain</span> variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920878','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920878"><span id="translatedtitle">Enabling <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Hardening Simulations with Dislocation Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arsenlis, A; Cai, W</p> <p>2006-12-20</p> <p>Numerical algorithms for discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are investigated for the purpose of enabling <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening simulations of single crystals on massively parallel computers. The algorithms investigated include the /(N) calculation of forces, the equations of motion, time integration, adaptive mesh refinement, the treatment of dislocation core reactions, and the dynamic distribution of work on parallel computers. A simulation integrating all of these algorithmic elements using the Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code is performed to understand their behavior in concert, and evaluate the overall numerical performance of dislocation dynamics simulations and their ability to accumulate percents of plastic <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/840807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/840807"><span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic injuries: office treatment of <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryan, A J</p> <p>1977-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span>, defined as trauma to a musculotendinous unit, is characterized by pain, muscle spasm, swelling, and loss of range of motion. Conservative treatment consists of rest and elevation of the affected muscle, application of ice and compression, active and passive stretching, and resisted motion exercises. If rupture of muscle and fascia is extensive, surgery may be required. Chronic <span class="hlt">strain</span> may result from repeated injuries. It is usually treated with rest and administration of an anti-inflammatory agent, such as oxyphenbutazone or a corticosteroid preparation. In the event that this regimen does not provide relief from pain and disability, surgery may be necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860025310&hterms=contour&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcontour','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860025310&hterms=contour&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcontour"><span id="translatedtitle">Shear-<span class="hlt">strain</span> contours from moire interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Post, D.; Czarnek, R.; Joh, D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The development of whole-field contour maps of shear <span class="hlt">strains</span> gamma (xy), derived from displacement fields obtained by moire interferometry with 2400 lines/mm, is described. The use of mechanical differentiation to obtain cross-derivatives of displacements and the use of graphical additive moire to sum the cross-derivatives are explained. Quantitative analysis in the small-<span class="hlt">strain</span> domain is possible because of the high sensitivity of moire interferometry. The applicability of this technique is shown by the testing of a short epoxy beam under three-point bending.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930022369','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930022369"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress in speckle-shift <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lant, Christian T.; Barranger, John P.; Oberle, Lawrence G.; Greer, Lawrence C., III</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Instrumentation and Control Technology Division of the Lewis Research Center has been developing an in-house capability to make one dimensional and two dimensional optical <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements on high temperature test specimens. The measurements are based on a two-beam speckle-shift technique. The development of composite materials for use in high temperature applications is generating interest in using the speckle-shift technique to measure <span class="hlt">strains</span> on small diameter fibers and wires of various compositions. The results of preliminary speckle correlation tests on wire and fiber specimens are covered, and the advanced system currently under development is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMPSo..87..177C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMPSo..87..177C"><span id="translatedtitle">Cells as <span class="hlt">strain</span>-cued automata</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cox, Brian N.; Snead, Malcolm L.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We argue in favor of representing living cells as automata and review demonstrations that autonomous cells can form patterns by responding to local variations in the <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields that arise from their individual or collective motions. An autonomous cell's response to <span class="hlt">strain</span> stimuli is assumed to be effected by internally-generated, internally-powered forces, which generally move the cell in directions other than those implied by external energy gradients. Evidence of cells acting as <span class="hlt">strain</span>-cued automata have been inferred from patterns observed in nature and from experiments conducted in vitro. Simulations that mimic particular cases of pattern forming share the idealization that cells are assumed to pass information among themselves solely via mechanical boundary conditions, i.e., the tractions and displacements present at their membranes. This assumption opens three mechanisms for pattern formation in large cell populations: wavelike behavior, kinematic feedback in cell motility that can lead to sliding and rotational patterns, and directed migration during invasions. Wavelike behavior among ameloblast cells during amelogenesis (the formation of dental enamel) has been inferred from enamel microstructure, while <span class="hlt">strain</span> waves in populations of epithelial cells have been observed in vitro. One hypothesized kinematic feedback mechanism, "enhanced shear motility", accounts successfully for the spontaneous formation of layered patterns during amelogenesis in the mouse incisor. Directed migration is exemplified by a theory of invader cells that sense and respond to the <span class="hlt">strains</span> they themselves create in the host population as they invade it: analysis shows that the <span class="hlt">strain</span> fields contain positional information that could aid the formation of cell network structures, stabilizing the slender geometry of branches and helping govern the frequency of branch bifurcation and branch coalescence (the formation of closed networks). In simulations of pattern formation in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MeScT..28a5106K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MeScT..28a5106K"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric corrosion sensor based on <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kasai, Naoya; Hiroki, Masatoshi; Yamada, Toshirou; Kihira, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Kazumi; Kuriyama, Yukihisa; Okazaki, Shinji</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, an in situ atmospheric corrosion sensor based on <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement is discussed. The theoretical background for measuring the reduction in thickness of low carbon steel is also presented. Based on the theoretical considerations, a test piece and apparatus for an atmospheric corrosion sensor were designed. Furthermore, in a dry-wet cyclic accelerated exposure experiment, the measured <span class="hlt">strain</span> indicated thinning of the test piece, although the corrosion product generated on the surface of the test piece affected the results. The atmospheric corrosion sensor would be effective for evaluating atmospheric corrosion of many types of infrastructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960018814&hterms=mcneill&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmcneill','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960018814&hterms=mcneill&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmcneill"><span id="translatedtitle">Computing Displacements And <span class="hlt">Strains</span> From Video Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Russell, Samuel S.; Mcneill, Stephen R.; Lansing, Matthew D.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Subpixel digital video image correlation (SDVIC) technique for measuring in-plane displacements on surfaces of objects under loads, without contact. Used for analyses of experimental research specimens or actual service structures of virtually any size or material. Only minimal preparation of test objects needed, and no need to isolate test objects from minor vibrations or fluctuating temperatures. Technique implemented by SDVIC software, producing color-graduated, full-field representations of in-plane displacements and partial derivatives with respect to position along both principal directions in each image plane. From representations, linear <span class="hlt">strains</span>, shear <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and rotation fields determined. Written in C language.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1389.1228E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1389.1228E"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecoepidemics with Two <span class="hlt">Strains</span>: Diseased Prey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elena, Elisa; Grammauro, Maria; Venturino, Ezio</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>In this work we present a minimal model for an ecoepidemic situation with two diseases affecting the prey population. The main assumptions are the following ones. The predators recognize and hunt only the healthy prey. An infected prey of one <span class="hlt">strain</span> becomes immune to the other one. The major finding shows that the two <span class="hlt">strains</span> cannot simultaneously thrive in the system, contrary to the standard assumptions in epidemiology. But this rather unexpected and remarkable result, paralleling another one when the epidemics affects the predators, is most likely due to the assumptions made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=243828','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=243828"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Ethanol Production by Different Zymomonas <span class="hlt">Strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Skotnicki, M. L.; Lee, K. J.; Tribe, D. E.; Rogers, P. L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A comparison of the rates of growth and ethanol production by 11 different <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Zymomonas revealed a wide range of characteristics, with some <span class="hlt">strains</span> being more tolerant of high sugar or ethanol concentrations and high incubation temperatures than others. Some <span class="hlt">strains</span> were unable to utilize sucrose; others produced large amounts of levan, and one <span class="hlt">strain</span> grew well but produced no levan. One <span class="hlt">strain</span>, CP4, was considerably better in all respects than most of the other <span class="hlt">strains</span> and was chosen as a starting <span class="hlt">strain</span> for genetic improvement of ethanol production. PMID:16345753</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9798E..37N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9798E..37N"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel pre-<span class="hlt">strain</span> method for dielectric electroactive polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newell, Brittany; Krutz, Gary; Stewart, Frank; Pascal, Kevin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Dielectric electroactive polymers have demonstrated their significant potential in a variety of applications due to their material strength and elastomeric material properties. Mechanical pre-<span class="hlt">strain</span> has been shown to enhance material actuation potential significantly. However, with this enhancement comes sacrifices. Mechanical pre-<span class="hlt">strain</span> imposes a stiff mechanical boundary on the dielectric material in order to maintain the <span class="hlt">strain</span>. In this research, investigations were made into the mechanisms of mechanical pre-<span class="hlt">strain</span> and into alternate pre-<span class="hlt">strain</span> methods. These studies discovered alternate methods capable of producing enhanced pre-<span class="hlt">strains</span> and final actuation without the addition of the solid <span class="hlt">strain</span> boundary.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1388493','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1388493"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability among Rhizobium <span class="hlt">Strains</span> Originating from Nodules of Vicia faba</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>van Berkum, P.; Beyene, D.; Vera, F. T.; Keyser, H. H.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Rhizobium <span class="hlt">strains</span> from nodules of Vicia faba were diverse in plasmid content and serology. Results of multilocus gel electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated several deep chromosomal lineages among the <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Linkage disequilibrium among the chromosomal types was detected and may have reflected variation of Rhizobium <span class="hlt">strains</span> in the different geographical locations from which the <span class="hlt">strains</span> originated. An investigation of pea <span class="hlt">strains</span> with antibodies prepared against fava bean <span class="hlt">strains</span> and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, targeting DNA regions coding for rRNA and nodulation, indicated that Rhizobium <span class="hlt">strains</span> from V. faba nodules were distinguishable from those from Pisum sativum, V. villosa, and Trifolium spp. PMID:16535075</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19353890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19353890"><span id="translatedtitle">[Effects of different iron concentrations on the growths of a unicellular <span class="hlt">strain</span> and a colonial <span class="hlt">strain</span> of Microcystis aeruginosa].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yu-wen; Li, Jian-hong; Fu, Lu; Wu, Min; Weng, Yong-ping; Zhou, Yao-ming</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the growth, photosynthetic efficiency, siderophore production and iron accumulation of two <span class="hlt">strains</span> of M. aeruginosa, a unicellular <span class="hlt">strain</span> M. aeruginosa PCC7806 and a colonial <span class="hlt">strain</span> M. aeruginosa XW01, under iron-limited and iron-replete conditions. The identities of ITS and fur gene sequences of two <span class="hlt">strains</span> were 95% and 98% respectively.That implied the two <span class="hlt">strains</span> should be close relatives. Results showed the growths of two <span class="hlt">strains</span> were severely inhibited under an iron-limited condition. The unicellular <span class="hlt">strain</span> died in 6 days,whereas the colonial <span class="hlt">strain</span> could maintain a weak growth in 10 days under the iron-limited condition. PSII maximum light energy transformation (Fv/Fm) of the colonial <span class="hlt">strain</span> and the unicellular <span class="hlt">strain</span> were 0.182 +/- 0.014 and 0.160 +/- 0.017, respectively. The colonial <span class="hlt">strain</span> displayed a higher photosynthetic oxygen evolution than the unicellular <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Two <span class="hlt">strains</span> could produce siderophores, which were hydroxamate type. The colonial <span class="hlt">strain</span> produced more siderophores than unicellular <span class="hlt">strain</span> under the iron-limited condition.Iron contents of two <span class="hlt">strains</span> were less than 1/3 cultured in the iron-limited condition than in iron-replete condition, but no obvious difference appeared between the two <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Our result demonstrated that the colonial <span class="hlt">strain</span> have a stronger endurance than unicellular <span class="hlt">strain</span> under the iron-limited condition. As two <span class="hlt">strains</span> had almost same abilities of iron accumulation, the other physiological mechanisms in the unicellular <span class="hlt">strain</span> should be more sensitive to lower iron level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA208826','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA208826"><span id="translatedtitle">High-<span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rate Testing of Gun Propellants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>specimen is loaded beyond the elastic range. Instrumentation of the bars allows recording of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> history in the bars during the test event. The...<span class="hlt">strain</span> history on the input bar gives a record of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate history in the sample. )The output bar <span class="hlt">strain</span> history is proportional to the stress... history in the sample.) The data were compared to the results reported in the literature of earlier high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate tests on the same propellants. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA573739','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA573739"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rate Tensile and Compressive Effects in Glassy Polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-08</p> <p>polymers under high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates has been determined in compression. Some research programs have studied the combined effects of temperature and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate...glassy polymers to high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate loading in compression. More recently, research programs that study the combined effects of temperature and <span class="hlt">strain</span>...Force Materiel Command  United States Air Force  Eglin Air Force Base AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2013-006 High <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5289684','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5289684"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome Sequences of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar kurstaki <span class="hlt">Strain</span> BP865 and B. thuringiensis Serovar aizawai <span class="hlt">Strain</span> HD-133</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jeong, Haeyoung</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT We report the draft genome sequences of two insecticidal <span class="hlt">strains</span> against lepidopteran pests, Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki <span class="hlt">strain</span> BP865, an isolate from the South Korean phylloplane, and <span class="hlt">strain</span> HD-133, a reference <span class="hlt">strain</span> of B. thuringiensis serovar aizawai. PMID:28153898</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26186451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26186451"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple Comparison Analysis of Two New Genomic Sequences of ILTV <span class="hlt">Strains</span> from China with Other <span class="hlt">Strains</span> from Different Geographic Regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Wang, Yunfeng</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To date, twenty complete genome sequences of ILTV <span class="hlt">strains</span> have been published in GenBank, including one <span class="hlt">strain</span> from China, and nineteen <span class="hlt">strains</span> from Australian and the United States. To investigate the genomic information on ILTVs from different geographic regions, two additional individual complete genome sequences of WG and K317 <span class="hlt">strains</span> from China were determined. The genomes of WG and K317 <span class="hlt">strains</span> were 153,505 and 153,639 bp in length, respectively. Alignments performed on the amino acid sequences of the twelve glycoproteins showed that 13 out of 116 mutational sites were present only among the Chinese <span class="hlt">strain</span> WG and the Australian <span class="hlt">strains</span> SA2 and A20. The phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that the WG <span class="hlt">strain</span> established close relationships with the Australian <span class="hlt">strain</span> SA2. The recombination events were detected and confirmed in different subregions of the WG <span class="hlt">strain</span> with the sequences of SA2 and K317 <span class="hlt">strains</span> as parental. In this study, two new complete genome sequences of Chinese ILTV <span class="hlt">strains</span> were used in comparative analysis with other complete genome sequences of ILTV <span class="hlt">strains</span> from China, the United States, and Australia. The analysis of genome comparison, phylogenetic trees, and recombination events showed close relationships among the Chinese <span class="hlt">strain</span> WG and the Australian <span class="hlt">strains</span> SA2. The information of the two new complete genome sequences from China will help to facilitate the analysis of phylogenetic relationships and the molecular differences among ILTV <span class="hlt">strains</span> from different geographic regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660626','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660626"><span id="translatedtitle">Perceptual <span class="hlt">strain</span> index for heat <span class="hlt">strain</span> assessment in an experimental study: an application to construction workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Y; Chan, Albert P C</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Although the physiological <span class="hlt">strain</span> index (PhSI) is universal and comprehensive, its restrictions are recognized in terms of invasive on-site measurements and the requirement of accurate instruments. The perceptual <span class="hlt">strain</span> index (PeSI) has been proposed as a user-friendly and practical indicator for heat <span class="hlt">strain</span>. However, the application of this index in assessing the heat <span class="hlt">strain</span> of construction workers has yet to be examined and documented. This study aims to ascertain the reliability and applicability of PeSI in an experimental setting that simulates a stressful working environment (i.e., environment, work uniform, and work pace) experienced by construction workers. Ten males and two females performed intermittent exercise on a treadmill while wearing a summer work uniform at 34.5 °C and 75% relative humidity in a climatic chamber. Physiological parameters (core temperature, heart rate) and perceptual variables (thermal sensation, perceived exertion) were collated synchronously at 3 min intervals. The results of two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (clothing×time) revealed that the PeSI was useful in differentiating the heat <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels between different work uniforms. Not only did the PeSI change in the same general manner with the PhSI, but it was also powerful in reflecting different levels of physiological <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Thus, the PeSI offers considerable promise for heat <span class="hlt">strain</span> assessment under simulated working conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4106073','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4106073"><span id="translatedtitle">Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus <span class="hlt">Strains</span> with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic <span class="hlt">Strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial <span class="hlt">strains</span> from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic <span class="hlt">strains</span>. One hundred and forty bacterial <span class="hlt">strains</span> were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic <span class="hlt">strains</span> of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference <span class="hlt">strain</span> L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus <span class="hlt">strains</span> could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic <span class="hlt">strains</span> against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910010090','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910010090"><span id="translatedtitle">The apparent <span class="hlt">strain</span> stability and repeatability of a BCL3 resistance <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lei, Jih-Fen</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Experiments were conducted at NASA-Lewis to study the effect of microstructural instability on the apparent <span class="hlt">strain</span> stability and reproducibility of a BCL3 resistance <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage. The resistance drift of the gage at various temperatures in the phase transition temperature range (PTTR) was measured. The effects of the heating and cooling rates with which the gage passed through the PTTR on the apparent <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics of the gage were also studied. BCL3 gage, like other Fe-Cr-Al based gages, exhibited apparent <span class="hlt">strain</span> instability in the temperature range of 700 to 1100 F due to the reversible microstructural transition the gage materials experienced in this temperature range. The BCL3 gage had a maximum apparent <span class="hlt">strain</span> drift in the neighborhood of 770 F with an average drift rate of approx. -440 microstrain/hr in 2 hrs. The use of the BCL3 gage as well as other Fe-Cl-Al based gages for static <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements within the PTTR should be avoided unless the time durations in the PTTR are small enough to introduce a neglible drift. The microstructure transition that the BCL3 gage underwent occurred in the temperature range of 750 to 1050 F during heating and around 1000 to 800 F during cooling. The heating rate, and, in particular, the cooling rate with which the gage passed through the PTTR affected the shape and the repeatability of the apparent <span class="hlt">strain</span> curve of the gage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Nanot..21m4013M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Nanot..21m4013M"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoscale patterning induced <span class="hlt">strain</span> redistribution in ultrathin <span class="hlt">strained</span> Si layers on oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moutanabbir, O.; Reiche, M.; Hähnel, A.; Erfurth, W.; Gösele, U.; Motohashi, M.; Tarun, A.; Hayazawa, N.; Kawata, S.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>We present a comparative study of the influence of the thickness on the <span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior upon nanoscale patterning of ultrathin <span class="hlt">strained</span> Si layers directly on oxide. The <span class="hlt">strained</span> layers were grown on a SiGe virtual substrate and transferred onto a SiO2/Si substrate using wafer bonding and hydrogen ion induced exfoliation. The post-patterning <span class="hlt">strain</span> was evaluated using UV micro-Raman spectroscopy for thin (20 nm) and thick (60 nm) nanostructures with lateral dimensions in the range of 80-400 nm. We found that about 40-50% of the initial <span class="hlt">strain</span> is maintained in the 20 nm thick nanostructures, whereas this fraction drops significantly to ~ 2-20% for the 60 nm thick ones. This phenomenon of free surface induced relaxation is described using detailed three-dimensional finite element simulations. The simulated <span class="hlt">strain</span> 3D maps confirm the limited relaxation in thin nanostructures. This result has direct implications for the fabrication and manipulation of <span class="hlt">strained</span> Si nanodevices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23045489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23045489"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomic comparison of Kingella kingae <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Rouli, Laetitia; El Karkouri, Khalid; Nguyen, Thi-Tien; Yagupsky, Pablo; Raoult, Didier</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Kingella kingae is a betaproteobacterium from the order Neisseriales, and it is an agent of invasive infections in children. We sequenced the genome from the septic arthritis <span class="hlt">strain</span> 11220434. It is composed of a 1,990,794-bp chromosome but no plasmid, and it contains 2,042 protein-coding genes and 52 RNA genes, including 3 rRNA genes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..2602006G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..2602006G"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate on the mechanical properties. High <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA573778','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA573778"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid Parallel Screening for <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-19</p> <p>reporting period, we have completed screening for microbial growth and nearly finished the proposed sequencing. Sequencing would have been completed... microbial <span class="hlt">strains</span> that produce industrially relevant biochemicals routine. Recent synthetic biology techniques can make billions of variant cells...industrially relevant biomolecules) are identified using microbial growth assays, sequencing, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). To demonstrate that such</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA594001','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA594001"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid Parallel Screening for <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-18</p> <p>engineering of new microbial <span class="hlt">strains</span> that produce industrially relevant biochemicals routine. Recent synthetic biology techniques can make billions of...overproduction of such molecules. Identification and experimental validation of specific sensors is indispensable but current results are promising: 1) most...target chemicals (~80%) readily produce microbial growth, 2) colony morphology, etc., suggests that different target chemicals resulted in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=merton&pg=2&id=EJ762245','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=merton&pg=2&id=EJ762245"><span id="translatedtitle">Role <span class="hlt">Strain</span> in University Research Centers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boardman, Craig; Bozeman, Barry</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>One way in which university faculty members' professional lives have become more complex with the advent of contemporary university research centers is that many faculty have taken on additional roles. The authors' concern in this article is to determine the extent to which role <span class="hlt">strain</span> is experienced by university faculty members who are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23385407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23385407"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal <span class="hlt">strain</span> analysis of optic fiber sensors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Huang, Chih-Ying</p> <p>2013-01-31</p> <p>An optical fiber sensor surface bonded onto a host structure and subjected to a temperature change is analytically studied in this work. The analysis is developed in order to assess the thermal behavior of an optical fiber sensor designed for measuring the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in the host structure. For a surface bonded optical fiber sensor, the measuring sensitivity is strongly dependent on the bonding characteristics which include the protective coating, adhesive layer and the bonding length. Thermal stresses can be generated due to a mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure. The optical fiber thermal <span class="hlt">strain</span> induced by the host structure is transferred via the adhesive layer and protective coating. In this investigation, an analytical expression of the thermal <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress in the optical fiber is presented. The theoretical predictions are validated using the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thermal <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stress are linearly dependent on the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure and independent of the thermal expansion coefficients of the adhesive and coating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867538','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867538"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutron apparatus for measuring <span class="hlt">strain</span> in composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kupperman, David S.; Majumdar, Saurindranath; Faber, Jr., John F.; Singh, J. P.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A method and apparatus for orienting a pulsed neutron source and a multi-angle diffractometer toward a sample of a ceramic-matrix or metal-matrix composite so that the measurement of internal <span class="hlt">strain</span> (from which stress is calculated) is reduced to uncomplicated time-of-flight measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5188875','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5188875"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconducting wire with improved <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.J.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.</p> <p>1979-12-19</p> <p>A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics of the wire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864172','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864172"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconducting wire with improved <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics of the wire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864302','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864302"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconducting wire with improved <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the <span class="hlt">strain</span> characteristics of the wire.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARJ32004F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARJ32004F"><span id="translatedtitle">Charge and <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Control of Interface Magnetism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Dumesnil, K.; Jaouen, N.; Maroutian, T.; Agnus, G.; Tonnerre, J.-M.; Kirby, B.; Fohtung, E.; Holladay, B.; Fullerton, E. E.; Shpyrko, O.; Sinha, S. K.; Wang, Q.; Chen, A.; Jia, Q. X.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We studied the influence of an electric field applied to an La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) layer in a LSMO/Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8) O3 (PZT)/Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STO) heterostructure by measuring its magnetization depth profile using resonant x-ray magnetic reflectivity. The saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetically-ordered LSMO was not affected by the direction of the polarization of the PZT. However, the ferromagnetic thickness and magnetization of the LSMO film at remanence were reduced for hole-charge accumulation at the LSMO/PZT interface. To understand the independent roles of <span class="hlt">strain</span> and hole-doping, we performed neutron scattering experiments of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 films grown on Nb-doped STO in which bending <span class="hlt">strain</span> (via 4-point bending jig) or electric field (via parallel plate capacitor) was applied to the films. We observed that bending <span class="hlt">strain</span> affects the saturation magnetization of the LSMO film, whereas electric field affects the remanent magnetization of the film. These observations suggest <span class="hlt">strain</span> may be a more effective means to control magnetism than charge. This work has benefited from use of CINT(LANL), NIST Center for Neutron Research and the Synchrotron SOLEIL and funding from LANL/LDRD program, DOE-BES (UCSD) and DOD (NMSU).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880000040&hterms=hygroscopic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhygroscopic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880000040&hterms=hygroscopic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhygroscopic"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span>-Energy-Release Rates In Delamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raju, I. S.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Q3DG computer program developed to perform quasi-three-dimensional stress analysis of composite laminates containing delaminations. Calculates <span class="hlt">strain</span>-energy-release rates for long, rectangular composite laminates containing delaminations and subjected to any combination of mechanical, thermal, and hygroscopic loading. Written in FORTRAN V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21506805','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21506805"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality Control On <span class="hlt">Strained</span> Semiconductor Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dommann, Alex; Neels, Antonia</p> <p>2010-11-24</p> <p>New semiconductor devices are based very often on <span class="hlt">strained</span> silicon which promises to squeeze more device performance out of current devices. With <span class="hlt">strained</span> silicon it is possible to get the same device performance using less power. The technique is using <span class="hlt">strain</span> as a 'design element' for silicon to improve the device performance and has become a hot topic in semiconductor research in the past years. However in the same time topics like 'System in Package'(SiP) on thin wafers are getting more and more important. The chips of thin wafers in advanced packaging are extremely sensitive to induced stresses due to packaging issues. If we are using now <span class="hlt">strain</span> as a design element for improving device performance we increase the sensitivity again and therefore also the risk of aging of such SiP's. High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) techniques such as Rocking Curves (RC's) and Reciprocal Space Mapping (RSM) are therefore very powerful tools to study the stresses in packaged devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geote..50..336P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geote..50..336P"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of swelling rocks <span class="hlt">strain</span> in tunneling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parsapour, D.; Fahimifar, A.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Swelling deformations leading to convergence of tunnels may result in significant difficulties during the construction, in particular for long term use of tunnels. By extracting an experimental based explicit analytical solution for formulating swelling <span class="hlt">strains</span> as a function of time and stress, swelling <span class="hlt">strains</span> are predicted from the beginning of excavation and during the service life of tunnel. Results obtained from the analytical model show a proper agreement with experimental results. This closed-form solution has been implemented within a numerical program using the finite element method for predicting time-dependent swelling <span class="hlt">strain</span> around tunnels. Evaluating effects of swelling parameters on time-dependent <span class="hlt">strains</span> and tunnel shape on swelling behavior around the tunnel according to this analytical solution is considered. The ground-support interaction and consequent swelling effect on the induced forces in tunnel lining is considered too. Effect of delay in lining installation on swelling pressure which acting on the lining and its structural integrity, is also evaluated. A MATLAB code of " SRAP" is prepared and applied to calculate all swelling analysis around tunnels based on analytical solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118l3904D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118l3904D"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate magnetoelasticity in Galfenol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Domann, J. P.; Loeffler, C. M.; Martin, B. E.; Carman, G. P.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents the experimental measurements of a highly magnetoelastic material (Galfenol) under impact loading. A Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar was used to generate compressive stress up to 275 MPa at <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates of either 20/s or 33/s while measuring the stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> response and change in magnetic flux density due to magnetoelastic coupling. The average Young's modulus (44.85 GPa) was invariant to <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate, with instantaneous stiffness ranging from 25 to 55 GPa. A lumped parameters model simulated the measured pickup coil voltages in response to an applied stress pulse. Fitting the model to the experimental data provided the average piezomagnetic coefficient and relative permeability as functions of field strength. The model suggests magnetoelastic coupling is primarily insensitive to <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates as high as 33/s. Additionally, the lumped parameters model was used to investigate magnetoelastic transducers as potential pulsed power sources. Results show that Galfenol can generate large quantities of instantaneous power (80 MW/m3 ), comparable to explosively driven ferromagnetic pulse generators (500 MW/m3 ). However, this process is much more efficient and can be cyclically carried out in the linear elastic range of the material, in stark contrast with explosively driven pulsed power generators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270866','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270866"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome sequence of Haemophilus parasuis <span class="hlt">strain</span> 29755</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Haemophilus parasuis is a member of the family Pasteurellaceae and is the etiologic agent of Glasser's disease in pigs, a systemic syndrome associated with only a subset of isolates. The genetic basis for virulence and systemic spread of particular H. parasuis isolates is currently unknown. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> 2...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27714887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27714887"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly Stretchable, <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Sensing Hydrogel Optical Fibers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Jingjing; Liu, Xinyue; Jiang, Nan; Yetisen, Ali K; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Yang, Changxi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhao, Xuanhe; Yun, Seok-Hyun</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A core-clad fiber made of elastic, tough hydrogels is highly stretchable while guiding light. Fluorescent dyes are easily doped into the hydrogel fiber by diffusion. When stretched, the transmission spectrum of the fiber is altered, enabling the <span class="hlt">strain</span> to be measured and also its location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300283','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300283"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> engineering of Dirac cones in graphyne</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Gaoxue; Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, Ravindra; Si, Mingsu</p> <p>2014-05-26</p> <p>6,6,12-graphyne, one of the two-dimensional carbon allotropes with the rectangular lattice structure, has two kinds of non-equivalent anisotropic Dirac cones in the first Brillouin zone. We show that Dirac cones can be tuned independently by the uniaxial compressive <span class="hlt">strain</span> applied to graphyne, which induces n-type and p-type self-doping effect, by shifting the energy of the Dirac cones in the opposite directions. On the other hand, application of the tensile <span class="hlt">strain</span> results into a transition from gapless to finite gap system for the monolayer. For the AB-stacked bilayer, the results predict tunability of Dirac-cones by in-plane <span class="hlt">strains</span> as well as the <span class="hlt">strain</span> applied perpendicular to the plane. The group velocities of the Dirac cones show enhancement in the resistance anisotropy for bilayer relative to the case of monolayer. Such tunable and direction-dependent electronic properties predicted for 6,6,12-graphyne make it to be competitive for the next-generation electronic devices at nanoscale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/437675','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/437675"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing large <span class="hlt">strain</span> crush response of redwood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.; McMurtry, W.M.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> theory for redwood; and to review the literature on <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70{degrees}F), 150{degrees}F, and {minus}20{degrees}F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that <span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5228237','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5228237"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-Specific Sequences That Distinguish a Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine <span class="hlt">Strain</span> from Field Isolates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ricketts, Camir; Pickler, Larissa; Maurer, John; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; García, Maricarmen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Despite attempts to control avian mycoplasmosis through management, vaccination, and surveillance, Mycoplasma gallisepticum continues to cause significant morbidity, mortality, and economic losses in poultry production. Live attenuated vaccines are commonly used in the poultry industry to control avian mycoplasmosis; unfortunately, some vaccines may revert to virulence and vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span> are generally difficult to distinguish from natural field isolates. In order to identify genome differences among vaccine revertants, vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and field isolates, whole-genome sequencing of the M. gallisepticum vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> ts-11 and several “ts-11-like” <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from commercial flocks was performed using Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing and the sequenced genomes compared to the M. gallisepticum Rlow reference genome. The collective contigs for each <span class="hlt">strain</span> were annotated using the fully annotated Mycoplasma reference genome. The analysis revealed genetic differences among vlhA alleles, as well as among genes annotated as coding for a cell wall surface anchor protein (mg0377) and a hypothetical protein gene, mg0359, unique to M. gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span>. PCR protocols were designed to target 5 sequences unique to the M. gallisepticum ts-11 <span class="hlt">strain</span>: vlhA3.04a, vlhA3.04b, vlhA3.05, mg0377, and mg0359. All ts-11 isolates were positive for the five gene alleles tested by PCR; however, 5 to 36% of field isolates were also positive for at least one of the alleles tested. A combination of PCR tests for vlhA3.04a, vlhA3.05, and mg0359 was able to distinguish the M. gallisepticum ts-11 vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> from field isolates. This method will further supplement current approaches to quickly distinguish M. gallisepticum vaccine <span class="hlt">strains</span> from field isolates. PMID:27847370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22043083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22043083"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> Hardening and <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Softening of Reversibly Cross-linked Supramolecular Polymer Networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Donghua; Craig, Stephen L</p> <p>2011-09-27</p> <p>The large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior of metallo-supramolecular polymer networks formed by adding bis-Pd(II) cross-linkers to poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution is reported. The influence of scanning frequency, dissociation rate of cross-linkers, concentration of cross-linkers, and concentration of PVP solution on the large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior is explored. In semidilute unentangled PVP solutions, above a critical scanning frequency, <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening of both storage moduli and loss moduli is observed. In the semidilute entangled regime of PVP solution, however, <span class="hlt">strain</span> softening is observed for samples with faster cross-linkers (k(d) ∼ 1450 s(-1)), whereas <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening is observed for samples with slower cross-linkers (k(d) ∼ 17 s(-1)). The mechanism of <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening is attributed primarily to a <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced increase in the number of elastically active chains, with possible contributions from non-Gaussian stretching of polymer chains at <span class="hlt">strains</span> approaching network fracture. The divergent <span class="hlt">strain</span> softening of samples with faster cross-linkers in semidilute entangled PVP solutions, relative to the <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening of samples with slower cross-linkers, is consistent with observed shear thinning/shear thickening behavior reported previously and is attributed to the fact that the average time that a cross-linker remains detached is too short to permit the local relaxation of polymer chain segments that is necessary for a net conversion of elastically inactive to elastically active cross-linkers. These and other observations paint a picture in which <span class="hlt">strain</span> softening and shear thinning arise from the same set of molecular mechanisms, conceptually uniting the two nonlinear responses for this system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MeScT..26e5103W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MeScT..26e5103W"><span id="translatedtitle">Network of flexible capacitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges for the reconstruction of surface <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Jingzhe; Song, Chunhui; Saleem, Hussam S.; Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Monitoring of surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> on mesosurfaces is a difficult task, often impeded by the lack of scalability of conventional sensing systems. A solution is to deploy large networks of flexible <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges, a type of large area electronics. The authors have recently proposed a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) as an economical skin-type solution for large-scale deployment onto mesosurfaces. The sensing principle is based on a measurable change in the sensor’s capacitance upon <span class="hlt">strain</span>. In this paper, we study the performance of the sensor at reconstructing surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> map and deflection shapes. A particular feature of the sensor is that it measures surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> additively, because it is not utilized within a Wheatstone bridge configuration. An algorithm is proposed to decompose the additive in-plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements from the SEC into principal components. The algorithm consists of assuming a polynomial shape function, and deriving the <span class="hlt">strain</span> based on Kirchhoff plate theory. A least-squares estimator (LSE) is used to minimize the error between the assumed model and the SEC signals after the enforcement of boundary conditions. Numerical simulations are conducted on a symmetric rectangular cantilever thin plate under symmetric and asymmetric static loads to demonstrate the accuracy and real-time applicability of the algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is further examined on an asymmetric cantilever laminated thin plate constituted with orthotropic materials mimicking a wind turbine blade, and subjected to a non-stationary wind load. Results from simulations show good performance of the algorithm at reconstructing the surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> maps for both in-plane principal <span class="hlt">strain</span> components, and that it can be applied in real time. However, its performance can be improved by strengthening assumptions on boundary conditions. The algorithm exhibits robustness in performance with respect to load and noise in signals, except when most of the sensors’ signals are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhST..114...22W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhST..114...22W"><span id="translatedtitle">Silicon Germanium <span class="hlt">Strained</span> Layers and Heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Jain, S. C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The integration of <span class="hlt">strained</span>-Si1 xGex into Si technology has enhanced the performance and extended the functionality of Si based circuits. The improvement of device performance is observed in both AC as well as DC characteristics of these devices. The category of such devices includes field effect as well as bipolar families. Speed performance in some based circuits has reached limits previously dominated by III-V heterostructures based devices. In addition, for some optoelectronics applications including photodetectors it is now possible to easily integrate <span class="hlt">strained</span>-Si1 xGex based optical devices into standard Silicon technology. The impact of integrating <span class="hlt">strained</span> and relaxed Si1 xGex alloys into Si technology is important. It has lead to stimulate Si research as well as offers easy options for performances that requires very complicated and costly process if pure Si has to be used. In this paper we start by discussing the <span class="hlt">strain</span> and stability of Si1 xGex alloys. The origin and the process responsible for transient enhanced diffusion (TED) in highly doped Si containing layers will be mentioned. Due to the importance of TED for thin highly doped Boron <span class="hlt">strained</span>-Si1 xGex layers and its degrading consequences, possible suppression design methods will be presented. Quantum well pchannel MOSFETs (QW-PMOSFETs) based on thin buried QW are solution to the low speed and weak current derivability. Different aspects of designing these devices for a better performance are briefly reviewed. Other FETs based on tensile <span class="hlt">strained</span> Si on relaxed Si1 xGex for n-channel and modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) showed excellent performance. Record AC performance well above 200GHz for fmax is already observed and this record is expected to increase in the coming years. Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HPTs) with thin <span class="hlt">strained</span>-Si1 xGex highly doped base have lead to optimize the performance of the bipolar technology for many applications easily. The strategies of design</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160011958','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160011958"><span id="translatedtitle">Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Measured <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pak, Chan-Gi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A simple approach for computing unsteady aerodynamic forces from simulated measured <span class="hlt">strain</span> data is proposed in this study. First, the deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the unsteady <span class="hlt">strain</span> using the two-step approach. Velocities and accelerations of the structure are computed using the autoregressive moving average model, on-line parameter estimator, low-pass filter, and a least-squares curve fitting method together with analytical derivatives with respect to time. Finally, aerodynamic forces over the wing are computed using modal aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices, a rational function approximation, and a time-marching algorithm. A cantilevered rectangular wing built and tested at the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia, USA) in 1959 is used to validate the simple approach. Unsteady aerodynamic forces as well as wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and <span class="hlt">strains</span> are computed using the CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an MSC/NASTRAN code (MSC Software Corporation, Newport Beach, California, USA), and these CFL3D-based results are assumed as measured quantities. Based on the measured <span class="hlt">strains</span>, wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and aerodynamic forces are computed using the proposed approach. These computed deflections, velocities, accelerations, and unsteady aerodynamic forces are compared with the CFL3D/NASTRAN-based results. In general, computed aerodynamic forces based on the lifting surface theory in subsonic speeds are in good agreement with the target aerodynamic forces generated using CFL3D code with the Euler equation. Excellent aeroelastic responses are obtained even with unsteady <span class="hlt">strain</span> data under the signal to noise ratio of -9.8dB. The deflections, velocities, and accelerations at each sensor location are independent of structural and aerodynamic models. Therefore, the distributed <span class="hlt">strain</span> data together with the current proposed approaches can be used as distributed deflection</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910064276&hterms=wire+resistance+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwire%2Bresistance%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910064276&hterms=wire+resistance+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwire%2Bresistance%2Btemperature"><span id="translatedtitle">A resistance <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage with repeatable apparent <span class="hlt">strain</span> to 800 C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lei, J.-F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Experimental PdCr temperature-compensated resistance static-<span class="hlt">strain</span> gages are described. The gages are developed in both fine-wire and thin-film forms. It is found that a PdCr wire <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage coated with a flame-sprayed mixture of alumina and 4 wt pct zirconia demonstrates the smallest variation in and the best repeatability of apparent <span class="hlt">strain</span> among the existing gages used at temperatures up to 800 C. Results of preliminary tests indicate uncompensated uncoated thin-film gages have potential usefulness at temperatures up to 1000 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ApOpt..31.2987F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ApOpt..31.2987F"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous interferometric and polarimetric <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements on composites using a fiber-optic <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuerstenau, N.; Schmidt, W.; Goetting, H.-C.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>A fiberoptic Michelson interferometer is used for remote sensing of the bending-induced surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> of plates made from carbon-fiber composites. The double-polarization method is used for eliminating the ambiguity of fringe counting. Simultaneous measurement of the birefringence-dependent phase offset yields an additional analog (polarimetric) signal, which allows for initialization of the incremental readout. The measured dependence of surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> on plate bending agrees with the theoretically expected linear relationship, and it agrees with the gauge sensitivity published by Valis et al. (1989). The observed hysteresis and temperature sensitivity are significantly smaller than the same effects in an electrical <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9404006H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9404006H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> rate effects for spallation of concrete</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Häussler-Combe, Ulrich; Panteki, Evmorfia; Kühn, Tino</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Appropriate triaxial constitutive laws are the key for a realistic simulation of high speed dynamics of concrete. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate effect is still an open issue within this context. In particular the question whether it is a material property - which can be covered by rate dependent stress <span class="hlt">strain</span> relations - or mainly an effect of inertia is still under discussion. Experimental and theoretical investigations of spallation of concrete specimen in a Hopkinson Bar setup may bring some evidence into this question. For this purpose the paper describes the VERD model, a newly developed constitutive law for concrete based on a damage approach with included <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate effects [1]. In contrast to other approaches the dynamic strength increase is not directly coupled to <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate values but related to physical mechanisms like the retarded movement of water in capillary systems and delayed microcracking. The constitutive law is fully triaxial and implemented into explicit finite element codes for the investigation of a wide range of concrete structures exposed to impact and explosions. The current setup models spallation experiments with concrete specimen [2]. The results of such experiments are mainly related to the dynamic tensile strength and the crack energy of concrete which may be derived from, e.g., the velocity of spalled concrete fragments. The experimental results are compared to the VERD model and two further constitutive laws implemented in LS-Dyna. The results indicate that both viscosity and retarded damage are required for a realistic description of the material behaviour of concrete exposed to high <span class="hlt">strain</span> effects [3].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.G53C..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.G53C..02W"><span id="translatedtitle">Searching for <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Transients in PBO data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, M.; McGuire, J. J.; Richardson, E.; Kraft, R. L.; Hardwig, M. D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We applied a recently developed <span class="hlt">strain</span> anomaly detector, the Network Stain Filter [Ohtani et al., 2010], to the continuous GPS datasets from the PBO in Alaska and Salton Trough. The strategy of the filter is to find spatially and temporally coherent signals by processing data from the entire network simultaneously. Compared to previous Network Inversion Filter [Segall and Matthews, 1997], the new detector does not require the knowledge of potential sources, which can be either unknown and/or very numerous in a large tectonically active area. At Alaska, we find a <span class="hlt">strain</span> anomaly between Kodiak Island and Kenai Peninsula that began in early 2010. There are earthquakes that are likely related to the <span class="hlt">strain</span> anomaly. The physical interpretation of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> anomaly is still in progress. The secular motion since 2006 that PBO recorded is consistent with a model that consist of two locked patches on Kodiak Island and Kenai Peninsula and a creeping patch near Cook Inlet as determined earlier by Zweck et al. [2002]. Seasonal signals dominate in the data and are highly correlated between stations in the horizontal components. The reason for this correlation in seasonal term azimuths between stations is not clear. At Salton Trough, the post-seismic deformation of the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor Earthquake dominates the transient signals. The maximum post-seismic slip recorded by the GPS is 23 mm during 1.5 years after the earthquake (Site ID P494). Additionally, we are exploring using InSAR data as a complimentary method for detecting <span class="hlt">strain</span> anomaly in areas with shallow sources, such as in the Salton Trough. A creep event on the Superstition Hills Fault in October 2006 has been observed by InSAR but missed by nearby GPS stations due to low amplitude at the location [Wei et al., 2009].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23575634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23575634"><span id="translatedtitle">Unexpected <span class="hlt">strain</span>-stiffening in crystalline solids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Chao; Srinivasan, Srivilliputhur G</p> <p>2013-04-18</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span>-stiffening--an increase in material stiffness at large <span class="hlt">strains</span>--is a vital mechanism by which many soft biological materials thwart excessive deformation to protect tissue integrity. Understanding the fundamental science of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-stiffening and incorporating this concept into the design of metals and ceramics for advanced applications is an attractive prospect. Using cementite (Fe3C) and aluminium borocarbide (Al3BC3) as prototypes, here we show via quantum-mechanical calculations that <span class="hlt">strain</span>-stiffening also occurs, surprisingly, in simple inorganic crystalline solids and confers exceptionally high strengths to these two solids, which have anomalously low resistance to deformation near equilibrium. For Fe3C and Al3BC3, their ideal shear strength to shear modulus ratios attain remarkably high values of 1.14 and 1.34 along the (010)[001] and slip systems, respectively. These values are more than seven times larger than the original Frenkel value of 1/2π (refs 4, 5) and are the highest yet reported for crystalline solids. The extraordinary stiffening of Fe3C arises from the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced reversible 'cross-linking' between weakly coupled edge- and corner-sharing Fe6C slabs. This new bond formation creates a strong, three-dimensional covalent bond network that resists large shear deformation. Unlike Fe3C, no new bond forms in Al3BC3 but stiffening still occurs because strong repulsion between Al and B in a compressed Al-B bond unsettles the existing covalent bond network. These discoveries challenge the conventional wisdom that large shear modulus is a reliable predictor of hardness and strength of materials, and provide new lessons for materials selection and design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185052"><span id="translatedtitle">Colloid <span class="hlt">straining</span> within saturated heterogeneous porous media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porubcan, Alexis A; Xu, Shangping</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The transport of 0.46 μm, 2.94 μm, 5.1 μm and 6.06 μm latex particles in heterogeneous porous media prepared from the mixing of 0.78 mm, 0.46 mm and 0.23 mm quartz sands was investigated through column transport experiments. It was observed that the 0.46 μm particles traveled conservatively within the heterogeneous porous media, suggesting that under the experimental conditions employed in this research the strong repulsive interactions between the negatively charged latex particles and the clean quartz sands led to minimal colloid immobilization due to physicochemical filtration. The immobilization of the 2.94 μm, 5.1 μm and 6.06 μm latex particles was thus attributed to colloid <span class="hlt">straining</span>. Experimental results showed that the <span class="hlt">straining</span> of colloidal particles within heterogeneous sand mixtures increased when the fraction of finer sands increased. The mathematical model that was developed and tested based on results obtained using uniform sands (Xu et al., 2006) was found to be able to describe colloid <span class="hlt">straining</span> within heterogeneous porous media. Examination of the relationship between the best-fit values of the clean-bed <span class="hlt">straining</span> rate coefficients (k(0)) and the ratio of colloid diameter (d(p)) and sand grain size (d(g)) indicated that when number-average sizes were used to represent the size of the heterogeneous porous media, there existed a consistent relationship for both uniform sands and heterogeneous sand mixtures. Similarly, the use of the number-averaged sizes for the heterogeneous porous media produced a uniform relationship between the colloid <span class="hlt">straining</span> capacity term (λ) and the ratio of d(p)/d(g) for all the sand treatments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18051229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18051229"><span id="translatedtitle">[Behavior of Argentine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus <span class="hlt">strains</span> in rodents].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saavedra, María del Cármen; Ambrosio, Ana M; Riera, Laura; Sabattini, Marta S</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The activity of LCM virus was first reported in Argentina at the beginning of the seventies and only five <span class="hlt">strains</span> have been isolated from rodents Mus domesticus and two from humans. The objective of this paper was to find differential biological characteristics of Argentine <span class="hlt">strains</span> of LCM virus comparing them in relation to the historical <span class="hlt">strains</span> WE and Armstrong. Regarding the results obtained in tissue culture, when L 929 cells were used, plaque forming units (PFU) were obtained with human and mouse <span class="hlt">strains</span>, whilst on Vero cells only human <span class="hlt">strains</span> developed PFU. Differentials characteristics of historical and Argentine <span class="hlt">strain</span>'s plates were not found, neither differences related to the <span class="hlt">strain</span>'s origin. Neither historical nor Argentine <span class="hlt">strains</span> were lethal to new-born mice giving a persistent infection, that was demonstrated when we inoculated new-born mouse by intracranial route with different <span class="hlt">strains</span> of LCM virus and virus was isolated from brains harvested at different days post inoculation. The only exception was Cba An 13065 <span class="hlt">strain</span> that exhibited virulence in new-born mice, only with 0.026 PFU was obtained 1 DL50. All the <span class="hlt">strains</span> resulted lethal to adult mice. The mouse <span class="hlt">strains</span> were more virulent than human <span class="hlt">strains</span>, being Cba An 13065 the most virulent. These results demonstrate a different behavior in tissue culture between human and mouse <span class="hlt">strains</span> and allow the identification of virulence markers by intracranial inoculation into new-born or adult mice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26968547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26968547"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of acute unloading on left ventricular <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate by speckle tracking echocardiography in a porcine model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dahle, Geir Olav; Stangeland, Lodve; Moen, Christian Arvei; Salminen, Pirjo-Riitta; Haaverstad, Rune; Matre, Knut; Grong, Ketil</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>Noninvasive measurements of myocardial <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate by speckle tracking echocardiography correlate to cardiac contractile state but also to load, which may weaken their value as indices of inotropy. In a porcine model, we investigated the influence of acute dynamic preload reductions on left ventricular <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate and their relation to the pressure-conductance catheter-derived preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and peak positive first derivative of left ventricular pressure (LV-dP/dtmax). Speckle tracking <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate in the longitudinal, circumferential, and radial directions were measured during acute dynamic reductions of end-diastolic volume during three different myocardial inotropic states. Both <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate were sensitive to unloading of the left ventricle (P < 0.001), but the load dependency for <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate was modest compared with <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Changes in longitudinal and circumferential <span class="hlt">strain</span> correlated more strongly to changes in end-diastolic volume (r = -0.86 and r = -0.72) than did radial <span class="hlt">strain</span> (r = 0.35). Longitudinal, circumferential, and radial <span class="hlt">strain</span> significantly correlated with LV-dP/dtmax (r = -0.53, r = -0.46, and r = 0.86), whereas only radial <span class="hlt">strain</span> correlated with PRSW (r = 0.55). <span class="hlt">Strain</span> rate in the longitudinal, circumferential and radial direction significantly correlated with both PRSW (r = -0.64, r = -0.58, and r = 0.74) and LV-dP/dtmax (r = -0.95, r = -0.70, and r = 0.85). In conclusion, the speckle tracking echocardiography-derived <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate is more robust to dynamic ventricular unloading than <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Longitudinal and circumferential <span class="hlt">strain</span> could not predict load-independent contractility. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> rates, and especially in the radial direction, are good predictors of preload-independent inotropic markers derived from conductance catheter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5041503','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5041503"><span id="translatedtitle">Brucella abortus <span class="hlt">Strain</span> 2308 Wisconsin Genome: Importance of the Definition of Reference <span class="hlt">Strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Roop II, R. Martin; Comerci, Diego J.; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Caswell, Clayton C.; Baker, Kate S.; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Moreno, Edgardo; Letesson, Jean J.; De Bolle, Xavier; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference <span class="hlt">strains</span> as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the reference <span class="hlt">strain</span> B. abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version through a link at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brucella#Genomics. Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of <span class="hlt">strain</span> definition needs to be revised. PMID:27746773</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20625472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20625472"><span id="translatedtitle">Gendered Responses to Serious <span class="hlt">Strain</span>: The Argument for a General <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Theory of Deviance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaufman, Joanne M</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>This paper expands and builds on newer avenues in research on gender and general <span class="hlt">strain</span> theory (GST). I accomplish this by focusing on serious <span class="hlt">strains</span> that are relevant for males and females, including externalizing and internalizing forms of negative emotions, and including multiple gendered deviant outcomes. Using the Add Health dataset, I find strong support for the impact of serious <span class="hlt">strains</span> on both types of negative emotions and different forms of deviance for males and females. However, the experience of serious <span class="hlt">strain</span>, emotionally and behaviorally, is gendered. Depressive symptoms are particularly important for all types of deviance by females. Including multiple types of deviant outcomes offers a fuller understanding of both similarities and differences by gender. These results support the utility of GST as a theory of deviance in general and support greater connections between GST, feminist theorizing, and the sociology of mental health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27746773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27746773"><span id="translatedtitle">Brucella abortus <span class="hlt">Strain</span> 2308 Wisconsin Genome: Importance of the Definition of Reference <span class="hlt">Strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Roop Ii, R Martin; Comerci, Diego J; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Caswell, Clayton C; Baker, Kate S; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R; Moreno, Edgardo; Letesson, Jean J; De Bolle, Xavier; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference <span class="hlt">strains</span> as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the reference <span class="hlt">strain</span> B. abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version through a link at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brucella#Genomics. Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of <span class="hlt">strain</span> definition needs to be revised.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3192842','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3192842"><span id="translatedtitle">A Wide Extent of Inter-<span class="hlt">Strain</span> Diversity in Virulent and Vaccine <span class="hlt">Strains</span> of Alphaherpesviruses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Szpara, Moriah L.; Tafuri, Yolanda R.; Parsons, Lance; Shamim, S. Rafi; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Legendre, Matthieu; Enquist, L. W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Alphaherpesviruses are widespread in the human population, and include herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2, and varicella zoster virus (VZV). These viral pathogens cause epithelial lesions, and then infect the nervous system to cause lifelong latency, reactivation, and spread. A related veterinary herpesvirus, pseudorabies (PRV), causes similar disease in livestock that result in significant economic losses. Vaccines developed for VZV and PRV serve as useful models for the development of an HSV-1 vaccine. We present full genome sequence comparisons of the PRV vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> Bartha, and two virulent PRV isolates, Kaplan and Becker. These genome sequences were determined by high-throughput sequencing and assembly, and present new insights into the attenuation of a mammalian alphaherpesvirus vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span>. We find many previously unknown coding differences between PRV Bartha and the virulent <span class="hlt">strains</span>, including changes to the fusion proteins gH and gB, and over forty other viral proteins. Inter-<span class="hlt">strain</span> variation in PRV protein sequences is much closer to levels previously observed for HSV-1 than for the highly stable VZV proteome. Almost 20% of the PRV genome contains tandem short sequence repeats (SSRs), a class of nucleic acids motifs whose length-variation has been associated with changes in DNA binding site efficiency, transcriptional regulation, and protein interactions. We find SSRs throughout the herpesvirus family, and provide the first global characterization of SSRs in viruses, both within and between <span class="hlt">strains</span>. We find SSR length variation between different isolates of PRV and HSV-1, which may provide a new mechanism for phenotypic variation between <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Finally, we detected a small number of polymorphic bases within each plaque-purified PRV <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and we characterize the effect of passage and plaque-purification on these polymorphisms. These data add to growing evidence that even plaque-purified stocks of stable DNA viruses exhibit limited sequence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930038316&hterms=wire+resistance+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dwire%2Bresistance%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930038316&hterms=wire+resistance+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dwire%2Bresistance%2Btemperature"><span id="translatedtitle">High temperature static <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement with an electrical resistance <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lei, Jih-Fen</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An electrical resistance <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage that can supply accurate static <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement for NASP application is being developed both in thin film and fine wire forms. This gage is designed to compensate for temperature effects on substrate materials with a wide range of thermal expansion coefficients. Some experimental results of the wire gage tested on one of the NASP structure materials, i.e., titanium matrix composites, are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4445032','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4445032"><span id="translatedtitle">The genome of Shigella dysenteriae <span class="hlt">strain</span> Sd1617 comparison to representative <span class="hlt">strains</span> in evaluating pathogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vongsawan, Ajchara A.; Kapatral, Vinayak; Vaisvil, Benjamin; Burd, Henry; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Venkatesan, Malabi M.; Mason, Carl J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We sequenced and analyzed Shigella dysenteriae <span class="hlt">strain</span> Sd1617 serotype 1 that is widely used as model <span class="hlt">strain</span> for vaccine design, trials and research. A combination of next-generation sequencing platforms and assembly yielded two contigs representing a chromosome size of 4.34 Mb and the large virulence plasmid of 177 kb. This genome sequence is compared with other Shigella genomes in order to understand gene complexity and pathogenic factors. PMID:25743074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJB...89..227S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJB...89..227S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">strain</span> on shot noise properties in graphene superlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sattari, Farhad; Mirershadi, Soghra</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this paper the transmission and the shot noise properties through the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced graphene superlattices are studied. It is found that for the zigzag direction <span class="hlt">strain</span> the Fano factor shows a peak at new Dirac-like point and the position of the new Dirac point varies against the <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Also, Fano factor has an oscillatory behavior with respect to <span class="hlt">strain</span> strength and the oscillation period decreases by increasing the number of barriers. However, for the armchair direction <span class="hlt">strain</span> the transmission can be blocked by the electric barrier and the Fano factor approaches 1, this is different from the zigzag direction <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MSSP...60..485P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MSSP...60..485P"><span id="translatedtitle">Generating <span class="hlt">strain</span> signals under consideration of road surface profiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Putra, T. E.; Abdullah, S.; Schramm, D.; Nuawi, M. Z.; Bruckmann, T.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The current study aimed to develop the mechanism for generating <span class="hlt">strain</span> signal utilising computer-based simulation. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> data, caused by the acceleration, were undertaken from a fatigue data acquisition involving car movements. Using a mathematical model, the measured <span class="hlt">strain</span> signals yielded to acceleration data used to describe the bumpiness of road surfaces. The acceleration signals were considered as an external disturbance on generating <span class="hlt">strain</span> signals. Based on this comparison, both the actual and simulated <span class="hlt">strain</span> data have similar pattern. The results are expected to provide new knowledge to generate a <span class="hlt">strain</span> signal via a simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyE...50...57E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyE...50...57E"><span id="translatedtitle">Conductance of disordered <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced graphene superlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esmailpour, Ayoub; Meshkin, Hamed; Saadat, Mahdi</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We study the transmission and conductance of massless Dirac fermions through the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced graphene superlattices (SGSLs). In this paper, the effect of <span class="hlt">strain</span> fluctuations on the conductance of SGSLs is studied. We showed that the conductance of the SGSLs decreases with increasing the strength of <span class="hlt">strain</span> fluctuations. Also, we study both the effects of negative and positive <span class="hlt">strains</span> in presence of disorder. It is shown that, in the same condition, the conductance of a negative <span class="hlt">strain</span>-induced superlattice is more than a superlattice with positive <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9525759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9525759"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">strain</span> device imposing dynamic and uniform equi-biaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span> to cultured cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sotoudeh, M; Jalali, S; Usami, S; Shyy, J Y; Chien, S</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to design a new apparatus to allow the control of the magnitude and frequency of dynamic stretch applied uniformly to cells cultured on a silicon elastic membrane. The apparatus is designed to produce equi-biaxial dynamic stretches with area changes ranging from 0% to 55% and frequencies ranging from 0 to 2 Hz. Homogeneous finite <span class="hlt">strain</span> analysis using triangles of markers was performed to compute the symmetric two-dimensional Lagrangian <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor on the membrane. Measurements of <span class="hlt">strain</span> in both static and dynamic conditions showed that the shear component of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor (Erc) was near zero, and that there was no significant difference between radial (Err) and circumferential (Ecc) components, indicating the attainment of equi-biaxial <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were transiently transfected with a chimeric construct in which the luciferase reporter is driven by TPA-responsive elements (TRE). The transfected cells cultured on the membrane were stretched. The luciferase activity increased significantly only when the cells were stretched by 15% or more in area. Cells in different locations of the membrane showed similar induction of luciferase activities, confirming that <span class="hlt">strain</span> is uniform and equi-biaxial across the membrane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.4523S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.4523S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> rate dependency of oceanic intraplate earthquake b-values at extremely low <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sasajima, Ryohei; Ito, Takeo</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We discovered a clear positive dependence of oceanic intraplate earthquake (OCEQ) b-values on the age of the oceanic lithosphere. OCEQ b-values in the youngest (<10 Ma) oceanic lithosphere are around 1.0, while those in middle to old (>20 Ma) oceanic lithosphere exceed 1.5, which is significantly higher than the average worldwide earthquake b-value (around 1.0). On the other hand, the b-value of intraplate earthquakes in the Ninety East-Sumatra orogen, where oceanic lithosphere has an anomalously higher <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate compared with normal oceanic lithosphere, is 0.93, which is significantly lower than the OCEQ b-value (about 1.9) with the same age (50-110 Ma). Thus, the variation in b-values relates to the <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate of the oceanic lithosphere and is not caused by a difference in thermal structure. We revealed a negative <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate dependency of the b-value at extremely low <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates (<2 × 10-10/year), which can clearly explain the above b-values. We propose that the OCEQ b-value depends strongly on <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate (either directly or indirectly) at extremely low <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates. The high OCEQ b-values (>1.5) in oceanic lithosphere >20 Ma old imply that future improvement in seismic observation will capture many smaller magnitude OCEQs, which will provide valuable information on the evolution of the oceanic lithosphere and the driving mechanism of plate tectonics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3782713','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3782713"><span id="translatedtitle">Right ventricular involvement in anterior myocardial infarction: a tissue Doppler-derived <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sonmez, Osman; Kayrak, Mehmet; Altunbas, Gokhan; Abdulhalikov, Turyan; Alihanoglu, Yusuf; Bacaksiz, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Gok, Hasan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: <span class="hlt">Strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate imaging is currently the most popular echocardiographic technique that reveals subclinical myocardial damage. There are currently no available data on this imaging method with regard to assessing right ventricular involvement in anterior myocardial infarction. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate right ventricular regional functions using a derived <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate imaging tissue Doppler method in patients who were successfully treated for their first anterior myocardial infarction. METHODS: The patient group was composed of 44 patients who had experienced their first anterior myocardial infarction and had undergone successful percutaneous coronary intervention. Twenty patients were selected for the control group. The right ventricular myocardial samplings were performed in three regions: the basal, mid, and apical segments of the lateral wall. The individual myocardial velocity, <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate values of each basal, mid, and apical segment were obtained. RESULTS: The right ventricular myocardial velocities of the patient group were significantly decreased with respect to all three velocities in the control group. The <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate values of the right mid and apical ventricular segments in the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (excluding the right ventricular basal <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate). In addition, changes in the right ventricular mean <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate values were significant. CONCLUSION: Right ventricular involvement following anterior myocardial infarction can be assessed using tissue Doppler based <span class="hlt">strain</span> and <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate PMID:24141839</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121e5702G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121e5702G"><span id="translatedtitle">Raman-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relations in highly <span class="hlt">strained</span> Ge: Uniaxial ⟨100⟩, ⟨110⟩ and biaxial (001) stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gassenq, A.; Tardif, S.; Guilloy, K.; Duchemin, I.; Pauc, N.; Hartmann, J. M.; Rouchon, D.; Widiez, J.; Niquet, Y. M.; Milord, L.; Zabel, T.; Sigg, H.; Faist, J.; Chelnokov, A.; Rieutord, F.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The application of high values of <span class="hlt">strain</span> to Ge considerably improves its light emission properties and can even turn it into a direct band gap semiconductor. Raman spectroscopy is routinely used for <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements. Typical Raman-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationships that are used for Ge were defined up to ˜1% <span class="hlt">strain</span> using phonon deformation potential theory. In this work, we have studied this relationship at higher <span class="hlt">strain</span> levels by calculating and measuring the Raman spectral shift-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relations in several different <span class="hlt">strain</span> configurations. Since differences were shown between the usual phonon deformation potential theory and ab-initio calculations, we highlight the need for experimental calibrations. We have then measured the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in highly <span class="hlt">strained</span> Ge micro-bridges and micro-crosses using Raman spectroscopy performed in tandem with synchrotron based micro-diffraction. High values of <span class="hlt">strain</span> are reported, which enable the calibration of the Raman-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relations up to 1.8% of in plane <span class="hlt">strain</span> for the (001) biaxial stress, 4.8% <span class="hlt">strain</span> along ⟨100⟩, and 3.8% <span class="hlt">strain</span> along ⟨110⟩. For Ge micro-bridges, oriented along ⟨100⟩, the nonlinearity of the Raman shift-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relation is confirmed. For the ⟨110⟩ orientation, we have shown that an unexpected non-linearity in the Raman-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationship has also to be taken into account for high stress induction. This work demonstrates an unprecedented level of <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement for the ⟨110⟩ uniaxial stress and gives a better understanding of the Raman-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relations in Ge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21516767','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21516767"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> gradient plasticity theory applied to machining</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Royer, Raphael; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Gerard, Alain; Cahuc, Olivier</p> <p>2011-05-04</p> <p>Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high <span class="hlt">strain</span> and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tip as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1353..591R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1353..591R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> gradient plasticity theory applied to machining</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Royer, Raphaël; Laheurte, Raynald; Darnis, Philippe; Gérard, Alain; Cahuc, Olivier</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Machining is the most common manufacturing process. A good behaviour law is necessary in the simulation of machining processes (analytical and finite element modeling). Usually, commonly used behaviour laws such as Jonhson-Cook can bring unsatisfactory results especially for high <span class="hlt">strain</span> and large deformation processes. Significant differences can appear between experimental and simulation results. The aim of this paper is to present the choices made regarding the behaviour law in this context. This study develops a large deformation <span class="hlt">strain</span>-gradient theoretical framework with hypothesis linked to metal cutting processes. The theoretical framework has the potential of expressing moments at the tool tip as they were observed in experiments. It will be shown that the theory has the capability of interpreting the complex phenomena found in machining and more particularly in high speed machining.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..326F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..326F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span>-dependent permeability of volcanic rocks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farquharson, Jamie; Heap, Michael; Baud, Patrick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We explore permeability evolution during deformation of volcanic materials using a suite of rocks with varying compositions and physical properties (such as porosity ϕ). 40 mm × 20 mm cylindrical samples were made from a range of extrusive rocks, including andesites from Colima, Mexico (ϕ˜0.08; 0.18; 0.21), Kumamoto, Japan (ϕ˜0.13), and Ruapehu, New Zealand (ϕ˜0.15), and basalt from Mt Etna, Italy (ϕ˜0.04). Gas permeability of each sample was measured before and after triaxial deformation using a steady-state benchtop permeameter. To study the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-dependence of permeability in volcanic rocks, we deformed samples to 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 % axial <span class="hlt">strain</span> at a constant <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate of 10-5 s-1. Further, the influence of failure mode - dilatant or compactant - on permeability was assessed by repeating experiments at different confining pressures. During triaxial deformation, porosity change of the samples was monitored by a servo-controlled pore fluid pump. Below an initial porosity of ˜0.18, and at low confining pressures (≤ 20 MPa), we observe a dilatant failure mode (shear fracture formation). With increasing axial <span class="hlt">strain</span>, stress is accommodated by fault sliding and the generation of ash-sized gouge between the fracture planes. In higher-porosity samples, or at relatively higher confining pressures (≥ 60 MPa), we observe compactant deformation characterised by a monotonous decrease in porosity with increasing axial <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The relative permeability k' is given by the change in permeability divided by the initial reference state. When behaviour is dilatant, k' tends to be positive: permeability increases with progressive deformation. However, results suggest that after a threshold amount of <span class="hlt">strain</span>, k' can decrease. k' always is negative (permeability decreases during deformation) when compaction is the dominant behaviour. Our results show that - in the absence of a sealing or healing process - the efficiency of a fault to transmit fluids is correlated to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3182885','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3182885"><span id="translatedtitle">SNIT: SNP identification for <span class="hlt">strain</span> typing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>With ever-increasing numbers of microbial genomes being sequenced, efficient tools are needed to perform <span class="hlt">strain</span>-level identification of any newly sequenced genome. Here, we present the SNP identification for <span class="hlt">strain</span> typing (SNIT) pipeline, a fast and accurate software system that compares a newly sequenced bacterial genome with other genomes of the same species to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions (indels). Based on this information, the pipeline analyzes the polymorphic loci present in all input genomes to identify the genome that has the fewest differences with the newly sequenced genome. Similarly, for each of the other genomes, SNIT identifies the input genome with the fewest differences. Results from five bacterial species show that the SNIT pipeline identifies the correct closest neighbor with 75% to 100% accuracy. The SNIT pipeline is available for download at http://www.bhsai.org/snit.html PMID:21902825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3231023','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3231023"><span id="translatedtitle">A Tunable <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Sensor Using Nanogranular Metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schwalb, Christian H.; Grimm, Christina; Baranowski, Markus; Sachser, Roland; Porrati, Fabrizio; Reith, Heiko; Das, Pintu; Müller, Jens; Völklein, Friedemann; Kaya, Alexander; Huth, Michael</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper introduces a new methodology for the fabrication of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-sensor elements for MEMS and NEMS applications based on the tunneling effect in nano-granular metals. The <span class="hlt">strain</span>-sensor elements are prepared by the maskless lithography technique of focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) employing the precursor trimethylmethylcyclopentadienyl platinum [MeCpPt(Me)3]. We use a cantilever-based deflection technique to determine the sensitivity (gauge factor) of the sensor element. We find that its sensitivity depends on the electrical conductivity and can be continuously tuned, either by the thickness of the deposit or by electron-beam irradiation leading to a distinct maximum in the sensitivity. This maximum finds a theoretical rationale in recent advances in the understanding of electronic charge transport in nano-granular metals. PMID:22163443</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10185096','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10185096"><span id="translatedtitle">OTDR <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge for smart skins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kercel, S.W.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) is a simple and rugged technique for measuring quantities such as <span class="hlt">strain</span> that affect the propagation of light in an optical fiber. For engineering applications of OTDR, it is important to know the repeatable limits of its performance. The author constructed an OTDR-based, submillimeter resolution <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement system from off-the-shelf components. The systems repeatably resolves changes in time of flight to within {plus_minus}2 ps. Using a 1-m, single-mode fiber as a gauge and observing the time of flight between Fresnel reflections, a repeatable sensitivity of 400 microstrains was observed. Using the same fiber to connect the legs of a 3-dB directional coupler to form a loop, a repeatable sensitivity of 200 microstrains was observed. Realizable changes to the system that should improve the repeatable sensitivity to 20 microstrains or less are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980STIN...8020560L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980STIN...8020560L"><span id="translatedtitle">Attaching of <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages to substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lemcoe, M. M.; Pattee, H. E.</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p>A method and apparatus for attaching <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages to substrates is described. A <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage having a backing plate is attached to a substrate by using a foil of brazing material between the backing plate and substrate. A pair of electrodes that are connected to a current source, are applied to opposite sides of the backing plate, so that heating of the structure occurs primarily along the relatively highly conductive foil of brazing material. Field installations are facilitated by utilizing a backing plate with wings extending at an upward incline from either side of the backing plate, by attaching the electrodes to the wings to perform the brazing operation, and by breaking off the wings after the brazing is completed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840028407&hterms=CPM&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DCPM','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840028407&hterms=CPM&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DCPM"><span id="translatedtitle">Benchmark cyclic plastic notch <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sharpe, W. N., Jr.; Ward, M.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Plastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> at the roots of notched specimens of Inconel 718 subjected to tension-compression cycling at 650 C are reported. These <span class="hlt">strains</span> were measured with a laser-based technique over a gage length of 0.1 mm and are intended to serve as 'benchmark' data for further development of experimental, analytical, and computational approaches. The specimens were 250 mm by 2.5 mm in the test section with double notches of 4.9 mm radius subjected to axial loading sufficient to cause yielding at the notch root on the tensile portion of the first cycle. The tests were run for 1000 cycles at 10 cpm or until cracks initiated at the notch root. The experimental techniques are described, and then representative data for the various load spectra are presented. All the data for each cycle of every test are available on floppy disks from NASA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816372"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic chemistry. <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-release amination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, <span class="hlt">strained</span> ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770016263','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770016263"><span id="translatedtitle">Techniques for increasing boron fiber fracture <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dicarlo, J. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Improvement in the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-to-failure of CVD boron fibers is shown possible by contracting the tungsten boride core region and its inherent flaws. The results of three methods are presented in which etching and thermal processing techniques were employed to achieve core flaw contraction by internal stresses available in the boron sheath. After commercially and treatment induced surface flaws were removed from 203 micrometers (8 mil) fibers, the core flaw was observed to be essentially the only source of fiber fracture. Thus, fiber <span class="hlt">strain</span>-to-failure was found to improve by an amount equal to the treatment induced contraction on the core flaw. Commercial feasibility considerations suggest as the most cost effective technique that method in which as-produced fibers are given a rapid heat treatment above 700 C. Preliminary results concerning the contraction kinetics and fracture behavior observed are presented and discussed both for high vacuum and argon gas heat treatment environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800012076','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800012076"><span id="translatedtitle">Attaching of <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages to substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lemcoe, M. M.; Pattee, H. E. (Inventor)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A method and apparatus for attaching <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages to substrates is described. A <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage having a backing plate is attached to a substrate by using a foil of brazing material between the backing plate and substrate. A pair of electrodes that are connected to a current source, are applied to opposite sides of the backing plate, so that heating of the structure occurs primarily along the relatively highly conductive foil of brazing material. Field installations are facilitated by utilizing a backing plate with wings extending at an upward incline from either side of the backing plate, by attaching the electrodes to the wings to perform the brazing operation, and by breaking off the wings after the brazing is completed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28199991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28199991"><span id="translatedtitle">Left ventricular longitudinal <span class="hlt">strain</span> in soccer referees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gianturco, Luigi; Bodini, Bruno; Gianturco, Vincenzo; Lippo, Giuseppina; Solbiati, Agnese; Turiel, Maurizio</p> <p>2017-02-09</p> <p>Along the years, the analysis of soccer referees perfomance has interested the experts and we can find several types of studies in literature using in particular cardiac imaging. The aim of this retrospective study was to observe relationship between VO2max uptake and some conventional and not-conventional echocardiographic parameters. In order to perform this evaluation, we have enrolled 20 referees, belonging to Italian Soccer Referees' Association and we have investigated cardiovascular profile of them. We found a strong direct relationship between VO2max and global longitudinal <span class="hlt">strain</span> of left ventricle assessed by means of speckle tracking echocardiographic analysis (R2=0.8464). The most common classic echocardiographic indexes have showed mild relations (respectively, VO2max vs EF: R2=0.4444; VO2max vs LV indexed mass: R2=0.2268). Therefore, our study suggests that longitudinal <span class="hlt">strain</span> could be proposed as a specific echocardiographic parameter to evaluate the soccer referees performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5337772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5337772"><span id="translatedtitle">Thymineless death in Escherichia coli: <span class="hlt">strain</span> specificity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cummings, D J; Mondale, L</p> <p>1967-06-01</p> <p>Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, B(s-12), K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon(-), all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive <span class="hlt">strains</span> of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=276711','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=276711"><span id="translatedtitle">Thymineless Death in Escherichia coli: <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Specificity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cummings, Donald J.; Mondale, Lee</p> <p>1967-01-01</p> <p>Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, Bs−12, K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon−, all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive <span class="hlt">strains</span> of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation. Images PMID:5337772</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4555178','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4555178"><span id="translatedtitle">Motion Driven by <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gradient Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Chao; Chen, Shaohua</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new driving mechanism for direction-controlled motion of nano-scale objects is proposed, based on a model of stretching a graphene strip linked to a rigid base with linear springs of identical stiffness. We find that the potential energy difference induced by the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient field in the graphene strip substrate can generate sufficient force to overcome the static and kinetic friction forces between the nano-flake and the strip substrate, resulting in the nanoscale flake motion in the direction of gradient reduction. The dynamics of the nano-flake can be manipulated by tuning the stiffness of linear springs, stretching velocity and the flake size. This fundamental law of directional motion induced by <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient could be very useful for promising designs of nanoscale manipulation, transportation and smart surfaces. PMID:26323603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9803E..46S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9803E..46S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> monitoring of a composite wing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strathman, Joseph; Watkins, Steve E.; Kaur, Amardeep; Macke, David C.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>An instrumented composite wing is described. The wing is designed to meet the load and ruggedness requirements for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in search-and-rescue applications. The UAV supports educational systems development and has a 2.1-m wingspan. The wing structure consists of a foam core covered by a carbon-fiber, laminate composite shell. To quantify the wing characteristics, a fiber-optic <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor was surface mounted to measure distributed <span class="hlt">strain</span>. This sensor is based on Rayleigh scattering from local index variations and it is capable of high spatial resolution. The use of the Rayleigh-scattering fiber-optic sensors for distributed measurements is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSMTE..09.3208J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSMTE..09.3208J"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulating thermal conduction by the axial <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Jianjun; Zhao, Hong</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Recent studies have revealed that the symmetry of interparticle potential plays an important role in the one-dimensional thermal conduction problem. Here we demonstrate that, by introducing <span class="hlt">strain</span> into the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-β lattice, the interparticle potential can be converted from symmetric to asymmetric, which leads to a change of the asymptotic decaying behavior of the heat current autocorrelation function. More specifically, such a change in the symmetry of the potential induces a fast decaying stage, in which the heat current autocorrelation function decays faster than power-law manners or in a power-law manner but faster than ~t -1, in the transient stage. The duration of the fast decaying stage increases with increasing <span class="hlt">strain</span> ratio and decreasing of the temperature. As a result, the thermal conductivity calculated following the Green-Kubo formula may show a truncation-time independent behavior, suggesting a system-size independent thermal conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=232713','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=232713"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of urinary Escherichia coli O75 <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nimmich, W; Voigt, W; Seltmann, G</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Forty-four Escherichia coli O75 <span class="hlt">strains</span> from patients with urinary tract infections were characterized by a variety of methods to obtain evidence of their clonal distribution and uropathogenic properties. By K and H antigen typing, the <span class="hlt">strains</span> were divided into the following serotypes: O75:K5:H- (18 <span class="hlt">strains</span>), O75:K95:H- (10 <span class="hlt">strains</span>), O75:K95:H5 (7 <span class="hlt">strains</span>), O75:K100:H5 (4 <span class="hlt">strains</span>), and O75:K-:H55 (5 <span class="hlt">strains</span>). Generally, biotyping proved to be of no discriminative value. With two exceptions the <span class="hlt">strains</span> were found to be sensitive to the bactericidal effect of normal human serum. As shown by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, the whole-cell protein profile (WCPP), and the patterns of the outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharides, all but the five O75:H55 <span class="hlt">strains</span> were genetically closely related to each other and could be classified into one clonal group. The O75:K-:H55 <span class="hlt">strains</span> proved to be quite different and lacked type 1 fimbriae. All 17 K95 (H-, H5) <span class="hlt">strains</span> produced hemolysin and P fimbriae. Five of the O75:K5:H- <span class="hlt">strains</span> were different from the other K5 <span class="hlt">strains</span> by showing hemagglutinating properties, on the basis of the presence of the OX adhesin. The last two groups are suggested to be uropathogenic and are proposed to represent separate clonal groups or subgroups. PMID:9114391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARE17001B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARE17001B"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-bound states in <span class="hlt">strained</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahamon, Dario; Qi, Zenan; Park, Harold; Pareira, Vitor; Campbell, David</p> <p></p> <p>In this work, we explore the possibility of manipulating electronic states in graphene nanostructures by mechanical means. Specifically, we use molecular dynamics and tight-binding models to access the electronic and transport properties of <span class="hlt">strained</span> graphene nanobubbles and graphene kirigami. We establish that low energy electrons can be confined in the arms of the kirigami and within the nanobubbles; under different load conditions the coupling between confined states and continuous states is modified creating different conductance line-shapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA454288','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA454288"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rate on Ductile Fracture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>follows: The effect of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate on ductile fracture is one of the least understood phenomena in modern fracture mechanics. At the same time...into three interrelated tasks: Hopkinson bar tensile fracture tests on small, flat specimens using a unique apparatus developed at IPPT; Drop tower...between IPPT and MIT where the funding for the work at MIT will come from GE Global Research Center and the funding for the IPPT will come from this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869526','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869526"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span>-tolerant ceramic coated seal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Schienle, James L.; Strangman, Thomas E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A metallic regenerator seal is provided having multi-layer coating comprising a NiCrAlY bond layer, a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layer, and a ceramic high temperature solid lubricant surface layer comprising zinc oxide, calcium fluoride, and tin oxide. An array of discontinuous grooves is laser machined into the outer surface of the solid lubricant surface layer making the coating <span class="hlt">strain</span> tolerant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969740','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969740"><span id="translatedtitle">PNNL Stress/<span class="hlt">Strain</span> Correlation for Zircaloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Geelhood, Kenneth J.; Beyer, Carl E.; Luscher, Walter G.</p> <p>2008-07-18</p> <p>Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with incorporating cladding mechanical property data into the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fuel codes, FRAPCON-31 and FRAPTRAN2, by the NRC Office of Nuclear Reactor Research. The objective of that task was to create a mechanical model that can calculate true stress, true <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and the possible failure of the fuel rod cladding based on uniaxial test data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000839','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000839"><span id="translatedtitle">Wing Shape Sensing from Measured <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pak, Chan-Gi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new two-step theory is investigated for predicting the deflection and slope of an entire structure using <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurements at discrete locations. In the first step, a measured <span class="hlt">strain</span> is fitted using a piecewise least-squares curve fitting method together with the cubic spline technique. These fitted <span class="hlt">strains</span> are integrated twice to obtain deflection data along the fibers. In the second step, computed deflection along the fibers are combined with a finite element model of the structure in order to interpolate and extrapolate the deflection and slope of the entire structure through the use of the System Equivalent Reduction and Expansion Process. The theory is first validated on a computational model, a cantilevered rectangular plate wing. The theory is then applied to test data from a cantilevered swept-plate wing model. Computed results are compared with finite element results, results using another <span class="hlt">strain</span>-based method, and photogrammetry data. For the computational model under an aeroelastic load, maximum deflection errors in the fore and aft, lateral, and vertical directions are -3.2 percent, 0.28 percent, and 0.09 percent, respectively; and maximum slope errors in roll and pitch directions are 0.28 percent and -3.2 percent, respectively. For the experimental model, deflection results at the tip are shown to be accurate to within 3.8 percent of the photogrammetry data and are accurate to within 2.2 percent in most cases. In general, excellent matching between target and computed values are accomplished in this study. Future refinement of this theory will allow it to monitor the deflection and health of an entire aircraft in real time, allowing for aerodynamic load computation, active flexible motion control, and active induced drag reduction..</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013304','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013304"><span id="translatedtitle">Problems and advances in monitoring horizontal <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Caputo, M.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The modern instrumentation is described for use in geodesy for the detection of the deformations of the crust of the earth. Problems are listed. Needs are discussed for the survey of the physical quantities of interest in geodesy, geology, geophysics, and engineering such as the <span class="hlt">strain</span> invariants, the optimal network of baselines and the accuracy. An analytic method is also given for the computation of the effect of a source of dilatation in a spherical earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3486087','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3486087"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomic Comparison of Kingella kingae <span class="hlt">Strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rouli, Laetitia; El Karkouri, Khalid; Nguyen, Thi-Tien; Yagupsky, Pablo; Raoult, Didier</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Kingella kingae is a betaproteobacterium from the order Neisseriales, and it is an agent of invasive infections in children. We sequenced the genome from the septic arthritis <span class="hlt">strain</span> 11220434. It is composed of a 1,990,794-bp chromosome but no plasmid, and it contains 2,042 protein-coding genes and 52 RNA genes, including 3 rRNA genes. PMID:23045489</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15027222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15027222"><span id="translatedtitle">Repetitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> injury: causes, treatment and prevention.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shuttleworth, Ann</p> <p></p> <p>Repetitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> injury (RSI) has become increasingly prevalent with the growth of computer-based and automated occupations. While environmental factors such as work stations and repetitive tasks are primary causes, a number of secondary causes can increase a person's risk of RSI. Various treatments provide relief but the rate of recovery varies widely. Prevention involves adopting a range of measures that will also promote recovery in those with RSI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19907737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19907737"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of amnesia in different mouse <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sinovyev, D R; Dubrovina, N I; Kulikov, A V</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>We studied passive avoidance retrieval after amnestic stimulation (arrest in unsafe section of the experimental setup) in C57Bl/6J, BALB/c, CBA/Lac, AKR/J, DBA/2J, C3H/HeJ, and ASC/Icg mice. We demonstrated resistance to amnestic stimulation in mice with high predisposition to freezing reaction (ASC/Icg) and memory deficit in other mouse <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4022374','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4022374"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioprocessing of Stichococcus bacillaris <span class="hlt">strain</span> siva2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Globally, the development of a cost-effective long-term renewable energy infrastructure is one of the most challenging problems faced by society today. Microalgae are rich in potential biofuel substrates such as lipids, including triacylglycerols (TAGs). Some of these algae also biosynthesize small molecule hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons can often be used as liquid fuels, often with more versatility and by a more direct approach than some TAGs. However, the appropriate TAGs, accumulated from microalgae biomass, can be used as substrates for different kinds of renewable liquid fuels such as biodiesel and jet fuel. Results This article describes the isolation and identification of a lipid-rich, hydrocarbon-producing alga, Stichococcus bacillaris <span class="hlt">strain</span> siva2011, together with its bioprocessing, hydrocarbon and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles. The S. bacillaris <span class="hlt">strain</span> siva2011 was scaled-up in an 8 L bioreactor with 0.2% CO2. The C16:0, C16:3, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were 112.2, 9.4, 51.3, 74.1 and 69.2 mg/g dry weight (DW), respectively. This new <span class="hlt">strain</span> produced a significant amount of biomass of 3.79 g/L DW on day 6 in the 8 L bioreactor and also produced three hydrocarbons. Conclusions A new oil-rich microalga S. bacillaris <span class="hlt">strain</span> siva2011 was discovered and its biomass has been scaled-up in a newly designed balloon-type bioreactor. The TAGs and hydrocarbons produced by this organism could be used as substrates for jet fuel or biodiesel. PMID:24731690</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA284418','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA284418"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of High-Temperature <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1961-03-17</p> <p>Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE e Luther H. Hodges, Serlary NATIONAL...I~~~ 4~l Clb 15 LII1~i 4I𔄃 163 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS Functions and...ance --------------------------- 1 b. Stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relatio .---.-------- 2 (7) Effect of thermal c)tIig on e . Gage factor ---------------------- 2 gage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMNG12C1035J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMNG12C1035J"><span id="translatedtitle">On Dynamic Nonlinear Elasticity and Small <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, P. A.; Sutin, A.; Guyer, R. A.; Tencate, J. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>We are addressing the question of whether or not there is a threshold <span class="hlt">strain</span> behavior where anomalous nonlinear fast dynamics (ANFD) commences in rock and other similar solids, or if the elastic nonlinearity persists to the smallest measurable values. In qualitative measures of many rock types and other materials that behave in the same manner, we have not observed a threshold; however the only careful, small <span class="hlt">strain</span> level study conducted under controlled conditions that we are aware of is that of TenCate et al. in Berea sandstone (Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1020-1024 (2000)). This work indicates that in Berea sandstone, the elastic nonlinearity persists to the minimum measured <span class="hlt">strains</span> of at least 10-8. Recently, we have begun controlled experiments in other materials that exhibit ANFD in order to see whether or not they behave as Berea sandstone does. We are employing Young's mode resonance to study resonance peak shift and amplitude variations as a function of drive level and detected <span class="hlt">strain</span> level. In this type of experiment, the time average amplitude is recorded as the sample is driven by a continuous wave source from below to above the fundamental mode resonance. The drive level is increased, and the measurement is repeated progressively over larger and larger drive levels. Experiments are conducted at ambient pressure. Pure alumina ceramic is a material that is highly, elastically-nonlinear and nonporous, and therefore the significant influence of relative humidity on elastic nonlinear response that rock suffers is avoided. Temperature is carefully monitored. Measurements on pure alumina ceramic show that, like Berea sandstone, there is no threshold of elastic nonlinearity within our measurement capability. We are now studying other solids that exhibit ANFD including rock and mixed phase metal. These results indicate that elastic nonlinearity influences all elastic measurments on these solids including modulus and Q at ambient conditions. There appears to be no</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2465294','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2465294"><span id="translatedtitle">Rectus abdominis muscle <span class="hlt">strains</span> in tennis players</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Rectus abdominis muscle <span class="hlt">strains</span> are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non‐dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis‐specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17957025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17957025"><span id="translatedtitle">Rectus abdominis muscle <span class="hlt">strains</span> in tennis players.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Rectus abdominis muscle <span class="hlt">strains</span> are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non-dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis-specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6352782','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6352782"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> monitoring averts line failure in Rockies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, B.; Bukovansky, M.</p> <p>1987-08-10</p> <p>The case history of a landslide in the U.S. Rocky Mountains shows that the potential for pipeline monitoring in geologically sensitive areas, those subject to landslides and subsidence, for example. A properly installed monitoring system monitored by the pipeline operator, Western Gas Supply Co. (West Gas), Denver, provided an early warning of increasing line <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The problem was complicated by rugged topography which is described here. Stability analysis was the key technique utilized in the process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..SHK.Y5002J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..SHK.Y5002J"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rate Behavior of Polyurea Compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joshi, Vasant; Milby, Christopher</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Polyurea has been gaining importance in recent years due to its impact resistance properties. The actual compositions of this viscoelastic material must be tailored for specific use. It is therefore imperative to study the effect of variations in composition on the properties of the material. High-<span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate response of three polyurea compositions with varying molecular weights has been investigated using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar arrangement equipped with titanium bars. The polyurea compositions were synthesized from polyamines (Versalink, Air Products) with a multi-functional isocyanate (Isonate 143L, Dow Chemical). Amines with molecular weights of 1000, 650, and a blend of 250/1000 have been used in the current investigation. The materials have been tested up to <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates of 6000/s. Results from these tests have shown interesting trends on the high rate behavior. While higher molecular weight composition show lower yield, they do not show dominant hardening behavior. On the other hand, the blend of 250/1000 show higher load bearing capability but lower <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening effects than the 600 and 1000 molecular weight amine based materials. Refinement in experimental methods and comparison of results using aluminum Split Hopkinson Bar is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870016119','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870016119"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced high temperature static <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hulse, C. O.; Stetson, K. A.; Grant, H. P.; Jameikis, S. M.; Morey, W. W.; Raymondo, P.; Grudkowski, T. W.; Bailey, R. S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>An examination was made into various techniques to be used to measure static <span class="hlt">strain</span> in gas turbine liners at temperatures up to 1150 K (1600 F). The methods evaluated included thin film and wire resistive devices, optical fibers, surface acoustic waves, the laser speckle technique with a heterodyne readout, optical surface image and reflective approaches and capacitive devices. A preliminary experimental program to develop a thin film capacitive device was dropped because calculations showed that it would be too sensitive to thermal gradients. In a final evaluation program, the laser speckle technique appeared to work well up to 1150 K when it was used through a relatively stagnant air path. The surface guided acoustic wave approach appeared to be interesting but to require too much development effort for the funds available. Efforts to develop a FeCrAl resistive <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage system were only partially successful and this part of the effort was finally reduced to a characterization study of the properties of the 25 micron diameter FeCrAl (Kanthal A-1) wire. It was concluded that this particular alloy was not suitable for use as the resistive element in a <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage above about 1000 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227669','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227669"><span id="translatedtitle">Spherical nanoindentation stress–<span class="hlt">strain</span> curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pathak, Siddhartha; Kalidindi, Surya R.</p> <p>2015-03-24</p> <p>Although indentation experiments have long been used to measure the hardness and Young's modulus, the utility of this technique in analyzing the complete elastic–plastic response of materials under contact loading has only been realized in the past few years – mostly due to recent advances in testing equipment and analysis protocols. This paper provides a timely review of the recent progress made in this respect in extracting meaningful indentation stress–<span class="hlt">strain</span> curves from the raw datasets measured in instrumented spherical nanoindentation experiments. These indentation stress–<span class="hlt">strain</span> curves have produced highly reliable estimates of the indentation modulus and the indentation yield strength in the sample, as well as certain aspects of their post-yield behavior, and have been critically validated through numerical simulations using finite element models as well as direct in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements on micro-pillars. Much of this recent progress was made possible through the introduction of a new measure of indentation <span class="hlt">strain</span> and the development of new protocols to locate the effective zero-point of initial contact between the indenter and the sample in the measured datasets. As a result, this has led to an important key advance in this field where it is now possible to reliably identify and analyze the initial loading segment in the indentation experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000696','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000696"><span id="translatedtitle">Acceleration and Velocity Sensing from Measured <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pak, Chan-Gi; Truax, Roger</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A simple approach for computing acceleration and velocity of a structure from the <span class="hlt">strain</span> is proposed in this study. First, deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the <span class="hlt">strain</span> using a two-step theory. Frequencies of the structure are computed from the time histories of <span class="hlt">strain</span> using a parameter estimation technique together with an autoregressive moving average model. From deflection, slope, and frequencies of the structure, acceleration and velocity of the structure can be obtained using the proposed approach. Simple harmonic motion is assumed for the acceleration computations, and the central difference equation with a linear autoregressive model is used for the computations of velocity. A cantilevered rectangular wing model is used to validate the simple approach. Quality of the computed deflection, acceleration, and velocity values are independent of the number of fibers. The central difference equation with a linear autoregressive model proposed in this study follows the target response with reasonable accuracy. Therefore, the handicap of the backward difference equation, phase shift, is successfully overcome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485955','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485955"><span id="translatedtitle">Revealing Invisible Photonic Inscriptions: Images from <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Photonic structural materials have received intensive interest and have been strongly developed over the past few years for image displays, sensing, and anticounterfeit materials. Their “smartness” arises from their color responsivity to changes of environment, <span class="hlt">strain</span>, or external fields. Here, we introduce a novel invisible photonic system that reveals encrypted images or characters by simply stretching, or immersing in solvents. This type of intriguing photonic material is composed of regularly arranged core–shell particles that are selectively cross-linked by UV irradiation, giving different <span class="hlt">strain</span> response compared to un-cross-linked regions. The images reversibly appear and disappear when cycling the <span class="hlt">strain</span> and releasing it. The unique advantages of this soft polymer opal system compared with other types of photonic gels are that it can be produced in roll to roll quantities, can be vigorously deformed to achieve strong color changes, and has no solvent evaporation issues because it is a photonic rubber system. We demonstrate potential applications together with a fabrication procedure which is straightforward and scalable, vital for user take-up. Our work deepens understanding of this rubbery photonic system based on core–shell nanospheres. PMID:26039279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3973389','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3973389"><span id="translatedtitle">Models for elastic shells with incompatible <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lewicka, Marta; Mahadevan, L.; Pakzad, Mohammad Reza</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The three-dimensional shapes of thin lamina, such as leaves, flowers, feathers, wings, etc., are driven by the differential <span class="hlt">strain</span> induced by the relative growth. The growth takes place through variations in the Riemannian metric given on the thin sheet as a function of location in the central plane and also across its thickness. The shape is then a consequence of elastic energy minimization on the frustrated geometrical object. Here, we provide a rigorous derivation of the asymptotic theories for shapes of residually <span class="hlt">strained</span> thin lamina with non-trivial curvatures, i.e. growing elastic shells in both the weakly and strongly curved regimes, generalizing earlier results for the growth of nominally flat plates. The different theories are distinguished by the scaling of the mid-surface curvature relative to the inverse thickness and growth <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and also allow us to generalize the classical Föppl–von Kármán energy to theories of prestrained shallow shells. PMID:24808750</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6616E..3AH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6616E..3AH"><span id="translatedtitle">Fiber optic <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement for machine monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffmann, L.; Mueller, M. S.; Koch, A. W.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Monitoring machines during operation is an important issue in measurement engineering. The usual approach to monitoring specific machine components is using <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> gauges, however, may sometimes not be used if conditions are harsh or installation space is limited. Fiber optic sensors seem to be an alternative here, but dynamic health monitoring has been dificult so far. The focus of this field study is to measure vibration characteristics of machine parts during operation using fiber optic sensors with the objective of early damage detection. If that was possible, downtime and maintenance costs could be minimized. Therefore a field test for dynamic fiber optic <span class="hlt">strain</span> measurement on a roller bearing was carried out. The test setup consisted of the bearing built into a gear test stand and equipped with an array of fiber Bragg grating sensors. Fifteen fiber sensors were interrogated with a sample rate of 1 kHz and the vibration pattern was extracted. The radial load distribution was measured with high spatial resolution and a high degree of compliance with simulation data was found. The findings suggest that fiber optic health monitoring for machine components is feasible and reasonable. Especially with the help of distributed sensing on various components extensive health monitoring on complex technical systems is possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45998','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45998"><span id="translatedtitle">Cylindrical shell buckling through <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bandyopadhyay, K.; Xu, J.; Shteyngart, S.; Gupta, D.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>Recently, the authors published results of plastic buckling analysis of cylindrical shells. Ideal elastic-plastic material behavior was used for the analysis. Subsequently, the buckling analysis program was continued with the realistic stress-<span class="hlt">strain</span> relationship of a stainless steel alloy which does not exhibit a clear yield point. The plastic buckling analysis was carried out through the initial stages of <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening for various internal pressure values. The computer program BOSOR5 was used for this purpose. Results were compared with those obtained from the idealized elastic-plastic relationship using the offset stress level at 0.2% <span class="hlt">strain</span> as the yield stress. For moderate hoop stress values, the realistic stress-grain case shows a slight reduction of the buckling strength. But, a substantial gain in the buckling strength is observed as the hoop stress approaches the yield strength. Most importantly, the shell retains a residual strength to carry a small amount of axial compressive load even when the hoop stress has exceeded the offset yield strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26143056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26143056"><span id="translatedtitle">Enterobacter <span class="hlt">Strains</span> Might Promote Colon Cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yurdakul, Dilşad; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten; Şahin, Fikrettin</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Many studies have been performed to determine the interaction between bacterial species and cancer. However, there has been no attempts to demonstrate a possible relationship between Enterobacter spp. and colon cancer so far. Therefore, in the present study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of Enterobacter <span class="hlt">strains</span> on colon cancer. Bacterial proteins were isolated from 11 Enterobacter spp., one Morganella morganii, and one Escherichia coli <span class="hlt">strains</span>, and applied onto NCM460 (Incell) and CRL1790 (ATCC) cell lines. Cell viability and proliferation were determined in MTS assay. Flow Cytometry was used to detect CD24 level and apoptosis. Real-Time PCR studies were performed to determine NFKB and Bcl2 expression. Graphpad Software was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that proteins, isolated from the Enterobacter spp., have significantly increased cell viability and proliferation, while decreasing the apoptosis of the cell lines tested. The data in the present study indicated that Enterobacter <span class="hlt">strains</span> might promote colon cancer. Moreover, Enterobacter spp. could be a clinically important factor for colon cancer initiation and progression. Studies can be extended on animal models in order to develop new strategies for treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARY21002K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARY21002K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> Functionals for Characterizing Atomistic Geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kober, Edward; Rudin, Sven</p> <p></p> <p>The development of a set of <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensor functionals that are capable of characterizing arbitrarily ordered atomistic structures is described. This approach defines a Gaussian-weighted neighborhood around each atom and characterizes that local geometry in terms of n-th order <span class="hlt">strain</span> tensors, which are equivalent to the moments of the neighborhood. Fourth order expansions can distinguish the cubic structures (and deformations thereof), but sixth order expansions are required to fully characterize hexagonal structures. Other methods used to characterize atomic structures, such as the Steinhardt parameters or the centrosymmetry metric, can be derived from this more general approach. These functions are continuous and smooth and much less sensitive to thermal fluctuations than other descriptors based on discrete neighborhoods. They allow material phases, deformations, and a large number of defect structures to be readily identified and classified. Applications to the analysis of shock-loaded samples of Cu, Ta and Ti will be presented. This <span class="hlt">strain</span> functional basis can also then be used for developing interatomic potential functions, and an initial application to Cu will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895419','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895419"><span id="translatedtitle">Dislocation Multi-junctions and <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Hardening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bulatov, V; Hsiung, L; Tang, M; Arsenlis, A; Bartelt, M; Cai, W; Florando, J; Hiratani, M; Rhee, M; Hommes, G; Pierce, T; Diaz de la Rubia, T</p> <p>2006-06-20</p> <p>At the microscopic scale, the strength of a crystal derives from the motion, multiplication and interaction of distinctive line defects--dislocations. First theorized in 1934 to explain low magnitudes of crystal strength observed experimentally, the existence of dislocations was confirmed only two decades later. Much of the research in dislocation physics has since focused on dislocation interactions and their role in <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening: a common phenomenon in which continued deformation increases a crystal's strength. The existing theory relates <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening to pair-wise dislocation reactions in which two intersecting dislocations form junctions tying dislocations together. Here we report that interactions among three dislocations result in the formation of unusual elements of dislocation network topology, termed hereafter multi-junctions. The existence of multi-junctions is first predicted by Dislocation Dynamics (DD) and atomistic simulations and then confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments in single crystal molybdenum. In large-scale Dislocation Dynamics simulations, multi-junctions present very strong, nearly indestructible, obstacles to dislocation motion and furnish new sources for dislocation multiplication thereby playing an essential role in the evolution of dislocation microstructure and strength of deforming crystals. Simulation analyses conclude that multi-junctions are responsible for the strong orientation dependence of <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening in BCC crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16641992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16641992"><span id="translatedtitle">Dislocation multi-junctions and <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bulatov, Vasily V; Hsiung, Luke L; Tang, Meijie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; Bartelt, Maria C; Cai, Wei; Florando, Jeff N; Hiratani, Masato; Rhee, Moon; Hommes, Gregg; Pierce, Tim G; de la Rubia, Tomas Diaz</p> <p>2006-04-27</p> <p>At the microscopic scale, the strength of a crystal derives from the motion, multiplication and interaction of distinctive line defects called dislocations. First proposed theoretically in 1934 (refs 1-3) to explain low magnitudes of crystal strength observed experimentally, the existence of dislocations was confirmed two decades later. Much of the research in dislocation physics has since focused on dislocation interactions and their role in <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening, a common phenomenon in which continued deformation increases a crystal's strength. The existing theory relates <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening to pair-wise dislocation reactions in which two intersecting dislocations form junctions that tie the dislocations together. Here we report that interactions among three dislocations result in the formation of unusual elements of dislocation network topology, termed 'multi-junctions'. We first predict the existence of multi-junctions using dislocation dynamics and atomistic simulations and then confirm their existence by transmission electron microscopy experiments in single-crystal molybdenum. In large-scale dislocation dynamics simulations, multi-junctions present very strong, nearly indestructible, obstacles to dislocation motion and furnish new sources for dislocation multiplication, thereby playing an essential role in the evolution of dislocation microstructure and strength of deforming crystals. Simulation analyses conclude that multi-junctions are responsible for the strong orientation dependence of <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening in body-centred cubic crystals.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10193638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10193638"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformation twinning: Influence of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gray, G.T. III</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Twins in most crystal structures, including advanced materials such as intermetallics, form more readily as the temperature of deformation is decreased or the rate of deformation is increased. Both parameters lead to the suppression of thermally-activated dislocation processes which can result in stresses high enough to nucleate and grow deformation twins. Under high-<span class="hlt">strain</span> rate or shock-loading/impact conditions deformation twinning is observed to be promoted even in high stacking fault energy FCC metals and alloys, composites, and ordered intermetallics which normally do not readily deform via twinning. Under such conditions and in particular under the extreme loading rates typical of shock wave deformation the competition between slip and deformation twinning can be examined in detail. In this paper, examples of deformation twinning in the intermetallics TiAl, Ti-48Al-lV and Ni{sub 3}A as well in the cermet Al-B{sub 4}C as a function of <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate will be presented. Discussion includes: (1) the microstructural and experimental variables influencing twin formation in these systems and twinning topics related to high-<span class="hlt">strain</span>-rate loading, (2) the high velocity of twin formation, and (3) the influence of deformation twinning on the constitutive response of advanced materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10322E..1LP','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10322E..1LP"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasound <span class="hlt">strain</span> imaging using Barker code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Hui; Tie, Juhong; Guo, Dequan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Ultrasound <span class="hlt">strain</span> imaging is showing promise as a new way of imaging soft tissue elasticity in order to help clinicians detect lesions or cancers in tissues. In this paper, Barker code is applied to <span class="hlt">strain</span> imaging to improve its quality. Barker code as a coded excitation signal can be used to improve the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) in ultrasound imaging system. For the Baker code of length 13, the sidelobe level of the matched filter output is -22dB, which is unacceptable for ultrasound <span class="hlt">strain</span> imaging, because high sidelobe level will cause high decorrelation noise. Instead of using the conventional matched filter, we use the Wiener filter to decode the Barker-coded echo signal to suppress the range sidelobes. We also compare the performance of Barker code and the conventional short pulse in simulation method. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the Wiener filter is much better than the matched filter, and Baker code achieves higher elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) than the short pulse in low eSNR or great depth conditions due to the increased eSNR with it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770065112&hterms=Tungsten+fracture&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTungsten%2Bfracture','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770065112&hterms=Tungsten+fracture&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTungsten%2Bfracture"><span id="translatedtitle">Techniques for increasing boron fiber fracture <span class="hlt">strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dicarlo, J. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Improvement in the <span class="hlt">strain</span>-to-failure of chemical-vapor-deposition boron fibers is shown possible by contracting the tungsten boride core region and its inherent flaws. Results of three methods are presented in which etching and thermal-processing techniques were employed to achieve core flaw contraction by internal stresses available in the boron sheath. After commercially and treatment-induced surface flaws were removed from 203-micron (8-mil) fibers, the core flaw was observed to be essentially the only source of fiber fracture. Thus, fiber <span class="hlt">strain</span>-to-failure was found to improve by an amount equal to the treatment-induced contraction on the core flaw. To date, average fracture <span class="hlt">strains</span> and stresses greater than 1.4% and 5.5 GN/sq m (800 ksi), respectively, have been achieved. Commercial feasibility considerations suggest as the most cost-effective technique that method in which as-produced fibers are given a rapid heat treatment above 700 C. Preliminary results concerning the contraction kinetics and fracture behavior observed with this technique are presented and discussed for both high-vacuum and argon-gas heat-treatment environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19295648','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19295648"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiversity of Trichoderma <span class="hlt">strains</span> in Tunisia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sadfi-Zouaoui, N; Hannachi, I; Rouaissi, M; Hajlaoui, M R; Rubio, M B; Monte, E; Boudabous, A; Hermosa, M R</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Trichoderma <span class="hlt">strains</span> were sampled in 4 different bioclimatic zones of Tunisia, a Mediterranean North African country with strong climatic and edaphic variability from north to south, to assess the genetic diversity of endemic species of Trichoderma and their relationship to the bioclimatic zones. In all, 53 <span class="hlt">strains</span> were isolated and identified at the species level by analysis of their internal transcribed spacers regions 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) of the rDNA cluster and (or) a fragment of the translation elongation factor 1 (tef1) gene, using an online interactive key for species identification in Trichoderma and ex-type <span class="hlt">strains</span> and taxonomically established isolates of Trichoderma as references. At least 2 different species were observed in each ecosystem. Trichoderma harzianum clade VI and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were present in forest soils in north Tunisia; Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma hamatum were found in cultivated fields in northeast Tunisia; T. harzianum clade VI, a Trichoderma sp. close to the T. harzianum complex, and Trichoderma saturnisporum were isolated from forest soils in central Tunisia; and T. harzianum clade II and T. hamatum were present in oasis soils in south Tunisia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1844112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1844112"><span id="translatedtitle">Partial characterization of Serratia marcescens nosocomial <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coria-Jiménez, V R; Villa-Tanaka, L; Ortíz-Torres, C</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A nosocomial infection outbreak occurred in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (INP) in México City, during the months of March, April and May in 1988 Serratia marcescens was isolated as the etiological agent for this epidemic. Up to date, the source of contamination, the spreading and the pathogenic mechanisms which were involved in this outbreak remain unknown. In order to study the dynamics of the bacterial population involved in this outbreak, all <span class="hlt">strains</span> of nosocomial S. marcescens isolated during 1988 were collected and studied. Eighty nosocomial <span class="hlt">strains</span> were analysed. For this purpose we used four different markers: antibiotic susceptibility, presence of plasmids, exoenzyme production and pigment synthesis from a precursor. Using these markers, we were able to establish that five subpopulations of bacteria were present during the ICU outbreak, and that one of these subpopulations, VIII-A, was the most frequently isolated. A short time after this outbreak, we obtained S. marcescens isolates with similar properties which proceeded from other hospital units, suggesting intrahospital dissemination of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in question. We believe that, eventually, this study will allow us to establish bacterial spreading models within our institution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1227669-spherical-nanoindentation-stressstrain-curves','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1227669-spherical-nanoindentation-stressstrain-curves"><span id="translatedtitle">Spherical nanoindentation stress–<span class="hlt">strain</span> curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Pathak, Siddhartha; Kalidindi, Surya R.</p> <p>2015-03-24</p> <p>Although indentation experiments have long been used to measure the hardness and Young's modulus, the utility of this technique in analyzing the complete elastic–plastic response of materials under contact loading has only been realized in the past few years – mostly due to recent advances in testing equipment and analysis protocols. This paper provides a timely review of the recent progress made in this respect in extracting meaningful indentation stress–<span class="hlt">strain</span> curves from the raw datasets measured in instrumented spherical nanoindentation experiments. These indentation stress–<span class="hlt">strain</span> curves have produced highly reliable estimates of the indentation modulus and the indentation yield strength inmore » the sample, as well as certain aspects of their post-yield behavior, and have been critically validated through numerical simulations using finite element models as well as direct in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements on micro-pillars. Much of this recent progress was made possible through the introduction of a new measure of indentation <span class="hlt">strain</span> and the development of new protocols to locate the effective zero-point of initial contact between the indenter and the sample in the measured datasets. As a result, this has led to an important key advance in this field where it is now possible to reliably identify and analyze the initial loading segment in the indentation experiments.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811277H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811277H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> rate and stress field in Switzerland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houlié, Nicolas; Woessner, Jochen; Giardini, Domenico; Rothacher, Markus</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study we test whether the surface deformation and the seismic activity are in agreement in terms of seismic moment release and stress/<span class="hlt">strain</span> orientations within the territory of Switzerland. We find that for most of the country, the stress released (~2.0 10E11 N·m/yr) is consistent with the lithosphere deformation (<5 10E-8 /yr) constrained using the Global Positioning System (GPS). South of the Alpine front, we note that surface <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates displays few agreement with long-term (and deep) deformation of the upper mantle. In this area, we propose that shear <span class="hlt">strain</span> is being distributed in the upper crust as a result of the clockwise rotation of the Adria plate. For three regions (Basel, Swiss Jura and Ticino), we find that seismic current activity and surface deformation not to be in agreement. In the Basel area, deep seismicity exists while surface deformation is absent. This situation contrasts to what is found in the Ticino and the Swiss Jura, where seismic activity is close to absent but surface deformation is detected (~2 10E-8 /yr). While the surface deformation and seismic activity is inconsistent for the Ticino, we find them to comply in the Valais region where MW≥6 events are historically documented. Our comparison implies that the Ticino faces the potential of damaging earthquakes every hundred to few hundred years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23891865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23891865"><span id="translatedtitle">Mycotoxin-degradation profile of Rhodococcus <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cserháti, M; Kriszt, B; Krifaton, Cs; Szoboszlay, S; Háhn, J; Tóth, Sz; Nagy, I; Kukolya, J</p> <p>2013-08-16</p> <p>Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites that may have mutagenic, carcinogenic, cytotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects. These substances frequently contaminate agricultural commodities despite efforts to prevent them, so successful detoxification tools are needed. The application of microorganisms to biodegrade mycotoxins is a novel strategy that shows potential for application in food and feed processing. In this study we investigated the mycotoxin degradation ability of thirty-two Rhodococcus <span class="hlt">strains</span> on economically important mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, fumonisin B1, T2 toxin and ochratoxin A, and monitored the safety of aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone degradation processes and degradation products using previously developed toxicity profiling methods. Moreover, experiments were performed to analyse multi-mycotoxin-degrading ability of the best toxin degrader/detoxifier <span class="hlt">strains</span> on aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and T2 toxin mixtures. This enabled the safest and the most effective Rhodococcus <span class="hlt">strains</span> to be selected, even for multi-mycotoxin degradation. We concluded that several Rhodococcus species are effective in the degradation of aromatic mycotoxins and their application in mycotoxin biodetoxification processes is a promising field of biotechnology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=264475','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=264475"><span id="translatedtitle">Binding of fibronectin to Staphylococcus <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Switalski, L M; Rydén, C; Rubin, K; Ljungh, A; Höök, M; Wadström, T</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Fibronectin, a major protein component of plasma and loose connective tissue has previously been shown to bind to several <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Staphylococcus aureus. We examined a large number of <span class="hlt">strains</span> of different species of Staphylococcus with respect to their ability to bind fibronectin. The relative numbers of <span class="hlt">strains</span> defined as fibronectin-binders among the different species were as follows: S. aureus (22 of 23), S. haemolyticus (5 of 5), S. warneri (8 of 11), S. hyicus (5 of 6), S. hominis (13 of 17), S. saprophyticus (11 of 20), S. epidermidis (4 of 7), and S. simulans (8 of 10). Only three species showed a predominance of nonbinders over binders: S. capitis (4 of 14), S. xylosus (0 of 4), and S. cohnii (3 of 11). These data indicate that staphylococcal species isolated from soft tissue infections frequently have the ability to bind fibronectin and suggest that the ability to bind to this protein may contribute to the virulence of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:6315582</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/971646','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/971646"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> sensors for high field pulse magnets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martinez, Christian; Zheng, Yan; Easton, Daniel; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we present an investigation into several <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Three operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PEPI...56..254B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PEPI...56..254B"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic <span class="hlt">strain</span> and paleomagnetism: experimental investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borradaile, G.; Mothersill, J.</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>A porous, clay-rich sandstone with a natural remanent magnetisation shows complex changes in the orientation of the remanence vector when the sandstone is subjected to experimental deformation, at 100 MPa, room temperature and constant natural <span class="hlt">strain</span> rates of 1 × 10 -5 s -1. The paleomagnetic vector does not simply rotate away from the axis of compression. When the rock is shortened perpendicular to bedding the remanence vector rotates toward the bedding, as expected, but the remanence also rotates toward bedding when the rock is shortened parallel to bedding. Moreover, in some cases the remanence vector changes azimuth within the specimen during experimental deformation. Thus bedding anisotropy and the accompanying mineral-fabric anisotropy are more influential than <span class="hlt">strain</span> in controlling deflections of the paleomagnetic vector in this study. This anisotropy also influences the post-deformational behaviour of remanence: 4 months after deformation, some cores shortened perpendicular to bedding relaxed their remanence vectors back towards the pre-deformational attitude whereas some other cores continued to show progressive changes. Intragranular, recoverable elastic <span class="hlt">strains</span> in the magnetic grains may be partly responsible for the experimentally induced deflections of remanence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17914860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17914860"><span id="translatedtitle">Engineering complex phenotypes in industrial <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patnaik, Ranjan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The global demand is rising for greener manufacturing processes that are cost-competitive and available in a timely manner. This has led to the development of a series of new tools and integrative platforms enabling rapid engineering of complex phenotypes in industrial microbes. By blending "old classical methods" of <span class="hlt">strain</span> isolation with "newer approaches" of cell engineering, researchers are demonstrating the ability to stack multiple complex phenotypes in industrial hosts with some level of certainty. Newer tools for dissecting the genotype-phenotype correlation include association analysis (Precision Engineering), multiSCale Analysis of Library Enrichment (SCALE) in competition experiments, whole-genome transcriptional analysis, and proteomics and metabolomics technology. These newer and older tools of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology when combined with recent whole cell engineering approaches like whole genome shuffling, global transciptome machinery engineering, and directed evolutionary engineering, provide a powerful platform for engineering complex phenotypes in industrial <span class="hlt">strains</span>. This review attempts to highlight and compare these newer tools and approaches with traditional <span class="hlt">strain</span> isolation procedures as it applies to genome engineering with examples taken from literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1237145','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1237145"><span id="translatedtitle">A tale of two mechanisms. <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-softening versus <span class="hlt">strain</span>-hardening in single crystals under small stressed volumes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bei, Hongbin; Xia, Yuzhi; Barabash, Rozaliya; Gao, Y. F.</p> <p>2015-08-10</p> <p>Pre-<span class="hlt">straining</span> defect-free single crystals will introduce heterogeneous dislocation nucleation sources that reduce the measured strength from the theoretical value, while pre-<span class="hlt">straining</span> bulk samples will lead to <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening. Their competition is investigated by nanoindentation pop-in tests on variously pre-<span class="hlt">strained</span> Mo single crystals with several indenter radii (~micrometer). Pre-<span class="hlt">straining</span> primarily shifts deformation mechanism from homogeneous dislocation nucleation to a stochastic behavior, while <span class="hlt">strain</span> hardening plays a secondary role, as summarized in a master plot of pop-in strength versus normalized indenter radius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3510595','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3510595"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome Sequence of the Immunomodulatory <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Bifidobacterium bifidum LMG 13195</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gueimonde, Miguel; Ventura, Marco; Margolles, Abelardo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this work, we report the genome sequences of Bifidobacterium bifidum <span class="hlt">strain</span> LMG13195. Results from our research group show that this <span class="hlt">strain</span> is able to interact with human immune cells, generating functional regulatory T cells. PMID:23209243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162717.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162717.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Bird Flu <span class="hlt">Strain</span> May Have Jumped from Cat to Human</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162717.html Bird Flu <span class="hlt">Strain</span> May Have Jumped From Cat to ... would be the first known transmission of this bird flu <span class="hlt">strain</span> from cat to human, officials said. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0878153','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0878153"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-Potential Effect of Silver Iodide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SILVER COMPOUNDS, SEEBECK EFFECT ), IODIDES, IMPURITIES, CONCENTRATION(CHEMISTRY), IONS, IONIZATION, IONIZATION POTENTIALS, ELECTRODES, ELECTROLYTES, INTERFACES, MOBILE, DISLOCATIONS, DEFORMATION, CRYSTAL DEFECTS, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, SENSITIVITY, <span class="hlt">STRAIN</span> GAGES, <span class="hlt">STRAIN</span>(MECHANICS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2447197','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2447197"><span id="translatedtitle">Whole Genome Analysis of a Wine Yeast <span class="hlt">Strain</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hauser, Nicole C.; Fellenberg, Kurt; Gil, Rosario; Bastuck, Sonja; Hoheisel, Jörg D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Saccharomyces cerevisiae <span class="hlt">strains</span> frequently exhibit rather specific phenotypic features needed for adaptation to a special environment. Wine yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> are able to ferment musts, for example, while other industrial or laboratory <span class="hlt">strains</span> fail to do so. The genetic differences that characterize wine yeast <span class="hlt">strains</span> are poorly understood, however. As a first search of genetic differences between wine and laboratory <span class="hlt">strains</span>, we performed DNA-array analyses on the typical wine yeast <span class="hlt">strain</span> T73 and the standard laboratory background in S288c. Our analysis shows that even under normal conditions, logarithmic growth in YPD medium, the two <span class="hlt">strains</span> have expression patterns that differ significantly in more than 40 genes. Subsequent studies indicated that these differences correlate with small changes in promoter regions or variations in gene copy number. Blotting copy numbers vs. transcript levels produced patterns, which were specific for the individual <span class="hlt">strains</span> and could be used for a characterization of unknown samples. PMID:18628902</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19700000610','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19700000610"><span id="translatedtitle">Bonding of <span class="hlt">strain</span> gages to fiber reinforced composite plastic materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chamis, C. C.; Hanson, M. P.; Serafini, T. T.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span> gage is installed during molding of composite and utilizes the adhesive properties of the matrix resin in the composite to bond the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gage in place. Gages thus embedded provide data at all temperatures that the matrix can withstand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24586288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24586288"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strains</span> and stressors: an analysis of touchscreen learning in genetically diverse mouse <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graybeal, Carolyn; Bachu, Munisa; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; Sagalyn, Erica; Williams, Robert W; Holmes, Andrew</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Touchscreen-based systems are growing in popularity as a tractable, translational approach for studying learning and cognition in rodents. However, while mouse <span class="hlt">strains</span> are well known to differ in learning across various settings, performance variation between <span class="hlt">strains</span> in touchscreen learning has not been well described. The selection of appropriate genetic <span class="hlt">strains</span> and backgrounds is critical to the design of touchscreen-based studies and provides a basis for elucidating genetic factors moderating behavior. Here we provide a quantitative foundation for visual discrimination and reversal learning using touchscreen assays across a total of 35 genotypes. We found significant differences in operant performance and learning, including faster reversal learning in DBA/2J compared to C57BL/6J mice. We then assessed DBA/2J and C57BL/6J for differential sensitivity to an environmental insult by testing for alterations in reversal learning following exposure to repeated swim stress. Stress facilitated reversal learning (selectively during the late stage of reversal) in C57BL/6J, but did not affect learning in DBA/2J. To dissect genetic factors underlying these differences, we phenotyped a family of 27 BXD <span class="hlt">strains</span> generated by crossing C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. There was marked variation in discrimination, reversal and extinction learning across the BXD <span class="hlt">strains</span>, suggesting this task may be useful for identifying underlying genetic differences. Moreover, different measures of touchscreen learning were only modestly correlated in the BXD <span class="hlt">strains</span>, indicating that these processes are comparatively independent at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Finally, we examined the behavioral structure of learning via principal component analysis of the current data, plus an archival dataset, totaling 765 mice. This revealed 5 independent factors suggestive of "reversal learning," "motivation-related late reversal learning," "discrimination learning," "speed to respond," and "motivation during</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21072938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21072938"><span id="translatedtitle">[Electricity generation and quinoline degradation of pure <span class="hlt">strains</span> and mixed <span class="hlt">strains</span> in the microbial fuel cell].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Liu, Guang-Li; Zhang, Ren-Duo; Li, Ming-Chen; Quan, Xiang-Chun</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Microbial flora composition of microbial fuel cells (MFC) is important to the electricity generation. Four bacterium <span class="hlt">strains</span> Q1, b, c and d which represent all different morphology of culturable bacterium were isolated from a MFC using 200 mg x L(-1) quinoline as the fuel and operating for at least 210 days. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> Q1, c and d were Pseudomonas sp. based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, while <span class="hlt">strain</span> b was Burkholderia sp. Double-chamber MFCs using 200 mg x L(-1) quinoline and 300 mg x L(-1) glucose as the fuel and potassium ferricyanide as the electron acceptor were constructed. Results showed that <span class="hlt">strain</span> b, c and d were non-electrogenesis. The electrical charges of MFC inoculated electrogenesis <span class="hlt">strain</span> Q1 with non-electrogenesis <span class="hlt">strain</span> b, c and d respectively were 3.00, 3.57 and 5.13C, and the columbic efficiency were 3.85%, 4.59% and 6.58%, which were all lower than that inoculated with pure Q1, because of the interspecific competition of electrogenesis and non-electrogenesis bacteria. Combinations of Q1 with the other three <span class="hlt">strains</span> respectively resulted in 100% of quinoline degradation rates within 24h, which is better than pure cultures, that is, mixed microbial populations perform better in MFC when complex organics are used as the fuel. GC/MS analyses showed that only 2(1H)-quinolinone and phenol existed in the effluent of the MFC, which was inoculated with only Q1 or mixed bacteria.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4714109','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4714109"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> SUL3, Microbacterium sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> GCS4, Shinella sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> GWS1, and Shinella sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jones, Katy J.; Moore, Karen; Love, John</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> SUL3, Microbacterium sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> GCS4, and Shinella sp. <span class="hlt">strains</span> GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, <span class="hlt">strain</span> Guadeloupe. PMID:26769927</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877113','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877113"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring Lattice <span class="hlt">Strain</span> in Three Dimensions through Electron Microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The three-dimensional (3D) atomic structure of nanomaterials, including <span class="hlt">strain</span>, is crucial to understand their properties. Here, we investigate lattice <span class="hlt">strain</span> in Au nanodecahedra using electron tomography. Although different electron tomography techniques enabled 3D characterizations of nanostructures at the atomic level, a reliable determination of lattice <span class="hlt">strain</span> is not straightforward. We therefore propose a novel model-based approach from which atomic coordinates are measured. Our findings demonstrate the importance of investigating lattice <span class="hlt">strain</span> in 3D. PMID:26340328</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013351','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013351"><span id="translatedtitle">EVALUATION OF LOCAL <span class="hlt">STRAIN</span> EVOLUTION FROM METALLIC WHISKER FORMATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoffman, E.; Lam, P.</p> <p>2011-05-11</p> <p>Evolution of local <span class="hlt">strain</span> on electrodeposited tin films upon aging has been monitored by digital image correlation (DIC) for the first time. Maps of principal <span class="hlt">strains</span> adjacent to whisker locations were constructed via comparing pre- and post-growth scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Results showed that the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> gradient plays an important role in whisker growth. DIC visualized the dynamic growth process in which the alteration of <span class="hlt">strain</span> field has been identified to cause growth of subsequent whiskers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=252773','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=252773"><span id="translatedtitle">Cultivation and characterization of three <span class="hlt">strains</span> of murine rotavirus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Greenberg, H B; Vo, P T; Jones, R</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Three distinct <span class="hlt">strains</span> of murine rotavirus were adapted to growth in cell culture. These <span class="hlt">strains</span> are genetically related but not identical; they are serotypically heterogeneous. The cultivatable <span class="hlt">strains</span> were substantially more infectious (approximately 10(6)-fold) for suckling mice than heterologous simian rotaviruses were. Homologous murine rotavirus <span class="hlt">strains</span> spread from inoculated to uninoculated litter mates and caused diarrhea, while heterologous rotaviruses did not spread and cause illness. Images PMID:3003390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=321521','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=321521"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth inhibition of Aeromonas <span class="hlt">salmonicida</span> and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Peracetic acid (PAA) is an agent used for disinfection in aquaculture. PAA contributes to sustainable aquaculture, because it releases no harmful residue in the environment. However, there is lack of guideline about the effective application of different PAA products against various pathogens in p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=310402','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=310402"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth inhibition of Aeromonas <span class="hlt">salmonicida</span> and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Peracetic acid is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harmful effects to fish. These agents should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aq...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=313301','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=313301"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth inhibition of Aeromonas <span class="hlt">salmonicida</span> and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Peracetic acid is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection, but it must be investigated in order to mitigate diseases without harmful effects to the fish. These agents should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5169R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5169R"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards quantification of the interplay between <span class="hlt">strain</span> weakening and <span class="hlt">strain</span> localisation in granular material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ritter, Malte C.; Rosenau, Matthias; Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Strain</span> weakening is the major agent of localisation of deformation into shear zones and faults at various scales in brittle media. Physical analogue models using granular material are especially apt to investigate both phenomena, because they are able to reproduce them without the need of any assumptions concerning the physics behind. Several attempts have been made to quantify either <span class="hlt">strain</span> weakening (e. g. Lohrmann et al., 2003, using Ring-Shear tests) or <span class="hlt">strain</span> localisation (e. g. Schrank et al., 2008, using a variation of the classical Riedel-experiment). While Ring-Shear tests yield excellent data on <span class="hlt">strain</span> weakening through measuring shear stress during localisation, they do not allow monitoring the process of <span class="hlt">strain</span> localisation in-situ because of experimental inaccessibility of the small scale kinematics. In Riedel-type strike-slip experiments, on the other hand, no direct measurements of shear stresses have been available so far. Furthermore, they contain a strong boundary condition in form of a pre-defined linear discontinuity at the base. This forces the formation of Riedel-Shears, i. e. a complex fault system, that makes it difficult to define <span class="hlt">strain</span> localisation on single faults. We developed a new experimental set-up, in which the formation of a strike-slip shear zone in granular material is induced using an ndenter with stress and <span class="hlt">strain</span> monitored at high accuracy and resolution. In a first set of experiments we used a horizontal sand layer indented by a vertical wall. The sand layer is laterally unconfined and rests on low-viscosity silicone oil in order to minimize basal shear strength. Compared to the Riedel experiments, this avoids the boundary condition of a pre-existing basal discontinuity allowing one single, hrough-going shear crack to form and propagate. The indenter moves at a constant rate and is equipped with a force sensor that measures the applied push, which integrates over shear stresses along the fault and the base of the sand pack</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27338402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27338402"><span id="translatedtitle">Flexible Bond Wire Capacitive <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Sensor for Vehicle Tyres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cao, Siyang; Pyatt, Simon; Anthony, Carl J; Kubba, Ammar I; Kubba, Ali E; Olatunbosun, Oluremi</p> <p>2016-06-21</p> <p>The safety of the driving experience and manoeuvrability of a vehicle can be improved by detecting the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in tyres. To measure <span class="hlt">strain</span> accurately in rubber, the <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor needs to be flexible so that it does not deform the medium that it is measuring. In this work, a novel flexible bond wire capacitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor for measuring the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in tyres is developed, fabricated and calibrated. An array of 25 micron diameter wire bonds in an approximately 8 mm × 8 mm area is built to create an interdigitated structure, which consists of 50 wire loops resulting in 49 capacitor pairs in parallel. Laser machining was used to pattern copper on a flexible printed circuit board PCB to make the bond pads for the wire attachment. The wire array was finally packaged and embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which acts as the structural material that is <span class="hlt">strained</span>. The capacitance of the device is in a linear like relationship with respect to the <span class="hlt">strain</span>, which can measure the <span class="hlt">strain</span> up to at least ±60,000 micro-<span class="hlt">strain</span> (±6%) with a resolution of ~132 micro-<span class="hlt">strain</span> (0.013%). In-tyre testing under static loading has shown the ability of the sensor to measure large tyre <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The technology used for sensor fabrication lends itself to mass production and so the design is considered to be consistent with low cost commercialisable <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensing technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=314452','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=314452"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteomic analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> F</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The persistence and displacement abilities of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine <span class="hlt">strain</span> F (F-<span class="hlt">strain</span>) are well documented. Understanding the mechanism(s) of colonization and persistence of F-<span class="hlt">strain</span> will aid in the current intervention strategies to diagnose and control MG infections in poultry. In ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=329911','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=329911"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequence of Agrobacterium rhizogenes <span class="hlt">Strain</span> NCPPB2659</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This work reports the draft genome of Agrobacterium rhizogenes <span class="hlt">strain</span> NCPPB2659 (also known as <span class="hlt">strain</span> K599). The assembled genome contains 5,277,347 bp, and is composed of 1 circular chromosome, the Ri virulence plasmid, and 17 scaffolds pertaining to the linear chromosome. The wild type <span class="hlt">strain</span> cau...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6586215','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6586215"><span id="translatedtitle">Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens <span class="hlt">strain</span> A281 on legumes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hood, E.E.; Fraley, R.T.; Chilton, M.D.</p> <p>1987-03-01</p> <p>This study addresses the basis of host range on legumes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens <span class="hlt">strain</span> A281, an L,L-succinamopine <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The authors tested virulence of T-DNA and vir region constructs from this tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid with complementary Ti plasmid regions from heterologous nopaline and octopine <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26812174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26812174"><span id="translatedtitle">Bordetella pertussis <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Lacking Pertactin and Pertussis Toxin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Margaret M; Sen, Kathryn; Weigand, Michael R; Skoff, Tami H; Cunningham, Victoria A; Halse, Tanya A; Tondella, M Lucia</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A Bordetella pertussis <span class="hlt">strain</span> lacking 2 acellular vaccine immunogens, pertussis toxin and pertactin, was isolated from an unvaccinated infant in New York State in 2013. Comparison with a French <span class="hlt">strain</span> that was pertussis toxin-deficient, pertactin wild-type showed that the <span class="hlt">strains</span> carry the same 28-kb deletion in similar genomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..85a2017G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..85a2017G"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrosion induced <span class="hlt">strain</span> monitoring through fibre optic sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grattan, S. K. T.; Basheer, P. A. M.; Taylor, S. E.; Zhao, W.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors is commonplace within civil engineering. Fibre optic <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors offer a number of advantages over the current electrical resistance type gauges. In this paper the use of fibre optic <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensors and electrical resistance gauges to monitor the production of corrosion by-products has been investigated and reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24516458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24516458"><span id="translatedtitle">First identification of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis sheep <span class="hlt">strain</span> in Argentina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Travería, G E; Zumarraga, M; Etchechoury, I; Romano, M I; Cataldi, A; Pinedo, M F Alvarado; Pavlik, I; Pribylova, R; Romero, J R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We here identified for the first time the presence of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) sheep (S) <span class="hlt">strain</span> in Argentina. IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive. The S <span class="hlt">strain</span> was compared with MAP cattle (C) <span class="hlt">strains</span> by using IS1311 PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA), multiplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1244803','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1244803"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequence of Neurospora crassa <span class="hlt">Strain</span> FGSC 73</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, Scott E.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Simmons, Blake A.; McCluskey, Kevin</p> <p>2015-03-05</p> <p>We report the elucidation of the complete genome of the Neurospora crassa (Shear and Dodge) <span class="hlt">strain</span> FGSC 73, a mat-a, trp-3 mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The genome sequence around the idiotypic mating type locus represents the only publicly available sequence for a mat-a <span class="hlt">strain</span>. 40.42 Megabases are assembled into 358 scaffolds carrying 11,978 gene models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16083133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16083133"><span id="translatedtitle">Screening of flocculant-producing <span class="hlt">strains</span> by NTG mutagenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Xiao-Wu; Cheng, Wen; Hu, Yong-You</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Screening of new microorganism being able to produce efficiently flocculants was carried out. A new model for screening efficient flocculant-producing <span class="hlt">strains</span> was designed and tested. The results showed that this model for screening efficient flocculant-producing <span class="hlt">strains</span> is very reliable and can greatly shorten the screening period. 13 flocculant-producing <span class="hlt">strains</span> were isolated from activated sludge by conventional method. A <span class="hlt">strain</span>, designated as HHE6, produced the bioflocculant with the turbidity removal 98% for kaolin suspension. Six of 13 <span class="hlt">strains</span> selected as the original <span class="hlt">strains</span> were treated with NTG as mutagen, and five mutant <span class="hlt">strains</span> (HHE-P7, HHE-A8, HHE-P21, HHE-P24, HHE-A26) with high flocculation efficiency was obtained by selection, which exhibited the flocculation rate for kaolin suspension above 90%. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> HHE6, HHE-P7, and HHE-P24 were classified as Penicillium purpurogenum, HHE-P21 as Penicillium cyclopium, HHE-A26 as Aspergillus versicolor and HHE-A8 as Aspergillus fumigatus, and it is hitherto unreported for biofloccutant-producing <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Penicillium. The growth of the six <span class="hlt">strains</span> (HHE6, HHE-P7, HHE-A8, HHE-P21, HHE-P24, HHE-A26) had similar curves, i.e. firstly increasing rapidly, keeping relatively constant then and finally decreasing gradually with cultivation time. The production of bioflocculants by <span class="hlt">strains</span> showed the similar pattern to <span class="hlt">strain</span> growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934354','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4934354"><span id="translatedtitle">Flexible Bond Wire Capacitive <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Sensor for Vehicle Tyres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cao, Siyang; Pyatt, Simon; Anthony, Carl J.; Kubba, Ammar I.; Kubba, Ali E.; Olatunbosun, Oluremi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The safety of the driving experience and manoeuvrability of a vehicle can be improved by detecting the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in tyres. To measure <span class="hlt">strain</span> accurately in rubber, the <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor needs to be flexible so that it does not deform the medium that it is measuring. In this work, a novel flexible bond wire capacitive <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensor for measuring the <span class="hlt">strain</span> in tyres is developed, fabricated and calibrated. An array of 25 micron diameter wire bonds in an approximately 8 mm × 8 mm area is built to create an interdigitated structure, which consists of 50 wire loops resulting in 49 capacitor pairs in parallel. Laser machining was used to pattern copper on a flexible printed circuit board PCB to make the bond pads for the wire attachment. The wire array was finally packaged and embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which acts as the structural material that is <span class="hlt">strained</span>. The capacitance of the device is in a linear like relationship with respect to the <span class="hlt">strain</span>, which can measure the <span class="hlt">strain</span> up to at least ±60,000 micro-<span class="hlt">strain</span> (±6%) with a resolution of ~132 micro-<span class="hlt">strain</span> (0.013%). In-tyre testing under static loading has shown the ability of the sensor to measure large tyre <span class="hlt">strains</span>. The technology used for sensor fabrication lends itself to mass production and so the design is considered to be consistent with low cost commercialisable <span class="hlt">strain</span> sensing technology. PMID:27338402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-9518.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-9518.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 721.9518 - Sinorhizobium meliloti <span class="hlt">strain</span> RMBPC-2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sinorhizobium meliloti <span class="hlt">strain</span> RMBPC-2... Substances § 721.9518 Sinorhizobium meliloti <span class="hlt">strain</span> RMBPC-2. (a) Microorganism and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The microorganism identified as Sinorhizobium meliloti <span class="hlt">strain</span> RMBPC-2 (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Importance+AND+bird&pg=5&id=EJ327494','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Importance+AND+bird&pg=5&id=EJ327494"><span id="translatedtitle">Sources of Role <span class="hlt">Strain</span> among Dual-Career Couples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bird, Gloria W.; Ford, Rachel</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Examines the extent of role <span class="hlt">strain</span> among husbands and wives in 69 dual-career couples. Results indicated that, for wives, number of children and importance of the parental role were significant predictors of role <span class="hlt">strain</span>. For husbands, role <span class="hlt">strain</span> was related to age of the youngest child and the extent to which child-care tasks were shared.…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1214769','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1214769"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequence of Neurospora crassa <span class="hlt">Strain</span> FGSC 73</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, Scott E.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Simmons, Blake A.; McCluskey, Kevin</p> <p>2015-04-02</p> <p>We report the elucidation of the complete genome of the Neurospora crassa (Shear and Dodge) <span class="hlt">strain</span> FGSC 73, a mat-a, trp-3 mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span>. The genome sequence around the idiotypic mating type locus represents the only publicly available sequence for a mat-a <span class="hlt">strain</span>. 40.42 Megabases are assembled into 358 scaffolds carrying 11,978 gene models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Women+AND+autonomy&pg=6&id=EJ287850','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Women+AND+autonomy&pg=6&id=EJ287850"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlates of Family Role <span class="hlt">Strain</span> among Employed Black Women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Katz, Mitchell H.; Piotrkowski, Chaya S.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Examined job and family correlates of family role <span class="hlt">strain</span> for 51 employed Black women. Job autonomy and demands and family size significantly predicted <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Number of hours worked per week related only to difficulty completing household chores. Nonmarried women reported no higher levels of <span class="hlt">strain</span> than married ones. (WAS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1111029','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1111029"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> effects on oxygen transport in tetragonal zirconium dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xian-Ming Bai; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Temperature accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the <span class="hlt">strain</span> effects on oxygen interstitial and vacancy migration in tetragonal zirconium dioxide. At zero external <span class="hlt">strain</span>, the anisotropic migration mechanisms of oxygen defects are characterized. At non-zero <span class="hlt">strains</span>, both the crystal structure and defect migration barriers are modified by <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Under compressive <span class="hlt">strains</span>, the defect migration barrier increases with the increasing <span class="hlt">strain</span> for both interstitials and vacancies. The crystal structure transforms from a tetragonal to a nearly cubic fluorite structure. Accordingly, the defect migration becomes nearly isotropic. Under dilative <span class="hlt">strains</span>, the migration barrier first decreases then increases with increasing <span class="hlt">strain</span> for both types of defects. The tetragonal phase transforms to a lower symmetry structure that is close to the orthorhombic phase. In turn, the defect migration becomes highly anisotropic. Under both compressive and dilative <span class="hlt">strains</span>, interstitials respond to <span class="hlt">strain</span> more strongly than vacancies. At small dilative <span class="hlt">strains</span>, an oxygen interstitial has comparable diffusivity to a vacancy, suggesting that both types of defects can contribute to oxygen transport, if they are present. Although currently no previous result is available to validate oxygen interstitial diffusion behavior, the trend of <span class="hlt">strain</span> effects on oxygen vacancy diffusion is in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical studies in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=260974','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=260974"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Engineered Pichia stipitis <span class="hlt">Strains</span> for Ethanol Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We evaluated the fermentation capabilities of five <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Pichia stipitis that had been engineered for xylose fermentation to ethanol by USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research. The <span class="hlt">strains</span> tested were P. stipitis WT-1-11, WT-1-2, 14-2-6, 22-1-1, and 22-1-12. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15681048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15681048"><span id="translatedtitle">Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of new probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, J S; Pillidge, C J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>The antimicrobial susceptibilities and presence of plasmids in four new probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) <span class="hlt">strains</span>, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) HN067, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10), were determined. Resistance to 18 commonly used antibiotics was assessed by disk diffusion. The three Lactobacillus <span class="hlt">strains</span> had similar antibiotic susceptibility profiles to those of Lactobacillus plantarum <span class="hlt">strain</span> HN045 and two commercial probiotic Lactobacillus <span class="hlt">strains</span>, GG and LA-1. The B. lactis <span class="hlt">strain</span> HN019 had a similar profile to three commercial probiotic B. lactis <span class="hlt">strains</span> (Bb12, HN049 and HN098). All 10 <span class="hlt">strains</span> were sensitive to the Gram-positive spectrum antibiotics erythromycin and novobiocin, the broad-spectrum antibiotics rifampicin, spectinomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol and the beta-lactam antibiotics penicillin, ampicillin and cephalothin. By contrast, most <span class="hlt">strains</span> were resistant to the Gram-negative spectrum antibiotics fusidic acid, nalidixic acid and polymyxin B and the aminoglycosides neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin. All three L. rhamnosus <span class="hlt">strains</span> (HN001, HN067 and GG) were resistant to vancomycin and several <span class="hlt">strains</span> were also resistant to cloxacillin. Of the four new probiotic <span class="hlt">strains</span>, only L. rhamnosus HN001 contained plasmids; however, a plasmid-free derivative of HN001 had the same antibiotic susceptibility profile as the parent <span class="hlt">strain</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4100527','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4100527"><span id="translatedtitle">International Clostridium difficile animal <span class="hlt">strain</span> collection and large diversity of animal associated <span class="hlt">strains</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Clostridium difficile is an important cause of intestinal infections in some animal species and animals might be a reservoir for community associated human infections. Here we describe a collection of animal associated C. difficile <span class="hlt">strains</span> from 12 countries based on inclusion criteria of one <span class="hlt">strain</span> (PCR ribotype) per animal species per laboratory. Results Altogether 112 isolates were collected and distributed into 38 PCR ribotypes with agarose based approach and 50 PCR ribotypes with sequencer based approach. Four PCR ribotypes were most prevalent in terms of number of isolates as well as in terms of number of different host species: 078 (14.3% of isolates; 4 hosts), 014/020 (11.6%; 8 hosts); 002 (5.4%; 4 hosts) and 012 (5.4%; 5 hosts). Two animal hosts were best represented; cattle with 31 isolates (20 PCR ribotypes; 7 countries) and pigs with 31 isolates (16 PCR ribotypes; 10 countries). Conclusions This results show that although PCR ribotype 078 is often reported as the major animal C. difficile type, especially in pigs, the variability of <span class="hlt">strains</span> in pigs and other animal hosts is substantial. Most common human PCR ribotypes (014/020 and 002) are also among most prevalent animal associated C. difficile <span class="hlt">strains</span> worldwide. The widespread dissemination of toxigenic C. difficile and the considerable overlap in <span class="hlt">strain</span> distribution between species furthers concerns about interspecies, including zoonotic, transmission of this critically important pathogen. PMID:24972659</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4047042','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4047042"><span id="translatedtitle">Revealing Differences in Metabolic Flux Distributions between a Mutant <span class="hlt">Strain</span> and Its Parent <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gluconacetobacter xylinus CGMCC 2955</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Miao; Yang, Xiao-Ning; Zhu, Hui-Xia; Jia, Yuan-Yuan; Jia, Shi-Ru; Piergiovanni, Luciano</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A better understanding of metabolic fluxes is important for manipulating microbial metabolism toward desired end products, or away from undesirable by-products. A mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span>, Gluconacetobacter xylinus AX2-16, was obtained by combined chemical mutation of the parent <span class="hlt">strain</span> (G. xylinus CGMCC 2955) using DEC (diethyl sulfate) and LiCl. The highest bacterial cellulose production for this mutant was obtained at about 11.75 g/L, which was an increase of 62% compared with that by the parent <span class="hlt">strain</span>. In contrast, gluconic acid (the main byproduct) concentration was only 5.71 g/L for mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span>, which was 55.7% lower than that of parent <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Metabolic flux analysis indicated that 40.1% of the carbon source was transformed to bacterial cellulose in mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span>, compared with 24.2% for parent <span class="hlt">strain</span>. Only 32.7% and 4.0% of the carbon source were converted into gluconic acid and acetic acid in mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span>, compared with 58.5% and 9.5% of that in parent <span class="hlt">strain</span>. In addition, a higher flux of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was obtained in mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span> (57.0%) compared with parent <span class="hlt">strain</span> (17.0%). It was also indicated from the flux analysis that more ATP was produced in mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span> from pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and TCA cycle. The enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which is one of the key enzymes in TCA cycle, was 1.65-fold higher in mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span> than that in parent <span class="hlt">strain</span> at the end of culture. It was further validated by the measurement of ATPase that 3.53–6.41 fold higher enzymatic activity was obtained from mutant <span class="hlt">strain</span> compared with parent <span class="hlt">strain</span>. PMID:24901455</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22496847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22496847"><span id="translatedtitle">Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from mixed <span class="hlt">strain</span> cultures and complex enrichment broths.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gorski, Lisa</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant <span class="hlt">strain</span> from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the pathogen the relevant <span class="hlt">strain</span> might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen <span class="hlt">strains</span> representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-<span class="hlt">strain</span> mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more <span class="hlt">strain(s</span>) emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but <span class="hlt">strains</span> of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than <span class="hlt">strains</span> of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium gave different patterns of <span class="hlt">strain</span> dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest <span class="hlt">strains</span> belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included <span class="hlt">strains</span> of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. <span class="hlt">Strains</span> of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant <span class="hlt">strains</span> in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of <span class="hlt">strains</span> emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target <span class="hlt">strains</span> of Salmonella.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA457449','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA457449"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing of 7050-T7451 Aluminum <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-Life Coupons for a Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-Life Curve</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-11-02</p> <p>Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Strain</span>-Life method, an extensive testing program was initiated to characterize the scatter in standard ASTM <span class="hlt">strain</span>-life test coupons for 7050...standard ASTM <span class="hlt">strain</span>-life test coupons for 7050-T7451 aircraft aluminum. Two different coupon geometries are described in the relevant standards: an...an extensive testing program was initiated to characterize the scatter in standard ASTM <span class="hlt">strain</span>-life test coupons for 7050-T7451 aircraft aluminum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3511030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3511030"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Strain</span> variation in bacteriocuprein superoxide dismutase from symbiotic Photobacterium leiognathi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dunlap, P V; Steinman, H M</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p>Photobacterium leiognathi ATCC 25521 (the type <span class="hlt">strain</span> and light-organ symbiont of ponyfish) is one of the few bacteria that produces a copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, termed bacteriocuprein. We enzymologically and immunologically characterized the bacteriocuprein superoxide dismutases in sonicates from the type <span class="hlt">strain</span> and nine additional <span class="hlt">strains</span> of P. leiognathi, each isolated from the light organ of a separate ponyfish specimen, representing seven ponyfish species. The results indicate considerable <span class="hlt">strain</span> variation. (i) The level of bacteriocuprein enzymatic activity varied greatly among <span class="hlt">strains</span> from different species of ponyfish. In four of the nine <span class="hlt">strains</span>, activity was low or undetectable, while in five <span class="hlt">strains</span> it was comparable to that in the type <span class="hlt">strain</span>. (ii) The bacteriocuprein in one <span class="hlt">strain</span> had a specific activity much lower than that of the type <span class="hlt">strain</span>, and in another <span class="hlt">strain</span>, no bacteriocuprein activity and no cross-reactive polypeptide were detectable. (iii) A new electrophoretic variant, which migrated slower than that of <span class="hlt">strains</span> from fish captured in Thailand and Japan, was identified in <span class="hlt">strains</span> from fish captured in the Philippine Islands. (iv) Enzymological and immunological differences were observed in bacteriocupreins of <span class="hlt">strains</span> from male and female specimens of the same ponyfish species, for the two species in which specimens of both sexes were examined. These observations raise the possibility that specific variations in the bacteriocupreins of P. leiognathi might be characteristic of the species, geographical source, or sex of the ponyfish host. Thus, the data indicate that the possibility of <span class="hlt">strain</span> variation should be considered when other species are screened for bacteriocupreins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G43B0920K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G43B0920K"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Global Geodetic <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Rate Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreemer, C. W.; Klein, E. C.; Blewitt, G.; Shen, Z.; Wang, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Rabaute, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>As part of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) effort to improve global seismic hazard models, we present a new global geodetic <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate model. This model (GSRM v. 2) is a vast improvement on the previous model from 2004 (v. 1.2). The model is still based on a finite-element type approach and has deforming cells in between the assumed rigid plates. While v.1.2 contained ~25,000 deforming cells of 0.6° by 0.5° dimension, the new models contains >136,000 cells of 0.25° by 0.2° dimension. We redefined the geometries of the deforming zones based on the definitions of Bird (2003) and Chamot-Rooke and Rabaute (2006). We made some adjustments to the grid geometry at places where seismicity and/or GPS velocities suggested the presence of deforming areas where those previous studies did not. As a result, some plates/blocks identified by Bird (2003) we assumed to deform, and the total number of plates and blocks in GSRM v.2 is 38 (including the Bering block, which Bird (2003) did not consider). GSRM v.1.2 was based on ~5,200 GPS velocities, taken from 86 studies. The new model is based on ~17,000 GPS velocities, taken from 170 studies. The GPS velocity field consists of a 1) ~4900 velocities derived by us for CPS stations publicly available RINEX data and >3.5 years of data, 2) ~1200 velocities for China from a new analysis of all CMONOC data, and 3) velocities published in the literature or made otherwise available to us. All studies were combined into the same reference frame by a 6-parameter transformation using velocities at collocated stations. Because the goal of the project is to model the interseismic <span class="hlt">strain</span> rate field, we model co-seismic jumps while estimating velocities, ignore periods of post-seismic deformation, and exclude time-series that reflect magmatic and anthropogenic activity. GPS velocities were used to estimate angular velocities for most of the 38 rigid plates and blocks (the rest being taken from the literature), and these were used as boundary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3911442','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3911442"><span id="translatedtitle">An Atypical Clostridium <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Related to the Clostridium botulinum Group III <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Isolated from a Human Blood Culture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruimy, Raymond; Bouchier, Christiane; Faucher, Nathalie; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A nontoxigenic <span class="hlt">strain</span> isolated from a fatal human case of bacterial sepsis was identified as a Clostridium <span class="hlt">strain</span> from Clostridium botulinum group III, based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence, and was found to be related to the mosaic C. botulinum D/C <span class="hlt">strain</span> according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes. PMID:24088855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=punishment+AND+crime+AND+journal&pg=6&id=EJ835410','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=punishment+AND+crime+AND+journal&pg=6&id=EJ835410"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comprehensive Test of General <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Theory: Key <span class="hlt">Strains</span>, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general <span class="hlt">strain</span> theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key <span class="hlt">strains</span>, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of <span class="hlt">strain</span> previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4400427','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4400427"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequences of Lactobacillus plantarum <span class="hlt">Strain</span> 90sk and Lactobacillus brevis <span class="hlt">Strain</span> 15f: Focusing on Neurotransmitter Genes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yunes, Roman A.; Klimina, Ksenia M.; Emelyanov, Kirill V.; Zakharevich, Natalia V.; Poluektova, Elena U.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum <span class="hlt">strain</span> 90sk and Lactobacillus brevis <span class="hlt">strain</span> 15f were isolated from human intestinal microbiota. Both <span class="hlt">strains</span> synthesize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Detailed genome analyses will help to understand the role of GABA in the interaction of bacteria with human intestinal cells. PMID:25883284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25883284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25883284"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequences of Lactobacillus plantarum <span class="hlt">Strain</span> 90sk and Lactobacillus brevis <span class="hlt">Strain</span> 15f: Focusing on Neurotransmitter Genes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yunes, Roman A; Klimina, Ksenia M; Emelyanov, Kirill V; Zakharevich, Natalia V; Poluektova, Elena U; Danilenko, Valery N</p> <p>2015-04-16</p> <p>The genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum <span class="hlt">strain</span> 90sk and Lactobacillus brevis <span class="hlt">strain</span> 15f were isolated from human intestinal microbiota. Both <span class="hlt">strains</span> synthesize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Detailed genome analyses will help to understand the role of GABA in the interaction of bacteria with human intestinal cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26757724','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26757724"><span id="translatedtitle">Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference <span class="hlt">strains</span> and <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from environmental water and patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic <span class="hlt">strains</span> of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference <span class="hlt">strains</span>, 235 environmental <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from water, and 4 clinical <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila <span class="hlt">strains</span> were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila <span class="hlt">strains</span>, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical <span class="hlt">strains</span> also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella <span class="hlt">strains</span>. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila <span class="hlt">strains</span> were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila <span class="hlt">strains</span>. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila <span class="hlt">strains</span>. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from environmental water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=273514','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=273514"><span id="translatedtitle">Selective enrichment media bias the types of salmonella enterica <span class="hlt">strains</span> isolated from mixed <span class="hlt">strain</span> cultures and complex enrichment broths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant <span class="hlt">strain</span> from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one <span class="hlt">strain</span> of the organism the relevant <span class="hlt">strain</span> might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24088855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24088855"><span id="translatedtitle">An atypical Clostridium <span class="hlt">strain</span> related to the Clostridium botulinum group III <span class="hlt">strain</span> isolated from a human blood culture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bouvet, Philippe; Ruimy, Raymond; Bouchier, Christiane; Faucher, Nathalie; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A nontoxigenic <span class="hlt">strain</span> isolated from a fatal human case of bacterial sepsis was identified as a Clostridium <span class="hlt">strain</span> from Clostridium botulinum group III, based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence, and was found to be related to the mosaic C. botulinum D/C <span class="hlt">strain</span> according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+social&pg=7&id=EJ1020673','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+social&pg=7&id=EJ1020673"><span id="translatedtitle">Repeated <span class="hlt">Strains</span>, Social Control, Social Learning, and Delinquency: Testing an Integrated Model of General <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Theory in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bao, Wan-Ning; Haas, Ain; Chen, Xiaojin; Pi, Yijun</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In Agnew's general <span class="hlt">strain</span> theory, repeated <span class="hlt">strains</span> can generate crime and delinquency by reducing social control and fostering social learning of crime. Using a sample of 615 middle-and high-school students in China, this study examines how social control and social learning variables mediate the effect of repeated <span class="hlt">strains</span> in school and at home on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587923','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587923"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacillus sp. <span class="hlt">Strain</span> BAB-2500, a <span class="hlt">Strain</span> That Might Play an Important Role in Agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Joshi, M. N.; Sharma, A.; Pandit, A. S.; Pandya, R. V.; Saxena, A. K.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A Gram-positive bacterium, Brevibacillus sp. <span class="hlt">strain</span> BAB-2500, was isolated as a lab contaminant in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. The draft genome (5.3 Mb) of the <span class="hlt">strain</span> possesses genes for the reduction of arsenate and aluminum. These findings might provide insights into the utilization of this <span class="hlt">strain</span> for improving crop production. PMID:23472223</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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