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Sample records for alimentacion parenteral temprana

  1. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Paul; Forbes, Alastair

    2003-03-01

    Parenteral nutrition remains a topic of intense research interest. It has now been shown to offer no advantage over, but to be associated with an increased frequency of complications, compared to enteral nutrition in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Nutritional support administered via an intraportal route, combined with multimodal analgesia, appears to offer certain metabolic and clinical advantages compared with that delivered via systemic veins. Parenteral nutrition, however, does not prevent the decrease in antioxidant capacity seen after major surgery, and feeding lines present an additional risk factor for systemic candidiasis in the intensive care setting. Nonetheless, use of the conventional percutaneous access route is reconfirmed, even in infants, to be a safe technique. Addition of choline to intravenous nutrition admixtures may improve some of the hepatic abnormalities associated with parenteral nutrition, but clodronate has only limited ability to prevent the progression of osteoporosis in patients on long-term treatment.

  2. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  3. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  4. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  5. Parenteral iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J

    1996-08-01

    Indications for the use of parenteral iron are limited to conditions in which the oral supplementation of iron is not possible or fails. An overview of iron balance and iron requirements is presented to describe situations in which iron supplementation may be required. When parenteral iron supplementation is required, careful attention to proper dosing and administration is necessary to optimize efficacy and safety. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding the clinical use of parenteral iron therapy and provide guidelines on dosing and administration. Methods of iron dextran administration, including the IV and intramuscular injection of undiluted drug and total dose infusion, are compared. Complications associated with the use of parenteral iron are also be reviewed. Finally, the use of iron supplementation in patients receiving parenteral nutrition care explored.

  6. Total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Borunda, Delia; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo

    2002-08-01

    In recent months, numerous reports concerning total parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients have been published, including the guidelines and recommendations of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. The old controversy regarding the use of the enteral versus parenteral route still exists. Although the enteral route is indicated in those patients with normal gastrointestinal function, the parenteral route is obviously beneficial in several clinical conditions and appears to be associated with few procedure-related complications when performed by experienced clinicians. There is also continued interest in the supplementation of parenteral formulas with nutrients that were previously considered nonessential, such as arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids, but that may become essential in the setting of critical illness.

  7. Parenteral iron therapy options.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Scott B; Rodgers, George M

    2004-05-01

    Parenteral iron therapy is occasionally necessary for patients intolerant or unresponsive to oral iron therapy, for receiving recombinant erythropoietin therapy, or for use in treating functional iron deficiency. There are now three parenteral iron products available: iron dextran, ferric gluconate, and iron sucrose. We summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each product, including risk of anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity, dosage regimens, and costs. The increased availability of multiple parenteral iron preparations should decrease the need to use red cell transfusions in patients with iron-deficiency anemia.

  8. Parenteral iron dextran therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J; Holland, E G

    1990-02-01

    Parenteral iron therapy is indicated in patients with iron-deficiency anemia associated with conditions that interfere with the ingestion or absorption of oral iron. Replacement doses of iron required to replenish iron stores are based on body weight and the observed hemoglobin value. Methods of administering iron dextran are reviewed, including intramuscular and intravenous injections of the undiluted drug, intravenous infusion of a diluted preparation, and as an addition to parenteral nutrition solutions. The overall incidence of adverse reactions associated with the parenteral administration of iron is low, but the potential for an anaphylactic reaction requires that an initial test dose be given followed by careful patient observation.

  9. Parenteral microemulsions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Date, Abhijit A; Nagarsenker, M S

    2008-05-01

    Parenteral delivery of the hydrophobic drugs is a very challenging task. The conventional approaches such as use of co-solvents, oily vehicles and modern approaches such as mixed micelles, liposomes, complexation with cyclodextrins and emulsions have several limitations. Microemulsions have evolved as a novel vehicle for parenteral delivery of the hydrophobic drugs. Their interesting features such as spontaneity of formation, ease of manufacture, high solubilization capacity and self-preserving property make them the vehicle of choice. The review focuses on the excipients available for formulation of the parenteral microemulsions and describes the investigations reported for the various classes of therapeutic agents.

  10. Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids.

    PubMed

    Raman, Maitreyi; Almutairdi, Abdulelah; Mulesa, Leanne; Alberda, Cathy; Beattie, Colleen; Gramlich, Leah

    2017-04-14

    Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them.

  11. History of parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2009-06-01

    The concept of feeding patients entirely parenterally by injecting nutrient substances or fluids intravenously was advocated and attempted long before the successful practical development of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) four decades ago. Realization of this 400 year old seemingly fanciful dream initially required centuries of fundamental investigation coupled with basic technological advances and judicious clinical applications. Most clinicians in the 1950's were aware of the negative impact of starvation on morbidity, mortality, and outcomes, but only few understood the necessity for providing adequate nutritional support to malnourished patients if optimal clinical results were to be achieved. The prevailing dogma in the 1960's was that, "Feeding entirely by vein is impossible; even if it were possible, it would be impractical; and even if it were practical, it would be unaffordable." Major challenges to the development of TPN included: (1) formulate complete parenteral nutrient solutions (did not exist), (2) concentrate substrate components to 5-6 times isotonicity without precipitation (not easily done), (3) demonstrate utility and safety of long-term central venous catheterization (not looked upon with favor by the medical hierarchy), (4) demonstrate efficacy and safety of long-term infusion of hypertonic nutrient solutions (contrary to clinical practices at the time), (5) maintain asepsis and antisepsis throughout solution preparation and delivery (required a major culture change), and (6) anticipate, avoid, and correct metabolic imbalances or derangements (a monumental challenge and undertaking). This presentation recounts approaches to, and solution of, some of the daunting problems as really occurred in a comprehensive, concise and candid history of parenteral nutrition.

  12. [Micronutrients in parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Bermejo, T; Gomis, P; Piñeiro, G

    2009-01-01

    At a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the evidence available as well as experts' opinion, the IV Baxter-SENPE Working Panel established the indications and managemente guidelines for micronutrients (water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, and oligoelements or trace elements) in parenteral nutrition. It was concluded about the convenience of daily intake of micronutrients with diferent options regarding deficiente or excessive dosages, administration systems, interactions, monitoring, and cots-effectiveness.

  13. Compatibility: drugs and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Talita Muniz Maloni; Ferraresi, Andressa de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    Standardization and systematization of data to provide quick access to compatibility of leading injectable drugs used in hospitals for parenteral nutrition. We selected 55 injectable drugs analyzed individually with two types of parenteral nutrition: 2-in-1 and 3-in-1. The following variables were considered: active ingredient, compatibility of drugs with the parenteral nutrition with or without lipids, and maximum drug concentration after dilution for the drugs compatible with parenteral nutrition. Drugs were classified as compatible, incompatible and untested. After analysis, relevant information to the product's compatibility with parental nutrition was summarized in a table. Systematization of compatibility data provided quick and easy access, and enabled standardizing pharmacists work.

  14. Standardised parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen; Rakshasbhuvankar, Abhijeet; Deshpande, Girish

    2013-03-28

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has become an integral part of clinical management of very low birth weight premature neonates. Traditionally different components of PN are prescribed individually considering requirements of an individual neonate (IPN). More recently, standardised PN formulations (SPN) for preterm neonates have been assessed and may have advantages including better provision of nutrients, less prescription and administration errors, decreased risk of infection, and cost savings. The recent introduction of triple-chamber bag that provides total nutrient admixture for neonates may have additional advantage of decreased risk of contamination and ease of administration.

  15. Parenteral nutrition-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, S; Gimmon, Z; Ben Zvi, A; Katz, S

    1987-01-01

    A case report of a 4-yr-old child who developed an anaphylactic reaction to parenteral nutrition is presented. Dermal allergy tests demonstrated a sensitivity to Travasol solution and Armour multivitamin 2 solution. This is the first reported case known to us of such a response to elemental parenteral nutrition.

  16. Parenteral packaging waste reduction.

    PubMed

    Baetz, B W

    1990-08-01

    The consumption of pharmaceutical products generates waste materials which can cause significant environmental impact when incinerated or landfilled. The purpose of this work is to stimulate discussion among hospital pharmacists and purchasing managers relating to the waste management aspects of their purchasing decisions. As a case study example, a number of commercially available "single use" parenterals are evaluated from a waste reduction perspective, for both the product container and for the packaging of these containers. Glass vials are non-incinerable, and are currently non-recyclable due to the higher melting temperatures required for borosilicate glass. However, plastic vials are potentially both incinerable and recyclable. Packaging quantities are considerably lower for plastic vials on a unit container basis, and also vary to a measurable degree between different manufacturers for a given type of container material. From an environmental perspective, waste reduction potential should become an important criterion in the selection of pharmaceutical products for hospital use.

  17. Compatibility: drugs and parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Talita Muniz Maloni; Ferraresi, Andressa de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Standardization and systematization of data to provide quick access to compatibility of leading injectable drugs used in hospitals for parenteral nutrition. Methods We selected 55 injectable drugs analyzed individually with two types of parenteral nutrition: 2-in-1 and 3-in-1. The following variables were considered: active ingredient, compatibility of drugs with the parenteral nutrition with or without lipids, and maximum drug concentration after dilution for the drugs compatible with parenteral nutrition. Drugs were classified as compatible, incompatible and untested. Results After analysis, relevant information to the product’s compatibility with parental nutrition was summarized in a table. Conclusion Systematization of compatibility data provided quick and easy access, and enabled standardizing pharmacists work. PMID:27074235

  18. Long-term parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ladefoged, Karin; Jarnum, Stig

    1978-01-01

    Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) aged 20-68 received long-term parenteral nutrition, mostly at home, for six to 63 months (mean 19 months). Indications for LTPN were extensive, active Crohn's disease in three patients, intestinocutaneous fistulas in three, and short-bowel syndrome in the remaining 13 patients. Subclavian or intra-atrial (Broviac) catheters were most commonly used, for which the average life was four and seven months respectively. Complications of long-term parenteral nutrition included pneumothorax in four out of 48 subclavian vein punctures. Catheter-induced thrombosis of central veins was shown by phlebography 17 times in nine patients, and eight episodes of total occlusion occurred. Two of these patients had pulmonary infarction. Nineteen episodes of catheter sepsis occurred in 11 patients, but only one was fatal. Complications related to intestinal disease included intra-abdominal abscesses and intestinal fistulas, and disturbances of liver function. Five patients died, though in only two was death related to long-term parenteral nutrition. One of these patients died from catheter sepsis, the other had subdural haematoma possibly caused by anticoagulant treatment. Eight of the 14 surviving patients still needed parenteral nutrition. All received a disability pension, but six had an acceptable quality of life with almost normal social activities. Despite problems such as difficulties in maintaining standardised infusion programmes, it was concluded that long-term parenteral nutrition at home is practicable and consistent with an acceptable quality of life. ImagesFIG 2 PMID:98199

  19. Home initiation of parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Newton, Alyce F; DeLegge, Mark H

    2007-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been successfully initiated in the home since the early 1990s. The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Standards for Specialized Nutrition Support: Home Care Patients, Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition, and Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients do not contain specific information on the initiation of home PN (HPN). Peer-reviewed, published guidelines are necessary to provide safe and appropriate initiation of HPN. Certain patients should not have PN initiated in the home, such as those with organ failure, uncontrolled diabetes, or uncorrectable electrolyte abnormalities. Excellent candidates for initiation of HPN include patients who have failed enteral feedings, have gastrointestinal (GI) diseases without excessive GI losses, or those with an oncology diagnosis and inability to tube feed. One concern of initiation of HPN is the potential for refeeding syndrome. Refeeding syndrome can be prevented when patients are properly evaluated and managed before initiation of PN. Refeeding syndrome can be avoided by rehydration with fluid and electrolytes before initiation of HPN to normalize blood chemistry when necessary and by starting with a moderate-volume, low-carbohydrate HPN solution compounded with optimal potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium content, and slowly advanced to goal. The "start low and go slow" motto of nutrition support should continue to be followed, but more specific guidelines are needed to assist nutrition support clinicians with safe and appropriate initiation of HPN.

  20. New parenteral anticoagulants in development.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Suárez-Gea, Maria Luisa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Rocha, Eduardo; Pozo-Hernández, Carmen; Vargas-Castrillón, Emilio

    2011-02-01

    The therapeutic armamentarium of parenteral anticoagulants available to clinicians is mainly composed by unfractionated heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux, recombinant hirudins (i.e. bivalirudin, desirudin, lepirudin) and argatroban. These drugs are effective and safe for prevention and/or treatment of thromboembolic diseases but they have some drawbacks. Among other inconveniences, UFH requires regular anticoagulant monitoring as a result of variability in the anticoagulant response and there is a risk of serious heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT). LMWH, fondaparinux and recombinant hirudins are mainly cleared through the kidneys and their use in patients with severe renal insufficiency may be problematic. LMWH is only partially neutralized by protamine while fondaparinux and recombinant hirudins have no specific antidote. Novel anticoagulants in development for parenteral administration include new indirect activated factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors (idrabiotaparinux, ultra-low-molecular-weight heparins [semuloparin, RO-14], new LMWH [M118]), direct FXa inhibitors (otamixaban), direct FIIa inhibitors (flovagatran sodium, pegmusirudin, NU172, HD1-22), direct FXIa inhibitors (BMS-262084, antisense oligonucleotides targeting FXIa, clavatadine), direct FIXa inhibitors (RB-006), FVIIIa inhibitors (TB-402), FVIIa/tissue factor inhibitors (tifacogin, NAPc2, PCI-27483, BMS-593214), FVa inhibitors (drotrecogin alpha activated, ART-123) and dual thrombin/FXa inhibitors (EP217609, tanogitran). These new compounds have the potential to complement established parenteral anticoagulants. In the present review, we discuss the pharmacology of new parenteral anticoagulants, the results of clinical studies, the newly planned or ongoing clinical trials with these compounds, and their potential advantages and drawbacks over existing therapies.

  1. [Complete parenteral nutrition in childhood].

    PubMed

    Berger, H; Frisch, H; Kofler, J; Resch, R

    1977-02-01

    Complete parenteral nutrition by means of continuous intravenous drip into large veins, over a long period, has already shown itself to be of therapeutic use in the field of pediatrics. While the nutritional-physiological aspect of this therapeutic method is clear -- it depends on an accurate and sufficient supply of water, salts, glucose, amino-acids, triglycerides and essential fatty acids, vitamins and trace elements -- in practice it presents difficulties which though often serious are not insurmountable. Especially are to cite the septic complications, which are nearly imperceptible during their development. They are only to accept in view of the often almost hopeless condition of the child, who would be lost without complete parenteral feeding. Similar problems arise through metabolic complications which are caused non rarely only by insufficient dosages and lack of careful supervision but it is generally possible to correct these at an early stage. Complete parenteral nutrition must be exactly indicated. It is indeed a great therapeutic help, particularly when over a longer period -- at least a week or longer -- oral nutrition is impossible or insufficient. Practicall experiences will be reported. A retrospective assessment of 50 cases has shown the tendency (through taking too much care?) to hold the quantity of liquids and supply of calories too short and to administer too much carbohydrates and too little fat.

  2. [Artificial nutrition in children (II): parenteral access].

    PubMed

    Estevão-Costa, José

    2014-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition is crucial when the use of the gastrointestinal tract is not feasible. This article addresses the main techniques for parenteral access in children, its indications, insertion details and maintenance, and complications. The type of venous access is mainly dictated by the expected duration of parenteral nutrition and by the body weight/stature. The peripheral access is viable and advantageous for parenteral nutrition of short duration (< 2 weeks); a tunneled central venous catheter (Broviac) is usually necessary in long-term parenteral nutrition (> 3 weeks); a peripherally introduced central catheter is an increasingly used alternative. Parenteral accesses are effective and safe, but the morbidity and mortality is not negligible particularly in cases of short bowel syndrome. Most complications are related to the catheter placement and maintenance care, and can be largely avoided when the procedures are carried out by experienced staff under strict protocols.

  3. Zinc deficiency in a parenteral nutrition-dependent patient during a parenteral trace element product shortage.

    PubMed

    Franck, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Parenteral nutrition product shortages are common and place vulnerable patients at risk for nutrient deficiencies. This case report describes a parenteral nutrition-dependent patient who was found to have zinc deficiency during a parenteral nutrition product shortage. The management of the patient's zinc deficiency is described.

  4. Economics of home parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Cade, A; Puntis, J

    1997-09-01

    The past 30 years have seen long term parenteral nutrition evolve from a novel technique to an accepted intervention for gastrointestinal failure. The development of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) has parallelled a shift in resources from hospital to community care and has been driven by technological advances, the growth of commercial home care companies and patient choice. Costs for HPN per patient year have been estimated to range from $US 150,000 to $US 250,000 in the US, and are around 55,000 pounds in the UK, perhaps only 25 to 50% of in-hospital costs. In the absence of any alternative treatment for many patients with gastrointestinal disease, parenteral nutrition is life saving and offers the prospect of maintaining a good quality of life. The cost of 1 quality-adjusted life-year for HPN has been estimated as 69,000 pounds in the UK (1995 values), and $Can 14,600 in Canada (1984 values), making HPN relatively cost effective compared with other ways of spending money to improve health. HPN is also given to patients in whom life expectancy is unlikely to be influenced, such as those with cancer or AIDS. Although there is considerable heterogeneity between countries in the proportion of HPN patients with a particular disease, malignancy is now the single most common indication. HPN can be expected to improve quality of life over a short period of terminal care, and whilst a strong case can be made for use of HPN in some of these patients, its use has not been subjected to detailed medical or economic appraisal.

  5. [Future perspectives in parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Wretlind, A

    1989-10-01

    Some of the future perspectives of parenteral nutrition will most likely be related to the possibilities of improving the infusion solutions used. There are studies indicating that intravenous amino acid mixtures may produce better biochemical and clinical effects either by increasing the content of histidin, arginine, tyrosine, cysteine/cystine and branched chain amino acids or by adding glutamine, ornithin, ornithin-ketoglutaric acid, taurine and glutathion. Several possibilities of improving the intravenous fat emulsions have been studied and discussed. The use of medium chain fatty acid glycerides (MCT) instead of long chain fatty acid glycerides (LCT) may be of some value. Physical mixtures of LCT and MCT have been studied. Glycerides of both medium chain and long chain fatty acids of the same glycerol molecule ('structured lipids') have also been investigated. The omega-3-fatty acids (alfalinolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) have unique biochemical properties which may be beneficial in various clinical situations when parenteral nutrition is indicated. Intravenous fat emulsions containing triglycerides of these fatty acids are now being extensively investigated. The omega-3-fatty acids will change the pattern of eicosanoids formed, reduce the tendency to platelet aggregation, increase the resistance to endotoxins, and reduce the viscosity of the blood. Triglycerides of gamma linolenic acid have been considered to be of value in situations when there may be a reduced activity of delta-6-desaturase to transform linoleic acid to arachidonic acid. Many other known (carnitine, non-protein sources, vitamins and trace elements) or unknown nutrients may be found to be useful in order to improve the infusion solutions used in parenteral nutrition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Safety surrounding parenteral nutrition systems.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Gordon S

    2012-03-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one of the most complex medications administered to hospitalized and ambulatory patients. Despite the successful clinical use of PN for over 3 decades, adverse events continue to occur, resulting in serious morbidity or even mortality. There are multiple points within the PN process for errors to occur: prescribing, transcription, preparation, and administration. Because of the lack of published literature about PN errors, a formal study was conducted to document the nature and severity of harm resulting from medication errors during the PN process.

  7. Perspectives on parenteral micronutrient shortages.

    PubMed

    Mirtallo, Jay M

    2015-02-01

    Micronutrients are essential components of parenteral nutrition (PN). Problems related to deficiency and toxicity occur during routine practice, which could be related to the content of commercial sources, inadequate prescribed doses, and the high frequency of at-risk patients receiving PN. Shortages of commercial products result in increased risk of deficiency. Even though there are recommendations to conserve supplies for those at highest risk, practices that provide no micronutrients or doses less than desired are not safe. This article reviews the evidence describing patients at risk for micronutrient deficiency, the rationale for micronutrient product reformulation, and characteristics of deficiency observed during shortages of micronutrient products.

  8. Parenteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Matuchansky, C

    1986-01-01

    Nutritional support, administered via the enteral or parenteral routes, has been widely introduced in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease over the past decade. The precise place of total parenteral nutrition, however, as a sole or adjunct treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, has yet to be defined. PMID:3098647

  9. Parenteral iron dextran therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Burns, D L; Mascioli, E A; Bistrian, B R

    1995-01-01

    Iron dextran was introduced more than 30 yr ago for the parenteral treatment of iron deficiency anemia that is refractory to oral therapy. Iron dextran is a preparation of ferric hydroxide complexed with a low molecular weight fraction of dextran. Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional deficiency diseases and occurs worldwide secondary to inadequate dietary iron, usually with excessive gastrointestinal blood losses. Repletion of iron stores is often complicated by intolerance to oral iron supplementation and may require parenteral iron. Parenteral iron can be administered via the intramuscular or intravenous route either directly or as an additive to total parenteral nutrition. Both routes of administration can cause various side effects and a test dose is recommended before therapeutic administration to assess the risk for anaphylaxis. Although the efficacy and safety of parenteral iron dextran have been convincingly demonstrated, supplementation may be contraindicated in the setting of infection.

  10. Pediatric Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Israelite, Jill C

    Pediatric parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is typically defined as a decrease in bile flow that is independent of a mechanical obstruction and of any other underlying liver disease. It is most often seen in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition support. Up to 50% to 66% of children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition are reported to be diagnosed with PNALD. The goal of treatment for PNALD is advancement to full enteral nutrition and elimination of dependence on parenteral nutrition support. Achieving this goal is not always possible, especially in patients with short bowel syndrome. The following review article highlights some of the current treatment strategies focused on prevention or correction of PNALD as noted in current American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines.

  11. Toxicity of parenteral iron dextran therapy.

    PubMed

    Burns, D L; Pomposelli, J J

    1999-03-01

    Parenteral iron dextran is efficacious and safe for iron repletion in patients with iron-deficiency anemia. The risk for developing reactions to parenteral iron infusion can be attenuated if patients are carefully selected. Patients with underlying autoimmune disease, malnutrition with indolent infection, and risk for iron overload syndromes should be carefully monitored for complications. Further, the rate of infusion and the route of administration of iron dextran play roles in the risk of adverse reactions. The purpose of this review is to identify and elucidate the mechanisms of the acute and chronic toxicities associated with parenteral iron dextran use.

  12. Parenteral nutrition in hospital pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Katoue, Maram Gamal; Al-Taweel, Dalal; Matar, Kamal Mohamed; Kombian, Samuel B

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore parenteral nutrition (PN) practices in hospital pharmacies of Kuwait and identify potential avenues for quality improvement in this service. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive, qualitative study about PN practices was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013 in Kuwait. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with the head total parenteral nutrition (TPN) pharmacists at seven hospitals using a developed questionnaire. The questionnaire obtained information about the PN service at each hospital including the existence of nutritional support teams (NSTs), PN preparation practices, quality controls and guidelines/protocols. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for content. Findings - Seven hospitals in Kuwait provided PN preparation service through TPN units within hospital pharmacies. Functional NSTs did not exist in any of these hospitals. All TPN units used paper-based standard PN order forms for requesting PN. The content of PN order forms and PN formulas labeling information were inconsistent across hospitals. Most of the prepared PN formulas were tailor-made and packed in single compartment bags. Quality controls used included gravimetric analysis and visual inspection of PN formulations, and less consistently reported periodic evaluation of the aseptic techniques. Six TPN units independently developed PN guidelines/protocols. Originality/value - This study revealed variations in many aspects of PN practices among the hospitals in Kuwait and provided recommendations to improve this service. Standardization of PN practices would enhance the quality of care provided to patients receiving PN and facilitate national monitoring. This can be accomplished through the involvement of healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition support working within proactive NSTs.

  13. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert...

  14. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert...

  15. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert...

  16. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert...

  17. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used in total parenteral nutrition. 201.323 Section 201.323 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy must not exceed 25 micrograms per liter (µg/L). (b) The package insert of...

  18. Community parenteral therapy project: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Foster, L; McMurray, A

    1998-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this paper was devised to develop and compare service delivery models that would achieve the provision of high quality parenteral therapy care to patients in the Gold Coast District Health Service community. All data were collected on 113 patients for a 12-month period, January to December 1996. The study compared the provision of outreach nursing services and contracted nursing services on measures of satisfaction and cost. The study showed that patient and carers indicated a preference for community care, medical officers advocated the benefits of administering parenteral therapies in the community, general practitioners were interested in managing future community parenteral therapies, and contracted (nurse) service providers endorsed the development of a parenteral therapy resource centre. The findings also revealed considerable potential cost savings in community-based care.

  19. American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preliminary Program Now Available! View Now ASPEN Enteral Nutrition by the Numbers ASPEN’s new report is a ... large, complex Enteral Nutrition Market. Learn More Parenteral Nutrition: Back to the Basics Join us October 10 ...

  20. Parenteral nutrition: indications, risks and nursing care.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jane

    Parenteral nutrition is a recognised method of feeding patients with specific clinical conditions, most notably those with various forms of intestinal failure who cannot be fed enterally. However, it has several associated risks including sepsis, and metabolic and electrolyte imbalances. The aim of this article is to enhance nurses' understanding of parenteral nutrition and how this differs from oral or enteral nutrition, indications for use and the potential risks involved. Appropriate vascular access is discussed as well as the clinical monitoring that is required to ensure complications of therapy are detected quickly. A greater understanding of the issues associated with parenteral nutrition allows nurses caring for patients receiving parenteral nutrition to ensure safe and effective care.

  1. Cost of a home parenteral nutrition program.

    PubMed

    Wateska, L P; Sattler, L L; Steiger, E

    1980-11-21

    We analyzed the costs to a hospital of providing complete home parenteral nutrition (HPN) services for eight patients. Identified cost components include patient training, equipment, supplies, and follow-up. The average annual cost of maintaining parenteral nutrition at home was 73% lower than it would have been in the hospital. The establishment of private companies to provide patients with HPN supplies and services will reduce the financial burden of HPN programs for hospitals.

  2. Parenteral nutrition in the elderly cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Orrevall, Ylva

    2015-04-01

    Parenteral nutrition may be considered when oral intake and/or enteral nutrition are not sufficient to maintain nutritional status and the patient is likely to die sooner from starvation than from the cancer. A detailed assessment should be made prior to the decision about whether parenteral nutrition should be started. A follow up plan should be documented with objective and patient centred treatment goals as well as specific time points for evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Asbestos fibers in parenteral medication.

    PubMed

    Addison, J; Browne, K; Davis, J M; Gruber, U F

    1993-12-01

    The adequacy of current regulations for the control of particulate matter in injectable medicines has been brought into question by a recent television program which reported that asbestos fibers had been found in a number of such preparations. The fibers were identified as chrysotile, which occurs very widely as a secondary mineral in rocks, and is almost ubiquitous among minerals derived from natural erosion. Fibers are found in almost all drinking water and air samples unrelated to any contamination of fiber resulting from industrial exploitation. Because of this, even extreme laboratory precautions may fail to eliminate every fine fiber. A normal person living in an urban environment inhales about 10(5) asbestos fibers daily and ingests 10(10). There is evidence that a small proportion of these fibers regularly enters the circulation, and some fibers may be excreted in the urine. Elimination also occurs because retained chrysotile fibers fragment and disappear relatively quickly from human tissues, probably through macrophage action. Fiber length and dose are also important in disease causation. Established evidence on fiber length, durability, and quantitative exposure required for disease production does not indicate that the fibers reported to have been found in parenteral preparations constitute any hazard.

  4. Parenteral nutrition: never say never

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This review emphasizes the benefits of parenteral nutrition (PN) in critically ill patients, when prescribed for relevant indications, in adequate quantities, and in due time. Critically ill patients are at risk of energy deficit during their ICU stay, a condition which leads to unfavorable outcomes, due to hypercatabolism secondary to the stress response and the difficulty to optimize feeding. Indirect calorimetry is recommended to define the energy target, since no single predictive equation accurately estimates energy expenditure. Energy metabolism is intimately associated with protein metabolism. Recent evidence calls for adequate protein provision, but there is no accurate method to estimate the protein requirements, and recommendations are probably suboptimal. Enteral nutrition (EN) is the preferred route of feeding, but gastrointestinal intolerance limits its efficacy and PN allows for full coverage of energy needs. Seven recent articles concerning PN for critically ill patients were identified and carefully reviewed for the clinical and scientific relevance of their conclusions. One article addressed the unfavorable effects of early PN, although this result should be more correctly regarded as a consequence of glucose load and hypercaloric feeding. The six other articles were either in favor of PN or concluded that there was no difference in the outcome compared with EN. Hypercaloric feeding was not observed in these studies. Hypocaloric feeding led to unfavorable outcomes. This further demonstrates the beneficial effects of an early and adequate feeding with full EN, or in case of failure of EN with exclusive or supplemental PN. EN is the first choice for critically ill patients, but difficulties providing optimal nutrition through exclusive EN are frequently encountered. In cases of insufficient EN, individualized supplemental PN should be administered to reduce the infection rate and the duration of mechanical ventilation. PN is a safe therapeutic option

  5. Sepsis, parenteral vaccination and skin disinfection.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ian F

    2016-10-02

    ASBSTRACT Disinfection should be required for all skin penetrative procedures including parenteral administration of vaccines. This review analyses medically attended infectious events following parenteral vaccination in terms of their microbiological aetiology and pathogenesis. Like 'clean' surgical site infections, the major pathogens responsible for these events were Staphylococcal species, implicating endogenous con-tamination as a significant source of infection. As 70% isopropyl alcohol swabbing has been shown to effectively disinfect the skin, it would be medico-legally difficult to defend a case of sepsis with the omission of skin disinfection unless the very low risk of this event was adequately explained to the patient and documented prior to vaccination. There was a significant cost-benefit for skin disinfection and cellulitis. Skin disinfection in the context of parenteral vaccination represents a new paradigm of medical practice; the use of a low cost intervention to prevent an event of very low prevalence but of significant cost.

  6. Marchiafava: Bignami Disease Treated with Parenteral Thiamine

    PubMed Central

    Nemlekar, Saumitra Shankar; Mehta, Ritambhara Yeshwant; Dave, Kamlesh Rushikray; Shah, Nilima Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Marchiafava - Bignami disease is rare sequelae of chronic alcohol use. We present a case with transient ischemic attack like presentation and its management with parenteral thiamine. A 53 year old male with history of country liquor use since 32 years was brought to hospital with acute onset of delirium & mild weakness involving motor functions of left side of the body, non-reactive planters and exaggerated tendon reflexes on left side. The MRI showed bilateral hyper intense signal on T2W and FLAIR images & Hypo intense lesion on T1W images involving body, genu and splenium of corpus callosum. The features are suggestive of Marchiafava - Bignami Disease. There have been few guidelines for management of MBD and literature supports use of parenteral thiamine 500mg leading to remission of symptoms and symptomatic improvement. It is advisable to use parenteral thiamine in all cases as it overlaps management of other co-morbidities of chronic alcoholism. PMID:27114628

  7. Sepsis, parenteral vaccination and skin disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ian F.

    2016-01-01

    ASBSTRACT Disinfection should be required for all skin penetrative procedures including parenteral administration of vaccines. This review analyses medically attended infectious events following parenteral vaccination in terms of their microbiological aetiology and pathogenesis. Like ‘clean’ surgical site infections, the major pathogens responsible for these events were Staphylococcal species, implicating endogenous con-tamination as a significant source of infection. As 70% isopropyl alcohol swabbing has been shown to effectively disinfect the skin, it would be medico-legally difficult to defend a case of sepsis with the omission of skin disinfection unless the very low risk of this event was adequately explained to the patient and documented prior to vaccination. There was a significant cost-benefit for skin disinfection and cellulitis. Skin disinfection in the context of parenteral vaccination represents a new paradigm of medical practice; the use of a low cost intervention to prevent an event of very low prevalence but of significant cost. PMID:27295449

  8. Prefilled syringes: An innovation in parenteral packaging.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Sagar; Basu, Biswajit; Makasana, Yogita; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-10-01

    Parenteral administration of pharmaceutical products is one of the most popular methods used to produce quick onset of action and also 100% bioavailability. Main problem occurs with the parenteral drug delivery is lack of convenience, affordability, accuracy, sterility, safety etc. Such drawbacks with this delivery system makes it less preferable. Hence, all the disadvantages of these systems can be easily overcome by use of prefilled syringes. The objective of this review article is to provide information regarding prefilled syringes; it's method of preparation, direction to use, advantages, its future scope, and development.

  9. Prefilled syringes: An innovation in parenteral packaging

    PubMed Central

    Makwana, Sagar; Basu, Biswajit; Makasana, Yogita; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral administration of pharmaceutical products is one of the most popular methods used to produce quick onset of action and also 100% bioavailability. Main problem occurs with the parenteral drug delivery is lack of convenience, affordability, accuracy, sterility, safety etc. Such drawbacks with this delivery system makes it less preferable. Hence, all the disadvantages of these systems can be easily overcome by use of prefilled syringes. The objective of this review article is to provide information regarding prefilled syringes; it's method of preparation, direction to use, advantages, its future scope, and development. PMID:23071944

  10. Chromium deficiency during total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Freund, H; Atamian, S; Fischer, J E

    1979-02-02

    Chromium is required for maintenance of normal glucose tolerance. After complete bowel resection and five months of total parenteral nutrition, severe glucose intolerance, weight loss, and a metabolic encephalopathy-like confusional state developed in a patient. Serum chromium levels were at the lowest normal level. Supplementation of 150 microgram of chromium per day reversed the glucose intolerance, reduced insulin requirements, and resulted in weight gain and the disappearance of encephalopathy. The low levels of chromium and response to chromium supplementation suggest that chromium deficiency can arise in long-term total parenteral nutrition.

  11. Parenteral amino acid intakes in critically ill children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parenteral amino acid formulas used in parenteral nutrition have a variable composition. To determine the amino acid intake of parenterally fed, critically ill children, and compare it with recommended dietary allowances (RDA) established by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), we retrospectively review...

  12. [Parenteral periferic nutrition: non surgical indications].

    PubMed

    Ayúcar Ruiz de Galarreta, A; Pita Gutiérrez, F; Mosteiro Pereira, F; Cordero Lorenzana, L; Gómez Canosa, S; Seco Vilariño, C

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition, defined as a mixture of micronutrients, vitamins and minerals with lower osmolarity of 800 mOsm/L, it avoids the risk of the central catheter. It has traditionally been used in postoperative patients, but really medical conditions can also benefit from it either as complementary, or as the only one source of nutrients, since a high number of patients require less caloric intake than previously believed. Evaluation of the use of peripheral parenteral nutrition in non postoperative hospitalized patients, reasons for its prescription and duration. 368 patients who required peripheral parenteral nutrition were studied by the Nutrition Support Unit for 54 months, in a Tertiary Hospital of 1,560 beds, from all, specialties excluding postoperative patients. The study include the mechanisms that led to its use in all its forms: the only one nutritional support or complementing insufficient Enteral Nutrition or Oral Diet. Oncology and Critical Care were the most prescribed pathologies, followed by Pancreatitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease and HIV and a miscellany of clinical pathologies. Gastrointestinal pathology (pain, diarrhea or vomiting) was the most frequent cause, both in critically ill as in non-critical patients. Although enteral route is preferred and raised primarily in most patients studied, there are many causes that might impair or nullify it. Peripheral parenteral nutrition is an alternative when caloric intake is impossible or insufficient or refused by the patient, as it minimizes the complications of the central catheter.

  13. [Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, J M

    2008-05-01

    Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is an important problem in patients who require longterm parenteral nutrition as well as in preterm infants. Prevalence varies according to different series. Clinical presentation is different in adults and infants. Although since its first descriptions several hypothesis have been elucidated, the aetiology is not quite clear. It is possible that different factors could be involved. PNALD risk factors can be classified in three groups: 1) those derived from the lack of enteral nutrition stimulus; 2) parenteral nutrition components acting as toxic or the lack of specific nutrients and 3) those due to the underlying disease. If PNALD appears in short-term PN and it presents only as a mild elevation of liver enzymes, there is no need to treat. On the contrary, when direct bilirubin is > 2 mg/dL and lasts longer, there is a need to consider different causes and to minimize risk factors. We review the different approaches to manage PNALD, including optimizing enteral nutrition, modify parenteral solutions, use of specific nutrients -taurine, choline, etc.- or the use of drugs (mainly ursodeoxicolic acid). If liver disease progresses to cirrhosis a liver transplant must be considered.

  14. Bell's palsy and parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Wise, Lesley; Miller, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Concern about a possible increased risk of Bell's palsy after parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine was raised following the publication in 2004 of a Swiss study in which there was an increased risk following the nasal inactivated formulation of the vaccine. When data from passive reporting systems in the United States and the United Kingdom were examined there was some evidence of increased reporting following the parenteral vaccine. A large population based study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) was therefore performed to test the hypothesis that there was an increased risk of Bell's palsy in the three months following parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine. The risk was also assessed for the same period following pneumococcal vaccine and was stratified into three age groups (<45, 45-64 and 65+ years). Relative incidence (RI) estimates were calculated using the self-controlled case-series method and showed no evidence of an increased risk in the three months following parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine RI 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.78-1.08). There was also no evidence of an increased risk in any age group or following pneumococcal vaccine. A significant increase was seen on the day of vaccination (day 0) probably due to opportunistic recording of cases.

  15. PARENTERAL NUTRITION INDICATIONS, ADMINISTRATION, AND MONITORING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) can be lifesaving or life threatening, depending on when and how it is used. In infants and children who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements over extended periods, it can prevent death from malnutrition. On the other hand, if appropriate attention is not paid ...

  16. Pediatric parenteral nutrition: putting the microscope on macronutrients and micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Slicker, Julie; Vermilyea, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition can be a life-saving therapy, but its benefits need to be balanced with a unique set of risks and complications. Methods of practice vary because there is a dearth of research in the area of pediatric parenteral nutrition. This article reviews the available literature on parenteral nutrition in children and provides suggestions on prevention and management of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. Some of the issues discussed in this article include glucose infusion rates, cycling of parenteral nutrition, copper and manganese toxicity, and the provision of glutamine, selenium, and carnitine.

  17. [Elevated serum lithium concentration due to switch from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hidekazu; Tomita, Takashi; Doki, Shotaro; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with elevated serum lithium concentration caused by switching from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition. A 73-year-old female inpatient was treated with lithium carbonate 600 mg/d for manic episodes of bipolar disorder. Her serum lithium level was maintained at 0.57-0.79 mEq/L. She was administered total parenteral nutrition owing to difficulty in oral intake. Her diet contained 4.8-5.8 g/d of sodium chloride. After this, parenteral with enteral nutrition was initiated. The total sodium chloride intake decreased from 6.3 to 3.0-4.0 g/d following this change. On day 15 after initiation of parenteral with enteral nutrition, her serum lithium level increased to 1.17 mEq/L, which is closer to the upper therapeutic range limit. Therefore enteral nutrition was stopped immediately, and an electrolyte solution was administered instead of enteral nutrition. An antibiotic agent was also simultaneously administered because of infection. The total amount of sodium chloride administered was increased to 7.0 g/d during this treatment. Four days after treatment, the serum lithium level returned to 0.57 mEq/L. This case suggests that administration of appropriate sodium chloride nutrition is important during treatment with lithium carbonate, because disposition of lithium ion is paralleled to that of sodium.

  18. Metabolic acidosis during parenteral nutrition: Pathophysiological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dounousi, Evangelia; Zikou, Xanthi; Koulouras, Vasilis; Katopodis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with metabolic complications including metabolic acidosis (MA), one of the main disorders of acid-base balance. The main causes involved in the appearance of MA during TPN administration are the metabolism of cationic amino acids and amino acids containing sulfuric acid (exogenous addition), the titratable acidity of the infused parenteral solution, the addition of acidificant agents (hydrochloric acid, acetic acid), thiamine deficiency, disruption of carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways and D-fructose administration. Moreover, hypophosphatemia that appears during TPN therapy contributes significantly to the maintenance of MA. This review describes in a comprehensive way the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the appearance of MA induced by intravenous administration of TPN products most commonly used in critically ill-patients. PMID:25983433

  19. Intravenous Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition123

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Gillian L; Nandivada, Prathima; Gura, Kathleen M; Puder, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Fat is an important macronutrient in the human diet. For patients with intestinal failure who are unable to absorb nutrients via the enteral route, intravenous lipid emulsions play a critical role in providing an energy-dense source of calories and supplying the essential fatty acids that cannot be endogenously synthesized. Over the last 50 y, lipid emulsions have been an important component of parenteral nutrition (PN), and over the last 10–15 y many new lipid emulsions have been manufactured with the goal of improving safety and efficacy profiles and achieving physiologically optimal formulations. The purpose of this review is to provide a background on the components of lipid emulsions, their role in PN, and to discuss the lipid emulsions available for intravenous use. Finally, the role of parenteral fat emulsions in the pathogenesis and management of PN-associated liver disease in PN-dependent pediatric patients is reviewed. PMID:26374182

  20. [Neonatal parenteral nutrition prescription practices in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Neves, A; Pereira-da-Silva, L; Fernandez-Llimos, F

    2014-02-01

    The use of guidelines for neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) improves its clinical efficiency and the safety of prescription. To evaluate the practices of neonatal parenteral nutrition prescription in Portugal, and the adherence to the National Consensus on neonatal PN (2008). A questionnaire based on a multiple choice response on parenteral nutrition prescription was conducted, and sent to the coordinators of the 50 public and private Portuguese neonatal special care units, 25 being level III and 25 level II. Parenteral nutrition was prescribed in 32 neonatal units, 23 of which (71.9%) responded to the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 19 (82.6%) refer to follow the National Consensus, the remaining following local guidelines; 17 (73.9%) of units referred to using an electronic based system for prescription. In preterm neonates, most mentioned: administering judiciously the fluid intake during the first post-natal week; starting amino acids from the first post-natal day with 1.5-3g/kg/d, increasing up to 3-4g/kg/d; starting lipids from the first three post-natal days with 1g/kg/d, increasing up to 3g/kg/d; administering 40-70mg/kg/d of calcium and of phosphorus with the fixed calcium:phosphorus ratio of 1.7: 1 (mg:mg); and estimating the osmolality of the solutions, and weekly monitoring of serum triglycerides, blood urea, serum phosphorus and liver function. The high response rate is probably representative of the practice of PN prescription in Portugal. Most of the units used the National Consensus on neonatal PN as a reference, thus contributing to better nutritional support for neonates. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Aluminium in parenteral nutrition: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sánchez, A; Tejada-González, P; Arteta-Jiménez, M

    2013-03-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity problem in parenteral nutrition solutions (PNS) is decades old and is still unresolved. The aim of this review is to gather updated information about this matter, regarding legislation, manifestations, diagnostics and treatment, patient population at risk and the actions to be taken to limit its accumulation. A structured search using MeSH vocabulary and Title/Abstract searches was conducted in PubMed (http://www.pubmed.gov) up to November 2012. Al is ubiquitous, facilitating its potential for exposure. Nevertheless, humans have several mechanisms to prevent significant absorption and to aid its elimination; therefore, the vast majority of the population is not at risk for Al toxicity. However, when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed (for example, parenteral fluids), renal function is impaired (for example, adult patients with renal compromise and neonates) or exposure is high (for example, long-term PNS), Al is prone to accumulate in the body, including manifestations such as impaired neurological development, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic bone disease, dyslipemia and even genotoxic activity. A high Al content in PNS is largely the result of three parenteral nutrient additives: calcium gluconate, inorganic phosphates and cysteine hydrochloride. Despite the legislative efforts, some factors make difficult to comply with the rule and, therefore, to limit the Al toxicity. Unfortunately, manufacturers have not universally changed their processes to obtain a lower Al content of parenteral drug products (PDP). In addition, the imprecise information provided by PDP labels and the high lot-to-lot variation make the prediction of Al content rather inaccurate.

  2. Management and effects of parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Angie

    Despite nutrition being a basic human need, malnutrition in hospitals remains surprisingly common, with the effects clearly documented (Taylor and Goodison-McLaren, 1992). Malnourished patients are more likely to suffer from complications; are at increased risk of developing infections; have poor or delayed wound healing, increased mortality rates and longer hospital stays. This article focuses on the basics of parenteral nutrition in the adult, addressing a small selection of potential complications.

  3. Taurolidine in Pediatric Home Parenteral Nutrition Patients.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, Emma Claire; Hanff, Lidwien Marieke; Olieman, Joanne; de Vette, Susanna; Driessen, Gert-Jan; Meeussen, Conny; Escher, Johanna Caroline

    2017-02-01

    To reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections in home parenteral nutrition patients, the use of taurolidine was introduced in the Sophia Children's Hospital in 2011. This introduction led to a reduction in catheter-related bloodstream infections: 12.7/1000 catheter days before the use of taurolidine, compared with 4.3/1000 catheter days afterwards (n = 7) [relative risk = 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.65 (P = 0.018)].

  4. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-03-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using /sup 15/N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats.

  5. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

  6. The Development of Total Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Don K

    2017-01-01

    The first patient to receive complete nourishment of a patient by intravenous infusion independent of the alimentary tract was an infant girl born with near-total small bowel atresia. Total parenteral nutrition, the intravenous infusion of nutrients, has been attempted since Harvey's description of the circulatory system in the early 17th century. The modern era of parenteral nutrition began in the early 20th century, when infusions of glucose, plasma, and emulsified fat into humans proved feasible. Robert Elman, working in the 1930s and 1940s, demonstrated that carefully prepared protein hydrolysates could be safely infused intravenously and incorporated by the body. Stanley Dudrick and Douglas Wilmore, surgeon researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, worked through the many details of preparation, administration, and clinical monitoring in beagle puppies before testing them on adult patients malnourished from a variety of surgical complications and gastrointestinal conditions. They applied their techniques and formulations on a newborn wasting away from congenital absence of the small bowel, the baby growing and developing for several months while being nourished completely by total parenteral nutrition. Their techniques, inspired by patients with progressive malnutrition from devastating intestinal conditions and malformations, form the basis of the practice of intravenous nutrition practiced today.

  7. Plasma trace metals during total parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Layden, T J; Rosenberg, I H; Vo-Khactu, K; Sandstead, H H

    1976-06-01

    The plasma concentrations of the trace metals zinc and copper were studied prospectively in 13 patients with gastrointestinal diseases treated with parenteral alimentation (TPA) for periods of from 8 days to 7 1/2 weeks. Plasma copper levels fell rapidly and consistently in all patients, with an overall rate of - 11 mug per 100 ml per week. Zinc concentrations declined in 10 of 13 patients at a more gradual rate. Analysis of the standard parenteral alimentation fluids revealed zinc content equivalent to 50% of the daily requirement and a negligible content of copper. From combined analysis of plasma zinc, hair zinc, and taste acuity, there is evidence that increased utilization or redistribution within the body may effect plasma concentrations in some patients. Neither an increase in urinary excretion nor a primary decrease in plasma binding proteins appeared to be a major factor in lowering plasma trace metal concentrations. These findings indicate that a marked decrease in plasma copper is regular and a decline in plasma zinc is common during TPA using fluids unsupplemented with trace metals. Supplementation of parenteral alimentation fluids with the trace metals zinc and copper is recommended.

  8. Standardized Competencies for Parenteral Nutrition Order Review and Parenteral Nutrition Preparation, Including Compounding: The ASPEN Model.

    PubMed

    Boullata, Joseph I; Holcombe, Beverly; Sacks, Gordon; Gervasio, Jane; Adams, Stephen C; Christensen, Michael; Durfee, Sharon; Ayers, Phil; Marshall, Neil; Guenter, Peggi

    2016-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication with a complex drug use process. Key steps in the process include the review of each PN prescription followed by the preparation of the formulation. The preparation step includes compounding the PN or activating a standardized commercially available PN product. The verification and review, as well as preparation of this complex therapy, require competency that may be determined by using a standardized process for pharmacists and for pharmacy technicians involved with PN. An American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) standardized model for PN order review and PN preparation competencies is proposed based on a competency framework, the ASPEN-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines, and is intended for institutions and agencies to use with their staff. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Micronutrients in parenteral nutrition: boron, silicon, and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2009-11-01

    Boron may be beneficial for bone growth and maintenance, central nervous system function, and the inflammatory response, and silicon may be beneficial for bone maintenance and wound healing. Fluoride is not an essential element but amounts provided by contamination may be beneficial for bone strength. Fluoride toxicity may be a concern in parenteral nutrition. Further studies are warranted to determine whether there are optimal amounts of boron and silicon that should be delivered to typical and special population patients receiving parenteral nutrition. In addition, further studies are needed to determine whether providing the dietary guideline of adequate intake amounts of fluoride parenterally would prevent or treat parenteral nutrition osteopenia.

  10. Home parenteral nutrition in children: the Polish experience.

    PubMed

    Ksiazyk, J; Lyszkowska, M; Kierkus, J; Bogucki, K; Ratyńska, A; Tondys, B; Socha, J

    1999-02-01

    Home parenteral nutrition has become routine for management of intestinal failure in patients. In Poland the main obstacle to widespread use of home parenteral nutrition is the lack of interest of commercial companies in delivering feedings and ancillaries to patients. Twenty-five home parenteral nutrition patients aged from 4 months to more than 13 years were reviewed. The mother or both parents were trained in home parenteral nutrition techniques for 4 to 6 weeks and compounded the nutrients themselves at home. The mean duration of home parenteral nutrition was 10,117 patient days. Hospital stays of patients receiving parenteral feedings were significantly shorter than the duration of administration of home parenteral nutrition (p < 0.001). Eleven children are continuing the home parenteral nutrition program. Eighty-three catheters were used in these patients. The rate of catheter occlusion decreased within the observation period, and in 1997 not one case of occlusion was observed. In 1997 only three catheters were removed during 7.8 patient years, and the overall incidence of catheter-related complications was 0.38 per patient year. The overall occurrence of septicemia was one case in 516 days and of catheter infection was one in 459 days. In 1997 a catheter was infected on average of once every 1419 days. There was significant improvement in the z score for weight during therapy. The average monthly cost of nutrients and ancillary items was approximately $1200 (4200 Polish zlotys [PLN]). These costs are 1.6 to 3 times lower than those recorded in other studies. Home parenteral nutrition in children with nutrients mixed by caregivers in the home setting is a safe and appropriate method of treatment that can be used in countries where home parenteral nutrition solutions are not manufactured or where commercial home parenteral nutrition is not economically feasible.

  11. Australasian Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines for supplementation of trace elements during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Osland, Emma J; Ali, Azmat; Isenring, Elizabeth; Ball, Patrick; Davis, Melvyn; Gillanders, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This work represents the first part of a progressive review of AuSPEN's 1999 Guidelines for Provision of Micronutrient Supplementation in Adult Patients receiving Parenteral Nutrition, in recognition of the developments in the literature on this topic since that time. A systematic literature review was undertaken and recommendations were made based on the available evidence and with consideration to specific elements of the Australian and New Zealand practice environment. The strength of evidence underpinning each recommendation was assessed. External reviewers provided feedback on the guidelines using the AGREE II tool. Reduced doses of manganese, copper, chromium and molybdenum, and an increased dose of selenium are recommended when compared with the 1999 guidelines. Currently the composition of available multi-trace element formulations is recognised as an obstacle to aligning these guidelines with practice. A paucity of available literature and limitations with currently available methods of monitoring trace element status are acknowledged. The currently unknown clinical impact of changes to trace element contamination of parenteral solutions with contemporary practices highlights need for research and clinical vigilance in this area of nutrition support practice. Trace elements are essential and should be provided daily to patients receiving parenteral nutrition. Monitoring is generally only required in longer term parenteral nutrition, however should be determined on an individual basis. Industry is encouraged to modify existing multi-trace element solutions available in Australia and New Zealand to reflect changes in the literature outlined in these guidelines. Areas requiring research are highlighted.

  12. Immune modulation by parenteral lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wanten, Geert J A; Calder, Philip C

    2007-05-01

    Total parenteral nutrition is the final option for nutritional support of patients with severe intestinal failure. Lipid emulsions constitute the main source of fuel calories and fatty acids (FAs) in parenteral nutrition formulations. However, adverse effects on patient outcomes have been attributed to the use of lipids, mostly in relation to impaired immune defenses and altered inflammatory responses. Over the years, this issue has remained in the limelight, also because technical advances have provided no safeguard against the most daunting problems, ie, infectious complications. Nevertheless, numerous investigations have failed to produce a clear picture of the immunologic characteristics of the most commonly used soybean oil-derived lipid emulsions, although their high content of n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) has been considered a drawback because of their proinflammatory potential. This concern initiated the development of emulsions in which part of the n-6 FA component is replaced by less bioactive FAs, such as coconut oil (rich in medium-chain saturated FAs) or olive oil (rich in the n-9 monounsaturated FA oleic acid). Another approach has been to use fish oil (rich in n-3 PUFA), the FAs of which have biological activities different from those of n-6 PUFAs. Recent studies on the modulation of host defenses and inflammation by fish-oil emulsions have yielded consistent data, which indicate that these emulsions may provide a tool to beneficially alter the course of immune-mediated conditions. Although most of these lipids have not yet become available on the US market, this review synthesizes available information on immunologic characteristics of the different lipids that currently can be applied via parenteral nutrition support.

  13. Parenteral sulfur amino acid requirements in septic infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To investigate parenteral methionine requirements of critically ill, septic infants, we conducted an investigation involving 12 infants (age 2+/-1 years; weight 13+/-2kg) using the intravenous indicator amino acid oxidation and balance technique. They received a balanced parenteral amino acid formul...

  14. Parenteral nutrition product shortages: impact on safety.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Beverly

    2012-03-01

    The drug shortage crisis continues in the United States and threatens the integrity of the pharmaceutical supply chain and compromises patient care, especially patients requiring parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy. The number of new drug shortages has increased rapidly over the past 5 years, with the most significant increase in sterile injectable products. The most common reason for a shortage of a sterile injectable medication is a product quality issue. Two surveys of healthcare professionals have assessed the impact of drug shortages on patient safety. Participants in one survey reported over 1000 medication errors or patient adverse events as the result of shortages. The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition also conducted a survey of healthcare professionals regarding PN product shortages and the associated patient care implications. Safety risks were reported throughout the entire PN process, from procurement of PN products to patient outcomes. Providing PN therapy during product shortages requires vigilance and continuous assessment of the entire PN process to optimize patient care quality and avoid patient harm.

  15. [Parenteral nutrition in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gómez Alvarez, M E

    2004-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a sophisticated procedure used in the treatment of solid tumors, haematological diseases and autoimmune disorders, which were characterized by an extremely poor prognosis only a few years earlier. Thousands of patients receive high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy around the world every year in order to treat these diseases. Therapy can induce aggressive changes associated with multiple organ failure, which is usually reversible, that can lead to special nutritional and metabolic conditions. Artificial nutrition, total parenteral nutrition in particular, is provided to patients undergoing HSCT to help minimize nutritional consequences of both conditioning regimens (mucositis, malabsorption, etc.) as well as complications resulting from the procedure (graft versus host disease, venoocclusive disease of the liver). This study reviews published guidelines for the use of parenteral nutrition in HSCT and includes important aspects for nutritional support in children, including controversy on potential benefits of special nutrients (glutamine, antioxidants, etc.) and furthermore discusses future trends. This paper also addresses the pharmacists role and the necessity for multidisciplinary teams to develop specific protocols.

  16. Home parenteral nutrition in chronic intestinal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Bisset, W M; Stapleford, P; Long, S; Chamberlain, A; Sokel, B; Milla, P J

    1992-01-01

    In children with severe failure of intestinal function, intravenous nutrition is at present the only treatment able to maintain adequate nutrition for prolonged periods of time. Over the last five years we have discharged 10 patients home on parenteral nutrition for a total of 25 patient years and here the outcome of these children is presented. Of the 10 patients, one has discontinued home parenteral nutrition (HPN), seven patients remain well, one patient has recently moved to the USA, and one patient has died after major abdominal surgery. All children had either normal or an accelerated rate of growth on HPN and developmentally all have progressed well. All the children over 5 years attend normal schools. The major complication of treatment was line sepsis with an overall rate of one episode in 476 days and a total of nine central lines (five patients) have required replacement giving an average line life of 680 days. For those children unfortunate enough to suffer from severe intestinal failure, HPN is preferable to prolonged hospital treatment and offers the chance of a good quality of life with prolonged survival. PMID:1739322

  17. ASPEN statement on parenteral nutrition standardization.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, Marty; Guenter, Peggi; Holcombe, Beverly; Malone, Ainsley; Mirtallo, Jay

    2007-01-01

    In response to questions regarding use of standardized parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) developed a Task Force to address some of these issues. A.S.P.E.N. envisions standardized PN as a broader issue rather than simply using a standardized, commercially available PN product. A standardized process for PN must be explored in order to improve patient safety and clinical appropriateness, and to maximize resource efficiency. A standardized process may include use of standardized PN formulations (including standardized, commercial PN products) but also includes aspects of ordering, labeling, screening, compounding, and administration of PN. A safe PN system must exist which minimizes procedural incidents and maximizes the ability to meet individual patient requirements. Using clinicians with nutrition support therapy expertise will contribute to that safe PN system. The purpose of this statement is to present the published literature associated with standardized PN formulations, to provide recommendations, and to identify areas in need of future research.

  18. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Snyder, S; Bergen, C; Sigler, M H; Teehan, B P

    1991-01-01

    The effects of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) were studied in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients who had a normalized protein catabolic rate (PCRN) of less than or equal to 0.8 g/kg/day, and KT/V = 0.94 +/- 0.04. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition was administered during thrice weekly CHD for 3-6 months, and consisted of essential and nonessential amino acids (42.5 g), glucose (125 g), and lipid emulsion (50 g). Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, albumin, transferrin, pre-albumin, total lymphocyte count, anthropometrics, protein catabolic rate, 3 day historic dietary protein intake, and dietary energy intake (DEI) were measured at baseline, before IDPN, during IDPN, and at completion of IDPN. Six of nine enrolled patients completed the study. Reasons for withdrawal included nausea and hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. DPI normalized for body weight (DPIN) increased significantly from 0.75 +/- 0.1 to 1.02 +/- 0.18 (p = 0.02). Increases in PCRN (0.57 +/- 0.18 to 0.78 +/- 0.2) and DEI (1495 +/- 266 to 1681 +/- 358) did not reach statistical significance. More aggressive IDPN or a longer study period may be necessary to assess this form of nutritional intervention.

  19. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on or...

  20. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on or...

  1. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on or...

  2. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on or...

  3. Compartment syndrome due to extravasation of peripheral parenteral nutrition: extravasation injury of parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Park, Huee Jin; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Hyuk Jin; Jeong, Eui Cheol; Kim, Kee Won

    2015-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a rare but devastating condition that can result in permanent neuromuscular or soft tissue injuries. Extravasation injuries, among the iatrogenic causes of compartment syndrome, occur under a wide variety of circumstances in the inpatient setting. Total parenteral nutrition via a peripheral route is an effective alternative for the management of critically ill children who do not obtain adequate nutrition via the oral route. However, there is an inherent risk of extravasation, which can cause compartment syndrome, especially when detected at a later stage. Herein, we report a rare case of compartment syndrome and skin necrosis due to extravasation, requiring emergency fasciotomy and skin graft in a 7-month-old boy who was treated with peripheral parenteral nutrition via a pressurized infusion pump. Although we cannot estimate the exact time at which extravasation occurred, the extent and degree of the wound suggest that the ischemic insult was prolonged, lasting for several hours. Pediatric clinicians and medical teams should carefully examine the site of insertion of the intravenous catheter, especially in patients receiving parenteral nutrition via a peripheral intravenous catheter with a pressurized infusion pump. PMID:26692883

  4. Recent developments in home total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fish, J; Steiger, E; Seidner, D L

    2000-08-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) support has been an advancing therapy in the past 30 years. Patients who previously had no options to sustain their lives are now able to live at home, maintain employment, and continue with most daily activities. Although this therapy has been innovative and successful, it requires great financial and professional resources. The expense of HPN makes most patients dependent on third-party payment, and the complications can result in frequent hospitalizations and may be life-threatening. For these reasons, extensive training of the patient and caregivers is necessary. Thorough and time-consuming monitoring by a multidisciplinary team of professionals is also essential. Home care and supply companies offer services that make the process of home TPN easier for the patient and the healthcare team. Advances in the area of home nutrition support are expected to continue as the demand for this therapy rises.

  5. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition after small bowel resection.

    PubMed

    Jones, S A; Bushman, M; Cohen, R

    1996-02-01

    Malnutrition is frequently observed in the hemodialysis patient population. It may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as affect overall quality of life, which may already be compromised from dialytic physical and psychological demands. In the past, intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) has been available to hemodialysis patients as an adjunct to their dietary intake. In this time of cost containment and the increasing need to scientifically justify the benefit of such therapies to have them paid for by third party reimbursers, IDPN is coming under much scrutiny. This report describes a case of inadequate enteral nutrient absorption in a malnourished hemodialysis patient. This is a case in which IDPN was beneficial and without which other alternatives would have proven more costly physically, emotionally, and economically to the patient.

  6. Stability issues of parenteral chemotherapy drugs.

    PubMed

    de Lemos, Mário L; Hamata, Linda

    2007-03-01

    The pharmacist often needs to have all the information required to prepare and to assign an expiry date for parenteral products of antineoplastic agents. The pharmaceutical manufacturers usually provide data on how to prepare their products and the associated physicochemical stability. Standard reference texts also provide additional summary information of other primary data. However, it is not uncommon to find knowledge gaps in this area. Hence, additional extrapolation and consensus on interpretation is often needed to address issues not covered by data from the pharmaceutical manufacturers, standard reference texts, or official guidelines. Some of the key issues have been identified in our recent development of a chemotherapy preparation and stability chart. These include use of data from different brands, expiry date of original vial and final products, risk of contamination, infusion volume and stability, multi-day home-use products, syringe preparations, and products to be used immediately. Potential approaches to address these common issues are described in this article.

  7. Severe Hypothyroidism From Iodine Deficiency Associated With Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Golekoh, Marjorie C; Cole, Conrad R; Jones, Nana-Hawa Yayah

    2016-11-01

    Parenteral nutrition is crucial for supply of nutrients in children who cannot tolerate a full enteral diet. In the United States, it is not standard of care to give iodine to children dependent on parenteral nutrition, hence iodine is not routinely included in the micronutrient package. Herein, we present a case of a boy with hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency after prolonged exclusive use of parenteral nutrition. Our case highlights the importance of screening for iodine deficiency and administering timely iodine supplementation in these at-risk children to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism.

  8. Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Seaton, R A; Barr, D A

    2013-10-01

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) refers to the administration of a parenteral antimicrobial in a non inpatient or ambulatory setting with the explicit aim of facilitating admission avoidance or early discharge. Whilst OPAT has predominantly been the domain of the infection specialist, the internal medicine specialist has a key role in service development and delivery as a component of broader ambulatory care initiatives such as "hospital at home". Main drivers for OPAT are patient welfare, reduction of risk of health care associated infection and cost-effective use of hospital resources. The safe practice of OPAT is dependent on a team approach with careful patient selection and antimicrobial management with programmed and adaptable clinical monitoring and assessment of outcome. Gram-positive infections, including cellulitis, bone and joint infection, bacteraemia and endocarditis are key infections potentially amenable to OPAT whilst resistant Gram-negative infections are of increasing importance. Ceftriaxone, teicoplanin, daptomycin and ertapenem lend themselves well to OPAT due to daily (or less frequent) bolus administration, although any antimicrobial may be administered if the patient is trained to administer and/or an appropriate infusion device is employed. Clinical experience from NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde is presented to illustrate the key principles of OPAT as practised in the UK. Increasingly complex patients with multiple medical needs, the relative scarcity of inpatient resources and the broader challenge of ambulatory care and "hospital at home" will ensure the internal medicine specialist will have a key role in the future development of OPAT. Copyright © 2013 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intravenous lipids in home parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pironi, Loris; Agostini, Federica; Guidetti, Mariacristina

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) are an important component of the nutritional admixtures for patients on long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) for chronic intestinal failure (CIF). IVLEs are primarily used as a source of energy and essential fatty acids, and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is the most important characteristic of IVLEs. IVLEs rich in n-6 PUFAs may have a pro-inflammatory effect, whereas those rich in n-3 PUFAs may exert an anti-inflammatory effect. Other components to be considered are the risk of lipid peroxidation and the contents of α-tocopherol and phytosterols. Published studies were reviewed to determine the effects of the commercially available IVLEs on essential fatty acid status, liver function tests, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory indices, and α-tocopherol status, as well as their clinical safety and efficacy in patients on HPN. Investigations on the efficacy of fish oil-based IVLEs, which are rich in n-3 PUFAs, in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in adult patients on HPN for CIF were also analyzed. The current commercial IVLE formulations have similar clinical safety profiles and efficacies and can prevent the development of essential fatty acid deficiency in adults on HPN for CIF. IVLE with a low content of n-6 PUFAs and with or without increased n-3 PUFA content may reduce the risk of PNALD. Fish oil-based IVLE, which is rich in n-3 PUFAs, may be effective in reversing hepatic cholestasis due to PNALD.

  10. Parenteral lipids: safety aspects and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wanten, Geert J A

    2015-01-01

    Lipid emulsions (LEs) used in modern parenteral nutrition formulations are indispensable sources of calories and (essential) fatty acids ((E)FAs). Several generations of LEs based on various FA sources have been developed, and issues related to their safe use deserve attention. The relevant issues concern LE composition, stability and sterility, while other problems are related to the lipid infusion rate, including hypertriglyceridemia and lipid overload syndrome. The FA structure of LEs translates into effects on inflammatory processes and immune cell function and affects the functions of organs, such as the liver and lungs. In addition, disturbed balances of (anti)oxidants and the presence of other bioactive agents in LEs, such as phytosterols, are mechanisms that may underlie the potential adverse effects. Lipid emulsions (LEs) are key components of parenteral nutrition (PN) that bypass the need for (essential) fatty acids ((E)FAs) and provide sufficient energy to decrease the need for the infusion of large amounts of dextrose, thus preventing its associated complications. The oldest available LEs are based on soybean oil (SO-LE) and meet these requirements. (Pre)clinical evidence suggests that various, next-generation LEs based on alternative oil sources are safe and effective; particularly, those based on fish oil (FO-LEs) have less pro-inflammatory characteristics that may convey beneficial effects on the immune system and organ functions. With the exception of decreased liver damage with the use of FO-LEs instead of SO-LEs, the clinical relevance of many of these data needs further validation.

  11. Third generation cephalosporins in the parenteral to oral switch.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, D

    1994-01-01

    In the present economic climate, it is increasingly necessary to ensure the cost-effectiveness of all aspects of healthcare. The expenditure on medications in a hospital is largely determined by the workload and throughput, but efforts to rationalise the use of medications will result in benefits both in patient care and overall costs. The purpose of this report is to discuss the advantages of switching from parenteral to oral cephalosporin therapy after the initial stage of infection treatment, the potential of presently available oral cephalosporins for use in a parenteral-to-oral switch regimen, and the outcome of a parenteral-to-oral switch programme, which used parenteral cefotaxime and oral cefixime, implemented at Hillingdon Hospital.

  12. Parenteral glutamine supplementation in critical illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The potential benefit of parenteral glutamine (GLN) supplementation has been one of the most commonly studied nutritional interventions in the critical care setting. The aim of this systematic review was to incorporate recent trials of traditional parenteral GLN supplementation in critical illness with previously existing data. Methods All randomized controlled trials of parenterally administered GLN in critically ill patients conducted from 1997 to 2013 were identified. Studies of enteral GLN only or combined enteral/parenteral GLN were excluded. Methodological quality of studies was scored and data was abstracted by independent reviewers. Results A total of 26 studies involving 2,484 patients examining only parenteral GLN supplementation of nutrition support were identified in ICU patients. Parenteral GLN supplementation was associated with a trend towards a reduction of overall mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75, 1.03, P = 0.10) and a significant reduction in hospital mortality (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51, 0.90, P = 0.008). In addition, parenteral GLN was associated with a strong trend towards a reduction in infectious complications (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.73, 1.02, P = 0.09) and ICU length of stay (LOS) (WMD –1.91, (95% CI -4.10, 0.28, P = 0.09) and significant reduction in hospital LOS (WMD -2.56, 95% CI -4.71, -0.42, P = 0.02). In the subset of studies examining patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN), parenteral GLN supplementation was associated with a trend towards reduced overall mortality (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71, 1.01, P = 0.07). Conclusions Parenteral GLN supplementation given in conjunction with nutrition support continues to be associated with a significant reduction in hospital mortality and hospital LOS. Parenteral GLN supplementation as a component of nutrition support should continue to be considered to improve outcomes in critically ill patients. PMID:24745648

  13. [Sea-blue histiocyte syndrome associated with home parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Egaña, N; Parón, L; Cuerda, C; Bretón, I; Camblor, M; Velasco, C; García-Peris, P

    2009-01-01

    A case of a 55 years-old male with long-term Crohn's disease without response to medical treatment and many intestinal fistula is presented. After the last bowel resection, home parenteral nutrition was started. He presented chronic hepatopathy and pancytopaenia. After 9 months of home parenteral nutrition hepatic function and pancytopaenia began to deteriorate. Bone marrow examination revealed an infiltrate of sea-blue histiocytes. He made unsatisfactory progress and died due to a multiorganic failure.

  14. Effect of fasting and parenteral alimentation on PIPIDA scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, T.; McClain, C.J.; Shafer, R.B.

    1983-08-01

    Ten patients were prospectively studied using 99mTc-PIPIDA imaging to evaluate the effects of fasting and parenteral alimentation on gallbladder function. Three of ten patients had initial nonvisualization of the gallbladder for up to 2 hr, yet had normal visualization on repeat imaging performed after resumption of oral intake or after parenteral alimentation was discontinued. 99mTc-PIPIDA imaging should be interpreted with caution in patients fitting into either of these groups.

  15. Copper and Zinc Deficiency in a Patient Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition During a Shortage of Parenteral Trace Element Products.

    PubMed

    Palm, Eric; Dotson, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    Drug shortages in the United States, including parenteral nutrition (PN) components, have been common in recent years and can adversely affect patient care. Here we report a case of copper and zinc deficiency in a patient receiving PN during a shortage of parenteral trace element products. The management of the patient's deficiencies, including the use of an imported parenteral multi-trace element product, is described. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. Hyperammonemia during total parenteral nutrition in children.

    PubMed

    Seashore, J H; Seashore, M R; Riely, C

    1982-01-01

    Serial blood ammonia (NH3) determinations in 19 low birth weight (LBW) infants, 14 term neonates and 12 children receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) have shown that 73% of patients had one or more elevated NH3 values (greater than 150 micrograms/dl). The mean blood NH3 was 220 +/- 13 micrograms/dl in LBW infants, 180 +/- 9 micrograms/dl in 10 infants, and 140 +/- 7 micrograms/dl in children. All of these values are significantly higher than normal (p less than 0.001). There was no difference in incidence or mean blood ammonia concentration between patients receiving casein hydrolysate and those receiving a crystalline amino acid solution. Only four patients were symptomatic and several infants remained fully alert despite blood NH3 concentration in excess of 400 micrograms/dl. One infant who had sustained hyperammonemia was given another amino acid source (Travasol) containing 1.2 mmol/dl of arginine; blood NH3 promptly fell to the normal range. However, six of seven additional infants had hyperammonemia while receiving Travasol (mean = 184 micrograms/dl). Hyperammonemia is common during TPN in children, often is not recognized clinically, and occurs with equal frequency in infants and older children. The high levels observed in LBW infants may be due to hepatic immaturity. Blood NH3 concentration should be monitored frequently during TPN. Persistent hyperammonemia should be treated by decreasing protein content of the infusate. The role of supplemental arginine is unclear.

  17. A new glass option for parenteral packaging.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert A; Peanasky, John S; DeMartino, Steven E; Schiefelbein, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    Glass is the ideal material for parenteral packaging because of its chemical durability, hermeticity, strength, cleanliness, and transparency. Alkali borosilicate glasses have been used successfully for a long time, but they do have some issues relating to breakage, delamination, and variation in hydrolytic performance. In this paper, alkali aluminosilicate glasses are introduced as a possible alternative to alkali borosilicate glasses. An example alkali aluminosilicate glass is shown to meet the compendial requirements, and to have similar thermal, optical, and mechanical attributes as the current alkali borosilicate glasses. In addition, the alkali aluminosilicate performed as well or better than the current alkali borosilicates in extractables tests and stability studies, which suggests that it would be suitable for use with the studied liquid product formulation. The physical, mechanical, and optical properties of glass make it an ideal material for packaging injectable drugs and biologics. Alkali borosilicate glasses have been used successfully for a long time for these applications, but there are some issues. In this paper, alkali aluminosilicate glasses are introduced as a possible alternative to alkali borosilicate glasses. An example alkali aluminosilicate glass is shown to meet the requirements for packaging injectable drugs and biologics, and to be suitable for use with a particular liquid drug. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  18. [Survey on parenteral nutrition preparation variability in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, J M; Fernández-Shaw Toda, C; Muñoz García, M J; Gomis Muñoz, P

    2002-01-01

    The prescription and preparation of paediatric parenteral nutrition in Spain are subject to great variability. To identify how paediatric parenteral nutrition is prescribed and prepared in Spain. During the first quarter of 2001, a telephone survey was carried out among most of the hospitals in which parenteral nutrition is habitually prepared. The survey included questions on who was in charge of the prescription, the use of different solutions, addition of supplements (carnitine, heparin and glutamine), as well as information on the shelf-life of the mixtures. Subsequently, the results of the survey were compared with the following guidance documents: "Enteral and parenteral nutrition in paediatrics", drafted under the auspices of the Spanish Association for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (2000) and the "Guidelines for the use of parenteral and enteral nutrition in adult and paediatric patients"/"Nutrition support practice manual" from the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (1998). Of the 48 hospitals surveyed, paediatric parenteral nutrition was not prepared in 12 of them. the number of food bags prepared daily correlated directly with the size of the hospital. In all cases, the paediatricians were responsible for prescription. In 87% of the centres, this prescription was customized (i.e. solutions adapted to each individual patient). All of the hospitals used dextrose as the source of carbohydrates and specific amino acid solutions for paediatric medicine. Basically, lipid emulsions with long chain triglycerides were used in 65% of cases and another 19% used physical mixtures of MCT and LCT. Only half of the hospitals routinely used all-in-one mixtures. Inorganic phosphate continued to be used in most cases (78%) versus sodium glycerol phosphate. Vitamins and trace elements were added daily in 65% of the hospitals, with alternate administration in the remainder. In half of the centres, heparin was added to the mixture

  19. Safety of refrigerated storage of admixed parenteral fluids.

    PubMed Central

    Weil, D C; Arnow, P M

    1988-01-01

    Many hospital pharmacies are reluctant to store admixed parenteral fluids longer than 24 to 48 h because of concern about possible microbial contamination. We evaluated the safety of prolonged refrigerated storage of admixtures by culturing mixtures in 471 bags prepared routinely in a hospital pharmacy and stored at 4 degrees C for up to 15 days. Low-level contamination (1 CFU per bag) was found in 3 of 253 solutions of saline and/or glucose into which nonantibiotic additives had been injected. None of 171 saline and/or glucose solutions with antibiotic additives or 47 parenteral nutrition fluids was culture positive. The risk of contamination did not increase with duration of storage, and none of 107 bags stored greater than or equal to 5 days was culture positive. Laboratory studies to measure growth of bacteria and fungi in glucose infusate and parenteral nutrition solutions confirmed that storage at 4 degrees C suppresses growth. Eight of twelve bacterial isolates grew in glucose solutions at 25 degrees C, while none grew at 4 degrees C. Of 13 species of bacteria and fungi inoculated in parenteral nutrition fluids, 8 proliferated at 25 degrees C and none proliferated at 4 degrees C. We conclude that refrigerated storage of parenteral fluids for up to 1 week following admixture, as permitted by Centers for Disease Control guidelines, does not appear to increase the risk of microbial contamination when standard aseptic procedures for admixing and storage are followed. PMID:3183025

  20. Multimodal analgesia without routine parenteral narcotics for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Aditya Vikram; Boutary, Myriam; Yun, Andrew G; Sirianni, Leigh Ellen; Dorr, Lawrence D

    2006-12-01

    Methods for managing pain after a total hip replacement have changed substantially in the past 5 years. We documented the outcome of patients treated with a multimodal pain program designed to avoid parenteral narcotics. Avoidance of parenteral narcotics can essentially eliminate the complications of respiratory depression, ileus, and narcotic-induced hypotension. It can minimize nausea and vomiting which cause dissatisfaction with an operation. Twenty-one of 140 patients (15%) needed parenteral narcotics postoperatively with only nine patients (6.4%) using parenteral narcotics after the day of surgery. Mean pain scores were below 3 of 10 on all postoperative days. There were no patients with respiratory depression or ileus, and four (2.9%) with urinary retention. Nausea occurred with 35 patients (25%) in the recovery room and in 28 patients (20%) thereafter. Emesis occurred in five patients (3.6%) with two incidences in the recovery room. One hundred and thirty-eight patients (98.6%) were discharged home at a mean of 2.7 seven days postoperatively with 98 (70%) on a single assistive device. The multimodal pain management program, which avoided parenteral narcotics, was effective in providing pain relief, nearly eliminating emesis, and eliminating the severe complications of respiratory depression, urinary tract infection and ileus, as well as accelerating function.

  1. Cimetidine and parenteral nutrition in the ICU patient.

    PubMed

    Baptista, R J

    1986-01-01

    Cimetidine is often prescribed for hospitalized patients requiring intravenous nutritional support (ie, total parenteral nutrition). When administered parenterally, the drug may prevent excessive fluid and electrolyte loss in patients with short-bowel syndrome, particularly after resection. It may also help prevent anastomotic ulcers in patients following partial gastrectomy. In patients with hypersecretory disease or high-volume ostomy drainage, cimetidine is clinically useful in moderating secretions, thus reducing fluid and electrolyte loss. Cimetidine can prevent, and perhaps treat, metabolic alkalosis associated with significant losses of nasogastric aspirate. Intravenous administration of the drug to patients requiring nasogastric suction often eliminates the need for addition of hydrochloric acid to their parenteral nutrition admixtures. Cimetidine has been found to be physically compatible and chemically stable in crystalline amino acid/dextrose solutions and in crystalline amino acid/dextrose/lipid admixtures. As cimetidine is widely used in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition, it has become acceptable practice to deliver the drug via parenteral nutrition admixtures. Admixing the drug may be of particular advantage for patients with limited vascular access or for those who are fluid restricted. Cimetidine when given by continuous infusion may be more effective and require less drug per day than if administered via intermittent injection. Moreover, administration of cimetidine by continuous infusion to hyperalimentation patients has been documented to save the institution more than $22,000 a year in materials and labor costs.

  2. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: intensive care.

    PubMed

    Singer, Pierre; Berger, Mette M; Van den Berghe, Greet; Biolo, Gianni; Calder, Philip; Forbes, Alastair; Griffiths, Richard; Kreyman, Georg; Leverve, Xavier; Pichard, Claude; ESPEN

    2009-08-01

    Nutritional support in the intensive care setting represents a challenge but it is fortunate that its delivery and monitoring can be followed closely. Enteral feeding guidelines have shown the evidence in favor of early delivery and the efficacy of use of the gastrointestinal tract. Parenteral nutrition (PN) represents an alternative or additional approach when other routes are not succeeding (not necessarily having failed completely) or when it is not possible or would be unsafe to use other routes. The main goal of PN is to deliver a nutrient mixture closely related to requirements safely and to avoid complications. This nutritional approach has been a subject of debate over the past decades. PN carries the considerable risk of overfeeding which can be as deleterious as underfeeding. Therefore the authors will present not only the evidence available regarding the indications for PN, its implementation, the energy required, its possible complementary use with enteral nutrition, but also the relative importance of the macro- and micronutrients in the formula proposed for the critically ill patient. Data on long-term survival (expressed as 6 month survival) will also be considered a relevant outcome measure. Since there is a wide range of interpretations regarding the content of PN and great diversity in its practice, our guidance will necessarily reflect these different views. The papers available are very heterogeneous in quality and methodology (amount of calories, nutrients, proportion of nutrients, patients, etc.) and the different meta-analyses have not always taken this into account. Use of exclusive PN or complementary PN can lead to confusion, calorie targets are rarely achieved, and different nutrients continue to be used in different proportions. The present guidelines are the result of the analysis of the available literature, and acknowledging these limitations, our recommendations are intentionally largely expressed as expert opinions.

  3. Premixed Parenteral Nutrition Solution Use in Children

    PubMed Central

    Crill, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In response to national drug shortages, our institution established criteria for the use of commercial premixed parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions in select pediatric patients. Although these solutions have been marketed for use in children, there are no data in this patient population. The objective of this study was to review our use of commercial premixed PN solutions in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients ≤18 years of age who received a premixed PN solution from October 2010 to April 2012. All premixed PN courses were assessed for incidence of premixed PN discontinuation due to laboratory abnormalities. Estimated goal and actual protein and total caloric intake were evaluated for premixed PN courses that were continued for >48 hours. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients received 74 courses of premixed PN solutions for a mean duration of 5.6 ± 6.2 (range, 1–31) days. Fifteen courses (20%) required discontinuation of premixed PN as a result of mild laboratory abnormalities. No changes in clinical status were observed in patients and all abnormalities were corrected after switching to individualized PN. In patients receiving PN for >48 hours, premixed PN solutions provided goal protein in 48/49 (98%) courses and goal calories in 33/49 (67%) courses. CONCLUSIONS: Premixed PN solutions were used in a wide range of pediatric patients and provide a potential option for PN support in pediatric patients when drug shortages limit PN product supply. Close monitoring for electrolyte abnormalities and protein and caloric intake is recommended when using premixed PN solutions in children. PMID:26472952

  4. Ertapenem: a new opportunity for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Tice, Alan D

    2004-06-01

    Ertapenem is a parenteral carbapenem antimicrobial with pharmacological properties that allow it to be given once daily. This makes it a consideration for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT). In comparison with information from the OPAT Outcomes Registry, ertapenem seems well suited for the types of infections and bacteria that are commonly treated with OPAT, plus it has additional activity against anaerobic bacteria. This added spectrum makes it possible to treat complicated skin/skin-structure, complicated intra-abdominal and pelvic infections with a single antibiotic instead of the multiple agents that have usually been required. Ertapenem is also comparable to other OPAT antimicrobials in terms of adverse effects and clinical outcomes. This antimicrobial can be given with any delivery model, although its stability when mixed is such that daily preparation or self-mixing systems need to be considered. Ertapenem should be added to the growing list of once-daily parenteral antibiotics that can be given to outpatients.

  5. The potential clinical relevance of visible particles in parenteral drugs.

    PubMed

    Doessegger, Lucette; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Szczesny, Piotr; Rockstroh, Helmut; Kallmeyer, Georg; Langenkamp, Anja; Herrmann, Joerg; Famulare, Joseph

    2012-08-01

    Visible particulates (VP) are one subclass of defects seen during the final visual inspection of parenteral products and are currently one of the top ten reasons for recalls 1,2. The risk posed by particles is still unclear with limited experience reported in humans but remains an important consideration during the manufacture and use of parenteral products. From the experimental and clinical knowledge of the distribution of particulate matter in the body, clinical complications would include events occurring around parenteral administration e.g., as a result of mechanical pulmonary artery obstruction and injection site reaction, or sub-acute or chronic events e.g., granuloma. The challenge is to better understand the implication for patients of single vials with VP and align the risk with the probabilistic detection process used by manufacturers for accept/reject decisions of individual units of product.

  6. Glutamine: An Obligatory Parenteral Nutrition Substrate in Critical Care Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stehle, Peter; Kuhn, Katharina S.

    2015-01-01

    Critical illness is characterized by glutamine depletion owing to increased metabolic demand. Glutamine is essential to maintain intestinal integrity and function, sustain immunologic response, and maintain antioxidative balance. Insufficient endogenous availability of glutamine may impair outcome in critically ill patients. Consequently, glutamine has been considered to be a conditionally essential amino acid and a necessary component to complete any parenteral nutrition regimen. Recently, this scientifically sound recommendation has been questioned, primarily based on controversial findings from a large multicentre study published in 2013 that evoked considerable uncertainty among clinicians. The present review was conceived to clarify the most important questions surrounding glutamine supplementation in critical care. This was achieved by addressing the role of glutamine in the pathophysiology of critical illness, summarizing recent clinical studies in patients receiving parenteral nutrition with intravenous glutamine, and describing practical concepts for providing parenteral glutamine in critical care. PMID:26495301

  7. Aluminum in Pediatric Parenteral Nutrition Products: Measured Versus Labeled Content

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Robert L.; Pieroni, Kevin P.; Gaskari, Shabnam; Dixon, Tessa K.; Park, KT; Kerner, John A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Aluminum is a contaminant in all parenteral nutrition solutions. Manufacturers currently label these products with the maximum aluminum content at the time of expiry, but there are no published data to establish the actual measured concentration of aluminum in parenteral nutrition solution products prior to being compounded in the clinical setting. This investigation assessed quantitative aluminum content of products commonly used in the formulation of parenteral nutrition solutions. The objective of this study is to determine the best products to be used when compounding parenteral nutrition solutions (i.e., those with the least amount of aluminum contamination). METHODS All products available in the United States from all manufacturers used in the production of parenteral nutrition solutions were identified and collected. Three lots were collected for each identified product. Samples were quantitatively analyzed by Mayo Laboratories. These measured concentrations were then compared to the manufacturers' labeled concentration. RESULTS Large lot-to-lot and manufacturer-to-manufacturer differences were noted for all products. Measured aluminum concentrations were less than manufacturer-labeled values for all products. CONCLUSIONS The actual aluminum concentrations of all the parenteral nutrition solutions were significantly less than the aluminum content based on manufacturers' labels. These findings indicate that 1) the manufacturers should label their products with actual aluminum content at the time of product release rather than at the time of expiry, 2) that there are manufacturers whose products provide significantly less aluminum contamination than others, and 3) pharmacists can select products with the lowest amounts of aluminum contamination and reduce the aluminum exposure in their patients. PMID:22477831

  8. Neuroimaging identifies increased manganese deposition in infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Judy L; Anderson, Adam; Slaughter, James Christopher; Aschner, Michael; Steele, Steven; Beller, Amy; Mouvery, Amanda; Furlong, Heather M; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2015-12-01

    Manganese, an essential metal for normal growth and development, is neurotoxic on excessive exposure. Standard trace element-supplemented neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) has a high manganese content and bypasses normal gastrointestinal absorptive control mechanisms, which places infants at risk of manganese neurotoxicity. Magnetic resonance (MR) relaxometry demonstrating short T1 relaxation time (T1R) in the basal ganglia reflects excessive brain manganese accumulation. This study tested the hypothesis that infants with greater parenteral manganese exposure have higher brain manganese accumulation, as measured by MR imaging, than do infants with lower parenteral manganese exposure. Infants exposed to parenteral manganese were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Infants classified as having high manganese exposure received >75% of their nutrition in the preceding 4 wk as PN. All others were classified as having low exposure. Daily parenteral and enteral manganese intakes were calculated. Whole-blood manganese was measured by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Brain MR relaxometry was interpreted by a masked reviewer. Linear regression models, adjusted for gestational age (GA) at birth, estimated the association of relaxometry indexes with total and parenteral manganese exposures. Seventy-three infants were enrolled. High-quality MR images were available for 58 infants, 39 with high and 19 with low manganese exposure. Four infants with a high exposure had blood manganese concentrations >30 μg/L. After controlling for GA, higher parenteral and total manganese intakes were associated with a lower T1R (P = 0.01) in the globus pallidus and putamen but were not associated with whole-blood manganese (range: 3.6-56.6 μg/L). Elevated conjugated bilirubin magnified the association between parenteral manganese and decreasing T1R. A short T1R for GA identifies infants at risk of increased brain manganese deposition associated with PN

  9. Fetal growth sustained by parenteral nutrition in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Alsina, M E; Saldana, L R; Stringer, C A

    1984-07-01

    Severe maternal nutritional deprivation has been associated with intrauterine growth retardation, premature labor, and increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. The authors present four cases in which total parenteral nutrition was used successfully to support fetal growth in such diverse complications as twin pregnancy with maternal jejunoileal bypass, regional enteritis, and acute pancreatitis. Maintenance of fetal growth as evidenced by serial sonographic examination allows achievement of fetal lung maturation before delivery. In all the cases presented there was no perinatal mortality or morbidity. The main clinical implication of the report is the possible application of total parenteral nutrition to maintain adequate growth in fetuses small for gestational age because of maternal nutritional deprivation.

  10. Standardised neonatal parenteral nutrition formulations - an Australasian group consensus 2012.

    PubMed

    Bolisetty, Srinivas; Osborn, David; Sinn, John; Lui, Kei

    2014-02-18

    Standardised parenteral nutrition formulations are routinely used in the neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. In 2010, a multidisciplinary group was formed to achieve a consensus on the formulations acceptable to majority of the neonatal intensive care units. Literature review was undertaken for each nutrient and recommendations were developed in a series of meetings held between November 2010 and April 2011. Three standard and 2 optional amino acid/dextrose formulations and one lipid emulsion were agreed by majority participants in the consensus. This has a potential to standardise neonatal parenteral nutrition guidelines, reduce costs and prescription errors.

  11. [Parenteral iron therapy: problems and possible solutions].

    PubMed

    Hoigné, R; Breymann, C; Künzi, U P; Brunner, F

    1998-04-04

    To investigate whether there are differences in the frequency of ADRs (adverse drug reactions) to parenteral iron preparations, we compared the results of 4 different data collections which contain observations in particular on i.m. or i.v. iron dextran and i.v. iron hydroxide sucrose complex, primarily in relation to anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions and common exanthemas. 1. In 206 patients of the department of general internal medicine in a city/teaching hospital (in association with the Swiss Foundation for Comprehensive Hospital Drug Monitoring--CHDM), 4 probably allergic reactions to i.m. iron dextran were found, one with acute severe dyspnea, cyanosis and flush, 3 with slight generalized, probably allergic reactions. Data from the USA on i.v. iron dextran do not show marked differences in the frequency of ADRs as compared with our data with i.m. administration. 2. A group of 400 otherwise healthy patients of the obstetric department of Zurich University Hospital were treated with i.v. iron sucrose for anemia due to iron loss during pregnancy or following childbirth. Seven generalized skin reactions, 4 in the form of flush and 3 of common exanthema, occurred. 3. In a retrospective study on patients on maintenance hemodialysis with chronic renal insufficiency and anemia, a questionnaire was answered by the medical heads of 17 selected hemodialysis units in Switzerland. Response was 100%. During around 8100 patient-years with approximately 160,000 ampoules of iron sucrose (with 100 mg elementary iron), not a single life threatening reaction was observed; only 5-7 situations of rapidly reversible blood pressure fall occurred, some 10 with flush, and one each with urticaria and vomiting/diarrhea. 4. The relatively good tolerance of i.v. iron sucrose in patients with chronic renal failure may be due either to reduced immune competence in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and/or to the use of the preparation itself, or probably both. 5. In ADRs of

  12. Parenteral anticoagulation in ambulatory patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Akl, Elie A; Kahale, Lara A; Hakoum, Maram B; Matar, Charbel F; Sperati, Francesca; Barba, Maddalena; Yosuico, Victor E D; Terrenato, Irene; Synnot, Anneliese; Schünemann, Holger

    2017-09-11

    Anticoagulation may improve survival in patients with cancer through a speculated anti-tumour effect, in addition to the antithrombotic effect, although may increase the risk of bleeding. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of parenteral anticoagulants in ambulatory patients with cancer who, typically, are undergoing chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy or radiotherapy, but otherwise have no standard therapeutic or prophylactic indication for anticoagulation. A comprehensive search included (1) a major electronic search (February 2016) of the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1946 to February 2016; accessed via OVID) and Embase (1980 to February 2016; accessed via OVID); (2) handsearching of conference proceedings; (3) checking of references of included studies; (4) use of the 'related citation' feature in PubMed and (5) a search for ongoing studies in trial registries. As part of the living systematic review approach, we are running searches continually and we will incorporate new evidence rapidly after it is identified. This update of the systematic review is based on the findings of a literature search conducted on 14 August, 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the benefits and harms of parenteral anticoagulation in ambulatory patients with cancer. Typically, these patients are undergoing chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy or radiotherapy, but otherwise have no standard therapeutic or prophylactic indication for anticoagulation. Using a standardized form we extracted data in duplicate on study design, participants, interventions outcomes of interest, and risk of bias. Outcomes of interested included all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE), symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), major bleeding, minor bleeding, and quality of life. We assessed the certainty of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach

  13. Managing an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy team: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Halilovic, Jenana; Christensen, Cinda L; Nguyen, Hien H

    2014-01-01

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs should strive to deliver safe, cost effective, and high quality care. One of the keys to developing and sustaining a high quality OPAT program is to understand the common challenges or barriers to OPAT delivery. We review the most common challenges to starting and managing an OPAT program and give practical advice on addressing these issues. PMID:24971015

  14. Micronutrients in Parenteral Nutrition: Boron, Silicon, and Fluoride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term parenteral nutrition (providing nutrients intravenously) is a life-saving treatment for patients with severe malabsorption of nutrients caused by intestinal failure, intestinal trauma (for example, gunshot or stab wounds), and intestinal removal. Metabolic bone disease characterized by min...

  15. Phytosterols, Lipid Administration, and Liver Disease During Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2015-09-01

    Phytosterols are plant-derived sterols that are structurally and functionally analogous to cholesterol in vertebrate animals. Phytosterols are found in many foods and are part of the normal human diet. However, absorption of phytosterols from the diet is minimal. Most lipid emulsions used for parenteral nutrition are based on vegetable oils. As a result, phytosterol administration occurs during intravenous administration of lipid. Levels of phytosterols in the blood and tissues may reach high levels during parenteral lipid administration and may be toxic to cells. Phytosterols are not fully metabolized by the human body and must be excreted through the hepatobiliary system. Accumulating scientific evidence suggests that administration of high doses of intravenous lipids that are high in phytosterols contributes to the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. In this review, mechanisms by which lipids and phytosterols may cause cholestasis are discussed. Human studies of the association of phytosterols with liver disease are reviewed. In addition, clinical studies of lipid/phytosterol reduction for reversing and/or preventing parenteral nutrition associated liver disease are discussed.

  16. Gluconeogenesis continues in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the contribution of total gluconeogenesis, to glucose production in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) providing glucose exceeding normal infant glucose turnover rate, eight infants (0.955 +/- 0.066 kg, 26.5 - 0.5 wks, 4-1 d) were studied while receiving routine ...

  17. Long-term parenteral nutrition in pediatric autoimmune enteropathies.

    PubMed

    Gambarara, M; Bracci, F; Diamanti, A; Ambrosini, M I; Pietrobattista, A; Knafelz, D; Ferretti, F; Castro, M

    2005-06-01

    Severe and protracted or persistent diarrhea (SPD) is the most severe form of diarrhea in infancy and has also been defined as intractable diarrhea when it leads to dependence on total parenteral nutrition (TPN). One of the rare causes of SPD is represented by autoimmune enteropathy that is characterized by life-threatening diarrhea mainly occurring within the first years of life, persistent villous atrophy in consecutive biopsies, resistance to bowel rest, and evidence of antigut autoantibodies. We evaluated 10 patients (seven boys, mean age at diagnosis 18 months; range: 0 to 160 months) fulfilling criteria of autoimmune enteropathy to assess dependence on TPN. TPN was first required in all patients to avoid dehydration and electrolytic imbalance. All patients were dependent on immunosuppressive therapy (steroid, azothioprine, cyclosporine, tacrolimus). Three patients died of sepsis: two during TPN while in the hospital, and one at home after he was weaned off TPN. Five patients are weaned off TPN after a mean period of 18 months; they are actually on oral alimentation with a cow milk-free diet after a period of enteral nutrition with elemental formula. One underwent total colectomy and bone marrow transplantation and one developed an IPEX syndrome. One patient is still dependent on TPN for 24 months. She is on home parenteral nutrition. Patients with diagnosis of IPEX syndrome require parenteral support with three or four infusion per week. TPN represents a fixed step in the management of autoimmune enteropathy, but it may be considered as an interim treatment while waiting for intestinal adaptation, at least in some selectioned case of autoimmune enteropathy. Bone marrow transplantation should be considered and reserved for those patients with severe complications due to home parenteral nutrition, or in those that are really dependent on parenteral nutrition.

  18. Lipid emulsions – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 6

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, M.; Heller, A. R.; Koch, T.; Koletzko, B.; Kreymann, K. G.; Krohn, K.; Pscheidl, E.; Senkal, M.

    2009-01-01

    The infusion of lipid emulsions allows a high energy supply, facilitates the prevention of high glucose infusion rates and is indispensable for the supply with essential fatty acids. The administration of lipid emulsions is recommended within ≤7 days after starting PN (parenteral nutrition) to avoid deficiency of essential fatty acids. Low-fat PN with a high glucose intake increases the risk of hyperglycaemia. In parenterally fed patients with a tendency to hyperglycaemia, an increase in the lipid-glucose ratio should be considered. In critically ill patients the glucose infusion should not exceed 50% of energy intake. The use of lipid emulsions with a low phospholipid/triglyceride ratio is recommended and should be provided with the usual PN to prevent depletion of essential fatty acids, lower the risk of hyperglycaemia, and prevent hepatic steatosis. Biologically active vitamin E (α-tocopherol) should continuously be administered along with lipid emulsions to reduce lipid peroxidation. Parenteral lipids should provide about 25–40% of the parenteral non-protein energy supply. In certain situations (i.e. critically ill, respiratory insufficiency) a lipid intake of up to 50 or 60% of non-protein energy may be reasonable. The recommended daily dose for parenteral lipids in adults is 0.7–1.3 g triglycerides/kg body weight. Serum triglyceride concentrations should be monitored regularly with dosage reduction at levels >400 mg/dl (>4.6 mmol/l) and interruption of lipid infusion at levels >1000 mg/dl (>11.4 mmol/l). There is little evidence at this time that the choice of different available lipid emulsions affects clinical endpoints. PMID:20049078

  19. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  20. Lipid emulsions - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 6.

    PubMed

    Adolph, M; Heller, A R; Koch, T; Koletzko, B; Kreymann, K G; Krohn, K; Pscheidl, E; Senkal, M

    2009-11-18

    The infusion of lipid emulsions allows a high energy supply, facilitates the prevention of high glucose infusion rates and is indispensable for the supply with essential fatty acids. The administration of lipid emulsions is recommended within < or =7 days after starting PN (parenteral nutrition) to avoid deficiency of essential fatty acids. Low-fat PN with a high glucose intake increases the risk of hyperglycaemia. In parenterally fed patients with a tendency to hyperglycaemia, an increase in the lipid-glucose ratio should be considered. In critically ill patients the glucose infusion should not exceed 50% of energy intake. The use of lipid emulsions with a low phospholipid/triglyceride ratio is recommended and should be provided with the usual PN to prevent depletion of essential fatty acids, lower the risk of hyperglycaemia, and prevent hepatic steatosis. Biologically active vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) should continuously be administered along with lipid emulsions to reduce lipid peroxidation. Parenteral lipids should provide about 25-40% of the parenteral non-protein energy supply. In certain situations (i.e. critically ill, respiratory insufficiency) a lipid intake of up to 50 or 60% of non-protein energy may be reasonable. The recommended daily dose for parenteral lipids in adults is 0.7-1.3 g triglycerides/kg body weight. Serum triglyceride concentrations should be monitored regularly with dosage reduction at levels >400 mg/dl (>4.6 mmol/l) and interruption of lipid infusion at levels >1000 mg/dl (>11.4 mmol/l). There is little evidence at this time that the choice of different available lipid emulsions affects clinical endpoints.

  1. Features of liver tissue remodeling in intestinal failure during and after weaning off parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mutanen, Annika; Lohi, Jouko; Sorsa, Timo; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal failure is associated frequently with liver injury, which persists after weaning off parenteral nutrition. We compared features of liver remodeling in intestinal failure during and after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Liver biopsies and serum samples were obtained from 25 intestinal failure patients at a median age of 9.7 years (interquartile range: 4.6-18) and from age-matched control patients. Seven patients had been receiving parenteral nutrition for 53 months (22-160), and 18 patients had been weaned off parenteral nutrition 6.3 years (2.4-17) earlier, after having received parenteral nutrition for 10 months (3.3-34). Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured. Significant increases in immunohistochemical expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen 1 were observed predominantly in portal areas and were similar to increases seen in patients currently receiving parenteral nutrition and in patients weaned off parenteral nutrition. Gene and protein expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen were interrelated. Gene expression of ACTA2, encoding alpha-smooth muscle actin, was increased only in patients who were receiving parenteral nutrition currently. Comparable upregulation of interleukin-1 (α and ß), epidermal growth factor, integrin-ß6, and MMP9 gene expression was observed in both patient groups, irrespective of whether they were receiving parenteral nutrition currently. Liver expression and serum levels of TIMP1 and MMP7 were increased only in the patients on parenteral nutrition currently but were not increased after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Intestinal failure is characterized by abnormal activation of hepatic myofibroblast and accumulation of collagen both during and after weaning off parenteral nutrition. Persistent transcriptional upregulation of proinflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines after weaning off

  2. Parenteral nutrition in patients with renal failure - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 17.

    PubMed

    Druml, W; Kierdorf, H P

    2009-11-18

    Partial EN (enteral nutrition) should always be aimed for in patients with renal failure that require nutritional support. Nevertheless PN (parenteral nutrition) may be necessary in renal failure in patient groups with acute or chronic renal failure (ARF or CRF) and additional acute diseases but without extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, or in patients with ARF or CRF with additional acute diseases on extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis therapy (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), or in patients on HD therapy with intradialytic PN. Patients with renal failure who show marked metabolic derangements and changes in nutritional requirements require the use of specifically adapted nutrient solutions. The substrate requirements of acutely ill, non-hypercatabolic patients with CRF correspond to those of patients with ARF who are not receiving any renal replacement patients therapy (utilisation of the administered nutrients has to be monitored carefully). In ARF patients and acutely ill CRF patients on renal replacement therapy, substrate requirements depend on disease severity, type and extent/frequency of extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, nutritional status, underlying disease and complications occurring during the course of the disease. Patients under HD have a higher risk of developing malnutrition. Intradialytic PN (IDPN) should be used if causes of malnutrition cannot be eliminated and other interventions fail. IDPN should only be carried out when modifiable causes of malnutrition are excluded and enhanced oral (like i.e. additional energy drinks) or enteral supply is unsuccessful or cannot be carried out.

  3. Access technique and its problems in parenteral nutrition – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 9

    PubMed Central

    Jauch, K. W.; Schregel, W.; Stanga, Z.; Bischoff, S. C.; Braß, P.; Hartl, W.; Muehlebach, S.; Pscheidl, E.; Thul, P.; Volk, O.

    2009-01-01

    Catheter type, access technique, and the catheter position should be selected considering to the anticipated duration of PN aiming at the lowest complication risks (infectious and non-infectious). Long-term (>7–10 days) parenteral nutrition (PN) requires central venous access whereas for PN <3 weeks percutaneously inserted catheters and for PN >3 weeks subcutaneous tunnelled catheters or port systems are appropriate. CVC (central venous catheter) should be flushed with isotonic NaCl solution before and after PN application and during CVC occlusions. Strict indications are required for central venous access placement and the catheter should be removed as soon as possible if not required any more. Blood samples should not to be taken from the CVC. If catheter infection is suspected, peripheral blood-culture samples and culture samples from each catheter lumen should be taken simultaneously. Removal of the CVC should be carried out immediately if there are pronounced signs of local infection at the insertion site and/or clinical suspicion of catheter-induced sepsis. In case PN is indicated for a short period (max. 7–10 days), a peripheral venous access can be used if no hyperosmolar solutions (>800 mosm/L) or solutions with a high titration acidity or alkalinity are used. A peripheral venous catheter (PVC) can remain in situ for as long as it is clinically required unless there are signs of inflammation at the insertion site. PMID:20049083

  4. Parenteral nutrition in patients with renal failure – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 17

    PubMed Central

    Druml, W.; Kierdorf, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Partial EN (enteral nutrition) should always be aimed for in patients with renal failure that require nutritional support. Nevertheless PN (parenteral nutrition) may be necessary in renal failure in patient groups with acute or chronic renal failure (ARF or CRF) and additional acute diseases but without extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, or in patients with ARF or CRF with additional acute diseases on extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, haemodialysis therapy (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), or in patients on HD therapy with intradialytic PN. Patients with renal failure who show marked metabolic derangements and changes in nutritional requirements require the use of specifically adapted nutrient solutions. The substrate requirements of acutely ill, non-hypercatabolic patients with CRF correspond to those of patients with ARF who are not receiving any renal replacement patients therapy (utilisation of the administered nutrients has to be monitored carefully). In ARF patients and acutely ill CRF patients on renal replacement therapy, substrate requirements depend on disease severity, type and extent/frequency of extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, nutritional status, underlying disease and complications occurring during the course of the disease. Patients under HD have a higher risk of developing malnutrition. Intradialytic PN (IDPN) should be used if causes of malnutrition cannot be eliminated and other interventions fail. IDPN should only be carried out when modifiable causes of malnutrition are excluded and enhanced oral (like i.e. additional energy drinks) or enteral supply is unsuccessful or cannot be carried out. PMID:20049069

  5. [Parenteral nutrition in gastro-intestinal surgery (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rosa, M P; Steuve, J; Houben, J J; Niederkorn, A; Govaerts, J P

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two postoperative patients received by parenteral route on 24 hours a total of 2,610 calories by means of a simultaneous infusion of 1,500 ml Trivé 1000 and 1,500 ml 10% invert sugar through a central venous line. Of those 42 cases 12 had peritonitis with 7 of them an enteric fistula, 18 underwent an extensive bowel resection and 12 suffered malnutrition secondary to their primary pathology. The average duration of parenteral nutrition was 13 days and the average hospital stay 27 days. No major metabolic derangement was noted except for a temporary transient elevation of SGOT and AF. A systematic bacteriological study of the perfusion lines disclosed an associated morbidity of about 6%. We are convinced that with the used solutions the postoperative catabolism can be managed successfully and that the association of aminoacids, lipids and glucides as used by us facilitates, nursing care.

  6. Is there a role for parenteral feeding in clinical medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, S D; Siepler, J; Bach, H T

    1996-01-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition as evidenced by loss of weight or of lean body mass is a commonly seen disorder. Although its cause is clearly multifactorial, objective measures of protein-calorie malnutrition have been repeatedly correlated with poor patient outcomes. Total parenteral nutrition was developed to halt or reverse this disorder, but its ability to improve the short- to intermediate-term outcome in patients with impaired nutrient intake has been highly inconsistent. Factors influencing this variable outcome include the degree of functional impairment in the treatment group, the underlying disease causing the impaired intake, and possibly the amount and composition of nonprotein calories delivered. In particular, considerable evidence points to intravenous soybean oil emulsion as a negative factor in the nutritional support of stressed patients. Taken in combination, current information suggests reserving the use of parenteral feeding for patients meeting objective criteria for protein-calorie malnutrition and making parsimonious use of lipid emulsion, especially in stressed patients. PMID:8775726

  7. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana; Petrina Jáuregui, Estrella; Elizondo Armendáriz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a particularly important problem in patients who need this type of nutritional support for a long time. Prevalence of the condition is highly variable depending on the series, and its clinical presentation is different in adults and children. The etiology of PNALD is not well defined, and participation of several factors at the same time has been suggested. When a bilirubin level >2 mg/dl is detected for a long time, other causes of liver disease should be ruled out and risk factors should be minimized. The composition of lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition is one of the factors related to PNALD. This article reviews the different types of lipid emulsions and the potential benefits of emulsions enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Parenteral trace element provision: recent clinical research and practical conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Stehle, P; Stoffel-Wagner, B; Kuhn, K S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review (PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed and Cochrane, www.cochrane.org; last entry 31 December 2014) was to present data from recent clinical studies investigating parenteral trace element provision in adult patients and to draw conclusions for clinical practice. Important physiological functions in human metabolism are known for nine trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron, molybdenum, iodine and fluoride. Lack of, or an insufficient supply of, these trace elements in nutrition therapy over a prolonged period is associated with trace element deprivation, which may lead to a deterioration of existing clinical symptoms and/or the development of characteristic malnutrition syndromes. Therefore, all parenteral nutrition prescriptions should include a daily dose of trace elements. To avoid trace element deprivation or imbalances, physiological doses are recommended. PMID:27049031

  9. Oxidation of parenteral lipid emulsion by ambient and phototherapy lights: potential toxicity of routine parenteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Neuzil, J; Darlow, B A; Inder, T E; Sluis, K B; Winterbourn, C C; Stocker, R

    1995-05-01

    Vitamin E can be a prooxidant in isolated lipoprotein suspensions. Because lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition are lipoprotein-like suspensions rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E, we hypothesized that vitamin E may act as a prooxidant in lipid emulsions, as it is in lipoprotein suspensions. We therefore exposed an intravenously administered lipid emulsion (Intralipid) to a single spotlight commonly used in the treatment of neonatal jaundice, and measured the formation of triglyceride hydroperoxides by using high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn chemiluminescence detection. Concentrations of these hydroperoxides in different batches of fresh intralipid were usually approximately 10 mumol/L but increased up to 60 times after exposure to phototherapy light for a period of 24 hours, even though significant amounts of vitamin E were present at the end of the exposure. Triglyceride hydroperoxides were formed during phototherapy light exposure whether the intralipid was in plastic tubing used routinely for infusion or in glass containers. Ambient light also caused significant peroxidation of the formula lipids, although to a much lesser extent than observed with phototherapy light. For infants in the neonatal intensive care unit who were receiving intralipid but not phototherapy, solutions being infused at the end of 24 hours contained a mean of 40 mumol/L hydroperoxides. For infants receiving phototherapy, the mean was 97 mumol/L. Phototherapy light-induced formation of triglyceride hydroperoxides was prevented by covering the intralipid with aluminum foil or supplementation with sodium ascorbate before light exposure. We conclude that intralipid is highly susceptible to oxidation and that elevated levels of oxidized lipids can be formed during its clinical use, especially when intralipid infusion is combined with phototherapy. Because lipid hydroperoxides are cytotoxic and can cause adverse effects, inadvertent infusion of rancid

  10. Lysine requirement in parenterally fed postsurgical human neonates.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Karen P; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Moore, Aideen M; Langer, Jacob C; Tomlinson, Christopher; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2010-04-01

    The lysine requirement of human neonates receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) has not been determined experimentally. The objective was to determine the parenteral lysine requirement for human neonates by using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation technique with l-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. Eleven postsurgical neonates were randomly assigned to 15 lysine intakes ranging from 50 to 260 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1). Breath and urine samples were collected at baseline and at plateau for (13)CO(2) (F(13)CO(2)) and amino acid enrichment, respectively. The mean lysine requirement was determined by applying a 2-phase linear regression crossover analysis to the measured rates of F(13)CO(2) release and l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine oxidation. The mean parenteral lysine requirement determined by F(13)CO(2) release oxidation was 104.9 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1) (upper and lower CIs: 120.6 and 89.1 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1), respectively). The mean lysine parenteral requirement determined by phenylalanine oxidation was 117.6 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1) (upper and lower CIs: 157.5 and 77.6 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1), respectively). Graded intakes of lysine had no effect on phenylalanine flux. We recommend a mean lysine requirement for the postsurgical PN-fed neonate of 104.9 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1), which is 32-43% of the lysine concentration presently found in commercial PN solutions (246-330 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)). This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00779753.

  11. [Standard parenteral nutrition preparations in complex clinical situations].

    PubMed

    Llop Talaverón, J M; Berlana Martín, D; Badía Tahull, M B; Fort Casamartina, E; Vinent Genestar, J L; Tubau Mola, M; Jódar Massanés, R

    2004-01-01

    Binary and ternary parenteral nutrition preparations may be of limited use in certain cases. The goal of this study is to establish difficult nutritional situations to handle and analyze the type of formula used in these situations. The study included patients treated with parenteral nutrition over 9 months. Three clinically complex situations were defined: long duration, lasting more than 25 days; kidney failure, uraemia > 20 mmol/L or serum creatinine > 200 micromol/L; and liver failure, total bilirubin > 30 mmol/L or ALT > 2 microkat/L and alkaline phosphatase > 3 microkat/L or GGT > 3 microkat/L. Mortality and hypoalbuminaemia (< 35 g/L) were studied and compared by means of a chi squared test (p < 0.05) against the rest of the patients. The use of individualized formulas was studied using a multiple logarithmic regression model, the dependent variable being the administration or not of an individualized formula and the independent variables being the 3 groups of patients in clinical situations defined as complex. The Odds Ratio (OR) was studied as the measure of risk. A total of 511 patients receiving 8,015 feeds with parenteral nutrition were studied. Of these, 283 were included in one or more of the 3 complex clinical situations. All three groups presented higher levels of mortality and hypoalbuminaemia with statistically significant differences when compared to the group in a non-complex clinical situation. The use of individualized formulas was greater in the three groups defined, with statistically significant differences resulting: OR=6.7 (CI 95%; 3.78-11.91) with long duration; OR=3.66 (CI 95%; 2.68-5.68) in kidney failure; and OR=1.5 (CI 95%; 1.01-2.35) in liver failure. Patients in complex clinical situations present greater visceral malnutrition, a worse clinical evolution and, at our hospital, their nutritional treatment by parenteral means is based on a greater use of individualized formulas.

  12. Product quality of parenteral vancomycin products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, S; Madurawe, R D; Zuk, S M; Khan, S R; Ellison, C D; Faustino, P J; Mans, D J; Trehy, M L; Hadwiger, M E; Boyne, M T; Biswas, K; Cox, E M

    2012-06-01

    In response to concerns raised about the quality of parenteral vancomycin products, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating the product quality of all FDA-approved parenteral vancomycin products available in the United States. Product quality was evaluated independently at two FDA Office of Testing and Research (FDA-OTR) sites. In the next phase of the investigation, being done in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the in vivo activity of these products will be evaluated in an appropriate animal model. This paper summarizes results of the FDA investigation completed thus far. One site used a validated ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography method (OTR-UPLC), and the second site used the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for related substances provided in the British Pharmacopeia (BP) monograph for vancomycin intravenous infusion. Similar results were obtained by the two FDA-OTR laboratories using two different analytical methods. The products tested had 90 to 95% vancomycin B (active component of vancomycin) by the BP-HPLC method and 89 to 94% vancomycin by OTR-UPLC methods. Total impurities were 5 to 10% by BP-HPLC and 6 to 11% by OTR-UPLC methods. No single impurity was >2.0%, and the CDP-1 level was ≤ 2.0% across all products. Some variability in impurity profiles of the various products was observed. No adverse product quality issues were identified with the six U.S. vancomycin parenteral products. The quality parameters of all parenteral vancomycin products tested surpassed the United States Pharmacopeia acceptance criteria. Additional testing will characterize in vivo performance characteristics of these products.

  13. [Routine comparison of trace element deficiencies during parenteral alimentation].

    PubMed

    du Cailar, J; Mathieu-Daudé, J C; Kienlen, J; Béssou, D; Griffe, O; Bélé-Binda

    1977-01-01

    In 50 patients aged between 3 and 84 years treated in a multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit and receiving parenteral alimentation, deficiency in certain trace elements or electrolytes (Cu++, Zn++, Mn++, Co++, PO-4, Mg++) was prevented or treated by the administration of a glucose solution (MB 147 G) enriched in trace elements. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate, on the basis of assay of serum levels of the trace elements involved, with the exception of Mn and Co, the effectiveness of treatment. Reference values were determined on the one hand in healthy individuals for normal figures and secondly on subjects included in the study, already on parenteral alimentation for several days, before treatment with MB 147 G, in order to demonstrate the existence of a deficiency (patient control values). In the case of PO--4, however, the patient control values concerned at one and the same time subjects in the study before treatment with MB 147 G and other patients receiving parenteral alimentation who were not part of the trial. MB 147 G solution was presented in units of 500 ml associated with glucose of varying concentrations (15 p. 100, 30 p. 100, 50 p. 100). The average daily amount administered, over a period of 236 days, was 3 unites per 24 hours, corresponding to an intake of copper of 3.78 mg, 3.90 mg of zinc, 0.20 mg of manganese, 0.24 mg of cobalt, 363 mg of magnesium, 240 mg of calcium and 15 mEz of phosphates. The results show that levels of copper, zinc, magnesium and phosphates were low during parenteral alimentation. The administration of MB 147 G resulted in a significant increase in these values, without there being any evidence of accumulation.

  14. Surgery and transplantation – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 18

    PubMed Central

    Weimann, A.; Ebener, Ch.; Holland-Cunz, S.; Jauch, K. W.; Hausser, L.; Kemen, M.; Kraehenbuehl, L.; Kuse, E. R.; Laengle, F.

    2009-01-01

    In surgery, indications for artificial nutrition comprise prevention and treatment of catabolism and malnutrition. Thus in general, food intake should not be interrupted postoperatively and the re-establishing of oral (e.g. after anastomosis of the colon and rectum, kidney transplantation) or enteral food intake (e.g. after an anastomosis in the upper gastrointestinal tract, liver transplantation) is recommended within 24 h post surgery. To avoid increased mortality an indication for an immediate postoperatively artificial nutrition (enteral or parenteral nutrition (PN)) also exists in patients with no signs of malnutrition, but who will not receive oral food intake for more than 7 days perioperatively or whose oral food intake does not meet their needs (e.g. less than 60–80%) for more than 14 days. In cases of absolute contraindication for enteral nutrition, there is an indication for total PN (TPN) such as in chronic intestinal obstruction with a relevant passage obstruction e.g. a peritoneal carcinoma. If energy and nutrient requirements cannot be met by oral and enteral intake alone, a combination of enteral and parenteral nutrition is indicated. Delaying surgery for a systematic nutrition therapy (enteral and parenteral) is only indicated if severe malnutrition is present. Preoperative nutrition therapy should preferably be conducted prior to hospital admission to lower the risk of nosocomial infections. The recommendations of early postoperative re-establishing oral feeding, generally apply also to paediatric patients. Standardised operative procedures should be established in order to guarantee an effective nutrition therapy. PMID:20049072

  15. Delivery of vitamins E and C from parenteral alimentation solution.

    PubMed

    Shenai, J P; Borum, P R; Duke, E A

    1982-01-01

    We have previously shown that substantial losses of fat-soluble (FS) vitamin A from parenteral alimentation solution occur due to adsorption in the intravenous tubing and photodegradation in the bottle. This study assessed the delivery of other vitamins, viz, FS vitamin E and water-soluble (WS) vitamin C, from parenteral alimentation solution. The solution containing 2.0 ml/L of an aqueous multivitamin infusion was infused at a constant rate of 10 ml/h using a standard intravenous administration set. Multiple aliquots of the solution from the bottle and the effluent obtained sequentially in a 24-h period were analyzed for concentrations of vitamins E and C. Both vitamins remained relatively stable in the bottle. A significant amount (12%) of vitamin E was lost in the intravenous tubing. No losses of vitamin C were incurred in the intravenous tubing. The data suggest that delivery of FS vitamin E from parenteral alimentation solutions is less than optimum because of adsorptive losses. Similar losses are not encountered with WS vitamin C.

  16. Abnormalities of zinc and copper during total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, S F; Goodgame, J T; Smith, J C; Maher, M M; Makuch, R W; Henkin, R I; Brennan, M F

    1979-01-01

    Changes in serum zinc and copper levels were studied in 19 tumor bearing patients undergoing parenteral nutrition (TPN) for five to 42 days. Before initiation of intravenous feeding mean serum zinc and copper concentrations were within normal limits but during TPN levels decreased significantly below those measured prior to parenteral nutrition. During TPN nitrogen, zinc, and copper intake, urinary output and serum levels were studied prospectively in nine of these patients. These nine patients exhibited positive nitrogen retention based upon urinary nitrogen excretion, but elevated urinary zinc and copper excretion and lowered serum zinc and copper concentrations. Neither blood administration nor limited oral intake was consistently able to maintain normal serum levels of zinc or copper. Zinc and copper supplementation of hyperalimentation fluids in four patients studied for five to 16 days was successful in increasing serum zinc and copper levels in only two. The data obtained suggest that patients undergoing parenteral nutrition may require supplementation of zinc and copper to prevent deficiencies of these elements. PMID:103506

  17. [Staff accreditation in parenteral nutrition production in hospital pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Vrignaud, S; Le Pêcheur, V; Jouan, G; Valy, S; Clerc, M-A

    2016-09-01

    This work aims to provide staff accreditation methodology to harmonize and secure practices for parenteral nutrition bags preparation. The methodology used in the present study is inspired from project management and quality approach. Existing training supports were used to produce accreditation procedure and evaluation supports. We first defined abilities levels, from level 1, corresponding to accredited learning agent to level 3, corresponding to expert accredited agent. Elements assessed for accreditation are: clothing assessment either by practices audit or by microbiologic test, test bags preparation and handling assessment, bag production to assess aseptic filling for both manual or automatized method, practices audit, number of days of production, and non-conformity following. At Angers Hospital, in 2014, production staff is composed of 12 agents. Staff accreditation reveals that 2 agents achieve level 3, 8 agents achieve level 2 and 2 agents are level 1. We noted that non-conformity decreased as accreditation took place from 81 in 2009 to 0 in 2014. To date, there is no incident due to parenteral bag produced by Angers hospital for neonatal resuscitation children. Such a consistent study is essential to insure a secured nutrition parenteral production. This also provides a satisfying quality care for patients. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Electrolytes content in parenteral drugs authorised in Spain].

    PubMed

    Mirchandani Jagwani, J N; Arias Rico, R

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La fluidoterapia es una de las prácticas más habituales en la práctica clínica diaria pero para un correcto manejo de electrolitos tanto en la sueroterapia como en la Nutrición Parenteral se deben conocer todos los aportes de electrolitos y fluidos y todas aquellas situaciones fisiopatológicos que conllevan alteraciones en la homeostasis de fluidos. Objetivos: Conocer el contenido y tipo de electrolitos de los medicamentos administrados por vía parenteral comercializados y autorizados en España hasta Febrero 2012. Métodos: Revisión de todas las fichas técnicas de todos aquellos medicamentos que estuvieran comercializados en España y con presentación comercial disponible por vía parenteral. Aquellos medicamentos con un contenido menor de 1 miliequivalente o 1 milimol por presentación comercial fueron excluidos. Resultados: De los 1800 principios activos estudiados, sólo 221 formaban parte de alguna presentación comercial por vía parenteral. De estos 221, 52 principios activos cumplían los criterios de inclusión del estudio y la mayoría (51-98,07%) tenían sodio en contenido mayor de un miliequivalente por presentación comercial, luego el potasio estaba presente en 3 y el calcio únicamente en uno. Discusión: La mayoría de medicamentos objeto del estudio contenían como principal electrolito el sodio, siendo la alteración de las concentraciones de este electrolito una de las más frecuentes en el entorno hospitalario y, en algunos casos, indicador de calidad en la atención del paciente. Por ello, para un mejor manejo de la reposición de electrolitos tanto en la sueroterapia como por Nutrición Parenteral es necesario tener en cuenta el aporte recibido por la medicación prescrita en los casos en que sea necesario.

  19. Parenteral Vaccination Can Be an Effective Means of Inducing Protective Mucosal Responses

    PubMed Central

    Freytag, Lucy C.

    2016-01-01

    The current paradigm in vaccine development is that nonreplicating vaccines delivered parenterally fail to induce immune responses in mucosal tissues. However, both clinical and experimental data have challenged this concept, and numerous studies have shown that induction of mucosal immune responses after parenteral vaccination is not a rare occurrence and might, in fact, significantly contribute to the protection against mucosal infections afforded by parenteral vaccines. While the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood, the realization that parenteral vaccination can be an effective means of inducing protective mucosal responses is paradigm-shifting and has potential to transform the way vaccines are designed and delivered. PMID:27122485

  20. Drugs Used for Parenteral Sedation in Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Raymond A.; Gift, Helen C.

    1988-01-01

    The relative efficacy and safety of drugs and combinations used clinically in dentistry as premedicants to alleviate patient apprehension are largely unsubstantiated. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of agents used for parenteral sedation through controlled clinical trials, it is first necessary to identify which drugs, doses, and routes of administration are actually used in practice. A survey instrument was developed to characterize the drugs used clinically for anesthesia and sedation by dentists with advanced training in pain control. A random sample of 500 dentists who frequently use anesthesia and sedation in practice was selected from the Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. The first mailing was followed by a second mailing to nonrespondents after 30 days. The respondents report a variety of parenteral sedation techniques in combination with local anesthesia (the response categories are not mutually exclusive): nitrous oxide (64%), intravenous conscious sedation (59%), intravenous “deep” sedation (47%), and outpatient general anesthesia (27%). Drugs most commonly reported for intravenous sedation include diazepam, methohexital, midazolam, and combinations of these drugs with narcotics. A total of 82 distinct drugs and combinations was reported for intravenous sedation and anesthesia. Oral premedication and intramuscular sedation are rarely used by this group. Most general anesthesia reported is done on an outpatient basis in private practice. These results indicate that a wide variety of drugs is employed for parenteral sedation in dental practice, but the most common practice among dentists with advanced training in anesthesia is local anesthesia supplemented with intravenous sedation consisting of a benzodiazepine and an opioid or a barbiturate. PMID:3250279

  1. Characterizing the Severe Reactions of Parenteral Vitamin K1.

    PubMed

    Britt, Rachel B; Brown, Jamie N

    2016-01-01

    Parenteral vitamin K1 (phytonadione) is used for anticoagulant reversal, and a boxed warning exists with intravenous and intramuscular administration due to the possibility of severe reactions, including fatalities. These reactions resemble hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis, including anaphylactoid reaction, and have led to shock and cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. The objective of this review is to summarize the available literature detailing the anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions with parenteral vitamin K1 in order to better characterize the reaction and provide a more in-depth understanding of its importance. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE (1946 to June 2016) and EMBASE (1947 to June 2016) was conducted using the terms vitamin K1, phytonadione, phytomenadione, vitamin K group, anaphylaxis, polyoxyethylated castor oil, and cremophor. A total of 2 retrospective surveillance studies, 2 retrospective cohort studies, and 17 case reports were identified for inclusion and assessment. Based on a review of the literature, use of parenteral vitamin K1 may result in severe hypotension, bradycardia or tachycardia, dyspnea, bronchospasm, cardiac arrest, and death. These reactions are most consistent with a nonimmune-mediated anaphylactoid mechanism. It appears that intravenous administration is more frequently associated with these reactions and occurs at an incidence of 3 per 10 000 doses of intravenous vitamin K1. The solubilizer may also increase the risk of adverse reactions, which occurred in patients with and without previous exposure to vitamin K1. Although there are known factors that increase the risk of an adverse drug event occurring, reactions have been reported despite all precautions being properly followed.

  2. Is parenteral phosphate replacement in the intensive care unit safe?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Banwari; Walecka, Agnieszka; Shaw, Steve; Davenport, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Hypophosphatemia is well recognized in the intensive care setting, associated with refeeding and continuous forms of renal replacement therapy (CCRT). However, it is unclear as to when and how to administer intravenous phosphate supplementation in the general intensive care setting. There have been recent concerns regarding phosphate administration and development of acute kidney injury. We therefore audited our practice of parenteral phosphate administration. We prospectively audited parenteral phosphate administration (20 mmol) in 58 adult patients in a general intensive care unit in a University tertiary referral center. Fifty-eight patients were audited; mean age 57.2 ± 2.0 years, 70.7% male. The median duration of the infusion was 310 min (228-417), and 50% of the patients were on CRRT. 63.8% of patients were hypophosphatemic (<0.87 mmol/L) prior to the phosphate infusion, and serum phosphate increased from 0.79 ± 0.02 to 1.07 ± 0.03 mmol/L, P < 0.001. Two patients became hyperphosphatemic (>1.45 mmol/L). There was no correlation between the change in serum phosphate and the pre-infusion phosphate. Although there were no significant changes in serum urea, creatinine or other electrolytes, arterial ionized calcium fell from 1.15 ± 0.01 to 1.13 ± 0.01 mmol/L, P < 0.01. Although infusion of 20 mmol phosphate did not appear to adversely affect renal function and corrected hypophosphatemia in 67.7% of cases, we found that around 33% of patients who were given parenteral phosphate were not hypophosphatemic, and that the fall in ionized calcium raises the possibility of the formation of calcium-phosphate complexes and potential for soft tissue calcium deposition.

  3. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition solutions with ferrous citrate.

    PubMed

    Sayers, M H; Johnson, D K; Schumann, L A; Ivey, M F; Young, J H; Finch, C A

    1983-01-01

    Daily infusion of a total parenteral nutrition (TPN) formulation containing 1 liter of 5.5% Travasol provides less than 0.1 milligrams of iron. By comparison, a formulation which includes a liter of 10% Travamin provides 2 milligrams of iron per day. To meet iron requirements in patients infusing formulations containing Travasol, iron was added as ferrous citrate. In in virto experiments, 74% of this iron was available to transferrin. In seven patients in whom in vivo availability was tested by red cell incorporation, the mean availability was 81%. Ferrous citrate is recommended as a safe, effective additive to TPN solutions for adult patients requiring iron supplements.

  4. Parenteral opioids for maternal pain management in labour

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Roz; Smith, Lesley A; Burns, Ethel; Mori, Rintaro; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Parenteral opioids are used for pain relief in labour in many countries throughout the world. Objectives To assess the acceptability, effectiveness and safety of different types, doses and modes of administration of parenteral opioids given to women in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials examining the use of intramuscular or intravenous opioids (including patient controlled analgesia) for women in labour. We looked at studies comparing an opioid with another opioid, placebo, other non-pharmacological interventions (TENS) or inhaled analgesia. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, collected data and assessed risk of bias. Main results We included 57 studies involving more than 7000 women that compared an opioid with placebo, another opioid administered intramuscularly or intravenously or compared with TENS to the back. The 57 studies reported on 29 different comparisons, and for many outcomes only one study contributed data. Overall, the evidence was of poor quality regarding the analgesic effect of opioids, satisfaction with analgesia, adverse effects and harm to women and babies. There were few statistically significant results. Many of the studies had small sample sizes, and low statistical power. Overall findings indicated that parenteral opioids provided some pain relief and moderate satisfaction with analgesia in labour, although up to two-thirds of women who received opioids reported moderate or severe pain and/or poor or moderate pain relief one or two hours after administration. Opioid drugs were associated with maternal nausea, vomiting and drowsiness, although different opioid drugs were associated with different adverse effects. There was no clear evidence of adverse effects of opioids on the newborn. We

  5. Single-dose parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Creve, U; Hubens, A

    1980-01-01

    In the course of two consecutive, double-blind and prospective studies, the authors evaluated the prophylactic effect of a single peroperative intravenous dose of gentamicin (this study included 166 patients) or the combination gentamicin and clindamycin (this study included 127 patients), on the wound infection rate following interventions involving the incision of an abdominal hollow viscus. Antibiotic prophylaxis lowered the post-operative wound sepsis rate, especially following clinically contaminated interventions, but this reduction did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that a single peroperative parenteral dose of antibiotics does not constitute an entirely satisfactory means of wound infection prophylaxis in digestive surgery.

  6. Total parenteral nutrition for the very low birth weight infant.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pinkal; Bhatia, Jatinder

    2017-02-01

    Preterm infants, especially very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) infants, are susceptible to growth failure in postnatal life if nutritional demands are not met. Poor postnatal growth in preterm infants is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes during childhood. Early parental nutrition is of paramount importance to provide appropriate protein and energy in VLBW infants when enteral nutrition is not feasible or is suboptimal. An "early and aggressive" approach of parenteral nutrition in preterm infants has been shown to prevent protein catabolism, induce positive nitrogen balance and improve postnatal growth.

  7. Malassezia Pneumonia: A Rare Complication of Parenteral Nutrition Therapy.

    PubMed

    Baker, Richelle M; Stegink, Ryan J; Manaloor, John J; Schmitt, Bryan H; Stevens, John C; Christenson, John C

    2016-11-01

    Malassezia species (formerly known as Pityrosporum) are part of normal human skin flora and have been associated with benign dermatologic conditions, such as seborrheic dermatitis and tinea versicolor. In rare cases, however, Malassezia has been associated with systemic disease in immunocompromised patients and infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Malassezia species require long-chain fatty acids for growth and therefore have a known predilection for individuals receiving lipid containing intravenous parenteral nutrition (PN). Systemic infections are characterized by prolonged fevers and illness but can include nonspecific signs and symptoms. We present the diagnosis and management of a rare case of an immunocompetent, nonneonatal, PN-dependent child with Malassezia furfur pneumonia.

  8. Malassezia furfur meningitis associated with total parenteral nutrition subdural effusion.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Cecilia M; Jackson, Mary Anne; Zwick, David

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of Malassezia furfur meningitis arising in a very low birth weight infant with chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. M. furfur meningitis was probably acquired late following successful treatment for earlier systemic central line-associated M. furfur infection. M. furfur meningitis has only once been previously reported. Unlike the previous case where meningitis was secondary to widespread blood-borne dissemination, infection was limited to the leptomeninges and arose in association with extravasation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and intralipid fluid into subarachnoid space via peripheral scalp catheter.

  9. Metabolic bone diseases during long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Acca, M; Ragno, A; Francucci, C M; D'Erasmo, E

    2007-01-01

    Long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a procedure commonly applied to patients with advanced forms of intestinal malabsorption. Among TPN complications, bone metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia, are a common finding. Initially considered to be a manifestation of aluminium toxicity which followed massive contamination with the element of the solutions used in TPN, metabolic osteopathy during TPN is currently considered a multiform syndrome, with a multifactorial pathogenesis, which may manifest itself with vague or clear clinical pictures. In this review, we analyse clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic aspects of the most common bone metabolic diseases in patients undergoing long-term TPN.

  10. 76 FR 25358 - 2011 Parenteral Drug Association/Food and Drug Administration Glass Quality Conference; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 2011 Parenteral Drug Association/Food and Drug... Parenteral Drug Association (PDA), is announcing a public conference entitled ``PDA/FDA Glass Quality... Association (PDA), PDA Global Headquarters, Bethesda Towers, 4350 East-West Highway, suite 200, Bethesda, MD...

  11. [Use of ready-to-use (RTU) products in home-based parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Planas, M; Puiggrós, C; Sánchez, J R; Cots, I; Tutusaus, M; Rodríguez, T; Pérez-Portabella, C; Gómez, R

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the real possibility to use ready-to-use multichamber bags for total parenteral nutrition in adult patients on home parenteral nutrition. In June 2005 we studied the adult patients on home parenteral nutrition treatment controlled by the Nutritional Support Unit from an University Hospital. Demographic data, data relating to underlying disease state; infusion regimen and the necessity to modify it; body mass index, fat free mass index, and Karnofsky index evolution, and complications related to parenteral nutrition were assessed. At the time of the study, 8 patients aged 48,9 +/- 17,7 years, were on home parenteral nutrition. The artificial nutrition treatment was administered due to short-bowel syndrome (2); motility disorders (2); suboclusion (2); rapid intestinal transit (1), and malabsorption syndrome (1). With the exception of the patient who started more recently the treatment, all the others needed changes in the parenteral nutrition treatment (number of days for week, or formula modification). In general, both the body mass index and the fat free mass index increased during the treatment. The Karnofsky index was maintained or increased. In relation to catheter-related infection, 4 episodes were observed (0.85/1.000 d of HPN). Due to the effectiveness, safety and the diversity of multichamber bags available for parenteral nutrition, and the few complications observed in the patients studied, although more studied are necessary, our results suggest that we can use this commercial bags for adult patients on home parenteral nutrition.

  12. Finding new solutions in pediatric parenteral admixtures: how to improve quality and to deal with shortages.

    PubMed

    Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Dorota; Kwidzynska, Anna; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Sznitowska, Malgorzata; Klek, Stanislaw

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La nutrición parenteral pediátrica permite un crecimiento normal incluso en lactantes pretérmino. Sin embargo, estos niños requieren una nutrición parenteral a medida y la formulación de tal nutrición puede suponer un reto por el riesgo de inestabilidad y el desabastecimiento.

  13. Enteral obeticholic acid prevents hepatic cholestasis in total parenteral nutrition-fed neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a vital support for neonatal infants with congenital or acquired gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and requiring small bowel resection. An adverse outcome associated with prolonged TPN use is parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC). We previously showed t...

  14. 77 FR 47078 - 2012 Parenteral Drug Association/Food and Drug Administration Joint Regulatory Conference...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 2012 Parenteral Drug Association/Food and Drug... Sustainable Global Quality Culture AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in cosponsorship with Parenteral Drug...

  15. Mechanisms of disease: update on the molecular etiology and fundamentals of parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since its introduction into clinical practice in the 1970s, parenteral nutrition has revolutionized the care of premature neonates. Serum transaminase and bilirubin levels are commonly elevated in infants on parenteral nutrition, but their normalization is typical in the setting of short-term admini...

  16. Hepatic transcriptomic profiles of preterm piglets nourished by enteral and parenteral nutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving nutritional support for more than half a million premature and hospitalized infants in the U.S. annually. Lipids in parenteral nutrition provide essential fatty acids and are a major source of energy. Intralipid (IL) is the only approved lipid emulsion in the U....

  17. Evaluation of Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy at a Veterans Affairs Hospital.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Emily Sydnor; Kendall, Brian; Orlando, Patricia; Perez, Christian; De Amorim, Marina; Samore, Matthew; Pavia, Andrew T; Hersh, Adam L

    2015-09-01

    We reviewed outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center to identify opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship intervention. A definite or possible modification would have been recommended in 60% of courses. Forty-one percent of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy courses were potentially avoidable, including 22% involving infectious diseases consultation.

  18. Estudio de la envoltura fría en presencia de un campo magnético en estrellas tempranas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Platzeck, A. M.

    En el estudio de la distribución espacial de la densidad en torno a estrellas tempranas, al menos en dos coordenadas, se consideran en general ``escenarios" cualitativos. Existen sólo dos modelos calculados a partir de la ecuación de conservación de momento: el de Poeckert y Marlborough (Astroph. Journal 220, 940, 1978) y el de Ringuelet e Iglesias (Astroph. Journal 369, 463, 1991). El primero es isotermo considerando campo gravitatorio y fuerza centrífuga. El segundo, resuelve un caso no isotermo en equilibrio hidrostático teniendo en cuenta los campos gravitatorios, de radiación y magnético. En esta comunicación presentamos el análisis, que se deriva de los resultados de Ringuelet e Iglesias para el caso hidrostático, de la estructura de líneas de campo magnético. A continuación estudiamos la forma en que se modifica la distribución espacial de la densidad en la envoltura fría, cuando se tiene en cuenta el movimiento del plasma.

  19. Stability of sulbactam/ampicillin in diluents for parenteral administration.

    PubMed

    Mushinsky, R F; Reynolds, M L; Nicholson, C A; Crider, L L; Forcier, G A

    1986-01-01

    Compatibility studies were conducted of sulbactam/ampicillin in infusion diluents that are reported to be compatible with ampicillin sodium. A high-performance liquid chromatographic system that simultaneously detects sulbactam and ampicillin was used to determine whether the infusion diluents and the conditions of use recommended for ampicillin sodium are applicable to sulbactam/ampicillin. The results show that the sulbactam/ampicillin preparation for parenteral administration is compatible with all diluents recommended for ampicillin sodium. In all diluents sulbactam was more stable than ampicillin. At the end of the reported use periods, the average retention value for sulbactam in the combination solutions was 96% (range, 91%-101%), whereas the average retention value for ampicillin in the same solutions was 90% (range, 84%-95%). The presence of sulbactam had no adverse effect on the stability of ampicillin. The average retention value for ampicillin alone in the same diluents was 92% (range, 82%-99%). The conditions of use for sulbactam/ampicillin in diluents for parenteral administration are unrestricted by the presence of sulbactam and are, in fact, governed by those of ampicillin sodium.

  20. A novel self emulsifying parenteral drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Krishna, G; Sheth, B B

    1999-01-01

    The application of three polyhydroxy alcohols for improving parenteral emulsion formulations was investigated. A mixture of lecithin, as the primary emulsifier, and Span 20 as the secondary emulsifier, was used as the emulsifier system. The polyhydroxy alcohols selected were glycerol, propylene glycol and sorbitol. Soybean oil-in-water emulsions were prepared with the addition of increasing concentrations of each polyhydroxy alcohol. It was found that anhydrous mixtures of oil, surfactants and 30% or higher concentration of glycerol formed self emulsifying isotropic liquids, suitable for preparing Parenteral Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (PSEDDS). Spontaneous emulsification to submicron particle size of 0.4 micron occurred when these isotropic liquids were gently mixed with water. A PSEDDS formulation, containing 0.5% lidocaine, as the model drug showed similar spontaneous emulsification with particle size of 0.39 micron. Formulations containing propylene glycol, or sorbitol or lower concentrations of glycerol did not form self emulsifying mixtures. There were substantial differences in the particle size reduction pattern with each polyhydroxy alcohol. Glycerol was most effective, with minimum particle size obtained at 30% concentration. Addition of propylene glycol resulted in minimum particle size at 60% concentration. But there was increase in particle size at higher concentrations. Sorbitol was not very effective in reducing particle size. Alteration of the surfactant phase distribution at the interface was found to be the primary effect of polyhydroxy alcohols.

  1. Parenteral arginine infusion in humans: nutrient substrate or pharmacologic agent?

    PubMed

    Sigal, R K; Shou, J; Daly, J M

    1992-01-01

    When given as a dietary supplement, arginine enhances lymphocyte mitogenesis and improves nitrogen balance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate arginine's ability to mediate these same effects when given as the sole nitrogen source with minimum additional calories. Thirty patients were randomized to receive 20 g/day arginine hydrochloride or a mixed amino acid solution (Travasol) by intravenous infusion for 7 days after abdominal operations. Mean patient age, body weight, gender ratios, and preoperative degree of weight loss were similar between groups. Mean plasma arginine and ornithine levels rose to 228 +/- 50 mumol/L and 191 +/- 76 mumol/L in the arginine group during infusion. Mean nitrogen balance was -8.8 g/day and -9.2 g/day in the arginine and Travasol groups, respectively. Mean lymphocyte stimulation indices to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin fell on postoperative day 1 in both groups. No significant differences in patterns of lymphocyte mitogenesis changes were noted between groups. The mean total number of circulating T cells increased in the arginine group at postoperative day 7. Thus, parenteral arginine infusion in postoperative patients provided comparable nitrogen balance to a balanced amino acid solution but did not increase peripheral blood lymphocyte mitogenesis. When arginine is given parenterally as the sole nitrogen source with minimal additional calories to postoperative patients, no enhancement of mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation could be demonstrated.

  2. Plasma lipid levels in preterm neonates receiving parenteral fat emulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, J L; Shannon, D L; Hunter, M A; Brans, Y W

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of various plasma lipid fractions were determined during 96 hours of continuous parenteral infusions of lipid emulsions in 10 normally-grown neonates whose birth-weights ranged from 960 to 1760 g and whose gestational ages ranged from 26 to 32 weeks. Total lipid, triglyceride, free glycerol, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured. During lipid infusions, mean plasma concentrations of all lipid fractions increased above the mean preinfusion values if 2 g/kg a day or more of lipid emulsion was used. There were no further significant increases in mean plasma lipid levels if the infused dosage was increased to 3 or 4 g/kg a day. At these higher infusion rates however, there were considerable individual variations. The only neonate less than 27 weeks of gestation had plasma lipid levels severalfold higher than any of his peers, his plasma was frankly creamy on visual inspection, and the study had to be stopped. Further investigations are needed to determine the optimal modalities of parenteral nutrition with fat emulsions. PMID:6402989

  3. Economic evaluation of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Psaltikidis, Eliane Molina; Silva, Everton Nunes da; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim Murray; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Resende, Mariângela Ribeiro

    2017-08-01

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) consists of providing antimicrobial therapy by parenteral infusion without hospitalization. A systematic review was performed to compare OPAT and hospitalization as health care modalities from an economic perspective. Areas covered: We identified 1455 articles using 13 electronic databases and manual searches. Two independent reviewers identified 35 studies conducted between 1978 and 2016. We observed high heterogeneity in the following: countries, infection site, OPAT strategies and outcomes analyzed. Of these, 88% had a retrospective observational design and one was a randomized trial. With respect to economic analyses, 71% of the studies considered the cost-consequences, 11% cost minimization, 6% cost-benefit, 6% cost-utility analyses and 6% cost effectiveness. Considering all 35 studies, the general OPAT cost saving was 57.19% (from -13.03% to 95.47%). Taking into consideration only high-quality studies (6 comparative studies), the cost saving declined by 16.54% (from -13.03% to 46.86%). Expert commentary: Although most studies demonstrate that OPAT is cost-effective, the magnitude of this effect is compromised by poor methodological quality and heterogeneity. Economic assessments of the issue are needed using more rigorous methodologies that include a broad range of perspectives to identify the real magnitude of economic savings in different settings and OPAT modalities.

  4. Provider error prevention: online total parenteral nutrition calculator.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Conner, Kim G.; Cox, Jeanne M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: 1. To reduce errors in the ordering of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH). 2. To develop a pragmatic low-cost medical information system to achieve this goal. METHODS: We designed an online total parenteral nutrition order entry system (TPNCalculator) using Internet technologies. Total development time was three weeks. Utilization, impact on medical errors and user satisfaction were evaluated. RESULTS: During the control period, 0.39 orders per patient per day (N=557) were received compared to 0.35 orders per patient per day (N=471) in the intervention period (NS). There was no significant difference in the percentage of late (incomplete by order deadline) TPN orders. During the control period, an average of 10.8 errors were detected per 100 TPN orders compared to 4.2 per 100 orders in the intervention period (61% reduction of error rate; p < 0.01). We found a reduction in the following types of problems: Calculation errors (100%), osmolality issues (87%) and other knowledge problems (84%). There was a 35% increase in the number of incomplete forms. Users of the system were enthusiastic and supportive and compared it favorably to the prior paper based system. CONCLUSION: Low-cost, pragmatic approaches utilizing Internet technology in the design of medical information systems can reduce medical errors and might pose a viable option for the prevention of adverse drug events. PMID:12463861

  5. Studies with a safflower oil emulsion in total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K. H.; Deitel, M.

    1981-01-01

    The prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency and the provision of adequate amounts of energy are two major concerns in total parenteral nutrition. Since earlier preparations of fat emulsion used to supplement the usual regimen of hypertonic glucose and amino acids have widely varying clinical acceptability, a new product, a safflower oil emulsion available in two concentrations (Liposyn), was evaluated. In four clinical trials the emulsion was used as a supplement to total parenteral nutrition. In five surgical patients 500 ml of the 10% emulsion infused every third day prevented or corrected essential fatty acid deficiency; however, in some cases in infusion every other day may be necessary. In 40 patients in severe catabolic states the emulsion provided 30% to 50% of the energy required daily: 10 patients received the 10% emulsion for 14 to 42 days, 9 patients received each emulsion in turn for 7 days, and 21 patient received the 20% emulsion for 14 to 28 days. All the patients survived and tolerated the lipid well; no adverse clinical effects were attributable to the lipid infusions. Transient mild, apparently clinically insignificant abnormalities in the results of one or more liver function tests and eosinophilia were observed in some patients. Thus, the safflower oil emulsion, at both concentrations, was safe and effective as a source of 30% to 50% of the energy required daily by seriously ill patients. PMID:6799182

  6. Discrepancies Between Prescribed and Actual Pediatric Home Parenteral Nutrition Solutions.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Bram P; Murphy, Margaret; Gura, Kathleen M; Litman, Heather; Dalton, Meghan K; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Lightdale, Jenifer R

    2016-10-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is increasingly prescribed for pediatric patients with complex medical conditions. Commercial vendors are widely available to compound HPN. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of discrepancies between written HPN prescriptions and commercially compounded solutions, as well as to record the associated severity of harm from discrepancies. From January to April 2013, 2 clinical pharmacists independently and prospectively reconciled HPN compounding records with electronic prescriptions (gold standard) during all routine ambulatory encounters to a multidisciplinary HPN program. Types, severity, and causes of discrepancies were recorded. Sixty-one unique patients were identified for inclusion during 117 visits. HPN solutions were compounded at 13 unique vendors across 14 states. Of all 100 compounding records, 46 (46%) contained at least 1 discrepancy, with a total of 60 discrepancies identified, affecting 34 of 61 (56%) patients. There was at least 1 discrepancy in solutions originating from 10 of 13 (77%) home infusion companies. Discrepancies were classified as Medication Error Reporting and Prevention levels C (n = 37) and D (n = 23; ie, all reaching patient but not causing harm). We found an alarmingly high rate of preparation discrepancies in a cohort of pediatric patients receiving HPN. Routine reconciliation of HPN compounds with intended prescriptions may be critical for ambulatory patients receiving this high-risk therapy. While home infusion commercial vendors provide an indispensable function, discrepancies and errors with potential for harm may be more common than previously appreciated. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Cardiac tamponade as a complication of parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Diego Paim Carvalho; Neto, Clarissa Santos; Hubner, Pablo Nelson Valle; Furtado, Thiago de Almeida; Petroianu, Andy; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    Complications arising from the use of central venous catheters are numerous, but cardiac tamponade is a complication well defined, very rare and often fatal. The mortality rate is 47-77% in the literature. We report a case of successful diagnosis and treatment of cardiac tamponade by parenteral nutrition in a 31-year-old female. There are only few cases of cardiac tamponade reported in the world literature since 1958. The true incidence is unclear and the most cases occur in children. Despite the rarity of this condition, it has a high mortality rate. The clinical findings are pain and discomfort in the epigastrium and chest region, nausea, dyspnea, tachycardia, distended jugular veins, paradoxical pulse, hypotension, electrocardiographic tracing signals with low voltage and enlargement of cardiac area. The immediate diagnosis and the treatment of cardiac tamponade are capital for patient survival. Cardiac tamponade should be suspected among patients with sudden onset of shock in use of parenteral nutrition, and therefore immediately treated. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrogen sparing by 2-ketoisocaproate in parenterally fed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, M.; Matthews, D.E.; Walser, M. )

    1990-11-01

    In rats receiving total parenteral nutrition with or without sodium 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC; 2.48 g.kg-1.day-1), L-(1-{sup 13}C)leucine and (1-{sup 14}C)KIC were constantly infused for 6 h. CO{sub 2} production, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} production, {sup 13}CO{sub 2} enrichment, urinary urea nitrogen (N) plus ammonia N and total urinary N were measured. Whole body protein synthesis (S) was calculated in non-KIC-infused rats and also in unfed rats infused with (1-{sup 14}C)leucine from fractional oxidation of labeled leucine (1-F), where F is fractional utilization for protein synthesis, and urea N plus ammonia N excretion (C) as S = C x F/(1-F). Addition of KIC caused a significant reduction in N excretion and a significant improvement in N balance. Fractional oxidation of labeled KIC increased, whereas fractional utilization of labeled KIC for protein synthesis decreased, but the extent of incorporation of infused KIC into newly synthesized protein (as leucine) amounted to at least 40% of the total rate of leucine incorporation into newly synthesized whole body protein. We conclude that addition of KIC spares N in parenterally fed rats and becomes a major source of leucine for protein synthesis.

  9. Recent developments in protein and peptide parenteral delivery approaches

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ashaben; Cholkar, Kishore; Mitra, Ashim K

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of insulin in the early 1900s initiated the research and development to improve the means of therapeutic protein delivery in patients. In the past decade, great emphasis has been placed on bringing protein and peptide therapeutics to market. Despite tremendous efforts, parenteral delivery still remains the major mode of administration for protein and peptide therapeutics. Other routes such as oral, nasal, pulmonary and buccal are considered more opportunistic rather than routine application. Improving biological half-life, stability and therapeutic efficacy is central to protein and peptide delivery. Several approaches have been tried in the past to improve protein and peptide in vitro/in vivo stability and performance. Approaches may be broadly categorized as chemical modification and colloidal delivery systems. In this review we have discussed various chemical approaches such as PEGylation, hyperglycosylation, mannosylation, and colloidal carriers including microparticles, nanoparticles, liposomes, carbon nanotubes and micelles for improving protein and peptide delivery. Recent developments on in situ thermosensitive gel-based protein and peptide delivery have also been described. This review summarizes recent developments on some currently existing approaches to improve stability, bioavailability and bioactivity of peptide and protein therapeutics following parenteral administration. PMID:24592957

  10. Controversies in the Mechanism of Total Parenteral Nutrition Induced Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jain Ajay; Teckman, Jeffery H.

    2015-01-01

    Over 30,000 patients are permanently dependent on Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) for survival with several folds higher requiring TPN for a prolonged duration. Unfortunately, it can cause potentially fatal complications. TPN infusion results in impairment of gut mucosal integrity, enhanced inflammation, increased cytokine expression and trans-mucosal bacterial permeation. It also causes endotoxin associated down regulation of bile acid transporters and Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD), which includes steatosis, disrupted glucose metabolism, disrupted lipid metabolism, cholestasis and liver failure. Despite multiple theories, its etiology and pathophysiology remains elusive and is likely multifactorial. An important cause for TPN related pathologies appears to be a disruption in the normal enterohepatic circulation due to a lack of feeding during such therapy. This is further validated by the fact that in clinical settings, once cholestasis sets in, its reversal occurs when a patient is receiving a major portion of calories enterally. There are several other postulated mechanisms including gut bacterial permeation predisposing to endotoxin associated down regulation of bile acid transporters. An additional potential mechanism includes toxicity of the TPN solution itself, such as lipid mediated hepatic toxicity. Prematurity, leading to a poor development of bile acid regulating nuclear receptors and transporters has also been implicated as a causative factor. This review presents the current controversies and research into mechanisms of TPN associated injury. PMID:27417369

  11. Cardiac tamponade as a complication of parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Diego Paim Carvalho; Neto, Clarissa Santos; Hubner, Pablo Nelson Valle; Furtado, Thiago de Almeida; Petroianu, Andy; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Complications arising from the use of central venous catheters are numerous, but cardiac tamponade is a complication well defined, very rare and often fatal. The mortality rate is 47–77% in the literature. Presentation of case We report a case of successful diagnosis and treatment of cardiac tamponade by parenteral nutrition in a 31-year-old female. Discussion There are only few cases of cardiac tamponade reported in the world literature since 1958. The true incidence is unclear and the most cases occur in children. Despite the rarity of this condition, it has a high mortality rate. The clinical findings are pain and discomfort in the epigastrium and chest region, nausea, dyspnea, tachycardia, distended jugular veins, paradoxical pulse, hypotension, electrocardiographic tracing signals with low voltage and enlargement of cardiac area. The immediate diagnosis and the treatment of cardiac tamponade are capital for patient survival. Conclusion Cardiac tamponade should be suspected among patients with sudden onset of shock in use of parenteral nutrition, and therefore immediately treated. PMID:25681814

  12. Femoral venous catheters: a safe alternative for delivering parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Kanter, G; Titus, D

    1994-04-01

    Femoral vein catheterization is an alternative method of obtaining central venous access. Placement of femoral venous catheters (FVCs) is possible in the majority of patients, suitable for most indications, and associated with a low complication rate during insertion. We wished to determine the incidence of infections or other complications resulting when parenteral nutrition was delivered through FVCs. Fifty-two patients were followed from a hospital-wide population including patients in the critical care units. Triple-lumen catheters were placed by using the sterile Seldinger technique, and sites were examined daily for inflammation. Bacteriologic surveillance was accomplished by submitting the catheter tip for semiquantitative cultures. If catheter line sepsis was suspected, blood samples for cultures were drawn through the catheter and peripherally. The rate of occurrence of colonized catheters was 9.6% (five of 52), and catheter sepsis was found in one case (1.9%). Other than inflammation at six (11.5%) of 52 catheter sites, noninfectious complications of FVCs were not found. On the basis of these findings, we consider FVC-delivered parenteral alimentation a safe and effective alternative to other forms of central venous access.

  13. Parenteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome patients, regardless of its duration, increases serum proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Bizari, Letícia; da Silva Santos, Andressa Feijó; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Suen, Vivian Marques Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a severe malabsorption disorder, and prolonged parenteral nutrition is essential for survival in some cases. Among the undesirable effects of long-term parenteral nutrition is an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to measure the serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and transforming growth factor beta, in patients with short bowel syndrome on cyclic parenteral nutrition and patients who had previously received but no longer require parenteral nutrition. The study was cross-sectional and observational. Three groups were studied as follows: Parenteral nutrition group, 9 patients with short bowel syndrome that receive cyclic parenteral nutrition; Oral nutrition group, 10 patients with the same syndrome who had been weaned off parenteral nutrition for at least 1 year prior to the study; Control group, 13 healthy adults, matched for age and sex to parenteral and oral groups. The following data were collected: age, tobacco use, drug therapies, dietary intake, body weight, height, blood collection. All interleukins were significantly higher in the parenteral group compared with the control group as follows: interleukin-6: 22 ± 19 vs 1.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL, P= .0002; transforming growth factor β: 854 ± 204 vs 607 ± 280 pg/mL, P= .04; interleukin-10: 8 ± 37 vs 0.6 ± 4, P= .03; tumor necrosis factor α: 20 ± 8 vs 8 ± 4 pg/mL, P< .0001. We concluded that parenteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome patients, regardless of its duration, increases serum proinflammatory cytokines.

  14. [Management of parenteral nutrition in intensive care units in Spain].

    PubMed

    Vaquerizo Alonso, Clara; Mesejo, Alfonso; Acosta Escribano, José; Ruiz Santana, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Introducción y objetivos: No se sabe con exactitud aspectos de relevancia en nutrición parenteral como aportes calórico-proteicos, volumen total, control de glucemia, tipo de emulsión lipídica o comparación de diferentes fórmulas, en las UCIs españolas. Planteamos como objetivo conocer los patrones de práctica clínica habitual en la terapéutica con nutrición artificial, fundamentalmente parenteral, en dichas UCIs. Material y métodos: Participaron doce UCIs representativas, de enero a marzo de dos mil doce, para la realización de una encuesta nutricional. La encuesta se dividió en dos apartados : A) Manejo del soporte nutricional artificial en el paciente grave y B) Valoración de una nueva fórmula de nutrición parenteral adaptada al paciente grave. Se recogió: porcentaje de pacientes con nutrición artificial; disponibilidad de fórmulas enterales; tipos de emulsiones lipídicas; calorías, aminoácidos y lípidos aportados; adición de glutamina, vitaminas y oligoelementos; manejo del volumen y de la hiperglucemia y datos comparativos de pacientes con la nueva formulación frente a fórmulas de uso habitual: control glucémico, afectación hepática y complicaciones infecciosas, así como aportes de calorías totales, proteínas, volumen e insulina administrada. Resultados: La media de camas hospitalarias es de 780 y de UCI de 25, con una media de ingresos de 950 pacientes/año. Un 49% son pacientes médicos, 31% quirúrgicos y 20% traumatológicos. El 59,75% precisaron nutrición artificial (NA). De ellos, 58,7% nutrición enteral (NE), 16% nutrición parenteral total (NPT) y 25,3% nutrición parenteral complementaria (NPC). Ante NE contraindicada, el 83,3% inicia NPT precoz (24 horas) y ante NE insuficiente el 66,7% inicia NPC en 48 horas. En relación con la práctica habitual de los prescriptores, un 50% intenta reducción de volumen y el 100% dispone de protocolo de infusión de insulina. Un 39% recomiendan NPT hiperproteica, baja en volumen

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of chlorambucil delivered in parenteral emulsion.

    PubMed

    Ganta, Srinivas; Paxton, James W; Baguley, Bruce C; Garg, Sanjay

    2008-08-06

    The aim was to assess the pharmacokinetics and anticancer activity of chlorambucil (CHL) incorporated in a parenteral emulsion (PE). A chlorambucil-loaded PE was prepared by a high energy ultrasonication method. Soybean oil was chosen as a triglyceride oil core and egg phosphatidylcholine as an emulsifier in the formulation. The particle size distribution and zeta potential were measured using Zetasizer. The results showed that the average encapsulation efficiency of chlorambucil-loaded parenteral emulsion (CHL-PE) was 98.6+/-3.2% with a particle size of 182.7+/-0.8 nm, and a zeta-potential of -37.2+/-1.1 mV. Osmolality and pH of the formulation were 305.6+/-2.3 mOsm/kg and 7.4, respectively. The chlorambucil was stable in the PE for at least 6 months stored at 4-8 degrees C. The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and anticancer activity of CHL-PE and chlorambucil solution were studied after intravenous administration to C57 BL/6 male mice. CHL-PE exhibited a significantly greater AUC 0-infinity (32.4+/-0.1 microg/ml h vs. 16.9+/-0.1 microg/ml h), mean residence time (MRT) (1.32+/-0.01 h vs. 0.30+/-0.01 h), volume of distribution (409+/-15 ml/kg vs. 180+/-7 ml/kg) and elimination half-life (1.83+/-0.1h vs. 0.27+/-0.02 h) (all P<0.01), and a significantly reduced plasma clearance (309+/-16 ml/(h kg) vs. 591+/-4 ml/(h kg), P<0.01) compared to the CHL. In addition CHL-PE treatment caused significantly greater tumour growth suppression rate (% T/C) of the colon-38 adenocarcinoma in the mouse compared to CHL treatment (% T/C, 75+/-3.4% vs. 49+/-7.4%, P<0.01). These results suggest that CHL-PE could be an effective parenteral carrier for chlorambucil delivery in cancer treatment.

  16. [Intestinal transplant in patients with parenteral nutrition at home].

    PubMed

    de Cos, A I; Gómez Candela, C; Vázquez, C; López Santamaría, M; Vicente, E

    2003-01-01

    Failure of the intestine, whether due to functional or anatomical reasons, constrains Parenteral Nutrition Therapy in children or adults who, as a result of intestinal resections, alterations in motility, diseases of the microvilli or other reasons, present insufficient intestine to cover their needs in terms of nutrients and fluids. Nonetheless, the maintenance of support with parenteral nutrition at home in subjects with irreversible intestinal failure is not without life-threatening complications: liver disease, recurrent sepsis and loss of central routes recommend the assessment of the indication of intestinal transplant in this group of patients. The incidence of morbidity and mortality after intestinal transplant is greater than in other transplants (kidney, liver), but the long-term survival is around 50-60%. In Spain, 7 transplants (6 children and 1 adult) have been performed so far: 3 of intestine alone, 3 of liver plus intestine and 1 mutivisceral transplant. In 4 cases, the indication for transplant was due to terminal liver disease, with the remainder being due to the loss of venous access, intractable diarrhoea and intra-abdominal desmoid tumour, respectively. Except for one girl who presented severe rejection of the graft, the rest achieved digestive autonomy. One boy has presented lymphocyte neoplasia (PTLD) after 2 years and another died after the transplant as a result of a routine liver biopsy (with functioning grafts). Of the 38 patients assessed for transplant, 18 were considered as candidates and of these, three youthful candidates for hepato-intestinal transplant (with short intestine syndrome) have died while on the waiting list and a fourth in the operating theatre prior to an attempted multivisceral transplant. Intestinal transplants must not be considered as the last desperate therapeutic option in patients with permanent intestinal failure. The type of graft, clinical expertise and the use of new inducers (Sirulimos) all contribute to the

  17. PROTEIN NEEDS OF CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS RECEIVING PARENTERAL NUTRITION.

    PubMed

    Germano Borges de Oliveira Nascimento Freitas, Renata; Negrão Nogueira, Roberto José; Hessel, Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: evaluar si las recomendaciones de ingesta de proteínas actuales pueden mejorar los parámetros bioquímicos de los pacientes críticos que reciben nutrición parenteral. Métodos: estudio longitudinal con tres evaluaciones realizadas (durante las primeras 72 horas, en el séptimo y los días decimocuarto de nutrición parenteral). Se aplicaron las siguientes pruebas: albúmina, proteína C reac ti va, prealbúmina, colesterol total, HDL, triglicéridos, linfocitos y glutatión peroxidasa. La gravedad se determinó por SOFA. El análisis estadístico incluyó las pruebas de Spearman y Mann-Whitney, así como ANOVA (análisis de varianza). Resultados: de los 53 pacientes evaluados, 20 (37,74%) fallecieron. La caloría media fue de 24,68 ± 9,78 kcal/kg (comienzo de PN), 26,49 ± 8,89 kcal/kg (tercero-séptimo días de PN), y 30,9 ± 12,19 kcal/kg (séptimo-décimo cuarto días de PN). La proteína media fue de 1,19 ± 0,44 g/ kcal/kg (primeras 72 horas de PN), 1,29 ± 0,44 g/kcal/kg (tercero-séptimo días de PN) y 1,49 ± 0,69 g/kcal/kg (séptimo- decimocuarto días de PN). La prealbúmina, la albúmina, el colesterol total y la HDL estaban por debajo de los valores de referencia, mientras que los niveles de PCR eran altos. A lo largo de los tres tiempos de evaluación, no hay una mejora significativa en los niveles de los exámenes de laboratorio. Una correlación fuerte y negativa entre SOFA y prealbúmina (r = -0,64, p = 0,05). Conclusiones: la oferta de proteínas, de acuerdo con las recomendaciones tradicionales, no fue suficiente para mejorar los parámetros bioquímicos de los pacientes críticos sometidos a nutrición parenteral.

  18. Supplementation of parenteral nutrition with fish oil attenuates acute lung injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Kohama, Keisuke; Nakao, Atsunori; Terashima, Mariko; Aoyama-Ishikawa, Michiko; Shimizu, Takayuki; Harada, Daisuke; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Yamashita, Hayato; Fujiwara, Mayu; Kotani, Joji

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has diverse immunomodulatory properties and attenuates acute lung injury when administered in enternal nutrition. However, enteral nutrition is not always feasible. Therefore, we investigated the ability of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil to ameliorate acute lung injury. Rats were infused with parenteral nutrition solutions (without lipids, with soybean oil, or with soybean oil and fish oil) for three days. Lipopolysaccharide (15 mg/kg) was then administered intratracheally to induce acute lung injury, characterized by impaired lung function, polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment, parenchymal tissue damage, and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Administration of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil prior to lung insult improved gas exchange and inhibited neutrophil recruitment and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil also prolonged survival. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene B5 secretion was measured in neutrophils from the peritoneal cavity. The neutrophils from rats treated with fish oil-rich parenteral nutrition released significantly more leukotriene B5, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid, than neutrophils isolated from rats given standard parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition with fish oil significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats in part by promoting the synthesis of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PMID:24688221

  19. Hair loss in long-term or home parenteral nutrition: are micronutrient deficiencies to blame?

    PubMed

    Daniells, Suzie; Hardy, Gil

    2010-11-01

    To review the key nutritional factors associated with hair loss in long-term parenteral nutrition patients. The phenomenon of unexplained hair loss is multifactorial, and nonstandard definitions are applied. Deficiencies of essential fatty acids resulting in alopecia and other symptoms appear to have been eliminated by regular use of lipid-containing parenteral nutrition. Zinc is the most frequently suspected deficiency with rapid clinical responses reported from zinc therapy. Alopecia in some infants on parenteral nutrition has been relieved in a few weeks by selenium supplementation as selenite. There may be a relationship between iron depletion and diffuse hair loss in home parenteral nutrition patients at higher risk of anaemia. A serum ferritin level of 70 μg/l should be targeted when hair loss is unexplained. However, there is limited data correlating cessation of hair loss with iron therapy and insufficient evidence to recommend iron supplementation in patients without anaemia. Parenteral nutrition-associated biotin deficiency has not been reported since the vitamin has been routinely added to parenteral nutrition. However, marginal biotin status, associated with diffuse hair loss, could still be prevalent. Micronutrient status is infrequently monitored and current recommendations for supplementation are nonspecific for hair loss in long-term parenteral nutrition. Studies are required to determine the incidence of marginal zinc, selenium, iron or biotin deficiencies that could manifest as hair loss.

  20. Safety and role of ketogenic parenteral nutrition for intractable childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da Eun; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Lee, Joon Soo; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Heung Dong

    2012-09-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the safety and role of ketogenic parenteral nutrition in patients with intractable childhood epilepsy. The ketogenic parenteral nutrition was given to 10 patients who were unable to absorb nutrients through the intestinal tract because of various gastrointestinal disorders and required complete bowel rest. This nutrition consisted of conventional intravenous fat emulsion (20% Lipision) plus dextrose and amino acid (6% Trophamine) hyperalimentation in a 4:1 (or 3:1) lipid to non-lipid ratio, infused during the bowel rest. If the ketogenic parenteral nutrition allowed normal daily functioning or resolved the underlying problems, we soon changed it to the enteral ketogenic diet (KD). The mean (±SD) duration of the ketogenic parenteral nutrition was 4.1 (±1.5) days. Although a brief span of several days, all patients could maintain ketosis and the efficacy of the previous enteral KD during the ketogenic parenteral nutrition. Complications included elevated aspartate aminotransferase and/or alanine aminotransferase in one patient. Amylase and lipase increased in one patient. Serum triglyceride level increased to the level of 1885 mg/dl in one patient, but normalized in one week after discontinuation of the ketogenic parenteral nutrition and resuming of the enteral KD. Nine patients (90%) remained on the enteral KD after the ketogenic parenteral nutrition (the mean follow-up period was 9 months), including 2 patients who successfully completed the diet with seizure free state. Only one patient discontinued the ketogenic parenteral nutrition because of persistent increase of the amylase and lipase levels. The ketogenic parenteral nutrition proved to be a relatively safe short-term method of continuing KD to maintain ketosis for seizure control, while patients were unable to absorb nutrients through their intestinal tract. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral versus parenteral antimicrobials for the treatment of cellulitis: a randomized non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Aboltins, Craig A; Hutchinson, Anastasia F; Sinnappu, Rabindra N; Cresp, Damian; Risteski, Chrissie; Kathirgamanathan, Rajasutharsan; Tacey, Mark A; Chiu, Herman; Lim, Kwang

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether outcomes for patients with cellulitis treated with oral antimicrobials are as good as for those who are treated with parenteral antimicrobials. A prospective randomized non-inferiority trial was conducted at a tertiary teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Participants were patients referred by the emergency department for treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis with parenteral antimicrobials. Patients were randomized to receive either oral cefalexin or parenteral cefazolin. Parenteral antimicrobials were changed to oral after the area of cellulitis ceased progressing. The primary outcome was days until no advancement of the area of cellulitis. A non-inferiority margin of 15% was set for the oral arm compared with the parenteral arm. Secondary outcomes were failure of treatment, pain, complications and satisfaction with care. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000685910). Twenty-four patients were randomized to oral antimicrobials and 23 to parenteral antimicrobials. Mean days to no advancement of cellulitis was 1.29 (SD 0.62) for the oral arm and 1.78 (SD 1.13) for the parenteral arm, with a mean difference of -0.49 (95% CI: -1.02 to +0.04). The upper limit of the 95% CI of the difference in means of +0.04 was below the 15% non-inferiority margin of +0.27 days, indicating non-inferiority. More patients failed treatment in the parenteral arm (5 of 23, 22%) compared with the oral arm (1 of 24, 4%), although this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.10). Pain, complications and satisfaction with care were similar for both groups. Oral antimicrobials are as effective as parenteral antimicrobials for the treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Weight monitoring in parenteral nutrition: from theory to practice].

    PubMed

    Pérez Serrano, R; Vicente Sánchez, Ma P; Arteta Jiménez, M

    2011-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of establishing a routine gravimetric as quality assurance after the development of parenteral nutrition (PN) with a gravimetric error less than ± 5%. Prospective study in which 5 to 8 large volume PN were weighed daily during 2 months and for 4 months all small volume PN, considering this the real weight. The theoretical weight was calculated taking into account the densities, volumes of all products used in processing and the weight of the bags used. The gravimetric error was calculated as a percentage compared to the theoretical weight. 168 large volume PN and 42 small volume were weighed, gravimetric errors measures were 1.42% (SD=1.31) and 1.26% (SD=0.64), with a gravimetric error less than 5% in 98,8% and 100% respectively. Establishing a routine gravimetric control is an useful strategy that can help to guarantee the quality of the PN development.

  3. A re-evaluation of energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Quebbeman, E J; Ausman, R K; Schneider, T C

    1982-01-01

    Nutritional support regimens are currently based on estimates of energy expenditure, and these estimates are then increased substantially in patients with severe trauma or sepsis because of a presumed hypermetabolic state. Forty-four patients on parenteral nutrition were evaluated using indirect calorimetry to measure actual energy expenditure, and an attempt was made to correlate metabolic rate with clinical diagnosis. We found no statistical difference in metabolic rates between groups of patients classified as malnourished, stressed, or catabolic, If high levels of nonprotein energy substrates are to be administered to a catabolic or "hypermetabolic" patient group, the justification must be on a basis other than a significant increase in actual rate of energy expenditure. PMID:6800313

  4. Precipitation of trace elements in parenteral nutrition mixtures.

    PubMed

    Allwood, M C; Martin, H; Greenwood, M; Maunder, M

    1998-10-01

    Trace elements are an essential additive to parenteral nutrition (PN) mixtures. Previous studies have indicated that certain trace elements, in particular copper and iron, may interact with complete PN mixtures leading to precipitate formation. The causes of these incompatibilities have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine factors responsible for common trace element incompatibilities, using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy to examine the elemental content of precipitates isolated from stored PN mixtures with added trace elements. Results indicated that copper sulphide precipitated most rapidly in PN mixtures containing Vamin 9 and in mixtures stored in multilayered bags. Copper sulphide precipitation was delayed in PN mixtures containing Vamin 14 and was not observed in PN mixtures stored in EVA bags. Iron phosphate precipitates were observed in Synthamin-containing PN mixtures after storage, but this was prevented in mixtures containing vitamins stored in multilayered bags.

  5. The effect of acute discontinuation of total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Wagman, L D; Newsome, H H; Miller, K B; Thomas, R B; Weir, G C

    1986-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of acute discontinuation (AD) of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on serum glucose, insulin, and glucagon levels and on the generation of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Fifty studies were performed in 48 patients. In none of the 30 studies of 1 hour duration nor in the 20 studies of 8 hours duration was there a single episode of symptomatic hypoglycemia. One patient had a glucose below normal (60 mg/dl) during the first hour after AD. Glucose and insulin concentrations were elevated at the start of TPN discontinuation but returned to normal values within 60 minutes and remained there during the successive 7 hours of study. Although glucagon levels were slightly elevated at zero time, no significant decrease occurred. There was no evidence for counter-regulation based on the patterns of glucose and hormone levels. With some restrictions, acute discontinuation is a safe, rapid method of ending a prolonged TPN infusion. PMID:3094465

  6. Effects of early parenteral iron combined erythropoietin in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Linxia; Tang, Qingya; Zhu, Wenying; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhu, Yuefang; Wang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of early parenteral iron supplementation combined erythropoietin for prevention of anemia in preterm infants. Methods: In total, 96 preterm infants were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group receiving standard parenteral nutrition (group 1: n = 31), an iron-supplemented group (group 2: IS, n = 33), and an iron-supplemented combined erythropoietin group (group 3: IS+EPO, n = 32). The primary objective was to assess hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The secondary objectives included assessment of red blood cell counts (RBC), mean cell volume (MCV), serum iron, ferritin, percentages of reticulocyte (RET), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and oxidative stress, which was assessed by measuring plasma levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase at baseline and at 2 weeks. The blood routine indices including Hb, RBC, MCV, and percentages of RET were measured at corrected age of 1 and 3 months. Results: At 2 weeks of life, the percentages of reticulocyte in group 2 and group 3 were significantly higher than those in group 1 (2.1±0.4, 2.5±0.3, and 1.7±0.3, respectively, P < 0.001, P<0.001), whereas TIBC were significantly lower than those in group 1 (36.7±4.6, 36.0±4.7, and 41.6 ± 5.2 respectively, P = 0.011, P = 0.006). There were no significant differences in RBC counts, the levels of hemoglobin, ferritin, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase among the 3 groups at 2weeks of life. RBC, Hb, MCV, body weight, body length, and head circumference at a corrected age of 1 month did not differ among 3 groups. At corrected age of 3months, more infants in the control group had abnormal Hb and MCV levels (Hb levels: 114.3 ± 21.3, 123.7 ± 31.6, and 125.1 ± 21.2, P = 0.021, P = 0.034, respectively; MCV: 74.1 ± 3.5, 78.3 ± 4.7 and 79.1 ± 5.2, P = 0.017, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas cases of oral iron, cases of breastfeeding

  7. Bone concentrations of antimicrobial agents after parenteral administration.

    PubMed

    Smilack, J D; Flittie, W H; Williams, T W

    1976-01-01

    Bone concentrations of seven antimicrobial agents were determined after parenteral administration. Antibiotics were administered in large doses at customary intervals for 12 to 20 h before total hip or knee replacement; anticipated levels of each drug were achieved in the serum. Methicillin, carbenicillin, and clindamycin were detected in bone with greatest frequency. Cefazolin and gentamicin were each detected in bone specimens from only one of four patients. Neither penicillin G nor cephalothin was present in bone in sufficient quantity to be measurable. These data suggest that a number of factors, in addition to serum concentration, affect concentration of antimicrobial agents in bone. The clinical significance of the relationship between bone concentrations of antibiotics and therapeutic outcome is not certain.

  8. Bone Concentrations of Antimicrobial Agents After Parenteral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Smilack, Jerry D.; Flittie, William H.; Williams, Temple W.

    1976-01-01

    Bone concentrations of seven antimicrobial agents were determined after parenteral administration. Antibiotics were administered in large doses at customary intervals for 12 to 20 h before total hip or knee replacement; anticipated levels of each drug were achieved in the serum. Methicillin, carbenicillin, and clindamycin were detected in bone with greatest frequency. Cefazolin and gentamicin were each detected in bone specimens from only one of four patients. Neither penicillin G nor cephalothin was present in bone in sufficient quantity to be measurable. These data suggest that a number of factors, in addition to serum concentration, affect concentration of antimicrobial agents in bone. The clinical significance of the relationship between bone concentrations of antibiotics and therapeutic outcome is not certain. PMID:1259390

  9. Commercial premixed parenteral nutrition: Is it right for your institution?

    PubMed

    Miller, Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    Two-compartment premixed parenteral nutrition (PN) products are heavily promoted in the United States. These products may present safety advantages over PN solutions mixed by a local pharmacy, although clinical data to support this assertion are scarce. Multicompartment products can be labor-saving for pharmacy and therefore may be cost-effective for some institutions. Before adopting such products for use, an institution must determine that standardized PN solutions are acceptable for many or most of their patients compared with customized PN compounded specifically for individual patients. A larger selection of premixed products is available in Europe and some other parts of the world compared with the United States. Availability of a broader selection of products in the United States, including 3-compartment bags and a wider range of macronutrient concentrations and volumes, may make the use of such products more desirable in the future.

  10. [Hypersensibility reaction to parenteral nutrition approach; a case report].

    PubMed

    Sanchez Acera, Elián; Arenas Villafranca, Jose Javier; Abilés, Jimena; Faus Felipe, Vicente

    2014-03-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is essential in the treatment of many hospitalized patients. However, administration of PN is not without potential complications and patients are exposed to related possible adverse reactions such as hypersensitivity. For that reason and because of the complexity of this treatment, PNs are considered by the ISMP (Institute for Safe Medication Practice) a high risk medication. Following is introduced the case of an oncologic patient with severe malnutrition, who after receiving PN for several days, developed a hypersensitivity reaction that could have being associated with intravenous mixture administration. Our aim is to analize the difficulties related with pre-surgery nutrition and to clarify the main possible causes of the reaction. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Care of central venous catheters for total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Collins, E; Lawson, L; Lau, M T; Barder, L; Weaver, F; Bayer, D; Schulz, M; Byrne, R; Hauser, M; Neubia, A; Dries, D

    1996-06-01

    This report summarizes data obtained via a mailed questionnaire from 129 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals regarding current practices in the care of central venous catheters (CVCs) used for total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The size of VA hospitals' acute medical-surgical beds ranged from 14 to 1320 (median 168) beds. Over 6000 patients annually received CVCs for TPN. Hospitals reported using triple-lumen catheters most frequently as their CVC for TPN (80.3%). A povidone-iodine scrub was used to prepare the skin for CVC insertion by 72.6% of reporting hospitals. Sixty percent of hospitals used transparent polyurethane dressings. Care of CVCs varied among hospitals. Catheter-related infection and sepsis rates were within the national average, although < 50% of responding hospitals provided data on these outcomes. The results of this survey point to the need for a national standardized database relative to patients receiving TPN via a CVC.

  12. A review of parenteral sustained-release naltrexone systems

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, J.L.; Kincl, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    The ideal naltrexone sustained-release delivery system should be easy to inject or implant, not cause adverse tissue reaction, release the drug at a relatively constant rate for at least 30 days, and biodegrade within a short time afterwards. Mechanisms which can be used for sustaining drug release include reducing solubility and surface area, coating, encapsulation and microencapsulation, complexation, binding and hydrophilic gelation. Drug release from such systems is controlled by diffusion through a barrier/film, diffusion from a monolithic device, erosion of the surface, hydrolysis, ion exchange, biodegradation, or a combination of these. Injectable systems would seem to be ultimately preferred because of the ease of administration and handling, while the implantable devices may find first use in man since they are easily removable, should that be necessary. Maintaining particulate-free products and sterilization methods are two problems with all parenteral dosage forms. Production must be particularly well controlled and validated.

  13. Selected ultratrace elements in total parenteral nutrition solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Berner, Y.N.; Shuler, T.R.; Nielsen, F.H.; Flombaum, C.; Farkouh, S.A.; Shike, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Ultratrace elements are potentially essential (eg. boron, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium) or toxic (eg, aluminum and cadmium) in humans. Long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) patients can inadvertently receive significant amounts of ultratrace elements present as contaminants in TPN solutions. We determined the intake of selected ultratrace elements from a standard TPN solution and compared it with the amount reported to be absorbed from food in normal subjects. Contamination of TPN solutions with ultratrace elements was widespread and variable. The daily intakes of Mo, Ni, V. and Cd from this contamination were comparable to the amounts reported to be absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract in normal subjects. Al intake was high; B intake was low, approximately 10% of the amount absorbed by normal subjects. Thus, TPN solutions are contaminated with significant amounts of ultratrace elements. The biological significance of the intravenous infusion of these ultratrace elements is unclear and requires further investigation, particularly in home TPN patients.

  14. An exclusively based parenteral fish-oil emulsion reverses cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Triana Junco, Miryam; García Vázquez, Natalia; Zozaya, Carlos; Ybarra Zabala, Marta; Abrams, Steven; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos, Miguel

    2014-10-25

    Prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to liver damage. Recent interest has focused on the lipid component of PN. A lipid emulsion based on w-3 fatty acids decrease conjugated bilirubin. A mixed lipid emulsion derived from soybean, coconut, olive, and fish oils reverses jaundice. Here we report the reversal of cholestasis and the improvement of enteral feeding tolerance in 1 infant with intestinal failure-associated liver disease. Treatment involved the substitution of a mixed lipid emulsion with one containing primarily omega-3 fatty acids during 37 days. Growth and biochemical tests of liver function improved significantly. This suggests that fat emulsions made from fish oils may be more effective means of treating this condition compared with an intravenous lipid emulsion containing soybean oil, medium -chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil.

  15. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition in hemodialysis patients: Acute and chronic intervention.

    PubMed

    Avery-Lynch, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Protein and calorie malnutrition have been encountered more frequently than expected in the hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) has been documented to improve nutritional status in hemodialysis patients in both acute and chronic settings (Henrich, 1996). The aim of this study was to support the usage of IDPN in our malnourished hemodialysis patients. Serum concentration of albumin is one of the main indicators of mortality in the dialysis population. The serum albumin concentration for six out of eight of our hemodialysis (HD) patients receiving IDPN increased significantly. There was a mean increase of 7.0 g/L of plasma albumin for the eight patients assessed. These results demonstrate that IDPN is an effective nutritional intervention for malnourished hemodialysis patients.

  16. Parenteral magnesium tolerance testing in the evaluation of magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ryzen, E; Elbaum, N; Singer, F R; Rude, R K

    1985-01-01

    Magnesium deficiency is a common clinical condition, frequently present even with normal serum magnesium (S-Mg) concentrations. We have studied retention of a low-dose (0.2 mEq/kg lean body weight), intravenously administered magnesium load in 6 hypomagnesemic patients and 18 normomagnesemic alcoholics as compared with 16 normal subjects. Both normomagnesemic and hypomagnesemic subjects retained significantly greater amounts of the administered magnesium than did the normal subjects. In patients who were restudied following parenteral magnesium repletion, retention of the magnesium load normalized. We conclude that increased retention of a magnesium load is a more sensitive index of magnesium deficiency than is the S-Mg concentration, and suggest that low-dose magnesium tolerance testing be used more frequently as a clinical tool in the evaluation of states of normomagnesemic magnesium deficiency.

  17. Gastrointestinal immune and microbiome changes during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph F

    2017-03-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a lifesaving therapy that provides intravenous nutrition support to patients who cannot, or should not, feed via the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Unfortunately, PN also carries certain risks related to infection and metabolic complications compared with enteral nutrition. In this review, an overview of PN and GI immune and microbiome changes is provided. PN impacts the gut-associated lymphoid tissue functions, especially adaptive immune cells, changes the intestinal epithelium and chemical secretions, and significantly alters the intestinal microbiome. Collectively, these changes functionally result in increased susceptibility to infectious and injurious challenge. Since PN remains necessary in large numbers of patients, the search to improve outcomes by stimulating GI immune function during PN remains of interest. This review closes by describing recent advances in using enteric nervous system neuropeptides or microbially derived products during PN, which may improve GI parameters by maintaining immunity and physiology.

  18. Current trends and future challenges in neonatal parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Adamkin, D H; Radmacher, P G

    2014-01-01

    A number of adaptations in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) protocols and practices for preterm neonates have been realized in the past several years, resulting in better survival and developmental outcomes. The early provision of appropriate concentrations of amino acids and energy are now recommended in evidence-based guidelines. Standardized TPN formulations are now available for many patients and may be associated with cost savings and improved adherence to guidelines. Several advantages of these preparations, including promotion of safer administration, consistent adherence to guidelines, and overall best practices, have been well documented. However, careful monitoring is still required to optimize nutrition for individual patients and to support overall safety as TPN practices continue to change. Additional research is needed to develop new lipid formulations that are tailored for safe use by very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. This review presents recent research and improvements to guidelines, as well as future product needs for VLBW and ELBW neonates.

  19. The Use of Parenteral Iron Therapy for the Treatment of Postpartum Anemia.

    PubMed

    Nash, Christopher M; Allen, Victoria M

    2015-05-01

    Rates of postpartum hemorrhage have been increasing in Canada over the last 10 years, with postpartum iron deficiency anemia as the most common consequence. Postpartum anemia is treated with oral iron supplementation and/or blood transfusion. Recent studies have evaluated the use of parenteral iron as a better tolerated treatment modality. Compared with oral iron supplements, parenteral iron is associated with a more rapid rise in serum ferritin and hemoglobin and improved maternal fatigue scores in the postpartum period. It may also decrease rates of blood transfusion. Parenteral iron may be considered in select clinical situations for the treatment of postpartum anemia.

  20. Possible biotin deficiency in adults receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Allardyce, D B

    1983-02-01

    Two adult patients receiving total parenteral nutrition on a long-term home basis presented with severe loss of hair. Both patients had extensive gut resection, consumed no biotin orally and received no biotin parenterally. Supplementation with Berroca-C, one ampule containing 200 micrograms biotin per day resulted in gradual regrowth of healthy hair. The patients now receive a parenteral solution containing biotin and have shown no recurrence of alopecia. It is suggested that biotin deficiency can occur in the adult when no preformed biotin is provided to the body and the contribution of this vitamin from intestinal microbial biosynthesis is compromised.

  1. [Hypocaloric peripheral parenteral nutrition in postoperative patients (Proyecto Europan)].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Jiménez, F J; Ortiz Leyba, C

    1992-01-01

    Hypocaloric peripheral parenteral nutrition (HPPN) appears to be indicated in patients with moderate malnutrition subjected to a short period of fasting following surgery. Our objective is to determine whether or not the intake of hypocaloric parenteral solutions containing aminoacid is useful in postsurgical patients, by means of a study of different nutritional evaluation parameters. A study was performed on 35 postsurgical patients who fulfilled at least 2 of the following criteria indicating malnutrition: 1) albumin levels less than 3 g/dl; 2) prealbumin levels less than 21 mg/; 3) body weight less than 95% of ideal weight. The patients were divided into 3 groups: Group I consisted of 15 patients treated with conventional fluid therapy, Group II consisted of 10 patients treated with nutritional support based on glucose and aminoacid and Group III was comprised of 10 patients also treated with a nutritional therapy based on glycerol and aminoacid. The most significant data included a rapid recovery of short term proteins (prealbumin and retinol-binding protein) and a less negative nitrogen balance 5 days afterwards in both the glucose and glycerol groups, both of which were statistically significant. With regard to complications studied, there was a greater incidence of suture dehiscence in the control group than in the groups under treatment (13.3% compared to 50%). Our conclusion is that HPPN is a valid nutritional support measure in postsurgical patients in certain clinical situations and circumstances, although further controlled, randomized studies should be considered, during both the pre and post operative periods of these patients in order to clearly indicate how and when nutritional therapy should be applied.

  2. Decreased cysteine and proline synthesis in parenterally fed, premature infants.

    PubMed

    Miller, R G; Jahoor, F; Jaksic, T

    1995-07-01

    Little is known about the amino acid (AA) biosynthetic capacity and requirements of premature infants. This study assessed the synthesis of seven biochemically nonessential AA from a universal precursor, glucose, in stable, parenterally fed, premature neonates. Seven infants (six boys, one girl) were studied at a mean age of 6.3 +/- 0.6 (SEM) days; mean gestational age was 29.7 +/- 1.3 (SEM) weeks, and mean birth weight was 1,222.8 +/- 176.5 (SEM) grams. All infants were parenterally fed a mixture of 7.5% to 12.5% dextrose and 2.2% Trophamine, with or without lipid. Mean caloric intake was 93 +/- 8.4 (SEM) kcal/kg/d, and total AA intake was standardized at 2.86 g/kg/d AA, plus supplemental cysteine (30 mg/g AA/d). Each infant received a 4-hour continuous, unprimed intravenous infusion of a stable isotope tracer of D(-)[U13C] glucose (200 mg/kg). Blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the infusion. Conversion of the glucose tracer into seven biochemically nonessential AA (cysteine [Cys], proline [Pro], aspartate [Asp], serine [Ser], glutamate [Glu], alanine [Ala], and glycine [Gly]) was assessed by measuring their isotopic enrichment in plasma, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and expressed as mole percent excess (MPE) (mean +/- SEM). The isotopic enrichment of plasma glucose was also measured using GC/MS. Free plasma AA concentrations (mean +/- SD) were measured using an automated amino acid analyzer. Mean MPE for M + 1, M + 2 and M + 3 Cys, and for M + 1 and M + 3 Pro were not significantly different from 0; M + 2 Pro barely achieved statistical significance (P = .048).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Assessing copper status in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Mark; Mulroy, Cecilia W; Street, Jennifer; Stewart, Charisse; Johnsen, Jake; Jackson, Daniel; Paul, Irasema

    2015-02-01

    Copper is a trace mineral essential for numerous physiological processes. The purpose of this article is to provide data on copper levels in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) that are useful to guide supplementation in PN formulation. This is a retrospective review of hospitalized pediatric patients receiving PN supplemented and not supplemented with copper. In total, 751 supplemented pediatric patients and 90 pediatric patients not supplemented had serum copper levels measured. We assessed patient demographics, days on PN before copper level was drawn, serum copper levels, conjugated bilirubin levels, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The mean serum copper level was 80 mcg/dL at 20 days for supplemented patients and 64 mcg/dL at 14 days for the 90 nonsupplemented patients (P = .0002). In the supplemented patients, 50% of the levels were low and 45% were within the normal range. The remaining 5% of patients had high levels. In nonsupplemented patients, 71% were low and 29% within the normal range. There was no correlation between copper levels and conjugated bilirubin <2 mg/dL and >2 mg/dL (P = .3421). Copper levels correlated with CRP for CRP >4 mg/dL (P = .03). Pediatric patients receiving PN should be supplemented with copper to prevent deficiency. Serum copper levels should be assessed at 14 days. Assessment of copper status should not be determined by conjugated bilirubin levels. Serum copper levels may be elevated in patients with acute inflammation and may be falsely elevated when CRP is >4 mg/dL. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Ursodiol in patients with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis.

    PubMed

    San Luis, Valerie A; Btaiche, Imad F

    2007-11-01

    To review the role of ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) in treating parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). A MEDLINE (1950-May 2007) search was performed using the key terms parenteral nutrition, cholestasis, ursodeoxycholic acid, and ursodiol. All English-language articles that evaluated the safety and efficacy of ursodiol for PNAC were included in this review. The benefits of exogenous ursodiol administration in the treatment of cholestasis can be explained by its alteration of effects on bile composition and flow and provision of cytoprotective, membrane stabilizing, and immunomodulatory effects. Two animal studies, 2 case reports, and 6 human studies (2 prospective and 3 retrospective pediatric studies, 1 adult prospective study) evaluated the efficacy of ursodiol in patients with PNAC. Ursodiol 10-30 mg/kg/day in children and 10-15 mg/kg/day in adults administered in 2-3 doses improved the biochemical and clinical signs and symptoms of PNAC. However, short-term improvement in biochemical parameters may not necessarily predict the outcome of PNAC patients. At recommended doses, ursodiol may not be effective in patients with short bowel syndrome or in those with resected terminal ileum because of reduced ursodiol absorption. Studies supporting the efficacy of ursodiol in treatment of PNAC are limited by small sample size, absence of randomization and controls, short duration, and lack of accountancy to confounding variables. Large, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, long-term follow-up studies evaluating the efficacy and optimal dosing and duration of ursodiol therapy for PNAC are not yet available. Ursodiol may improve the biochemical signs and clinical symptoms of PNAC. However, optimal dosing, timing, duration of therapy, and long-term effects on PNAC outcome and prognosis require further studies.

  5. Lipid composition and structure of commercial parenteral emulsions.

    PubMed

    Férézou, J; Nguyen, T L; Leray, C; Hajri, T; Frey, A; Cabaret, Y; Courtieu, J; Lutton, C; Bach, A C

    1994-07-14

    In order to study the influence of the phospholipid/triacylglycerol (PL/TG) ratio of parenteral emulsions on the distribution and the physico-chemical properties of their fat particles, commercial 10, 20 or 30% fat formulas were fractionated by centrifugation into an upper lipid cake (resuspended in aqueous glycerol) and a subnatant or mesophase, from which a PL-rich subfraction (d = 1.010-1.030 g/l) was purified by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Chemical and 31P-NMR analyses of these fractions indicated that at least two types of fat particles coexist in parenteral emulsions: (i) TG-rich particles (mean diameter: 330, 400, 470 nm in the 10, 20, 30% emulsion) which contain practically all the TG and esterified phytosterols of native emulsions, but only a fraction of their PL, unesterified cholesterol and phytosterols, and other minor lipids; (ii) PL-bilayer particles or liposomes (mean diameter: 80-100 nm) which are constituted with the remaining PL and relatively very small amounts of TG and other lipids. The higher the oil content of the emulsion, the lower the amount of these PL-rich particles, which represent the major particle population of the mesophase. Indeed, minute amounts of TG-rich particles (probably the smallest ones) are also present in the mesophase, even in the PL-rich subfraction which contains the bulk of liposomal PL. Since the PL-rich particles of the infused emulsion generate lipoprotein X-like particles, only the large TG-rich particles can be considered as true chylomicron counterparts.

  6. Parenteral nutrition dysregulates bile salt homeostasis in a rat model of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Koelfat, Kiran V K; Schaap, Frank G; Hodin, Caroline M J M; Visschers, Ruben G J; Svavarsson, Björn I; Lenicek, Martin; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2017-10-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN), a lifesaving therapy in patients with intestinal failure, has been associated with hepatobiliary complications including steatosis, cholestasis and fibrosis, collectively known as parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). To date, the pathogenesis of PNALD is poorly understood and therapeutic options are limited. Impaired bile salt homeostasis has been proposed to contribute PNALD. The objective of this study was to establish a PNALD model in rats and to evaluate the effects of continuous parenteral nutrition (PN) on bile salt homeostasis. Rats received either PN via the jugular vein or received normal diet for 3, 7 or 14 days. Serum biochemistry, hepatic triglycerides, circulating bile salts and C4, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, and lipogenic and bile salt homeostatic gene expression in liver and ileum were assessed. PN increased hepatic triglycerides already after 3 days of administration, and resulted in conjugated bilirubin elevation after 7 or more days. This indicates PN-induced steatosis and impaired canalicular secretion of bilirubin, the latter which is in line with reduced hepatic expression of Mrp2 mRNA. There was no histological evidence for liver inflammation after PN administration, and circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, were comparable in all groups. Hepatic expression of Fxr mRNA was decreased after 7 days of PN, without apparent effect on expression of Fxr targets Bsep and Shp. Nonetheless, Cyp7a1 expression was reduced after 7 days of PN, indicative for lowered bile salt synthesis. Circulating levels of C4 (marker of bile salt synthesis) were also decreased after 3, 7 and 14 days of PN. Levels of circulating bile salts were not affected by PN. This study showed that PN in rats caused early mild steatosis and cholestasis, while hepatic and systemic inflammation were not present. The onset of these abnormalities was associated with alterations in bile salt synthesis and transport. This

  7. Prescription of trace elements in adults on home parenteral nutrition: current practice based on the Canadian Home Parenteral Nutrition Registry.

    PubMed

    Abdalian, R; Fernandes, G; Duerksen, D; Jeejeebhoy, K N; Whittaker, S; Gramlich, L; Allard, J P

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN), morbidity due to inadequate replacement or toxicity of routinely administered trace elements has been well described. After decades of experience, much debate still exists about optimal supplementation. In practice, trace elements (TEs) seem to be frequently provided by prescribing an all-inclusive commercial multi-TE admixture with little dosage flexibility. Our goal was to review TE supplementation practice among 5 PN support centers across Canada, through a retrospective review of the Canadian Home PN Registry. Baseline demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters along with information regarding the PN prescription of 135 patients with complete records were retrieved from the registry database collected between 2005 and 2007. TE supplementation prescriptions were compared with recent guidelines as well as between groups of patients with different PN indications and dietary intake status. Consent was signed by all participating patients. The average daily PN concentrations of TE were as follows: zinc, 8.6 ± 5.5 mg (130.92 ± 84.23 µmol); manganese, 452 ± 184 µg (8.22 ± 3.34 µmol); selenium, 78 ± 45 µg (0.99 ± 0.57 µmol); chromium, 11 ± 5 µg (0.21 ± 0.10 µmol); copper, 0.64 ± 0.35 mg (10.11 ± 5.58 µmol); and iodine, 77 ± 42 µg (0.61 ± 0.33 µmol). The mean daily supplementation of zinc, manganese, copper, and selenium exceeded published recommendations. Patients' underlying anatomy or indication for PN did not significantly influence decisions regarding replacement standards. Parenteral TE supplementation in Canadian PN programs needs to be reviewed and adjusted according to most current guidelines. This may require a reevaluation of the commercial TE preparations currently available in Canada and potential new products worldwide to avoid oversupplementation and potential toxicity.

  8. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section 201(p) of the act, and requires an approved new drug application as a condition for marketing. An... introduced into the parenteral system, aseptic techniques should be used and the solution should be...

  9. Chronic radiation enteritis after ovarian cancer: from home parenteral nutrition to oral diet.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Alfonso; de la Cuerda, Cristina; Luis Escat, José; Bretón, Irene; Camblor, Miguel; García-Peris, Pilar

    2006-08-01

    External beam radiation of abdominal and pelvic cavities is a current therapy for gynaecological cancer that often produces radiation-induced bowel injury and malnutrition. A 72-year old patient underwent surgery and external beam radiation therapy for an ovarian carcinoma. Two years later she was found to have intestinal pseudoobstruction related to chronic radiation enteritis and protein-energy malnutrition. Home parenteral nutrition was prescribed due to poor oral intake, but it was discontinued after 6 catheter-related sepsis and upper cava vein thrombosis. Parenteral nutrition could be reintroduced after an angioplasty of that vein, and the patient was operated on with the finding of an incarcerated ileum eventration. Nowadays she maintains a normal nutritional status with oral diet. Radiation enteritis can lead to perforation, fistulae or strictures of the bowel. Malnutrition is common and parenteral nutrition may be necessary. Surgery can solve these complications, achieves good survival rates and can allow stopping parenteral nutrition.

  10. PIPIDA scintigraphy for cholecystitis: false positives in alcoholism and total parenteral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, W.P.; Gibbs, P.; Rudd, T.G.; Mack, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    A review of gallbladder scintigraphy in patients with potentially compromised hepatobiliary function revealed two groups in whom cholecystitis might be mistakenly diagnosed. In 200 consecutive hospitalized patients studied with technetium-99m-PIPIDA for acute cholecystitis or cholestasis, there were 41 alcoholics and 17 patients on total parenteral nutrition. In 60% of the alcoholics and 92% of those on parenteral nutrition, absent or delayed visualization of the gallbladder occurred without physical or clinical evidence of cholecystitis. A cholecystagogue, sincalide, did not prevent the false-positive features which presumably are due to altered bile flow kinetics related to alcoholism and parenteral nutrition. Four patients on parenteral nutrition undergoing cholecystectomy for suspected cholecystitis had normal gallbladders filled with jellylike viscous thick bile. A positive (nonvisualized or delayed visualized) gallbladder PIPIDA scintigram in these two populations should not be interpreted as indicating a need for cholecystectomy.

  11. Validating hyperbilirubinemia and gut mucosal atrophy with a novel ultramobile ambulatory total parenteral nutrition piglet model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) provides all nutrition intravenously. Although TPN therapy has grown enormously, it causes significant complications, including gut and hepatic dysfunction. Current models use animal tethering which is unlike ambulatory human TPN delivery and is cost prohibitive. We ...

  12. [Isoforms A and B of lysosomal N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase in serum and urine of parenterally fed patients].

    PubMed

    Raczkowska, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Kepka, Alina; Raczkowski, Krzysztof; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Siedlecka-Czykier, Edyta; Dadan, Jacek; Snarska, Jadwiga; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-05-01

    Parenteral nutrition entails numerous metabolic complications resulting from food bypass of the gastrointestinal tract. Up to now have not been established all complications of parenteral nutrition, despite intensive research and clinical observations. Knowledge of the biochemical changes resulting from parenteral nutrition is essential to effective prevention, early detection and effective treatment of the metabolic disorders induced by parenteral nutrition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the catabolism of glycoconjugates of parenterally fed patients, reflected by the activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase (HEX): HEX A and HEX B isoenzymes in serum and urine. Samples of blood and urine were collected from 23 patients: before intravenous alimentation, at start, as well as of fifth and tenth day of parenteral nutrition. The activity of HEX A and HEX B in serum and urine was determined by the colorimetric method of Zwierz et al. as modified by Marciniak et al. The activity of urinary HEXA and HEX B has been calculated per 1 mg of creatinine. The activity of serum HEXA significantly decreased at fifth day, in comparison to the activity before parenteral alimentation, and significantly increased at tenth day of parenteral nutrition. The activity of HEX B in serum increased significantly at fifth and tenth day of the parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition alter the catabolism of glycoconjugates, reflected by significant changes in serum HEX A and HEX B activities. Urine was the not appropriate material to evaluate the catabolism of glycoconjugates in view of HEX A and HEX B activities.

  13. [Parenteral hyperalimentation in the treatment of esophageal, gastric and intestinal fistulas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Launois, B; Roumane, H; Campion, J P; Malledant, Y; Trebuchet, G

    Parenteral hyperalimentation and complete bowel rest reduce fistula output, and permit sufficient caloric and nitrogen intakes needed for healing. It corrects metabolic and nutritional deficiencies due to digestive fistulas, and allows spontaneous closure of fistulas in two out of three patients. If spontaneous healing is not obtained after six weeks of parenteral alimentation, surgical treatment may be undertaken more safety, as the patient will be in better nutritional condition.

  14. Selected pharmacokinetic issues of the use of antiepileptic drugs and parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review for the evidence supporting or disproving the reality of parenteral nutrition- antiepileptic drugs interaction, especially with respect to the plasma protein-binding of the drug. Methods The articles related to the topic were identified through Medline and PubMed search (1968-Feburary 2010) for English language on the interaction between parenteral nutrition and antiepileptic drugs; the search terms used were anti-epileptic drugs, parenteral nutrition, and/or interaction, and/or in vitro. The search looked for prospective randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies; prospective nonrandomized uncontrolled studies; retrospective studies; case reports; and in vitro studies. Full text of the articles were then traced from the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) library subscribed databases, including Wiley-Blackwell Library, Cochrane Library, EBSCOHost, OVID, ScienceDirect, SAGE Premier, Scopus, SpringerLINK, and Wiley InterScience. The articles from journals not listed by USM library were traced through inter library loan. Results There were interactions between parenteral nutrition and drugs, including antiepileptics. Several guidelines were designed for the management of illnesses such as traumatic brain injuries or cancer patients, involving the use of parenteral nutrition and antiepileptics. Moreover, many studies demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo parenteral nutrition -drugs interactions, especially with antiepileptics. Conclusions There was no evidence supporting the existence of parenteral nutrition-antiepileptic drugs interaction. The issue has not been studied in formal researches, but several case reports and anecdotes demonstrate this drug-nutrition interaction. However, alteration in the drug-free fraction result from parenteral nutrition-drug (i.e. antiepileptics) interactions may necessitate scrupulous reassessment of drug dosages in patients receiving these therapies. This reassessment may be particularly

  15. Parenteral nutrition product shortages: the A.S.P.E.N. strategy.

    PubMed

    Mirtallo, Jay M; Holcombe, Beverly; Kochevar, Marty; Guenter, Peggi

    2012-06-01

    Product (drug) shortages have had a significant impact on the healthcare system, particularly on patients and clinicians. This has been especially true with patients requiring parenteral nutrition (PN). The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) has dealt with PN product shortages in the past on behalf of its members and their patients. However, the shortage severity and duration have made dealing with the PN product shortages in 2010-2012 extremely challenging.

  16. ROLE OF PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN ONCOLOGIC PATIENTS WITH INTESTINAL OCCLUSION AND PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS.

    PubMed

    Aría Guerra, Eva; Cortés-Salgado, Alfonso; Mateo-Lobo, Raquel; Nattero, Lía; Riveiro, Javier; Vega-Piñero, Belén; Valbuena, Beatriz; Carabaña, Fátima; Carrero, Carmen; Grande, Enrique; Carrato, Alfredo; Botella-Carretero, José Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    the precise role of parenteral nutrition in the management of oncologic patients with intestinal occlusion is not well defined yet. We aimed to identify the effects of parenteral nutrition in these patients regarding prognosis. 55 patients with intestinal occlusion and peritoneal carcinomatosis were included. Parenteral nutrition aimed at 20-35 kcal/Kg/day, and 1.0 g/kg/day of amino-acids. Weight, body mass index, type of tumor, type of chemotherapy, and ECOG among others were recorded and analyzed. 69.1% of the patients had gastrointestinal tumors, 18.2% gynecologic and 12.7% others. Age was 60 ± 13y, baseline ECOG 1.5 ± 0.5 and body mass index 21.6 ± 4.3. Malnutrition was present in 85%. Survival from the start of parenteral nutrition was not significant when considering baseline ECOG (log rank = 0.593, p = 0.743), previous lines of chemotherapy (log rank = 2.117, p = 0.548), baseline BMI (log rank = 2.686, p = 0.261), or type of tumor (log rank = 2.066, p = 0.356). Survival in patients who received home parenteral nutrition after hospital discharge was higher than those who stayed in-hospital (log rank = 7.090, p = 0.008). Survival in patients who started chemotherapy during or after parenteral nutrition was higher than those who did not so (log rank = 17.316, p < 0.001). A total of 3.6% of patients presented catheter related infection without affecting survival (log rank = 0.061, p = 0.804). Parenteral nutrition in patients with advanced cancer and intestinal occlusion is safe, and in tho se who respond to chemotherapy, further administration of home parenteral nutrition together with chemotherapy may enhance prolonged survival. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Home parenteral nutrition in management of patients with severe radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavery, I.C.; Steiger, E.; Fazio, V.W.

    1980-03-01

    Five patients who would have been unable to survive because of intestinal complications of radiation therapy were able to lead an otherwise normal life with the use of parenteral nutrition administered at home. One patient died of recurrent carcinoma of the cervix after 14 months. Another patient died as the result of a totally avoidable pharmaceutical error after 2 1/2 years. The remaining three are still disease free without morbidity relating to the parenteral nutrition.

  18. Parenteral buprenorphine-naloxone abuse is a major cause of fatal buprenorphine-related poisoning.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Margareeta; Heikman, Pertti; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-10-10

    Buprenorphine (BPN) medication for opioid maintenance treatment in Finland consists predominantly of buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX). Both BPN and BNX are associated with diversion, abuse and non-medically supervised use worldwide. Our purpose was to estimate the proportion of BNX to all BPN-related fatalities. The material consisted of 225 deceased drug abusers in Finland from January 2010 to June 2011 with a positive BPN and/or norbuprenorphine (NOR) and/or naloxone (NX) finding in urine. The data were divided into three groups based on the urine NX and BPN concentrations. The "Parenteral BNX" group (>100 μg/l NX) was presumed to consist of injecting or snorting BNX abusers and the "Parenteral BPN" group (>50 μg/l BPN, 0 μg/l NX) of injecting or snorting BPN abusers, while the "Other BNX or BPN" group (≤100 μg/l NX, or ≤50 μg/l BPN combined with 0 μg/l NX) was presumed to consist of mainly sublingual BNX or BPN users. In 12.4% of cases the NX urine concentration was higher than the threshold 100 μg/l. In fatal BPN poisonings, the proportion of parenteral BNX was 28.4%. In the "Parenteral BNX", "Parenteral BPN" and "Other BNX or BPN" groups, the proportion of fatal BPN poisonings was 67.9, 31.0 and 22.6%, respectively. BNX abuse can be fatal. Among the 225 BPN-related fatalities, parenteral abuse of BNX was shown to be common (12.4%) and BNX poisoning was the underlying cause of death in 8.4%. Parenteral BNX caused fatal BPN poisoning proportionally more often than parenteral BPN.

  19. An advanced protocol-driven transition from parenteral prostanoids to inhaled trepostinil in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Manyoo; Rischard, Franz; De Marco, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) often require parenteral prostanoids to improve symptoms and signs of PAH. Complications of parenteral prostanoids—such as catheter-related infections and intolerable adverse effects—may develop, prompting transition to inhaled prostanoids. We report a prospective, protocol-driven transition from parenteral prostanoids to inhaled prostanoids with monitoring of exercise gas exchange and acute hemodynamics. Three PAH centers recruited patients transitioning from parenteral prostanoids to inhaled trepostinil. Rigid inclusion criteria were used, including parenteral prostanoid dose < 30 ng/kg/min, New York Heart Association functional class (FC) < 3, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) < 6 Wood units. Of the 9 patients meeting initial inclusion criteria, 3 were excluded. In the remaining patients, the parenteral prostanoid was reduced and the inhaled prostanoid was increased over 24–36 hours with continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Exercise capacity and FC were measured at baseline and weeks 1, 4, and 12. All patients were successfully weaned from parenteral prostanoids. An acute PVR decrease was seen with most inhaled prostanoid doses, but PVR varied throughout the transition. Patients tolerated inhaled prostanoids for 9–12 breaths 4 times a day with no treatment-limiting adverse events. At week 12, FC was unchanged, and all patients continued to receive inhaled prostanoids without serious adverse events or additional PAH therapy. In 5 of 6 patients, 6-minute walk distance and peak V˙O2 were within 10% of baseline. Using a strict transition protocol and rigid patient selection criteria, the parenteral prostanoid to inhaled prostanoid transition appeared safe and well tolerated and did not result in clinical deterioration over 12 weeks. Hemodynamic variability noted acutely during transition in our study did not adversely affect successful transition. (Trial registration: Clinical

  20. Parenteral iron therapy: a single institution's experience over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Laman, Christopher A; Silverstein, Scott B; Rodgers, George M

    2005-11-01

    Many patients require parenteral iron therapy for optimal correction of anemia, including cancer patients who require erythropoietic drugs. Available parenteral iron therapy options include iron dextran, iron gluconate, and iron sucrose. The purpose of this study is to summarize our institution's experience with parenteral iron therapy over a 5-year period, with a focus on comparative safety profiles. All patients receiving parenteral iron therapy over this period were included in the analysis. Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the adverse event rates of each product. A total of 121 patients received 444 infusions of parenteral iron over this period. Iron dextran was the most commonly used product (85 patients) and iron sucrose was the least used (2 patients). Iron gluconate was used by 34 patients. Overall adverse event rates per patient with iron dextran and iron gluconate were 16.5% and 5.8%, respectively (P = .024). Premedication with diphenhydramine and acetaminophen before infusions of iron dextran reduced adverse event rates per infusion from 12.3% to 4.4% (P = .054). Test doses of iron dextran were used 88% of the time for initial infusions of iron dextran. All adverse events for all parenteral iron products were mild or moderate. There were no serious adverse events and no anaphylaxis was observed. Our results suggest that, if test doses and premedications are used, iron dextran is an acceptable product to treat iron deficiency.

  1. A Call to Action to Bring Safer Parenteral Micronutrient Products to the U.S. Market.

    PubMed

    Vanek, Vincent W; Borum, Peggy; Buchman, Alan; Fessler, Theresa A; Howard, Lyn; Shenkin, Alan; Valentine, Christina J

    2015-08-01

    The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) started an intensive review of commercially available parenteral vitamin and trace element (TE) products in 2009. The chief findings were that adult multi-TE products currently available in the United States (U.S.) provide potentially toxic amounts of manganese, copper, and chromium, and neonatal/pediatric multi-TE products provide potentially toxic amounts of manganese and chromium. The multivitamin products appeared safe and effective; however, a separate parenteral vitamin D product is needed for those patients on standard therapy who continue to be vitamin D depleted and are unresponsive to oral supplements. The review process also extended to parenteral choline and carnitine. Although choline and carnitine are not technically vitamins or trace elements, choline is an essential nutrient in all age groups, and carnitine is an essential nutrient in infants, according to the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. A parenteral choline product needs to be developed and available. Efforts are currently under way to engage the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the parenteral nutrient industry so A.S.P.E.N.'s recommendations can become a commercial reality.

  2. Postoperative total parenteral nutrition in patients with liver disorders.

    PubMed

    Okuno, M; Nagayama, M; Takai, T; Rai, A; Nakao, S; Kamino, K; Umeyama, K

    1985-08-01

    Sixty-one patients with liver disorders receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for about 14 postoperative days were divided into three groups based on the parenteral nutritional regimen. The influence of these TPN solutions on the liver function tests and the nutritional assessments, and the availability of the specially formulated amino acid solution were studied. Glucose alone as energy source was infused in Group Ia. The mixture of glucose and fructose was infused in Group Ib. In these patients (Group I), a commercially available amino acid solution was administered simultaneously. A specially formulated amino acid, rich in branched-chain amino acids but poor in aromatic amino acids was infused with the mixture of glucose and fructose in Group II. There was no remarkable elevation of blood glucose and lactate levels in all patients. Blood glucose levels in Group Ib were maintained lower than that in Group Ia. Except for serum alkaline phosphatase, no remarkable abnormality was observed in liver function tests. Body weight changes were less than 5% in each group. Average nitrogen balances were -44.5 mg/kg/day in Group Ia, -5.5 mg/kg/day in Group Ib, -51.5 mg/kg/day in Group II. While the abnormalities in serum amino acid pattern and molar ratio of leucine, isoleucine, and valine to phenylalanine and tyrosine tend to be more enhanced in Group I, these abnormalities returned to near normal in Group II during TPN. By multiple linear regression analyses, 45 kcal/kg/day of energy intake would be required to maintain nitrogen equilibrium and zero body weight change. And when nitrogen intakes were 159 mg/kg/day in Group Ia, 114 mg/kg/day in Group Ib, and 189 mg/kg/day in Group II at 45 kcal/kg/day in energy intake, nitrogen balances were expected to be equivalent. These results suggest that postoperative TPN is good for nutritional support in patients with liver disorders. And also, the combination of glucose and fructose has better effect on nitrogen balance. The

  3. Oleanolic Acid Improves Gut Atrophy Induced by Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ajay Kumar; Wen, Joy X; Blomenkamp, Keith S; Arora, Sumit; Blaufuss, Timothy A; Rodrigues, Jonathan; Long, John P; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Teckman, Jeffery H

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition support with parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with gut atrophy. Prior studies have shown improvement with enteral chenodeoxycholic acid, a dual agonist for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and bile acid receptor TGR5. We hypothesized that gut growth is induced by TGR5 activation, and gut atrophy during PN administration could be prevented with the TGR5-specific agonist oleanolic acid (OA). Neonatal pigs were implanted with duodenal and jugular vein catheters. Animals were provided equi-nutritious PN or enteral swine milk. A PN subgroup received enteral OA at 50 mg/kg/d. PN caused marked gut atrophy compared with enterally fed (EN) control animals. OA treatment led to preservation of gut mass demonstrated grossly and histologically. The mean ± SD gut weight as a percentage of body weight was 4.30 ± 0.26 for EN, 1.92 ± 0.06 for PN (P < .05, EN vs PN), and 3.39 ± 0.79 for PN+OA (P < .05, PN+OA vs PN). Mean ± SD gut density (g/cm) was 0.31 ± 0.03 for EN, 0.18 ± 0.03 for PN (P < .05 EN vs PN), and 0.27 ± 0.01 for PN+OA (P < .05 PN+OA vs PN). Histologically, a markedly decreased villous to crypt ratio was noted with PN, and OA significantly prevented this decrease. The mean ± SD v/c ratio was 3.51 ± 0.59 for EN, 1.69 ± 0.10 for PN (P < .05, EN vs PN), and 2.90 ± 0.23 for PN+OA (P < .05, PN+OA vs PN). Gut TGR5 messenger RNA expression was significantly elevated with OA treatment compared with both PN and EN. The bile acid-activated G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 agonist OA prevented gut atrophy associated with PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Tocopherol and tocotrienol homologs in parenteral lipid emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas M; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2015-01-01

    Parenteral lipid emulsions, which are made of oils from plant and fish sources, contain different types of tocopherols and tocotrienols (vitamin E homologs). The amount and types of vitamin E homologs in various lipid emulsions vary considerably and are not completely known. The objective of this analysis was to develop a quantitative method to determine levels of all vitamin E homologs in various lipid emulsions. An HPLC system was used to measure vitamin E homologs using a Pinnacle DB Silica normal phase column and an isocratic, n-hexane:1,4 dioxane (98:2) mobile phase. An optimized protocol was used to report vitamin E homolog concentrations in soybean oil-based (Intralipid®, Ivelip®, Lipofundin® N, Liposyn® III, and Liposyn® II), medium- and long-chain fatty acid-based (Lipofundin®, MCT and Structolipid®), olive oil-based (ClinOleic®), and fish oil-based (Omegaven®) and mixture of these oils-based (SMOFlipid®, Lipidem®) commercial parenteral lipid emulsions. Total content of all vitamin E homologs varied greatly between different emulsions, ranging from 57.9 to 383.9 µg/mL. Tocopherols (α, β, γ, δ) were the predominant vitamin E homologs for all emulsions, with tocotrienol content < 0.3%. In all of the soybean emulsions, except for Lipofundin® N, the predominant vitamin E homolog was γ-tocopherol, which ranged from 57–156 µg/mL. ClinOleic® predominantly contained α-tocopherol (32 µg/mL), whereas α-tocopherol content in Omegaven® was higher than most of the other lipid emulsions (230 µg/mL). Practical applications The information on the types and quantity of vitamin E homologs in various lipid emulsions will be extremely useful to physicians and healthcare personnel in selecting appropriate lipid emulsions that are exclusively used in patients with inadequate gastrointestinal function, including hospitalized and critically ill patients. Some emulsions may require vitamin E supplementation in order to meet minimal human requirements

  5. Pharmaceutical development of a parenteral formulation of conivaptan hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ban, Kazutoshi; Sonohara, Ritsu; Yoshida, Mitsunobu; Sako, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Sinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Conivaptan hydrochloride injection (Vaprisol®) was developed for the treatment of hyponatremia. Because the drug is very slightly soluble in water, pH control and cosolvency techniques were used to achieve the optimum concentration required for clinical trial material. Stability studies on retained samples of the clinical trial material for early-phase trials showed white visible particulates mainly in the headspace of the glass ampoule long after completion of the trials. The mechanism for generation of the particulate matter was formation of freebase of conivaptan hydrochloride because of increase in pH. The pH of the formulation for late-phase clinical trials, primary stability studies, and commercial production was fine-tuned to prevent particulate formation. The formulation contains propylene glycol and ethanol. Considering the nature of the cosolvent used in the formulation, the amount of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) delivered from an infusion system was evaluated, and we confirmed that the level of DEHP was lesser than that mentioned in the guideline. In the course of the scale-up studies for commercialization, the formulation failed the filter integrity test after the compounding solution was filtered. The dimethylsiloxane extracted from the silicon tubing used for solvent transfer coated the filter surface, which resulted in suppression of the bubble point value. The formulation and manufacturing process enabled conivaptan hydrochloride to be approved and launched in the market as a parenteral formulation. Formulation scientists have recognized a trend that promising new chemical entities in the drug discovery phase often do not have ideal physicochemical properties for formulation. In particular, poor solubility is one of the challenges for development of a parenteral dosage form. Here, we describe the case of such a new chemical entity, a very slightly soluble hydrochloric salt, which was handed over from a drug discovery research laboratory to a

  6. Aggressive parenteral nutrition and growth velocity in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Ribed Sánchez, Almudena; Romero Jiménez, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Gómez de Orgaz, Ma Carmen; Sánchez Luna, Manuel; Sanjurjo Sáez, María

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: La administración parenteral de nutrientes para mantener el crecimiento en recién nacidos representa un importante reto terapéutico. Objetivo: Describir las prácticas de nutrición parenteral (NP) en un hospital de tercer nivel y evaluar el crecimiento postnatal en recién nacidos prematuros. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de 3 meses de duración. Se incluyeron niños ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología que iniciaron NP. Se recogieron datos demográficos, antropométricos, calorías diarias, ingesta de proteínas y componentes de la NP. La velocidad de crecimiento se midió mediante la media de la ganancia diaria de peso y se comparó con el crecimiento intrauterino. Resultados: 68 niños prematuros iniciaron NP durante el período de estudio. La mayoría de los niños (65%) nacieron por cesárea y la media de edad gestacional fue de 33 semanas. El 25% de los recién nacidos no recuperó el peso de nacimiento. El 75% restante recuperó el peso de nacimiento en el tercer día de NP y la media de la ganancia diaria de peso fue de 16 g/kg/d, con un rango de 12 a 22g/kg/d. A pesar de que la ganancia de peso se acercó a la tasa intrauterina, la mayoría de los niños nacidos con menos de 30 semanas de gestación no lograron la media de la población de referencia. La NP precoz e intensiva se administró con una media de 3, 11 y 3g/Kg/d de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y lípidos, respectivamente, alcanzando un máximo en el cuarto día de 4, 18, 4 g/kg/d, respectivamente. Discusión: La NP intensiva se utiliza en el ámbito hospitalario. Los recién nacidos prematuros alcanzaron antes el peso de nacimiento y presentaron una velocidad de crecimiento mayor que en otros estudios y similar al crecimiento intrauterino.

  7. Parenteral iron therapy in the anaemia of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bentley, D P; Williams, P

    1982-05-01

    Thirty anaemic patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were each given 800 mg of iron , as iron dextran, intramuscularly over an interval of four weeks. The haemoglobin concentration rose significantly within two months in 26 of the patients but this was followed by a significant fall to the pre-treatment level nine months after treatment. The response to iron therapy was not related to the initial haemoglobin concentration, serum iron concentration, transferrin saturation nor to the amount of storage iron, whether assessed by bone marrow stainable iron or the serum ferritin concentration. There was an unexpected fall in the serum ferritin concentration within the first two months after treatment in half of the patients and this was followed by a rise towards the pre-treatment level during the following seven months, such that there was no apparent addition to the amount of storage iron over the period of the study. The possible mechanisms for these findings are discussed. A response to parenteral iron therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis should not be regarded as evidence of iron deficiency and only by correction of the underlying inflammatory process will lasting improvement in the anaemia be obtained.

  8. Refeeding syndrome: screening, incidence, and treatment during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Russell S

    2013-12-01

    The possible deleterious effects of feeding after a period of prolonged starvation have been known for over 60 years. The resultant biochemical disturbance, symptoms, and signs have been termed the refeeding syndrome (RS). The key to the pathophysiology is the stimulation of insulin release resulting in anabolic activity. Depleted electrolyte and micronutrient stores are overwhelmed and cellular function disrupted. A concise definition of RS is not agreed and hampers interpretation of clinical data. Hypophosphatemia and appearance of tissue edema/pathological fluid shifts are the most often agreed diagnostic criteria. The characteristics of particular patient groups at risk have been recognized for some time, and there are guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence in the UK to aid recognition of individuals at high risk along with protocols for initiating nutrition. Using loose diagnostic criteria, RS appears to occur in 4% of cases of parenteral nutrition (PN) when case records were reviewed by experts in a large study into PN care in the UK. Disappointingly, prescribers recognized only 50% of at risk cases. Early data from a similar study in New Zealand appear to show a similar pattern. Prospective series looking at patients receiving nutrition support in institutions with Nutrition Support Teams have found an incidence of 1-5%. RS is still underrecognized. Patients receiving PN should be counted as being in a high-risk category and feeding protocols to avoid RS applied. Low rates of RS then occur and death from this cause be avoided.

  9. Home parenteral nutrition: results in 34 pediatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, C T; Byrne, W J; Fonkalsrud, E W; Ament, M E

    1978-01-01

    Although home parenteral nutrition (HPN) has been used successfully for adult patients, no extensive experience with children has been reported. During the past three years, we have managed 34 patients, ages 1 1/2 months to 20 1/2 years, on a HPN program for periods ranging from 23 to 786 days. Silastic Broviac catheters were inserted into the superior vena cava through the jugular or cephalic veins or into the inferior vena cava through the saphenous vein. The catheters were brought out onto the chest or lower abdominal wall through a subcutaneous tunnel. Solutions were infused over a 10--14-hour period each day, using a volumetric pump system. All patients improved their nutritional status. Twenty-three of 29 on the program for more than two months showed an increase in height. All patients evidenced a significant decrease in symptomatology. All resumed per group activities while on HPN and were able to continue their education or work. At present 24 patients including 15 with Crohn's disease no longer receive HPN. Administration of HPN through a Broviac catheter is a safe, successful technique for maintaining an optimal nutritional status in children with severe digestive disorders, and permits resumption of a more normal daily lifestyle. Following HPN, bowel adaptation and initiation of full oral alimentation become possible in many patients. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:99097

  10. Vitamin D deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Patti; Duerksen, Donald R

    2011-07-01

    In addition to its role in bone metabolism, vitamin D has important immunomodulatory and antineoplastic effects. Patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) receive most of their vitamin D from intravenous (IV) supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency is common in the general population, and the adequacy of vitamin D supplementation in HPN patients is unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the vitamin D status of patients on HPN. Consecutive patients seen in a regional home nutrition program had their oral and IV vitamin D intakes determined. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in all patients. Intake of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate were also determined. The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in 22 patients receiving HPN for a mean of 33.5 months (range, 1-177) was 42 nmol/L. Vitamin D deficiency was present in 15 (68%) patients and vitamin D insufficiency in 6 (27%) patients. The mean dietary vitamin D intake was 79.5 IU per day, while the mean IV supplementation was 166 IU per day. In this study of a regional Canadian HPN program, there was a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency affecting virtually all patients. All patients receiving HPN should be supplemented with vitamin D and have their 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels monitored. Further studies are required to determine optimal methods and dosing of vitamin D replacement using oral supplements or ultraviolet light therapy.

  11. Should pediatric parenteral nutrition be individualized?☆

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Renata Germano Borges de Oliveira Nascimento; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Saron, Margareth Lopes Galvão; Lima, Alexandre Esteves Souza; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations are commonly individualized, since their standardization appears inadequate for the pediatric population. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional state and the reasons for PN individualization in pediatric patients using PN, hospitalized in a tertiary hospital in Campinas, São Paulo. METHODS: This longitudinal study comprised patients using PN followed by up to 67 days. Nutritional status was classified according to the criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) and WHO (2007). The levels of the following elements in blood were analyzed: sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, chloride, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, and triglycerides (TGL). Among the criteria for individualization, the following were considered undeniable: significant reduction in blood levels of potassium (<3mEq/L), sodium (<125mEq/L), magnesium (<1mEq/L), phosphorus (<1.5mEq/L), ionic calcium (<1mmol), and chloride (<90mEq/L), or any value above the references. RESULTS: Twelve pediatric patients aged 1 month to 15 years were studied (49 individualizations). Most patients were classified as malnourished. It was observed that 74/254 (29.2%) of examinations demanded individualized PN for indubitable reasons. CONCLUSION: The nutritional state of patients was considered critical in most cases. Thus, the individualization performed in the beginning of PN for energy protein adequacy was indispensable. In addition, the individualized PN was indispensable in at least 29.2% of PN for correction of alterations found in biochemical parameters. PMID:25510996

  12. Innovative Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Therapy for Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hau D.; Fallon, Erica M.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Malkan, Alpin D.; Puder, Mark; Gura, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Children with intestinal failure suffer from insufficient intestinal length or function, making them dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) for growth and survival. PN and its components are associated with many complications ranging from simple electrolyte abnormalities to life-threatening PN-associated liver disease, which is also called intestinal failure-associated liver disease (ILALD). From a nutrition perspective, the ultimate goal is to provide adequate caloric requirements and make the transition from PN to full enteral Nutrition (EN) successful. Upon review of the literature, we have summarized the most effective and innovative PN and EN therapies for this patient population. Antibiotic-coated catheters and antibiotic or ethanol locks can be implemented, as they appear effective in reducing catheter-related infection and thus further reduce the risk of IFALD. Lipid emulsions should be given judiciously. The use of an omega-3 fatty acid-based formulation should be considered in patients who develop IFALD. Trophic feeding is important for intestinal adaptation, and EN should be initiated early to help wean patients from PN. Long term management of children with IF continues to be an emerging field. We have entered uncharted territory as more children survive complications of IF, including IFALD. Careful monitoring and individualized management to ensure maintenance of growth with avoidance of complications are the keys to successful patient outcomes. PMID:20123271

  13. Carbohydrates – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 5

    PubMed Central

    Bolder, U.; Ebener, C.; Hauner, H.; Jauch, K. W.; Kreymann, G.; Ockenga, J.; Traeger, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main role of carbohydrates in the human body is to provide energy. Carbohydrates should always be infused with PN (parenteral nutrition) in combination with amino acids and lipid emulsions to improve nitrogen balance. Glucose should be provided as a standard carbohydrate for PN, whereas the use of xylite is not generally recommended. Fructose solutions should not be used for PN. Approximately 60% of non-protein energy should be supplied as glucose with an intake of 3.0–3.5 g/kg body weight/day (2.1–2.4 mg/kg body weight/min). In patients with a high risk of hyperglycaemia (critically ill, diabetes, sepsis, or steroid therapy) an lower initial carbohydrate infusion rate of 1–2 g/kg body weight/day is recommended to achieve normoglycaemia. One should aim at reaching a blood glucose level of 80–110 mg/dL, and at least a glucose level <145 mg/dL should be achieved to reduce morbidity and mortality. Hyperglycaemia may require addition of an insulin infusion or a reduction (2.0–3.0 g/kg body weight/day) or even a temporary interruption of glucose infusion. Close monitoring of blood glucose levels is highly important. PMID:20049080

  14. Fundamental understanding of drug absorption from a parenteral oil depot.

    PubMed

    Kalicharan, Raween W; Schot, Peter; Vromans, Herman

    2016-02-15

    Oil depots are parenteral drug formulations meant for sustained release of lipophilic compounds. Until now, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of drug absorption from oil depots is lacking. The aim of this paper was to fill this gap. A clinical study with healthy volunteers was conducted. An oil depot with nandrolone decanoate and benzyl alcohol was subcutaneously administered in the upper arm of female volunteers. Pharmacokinetic profiles of both substances were related to each other and to literature data. Benzyl alcohol absorbs much more rapidly than nandrolone. In detail, it appears that benzyl alcohol enters the central compartment directly, while nandrolone decanoate is recovered in serum after a lag time. This lag time is also seen in literature data, although not reported explicitly. The absorption of nandrolone is enhanced by the presence of benzyl alcohol. This is most likely an effect of altered oil viscosity and partition coefficient between the oil and aqueous phase. The absorption rate constant of compounds is found to be related to the logP of the solubilized prodrug. The absorption rate is however not only determined by the physico-chemical properties of the formulation but also by the tissue properties. Here, it is argued that lymphatic flow must be considered as a relevant parameter.

  15. [Complications of peripheral parenteral nutrition. Clinical observations of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Tomàs Tomàs, M M; Pérez Juan, E; Amorós Cerdá, S M

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) is artificial nutrition used when digestive absorption is insufficient. It supplies the nutritional needs of the patient and permits administration through a peripheral catheter. WE PRESENT 2 CLINICAL CASES: The first one entails an epidermolisis through extravasation masked by temporo-spatial disorientation of the patient with appearance of flictenes (blisters). Prolonged treatment and consultation with plastic surgery were required. The second case entails a chemical phlebitis with early detection by nursing professionals. It was resolved with short term treatment and did not require consultation with the plastic surgeon. We elaborated a care plan aimed at identifying real or potential problems related with possible complications of intravenous PPN administration, such as phlebitis and extravasation. The aim of this research was prevention, early detection and treatment. Phlebitis is related with catheter characteristics, in-dwelling time and high osmolarity of PPN. Early action decreases injury of the affected tissue. In case 1, the patient requires 19 days of curing. This was only 72 h in case 2. The nursing staff plays an essential role in catheter election, localization, administration and preventing complications. Staff training and a procedure protocol greatly reduce the incidence of phlebitis, avoid discomfort for the patient and reduce health care cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional intake of gut failure patients on home parenteral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    DiCecco, S.; Nelson, J.; Burnes, J.; Fleming, C.R.

    1987-11-01

    Nutrient intake patterns were analyzed in 23 patients with gut failure who were receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). All patients had stable weights without changes in intravenous calories or protein for 3 consecutive months. Our objectives were to assess oral intake of calories, carbohydrates, fat, and protein, to examine relationships between oral nutrient intakes and disease categories, and to compare oral and intravenous intakes to calculated resting energy expenditure (REE). Two patterns of oral nutrient intake were identified among the patients. Patients with short bowel syndrome, regardless of the underlying disease, consumed calories by mouth that clearly exceeded calculated resting energy expenditure (short bowel, non-Crohn's, 170% of REE; short bowel, Crohn's, 200 of REE); however, calories approximating the REE had to be given via HPN, suggesting that efficiency of absorption was at a very low level. Patients with diffuse gut diseases (radiation enteritis or pseudo-obstruction syndromes) had very low intakes of oral nutrients. The distribution of oral calories among carbohydrate, protein, and fat did not differ among the disease categories.

  17. Home Parenteral Nutrition: Fat Emulsions and Potential Complications.

    PubMed

    Mundi, Manpreet S; Salonen, Bradley R; Bonnes, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Since the first intravenous nutrition support attempt with olive oil in the 17th century, intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs) have evolved to become an integral component in the management of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). IVFEs serve as a calorie source and provide essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) in patients unable to achieve adequate intake of these fatty acids through alternative means. However, IVFE use is also associated with multiple complications, including increased infection risk, liver disease, and systemic proinflammatory states. In the United States, most IVFEs are composed of 100% soybean oil; internationally multiple alternative IVFEs (using fish oil, olive oil, and long- and medium-chain triglycerides) are available or being developed. The hope is that these IVFEs will prevent, or decrease the risk of, some of the HPN-associated complications. The goal of this article is to review how IVFEs came into use, their composition and metabolism, options for IVFE delivery in HPN, benefits and risks of IVFE use, and strategies to minimize the risks associated with IVFE use in HPN patients.

  18. Development and characterization of voriconazole loaded nanoparticles for parenteral delivery.

    PubMed

    Füredi, Petra; Kovács, Kristóf; Ludányi, Krisztina; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre

    2016-08-20

    Human serum albumin (HSA) has attracted the most attention in the last decades as a new nanocarrier system of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) due to its biocompatibility and high binding capacity to hydrophobic drugs. Voriconazole (VCZ), an antifungal agent with low water solubility, was selected to produce albumin based nanoparticles using nanoparticle albumin-bound technology (nab™-technology). Aim of our study was to study the development process of VCZ-loaded nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery, such as homogenizing pressure, homogenizing cycle number and drug loading capacity. The main characters of nanoparticles such as particle size distribution and polydispersity index (PDI) were determined by dynamic light scattering. Six homogenization cycles at 1800bar were ensured the acceptable PDI value (lower than 0.3) of the VCZ content nanoparticles. Optimized formulation process produced 81.2±1nm average particle size which meets the requirements of intravenous administration. Furthermore, the encapsulated concentration of VCZ was 69.7±4.2% and the water solubility was over 2 times greater than the API itself which were determined by the developed HPLC method. The in vivo release behavior can be predicted from our applied in vitro dissolution study. Almost 50% of VCZ was liberated from the nanoparticles in the first 60min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of intradialytic parenteral nutrition in malnourished hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Nancy; Shalansky, Karen

    2002-09-15

    The efficacy of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) in malnourished hemodialysis patients was studied. All patients at a large tertiary care institution who received IDPN for one month or longer between June 1997 and December 2000 were included in the study. The IDPN formulation contained 10% amino acids 250 or 500 mL, 50% dextrose 250 mL, and 20% fat emulsion 250 mL. IDPN was administered during each thrice-weekly hemodialysis session. Patient data were collected 6 and 3 months before IDPN therapy began, at baseline, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the therapy began. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed by the percent change from baseline in dry body weight and serum albumin concentration. Twenty-six courses of IDPN in 24 patients met the study's inclusion criteria. The mean duration of treatment was 4.3 months. Dry body weights were significantly lower 6 and 3 months before the start of IDPN therapy than at baseline and significantly higher 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of therapy. Serum albumin levels were also significantly higher at 3 and 9 months than at baseline. The percentage of treatment courses in which patients had a serum albumin concentration of > or = 34 g/L was 12% at baseline, 39% at 6 months, and 47% at 9 months. Adverse effects consisted primarily of excess fluid gain and hyperglycemia. IDPN therapy significantly increased body weight and serum albumin levels in malnourished hemodialysis patients.

  20. Telemedicine Support Groups for Home Parenteral Nutrition Users.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Eve-Lynn; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Thompson, Noreen; Wright, Shawna; Stone, Kathaleen; Adams, Natasia; Werkowitch, Marilyn; Smith, Carol E

    2017-10-01

    Patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN), a life-sustaining intravenous (IV) infusion that provides nourishment and hydration to patients with short gut or inflammatory bowel diseases, are often isolated and not in visual contact with peers or health providers. One completed clinical trial (Clinical Trials.gov NCT0190028) and 1 ongoing clinical trial (Clinical Trials.gov NCT02987569) are evaluating a mobile videoconferencing-delivered support group intervention for patients on HPN and their caregivers. This home-based telemedicine intervention uses encrypted tablet-based videoconferencing to connect multiple families in real time. The twice-daily IV regimen is challenging for patients who may experience infusion catheter-related bloodstream infections, difficulties with fatigue, loss of sleep, depressive disorders, and worry over the potential life-threatening side effects and the expenses of this therapy. Using secure telemedicine, the facilitated support group intervention aims to enhance HPN home care, daily functioning, and quality of life. The authors provide the rationale for the telemedicine approach with HPN users and caregivers. They provide "how-to" information about the content and process of the facilitated support group sessions via secure videoconferencing. They share lessons learned from the ongoing evaluation of the telemedicine approach.

  1. Parenteral Lipid Tolerance and Adverse Effects: Fat Chance for Trouble?

    PubMed

    Wanten, Geert J A

    2015-09-01

    Lipid emulsions (LEs) are indispensable sources of fuel calories and (essential) fatty acids (FAs) in modern parenteral nutrition formulations. The use of LE, however, also remains associated with the development of adverse effects. Intolerance for LE mostly becomes apparent upon the development of patient complaints or disturbed blood function tests, mainly of the liver. These issues may be associated with the composition, stability, or the infusion rate of the emulsion. Also, altered balances of (anti)oxidants or the presence or absence of protective or toxic bioactive agents such as phytosterols and tocopherol in LE may lead to complications, especially in already vulnerable patients with an inflammatory condition. While the oldest available LEs are based on pure soybean oil (SO-LE), rich in the proinflammatory ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid, more recent next-generation LEs where alternative FA sources such as olive and fish oil (partially) replace soybean oil to lower the content of linoleic acid seem safe and effective. Especially LEs containing fish oil (FO-LE) have less proinflammatory characteristics that promise to convey beneficial effects on immune system and organ functions, although much of the available evidence awaits more robust clinical validation.

  2. Hematologic disorders in trauma patients during parenteral alimentation with lipids.

    PubMed

    Faintuch, J; Machado, F K; Freire, A N; Reis, J R; Machado, M; Pinto, L P; Ramos, S M; Loebens, M; Jovchelevich, V; Pinotti, H W

    1996-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition with lipids is a well-accepted modality of metabolic support in seriously ill trauma patients. Intolerance to lipid administration is unusual when dosage limits are not exceeded, and few hematologic disturbances have been recorded with modern fat emulsions. In the course of intravenous alimentation of six adults admitted for traumatic lesions, eosinophilia with or without leukocytopenia was noticed after periods of four days to five weeks. Principal clinical events and hematologic derangements were documented in this population. Sepsis was not always present in the patients by the time of the complication, and in those that did require antibiotics and other drugs, the prescription remained unchanged along the episode. Discontinuation of the nutritional regimen with lipids was followed by normalization of the hematologic profile, suggesting that an acute or sub-acute allergic reaction was responsible. The appearance of skin rash in two occasions reinforces this hypothesis, and the possibility of hemophagocytosis merits consideration in two of the cases who displayed reversible acute leukocytopenia. It is concluded that blood cell aberrations are possible during intravenous feeding with lipids in trauma subjects, but tend to respond to suppression of the lipid-containing nutritional prescription.

  3. Hunger and appetitive factors during total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, N B; Tennissen, A M

    1989-10-01

    A previous study of short-term (average of 31 days) Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) patients indicated that they experienced hunger even though they received adequate calories for energy balance. A prolonged suppression of hunger was noted when lipid was added to the total nutrient intake. Recent experiments with intravenous infusion of lipids in normal volunteers have failed to show appetite suppression beyond that expected from caloric regulation. The goal of our study was to collect information regarding hunger and appetitive experiences associated with intravenous alimentation of healthy, long-term, home TPN patients. Our results from questionnaire returns of 29 respondents showed hunger to be generally low during most of the day. Those patients taking small amounts of food orally typically reported moderate hunger before eating. There was no evidence of any significant difference between hunger reports given on days when lipid was infused vs. days when lipid was omitted. Aversive sensations were frequently associated with lipid infusion but not with nonlipid nutrient infusion. Hunger in TPN patients is discussed in terms of expectancy and hedonic factors as contrasted with physiological need.

  4. Prediction of parenteral nutrition osmolarity by digital refractometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2011-05-01

    Infusion of high-osmolarity parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations into a peripheral vein will damage the vessel. In this study, the authors developed a refractometric method to predict PN formulation osmolarity for patients receiving PN. Nutrients in PN formulations were prepared for Brix value and osmolality measurement. Brix value and osmolality measurement of the dextrose, amino acids, and electrolytes were used to evaluate the limiting factor of PN osmolarity prediction. A best-fit equation was generated to predict PN osmolarity (mOsm/L): 81.05 × Brix value--116.33 (R(2) > 0.99). To validate the PN osmolarity prediction by these 4 equations, a total of 500 PN admixtures were tested. The authors found strong linear relationships between the Brix values and the osmolality measurement of dextrose (R(2) = 0.97), amino acids (R(2) = 0.99), and electrolytes (R(2) > 0.96). When PN-measured osmolality was between 600 and 900 mOsm/kg, approximately 43%, 29%, 43%, and 0% of the predicted osmolarity obtained by equations 1, 2, 3, and 4 were outside the acceptable 90% to 110% confidence interval range, respectively. When measured osmolality was between 900 and 1,500 mOsm/kg, 31%, 100%, 85%, and 15% of the predicted osmolarity by equations 1, 2, 3, and 4 were outside the acceptable 90% to 110% confidence interval range, respectively. The refractive method permits accurate PN osmolarity prediction and reasonable quality assurance before PN formulation administration.

  5. Fatty Acids as Therapeutic Auxiliaries for Oral and Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Michael J.; Zaro, Jennica L.; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Guley, Patrick C.; Cho, Moo J.

    2012-01-01

    Many drugs have decreased therapeutic activity due to issues with absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The co-formulation or covalent attachment of drugs with fatty acids has demonstrated some capacity to overcome these issues by improving intestinal permeability, slowing clearance and binding serum proteins for selective tissue uptake and metabolism. For orally administered drugs, albeit at low level of availability, the presence of fatty acids and triglycerides in the intestinal lumen may promote intestinal uptake of small hydrophilic molecules. Small lipophilic drugs or acylated hydrophilic drugs also show increased lymphatic uptake and enhanced passive diffusional uptake. Fatty acid conjugation of small and large proteins or peptides have exhibited protracted plasma half-lives, site-specific delivery and sustained release upon parenteral administration. These improvements are most likely due to associations with lipid-binding serum proteins, namely albumin, LDL and HDL. These molecular interactions, although not fully characterized, could provide the ability of using the endogenous carrier systems for improving therapeutic outcomes. PMID:22921839

  6. Vitamin E in new-generation lipid emulsions protects against parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in parenteral nutrition-fed preterm pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E composition of soy and fish oil lipi...

  7. Hydrogen peroxide generation in a model paediatric parenteral amino acid solution.

    PubMed

    Brawley, V; Bhatia, J; Karp, W B

    1993-12-01

    1. Parenteral amino acid solutions undergo photooxidation, which may be an important factor in total parenteral nutrition-associated hepatic dysfunction. Light-exposed parenteral solutions containing amino acids, in addition to vitamins and trace minerals, generate free radicals, which, in turn, may contribute to this type of injury. This study examined the characteristics of H2O2 production in a parenteral amino acid solution modelled on a commercially available paediatric parenteral amino acid solution. 2. The solution was exposed to light in the presence of riboflavin-5'-monophosphate (riboflavin), and peroxide formation in the presence and absence of catalase (H2O2 formation) was assayed using potassium iodide/molybdate. 3. Peak H2O2 production occurred at a light intensity of 8 microW cm-2 nm-1 in the 425-475 nm waveband and was linear to 2 h of light exposure. H2O2 production reached 500 mumol/l at 24 h. 4. H2O2 was directly related to a riboflavin concentration of up to 20 mumol/l and was maximal at 30 mumol/l. 5. H2O2 production was greatest in the amino acid/riboflavin solution at a pH of between 5 and 6. 6. Under the conditions of light exposure intensity, light exposure time, riboflavin concentration and pH found during the administration of parenteral nutrition in neonatal intensive care units, net H2O2 production occurs in solutions modelled on a paediatric parenteral amino acid preparation.

  8. Parenteral nutrition support: Beyond gut feeling? Quality control study of parenteral nutrition practices in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Shankar, Bhuvaneshwari; Ranganathan, Lakshmi; Daphnee, D. K.; Bharadwaj, Adithya; Venkataraman, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enteral nutrition (EN) is preferred over parenteral nutrition (PN) in hospitalized patients based on International consensus guidelines. Practice patterns of PN in developing countries have not been documented. Objectives: To assess practice pattern and quality of PN support in a tertiary hospital setting in Chennai, India. Methods: Retrospective record review of patients admitted between February 2010 and February 2012. Results: About 351,008 patients were admitted to the hospital in the study period of whom 29,484 (8.4%) required nutritional support. About 70 patients (0.24%) received PN, of whom 54 (0.18%) received PN for at least three days. Common indications for PN were major gastrointestinal surgery (55.6%), intolerance to EN (25.9%), pancreatitis (5.6%), and gastrointestinal obstruction (3.7%). Conclusions: The proportion of patients receiving PN was very low. Quality issues were identified relating to appropriateness of indication and calories and proteins delivered. This study helps to introspect and improve the quality of nutrition support. PMID:26955215

  9. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia: are monomeric iron compounds suitable for parenteral administration?

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Crumbliss, A L

    2000-11-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional problem worldwide, especially in the developing countries. Oral iron supplementation programs have failed because of noncompliance and gastrointestinal toxicity, thereby necessitating parenteral administration of iron. For parenteral administration, only iron-carbohydrate complexes are currently used, because monomeric iron salts release free iron, thereby causing oxidant injury. However, iron-carbohydrate complexes also have significant toxicity, and they are expensive. We have proposed the hypothesis that monomeric iron salts can be safely administered by the parenteral route if iron is tightly complexed to the ligand, thereby causing clinically insignificant release of free iron, and the kinetic properties of the compound allow rapid transfer of iron to plasma transferrin. A detailed analysis of the physicochemical and kinetic properties reveals that ferric iron complexed to pyrophosphate or acetohydroxamate anions may be suitable for parenteral administration. We have demonstrated that infusion of ferric pyrophosphate into the circulation via the dialysate is safe and effective in maintaining iron balance in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Parenteral administration of monomeric iron compounds is a promising approach to the treatment of iron deficiency in the general population and merits further investigation.

  10. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods for extended-release parenteral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J

    2012-07-01

    This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in-vitro drug release testing of extended-release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in-situ depot-forming systems and implants. Extended-release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, 'real-time' in-vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in-vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in-vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended-release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in-vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended-release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in-vitro-in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable; however, for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Accelerated in vitro release testing methods for extended release parenteral dosage forms

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in vitro drug release testing of extended release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in situ depot-forming systems, and implants. Key findings Extended release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, “real-time” in vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Conclusions Accelerated in vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable, however for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. PMID:22686344

  12. Reversal of growth arrest in adolescents with Crohn's disease after parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Layden, T; Rosenberg, F; Nemchausky, G; Elson, C; Rosenberg, I

    1976-06-01

    Growth arrest and delayed onset of puberty often complicate childhood onset Crohn's disease of the small bowel (granulomatous enteritis). Nutritional deficits arising from inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, and increased caloric needs may contribute to growth retardation. To assess whether a sustained high caloric and nitrogen intake could reestablish growth, 4 children with extensive Crohn's disease of the small bowel were studied before and after parenteral alimentation which was instituted for symtomatic disease control. Weight gain, positive nitrogen balance, and improved nutritional status were achieved during parenteral alimentation in each patient. In 2 patients weight gain was sustained using oral nutritional supplements, and a substantial increase in linear skeletal growth continued in the ensuing months. One patient entered puberty within 4 months of parenteral alimentation and another had the onset of menarche and the development of secondary sex characteristics 4 months after parenteral alimentation and resection of diseased bowel. Growth may be reestablished in some growth-arrested children if intake is sufficient to establish a sustained positive caloric and nitrogen balance. Nutritional requirements imposed by the demands of growth and active disease and often compounded by the catabolic effects of corticosteroids may be excessive; growth may occur only if these needs are met orally and/or parenterally.

  13. [Parenteral administration medicines: recommendations of preparation, administration and stability].

    PubMed

    Gaspar Carreño, M; Torrico Martín, F; Novajarque Sala, L; Batista Cruz, M; Ribeiro Gonçalves, P; Porta Oltra, B; Sánchez Santos, J C

    2014-11-03

    Objetivo: Elaborar unas recomendaciones de preparacion de medicamentos de administracion parenteral (MAP) para valorar la posibilidad de transferir su preparacion, desde las unidades de enfermeria en planta de hospitalizacion al servicio de farmacia (SF). Método: Se procede a elaborar una tabla de estabilidades de los medicamentos incluidos en la guia farmacoterapeutica del Hospital, aplicando la Guia USP (Pharmaceutical compounding Sterile Preparations) y la Guia de de buenas practicas de preparacion de medicamentos en los servicios de farmacia hospitalaria. Se recopilo informacion sobre las MAP: metodo de preparacion, compatibilidad, conservacion, periodo de validez, modo de administracion y tipo de envase. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante consulta de las fichas tecnicas, laboratorios, revision bibliografica y otras bases de datos. Resultados: Tras revisar 209 farmacos se elaboro un listado de recomendaciones. Segun los datos obtenidos, las MAP se prepararan de la siguiente forma: 89 seran preparadas desde el SF, 62 en unidad de enfermeria en planta de hospitalizacion pues son medicamentos que requieren administracion inmediata y 58 ya van acondicionados para su administracion por la industria. De los 62 farmacos que se prepararan por enfermeria, en 14 de ellos las dosis siguientes se prepararan desde el SF. Por lo tanto de los 209 farmacos solo 48 se prepararan exclusivamente en la unidad de enfermeria. Conclusiones: Desde el SF se ha establecido un metodo normalizado de preparacion, conservacion, administracion y periodo de validez de MAP. La preparacion de MAP en SF ampliaria su tiempo de conservacion, al tener en cuenta la estabilidad fisicoquimica, el nivel de riesgo y la vulnerabilidad del preparado a la contaminacion microbiologica. La informacion aportada contribuira a una disminucion de errores asociados al proceso de preparacion y administracion de MAP.

  14. A study of parenteral iron regimens in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Besarab, A; Kaiser, J W; Frinak, S

    1999-07-01

    The administration of parenteral iron dextran to hemodialysis patients is typically intermittent. We sought to determine the most appropriate intervals for sampling iron parameters during intermittent need-based and continuous maintenance regimens and to quantify differences in efficacy between such regimens during long-term therapy. After a single course of 10 consecutive 100-mg iron doses administered to 14 patients on 16 occasions, transferrin saturation (TSAT) and ferritin were unreliable indices of iron status for the next 2 and 6 weeks, respectively. TSAT and ferritin levels at 1 week were virtually identical to those at 2 weeks after the administration of a single 50-mg or 100-mg iron dextran dose to 16 other patients. Twelve patients on maintenance iron therapy (25 to 100 mg/wk; TSAT, 30% to 50%) had a statistically significant decrease in the amount of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) needed to maintain hemoglobin (Hb) levels between 10 and 11 g/dL compared with 12 patients receiving intermittent need-based dosing, an effect that persisted from week 16 to week 72 of the study. Maintenance iron was feasible even in a third group of eight patients targeted to sustain an Hb level of 14 g/dL. In both iron maintenance groups, iron indices could be measured at weekly intervals, and ferritin levels did not progressively increase over time. Continuous maintenance iron dextran used to maintain TSATs of 30% to 50% significantly reduced rHuEPO requirements and resulted in no adverse side effects in chronic hemodialysis patients. After weekly maintenance 25- to 100-mg iron dextran doses, iron indices can be measured after 1 week; a delay of 2 weeks is not necessary.

  15. Gastroenterology – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 15

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, R. J.; Bischoff, S. C.; Koletzko, B.

    2009-01-01

    In patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated when enteral nutrition is not possible or should be avoided for medical reasons. In Crohn's patients PN is indicated when there are signs/symptoms of ileus or subileus in the small intestine, scars or intestinal fistulae. PN requires no specific compounding for chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. In both diseases it should be composed of 55–60% carbohydrates, 25–30% lipids and 10–15% amino acids. PN helps in the correction of malnutrition, particularly the intake of energy, minerals, trace elements, deficiency of calcium, vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin B12, and zinc. Enteral nutrition is clearly superior to PN in severe, acute pancreatitis. An intolerance to enteral nutrition results in an indication for total PN in complications such as pseudocysts, intestinal and pancreatic fistulae, and pancreatic abscesses or pancreatic ascites. If enteral nutrition is not possible, PN is recommended, at the earliest, 5 days after admission to the hospital. TPN should not be routinely administered in mild acute pancreatitis or nil by moth status <7 days, due to high costs and an increased risk of infection. The energy requirements are between 25 and 35 kcal/kg body weight/day. A standard solution including lipids (monitoring triglyceride levels!) can be administered in acute pancreatitis. Glucose (max. 4–5 g/kg body weight/day) and amino acids (about 1.2–1.5 g/kg body weight/day) should be administered and the additional enrichment of TPN with glutamine should be considered in severe, progressive forms of pancreatitis. PMID:20049077

  16. Adult classical homocystinuria requiring parenteral nutrition: Pitfalls and management.

    PubMed

    Tran, Christel; Bonafé, Luisa; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Rieger, Julie; Berger, Mette M

    2017-07-25

    Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency presents with a wide clinical spectrum. Treatment by the enteral route aims at reducing homocysteine levels by using vitamin B6, possibly methionine-restricted diet, betaine and/or folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. Currently no nutritional guidelines exist regarding parenteral nutrition (PN) under acute conditions. Exhaustive literature search was performed, in order to identify the relevant studies describing the pathogenesis and nutritional intervention of adult classical homocystinuria requiring PN. Description of an illustrative case of an adult female with CBS deficiency and intestinal perforation, who required total PN due to contraindication to enteral nutrition. Nutritional management of decompensated classical homocystinuria is complex and currently no recommendation exists regarding PN composition. Amino acid profile and monitoring of total homocysteine concentration are the main tools enabling a precise assessment of the severity of metabolic alterations. In case of contraindication to enteral nutrition, compounded PN will be required, as described in this paper, to ensure adequate low amounts of methionine and others essential amino acids and avoid potentially fatal toxic hypermethioninemia. By reviewing the literature and reporting successful nutritional management of a decompensated CBS deficiency using tailored PN with limited methionine intake and n-3 PUFA addition, we would like to underscore the fact that standard PN solutions are not adapted for CBS deficient critical ill patients: new solutions are required. High methionine levels (>800 μmol/L) being potentially neurotoxic, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge of acute nutritional therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. [Validation of cold chain during distribution of parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Tuan, Federico; Perone, Virginia; Verdini, Rocio; Pell, Maria Betina; Traverso, Maria Luz

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: el presente estudio tiene la finalidad de demostrar la aptitud del proceso empleado para acondicionar las mezclas de nutrición parenteral extemporáneas para su distribución, considerando el objetivo de conservar la cadena de frío durante el traslado hasta que llega al paciente, necesario para asegurar la estabilidad, efectividad y seguridad de estas mezclas. Método: validación concurrente; diseño e implementación de un protocolo de evaluación del proceso de acondicionamiento y distribución de MNPE elaboradas por un laboratorio farmacéutico. Ejecución de test, según criterios de aceptación predefinidos. Se efectúa en dos oportunidades, en verano y en las rutas que requieren un tiempo de traslado más prolongado. Evaluación de la conservación de la temperatura mediante supervisión de los valores de temperatura interna de cada tipo de empaquetado, registrados por equipos data loggers calibrados. Resultados: los diferentes test cumplen con los criterios preestablecidos. Los valores obtenidos permiten asegurar el mantenimiento de la cadena de frío durante un tiempo superior al traslado hasta los puntos más distantes. Conclusiones: este estudio permite mostrar la aptitud del proceso de acondicionamiento de MNPE para su distribución, manteniendo la cadena de frío durante todo el traslado desde el Laboratorio farmacéutico hasta el paciente. Considerando que la rotura de la cadena de frío puede ocasionar alteraciones de la compatibilidad y estabilidad de las nutriciones parenterales, así como fallas en el soporte nutricional, este estudio contribuye a la seguridad del paciente, una de las dimensiones relevantes de la calidad de la atención de la salud.

  18. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy in osteoarticular infections in children.

    PubMed

    Maraqa, Nizar F; Gomez, Margarita M; Rathore, Mobeen H

    2002-01-01

    There are few data on the use of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in the management of osteoarticular infections (OAIs) in childhood. The objective of this study was to determine if OPAT is safe and effective in the management of OAIs. Using their OPAT database, the authors evaluated the use of OPAT in children younger than 18 years old treated for OAIs between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 1999. One hundred eighty-four OAIs were treated in 179 patients over 5 years. OPAT involved central venous lines (CVLs) in 110 (59.8%), peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in 71 (38.6%), and peripheral cannulas in 3 (1.6%). One hundred eighteen (64%) OPAT courses were completed without interruption. Rehospitalization occurred in 48 (26.1%) courses and occurred earlier with PICC. OPAT complications were catheter-related in 58 (30%) courses, not catheter-related in 60 (32%), and unknown in 10 (5.3%). The mechanical complication rate was 6.3 per 1,000 catheter-days (CVL 4.2, PICC 10.6), and the rate of infectious complications was 2.7 per 1,000 catheter-days (CVL 2.8, PICC 2.4). One hundred sixty-eight (98%) of 172 evaluable OAIs were cured. Four (2.2%) patients failed treatment: one had recurrence and three had persistent infection. The authors conclude that OPAT can be safely used to manage OAIs in children without compromising outcome. Mechanical complications are more common with PICCs.

  19. [Suppression of cycling activity in sheep using parenteral progestagen treatment].

    PubMed

    Janett, F; Camponovo, L; Lanker, U; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two synthetic progestagen preparations Chlormadinone acetate (CAP, Chronosyn, Veterinaria AG Zürich) and Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, Nadigest, G Streuli & Co. Uznach) on cycling activity and fertility in sheep. A flock of 28 non pregnant white alpine sheep was randomly divided into three groups, A (n = 10), B (n = 9) and C (n = 9). During a period of 4 weeks the cycling activity was confirmed by blood progesterone analysis. Thereafter, the animals of group A were treated with 50 mg CAP, those of group B with 140 mg MPA and those of group C with physiological saline solution. All injections were given intramuscularly. Suppression of endogenous progesterone secretion lasted from 28 to 49 days (mean = 39 days) in group A and from 42 to 70 days (mean = 50 days) in group B. The synchronization effect of both preparations was unsatisfactory as the occurrence of first estrus was distributed over a period of 3 weeks in group A and 4 weeks in group B. These findings could also be confirmed by the lambing period which lasted 52 days in group A and 36 days in group B. Control animals lambed within 9 days due to the synchronizing effect of the ram. The first fertile estrus was observed 36 days (group A) and 45 days (group B) after the treatment. In group A all 10 animals and in groups B and C 8 of 9 ewes each became pregnant. Parenteral progestagen application with CAP and MPA is a simple, safe and reversible method of estrus suppression in the sheep. The minimal suppressive duration of 4 (CAP) and 5 weeks (MPA) is not sufficient when a period of 3 months (alpine pasture period) is desired.

  20. [Efficacy of parenteral glutamine in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Oliva García, J G; Pereyra-García Castro, F; Suárez Llanos, J P; Ríos Rull, P; Breña Atienza, J; Palacio Abizanda, J E

    2012-01-01

    Autologous bone marrow transplant (ABMT) represents a high metabolic stress. Glutamine has proven to be effective in severe catabolic states, although there are controversial studies. To assess the effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy supplemented with glutamine on the occurrence of mucositis and mean hospital stay in patients submitted to ABMT. Retrospective study of patients submitted to ABMT between 2006 and 2009. In 2008, one vial of L-alanyl-L-glutamine (20 g) was added by protocol to the PN formulations of these patients. Thirteen clinical charts since that date (glutamine group) and 13 previous charts (control group) were randomly selected (n = 26). We compared the degree of mucositis and hospital stay in both groups. In the subgroup of glutamine-treated patients, we compare the glutamine dose in the patients developing some degree of mucositis with that of those not having this complication. Mean hospital stay: 27.8 ± 7.4 days (control group) vs. 20.3 ± 5.3 days (glutamine group) (p = 0.01). The severity of mucositis was lower in the glutaminetreated group (p = 0.02). The weight-adjusted dose of L-alanyl-L-glutamine in the patients not developing mucositis was higher than in the other ones (0.32 vs. 0.24 g/kg/day; p = 0.02). Glutamine supplementation reduces the degree of mucositis and hospital stay in patients submitted to autologous bone marrow transplantation. The degree of mucositis is lower in the subgroup of patients receiving higher doses of glutamine.

  1. [Nutritional support with parenteral nutrition. Course and associated complications].

    PubMed

    Herranz Antolín, Sandra; Álvarez De Frutos, Visitación; Blasco Guerrero, Marta; García Martínez, Maria del Carmen; Gimeno Fernández, Maria del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is an integral part of medical management of patients who do not have a functioning or accessible gastrointestinal tract. This paper discusses the clinical characteristics of patients receiving PN in a 420-bed hospital from 2009 to 2011. In addition, nutritional parameters were assessed at the start and end of PN and associated complications were analyzed. retrospective, observational study of PN episodes in adults conducted at the Nutrition Unit of Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara. Variables collected included epidemiological and clinical data, number and type of routes used, anthropometric data, analytical data, number of days on PN, reason for withdrawal, caloric provision, prevalence of phlebitis, metabolic complications (hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal liver function tests, hyperglycemia, and refeeding syndrome), and prevalence of bacteremia associated with central venous catheter (BAC). There were 312 episodes of PN. The immediate indication was postoperative ileus in 53.8% of the episodes. There was a statistically significant improvement in all analytical parameters assessed (albumin, prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin, cholesterol, and lymphocytes). Caloric provision (kcal per kg) was 25.1±6.6. No metabolic complication occurred in 16.3% of the episodes, and hyperglycemia was the most common complication (79.8%). There were 10 cases of phlebitis (32.2%) and 30 episodes of BAC (8.7%). Bacteriemia rate was 8.1 per 1000 days of PN. Although PN is an effective nutritional support technique, it is associated with complications of varying severity. Use of PN should therefore comply with the instructions accepted in the main clinical practice guidelines and requires careful monitoring by experienced professionals. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Computer programming: quality and safety for neonatal parenteral nutrition orders.

    PubMed

    Huston, Robert K; Markell, Andrea M; McCulley, Elizabeth A; Marcus, Matthew J; Cohen, Howard S

    2013-08-01

    Computerized software programs reduce errors and increase consistency when ordering parenteral nutrition (PN). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of our computerized neonatal PN calculator ordering program in reducing errors and optimizing nutrient intake. This was a retrospective study of infants requiring PN during the first 2-3 weeks of life. Caloric, protein, calcium, and phosphorus intakes; days above and below amino acid (AA) goals; and PN ordering errors were recorded. Infants were divided into 3 groups by birth weight for analysis: ≤1000 g, 1001-1500 g, and >1500 g. Intakes and outcomes of infants before (2007) vs after (2009) implementation of the calculator for each group were compared. There were no differences in caloric, protein, or phosphorus intakes in 2007 vs 2009 in any group. Mean protein intakes were 97%-99% of goal for ≤1000-g and 1001- to 1500-g infants in 2009 vs 87% of goal for each group in 2007. In 2007, 7.6 per 100 orders were above and 11.5 per 100 were below recommended AA intakes. Calcium intakes were higher in 2009 vs 2007 in ≤1000-g (46.6 ± 6.1 vs 39.5 ± 8.0 mg/kg/d, P < .001) and >1500-g infants (50.6 ± 7.4 vs 39.9 ± 8.3 mg/kg/d, P < .001). Ordering errors were reduced from 4.6 per 100 in 2007 to 0.1 per 100 in 2009. Our study reaffirms that computerized ordering systems can increase the quality and safety of neonatal PN orders. Calcium and AA intakes were optimized and ordering errors were minimized using the computer-based ordering program.

  3. The Human Response to Acute Enteral and Parenteral Phosphate Loads

    PubMed Central

    Scanni, Roberto; vonRotz, Matthias; Jehle, Sigrid; Hulter, Henry N.

    2014-01-01

    The human response to acute phosphate (PO4) loading is poorly characterized, and it is unknown whether an intestinal phosphate sensor mechanism exists. Here, we characterized the human mineral and endocrine response to parenteral and duodenal acute phosphate loads. Healthy human participants underwent 36 hours of intravenous (IV; 1.15 [low dose] and 2.30 [high dose] mmol of PO4/kg per 24 hours) or duodenal (1.53 mmol of PO4/kg per 24 hours) neutral sodium PO4 loading. Control experiments used equimolar NaCl loads. Maximum PO4 urinary excretory responses occurred between 12 and 24 hours and were similar for low-dose IV and duodenal infusion. Hyperphosphatemic responses were also temporally and quantitatively similar for low-dose IV and duodenal PO4 infusion. Fractional renal PO4 clearance increased approximately 6-fold (high-dose IV group) and 4-fold (low-dose IV and duodenal groups), and significant reductions in plasma PO4 concentrations relative to peak values occurred by 36 hours, despite persistent PO4 loading. After cessation of loading, frank hypophosphatemia occurred. The earliest phosphaturic response occurred after plasma PO4 and parathyroid hormone concentrations increased. Plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 concentration increased after the onset of phosphaturia, followed by a decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2D levels; α-Klotho levels did not change. Contrary to results in rodents, we found no evidence for intestinal-specific phosphaturic control mechanisms in humans. Complete urinary phosphate recovery in the IV loading groups provides evidence against any important extrarenal response to acute PO4 loads. PMID:24854273

  4. Hypersensitivity reaction to components of parenteral nutrition in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Carlos Ruiz; Ponce, Esperanza Castejón; Busquets, Ferran Bossacoma; Hernández, Diana Sánchez; Oliva, Silvia Meavilla; Santacruz, Enrique Llerena; Pérez, Naymar; De Los Santos Pelegrini, Mariela; Flaque, Miquel Villaronga

    2016-01-01

    Very rare cases of hypersensitivity reactions to various constituents of parenteral nutrition (PN) have been reported in children. Adverse effects associated with PN administration have centered on metabolic, infectious, and mechanical complications. Here we describe three cases of hypersensitivity to components of PN. Case 1 is a 1-mo-old breastfed baby with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis associated with an infection with cytomegalovirus. On the second day of PN, 60 min after the initiation of the infusion, the patient had an allergic reaction with an overall diffused rash. On day 4 of PN, the multivitamin solution and the trace element mix were excluded, showing a good tolerance. Case 2 is a 4-y-old girl with a background of stage III neuroblastoma. On day 3 of PN, 15 min after the initiation of the infusion, the patient showed sudden facial edema. On day 5, suspecting the amino acid solution to be the etiology of her reaction, PN was infused with another amino acid preparation, and the patient showed good tolerance. Case 3 is a 10-y-old boy with a diagnosis of an acute peritonitis. Two h after the initiation of the infusion, the patient showed a general wheal rash. He referred a background of fish allergy. Considering that the lipid emulsion used had components from fish oil (SMOF Lipid), a new PN was infused on day 2. The new PN contained a lipid emulsion containing vegetable oil (ClinOleic). The patient showed good tolerance. In conclusion, we consider that, although the hypersensitivity to PN components is infrequent, there is an increase in reports of pediatric cases describing this allergic pathology.

  5. Monoacetoacetin and protein metabolism during parenteral nutrition in burned rats.

    PubMed Central

    Maiz, A; Moldawer, L L; Bistrian, B R; Birkhahn, R H; Long, C L; Blackburn, G L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of intravenous infusion of monoacetoacetin (glycerol monoacetoacetate) as a non-protein energy source was evaluated in burned rats. During 3 days of parenteral nutrition, in which animals received 14 g of amino acids/kg body wt. per day exclusively (group I) or with the addition of isoenergetic amounts (523 kJ/kg per day) of dextrose (group II), a 1:1 mixture of dextrose and monoacetoacetin (group III) or monoacetoacetin (group IV), significant decreases in urinary nitrogen excretion and whole-body leucine oxidation were observed in the three groups given additional non-protein energy as compared with group I. Serum ketone bodies (acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate) were decreased in rats given dextrose, whereas glucose and insulin increased significantly. Monoacetoacetin-infused animals (group IV) had high concentrations of ketone bodies without changes in glucose and insulin, whereas animals infused with both monoacetoacetin and glucose (group III) showed intermediate values. On day 4 of nutritional support, whole-body L-leucine kinetics were measured by using a constant infusion of L-[1-14C]leucine. In comparison with group I, the addition of dextrose or monoacetoacetin produced a significant decrease in plasma leucine appearance and release from whole-body protein breakdown. Gastrocnemius-muscle protein-synthesis rates were also higher in the three groups receiving additional non-protein energy. These findings suggest that monoacetoacetin can effectively replace dextrose as an intravenous energy source in stressed rats. Both fuels are similar in decreasing weight loss, nitrogen excretion, leucine release from whole-body protein breakdown and oxidation, in spite of differences in energy substrate and insulin concentrations. PMID:3977880

  6. Predictors of insulin requirements among hospitalized adults receiving parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Roehl, Kelly A; Lach, Kristen; Coltman, Anne E; Bacon, Cheryl A; Singh, Shubha; Peterson, Sarah J; Sowa, Diane C

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this quality improvement project was to determine factors predictive of parenteral nutrition (PN) insulin therapy. Patients receiving PN at a tertiary care academic medical center between January 1, 2009, and December 1, 2012, 18 years or older were included. Variables collected included demographics, medical information, and PN-specific data. χ(2) and Student t tests were used to determine differences between patients who did and did not require PN insulin. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to determine associations between characteristics. Stepwise forward logistic regression was used determine the best predictors of PN insulin. A total of 1388 patients were started on PN. After adjusting for potential confounders, strong associations existed between PN insulin requirements and diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis (OR, 8.90; 95% CI, 4.98-15.90, P < .001), overweight/obese status (body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.04-4.30, P = .04), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.03-3.11, P = .04), blood glucose (BG) on day of PN start >120 mg/dL (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.32-4.05, P = .003), mean BG >180 mg/dL while receiving PN (OR, 6.10; 95% CI, 2.18-17.04, P = .001), and hemoglobin A1c (A1c) ≥5.7% (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.84-5.50, P < .001). Among variables available at PN initiation, DM diagnosis (P < .001), A1c ≥5.7% (P < .001), BG >120 mg/dL on PN start day (P < .001), and ICU admission (P < .001) predicted the need for PN insulin.

  7. 100 patient-years of ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Dudrick, S J; O'Donnell, J J; Englert, D M; Matheny, R G; Blume, E R; Nutt, R E; Hickey, M S; Barroso, A O

    1984-01-01

    More than 100 patient-years' experience has been acquired in the treatment of 133 patients with ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition (TPN) between May 1974 and December 1983. Indications for chronic or permanent home TPN include short bowel syndrome, malabsorption, scleroderma, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide syndrome. Indications for acute or temporary home TPN include Crohn's disease, malignancies, gastrointestinal fistulas, ulcerative colitis, anorexia nervosa, and numerous other disorders. Eighty-two patients in the acute group were treated primarily with percutaneously placed standard subclavian catheters and 51 patients in the chronic group have been treated thus far with implanted silicone rubber, Dacron-cuffed catheters for a cumulative total of 38,939 patient days. Of the 125 implanted catheters, 115 were placed in the superior vena cava and ten in the inferior vena cava for an average duration of 250 catheter-days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for more than 8 1/2 years. Catheter-related sepsis occurred 33 times with the implanted catheters, or once every 2.6 catheter-years. One hundred and fourteen temporary catheters were placed percutaneously in the superior vena cava via a subclavian vein for an average duration of 68 days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for 213 days. Catheter-related sepsis occurred seven times, equivalent to one episode per 3 catheter-years. Total catheter-related complications were quite infrequent and were directly related to duration of catheterization. They included venous thrombosis (12), clotted catheter (11), catheter failure or rupture (8), catheter compression (5) and inadvertent catheter removal (4). Twenty-six catheters were repaired or spliced in situ when the external segment was accidentally damaged or deteriorated secondary to long-term material fatigue. One remarkable patient has been maintained exclusively by TPN originally as an inpatient and subsequently as an outpatient

  8. Effect of intradialytic parenteral nutrition on delivered Kt/V.

    PubMed

    McCann, L; Feldman, C; Hornberger, J; Belanger, S; Maru, L; Torres, M; Tootell, F; Gotch, F

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) and its components on delivered Kt/V (Kt/Vd). Nineteen patients undergoing routine outpatient hemodialysis and receiving IDPN were enrolled onto this prospective, crossover study. To reduce the confounding of time, assigned treatment in the first week was random, with patient crossover in the fourth week. Patients served as their own controls. In the successive 6 weeks, patients received IDPN solutions differing in whether amino acids (AAs), dextrose, or lipids were included or excluded. The primary end point was Kt/Vd, measured with a single-pool, variable-volume urea kinetic model. Other factors with the potential to impact on Kt/Vd were controlled and/or monitored. The administration of IDPN with all three components resulted in a significantly reduced mean Kt/Vd. When patients received AA-containing solutions, mean Kt/Vd was significantly less than when IDPN was withheld. Administration of solutions without AA resulted in a mean Kt/Vd not significantly different from mean Kt/Vd when IDPN was withheld. The mean prescribed Kt/V did not differ from mean Kt/Vd when IDPN was withheld. Simulation analyses of increased urea generation (Gu) showed an increase in patient urea volume and decreased Kt/V similar to the study findings. AA-containing IDPN solutions resulted in a significant reduction in Kt/Vd, possibly mediated by increased Gu. Administration of IDPN solutions may have important clinical and economic consequences that warrant further investigation.

  9. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition in malnourished patients on chronic haemodialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Smolle, K H; Kaufmann, P; Holzer, H; Druml, W

    1995-01-01

    Malnutrition is frequently encountered in patients on regular haemodialysis therapy and presents an important determinant of morbidity and mortality. Usual therapeutic approaches to alleviate malnutrition have been unsuccessful. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) with amino acids (in combination with a glucose-containing dialysate) on nutritional parameters and immunocompetence in patients on regular haemodialysis treatment. Effects of IDPN were evaluated in 16 malnourished patients. After a run-in period of 4 weeks (to define stable baseline conditions) 0.8 g amino acids/kg bodyweight using a novel amino-acid solution (adapted to metabolic alteration of uraemia and including the dipeptide glycyl-tyrosine as tyrosine source) was infused thrice weekly during each haemodialysis session for 16 weeks. Intradialytic amino-acid infusion was well tolerated and the dipeptide was rapidly utilized with only traces being detectable in plasma after dialysis. Visceral protein synthesis was improved, serum albumin, prealbumin, and cholinesterase increased during IDPN (P < 0.05). As indicators of augmented immunocompetence skin test reactivity against multiple antigens was improved (P < 0.02) and total lymphocyte count was raised (P < 0.05). Plasma amino acid pattern did not deteriorate but failed to normalize during IDPN and phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio remained stable. Anthropometric measurements and eating behaviour as assessed by dietary records were not altered during IDPN. Even using a simple and limited intradialytic nutritional support with amino acids can improve visceral protein status and stimulate immunocompetence in malnourished patients on regular haemodialysis therapy.

  10. Management of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Cotogni, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Artificial nutrition (AN) is necessary to meet the nutritional requirements of critically ill patients at nutrition risk because undernutrition determines a poorer prognosis in these patients. There is debate over which route of delivery of AN provides better outcomes and lesser complications. This review describes the management of parenteral nutrition (PN) in critically ill patients. The first aim is to discuss what should be done in order that the PN is safe. The second aim is to dispel “myths” about PN-related complications and show how prevention and monitoring are able to reach the goal of “near zero” PN complications. Finally, in this review is discussed the controversial issue of the route for delivering AN in critically ill patients. The fighting against PN complications should consider: (1) an appropriate blood glucose control; (2) the use of olive oil- and fish oil-based lipid emulsions alternative to soybean oil-based ones; (3) the adoption of insertion and care bundles for central venous access devices; and (4) the implementation of a policy of targeting “near zero” catheter-related bloodstream infections. Adopting all these strategies, the goal of “near zero” PN complications is achievable. If accurately managed, PN can be safely provided for most critically ill patients without expecting a relevant incidence of PN-related complications. Moreover, the use of protocols for the management of nutritional support and the presence of nutrition support teams may decrease PN-related complications. In conclusion, the key messages about the management of PN in critically ill patients are two. First, the dangers of PN-related complications have been exaggerated because complications are uncommon; moreover, infectious complications, as mechanical complications, are more properly catheter-related and not PN-related complications. Second, when enteral nutrition is not feasible or tolerated, PN is as effective and safe as enteral nutrition. PMID

  11. Management of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Cotogni, Paolo

    2017-02-04

    Artificial nutrition (AN) is necessary to meet the nutritional requirements of critically ill patients at nutrition risk because undernutrition determines a poorer prognosis in these patients. There is debate over which route of delivery of AN provides better outcomes and lesser complications. This review describes the management of parenteral nutrition (PN) in critically ill patients. The first aim is to discuss what should be done in order that the PN is safe. The second aim is to dispel "myths" about PN-related complications and show how prevention and monitoring are able to reach the goal of "near zero" PN complications. Finally, in this review is discussed the controversial issue of the route for delivering AN in critically ill patients. The fighting against PN complications should consider: (1) an appropriate blood glucose control; (2) the use of olive oil- and fish oil-based lipid emulsions alternative to soybean oil-based ones; (3) the adoption of insertion and care bundles for central venous access devices; and (4) the implementation of a policy of targeting "near zero" catheter-related bloodstream infections. Adopting all these strategies, the goal of "near zero" PN complications is achievable. If accurately managed, PN can be safely provided for most critically ill patients without expecting a relevant incidence of PN-related complications. Moreover, the use of protocols for the management of nutritional support and the presence of nutrition support teams may decrease PN-related complications. In conclusion, the key messages about the management of PN in critically ill patients are two. First, the dangers of PN-related complications have been exaggerated because complications are uncommon; moreover, infectious complications, as mechanical complications, are more properly catheter-related and not PN-related complications. Second, when enteral nutrition is not feasible or tolerated, PN is as effective and safe as enteral nutrition.

  12. Gut Lymphocyte Phenotype Changes after Parenteral Nutrition and Neuropeptide Administration

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Mark A; Heneghan, Aaron F; Fechner, John H; Pierre, Joseph F; Sano, Yoshifumi; Lan, Jinggang; Kudsk, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objective Define gut associated lymphocyte phenotype (GALT) changes with parenteral nutrition (PN) and PN with bombesin (BBS). Summary Background Data PN reduces respiratory tract (RT) & GALT Peyer’s patch and lamina propria (LP) lymphocytes, lowers gut and RT IgA levels and destroys established RT antiviral & antibacterial immunity. BBS, an enteric nervous system (ENS) neuropeptide, reverses PN-induced IgA and RT immune defects. Methods Exp 1: IV-cannulated ICR mice received Chow, PN or PN + BBS injections for 5 days. LSR-II flow cytometer analyzed PP and LP isolated lymphocytes for homing phenotypes (L-selectin+ & LPAM-1+) and state of activation (CD25+, CD44+) in T (CD3+) cell subsets (CD4+ & CD8+) along with homing phenotype (L-selectin+ & LPAM-1+) in naive B (IgD+) and antigen-activated (IgD− or IgM+) B (CD45R/B220+) cells. Exp 2: Following initial experiment 1 protocol, LP T regulatory (Treg) cell phenotype was evaluated by Foxp3 expression. Results Exp 1: PN significantly reduced LP 1) CD4+CD25+ (activated) and 2) CD4+CD25+LPAM-1+ (activated cells homed to LP) T cells while PN-BBS assimilated Chow levels. PN significantly reduced LP 1) IgD+ (naïve), 2) IgD-LPAM+ (antigen-activated homed to LP) and CD44+ memory B cells while PN-BBS assimilated Chow levels. Exp 2: PN significantly reduced LP CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells compared to Chow mice while PN+BBS assimilated Chow levels. Conclusions PN reduces LP activated and regulatory T cells as well as naïve and memory B cells. BBS addition to PN maintains these cell phenotypes, demonstrating the intimate involvement of the ENS in mucosal immunity. PMID:25563877

  13. Dysregulation of bile acid homeostasis in parenteral nutrition mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Le; Yang, Ill; Shen, Jianliang; Gorczyca, Ludwik; Memon, Naureen; Buckley, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) administration can lead to PN-associated liver diseases (PNALD). Although multiple risk factors have been identified for PNALD, to date, the roles of bile acids (BAs) and the pathways involved in BA homeostasis in the development and progression of PNALD are still unclear. We have established a mouse PN model with IV infusion of PN solution containing soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (SOLE). Our results showed that PN altered the expression of genes involved in a variety of liver functions at the mRNA levels. PN increased liver gene expression of Cyp7a1 and markedly decreased that of Cyp8b1, Cyp7b1, Bsep, and Shp. CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 are important for synthesizing the total amount of BAs and regulating the hydrophobicity of BAs, respectively. Consistently, both the levels and the percentages of primary BAs as well as total non-12α-OH BAs increased significantly in the serum of PN mice compared with saline controls, whereas liver BA profiles were largely similar. The expression of several key liver-X receptor-α (LXRα) target genes involved in lipid synthesis was also increased in PN mouse livers. Retinoid acid-related orphan receptor-α (RORα) has been shown to induce the expression of Cyp8b1 and Cyp7b1, as well as to suppress LXRα function. Western blot showed significantly reduced nuclear migration of RORα protein in PN mouse livers. This study shows that continuous PN infusion with SOLE in mice leads to dysregulation of BA homeostasis. Alterations of liver RORα signaling in PN mice may be one of the mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of PNALD. PMID:26564717

  14. Glycemic Variation in Tumor Patients with Total Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Cheng; Dai, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Li-Ming; Xie, Yi-Bin; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Li, Guo-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes and mortality in several patients. However, studies evaluating hyperglycemia variation in tumor patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between glycemia and tumor kinds with TPN by monitoring glycemic variation in tumor patients. Methods: This retrospective clinical trial selected 312 patients with various cancer types, whose unique nutrition treatment was TPN during the monitoring period. All patients had blood glucose (BG) values assessed at least six times daily during the TPN infusion. The glycemic variation before and after TPN was set as the indicator to evaluate the factors influencing BG. Results: The clinical trial lasted 7.5 ± 3.0 days adjusted for age, gender, family cancer history and blood types. There were six cancer types: Hepatic carcinoma (HC, 21.8%), rectal carcinoma (17.3%), colon carcinoma (CC, 14.7%), gastric carcinoma (29.8%), pancreatic carcinoma (11.5%), and duodenal carcinoma (DC, 4.8%). The patients were divided into diabetes and nondiabetes groups. No statistical differences in TPN glucose content between diabetes and nondiabetes groups were found; however, the tumor types affected by BG values were obvious. With increasing BG values, DC, HC and CC were more represented than other tumor types in this sequence in diabetic individuals, as well as in the nondiabetic group. BG was inclined to be more easily influenced in the nondiabetes group. Other factors did not impact BG values, including gender, body mass index, and TPN infusion duration time. Conclusions: When tumor patients are treated with TPN, BG levels should be monitored according to different types of tumors, besides differentiating diabetes or nondiabetes patients. Special BG control is needed for DC, HC and CC in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. If BG overtly increases, positive measurements are needed to control BG values. The

  15. Use of erythropoietin and parenteral iron dextran in a severely anemic Jehovah's Witness with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Madura, J A

    1993-10-01

    A Jehovah's Witness presented with colon cancer and profound anemia. On admission, her hemoglobin level was 30 g/L (3.0 g/dL). She refused all transfusions and failed to respond to oral iron therapy. She was ultimately prepared for surgery using recombinant human erythropoietin, iron dextran, and total parenteral nutrition. It took nearly 1 month to increase her hemoglobin level to an acceptable preoperative level of 110 g/L (11.0 g/dL). During the postoperative period, erythropoietin and parenteral iron therapy were briefly continued and a follow-up hemoglobin level of greater than 120 g/L (12.0 g/dL) was observed. Recombinant human erythropoietin, along with parenteral iron and adequate nutrition, may be useful in patients who refuse transfusion or cannot be transfused because of difficult cross-reacting antibodies.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Klek, Stanislaw

    2016-03-07

    Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

  17. Non-Parenteral Medications for Procedural Sedation in Children- A Narrative: Review Article.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Razieh; Ferdosian, Farzad; Shajari, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Procedural sedation may be needed in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children. To make pediatric procedural sedation as safe as possible, protocols should be developed by institutions. Response to sedation in children is highly variable, while some become deeply sedated after minimal doses, others may need much higher doses. Child developmental status, clinical circumstances and condition of patient should be considered and then pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for sedation be selected. Drug of choice and administration route depend on the condition of the child, type of procedure, and predicted pain degree. The drugs might be administered parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) or non parenteral including oral, rectal, sublingual, aerosolized buccal and intranasal. The use of intravenous medication such propofol, ketamine, dexmedetomidine, or etomidate may be restricted in use by pediatric anesthesiologist or pediatric critical care specialists or pediatric emergency medicine specialists. In this review article we discuss on non-parenteral medications that can be used by non- anesthesiologist.

  18. Non-Parenteral Medications for Procedural Sedation in Children- A Narrative: Review Article

    PubMed Central

    FALLAH, Razieh; FERDOSIAN, Farzad; SHAJARI, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Procedural sedation may be needed in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children. To make pediatric procedural sedation as safe as possible, protocols should be developed by institutions. Response to sedation in children is highly variable, while some become deeply sedated after minimal doses, others may need much higher doses. Child developmental status, clinical circumstances and condition of patient should be considered and then pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for sedation be selected. Drug of choice and administration route depend on the condition of the child, type of procedure, and predicted pain degree. The drugs might be administered parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) or non parenteral including oral, rectal, sublingual, aerosolized buccal and intranasal. The use of intravenous medication such propofol, ketamine, dexmedetomidine, or etomidate may be restricted in use by pediatric anesthesiologist or pediatric critical care specialists or pediatric emergency medicine specialists. In this review article we discuss on non-parenteral medications that can be used by non- anesthesiologist. PMID:26401146

  19. Dry influenza vaccines: towards a stable, effective and convenient alternative to conventional parenteral influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Jasmine; Born, Philip A; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2016-11-01

    Cold-chain requirements, limited stockpiling potential and the lack of potent immune responses are major challenges of parenterally formulated influenza vaccines. Decreased cold chain dependence and stockpiling can be achieved if vaccines are formulated in a dry state using suitable excipients and drying technologies. Furthermore, having the vaccine in a dry state enables the development of non-parenteral patient friendly dosage forms: microneedles for transdermal administration, tablets for oral administration, and powders for epidermal, nasal or pulmonary administration. Moreover, these administration routes have the potential to elicit an improved immune response. This review highlights the rationale for the development of dried influenza vaccines, as well as processes used for the drying and stabilization of influenza vaccines; it also compares the immunogenicity of dried influenza vaccines administered via non-invasive routes with that of parenterally administered influenza vaccines. Finally, it discusses unmet needs, challenges and future developments in the field of dried influenza vaccines.

  20. Economic analysis of costs with enteral and parenteral nutritional therapy according to disease and outcome.

    PubMed

    Hyeda, Adriano; Costa, Élide Sbardellotto Mariano da

    2017-01-01

    To conduct an economic analysis of enteral and parenteral diet costs according to the type of disease and outcome (survivors versus deaths). It is a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study with a qualitative and quantitative design, based on analysis of hospital accounts from a healthcare insurance provider in the Southern region of Brazil. We analyzed 301 hospital accounts of individuals who used enteral and parenteral diets. The total cost of the diet was 35.4% of hospital account total costs. The enteral modality accounted for 59.8% of total dietary costs. The major costs with diets were observed in hospitalizations related to infections, cancers and cerebro-cardiovascular diseases. The major costs with parenteral diet were with admissions related by cancers (64.52%) and dementia syndromes (46.17%). The highest ratio between total diet costs with the total of hospital account costs was in dementia syndromes (46.32%) and in cancers (41.2%). The individuals who died spent 51.26% of total of hospital account costs, being 32.81% in diet (47.45% of total diet value and 58.81% in parenteral modality). Enteral and parenteral nutritional therapies account for a significant part of the costs with hospitalized individuals, especially in cases of cancers and dementia syndromes. The costs of parenteral diets were higher in the group of patients who died. Realizar uma análise econômica de custos da terapia nutricional enteral e parenteral, conforme o tipo de doença e o desfecho (sobreviventes versus óbitos). Estudo transversal, observacional, retrospectivo, com estratégia qualitativa e quantitativa, a partir da análise de contas hospitalares de uma operadora de saúde da Região Sul do Brasil. Foram analisadas 301 contas hospitalares de usuários que utilizaram dieta enteral e parenteral. O custo total com dieta foi de 35,4% do custo total das contas hospitalares. A modalidade enteral representou 59,8% do custo total em dieta. Os maiores custos com dieta

  1. [Protocol for peripheral parenteral nutrition management ready to use in surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Varón Vega, Martha Liliana

    2014-10-03

    Patients undergoing elective surgery, require a comprehensive clinical treatment that tends to maintain or prevent deterioration of nutritional status and promote clinical outcomes, and in turn improve the safety of parenteral nutrition therapy through optimization of technology, as a option aimed at minimizing risk and lower operating costs in institutions providing health services. To review the literature in order to study the requirements and recommendations of peripheral parenteral nutritional support and / or complementary ready to use in people undergoing surgery. Data synthesis after reviewing the relevant literature, to allow the protocol design. The search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Medline, Embase and ScienceDirect. Peripheral parenteral nutrition is a ready to use alternative nutritional support that improves the contribution Protein-Energy and demonstrate improvements in patient safety, decrease costs and increase patient satisfaction. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Case of congenital short small intestine: survival with use of long-term parenteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Dorney, S F; Byrne, W J; Ament, M E

    1986-03-01

    Isolated congenital short small intestine is a rare anomaly. Of six (one male, five females) previously reported cases, four died in infancy from intractable diarrhea. We report the case of 7-year-old boy with this syndrome in whom a 2-year period of parenteral feeding at home allowed normal weight gain, growth, and development while intestinal adaptation occurred. Parenteral feeding was discontinued at age 2 1/3 years, and for the past 5 years his weight has remained between the tenth and 25th percentiles and his stature between the 25th and 50th percentiles. His development has been normal and he functions at or above grade level at school. Coefficient of fat absorption has increased from 54% to 81%. Vitamin B12 absorption has improved but has not normalized. He remains lactose intolerant. We believe his survival, growth, and development would have been compromised if he had not received a prolonged period of parenteral feeding.

  3. A case report: treatment of severe anorexia nervosa with home total parenteral hyperalimentation.

    PubMed

    Latzer, Y; Eysen-Eylat, D; Tabenkin, H

    2000-01-01

    In its chronic and severe phase, anorexia nervosa (AN) carries a high morbidity and mortality rate. In the severe stage, parenteral alimentation is often required. To date, the optimal regime for parenteral refeeding has not been well documented. Most, if not all, such treatment is performed on an inpatient basis. We report here a case of an AN patient treated at home with total parenteral hyperalimentation which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to be carried out in Israel. The patient has regained 10 kg during treatment, and has maintained her weight a year after treatment. Her gastrointestinal symptoms improved, and she has reduced the amount of laxatives she ingests. In this paper we will discuss the various issues and criteria applicable to this treatment, as well as the importance of collaboration between a primary care and specialized clinic. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly des...

  5. [Conclusions to the first Baxter-Senpe workshop on: ready-to-use (RTU) products for parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo Mateos, A; Bermejo Vicedo, T; Gómez Candela, C; Planas Vila, M

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions to the workshop on ready-to use (RTU) products for parenteral nutrition. An approximation is done to the definition and advantages in comparison to other parenteral nutrition models. Issues related to management, RTU composition and hospital- and home-based indications are highlighted.

  6. Evaluation of Bacillus oleronius as a Biological Indicator for Terminal Sterilization of Large-Volume Parenterals.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Masamitsu; Fujifuru, Masato; Okada, Aki; Takai, Katsuya; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Udagawa, Takeshi; Miyake, Makoto; Naruyama, Shintaro; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Nishioka, Goro; Yoden, Hikaru; Aoki, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    In the production of large-volume parenterals in Japan, equipment and devices such as tanks, pipework, and filters used in production processes are exhaustively cleaned and sterilized, and the cleanliness of water for injection, drug materials, packaging materials, and manufacturing areas is well controlled. In this environment, the bioburden is relatively low, and less heat resistant compared with microorganisms frequently used as biological indicators such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC 7953) and Bacillus subtilis 5230 (ATCC 35021). Consequently, the majority of large-volume parenteral solutions in Japan are manufactured under low-heat sterilization conditions of F0 <2 min, so that loss of clarity of solutions and formation of degradation products of constituents are minimized. Bacillus oleronius (ATCC 700005) is listed as a biological indicator in "Guidance on the Manufacture of Sterile Pharmaceutical Products Produced by Terminal Sterilization" (guidance in Japan, issued in 2012). In this study, we investigated whether B. oleronius is an appropriate biological indicator of the efficacy of low-heat, moist-heat sterilization of large-volume parenterals. Specifically, we investigated the spore-forming ability of this microorganism in various cultivation media and measured the D-values and z-values as parameters of heat resistance. The D-values and z-values changed depending on the constituents of large-volume parenteral products. Also, the spores from B. oleronius showed a moist-heat resistance that was similar to or greater than many of the spore-forming organisms isolated from Japanese parenteral manufacturing processes. Taken together, these results indicate that B. oleronius is suitable as a biological indicator for sterility assurance of large-volume parenteral solutions subjected to low-heat, moist-heat terminal sterilization.

  7. Parenteral and oral antibiotic duration for treatment of pediatric osteomyelitis: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric osteomyelitis is a bacterial infection of bones requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment using parenteral followed by enteral agents. Major complications of pediatric osteomyelitis include transition to chronic osteomyelitis, formation of subperiosteal abscesses, extension of infection into the joint, and permanent bony deformity or limb shortening. Historically, osteomyelitis has been treated with long durations of antibiotics to avoid these complications. However, with improvements in management and antibiotic treatment, standard of care is moving towards short durations of intravenous antibiotics prior to enteral antibiotics. Methods/Design The authors will perform a systematic review based on PRISMA guidelines in order to evaluate the literature, looking for evidence to support the optimal duration of parenteral and enteral therapy. The main goals are to see if literature supports shorter durations of either parenteral antibiotics and/or enteral antibiotics. Multiple databases will be investigated using a thorough search strategy. Databases include Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Dissertation Abstracts, CINAHL, Web of Science, African Index Medicus and LILACS. Search stream will include medical subject heading for pediatric patients with osteomyelitis and antibiotic therapy. We will search for published or unpublished randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Two authors will independently select articles, extract data and assess risk of bias by standard Cochrane methodologies. We will analyze comparisons between dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios and continuous outcomes using mean differences. 95% confidence intervals will be computed. Discussion One of the major dilemmas of management of this disease is the duration of parenteral therapy. Long parenteral therapy has increased risk of serious complications and the necessity for long therapy has been called into question. Our study aims to review the currently available

  8. Aluminum contamination of parenteral nutrition additives, amino acid solutions, and lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Popińska, K; Kierkuś, J; Lyszkowska, M; Socha, J; Pietraszek, E; Kmiotek, W; Ksiazyk, J

    1999-09-01

    Contamination of parenteral nutrition solutions with aluminum may result in accumulation of this element in bones and, in premature infants, may inhibit bone calcium uptake and induce cholestasis. We measured the aluminum concentration of small-volume parenterals, amino acid solutions, lipid emulsions, and special solutions containing glucose, amino acids, electrolytes, and trace elements (standard I for children with a body weight of 3-5 kg, standard II for children with a body weight of 5-10 kg). The method used was graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry GTA-AAS (SpectrAA-400 Plus, Varian, PtY Ltd., Mulgrave, Australia). Quality control was run with the use of control serum (Seronorm, Nycomed, Oslo, Norway). The aluminum contents of parenterally administered solutions were: pediatric trace elements, 130 micrograms/L, and pediatric trace elements, 3000 micrograms/L; phosphorus salts: K-phosphates, 9800 micrograms/L, and Na/K phosphates, 13,000 micrograms/L; 10% calcium gluconate, 4400 micrograms/L; 6.5% amino acids, 30 micrograms/L; 10% amino acids, 120 micrograms/L; 12.5% amino acids, 121 micrograms/L; 20% lipid emulsion, 30 micrograms/L; 20% lipid emulsion, 180 micrograms/L; water-soluble vitamins, 12 micrograms/L; lipid soluble vitamins, 360 micrograms/L; standard I, 55 micrograms/L; standard II, 90 micrograms/L; The aluminum intake from parenteral nutrition was 6.6-10.8 micrograms.kg-1.d-1--a dose exceeding the safety limit of 2 micrograms.kg-1.d-1. The possible association of aluminum not only with metabolic bone disease, but also with encephalopathy, dictates caution when dealing with the pediatric population on long-term parenteral nutrition. In the absence of reliable label information, it seems proper to monitor the aluminum concentration in parenteral nutrition products and to report it in professional journals.

  9. Hemosiderosis secondary to chronic parenteral iron therapy in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Pitts, T O; Barbour, G L

    1978-01-01

    Autopsy data on 24 chronic maintenance hemodialysis patients who had received varying doses of parenteral iron as the iron-dextran complex were reviewed for evidence of iron overload (hemosiderosis) and tissue fibrosis or organ dysfunction (hemochromatosis). Hemosiderosis was frequent in patients who received high total doses of iron but absent in those who received little or no iron. The degree of tissue iron did not increase with increased iron administration above a total of 2.5 g. Hemochromatosis or organ dysfunction secondary to tissue iron deposition was not noted in any patient. Chronic parenteral iron administration may improve anemia and result in tissue iron deposition but does not lead to hemochromatosis.

  10. Feasibility of parenteral iron therapy as a field approach for management of pregnancy anaemia.

    PubMed

    Raman, L; Vasumathi, N; Rawal, A; Rajalakshmi, K

    1989-08-01

    The feasibility of parenteral iron administration for treatment of pregnancy anaemia, in field conditions was investigated. High reaction rates were observed (30-40%) with either intramuscular (im) or intravenous (iv) iron-dextran complex (test dose). Mothers with lower body weight had higher reaction rates with both im or iv iron-dextran complex. In pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) the reaction rate was significantly lower. Our study indicates that under the existing situations of the health care system in India and the poor body weight and weight gain of Indian women during pregnancy, parenteral iron therapy for controlling anaemia may not be a feasible approach, at the field level.

  11. Neonatal parenteral nutrition hypersensitivity: a case report implicating bisulfite sensitivity in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Huston, Robert K; Baxter, Louise M; Larrabee, Paige B

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a case of parenteral nutrition hypersensitivity in a 37 weeks' gestation infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia complicated by bowel necrosis and functional short bowel syndrome. The patient developed a rash with subsequent urticaria beginning on the 50th day of life. The reactions were confirmed with a positive rechallenge. After the amino acid solution was replaced with a non-bisulfite-containing product, the infant was able to continue to receive nutrition support through parenteral nutrition without recurrence of symptoms. It is speculated that the bisulfite additive in the amino acid solution may have interacted with the lipid emulsion to sensitize the patient.

  12. Parenteral nutrition in the malnourished: dialysis, cancer, obese, and hyperemesis gravidarum patients.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mary Theresa

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is a complication of many disease processes and can have deleterious effects on patient care outcomes. Providing adequate nutritional support requires a plan that is tailored to the individual needs of the patient and occasionally requires the use of parenteral nutrition. The varied nutritional needs of malnourished dialysis, cancer, obese, and hyperemesis gravidarum patients will be discussed. The infusion nurse specialist is a vital member of the nutrition support team in the care and recovery of the malnourished patient who requires parenteral nutrition.

  13. Hypothyroidism and iodine deficiency in an infant requiring total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Clarridge, Katherine Elizabeth; Conway, Erin E; Bucuvalas, John

    2014-09-01

    While iodine deficiency remains a relatively rare cause of thyroid dysfunction in the United States, little is known about iodine status and deficiency in children requiring parenteral nutrition (PN). This population may be at an elevated risk of thyroid dysregulation and neurodevelopmental sequelae due to low concentrations in typical PN formulations. Furthermore, with the widespread practice of switching from iodine-based antiseptics to chlorhexadine, previous inadvertent sources of iodine are being eliminated as well. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  14. [Protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of catheter related infections in patients with home parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    de la Cuerda Compés, C; Bretón Lesmes, I; Bonada Sanjaume, A; Planas Vila, M

    2005-08-01

    One of the most frequent complications of home parenteral nutrition is parenteral nutrition catheter infection. Prevention of these complications by adequate protocols on the catheter cares manages to decrease significantly the number of infections. Diagnosis and treatment of these infections should be done early to avoid loss of central venous accesses that may affect the treatment with this nutritional support modality in the long term. The existence of a protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of infections related with the catheter is, thus, of great value in the treatment of these patients.

  15. Standardised neonatal parenteral nutrition formulations – an Australasian group consensus 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Standardised parenteral nutrition formulations are routinely used in the neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. In 2010, a multidisciplinary group was formed to achieve a consensus on the formulations acceptable to majority of the neonatal intensive care units. Literature review was undertaken for each nutrient and recommendations were developed in a series of meetings held between November 2010 and April 2011. Three standard and 2 optional amino acid/dextrose formulations and one lipid emulsion were agreed by majority participants in the consensus. This has a potential to standardise neonatal parenteral nutrition guidelines, reduce costs and prescription errors. PMID:24548745

  16. Parenteral Nutrition Basics for the Clinician Caring for the Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    Derenski, Karrie; Catlin, Jennifer; Allen, Livia

    2016-10-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a life-sustaining therapy providing nutrients to individuals with impaired intestinal tract function and enteral access challenges. It is one of the most complex prescriptions written routinely in the hospital and home care settings. This article is to aid the nutrition support clinician in the safe provision of PN, including selecting appropriate patients for PN, vascular access, development of a PN admixture, appropriate therapy monitoring, recognition of preparation options, and awareness of preparation and stability concerns. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Neuroimaging identifies increased manganese deposition in infants receiving parenteral nutrition12

    PubMed Central

    Aschner, Judy L; Anderson, Adam; Slaughter, James Christopher; Aschner, Michael; Steele, Steven; Beller, Amy; Mouvery, Amanda; Furlong, Heather M; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manganese, an essential metal for normal growth and development, is neurotoxic on excessive exposure. Standard trace element–supplemented neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) has a high manganese content and bypasses normal gastrointestinal absorptive control mechanisms, which places infants at risk of manganese neurotoxicity. Magnetic resonance (MR) relaxometry demonstrating short T1 relaxation time (T1R) in the basal ganglia reflects excessive brain manganese accumulation. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that infants with greater parenteral manganese exposure have higher brain manganese accumulation, as measured by MR imaging, than do infants with lower parenteral manganese exposure. Design: Infants exposed to parenteral manganese were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Infants classified as having high manganese exposure received >75% of their nutrition in the preceding 4 wk as PN. All others were classified as having low exposure. Daily parenteral and enteral manganese intakes were calculated. Whole-blood manganese was measured by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Brain MR relaxometry was interpreted by a masked reviewer. Linear regression models, adjusted for gestational age (GA) at birth, estimated the association of relaxometry indexes with total and parenteral manganese exposures. Results: Seventy-three infants were enrolled. High-quality MR images were available for 58 infants, 39 with high and 19 with low manganese exposure. Four infants with a high exposure had blood manganese concentrations >30 μg/L. After controlling for GA, higher parenteral and total manganese intakes were associated with a lower T1R (P = 0.01) in the globus pallidus and putamen but were not associated with whole-blood manganese (range: 3.6–56.6 μg/L). Elevated conjugated bilirubin magnified the association between parenteral manganese and decreasing T1R. Conclusion: A short T1R for GA identifies infants at risk of

  18. Total management of short gut secondary to midgut volvulus without prolonged total parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Tepas, J J; MacLean, W C; Kolbach, S; Shermeta, D W

    1978-12-01

    Absorption studies in rats have shown that intestinal adaptation after catastrophic injury can be stimulated by early enteral feeding. Using this concept, we have devised a technique of early initiation and advancement of oral feedings that begins with Cho-Free and Polycose and gradually adds sucrose and MCT in increasing proportions. The increasing complexity and caloric density of this diet provide sufficient nutrition to allow weaning from total parenteral alimentation within 2--3 wk. Our preliminary experience in babies with midgut volvulus, necrotizing enterocolitis, and gastroschisis has been successful and uncomplicated. These patients have demonstrated consistent weight gain and have been spared the complications associated with prolonged parenteral alimentation.

  19. Protein and Calorie Requirements with Total Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Shizgal, Harry M.; Forse, R. Armour

    1980-01-01

    Body composition measurements, performed by multiple isotope dilution, were used to determine the protein and caloric requirements of patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). In addition the relative efficacy of lipid as opposed to carbohydrate calories were evaluated. Patients requiring TPN were randomly allocated to receive one of the following TPN solutions: a) 2.5% amino acid with 25% dextrose b) 5% amino acid with 25% dextrose c) 2.5% amino acid with 12.5% dextrose and a 5% lipid emulsion. The efficacy of each solution was evaluated by determining body composition at the onset,and at two week intervals during the course of TPN. In 204 patients who received TPN for 4447 days, 533 body composition studies were performed to evaluate 308 periods of TPN. In the normally nourished patient, as defined by the pre-TPN body composition, the body composition remained unchanged and normal with the three solutions. In the presence of preexisting malnutrition, two weeks of TPN resulted in a significant increase in body weight, arising primarily from an increase in the body cell mass. To evaluate the relative importance of the various factors responsible for the increase in the body cell mass, a multiple linear regression analysis was performed. The mean daily change in the body cell mass was correlated with the carbohydrate, protein and lipid calories infused and with the nutritional state. The resulting regression equation, which was statistically significant, indicated that the rate at which a depleted body cell mass was restored was related to the lipid and carbohydrate calories infused and to the nutritional state of the patient. Carbohydrate calories were more efficient than lipid calories. However increasing the amino acid concentration from 2.5 to 5% had no effect on the rate at which the body cell mass increased. The repletion rate was also directly related to the severity of malnutrition. Thus the correction of a malnourished individual with TPN is

  20. [Parenteral use of a solution-emulsion following digestive surgery].

    PubMed

    Barale, F; Milleret, P; Gillet, M; Boillot, A; Prieur, C; Leconte, M; Egreteau, J P; Henry, J C; Gibey, R

    1975-11-01

    A post-operative use of the calorico-nitrogenous mixture: Trivé 1000 was carried out in 25 patients after digestive surgery. The prescribed dose of this lipidic emulsion was 1,36 1 for an average period of four days. A study of the results led to establish the following facts:--a 55 p. cent increase in the nitrogen retention in comparison with a control series of ten patients and from (J o) the day of the intervention to (J F) the day when the treatment was stopped. Besides, the duration of the treatment did not seem to modify this balance, at least within the limits of the period of use. On the other hand, the quantity of EB 51 was a determining factor since 2000 ml were necessary to obtain a positive nitrogen balance (+ 0.96 g).--a very small rise in the amino-acid serous rate. It appeared in 14 patients and, supplied by EB 51, 3 other amino-acids increased their proportion spontaneously (Asp.--Gluc.--Tau.).--a reduction of the rate of 5 amino-acids, one of which, however, (Arginine) was being supplied by the drip. The variations were never statistically significant but for the Phenylalanine rate increase.--a non-systematic variation in the blood proteids that decreased as far as total proteids and albumin were concerned and that increased as far as globulins alpha1 and alpha2 were concerned.--Finally, no variations in the serous graphic record of lipid levels were noted, neither in the average of figures, nor in the analyses carried out after each bottle. Besides, it must be added that the tolerance of the product was excellent both on a general level (very few cases of intolerance: 4) and on the level of the plasma turbidimetry which did not reveal and chylomicrons except in one case. Therefore Trivé 1000 proved to be an interesting nutrient combinatin quite suited to a parenteral feeding because of its high caloric power. The necessity of a calories/g/nitrogen ratio from 100 to 200 corresponding to 2000 ml of EB 51 was once more evidenced. Therefore such a

  1. Parenteral nutrition for patients with advanced ovarian malignancy.

    PubMed

    Madhok, B M; Yeluri, S; Haigh, K; Burton, A; Broadhead, T; Jayne, D G

    2011-04-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) in patients with disseminated ovarian cancer remains controversial. The role of PN in providing nutrition and improving quality of life is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the pattern of prescribing in a large teaching hospital, and to identify subgroups where the use of PN was justified. Sixty-five patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma received PN between January 2002 and May 2008. A retrospective case note review was undertaken to retrieve data on PN prescribing and outcomes in terms of duration of PN provision, complications, and survival. Three subgroups were identified. Group I consisted of 18 (28%) patients who received PN for a median [interquartile range (IQR)] of 5 (2-11) days. The majority of these 18 patients (n = 13, 72%) had disease-related terminal bowel obstruction. Out of 18 of these patients, 17 (95%) had poor performance status. The median (IQR) survival was 12 (6-28) days. Group II consisted of 40 (61%) patients who were re-established on enteral nutrition. The median (IQR) duration of PN administration was 10 (6-17) days. The most common indication of PN was protracted ileus (n = 25, 63%). Out of 40 of these patients, 35 (88%) patients had good performance status. The median (IQR) survival was 264 (96-564) days. The third group of patients required home PN (n = 7, 11%). Four (58%) patients had short bowel syndrome and three (42%) had terminal intestinal obstruction. All of the patients had good performance status. The median (IQR) duration of PN administration and survival was 241 (90-305) days. Administration of PN appears to be justified in those patients with a good performance status (i.e. patients capable of self-care), which constituted three-quarters of this cohort. In the remaining patients with poor performance status, and particularly those with terminal intestinal obstruction, PN administration was difficult to justify. PN should not be denied based purely on the pathology, although cautious

  2. [Parenteral nutrition at home: NADYA register for the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Planas, M; Castellá, M; León, M; Pita, A M; García Peris, P; Gómez Enterría, P; Gómez Candela, C; Forga, M; Martí Bonmatí, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Salas, J; Ordóñez, J; Rodríguez Pozo, A; Camarero, E; Carrera, J A

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the registered data of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in our country during the year 2000. The data were collected through a previously designed questionnaire. Apart from epidemiological information, the form includes the disease to prescribe this treatment, the specific nutritional treatment used and its duration, access path, complications and readmission rate in hospital, follow-up of the treatment, and progress. All data were processed and analysed by the co-ordinating team. Fourteen hospitals participated, and 67 patients were enrolled. Middle age was 5 +/- 4 years for patients < 14 years old, and 48 +/- 15 years for those > or = 14 years old. The more prevalent diagnosis were: ischemic bowel (28.4%), neoplasm (16.4%), radiation enteritis (13.4%), motility disorders (7.5%), Crohn's disease (2.9%), and other. The mean time on HPN was 7.5 +/- 4.4 months. Tunelized catheter was the preferential route (77.6%), followed by the implantated one (20.9%). The intermittent method (nocturnal) was preferential (91.0%). Patients receive the formula from hospital pharmacy more frequently than from Nutriservice (71.5% versus 19.4%). The complications related to nutrition (0.32/100 days of HPN) included the infections (0.12 catheter sepsis/100 d of HPN), metabolic (0.06/100 d of HPN), mechanic (0.03/100 d of HPN) and electrolitic disorders (0.03/100 d of HPN). The readmission rate, for nutritional problems, was 0.3 hospitalizations/100 d of HPN. At the end of the year, 61.2% of the patients remained in the HPN program, 37.3% abandoned the treatment (due to death (40%), to progress to oral feeding (48%), and to progress to enteral nutrition (4%); and 1.5% of the patients were not follow up. This review illustrates that there is an increment in the registration of HPN patients in our country (1997: 0.7 patients/10(6) habitants, 2000: 1.9 patients/10(6) habitants), that vascular pathology is the more frequent diagnoses in HPN patients, and the rate of readmission and

  3. [National Registry of Home Parenteral Nutrition of the year 2001].

    PubMed

    Planas, M; Castellà, M; Moreno, J M; Pita, A M; Pedrón, C; Gómez Candela, C; Gómez Enterría, P; de la Cuerda, C; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Forga, M T; Martí, E; Garde, C; Carrera, J A; García Luna, P P; Ordóñez, J; Bonada, A; Pares, R M; Rodríguez, A

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the registered data of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in our country during the year 2001. The data were collected through a previously designed questionnaire. Apart from epidemiological information, the form includes the disease to prescribe this treatment, the specific nutritional treatment used and its duration, access path, complications and readmission rate in hospital, follow-up of the treatment, and progress. All data were processed and analysed by the co-ordinating team. Seventeen hospitals participated, and 66 patients were enrolled. Middle age was 5.5 +/- 4.9 years for patients < 14 years old, and 49.2 +/- 15.8 years for those > or = 14 years old. The more prevalent diagnosis were: ischemic bowel (28.9%), neoplasm (22.7%), radiation enteritis (12.1%), motility disorders (4.5%) and Crohn's disease (4.5%). The mean time on HPN was 8.4 +/- 4.5 months. Tunnelled catheter was the preferential route (62.1%), followed by the implantated one (33.3%). The intermittent method (nocturnal) was preferential (81.8%). Patients receive the formula, mainly from hospital pharmacy (75.7%). The complications related to nutrition (1.3/patient) included the infections (0.46 sepsis/patient, and 0.19 catheter contamination/patients), mechanic (0.15/patient), metabolic (0.1/patient) and electrolytic disorders (0.07/patient). The readmission rate, for nutritional problems, was 1.34/patient. At the end of the year, 74.2% of the patients remained in the HPN program, and 25.8% abandoned the treatment (due to death: 52.9%, and to progress to oral feeding (25.3%). This review illustrates that the registration of HPN patients in our country is standing (1.65 patients/10(6) habitants), that vascular pathology is the more frequent diagnoses in HPN patients, and the rate of readmission and complications and the behaviour is similar to other series making this as a safe treatment in our place.

  4. [Pediatric parenteral nutrition: are standard solutions better than individualized ones?].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, J M; Fernández-Shaw, C; Gomis Muñoz, P; Valero Zanuy, M A; León Sanz, M

    2002-07-01

    Pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) in Spain has traditionally been prescribed and made up on an individual basis. This practice entails daily indication of the quantity of each of the components of the PN bag as well as precise calculations for its formulation and preparation. The main advantages of individualized prescriptions are their flexibility and precise biochemical control. The aim of this study was to determine whether pediatric PN can be standardized in a tertiary care hospital. We reviewed the composition of all the pediatric PN bags prepared in our hospital from 1.1.1996 to 31.12.1998. Each individual prescription was compared with a standard PN fulfilling the following criteria: a) Holiday-Segar equation for volume; b) 1 kcal/ml (10 %), and c) macronutrient distribution: 8-15 % amino acids, 55-65 % dextrose; 30-35 % lipids. The results of this comparison were used to estimate the number of bags fulfilling all three criteria and those that fulfilled only the third. We also reviewed the distribution of PN bags prepared according to the protocol used in our center which allows three options: standard PN, individualized prescription, and individualized prescription except electrolytes, supplied in fixed concentrations per liter of PN. Five hundred fifty-four patients received 7,921 PN bags. The mean duration of PN was 14.3 days and the mean number of PN per day was 7.2. Only 4.5 % fulfilled all three criteria but 16.2 % satisfied at least the last criterion. If the three criteria for standardization were applied, only one PN bag/day could be prepared. Analysis of the application of our protocol revealed that of all the PN bags prepared only 27.9 % were partially or totally standardized. However, exclusion of neonates increased this figure to 53.2 %. If rigid standardization criteria are applied, only a small number of PN bags can be prepared in a tertiary hospital. Combining both standard and tailored PN could reduce pharmacy workload and costs while

  5. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition in malnourished children treated with hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Krause, Irit; Shamir, Raanan; Davidovits, Miriam; Frishman, Sigal; Cleper, Roxana; Gamzo, Zahava; Poraz, Irit; Eisenstein, Bella

    2002-01-01

    To examine the feasibility and effectiveness of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) in children on hemodialysis. Prospective experimental study with a single intervention group. A pediatric hemodialysis unit. Four malnourished children on hemodialysis (3 girls and 1 boy) 4 to 18 years of age were studied during a period of 1 year. IDPN, which is composed of amino acids (8.5% solution), glucose (as 10% to 15% dextrose), and 20% fat emulsion, was administered at every dialysis session (3 times a week, during 4 hours each time) for 7 to 12 weeks. Oral caloric intake (evaluated by using a 3-day diet history), dry weight (weight after dialysis), body mass index, percent ideal body weight, total lymphocyte count, and serum levels of albumin before, immediately after cessation of IDPN, and 3 months after cessation of IDPN. Oral caloric intake increased markedly after IDPN administration, from 5 to 63 kcal/kg/d (mean, 33 kcal/kg/d) before IDPN administration to 35 to 177 kcal/kg/d (mean, 86 kcal/kg/d) at the time of cessation. Weight did not change during the treatment period but it did increase from 9.5 to 36.4 kg (mean, 25 kg) to 11 to 39 kg (mean, 26.7 kg) 3 months later. Percent ideal body weight increased from 73% to 88% (mean, 78.5%) to 79% to 90% (mean, 85.1%), and body mass index increased from 12.2 to 15 kg/m(2) (mean, 13.5 kg/m(2)) to 13.4 to 15.5 kg/m(2) (mean, 14.6 kg/m(2)). Total lymphocyte count increased from 538 to 2,041 cells/mm(3) (mean, 1,403 cells/mm(3)) to 724 to 2,884 cells/mm(3) (mean, 2,066 cells/mm(3)). Plasma levels of albumin increased in 1 patient but remained unchanged in others. Short-term IDPN treatment may serve as a safe and effective nutritional intervention in malnourished children on hemodialysis. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  6. Anemia and leukopenia in a long-term parenteral nutrition patient during a shortage of parenteral trace element products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pramyothin, Pornpoj; Kim, Dong Wook; Young, Lorraine S; Wichansawakun, Sanit; Apovian, Caroline M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, drug shortages in the United States have affected multiple components of the parenteral nutrition (PN) solution. A 62-year-old patient with systemic sclerosis who was dependent on home PN due to intestinal dysmotility developed anemia and leukopenia approximately 4 months after parenteral copper was withheld from her PN solution due to drug shortages. The patient was not able to tolerate a sufficient amount of oral multivitamins with trace elements due to severe dysphagia. Her serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were undetectable, confirming the diagnosis of severe copper deficiency. The hematological abnormalities promptly resolved with copper supplementation. This report emphasizes the importance of close monitoring for nutrient deficiencies during drug shortages and supplementing with oral or enteral nutrition when feasible, particularly in high-risk patients such as those with intestinal malabsorption or short bowel syndrome who are dependent on long-term PN.

  7. Effect of decreased parenteral soybean lipid emulsion on hepatic function in infants at risk for parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Michael D; Ward, Robert M; Jackson, W Daniel; Mulroy, Cecilia W; Spencer, Cindy P; Ying, Jian; Greene, Tom; Book, Linda S

    2013-06-01

    We performed a pilot trial to compare reduced dose versus standard soybean lipid emulsion in neonates at risk for parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed (2009-2011) enrolling surgical patients ≥ 26 weeks' gestation anticipated to require >50% of daily caloric intake from parenteral nutrition (PN) for at least 4 weeks. Randomization occurred into either reduced (1.0 g/kg/day) or standard (3g/kg/day) groups. Co-primary outcomes for interpretation of the results were conjugated bilirubin and total bile acids. Additional outcomes included ALT, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, growth, and essential fatty acid levels. Outcomes were compared between treatment groups using Wilcoxon rank sums tests. Twenty-eight patients (47% enrollment rate) were included in the study with an average treatment duration of 5.4 weeks. Groups had similar PN calories and protein intake throughout the study. Total increase from baseline was smaller in the reduced vs. standard group for conjugated bilirubin (p=0.04) and total bile acids (p=0.02). Weight z-score increased more in the standard group, and no patient experienced essential fatty acid deficiency. Markers of cholestasis rose at a slower rate using reduced lipid doses. This pilot study demonstrates feasibility and need for a larger study evaluating the effects of reduced lipids in patients at risk for developing parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parenteral fish oil and liver function tests in hospitalized adult patients receiving parenteral nutrition: A propensity score-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Llop-Talaveron, J M; Badia-Tahull, M B; Leiva-Badosa, E; Ramon-Torrel, J M

    2017-08-01

    Intravenous fat emulsions are associated with liver disease and there is some evidence that the administration of intravenous fish oil (FO) may be useful in reversing it. The aim of our study was to assess whether there are differences in the changes of liver function tests (LFTs) in hospitalized adult patients with parenteral nutrition (PN) with FO and vegetal lipids vs patients without FO. The secondary aim was to study the relationship between impaired LFT and FO. This was a 4-year, propensity score-matched analysis including patients aged ≥18 years treated with PN for ≥10 days. The exclusion criteria were previous liver disease, biliary disorders or pancreatic cancer, and altered initial LFT values. Patients were classified into 2 groups: FO cohort (patients who received FO - in addition to vegetal oil - after the first week of PN) and the vegetal oil cohort (patients who received only vegetal oil). A propensity score matched cohort design was developed. Univariate analyses were used to study the changes in LFTs. To evaluate whether LFT alterations vary with FO administration, four stepwise multiple linear regression models were conducted. 52 patients were included, 52% men, median 66 (55-75) years and 69 kg (61.7-78.8), with 18.5 (14-31.8) days of PN treatment. Maximum FO supplementation was 23%. During the first week with PN (none of the groups receiving FO), gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and total bilirubin (BIL) increased significantly. Comparing LFT values at seven days of PN with at the end of PN treatment, the univariate analysis showed a better response for the FO group. The group without FO showed a significant increase for GGT and AP. In multivariate models, the percentage of FO administered was associated with a decrease in GGT, B = -0.33 [CI 95% = -0.54/-0.12], in AP, B = -0.12 [CI 95% = -0.20/-0.03] and ALT, B = -0.12 [CI 95% = -0.21/-0.024]. Lipid composition plays a significant role in LFT alteration

  9. [Safety aspects of parenteral iron supplementation therapies in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Potthoff, S A; Münch, H G

    2013-06-01

    Iron deficiency often occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease and can be effectively treated with parenteral supplementation of iron. In these patients, prompt application of iron therapy can help to reduce the dependence of erythropoietin-stimulating agents and effectively treat anemia. Correct evaluation of iron metabolism in CKD patients can be difficult. Duration of and response to therapy should always be considered while planning parenteral supplementation of iron. The main safety aspects of parenteral iron preparations relate to their possible anaphylactic potential and the potential induction of oxidative stress due to the release of free iron. However, parenteral iron supplementation is usually safe and without major side effects. Regarding current data, none of the iron preparations is showing definitive superiority. Although uncommon, iron preparations containing dextran can lead to severe side effects, therefore these preparations appear to have an inferior safety profile. Due to limited data, a comparison of third-generation iron preparations with previous preparations is not possible. Recently, for the first time, the third generation iron preparation ferumoxytol has been directly compared to iron sucrose. From this data and others, it remains unclear whether third generation iron preparations show safety-relevant superiority.

  10. [Parenteral nutrition in premature infants: practical aspects to optimize postnatal growth and development].

    PubMed

    Senterre, T; Rigo, J

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition and growth are still a major challenge in neonatal intensive care. Many studies have demonstrated that premature infants frequently develop severe cumulative nutritional deficit during the first weeks of life. This malnutrition is the primary etiology of postnatal growth restriction, which is still universally described in very premature infants. Furthermore, both postnatal nutritional deficit and postnatal growth restriction have been associated with adverse long-term outcome in adulthood. Due to their immaturity, premature infants are frequently not fed by the enteral route. Therefore, parenteral nutrition remains an essential therapy in neonatology. Most recent recommendations suggest starting parenteral nutrition as soon as possible after birth with a minimum of 40 kcal/kg/day with around 2-3g/kg/day of amino acids and 1g/kg/day of lipids. Afterwards, intake should increase rapidly during the first week of life, up to 90-120 kcal/kg/day with around 3.5 g/kg/day amino acids and 3g/kg/day of lipids. There is great heterogeneity in parenteral nutrition practices among neonatal units, with frequent discrepancies. This article discusses the principal theoretical aspects of parenteral nutrition in premature infants, the guidelines, and the opportunity to optimize nutritional support routinely, especially in very premature infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of parenteral lipid emulsions on the metabolomic phenotype in preterm TPN-fed piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lipids in parenteral nutrition provide essential fatty acids and are a major source of energy for hospitalized neonates. Intralipid (IL) is the only approved lipid emulsion in the U.S, but new generation emulsions include Omegaven (OV) and SMOFlipid (SL). There are no studies describing the metaboli...

  12. System for creating on site, remote from a sterile environment, parenteral solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Mike (Inventor); Scharf, Mike (Inventor); Packard, Jeff (Inventor); Kipp, Jim (Inventor); Dudar, Tom (Inventor); Owens, Jim (Inventor); Bindokas, Al (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a system and method for creating on site, remote from a sterile environment, parenteral solutions in large volume parenteral containers for intravenous administration to a patient. In an embodiment, this system comprises an empty large volume container including at least one port for accessing an interior of the container. The port includes a sterilizing filter for sterilizing a fluid fed through the port into the container. A second container is provided including a solute and having means for coupling the second container to the large volume container and thereby providing fluid communication therebetween allowing the solute to be received within the interior of the container. A sterile water source is also provided including means for placing the sterile water source in fluid communication with the port and allowing water to flow from the sterile water source into the interior of the container. This allows the solute, and sterile water that has been fed through the filter, to create a parenteral solution in the large volume parenteral container.

  13. [Clinical trial of Trive 1000 in long-term parenteral nutrition (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Safary, A; Limbosch, J M

    1979-01-01

    The authors report a study of long-term parenteral nutrition with a homogeneous media (produce? Solution?) containing glucido-lipidic calories and essential amino-acids. This solution has the advantage of an easy dosage of the number of calories and of grams of nitrogen to administer; it also decreases the risks of bacterial contamination from "handicraft" mixing and excessive manipulations.

  14. Copper and magnesium deficiencies in patients with short bowel syndrome receiving parenteral nutrition or oral feeding.

    PubMed

    Braga, Camila Bitu Moreno; Ferreira, Iahel Manon de Lima; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Cunha, Selma Freire de Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    Patients with short bowel syndrome have significant fluid and electrolytes loss. Evaluate the mineral and electrolyte status in short bowel syndrome patients receiving intermittent parenteral nutrition or oral feeding. Twenty two adults with short bowel syndrome, of whom 11 were parenteral nutrition dependent (PN group), and the 11 remaining had been weaned off parenteral nutrition for at least 1 year and received all nutrients by oral feeding (OF group). The study also included 14 healthy volunteers paired by age and gender (control group). Food ingestion, anthropometry, serum or plasma levels of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, zinc, iron and copper were evaluated. PN group subjects were evaluated before starting a new parenteral nutrition cycle. The levels of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and zinc were similar between the groups. The magnesium value was lower in the PN group (1.0 ± 0.4 mEq /L) than other groups. Furthermore, this electrolyte was lower in the OF group (1.4 ± 0.3 mEq /L) when compared to the Control group (1.8 ± 0.1 mEq/L). Lower values of copper (69±24 vs 73±26 vs 109±16 µg/dL) were documented, respectively, for the PN and OF groups when compared to the control group. Hypomagnesemia and hypocupremia are electrolyte disturbances commonly observed in short bowel syndrome. Patients with massive intestinal resection require monitoring and supplementation in order to prevent magnesium and copper deficiencies.

  15. Course and outcome of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in neonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (TPN-Chol) leads to significant morbidity and mortality. To assess the safety and effectiveness of potential interventions, it is necessary to evaluate the natural history of TPN-Chol. This retrospective review was undertaken to evaluate the typical course...

  16. Delayed Hemolysis after Parenteral Artesunate Therapy for Severe Malaria in Two Returning Canadian Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Marthe; Patterson, Jeffery M.; Asadi, Leyla; Houston, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Delayed hemolysis after parenteral artesunate has been described in Europe and Asia, but until recently had not been reported in patients receiving the artesunate product used in the United States and Canada. We report two cases of severe delayed hemolysis after the treatment with intravenous artesunate in Canada. PMID:26240154

  17. Continuous parenteral and enteral nutrition induces metabolic dysfunction in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We previously showed that parenteral nutrition (PN) compared with formula feeding results in hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in neonatal pigs. The current aim was to test whether the route of feeding (intravenous [IV] vs enteral) rather than other feeding modalities (diet, pattern) had cont...

  18. New perspective for nutritional support of cancer patients: Enteral/parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Gamze

    2011-07-01

    Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counseling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Nutritional support has been widely advocated as adjunctive therapy for a variety of underlying illnesses, including surgery and medical oncotherapy (radiation or chemotherapy for cancer). Glutamine, n-3 fatty acids and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate gastrointestinal toxicity related to cancer treatments. Enteral and parenteral nutrition may help improve patient survival, functional status and QoL, yet the benefits appear to be primarily limited to patients with good functional status and with gastrointestinal disease affecting nutritional intake. Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increased or maintenance of the nutrient intake in patients for whom normal food intake is inadequate and for whom enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. This article reviews evidence on issues relevant to enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with cancer.

  19. New perspective for nutritional support of cancer patients: Enteral/parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    AKBULUT, GAMZE

    2011-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counseling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Nutritional support has been widely advocated as adjunctive therapy for a variety of underlying illnesses, including surgery and medical oncotherapy (radiation or chemotherapy for cancer). Glutamine, n-3 fatty acids and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate gastrointestinal toxicity related to cancer treatments. Enteral and parenteral nutrition may help improve patient survival, functional status and QoL, yet the benefits appear to be primarily limited to patients with good functional status and with gastrointestinal disease affecting nutritional intake. Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increased or maintenance of the nutrient intake in patients for whom normal food intake is inadequate and for whom enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. This article reviews evidence on issues relevant to enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with cancer. PMID:22977559

  20. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

  1. Systematic review of evidence for the use of intradialytic parenteral nutrition in malnourished hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, Mhairi K; Levin, Adeera; Tejani, Aaron M

    2010-01-01

    Intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) is widely used to treat malnourished hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, the benefits of this treatment are unknown. Moderate protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is thought to affect 15% to 43% of maintenance HD patients, and is independently associated with mortality in this population. This study systematically reviews the current literature, to assess whether IDPN improves survival, quality of life, or nutritional status in those receiving maintenance HD. Two investigators undertook a formal systematic review of the literature, using the following key search words: intradialytic parenteral nutrition or intradialytic total parenteral nutrition plus any combination of renal dialysis or kidney-failure or chronic kidney disease and parenteral nutrition or intravenous nutrition or intravenous feeding. The search identified three suitable randomized, controlled trials, only one of which investigated hard clinical endpoints. There were insufficient data to undertake a meta-analysis. The evidence from clinical studies is insufficient to demonstrate either a net benefit or a net harm associated with the providing IDPN to malnourished HD patients. We recommend that any patient in whom IDPN was deemed necessary be entered into a clinical trial or registry, to record hard clinical outcomes associated with the use of this treatment.

  2. Fish oils in parenteral nutrition: Why could these be important for gastrointestinal oncology?

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2015-01-01

    By the time a gastroenterology patient is moved to parenteral nutrition, he or she is usually in poor health. All parenteral nutrition formulae contain essential nutrients, avoiding components that could cause an adverse reaction. The lipid component is often provided by a soy extract, containing all the fatty acids considered to be essential in the diet. Several trials have considered parenteral nutrition formulas with added fish oils, high in the long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Given the range of biological functions associated with such compounds, especially in reducing inflammatory symptoms, this move would appear rational. However, while data from such trials are often positive, there has been variability among results. Some of this variability could be caused by environmental contaminants in the fish, and/or oxidation of the lipids because of poor storage. The situation is complicated by a recent report that fish oils may counter the effects of platinum chemotherapy. However, this effect associated with a minor component, hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid. It is suggested that pure DHA and EPA would be beneficial additions to parenteral nutrition, reducing the probability of carcinogenesis and enhancing rational disease management. However, the jury is still out on fish oils more generally. PMID:26380055

  3. Chronic parenteral nutrition induces hepatic inflammation, steatosis and insulin resistance in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prematurity and overfeeding in infants are associated with insulin resistance in childhood and may increase the risk of adult disease. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a major source of infant nutrition support and may influence neonatal metabolic function. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that...

  4. Chronic parenteral nutrition reduces lean tissue growth and induces insulin resistance in neonatal piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most very low birthweight infants receive their nutrition parenterally prior to achieving full enteral feedings. Recent studies indicate that infants born less than 32 weeks gestation showed evidence of insulin resistance at 4 to 10 years. However, there is little information regarding the effect of...

  5. Pregnancy and lactation during long-term total parenteral nutrition: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Borbolla Foster, Ailsa; Dixon, Steven; Tyrrell-Price, J; Trinder, Johanna

    2016-12-01

    There is a paucity of clinical data regarding the management of pregnancy and lactation in women requiring long-term total parenteral nutrition with complex nutritional needs. This case report and literature review highlights common challenges in care and presents evidence which can guide the obstetrician's approach to care.

  6. Copper deficiency-related bone marrow changes secondary to long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Oo, Thein Hlaing; Hu, Shimin

    2017-02-01

    Total parenteral nutrition can be complicated by the marrow sea-blue histiocytes as well as copper deficiency-related bone marrow changes. Cytoplasmic vacuoles in the erythroid and myeloid precursors raise the possibility of copper deficiency anemia. If the diagnosis is delayed, the clinical course can be complicated by neurologic deficits.

  7. Total parenteral nutrition induces liver steatosis and apoptosis in neonatal piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) induces a high rate of liver disease in infants, yet the pathogenesis remains elusive. We used neonatal piglets as an animal model to assess early events leading to TPN-mediated liver injury. Newborn piglets (n = 7) were nourished for 7 d on TPN or enteral nutrition ...

  8. Parenteral nutrition as an unexpected and preventable source of mercury exposure in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Jering, Karola; Aschner, Michael; Beller, Amy; Hamm, Ellyn L.; Langdon, Margaret; Maitre, Nathalie L.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal mercury exposure has neurodevelopmental consequences, which may be worse in preterm infants. In our cohort (N=60), maternal and infant prenatal exposures were low, but infant levels increased during hospitalization and correlated only with duration of parenteral nutrition. A non-negligible exposure resulted from the nutrition preparation on equipment shared with adult preparations. PMID:25812777

  9. Bilateral chylothorax after transsternal total thymectomy: resolution with short period of fasting and total parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinsik; Kim, Su Wan; Lee, Seogjae

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral chylothorax after transsternal total thymectomy is very rare, but can be a serious complication. Disruption of minor lymphatic channels in the anterior mediastinum which is remote from thoracic duct is considered to be the cause of chylothorax. We report the case of bilateral chylothorax followed by thymectomy which was treated with pleural drainage, total parenteral nutrition, and fasting without octreotide injection. PMID:27076983

  10. Impact of parenteral lipid emulsions on metabolomic phenotype in preterm TPN-fed piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lipids in parenteral nutrition provide essential fatty acids and are a major source of energy for hospitalized neonates. Intralipid (IL) is the only approved lipid emulsion in the US, but new generation emulsions include Omegaven (OV) and SMOFlipid (SL). There are no studies describing the metabolit...

  11. Enteral obeticholic acid promotes intestinal growth in total parenteral nutrition fed neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intestinal atrophy is an adverse outcome associated with prolonged total parenteral nutrition (PN) partly due to disruption of normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Previously we showed that enteral treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a dual agonist for the nuclear receptor, farne...

  12. Effects of oral and parenteral selenium supplements on residues in meat, milk and eggs.

    PubMed

    Beale, A M; Fasulo, D A; Craigmill, A L

    1990-01-01

    Oral and parenteral preparations of Se are used worldwide to prevent and treat nutritional muscular dystrophy and other Se deficiency syndromes. There are extensive published data on the effects of oral supplementation on Se residues in food animal products. Very little published data exist on the effects of parenteral administration on Se residues, even for cattle and swine in which parenteral preparations are used extensively. The distribution of Se into kidney and liver appears to be equivalent for both forms of supplementation. Elimination of Se in milk is greater after parenteral administration and correlates with high plasma Se levels, however the milk excretion drops quickly and after 4 d returns to control levels (Little et al. 1979). Of particular interest is the finding that up to 18% of Se in an oral diet may be excreted in milk (Maus et al. 1980). Use of Se supplements in poultry results in increased levels of Se in liver, kidney, and eggs. Distribution of Se into liver and kidney is much greater than into breast muscle indicating a greater capacity of these organs to accumulate Se. Excretion of Se into eggs results in Se levels equivalent to those in liver and kidney, indicating that eggs are an important route of Se excretion in laying hens (Ort and Latshaw 1978). When Se supplementation stops, the liver, kidney, and egg white and yolk residues decline quickly to control values within 1-2 wk. Breast muscle Se content changes little during supplementation and after withdrawal of supplementation. Oral and parenteral selenium supplementation in swine result in greater accumulation of Se in liver and kidney than in muscle. Oral selenium supplementation also increases the excretion of Se into milk. This method has been used to prevent Se deficiency disease in piglets (Mahan et al. 1975). Oral supplementation with 0.1 ppm Se, as sodium selenate, did not result in levels of Se in blood, meat, or viscera at slaughter (Jenkins and Winter 1973). Despite the

  13. Endemic goitre and hypothyroidism in an adult female patient dependent on total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pearson, S; Donnellan, C; Turner, L; Noble, E; Seejore, K; Murray, R D

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a thirty-year-old female patient who was referred to the endocrinology team with an enlarging goitre and biochemical hypothyroidism. She had been dependent on total parenteral nutrition for the previous six years as a result of intestinal failure thought to be caused by possible underlying mitochondrial disease. The patient also suffers from a Desmin myopathy, and at present, the exact aetiology behind her intestinal failure is not certain. The goitre was smooth and had been enlarging slowly over the previous few months. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies were found to be within normal range. Further analysis of the case showed that twelve months earlier the patients total parenteral nutrition (TPN) feed had been altered as a result of manganese toxicity. The current feeding regimen did not contain a trace element additive which had previously supplied iodine supplementation. A little detective work established that iodine content to the TPN had been reduced, the trace element additive (Additrace) was recommenced providing 1 µmol of iodine per day, equating to 130 µg of iodine. Following this change, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels returned to normal and the goitre quickly reduced in size. We present a rare case of endemic goitre and hypothyroidism in a patient receiving inadequate iodine supplementation through total parenteral nutrition. Endemic goitre and hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency are rare in the developed world. However, the diagnosis should be considered in the setting of a diffuse goitre and negative thyroid antibodies.Although rare, endemic goitre should be considered in patients who present with hypothyroidism and who are dependent on total parenteral nutrition.Treatment with levothyroxine is not required in endemic goitre as thyroid function tests generally normalise with the addition of iodine to the diet/total parenteral nutrition regimen.Iodine supplementation at a level recommended by the European Society

  14. Comparison of enteral and parenteral methods of urine alkalinization in patients receiving high-dose methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Jamie A; Burton, Bradley; Dabb, Alix; Brown, Vicky; Seung, Amy H; Kinsman, Katharine; Holdhoff, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Hyperhydration and urinary alkalinization is implemented with all high-dose (HD)-methotrexate infusions to promote excretion and prevent precipitation of methotrexate in the renal tubules. Our institution utilized enteral alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate tablets and sodium citrate/citric acid solution) to alkalinize the urine of patients receiving HD-methotrexate during a parenteral sodium bicarbonate and sodium acetate shortage. The purpose of this study is to establish the safety and efficacy of the enteral route for urine alkalinization. Methods A single-center, retrospective, cohort study was conducted comparing cycles of HD-methotrexate using enteral alkalinizing agents to parenteral sodium bicarbonate. The primary objective was to compare the time, in hours, from administration of first inpatient administered dose of alkalinizing agent to time of achieving goal urine pH. Secondary objectives evaluated total dose of sodium bicarbonate required to achieve goal urine pH, time from start of urine alkalinizing agent until time of achieving methotrexate level safe for discharge, and toxicities associated with methotrexate and the alkalinizing agents. Results A total of 118 patients were included in this study, equally divided into two cohorts based on parenteral versus enteral routes of administration. No statistical difference was determined between the two cohorts regarding time to goal urine pH (6.5 h versus 7.9 h, P = 0.051) or regarding time to methotrexate level deemed safe for discharge (63.5 h versus 62.5 h, p = 0.835). There were no significant differences in methotrexate-induced toxicities. Conclusion Our study found enteral routes of urine alkalinization to be a viable alternative to the traditional parenteral sodium bicarbonate, especially during parenteral sodium bicarbonate and acetate shortages.

  15. Behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations in two premature infants after parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, K N; Henkin, R I

    1978-11-01

    Two premature infants were observed to develop behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations following cessation of prolonged parenteral alimentation, while being fed exclusively with human milk. Following treatment with exogenous oral zinc supplementation, prompt relief of symptoms and increases of serum zinc and copper concentrations were observed in both infants. These patients comprise about 5% of our premature infants who are treated with parenteral alimentation for more than two weeks. We recommend that premature infants on prolonged parenteral alimentation should be monitored for changes in serum zinc and copper concentrations and, if a marked fall is observed, supplementation should be considered.

  16. Parenteral treatment of episodic tension-type headache: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Weinman, Danielle; Nicastro, Olivia; Akala, Olabiyi; Friedman, Benjamin W

    2014-02-01

    Tension-type headache is highly prevalent in the general population and is a consistent if not frequent cause of visits to acute care settings. Analgesics such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and salicylates are considered first-line therapy for treatment of tension-type headache. For patients who present to an acute care setting with persistent tension-type headache despite analgesic therapy, it is not clear which parenteral agent should be administered. We performed a systematic review of the medical literature to determine whether parenteral therapies other than salicylates or nonsteroidals are efficacious for acute tension-type headache. We performed a systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google scholar, and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials from inception through August, 2012 using the search terms "tension-type headache" and "parenteral or subcutaneous or intramuscular or intravenous." Our goal was to identify randomized trials in which one parenteral treatment was compared to another active comparator or to placebo for the acute relief of tension-type headache. Parenteral was defined as intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous administration. We only included studies that distinguished tension-type headache from other primary headache disorders, such as migraine. The primary outcome for this review was measures of efficacy one hour after medication administration. Data abstraction was performed by two authors. Disagreements were resolved by a third author. We assessed the internal validity of trials using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Because of the small number of trials identified, and the substantial heterogeneity among study design and medications, we decided that combining data and reporting summary statistics would serve no useful function. The results of individual studies are presented using Number Needed to Treat (NNT) with 95%CI when dichotomous outcomes were available and

  17. [Analysis of questionably allergic factors to parenterally administered shenmai--a nested case control study using hospital information system data].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Xin; Tang, Hao; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Parenterally administered Shenmai, made from constituents of Ginseng Rubra Radix and Ophiopogonis Radix has, confirmed by modem pharmacological studies, the function of increasing cardiac hypoxia tolerance and anti arrhythmic and antibacterial properties. However, parenterally administered Shenmai is also prone to cause allergic reactions, which is clearly a safety issue. NCCSs combine elements from case-control and cohort studies. HIS data provides real world clinical information on the use of parenterally administered Shenmai. To explore suspected allergic factors this article compares specific information of those who showed allergies to those who didnt in the real world clinical application based on HIS data from 20 nationwide hospitals. Data includes age, gender, severity and type of allergic response, dosage, solvents used in the medication's preparation and drugs used in combination with parenterally administered Shenmai. Whilst this methodology is a possible route of exploration, ultimately pharmaceutical experiments and prospective clinical studies are required to identify and confirm factors related to allergic reactions.

  18. Sodium N-(methylsulfonyl)-N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl)sulfamate: a water-soluble nimesulide prodrug for parenteral use.

    PubMed

    Rapposelli, Simona; Digiacomo, Maria; Franchi, Silvia; Moretti, Sara; Pinza, Mario; Sacerdote, Paola; Balsamo, Aldo

    2010-10-04

    Several nimesulide preparations (i.e., tablet form, gels) have been marketed, but no parenteral solution has achieved the market because of their low wettability and unsatisfactory chemical-physical properties required for parenteral use. In this paper we describe the synthesis of the nimesulide prodrug 1 and its anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic properties. Pharmacological studies, carried out to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of compound 1 and nimesulide, showed that sodium sulfamate 1 is an effective nimesulide prodrug that can be administered by parenteral route, undergoing a satisfactory absorption and an extensive transformation into the active nimesulide compound. Moreover, the evaluation of the plasma concentrations of nimesulide after rat treatment with compound 1 showed an increased and dose-dependent release of nimesulide. In contrast, the plasma concentrations of nimesulide, after "native" drug administration, still remain substantially unchanged. These preliminary results prompt further investigations on this prodrug as a possible candidate for parenteral use.

  19. Zinc Deficiency With Dermatitis in a Parenteral Nutrition-Dependent Patient Due to National Shortage of Trace Minerals.

    PubMed

    Sant, Vivek R; Arnell, Tracey D; Seres, David S

    2016-05-01

    The shortages of intravenous drugs remains critical, with sterile injectables accounting for 80% of the approximately 300 shortages. The impact is being felt in patients dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN), and severe deficiencies are becoming more commonplace. We report here a man who developed severe zinc deficiency, manifesting as a painful desquamative rash, due to an inability to obtain multi-trace element additives for his PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  20. Term Neonate With Liver Laceration, Obstructive Uropathy, and Ascites—Secondary to Extravasation of Total Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Adesanya, Olubukunola; Naqvi, Mubariz

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare, but serious, complication of a malpositioned umbilical venous catheter in a term male infant who developed laceration, hematoma, and necrosis of liver, ascites, and left-sided obstructive uropathy secondary to extravasation of total parenteral nutrition. Abdominal paracentesis confirmed the presence of parenteral nutrition in the peritoneal cavity. Although, the umbilical venous catheterization is a common intravenous access used in neonatal intensive care units, judicious continued monitoring of its use should be practiced to avoid serious complications. PMID:27766283

  1. The Parenteral Vitamin C Improves Sepsis and Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome via Preventing Cellular Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yan-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Cellular immunosuppression appears to be involved in sepsis and sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Recent evidence showed that parenteral vitamin C (Vit C) had the ability to attenuate sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS. Herein, we investigated the impact of parenteral Vit C on cellular immunosuppression and the therapeutic value in sepsis. Using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), sepsis was induced in WT and Gulo−/− mice followed with 200 mg/Kg parenteral Vit C administration. The immunologic functions of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4+CD25− T cells, as well as the organ functions, were determined. Administration of parenteral Vit C per se markedly improved the outcome of sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS of WT and Gulo−/− mice. The negative immunoregulation of Tregs was inhibited, mainly including inhibiting the expression of forkhead helix transcription factor- (Foxp-) 3, cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen- (CTLA-) 4, membrane associated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-βm+), and the secretion of inhibitory cytokines [including TGF-β and interleukin- (IL-) 10], as well as CD4+ T cells-mediated cellular immunosuppression which was improved by parenteral Vit C in WT and Gulo−/− septic mice. These results suggested that parenteral Vit C has the ability to improve the outcome of sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS and is associated with improvement in cellular immunosuppression. PMID:28210072

  2. The Parenteral Vitamin C Improves Sepsis and Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome via Preventing Cellular Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Lei; Lu, Bin; Zhai, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yan-Cun; Qi, Hai-Xia; Yao, Ying; Chai, Yan-Fen; Shou, Song-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Cellular immunosuppression appears to be involved in sepsis and sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Recent evidence showed that parenteral vitamin C (Vit C) had the ability to attenuate sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS. Herein, we investigated the impact of parenteral Vit C on cellular immunosuppression and the therapeutic value in sepsis. Using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), sepsis was induced in WT and Gulo(-/-) mice followed with 200 mg/Kg parenteral Vit C administration. The immunologic functions of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, as well as the organ functions, were determined. Administration of parenteral Vit C per se markedly improved the outcome of sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS of WT and Gulo(-/-) mice. The negative immunoregulation of Tregs was inhibited, mainly including inhibiting the expression of forkhead helix transcription factor- (Foxp-) 3, cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen- (CTLA-) 4, membrane associated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β(m+)), and the secretion of inhibitory cytokines [including TGF-β and interleukin- (IL-) 10], as well as CD4(+) T cells-mediated cellular immunosuppression which was improved by parenteral Vit C in WT and Gulo(-/-) septic mice. These results suggested that parenteral Vit C has the ability to improve the outcome of sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS and is associated with improvement in cellular immunosuppression.

  3. System for creating at a site, remote from a sterile environment, a parenteral solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Mike (Inventor); Finley, Mike (Inventor); Veillon, Joe (Inventor); Kipp, Jim (Inventor); Dudar, Tom (Inventor); Owens, Jim (Inventor); Ogle, Jim (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a container, system, and method for creating parenteral solutions at a site, remote from sterile environments. The system includes a flexible container that is empty except for a prepackaged amount of a solute that is housed in the interior of the container. The container includes at least one port and a sterilizing filter in communication with an interior of the port. The container is so constructed and arranged that a fluid flow path is created from the port through the filter and into the interior of the container. A sterile water source including means for establishing fluid flow from the sterile water source into the port is provided. Accordingly, sterile water can flow from the sterile water source through the filter into the container where it is mixed with the solute to create a parenteral solution that can then be infused into a patient. A method and container are also provided.

  4. Case report of acute thiamine deficiency occurring as a complication of vitamin-free parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Suzie

    2012-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a relatively recent life-saving development in medicine but brings with it a range of new potential complications. Much of our knowledge about the signs and symptoms of individual micronutrient deficiencies comes from observations of patients receiving PN, and an example of this is the pivotal paper by Velez and colleagues published in Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in 1985. This case report was the first published study to identify acute thiamine deficiency with cardiopathy and metabolic acidosis occurring in adult patients receiving vitamin-free PN. Although the importance of thiamine has been recognized since the late 19th century, it is still unclear exactly what dose is required for full repletion of a deficient patient, and further research would be useful to elucidate this question.

  5. Parenteral nutrition training for the pharmacy team: focus on pharmacy technicians.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Angela Turner

    2012-03-01

    Pharmacy technicians are integral to the success of parenteral compounding programs in pharmacies around the country. Their positions may vary depending on practice site, but technicians are critical to the pharmacy team, and it is imperative that they be appropriately trained to take on their roles and responsibilities. Numerous national pharmacy organizations support the need for a national standard for pharmacy technician training, education, certification, and regulatory oversight in all practice settings. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a highly specialized compounded product with potential for errors in ordering, transcribing, preparation, labeling, and administration. All compounding personnel involved in the process of delivering PN, including technicians, must be trained on the proper techniques, applicable technology, and risk of errors. This article outlines the landscape of training as it specifically pertains to pharmacy technicians and shares proceedings from key pharmacy meetings in the past 5 years that advocate for national standards.

  6. [Home parenteral nutrition. A six-year combined program (adult and pediatric patients)].

    PubMed

    Moreno, J M; Gomis, P; Valero, M A; León-Sanz, M

    2000-04-29

    To describe the outcomes of an adult-pediatric home parenteral nutrition (HPN) program. Retrospective protocol between 1993 and 1999. Sixteen adults (average 45.7 years) and eight children (3.1 years) were included in the program. Mean length of parenteral nutrition was 507 (SD: 624) and 155 (SD: 129) days respectively. Total follow-up time was 8,119 days for adults and 1,242 for children. Cancer was the main diagnosis in adults and intractable diarrhea in children. Central venous catheter related infections were the most usual complication (0.63 and 1.2 episodes/patient/year). There were no deceases due to the HPN in the period of study. HPN is an effective and safe technique, although prevalence and incidence in Spain are low.

  7. Guidelines for parenteral and enteral nutrition support in geriatric patients in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Junmin; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Mingwei; Cao, Weixin; Wang, Xinying; Shi, Hanping; Dong, Birong; Sun, Jianqin; Chen, Huaihong; Zhou, Yeping; Zhou, Suming; Xu, Jingyong

    2015-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity of geriatric patients is much higher than for younger patients, especially when critically ill. This may be attributed to a lower reserve capacity in most organs and systems, reduced ability to deal with physical stress and the presence of acute or chronic co-mobidities. Parenteral and enteral nutrition support can improve the clinical condition of the elderly patient and result in better outcomes, such as lower mortality, reduced hospital stay and reduced medical costs. There is a need to standardize nutrition screening and assessment, and the implementation of appropriate evidence based nutritional support of geriatric patients in China. The Chinese Medical Association's Group of Geriatric Nutrition Support has developed guidelines by researching the present situation in Chinese hospitals and by referring to the guidelines from both American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN).

  8. Trace elements in parenteral nutrition: a practical guide for dosage and monitoring for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Theresa A

    2013-12-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a life-sustaining therapy for hundreds of thousands of people who have severe impairment of gastrointestinal function. Trace elements are a small but very important part of PN that can be overlooked during busy practice. Serious complications can result from trace element deficiencies and toxicities, and this is especially problematic during times of product shortages. Practical information on parenteral trace element use can be gleaned from case reports, some retrospective studies, and very few randomized controlled trials. A general knowledge of trace element metabolism and excretion, deficiency and toxicity symptoms, products, optimal dosages, and strategies for supplementation, restriction, and monitoring will equip practitioners to provide optimal care for their patients who depend on PN.

  9. [Intra-dialysis parenteral nutrition in chronic renal patients: consensus SEN-SENPE].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo, A; Arrieta, J; Ayúcar, A; Barril, G; Huarte, E

    2010-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of the hyponutrition state among haemodialysis patients and knowing that this implies an increase in the rates of infection, hospitalisation and hospital stay, which translates into an increase in global morbid-mortality, the Spanish Society of Nephrology (SEN) and the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) have reached a consensus on the indications, contraindications, and limitations of Intra-Dialysis Parenteral Nutrition (IDPN.) This consensus considers IDPN as a valid alternative to other types of nutritional support when these show their lack of efficacy. The bases are set regarding the timing of nutritional intervention with IDPN, its ideal composition, the time of administration, its controls, follow-up schedules, and the time at which the nutritional support has to be discontinued.

  10. Coverage of pilot parenteral vaccination campaign against canine rabies in N'Djaména, Chad.

    PubMed Central

    Kayali, U.; Mindekem, R.; Yémadji, N.; Vounatsou, P.; Kaninga, Y.; Ndoutamia, A. G.; Zinsstag, J.

    2003-01-01

    Canine rabies, and thus human exposure to rabies, can be controlled through mass vaccination of the animal reservoir if dog owners are willing to cooperate. Inaccessible, ownerless dogs, however, reduce the vaccination coverage achieved in parenteral campaigns. This study aimed to estimate the vaccination coverage in dogs in three study zones of N'Djaména, Chad, after a pilot free parenteral mass vaccination campaign against rabies. We used a capture-mark-recapture approach for population estimates, with a Bayesian, Markov chain, Monte Carlo method to estimate the total number of owned dogs, and the ratio of ownerless to owned dogs to calculate vaccination coverage. When we took into account ownerless dogs, the vaccination coverage in the dog populations was 87% (95% confidence interval (CI), 84-89%) in study zone I, 71% (95% CI, 64-76%) in zone II, and 64% (95% CI, 58-71%) in zone III. The proportions of ownerless dogs to owned dogs were 1.1% (95% CI, 0-3.1%), 7.6% (95% CI, 0.7-16.5%), and 10.6% (95% CI, 1.6-19.1%) in the three study zones, respectively. Vaccination coverage in the three populations of owned dogs was 88% (95% CI, 84-92%) in zone I, 76% (95% CI, 71-81%) in zone II, and 70% (95% CI, 66-76%) in zone III. Participation of dog owners in the free campaign was high, and the number of inaccessible ownerless dogs was low. High levels of vaccination coverage could be achieved with parenteral mass vaccination. Regular parenteral vaccination campaigns to cover all of N'Djaména should be considered as an ethical way of preventing human rabies when post-exposure treatment is of limited availability and high in cost. PMID:14758434

  11. Parenterals Laboratory Course to Reduce Microbial Contamination Rates in Media Fill Tests Performed by Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Isanhart, Christine M.; Kretschmer, Diane; Grimes, Barbie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate microbial contamination rates of low- and medium-risk level media fill tests performed by pharmacy students near the beginning and end of a parenterals laboratory course in the second- professional year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Methods Students enrolled in a required parenterals laboratory class (N = 84) participated in this study. The aseptic technique procedures performed at the beginning of the course were identical to the procedures performed at the end of the course and included 3 low-risk level media-fill tests and a medium-risk level media-fill test. Single-strength trypticase-soy broth (TSB) was substituted for the drug and was used to detect microbial contamination for all manipulations. Results The baseline and end-of-course contamination rate was 21 of 504 syringes and 0 of 498 syringes, respectively (p < 0.001). Eighteen of 84 students at baseline and 0 of 83 students near the end of the course produced one or more contaminated syringes (p < 0.001). Of the 21 contaminated syringes at baseline, low-risk manipulations accounted for 14 and medium-risk manipulations accounted for 7. Of the low-risk procedures, the ampule produced the highest contamination rate (11 syringes), followed by the vial (2 syringes) and the reconstitution (1 syringe). Conclusions This study demonstrated a decreased rate of microbial contamination during the manipulation of parenteral products and a corresponding improvement in aseptic technique skills among pharmacy students enrolled in a parenterals laboratory course. The most sensitive tests for poor aseptic technique and bacterial contamination were medium-risk manipulations and low-risk manipulations involving an ampule. PMID:18483595

  12. Parenteral midazolam is superior to diazepam for treatment of prehospital seizures.

    PubMed

    Clemency, Brian M; Ott, Jamie A; Tanski, Christopher T; Bart, Joseph A; Lindstrom, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Diazepam and midazolam are commonly used by paramedics to treat seizures. A period of drug scarcity was used as an opportunity to compare their effectiveness in treating prehospital seizures. A retrospective chart review of a single, large, commercial agency during a 29-month period was performed. The period included alternating shortages of both medications. Ambulances were stocked with either diazepam or midazolam based on availability of the drugs. Adult patients who received at least 1 parenteral dose of diazepam or midazolam for treatment of seizures were included. The regional prehospital protocol recommended 5 mg intravenous (IV) diazepam, 5 mg intramuscular (IM) diazepam, 5 mg IM midazolam, or 2.5 mg IV midazolam. Medication effectiveness was compared with respect to the primary end point: cessation of seizure without repeat seizure during the prehospital encounter. A total of 440 study subjects received 577 administrations of diazepam or midazolam and met the study criteria. The subjects were 52% male, with a mean age of 48 (range 18-94) years. A total of 237 subjects received 329 doses of diazepam, 64 (27%) were treated with first-dose IM. A total of 203 subjects received 248 doses of midazolam; 71 (35%) were treated with first-dose IM. Seizure stopped and did not recur in 49% of subjects after parenteral diazepam and 65% of subjects after parenteral midazolam (p = 0.002). Diazepam and midazolam exhibited similar first dose success for IV administration (58 vs. 62%; p = 0.294). Age, gender, seizure history, hypoglycemia, the presence of trauma, time to first administration, prehospital contact time, and frequency of IM administration were similar between groups. For parenteral administration, midazolam demonstrated superior first-dose seizure suppression. This study demonstrates how periods of drug scarcity can be utilized to study prehospital medication effectiveness.

  13. Nanocrystals for the parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Yeo, Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystals have drawn increasing interest in pharmaceutical industry because of the ability to improve dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs. Nanocrystals can be produced by top-down and bottom-up technologies and have been explored for a variety of therapeutic applications. Here we review the methods of nanocrystal production and parenteral applications of nanocrystals. We also discuss remaining challenges in the development of nanocrystal products. PMID:23645994

  14. Timing of (supplemental) parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bost, Rianne Bc; Tjan, Dave Ht; van Zanten, Arthur Rh

    2014-01-01

    Supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) is used in a step-up approach when full enteral support is contraindicated or fails to reach caloric targets. Recent nutrition guidelines present divergent advices regarding timing of SPN in critically ill patients ranging from early SPN (<48 h after admission; EPN) to postponing initiation of SPN until day 8 after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (LPN). This systematic review summarizes results of prospective studies among adult ICU patients addressing the best timing of (supplemental) parenteral nutrition (S)PN. A structured PubMed search was conducted to identify eligible articles. Articles were screened and selected using predetermined criteria and appraised for relevance and validity. After critical appraisal, four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two prospective observational studies remained. One RCT found a higher percentage of alive discharge from the ICU at day 8 in the LPN group compared to EPN group (p = 0.007) but no differences in ICU and in-hospital mortality. None of the other RCTs found differences in ICU or in-hospital mortality rates. Contradicting or divergent results on other secondary outcomes were found for ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, infection rates, nutrition targets, duration of mechanical ventilation, glucose control, duration of renal replacement therapy, muscle wasting and fat loss. Although the heterogeneity in quality and design of relevant studies precludes firm conclusions, it is reasonable to assume that in adult critically ill patients, there are no clinically relevant benefits of EPN compared with LPN with respect to morbidity or mortality end points, when full enteral support is contraindicated or fails to reach caloric targets. However, considering that infectious morbidity and resolution of organ failure may be negatively affected through mechanisms not yet clearly understood and acquisition costs of parenteral nutrition are higher, the early

  15. [Severe hypophosphataemia after starting parenteral nutrition in a patient with an intestinal fistula].

    PubMed

    Temprano, J L; Bretón, I; Zugasti, A; Cuerda, C; Camblor, M; Pérez-Díaz, M D; García, P

    2004-01-01

    Hypophosphataemia is a complication that may appear in undernourished patients who are given nutrition by either enteral or parenteral means. It is associated with several clinical manifestations, including cardiological, neurological and haematological conditions of note, and may potentially be even life-threatening. It is therefore mandatory to ensure prevention and follow-up in those patients at risk of suffering this condition, taking into account the considerable morbidity and mortality associated with it.

  16. Toxicity potential of compounds found in parenteral solutions with rubber stoppers

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, J.W. )

    1992-03-01

    Leached stopper components found in parenteral solutions produced by several manufacturers were identified and quantitated. Their toxicity potential was determined by comparing the types and quantities of the leached components with known toxicity levels and/or harmful effects. Toxicity potentials for benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, cyclohexanone, ethylbenzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene are listed. Breakdown products of dextrose (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), which may also have harmful effects, were quantitated.

  17. Impact of Computerized Provider Order Entry on Total Parenteral Nutrition in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    O'Mara, Keliana

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine if computerized provider order entry (CPOE) implementation impacts the time it takes for preterm neonates to reach their parenteral macronutrient goals. METHODS: Retrospective review of neonates <1750 g receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) before and after the implementation of CPOE. Primary outcome was the attainment of parenteral macronutrient goals. Secondary outcomes included time to attainment, the frequency of electrolyte abnormalities, and the incidence of required adjustments made to PN orders by verification pharmacists. RESULTS: Goal PN was achieved by 12/47 (25.5%) intervention vs. 2/44 (4.5%) control group infants (p < 0.05). This goal was attained in 10.8 ± 7.5 days in the intervention group and 10 ± 4.2 days in the control group (p = 0.90). Goal protein was reached by 74.5% of CPOE patients vs. 36.4% of controls, p < 0.05. Lipid goals were achieved by 98% vs. 100% (p = 0.33) of patients and were attained at an average of 1.5 ± 0.8 days vs. 2.0 ± 1.1 days (p < 0.05). Abnormal serum electrolyte values occurred more frequently in the control group (0.79 vs. 1.12/day PN). Adjustments by a verification pharmacist were required in 5.6% of CPOE compared with 30.4% of control group orders (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CPOE parenteral nutrition increased the proportion of preterm neonates attaining overall macronutrient goals. With CPOE, protein goals were reached by more patients and goal lipids were achieved faster. This system also decreased the number of pharmacist interventions during verification of PN orders and appeared to positively impact the incidence of serum electrolyte disturbances. PMID:27713674

  18. Alterations in pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in response to parenteral and enteral alimentation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Knodell, R G; Spector, M H; Brooks, D A; Keller, F X; Kyner, W T

    1980-12-01

    Recent in vitro observations suggest that the intestine, in addition to the liver, may be an important organ of first-pass drug metabolism. While a variety of changes in intestinal morphology and function in response to continuous parenteral and enteral nutrition have been documented, the effect of different routes of alimentation on intestinal drug metabolism has not been previously investigated. Objectives of this study were to assess the contribution of intestinal pentobarbital metabolism to overall in vivo pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in the rat and to determine if differences in pentobarbital pharmacokinetics were seen between parenterally and enterally nourished animals. After 7 days of continuous infusion of amino acid-glucose mixture via a gastric or jugular vein catheter, pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after 40 mg/kg of pentobarbital was given orally or into the portal or femoral vein. Reduced systemic availability of pentobarbital after oral administration as compared to portal vein injection was seen in both alimentation groups indicating that significant intestinal metabolism of pentobarbital occurred in vivo. Total area under the pentobarbital plasma concentration-time curve was significantly greater in parenterally nourished animals as compared with enterally alimented animals after oral, portal vein and systemic vein drug administration. Differences in pentobarbital, pharmacokinetics between the two alimentation groups appeared to be primarly due to effects on hepatic pentobarbital metabolism. While the mechanism producing these changes has not been defined, differences in gut hormones release and/or pancreatic secretion in response to the two routes of alimentation may be contributory. The widespread use of enteral and parenteral alimentation in clinical medicine suggests that studies to determine if nutrition route of administration similarly influences drug metabolism in humans may be indicated.

  19. Comparison between Total Parenteral Nutrition Vs. Partial Parenteral Nutrition on Serum Lipids Among Chronic Ventilator Dependent Patients; A Multi Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Radpay, Rojan; Radpay, Badiozaman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is very common among chronically hospitalized patients, especially those in the intensive care unit (ICU). Identifying the patients at risk and providing suitable nutritional support can prevent and/or overcome malnutrition in them. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and partial parenteral nutrition (PPN) are two common routes to deliver nutrition to hospitalized patients. We conducted a multicenter, prospective double blind randomized controlled trial to evaluate the benefits and compare their adverse effects of each method. Materials and Methods: 97 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the inclusion criteria. Serum protein, serum albumin, serum transferrin, and total lymphocyte count were measured on days 7 and 14. Results: We did not find any statistically significant differences in clinical status or laboratory values between the two groups but there were significant improvements in measured lab values between days 7 and 14 (p<0.005) indicating improved nutritional status in each groups. Conclusion: This study shows that both TPN and PPN can be used safely in chronic ICU patients to provide nutritional support and prevent catabolic state among chronic critically ill patients. We need to develop precise selection criteria in order to choose the patients who would benefit the most from TPN and PPN. In addition, appropriate laboratory markers are needed to monitor the metabolic requirements of the patients and assess their progress. PMID:27403176

  20. Oral and parenteral therapy with saperconazole (R 66905) of invasive aspergillosis in normal and immunocompromised animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Cutsem, J; Van Gerven, F; Janssen, P A

    1989-01-01

    Saperconazole (R 66905) is a broad-spectrum antifungal triazole with potent in vitro activity against Aspergillus spp. A total of 279 strains were tested in brain heart infusion broth. Development of the Aspergillus spp. was completely inhibited at 0.1 and 1 microgram of saperconazole per ml for 80.3 and 99.6% of the strains, respectively. Normal and immunocompromised guinea pigs were infected intravenously with Aspergillus fumigatus and treated orally, intravenously, or intraperitoneally with saperconazole or intraperitoneally with amphotericin B. Leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis were obtained with mechlorethamine hydrochloride; leukopenia, neutrophilia, and lymphopenia were obtained with cyclophosphamide. Saperconazole was dissolved for oral treatment in polyethylene glycol and for parenteral treatment in cyclodextrins. Amphotericin B was given parenterally as Fungizone (E.R. Squibb & Sons). Treatment was given once daily for 14 days. An early starting treatment was efficacious, but the activity of saperconazole was maintained even when the onset of the treatment was delayed to the moribund state. The activity of saperconazole was not altered in immunocompromised animals. Saperconazole was clearly superior to amphotericin B and free of side effects. The oral and parenteral formulations of saperconazole were equipotent. The systemic activity of saperconazole in guinea pigs was confirmed in invasive aspergillosis in pigeons. PMID:2619273

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Klek, Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition. PMID:26959070

  2. Study of teduglutide effectiveness in parenteral nutrition-dependent short-bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Vipperla, Kishore; O'Keefe, Stephen J

    2013-11-01

    Loss of intestinal absorptive capacity from congenital defect, surgical resection or mucosal disease results in short bowel syndrome (SBS)-associated intestinal failure. In the past, few medical management options were available besides dietary modification, controlling diarrhea or high stomal output, and providing parenteral fluid, electrolyte and nutrient support (parenteral support). Recent research on strategies to enhance the intestinal absorptive capacity focused on glucagon-like peptide-2, an intestinotrophic hormone that has been shown to increase the villus height and crypt depth, and decrease gastric motility and intestinal secretory losses. STEPS is a Phase III randomized double-blinded controlled trial in which teduglutide, a recombinant analog of glucagon-like peptide-2, or placebo was given subcutaneously to SBS patients for 24 weeks. A clinically meaningful response, defined as a 20-100% reduction in parenteral support volume, was achieved in 63% of the treatment group compared with 30% in the placebo group (p = 0.002) without an increase in serious side effects. Teduglutide offers a new targeted approach to SBS-associated intestinal failure management. Its specific role in clinical practice remains to be evaluated.

  3. Effects of different parenteral nutrition infusions in a patient with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chia-Chee; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, we demonstrate the effects of different lipid emulsions on liver function in a 52-year-old woman with short bowel syndrome who was totally dependent on parenteral nutrition. Over a 13-month period after small bowel resection and jejunostomy, we followed the patient's plasma triglycerides and liver enzyme levels as well as body weight and discomfort levels. During the first 3 months when parenteral nutrition including a lipid emulsion containing 50% soybean oil/50% medium-chain triglyerides was administered daily, the patient reported feeling unwell (experiencing dizziness and palpitations) and her triglycerides and liver enzyme levels rose to 366 mg/dL and 145 U/L (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), respectively; these levels recovered when this emulsion was discontinued. For the following 9 months, an emulsion containing 80% olive oil and 20% soybean oil was administered, and the patient's triglycerides (182 mg/dL) did not increase to abnormal levels and liver enzyme levels were only mildly elevated (109 U/L). The patient felt well and her body weight increased from 51 kg to 55 kg during this period. These results suggest that parenteral nutrition with a reduced soybean oil content may better preserve liver function in patients with short bowel syndrome.

  4. Therapeutic Interchange of Parenteral Anticoagulants: Challenges for Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alpesh

    2011-11-07

    This is a review of key factors for pharmacy and therapeutics committees to consider when developing a therapeutic interchange (TI) program for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. Recent patient safety initiatives aimed at reducing the incidence of hospital-acquired VTE may increase the prescribing of thromboprophylactic agents recommended in VTE management guidelines. As a result, more pharmacy and therapeutics committees may consider TI programs for parenteral anticoagulants. However, the TI of anticoagulants appears challenging at this time. Firstly, the therapeutic equivalence of the commonly prescribed parenteral anticoagulants, enoxaparin, dalteparin and fondaparinux, has not been established. Secondly, because of the wide range of clinical indications for these anticoagulants, a blanket agent-specific TI program could lead to off-label use. Use of an indication-specific TI program could be difficult to manage administratively, and may cause prescribing confusion and errors. Thirdly, careful dosing and contraindications of certain parenteral anticoagulants in special patient populations, such as those with renal impairment, further impact the suitability of these agents for inclusion in TI programs. Finally, although TI may appear to offer lower drug-acquisition costs, it is important to determine its effect on all cost parameters and ultimately ensure that the care of patients requiring VTE prophylaxis is not compromised.

  5. Parenteral penicillin for children with meningococcal disease before hospital admission: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Harnden, Anthony; Ninis, Nelly; Thompson, Matthew; Perera, Rafael; Levin, Michael; Mant, David; Mayon-White, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact on mortality and morbidity of parenteral penicillin given to children before admission to hospital with suspected meningococcal disease. Design Retrospective comparison of fatal and non-fatal cases. Setting England, Wales, and Northern Ireland; December 1997 to February 1999. Participants 158 children aged 0-16 years (26 died, 132 survived) in whom a general practitioner had made the diagnosis of meningococcal disease before hospital admission. Results Administration of parenteral penicillin by general practitioners was associated with increased odds ratios for death (7.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 37.7) and complications in survivors (5.0, 1.7 to 15.0). Children who received penicillin had more severe disease on admission (median Glasgow meningococcal septicaemia prognostic score (GMSPS) 6.5 v 4.0, P = 0.002). Severity on admission did not differ significantly with time taken to reach hospital. Conclusions Children who were given parenteral penicillin by a general practitioner had more severe disease on reaching hospital than those who were not given penicillin before admission. The association with poor outcome may be because children who are more severely ill are being given penicillin before admission. PMID:16554335

  6. [Domiciliary parenteral antibiotic therapy: a prospective analysis of the last 12 years].

    PubMed

    Peláez Cantero, M J; Madrid Rodríguez, A; Urda Cardona, A L; Jurado Ortiz, A

    2014-08-01

    Parenteral antibiotic treatment has been classically developed in hospitals and is considered as a hospital procedure. The development of Hospital at Home Units (HHU) has led to an increase in outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) in paediatrics patients. The objective of this study is to describe our experience, as an HHU integrated within a Paediatric Department, in home antimicrobial therapy over a period of 12 years. This prospective and descriptive study included every patient with a disease requiring parenteral antimicrobial therapy who was admitted to our HHU from January 2000 to December 2012. During the study there were 163 cases on OPAT. The mean age of the patients was 11.1 years, and the sample group was comprised of 33 males and 22 feamales. The main sources of the treated infections were respiratory tract (76%), catheter-related bloodstream (9.2%), and urinary tract infections (5.5%). Amikacin was the most widely used antibiotic. Almost all treatments (96.6%) were via an intravenous route. Catheter-associated complications were more common than drug-associated complications. Successful at-home treatment was observed in 90.2% of cases. OPAT is a good and safe alternative in many paediatric diseases. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of Possible Maillard Reaction Between Acyclovir and Dextrose upon Dilution Prior to Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Siahi Shadbad, Mohammad Reza; Ghaderi, Faranak; Hatami, Leila; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz

    2016-12-01

    In this study the stability of parenteral acyclovir (ACV) when diluted in dextrose (DEX) as large volume intravenous fluid preparation (LVIF) was evaluated and the possible Maillard reaction adducts were monitored in the recommended infusion time. Different physicochemical methods were used to evaluate the Maillard reaction of dextrose with ACV to track the reaction in real infusion condition. Other large volume intravenous fluids were checked regarding the diluted drug stability profile. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass data proved the reaction of glucose with dextrose. A Maillard-specific high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to track the reaction in real infusion condition in vitro. The nucleophilic reaction occurred in diluted parenteral preparations of acyclovir in 5% dextrose solutions. The best diluent solution was also selected as sodium chloride and introduced based on drug stability and also its adsorption onto different infusion sets (PVC or non PVC) to provide an acceptable administration protocol in clinical practices. Although, the Maillard reaction was proved and successfully tracked in diluted solutions, and the level of drug loss when diluted in dextrose was reported to be between 0.27 up to 1.03% of the initial content. There was no drug adsorption to common infusion sets. The best diluent for parenteral acyclovir is sodium chloride large volume intravenous fluid.

  8. Drug delivery and drug targeting with parenteral lipid nanoemulsions - A review.

    PubMed

    Hörmann, Karl; Zimmer, Andreas

    2016-02-10

    Lipid nanosized emulsions or nanoemulsions (NE) are oil in water dispersions with an oil droplet size of about 200nm. This size of oil droplets dispersed in a continuous water phase is a prerequisite for the parenteral, namely intravenous administration. Many parenteral nutrition and drug emulsions on the market confirm the safe use of NE over years. Parenteral emulsions loaded with APIs (active pharmaceutical ingredients) are considered as drug delivery systems (DDS). DDS focuses on the regulation of the in vivo dynamics, such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and extended bioavailability, thereby improving the effectiveness and the safety of the drugs. Using an emulsion as a DDS, or through the use of surface diversification of the dispersed oil droplets of emulsions, a targeted increase of the API concentration in some parts of the human body can be achieved. This review focuses on NE similar to the marketed once with no or only low amount of additional surfactants beside the emulsifier from a manufacturing point of view (technique, used raw materials).

  9. Growth and hepatic composition in the guinea pig after long-term parenteral hyperalimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.J.H.; Redmond, D.; Baggs, R.B.; Schecter, A.; Gasiewicz, T.A.

    1986-08-01

    This study examined the feasibility of maintaining male Hartley guinea pigs on long-term hyperalimentation. Data from animals fed ad libitum, but infused with 0.9% saline, indicated that there was minimal effect from catheter implantation, sepsis, or the infusion of large volumes of fluid. This group compared with animals fed and watered ad libitum demonstrated a nearly identical growth rate serum chemistry, tissue weights, and hepatic composition and morphology. Animals infused with a total parenteral diet demonstrated growth rates of 4.06 +/- 1.46 g/day for up to 25 days. Loss of infused animals was due in varying degrees to sepsis, mechanical failure, improper placement of the cannula, loss of patency, and death from unknown causes. Morphological analysis of animals fed by total parenteral nutrition revealed an altered distribution and increased size of lipid droplets in hepatic parenchymal and Kupffer cells and glycogen accumulation by the parenchymal cells. Decreased hepatic content of total protein and lipid, as well as cytochrome P450, was also observed. Similarly, serum values of triglyceride were decreased in animals fed by the total parenteral diet. This study indicated that the guinea pig fed by hyperalimentation may be a useful animal model for a number of clinical and basic research applications.

  10. [Blood-stream catheter related infection in inpatient children receiving parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Vaquero Sosa, E; Izquierdo García, E; Arrizabalaga Asenjo, M; Gómez Peñalba, C; Moreno Villares, J M

    2011-01-01

    Blood-stream catheter related infection is the most severe complication in patients carrying a central venous catheter. Parenteral nutrition (PN) use seems to be a risk factor for developing a catheter-related infection (CRI). In order to know the incidence of CRI in children to further implement policies to reduce nosocomial infection, we review all charts of children (1 month to 17 years) who received parenteral nutrition while in hospital. All episodes of fever + positive blood culture were recorded. Infection rate was defined as number of episodes/1000 Parenteral nutrition days. 48 positive blood cultures was obtained from 120 patients. Infection rate was 37.8/1000 days. Incidence was significantly higher in infants and toddlers (52% vs 29.8%, p = 0.016). Most frequent organisms were coagulase negative Staph. (56.8%), Gram negative bacilli (20.8%), Staph aureus (12.5%) and fungus (12.5%). No difference in incidence were found according to the underlying disease or the length of PN use. Infection rate in our PN inpatient patients was significantly higher. PN may represent a risk factor for developing a CRI. Specific measurements and policies need to be implemented to overcome present situation.

  11. Serum albumin as indicator of clinical evolution in patients on parenteral nutrition. Multivariate study.

    PubMed

    Llop, J M; Muñoz, C; Badía, M B; Virgili, N; Tubau, M; Ramón, J M; Pita, A; Jódar, J R

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study is to establish whether serum albumin concentration at the beginning of parenteral nutrition is related to morbidity and mortality. In this cohort study spanning four years, a number of patients were classified into twelve groups, depending on their clinical status at the beginning of parenteral nutrition. Their serum albumin concentration and other clinical parameters were then measured and twelve multiple logistic regression models were thus generated in order to model the relationship between initial albumin concentration and risk of morbidity/mortality. 1953 (84%) of the 2321 patients studied were hypoalbuminemic. In six models, this condition was associated with a significant increase in the risk of nosocomial infection. However, no model could be associated to significant risk of renal failure, and only patients with previous hepatopathy were at risk for hepatic failure. In seven models, there was a significant increase in mortality. Serum albumin concentration at the beginning of parenteral nutrition is related to mortality and morbidity associated with nosocomial infection in some groups of the study. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  12. [Multicenter study on the prevalence of hyperglycemia among hospitalized patients with parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Martí-Bonmatí, E; Ortega-García, M P; Cervera-Casino, P; Lacasa, C; Llop, J L; Villalobos, J L; de la Morena, L

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional national multicentric study was to determine the prevalence of hyperglycemia in patients with parenteral nutrition and to assess other clinical factors associated with this complication. All Spanish hospital pharmacy services were invited to participate in the study. Twenty eight (28) pharmacy services agreed to participate. The study included 442 patients. The prevalence of hyperglycemia (plasma levels > 200 mg/dL) was 26.7%. Eighty four point two per cent of the patients received less than 3.5 mg/kg/minute of glucose, this infusion rate being considered as the safe threshold. In most patients, follow-up of glycemia was based on capillary blood determination with reactive strips and in 27.6% of the cases in which insulin was prescribed, it was added to the parenteral nutrition bag, in full or in part. No significant correlations were found between glycemia and the clinical factors studied (disorders, fever, medication), except for insulin. This national multicentric study of the prevalence of hyperglycemia among patients with parenteral nutrition, leaded by hospital pharmacists, was a joint effort aimed to better understand this metabolic complication. Findings are consistent with those reported by other authors and have allowed us to describe the current situation.

  13. Cost Analysis of Premixed Multichamber Bags Versus Compounded Parenteral Nutrition: Breakeven Point

    PubMed Central

    Bozat, Erkut

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Industrially premixed multichamber bags or hospital-manufactured compounded products can be used for parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of these 2 approaches. Materials and Methods: Costs of compounded parenteral nutrition bags in an university hospital were calculated. A total of 600 bags that were administered during 34 days between December 10, 2009 and February 17, 2010 were included in the analysis. For quality control, specific gravity evaluation of the filled bags was performed. Results: It was calculated that the variable cost of a hospital compounded bag was $26.15. If we take the annual fixed costs into consideration, the production cost reaches $36.09 for each unit. It was estimated that the cost for the corresponding multichamber bag was $37.79. Taking the fixed and the variable costs into account, the breakeven point of the hospital compounded and the premixed multichamber bags was seen at 5,404 units per year. In specific gravity evaluation, it was observed that the mean and interval values were inside the upper and lower control margins. Conclusion: In this analysis, usage of hospital-compounded parenteral nutrition bags showed a cost advantage in hospitals that treat more than 15 patients per day. In small volume hospitals, premixed multichamber bags may be more beneficial. PMID:24623870

  14. Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition of intensive care patients: current thinking and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gordon L.; Koletzko, Berthold V.; Singer, Pierre; Wanten, Geert J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy deficit is a common and serious problem in intensive care units and is associated with increased rates of complications, length of stay, and mortality. Parenteral nutrition (PN), either alone or in combination with enteral nutrition, can improve nutrient delivery to critically ill patients. Lipids provide a key source of calories within PN formulations, preventing or correcting energy deficits and improving outcomes. Discussion In this article, we review the role of parenteral lipid emulsions (LEs) in the management of critically ill patients and highlight important biologic activities associated with lipids. Soybean-oil-based LEs with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were the first widely used formulations in the intensive care setting. However, they may be associated with increased rates of infection and lipid peroxidation, which can exacerbate oxidative stress. More recently developed parenteral LEs employ partial substitution of soybean oil with oils providing medium-chain triglycerides, ω-9 monounsaturated fatty acids or ω-3 PUFA. Many of these LEs have demonstrated reduced effects on oxidative stress, immune responses, and inflammation. However, the effects of these LEs on clinical outcomes have not been extensively evaluated. Conclusions Ongoing research using adequately designed and well-controlled studies that characterize the biologic properties of LEs should assist clinicians in selecting LEs within the critical care setting. Prescription of PN containing LEs should be based on available clinical data, while considering the individual patient’s physiologic profile and therapeutic requirements. PMID:20072779

  15. Evaluation of physicochemical incompatibilities during parenteral drug administration in a paediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Gikic, M; Di Paolo, E R; Pannatier, A; Cotting, J

    2000-06-01

    Patients in paediatric intensive care units (PICU) often receive numerous medications by the parenteral route. Frequently two or more drugs are delivered simultaneously through the same line and the risk of physicochemical incompatibilities is thus important. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify prospectively the combinations of injectable drugs administered in the PICU of our university hospital and 2) to analyze them according to information found in the literature. The data were collected by a pharmacist over a 30-day period and classified in three categories: compatible, incompatible and undocumented. Nineteen patients were included in the study with a median age of 3.2 years. The mean number (+/- SD) of injectable drugs per patient and per day was 6.5 (+/- 2.8), for a total of 26 drugs and 7 solutes. 64 combinations of drugs were observed with 2 (31.3%), 3 (45.3%), 4 (10.9%) or 5 (12.5%) drugs. 81 drug-drug and 94 drug-solute combinations were recorded. Among these, 151 (86.3%) were compatible, 6 (3.4%) incompatible and 18 (10.3%) undocumented. The incompatibilities included furosemide (Lasix), a drug in alkaline solution and Vamina-Glucose, a total parenteral nutrition solution. No clinical consequences resulting from drug incompatibilities were shown in this study. We suggest that in vitro compatibility tests on standard drug combinations, as well as a training program for nurses on drug incompatibility problems would sensitively increase the security of parenteral drug administration.

  16. Biotin deficiency in a patient with short bowel syndrome during home parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Khalidi, N; Wesley, J R; Thoene, J G; Whitehouse, W M; Baker, W L

    1984-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman with short bowel syndrome was supported with home parenteral nutrition. Six months after receiving 2200 kcal/day of balanced home parenteral nutrition without biotin, she developed biotin deficiency with complete hair loss, eczematous dermatitis, waxy pallor, lethargy, and hypersthesias . Blood and urine samples were collected prior to treatment. Serum zinc was 64 micrograms/dl (nl 50-150 micrograms/dl), and the triene/tetraene ratio was 0.068 (nl 0.4), thereby ruling out zinc and essential fatty acid deficiencies. Serum biotin was 332 pg/ml (nl 520 +/- 220 pg/ml), and urine biotin was 5.22 ng/mg of creatinine (nl 4.3-95 with a mean of 30.2 ng/mg creatinine). The same parenteral nutrition regimen was contained and oral biotin was administered (10 mg/day). After 3 wk, serum and urine biotin levels were 650 pg/ml and 35.6 ng/mg creatinine, respectively. New hair growth was evident and all of her other symptoms resolved. Intravenous biotin was then provided (5 mg/day) for a month after which serum and urine biotin levels were 1316 pg/ml and 178 ng/mg creatine, respectively. The patient has been subsequently maintained on an intravenous multivitamin product containing 60 micrograms biotin per daily dose and remains free of signs and symptoms of biotin deficiency.

  17. Enhanced antimalarial activity by a novel artemether-lumefantrine lipid emulsion for parenteral administration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufan; Lu, Tingli; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Ying; Chen, Ting; Mei, Qibing; Chen, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Artemether and lumefantrine (also known as benflumetol) are difficult to formulate for parenteral administration because of their low aqueous solubility. Cremophor EL as an emulsion excipient has been shown to cause serious side effects. This study reports a method of preparation and the therapeutic efficacies of novel lipid emulsion (LE) delivery systems with artemether, lumefantrine, or artemether in combination with lumefantrine, for parenteral administration. Their physical and chemical stabilities were also evaluated. Furthermore, the in vivo antimalarial activities of the lipid emulsions developed were tested in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Artemether, lumefantrine, or artemether in combination with lumefantrine was encapsulated in an oil phase, and the in vivo performance was assessed by comparison with artesunate for injection. It was found that the lumefantrine lipid emulsion (LUM-LE) and artemether-lumefantrine lipid emulsion (ARM-LUM-LE-3) (1:6) began to decrease the parasitemia levels after only 3 days, and the parasitemia inhibition was 90% at doses of 0.32 and 0.27 mg/kg, respectively, with immediate antimalarial effects greater than those of the positive-control group and constant antimalarial effects over 30 days. LUM-LE and ARM-LUM-LE-3 demonstrated the best performance in terms of chemical and physical stabilities and antiplasmodial efficacy, with a mean particle size of 150 nm, and they have many favorable properties for parenteral administration, such as biocompatibility, physical stability, and ease of preparation.

  18. Enhanced Antimalarial Activity by a Novel Artemether-Lumefantrine Lipid Emulsion for Parenteral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yufan; Lu, Tingli; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Ying; Chen, Ting; Mei, Qibing

    2014-01-01

    Artemether and lumefantrine (also known as benflumetol) are difficult to formulate for parenteral administration because of their low aqueous solubility. Cremophor EL as an emulsion excipient has been shown to cause serious side effects. This study reports a method of preparation and the therapeutic efficacies of novel lipid emulsion (LE) delivery systems with artemether, lumefantrine, or artemether in combination with lumefantrine, for parenteral administration. Their physical and chemical stabilities were also evaluated. Furthermore, the in vivo antimalarial activities of the lipid emulsions developed were tested in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Artemether, lumefantrine, or artemether in combination with lumefantrine was encapsulated in an oil phase, and the in vivo performance was assessed by comparison with artesunate for injection. It was found that the lumefantrine lipid emulsion (LUM-LE) and artemether-lumefantrine lipid emulsion (ARM-LUM-LE-3) (1:6) began to decrease the parasitemia levels after only 3 days, and the parasitemia inhibition was 90% at doses of 0.32 and 0.27 mg/kg, respectively, with immediate antimalarial effects greater than those of the positive-control group and constant antimalarial effects over 30 days. LUM-LE and ARM-LUM-LE-3 demonstrated the best performance in terms of chemical and physical stabilities and antiplasmodial efficacy, with a mean particle size of 150 nm, and they have many favorable properties for parenteral administration, such as biocompatibility, physical stability, and ease of preparation. PMID:24982079

  19. Parenteral nutrition prescribing processes using computerized prescriber order entry: opportunities to improve safety.

    PubMed

    Hilmas, Elora; Peoples, Joseph D

    2012-03-01

    The prescribing and processing of parenteral nutrition (PN) orders for pediatric patients may involve multiple steps, be time-consuming, and have opportunity for error if safety measures are not in place. The process can vary from institution to institution. The authors conducted a comparison of their system for the prescribing and processing of PN orders with the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition's (A.S.P.E.N.'s) Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition guidelines. Using a computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) system allowed for compliance with most of the elements. The safety data demonstrated an overall low rate of transcription errors, an inherent risk when the CPOE system does not communicate directly with the automated compounding device (ACD). There was a 5% overall pharmacist intervention rate on PNs, similar to the 6%-8% rate seen with other medications. Approximately 6% of these PN interventions had an outcome associated with preventing an adverse drug reaction, toxicity, or medication error. Implementation of additional safety measures and standardization may have a positive impact on the complicated process of prescribing and processing PN orders at the authors' institution.

  20. Parenteral iron therapy in obstetrics: 8 years experience with iron-sucrose complex.

    PubMed

    Perewusnyk, G; Huch, R; Huch, A; Breymann, C

    2002-07-01

    Fe is an essential component of haem in myoglobin and accounts for 70 % of haemoglobin. The balance of Fe, unlike that of other metals such as Na or Ca, is regulated solely by gastrointestinal absorption, which itself depends on the bioavailability of Fe in food, i.e. the chemical Fe species. Factors that maintain Fe homeostasis by modulating Fe transfer through the intestinal mucosa are found at the luminal, mucosal and systemic levels. Fe deficiency and its consequence, Fe-deficiency anaemia, form the commonest nutritional pathology in pregnant women. The current gold standard to detect Fe deficiency remains the serum ferritin value. Previously there was general consensus against parenteral Fe administration, i.e. parenteral Fe was only recommended for special conditions such as unresponsiveness to oral Fe, intolerance to oral Fe, severe anaemia, lack of time for therapy etc. However, especially in hospital settings, clinicians regularly face these conditions but are still worried about reactions that were described using Fe preparations such as Fe-dextrans. A widely used and safe alternative is the Fe-sucrose complex, which has become of major interest to prevent functional Fe deficiency after use of recombinant erythropoietin Numerous reports show the effectiveness and safety of the Fe-sucrose complex. Good tolerance to this Fe formulation is partly due to the low allergenic effect of the sucrose complex, partly due to slow release of elementary Fe from the complex. Accumulation of Fe-sucrose in parenchyma of organs is low compared with Fe-dextrans or Fe-gluconate, while incorporation into the bone marrow for erythropoiesis is considerably faster. Oral Fe is only started if haemoglobin levels are below 110 g/l. If levels fall below 100 g/l or are below 100 g/l at time of diagnosis, parenteral Fe-sucrose is used primarily. In cases of severe anaemia (haemoglobin <90 g/l) or non-response to parenteral Fe after 2 weeks, recombinant erythropoietin is considered in

  1. Percutaneous central venous catheters versus peripheral cannulae for delivery of parenteral nutrition in neonates.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Sean; McGuire, William

    2015-10-06

    Neonatal parenteral nutrition may be delivered via peripheral cannulas or central venous catheters (umbilical or percutaneous). As the result of complications associated with umbilical catheters, many neonatal units prefer to use percutaneous catheters after initial stabilisation. Although they can be difficult to place, these catheters may be more stable than peripheral cannulae and require less frequent replacement. These delivery methods may be associated with different risks of adverse events, including acquired invasive infection and extravasation injury. To determine the effects of infusion of parenteral nutrition via percutaneous central venous catheters versus peripheral cannulae on nutrient input, growth and development and complications among hospitalised neonates receiving parenteral nutrition in terms of adverse consequences such as bacteraemia or invasive fungal infection, cardiac tamponade or other extravasation injuries. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2015) and EMBASE (1980 to June 2015), as well as conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials that compared delivery of intravenous fluids (primarily parenteral nutrition) via percutaneous central venous catheters versus peripheral cannulae in hospitalised neonates. We extracted data using standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found six trials recruiting a total of 549 infants. One trial showed that use of a percutaneous central venous catheter was associated with a smaller deficit between prescribed and actual nutrient intake during the trial period (mean difference (MD) -7.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -11.02 to -3.2). Infants in the percutaneous central venous catheter group needed significantly fewer catheters/cannulae (MD -4.3, 95% CI -5.24, -3.43). Meta-analysis of data from all trials

  2. Randomised trial of glutamine, selenium, or both, to supplement parenteral nutrition for critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter J D; Avenell, Alison; Noble, David W; Campbell, Marion K; Croal, Bernard L; Simpson, William G; Vale, Luke D; Battison, Claire G; Jenkinson, David J; Cook, Jonathan A

    2011-03-17

    To determine whether inclusion of glutamine, selenium, or both in a standard isonitrogenous, isocaloric preparation of parenteral nutrition influenced new infections and mortality among critically ill patients. Randomised, double blinded, factorial, controlled trial. Level 2 and 3 (or combined) critical care units in Scotland. All 22 units were invited, and 10 participated. 502 adults in intensive care units and high dependency units for ≥ 48 hours, with gastrointestinal failure and requiring parenteral nutrition. Parenteral glutamine (20.2 g/day) or selenium (500 μg/day), or both, for up to seven days. Primary outcomes were participants with new infections in the first 14 days and mortality. An intention to treat analysis and a prespecified analysis of patients who received ≥ 5 days of the trial intervention are presented. Secondary outcomes included critical care unit and acute hospital lengths of stay, days of antibiotic use, and modified SOFA (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment) score. Selenium supplementation did not significantly affect patients developing a new infection (126/251 v 139/251, odds ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.15)), except for those who had received ≥ 5 days of supplementation (odds ratio 0.53 (0.30 to 0.93)). There was no overall effect of glutamine on new infections (134/250 v 131/252, odds ratio 1.07 (0.75 to 1.53)), even if patients received ≥ 5 days of supplementation (odds ratio 0.99 (0.56 to 1.75)). Six month mortality was not significantly different for selenium (107/251 v 114/251, odds ratio 0.89 (0.62 to 1.29)) or glutamine (115/250 v 106/252, 1.18 (0.82 to 1.70)). Length of stay, days of antibiotic use, and modified SOFA score were not significantly affected by selenium or glutamine supplementation. The primary (intention to treat) analysis showed no effect on new infections or on mortality when parenteral nutrition was supplemented with glutamine or selenium. Patients who received parenteral nutrition supplemented with

  3. Clinical relevance of trace element measurement in patients on initiation of parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Salota, Rashim; Omar, Sohail; Sherwood, Roy A; Raja, Kishor; Vincent, Royce P

    2016-11-01

    Background and Aims Serum zinc, copper and selenium are measured in patients prior to commencing on parenteral nutrition; however, their interpretation can be difficult due to acute phase reactions. We assessed (i) the relationship of raised C-reactive protein with trace elements and albumin (ii) benefits of measuring trace elements when C-reactive protein is raised in patients requiring short-term parenteral nutrition. Methods Samples were collected for zinc, copper, selenium and albumin at baseline and then every two weeks and correlated with C-reactive protein results in patients on parenteral nutrition. Results were categorized into four groups based on the C-reactive protein concentrations: (i) <20 mg/L, (ii) 20-39 mg/L, (iii) 40-79 mg/L and (iv) ≥80 mg/L. Results In 166 patients, zinc, selenium and albumin correlated (Spearman's) negatively with C-reactive protein; r = -0.26, P < 0.001 (95% CI -0.40 to -0.11), r = -0.44, P < 0.001 (-0.56 to -0.29) and r = -0.22 P = 0.005 (-0.36 to -0.07), respectively. Copper did not correlate with C-reactive protein (r = 0.09, P = 0.25 [-0.07 to 0.25]). Comparison of trace elements between the four groups showed no difference in zinc and copper (both P > 0.05), whereas selenium and albumin were lower in the group with C-reactive protein > 40 mg/L ( P < 0.05). Conclusion In patients on short-term parenteral nutrition, measurement of C-reactive protein is essential when interpreting zinc and selenium but not copper results. Routine measurement of trace elements prior to commencing parenteral nutrition has to be considered on an individual basis in patients with inflammation.

  4. Practice Patterns and Perceptions About Parenteral Hydration in the Last Weeks of Life: A Survey of Palliative Care Physicians in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Mendoza, Tito R.; Alonso-Babarro, Alberto; De Lima, Liliana; Cárdenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Hernandez, Mike; de la Rosa, Allison; Bruera, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Context Parenteral hydration at the end of life is controversial and has generated considerable debate for decades. Objectives To identify palliative care physician parenteral hydration prescribing patterns and the factors that influence prescribing levels for patients during their last weeks of life. Methods A cross-sectional, representative online survey of Latin American palliative care physicians was conducted in 2010. Physicians were asked to report the percentage of their terminally ill patients for whom they prescribed parenteral hydration. Predictors of parenteral hydration prescribing levels were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results Two hundred thirty-eight of 320 physicians completed the survey (74% response rate). Sixty percent of physicians reported prescribing parenteral hydration to 40–100% of their patients during the last weeks of life. Factors influencing moderate/high prescribing levels were: agreeing that parenteral hydration is clinically and psychologically efficacious (odds ratio [OR] 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5 – 8.3), disagreeing that withholding parenteral hydration alleviates symptoms (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3 – 8.1), agreeing that parenteral hydration is essential for meeting the minimum standards of care (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4– 7.5), preferring the subcutaneous route of parenteral hydration for patient comfort and home use (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.3 –6.5), and being younger than 45 years old (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3–5.2). Conclusion The strongest determinant of prescribing patterns was agreement with the clinical/psychological efficaciousness of parenteral hydration. Our results reflect parenteral hydration prescribing patterns and perceptions that substantially differ from the conventional/traditional hospice philosophy. These findings suggest that the decision to prescribe or withhold parenteral hydration is largely based on clinical perceptions and that most palliative care physicians from this region of the world

  5. Activity of alpha-fucosidase and beta-glucuronidase in serum and urine of patients administered parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Raczkowska, Katarzyna; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Raczkowski, Krzysztof; Zasadowska, Wioletta; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Kepka, Alina; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Knaś, Malgorzata; Snarska, Jadwiga; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Ladny, Jerzy Robert

    2013-01-01

    In hospital patients suffering from adverse clinical and biochemical symptoms of malnutrition, it is often necessary to employ parenteral nutrition to avoid the body's tissue becoming broken down by being metabolised. Thus, the patient's welfare and survival can be supported throughout any periods of medical crisis. Two of the enzymes responsible for metabolising glycoconjugates are alpha-fucosidase (FUC) and beta-glucuronidase (GLU), present in lysosomes. They release fucose or glucuronic acid from the non-reducing end of oligosaccharide chains. To determine the effect of parenteral nutrition administered to ill patients, on glycoconjugate metabolism, by measuring serum and urinary activities of FUC and GLU. Material and methods. Blood samples and the daily urine collection were taken from 23 patients' who had been undergoing parenteral nutrition for either 5 or 10 days, as well as from a baseline sample. Enzyme activities in serum and urine were determined by the method of Zwierz et al. Serum FUC activities were significantly lower after 10 days compared to 5, (p< 0.0172), whereas GLU activities were significantly lower after both 5 and 10 days, (p< 0.0007 and p< 0.0208 respectively), compared to levels before starting parenteral nutrition. GLU activities were however higher after 10 days than those after 5 days, (p< 0.0023). In urine, FUC activities were significantly decreased after 10 days compared to 5 days after starting parenteral nutrition, (p< 0.0245). Urine GLU activities were unaffected by parenteral nutrition nor was any effect seen on FUC or GLU activities when calculated per 1mg creatinine. Serum FUC and GLU activities can be used for assessing the effect of parenteral nutrition on glycoconjugate metabolism. The significant decreases of serum GLU activity observed after 5 and 10 days, may serve to indicate that the components of parental nutrition are appropriate and that the body has become suitably adapted to this form of nutrition.

  6. Long-term effects of intravenous iloprost in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension deteriorating on non-parenteral therapy.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Lars; Schurawlew, Alexander; Nickel, Nils; Tiede, Henning; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Wilkens, Heinrike; Ewert, Ralf; Halank, Michael; Klose, Hans; Bäzner, Carlos; Behr, Jürgen; Hoeper, Marius M

    2011-12-01

    The majority of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) in functional classes II and III are currently being treated with non-parenteral therapies, including endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA), phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitors, inhaled iloprost or combinations of these substances. If these treatments fail, current guidelines recommend the addition of parenteral prostanoid therapy. There is, however, limited evidence for the efficacy of parenteral prostanoids when added to combinations of non-parenteral therapies. In this retrospective, multicentre study we collected data from consecutive IPAH patients receiving intravenous iloprost in addition to optimized non-parenteral therapy between Jan 2002 and Dec 2009. Analyses included 6 min walk distance (6MWD), functional class, need for transplantation, and survival. During the observation period, 50 patients were treated with intravenous iloprost in addition to non-parenteral therapy; 44% of the patients were on dual combination therapy and 52% on triple combination. Three months after initiation of iloprost, functional class had improved in 24% of the patients and the median 6MWD had increased from 289 m to 298 m (n.s.). During the observation period, 22 patients (44%) died and 14 (28%) underwent lung transplantation. The probabilities of LuTx-free survival at 1, 3 and 5 years following iloprost initiation were 38%, 17% and 17%, respectively. A 6MWD < 300 m and persistent functional class IV at 3 months after initiation of intravenous iloprost were predictors of an adverse outcome. In essence, late initiation of intravenous iloprost in IPAH patients who previously failed to respond to non-parenteral therapies appears to be of limited efficacy in the majority patients. Alternative therapeutic options are currently not available, underlying the need for the development of new drugs.

  7. Long-term effects of intravenous iloprost in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension deteriorating on non-parenteral therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) in functional classes II and III are currently being treated with non-parenteral therapies, including endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA), phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitors, inhaled iloprost or combinations of these substances. If these treatments fail, current guidelines recommend the addition of parenteral prostanoid therapy. There is, however, limited evidence for the efficacy of parenteral prostanoids when added to combinations of non-parenteral therapies. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre study we collected data from consecutive IPAH patients receiving intravenous iloprost in addition to optimized non-parenteral therapy between Jan 2002 and Dec 2009. Analyses included 6 min walk distance (6MWD), functional class, need for transplantation, and survival. Results During the observation period, 50 patients were treated with intravenous iloprost in addition to non-parenteral therapy; 44% of the patients were on dual combination therapy and 52% on triple combination. Three months after initiation of iloprost, functional class had improved in 24% of the patients and the median 6MWD had increased from 289 m to 298 m (n.s.). During the observation period, 22 patients (44%) died and 14 (28%) underwent lung transplantation. The probabilities of LuTx-free survival at 1, 3 and 5 years following iloprost initiation were 38%, 17% and 17%, respectively. A 6MWD < 300 m and persistent functional class IV at 3 months after initiation of intravenous iloprost were predictors of an adverse outcome. Conclusion In essence, late initiation of intravenous iloprost in IPAH patients who previously failed to respond to non-parenteral therapies appears to be of limited efficacy in the majority patients. Alternative therapeutic options are currently not available, underlying the need for the development of new drugs. PMID:22133492

  8. An usual approach to treatment of a case of multidrug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis: parenteral and intraperitoneal aminoglycosides and parenteral colistin

    PubMed Central

    May, Ian; Abu-Khdeir, Maha; Blackwood, Roland Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are becoming more common and increasingly more difficult to treat due to the continued development of drug resistance. While sensitivity to colistin (polymyxin E) is well known, it is frequently avoided due to concerns of nephrotoxicity. Reported here is a case of a multi-drug resistance pseudomonal typhlitis, bacteremia and pleural cavity infection that required significant intensive care, and serial abdominal washouts. Intra-peritoneal tobramycin in combination with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics including colistin were used. Several instillations of tobramycin into the abdominal cavity along with concomitant IV administration of colistin, ceftazidime and tobramycin and per os colistin, tobramycin and nystatin resulted in the clearance of the pseudomonal infection without any evidence of toxicity from the treatment. Intra-abdominal tobramycin with parenteral colistin therapy can be used in complicated clinical settings with appropriate nephroprotection. PMID:24470950

  9. Acute impact of home parenteral nutrition in patients with late-stage cancer on family caregivers: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Santarpia, Lidia; Bozzetti, Federico

    2017-09-18

    Since there is no information regarding quality of life of caregivers assisting patients with advanced malignancy on home parenteral nutrition, herewith we report a preliminary series of 19 patients who received total parenteral nutrition at home under the strict supervision of their relatives. The relatives of 19 incurable patients with cancer-related cachexia, discharged from the hospital with a home parenteral nutrition program, were prospectively studied. They filled out a validated questionnaire, the Family Strain Questionnaire Short Form, prior to patient discharge and after 2 weeks of home care. The questionnaire included 30 items, which explored different domains regarding the superimposed burden on caregivers in relation to the assistance given to their relatives. Our findings show that the basal level of strain was relatively high (about three quarters of positive answers) but did not increase after 2 weeks of home care. Similarly, there was no difference in the nutritional status and quality of life of the patients. Eight patients and their relatives could be also analyzed after 2 months and the results maintained unchanged. This preliminary investigation shows that home parenteral nutrition does not exacerbate the level of strain on caregivers involved in surveillance of such a supportive intervention. It is possible that the perception of an active contribution to the benefit of patients, who maintained unchanged their nutritional status and quality of life, could gratify caregivers despite the objective burden in the constant supervision of administering Parenteral Nutrition.

  10. Comparison of the effects of enteral feeding with continuous and intermittent parenteral nutrition on hepatic triglyceride secretion in human beings

    SciTech Connect

    Isabel-Martinez, L.; Skinner, C.; Parkin, A.; Hall, R.I.

    1989-03-01

    Plasma triglyceride turnover was measured during steady-state conditions in 22 postoperative patients. Nine had received nutritional support with an enteral regimen, seven had received an equivalent regimen as continuous parenteral nutrition, and six received the same parenteral regimen as a cyclical infusion. After 5 days of nutritional support, each patient received an intravenous bolus of tritiated glycerol. Plasma radiolabeled triglyceride content was measured during the subsequent 24 hours. The data were analyzed by means of a simple deterministic model of plasma triglyceride kinetics and compared with the results obtained by stochastic analysis. The rates of hepatic triglyceride secretion obtained by deterministic analysis were higher than those obtained by the stochastic approach. However, the mode of delivery of the nutritional regimen did not affect the rate of hepatic triglyceride secretion regardless of the method of analysis. The results suggest that neither complete nutritional bypass of the gastrointestinal tract nor interruption of parenteral nutrition in an attempt to mimic normal eating has any effect on hepatic triglyceride secretion. Any beneficial effect that enteral feeding or cyclical parenteral nutrition may have on liver dysfunction associated with standard parenteral nutrition appears to be unrelated to changes in hepatic triglyceride secretion.

  11. Pediatric parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and cholestasis: Novel advances in pathomechanisms-based prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Orso, Giuseppe; Mandato, Claudia; Veropalumbo, Claudio; Cecchi, Nicola; Garzi, Alfredo; Vajro, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Parenteral nutrition constitutes a life-saving therapeutic tool in patients unable to ingest/absorb oral or enteral delivered nutrients. Liver function tests abnormalities are a common therapy-related complication, thus configuring the so-called Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD) or cholestasis (PNAC). Although the damage is frequently mild, and resolves after discontinuation of parenteral nutrition, in some cases it progresses into cirrhotic changes, especially in neonates and infants. We present a literature review focusing on the pathogenetic mechanisms-driven prevention and therapies for the cases where parenteral nutrition cannot be discontinued. Ursodeoxycholic acid has been proposed in patients with cholestatic hepatopathy, but its efficacy needs to be better established. Little evidence is available on efficacy of anti-oxidants, antibiotics, probiotics and anti TNFα. Lipid emulsions based on fish oil with a high content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 appear effective both in decreasing intrahepatic inflammation and in improving biliary flow. Most recent promising variations such as soybean/MCT/olive/fish oil emulsion [third generation lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid)] are under investigation. In conclusion, we remark the emergence of a number of novel pathomechanisms underlying the severe liver impairment damage (PNALD and PNAC) in patients treated with parenteral nutrition. Only few traditional and innovative therapeutic strategies have hitherto been shown promising.

  12. Packed red blood cell transfusions as a risk factor for parenteral nutrition associated liver disease in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Antoni; Algotar, Anushree; Pan, Ling; Schwarz, Steven M; Treem, William R; Valencia, Gloria; Rabinowitz, Simon S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine if packed red blood cell transfusions contribute to the development of parenteral nutrition associated liver disease. METHODS A retrospective chart review of 49 premature infants on parenteral nutrition for > 30 d who received packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions was performed. Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease was primarily defined by direct bilirubin (db) > 2.0 mg/dL. A high transfusion cohort was defined as receiving > 75 mL packed red blood cells (the median value). Kaplan-Meier plots estimated the median volume of packed red blood cells received in order to develop parenteral nutrition associated liver disease. RESULTS Parenteral nutritional associated liver disease (PNALD) was noted in 21 (43%) infants based on db. Among the 27 high transfusion infants, PNALD was present in 17 (64%) based on elevated direct bilirubin which was significantly greater than the low transfusion recipients. About 50% of the infants, who were transfused 101-125 mL packed red blood cells, developed PNALD based on elevation of direct bilirubin. All infants who were transfused more than 200 mL of packed red blood cells developed PNALD. Similar results were seen when using elevation of aspartate transaminase or alanine transaminase to define PNALD. CONCLUSION In this retrospective, pilot study there was a statistically significant correlation between the volume of PRBC transfusions received by premature infants and the development of PNALD. PMID:27872824

  13. Lipid emulsions in the treatment and prevention of parenteral nutrition–associated liver disease in infants and children123

    PubMed Central

    Nandivada, Prathima; Fell, Gillian L; Gura, Kathleen M; Puder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) carries the risk of progressive liver disease in infants with intestinal failure. Although PN-associated liver disease (PNALD) is multifactorial in etiology, components of soybean oil lipid emulsions have been implicated in the disease’s pathogenesis. Historically, infants with PNALD who were unable to wean from PN to full enteral feeding developed cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease, which require liver transplantation to survive. Over the past 2 decades, novel strategies for the management of parenteral lipids have improved morbidity and mortality from PNALD in infants with intestinal failure. Current strategies for the treatment of PNALD include restricting the dose of parenteral soybean oil lipid emulsion and/or replacing the soybean oil with a parenteral fish-oil lipid emulsion or emulsions of mixed-lipid sources. The purpose of this report is to review published data that evaluate these strategies in parenteral lipid management for the treatment and prevention of PNALD. PMID:26791189

  14. Relationship Between Triglyceride Tolerance, Body Mass Index, and Fat Depots in Hospitalized Patients Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Frazee, Erin N; Nystrom, Erin M; McMahon, M Molly; Williamson, Eric E; Miles, John M

    2015-11-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients receiving intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs), but little is known about its prevalence and causes. The study investigated whether a relationship exists between body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride tolerance in parenterally fed patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 287 adults receiving parenteral nutrition to determine whether patients with very low BMI (VLBMI, <16 kg/m(2)) tolerate IVFEs better than do patients with low BMI (LBMI, 16-18.4 kg/m(2)), normal-weight patients (NBMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), and overweight/obese patients (HBMI, ≥25 kg/m(2)). The median triglyceride concentration during IVFE was significantly lower in VLBMI patients at 107 mg/dL compared with 124 mg/dL in non-VLBMI patients (P = .016), despite higher lipid infusion rates in the VLBMI group. There was a significant association between triglycerides and BMI in the aggregate cohort (R = 0.2375, P < .0001), with the highest frequency of hypertriglyceridemia occurring in HBMI patients despite relatively lower lipid and energy supply. In a subset of VLBMI patients (n = 36) who had an abdominal computed tomography scan, there was 25- to 100-fold variability in the size of the abdominal adipose tissue depots. In this subgroup, triglyceride concentrations correlated with visceral fat but not subcutaneous abdominal fat. In summary, patients with VLBMI have lower triglyceride concentrations during IVFEs than do other individuals, but there is considerable variability in triglycerides and body fat in this group. Caution should be employed with the use of IVFEs, especially in HBMI patients. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Pharmaceutical development and manufacturing of a parenteral formulation of a novel antitumor agent, VNP40101M.

    PubMed

    Krishna, G; Hodnick, W F; Lang, W; Lin, X; Karra, S; Mao, J; Almassian, B

    2001-08-26

    The objective of this study was to develop and manufacture a stable parenteral formulation for Phase I clinical trials of VNP40101M (1,2-Bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[(2-methylamino)carbonyl] hydrazine), a novel antitumor agent. The solubility and stability of the drug was determined. Solubility studies suggested that VNP40101M exhibited poor aqueous solubility but showed appreciable solubility in nonaqueous solvents. The aqueous solubility of the drug could not be increased by adjusting the pH. At a pH above 7, base-catalyzed decomposition of VNP40101M occurred. The low octanol-water partition coefficient of 0.75 suggested poor solubility in lipophilic solvents. Based on these preformulation observations, a parenteral formulation containing 10 mg/mL of VNP40101M was prepared in a solvent system consisting of 30% ethyl alcohol and 70% polyethylene glycol-300 (PEG-300). To minimize base-catalyzed hydrolytic degradation, citric acid at 0.6% concentration was included to acidify the formulation. Rubber closures, filter membranes, and liquid transfer tubing were selected on the basis of compatibility studies and absence of loss of drug due to adsorption of these components. The formulation was subjected to accelerated stability studies and dilution studies with large volume parenteral (LVP) solutions, normal saline, and 5% dextrose injection (D5W). The results of the dilution study indicated that the formulation could be diluted in these solutions up to 2 mg/mL for 8 hours without drug precipitation and degradation. Accelerated stability studies suggested that the product should be kept at 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C for long-term storage. The developed formulation was successfully scaled up and manufactured for use in clinical trials.

  16. Iodine Supplementation for Pediatric Patients Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Jonathan D; Nespor, Colleen; Poole, Robert L; Kerner, John A

    2016-04-01

    Patients dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) are among a group at risk of developing iodine deficiency. Supplementation with iodine in this population has been debated in a number of studies, resulting in variable clinical practices. The Committee on Clinical Practice Issues of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition recommends a dose of 1 mcg/kg/d of parenteral iodine for patients receiving PN. At our institution, PN trace elements do not include iodine, although this is not the case internationally. Our study sought to assess iodine levels and thyroid function in a cohort of PN-dependent pediatric patients. A retrospective analysis studied 32 pediatric patients with a variety of medical diagnoses who received PN as a primary means of nutrition for 6 months or longer. Patients received variable proportions of their total caloric intake as PN, which ranged from 14%-100%. Iodine and thyroid function levels were obtained by serum sampling. No patient in our cohort of 32 demonstrated thyroid dysfunction or developed iodine deficiency. The length of time on PN and the percentage of total nutrition intake as PN were not associated with iodine levels (P < .89 and P < .73, respectively). There were no significant associations between age (P < .342), clinical diagnosis (P < .46), or sex (P < .43) on iodine status. There were no incidences of abnormal iodine levels in our cohort. Our study suggests that pediatric patients older than 6 months receiving PN may not benefit from iodine supplementation, but further investigation is needed. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. S-adenosylmethionine prevents total parenteral nutrition-induced cholestasis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Belli, D C; Fournier, L A; Lepage, G; Yousef, I; Roy, C C

    1994-07-01

    Both an excess and an imbalance of amino acids have been associated with total parenteral nutrition-induced cholestasis. The present study was undertaken to further our understanding of this condition in light of observations that methyl donor amino acids may be protective. Rats were maintained on Travasol (3.4 g amino acids/24 h) and dextrose (10.2 g/24 h) with and without the "active methyl" S-adenosylmethionine at a dose of 75 mg/kg/24 h for 5 days, and compared to control rats on dextrose alone (10.2 g/24 h) with free access to rat chow. Bile flow (microliters/min) was lower (p < 0.025) in the Travasol (8.65 +/- 0.78) than in the control group (12.30 +/- 0.52) and was restored in the Travasol+S-adenosylmethionine animals (11.42 +/- 10). Furthermore, the bile acid secretory rate (mumol/h) was higher (p < 0.05) with S-adenosylmethionine (23.34 +/- 3.71) than without S-adenosylmethionine (14.16 +/- 2.19). As expected, the molar ratio of biliary cholesterol was lower (p < 0.005) in both total parenteral nutrition groups. However, in the total parenteral nutrition group without S-adenosylmethionine, there was also a decrease in the molar ratio of phospholipids which correlated well with the bile acid secretory rate. Analysis of liver plasma membranes showed that a lower activity of Na+K(+)-ATPase (mumol Pi/mg protein/h) (p < 0.005) in the Travasol animals (6.26 +/- 0.53) was restored to control values (15.20 +/- 1.43) by the addition of S-adenosylmethionine (17.07 +/- 2.87). In the three groups, a close correlation was observed between Na+K(+)-ATPase activity and bile flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Metabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone in patients receiving parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, T R; Young, L S; Manson, J M; Wilmore, D W

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant human methionyl growth hormone (Protropin) (Genetech, Inc., San Francisco, CA) administered to normal volunteers receiving hypocaloric parenteral nutrition minimized weight loss and induced positive nitrogen balance. To evaluate whether growth hormone (GH) can promote anabolism in surgical patients, 11 stable malnourished individuals were studied. In the initial trial, subjects received a constant parenteral infusion of a hypocaloric diet that provided approximately 1100 kcal/24 hr and 1.3 g protein/kg/24 hr for at least 2 weeks. During 1 week, GH 10 mg was given subcutaneously daily, whereas the other week served as the control. Daily balance studies demonstrated that administration of GH resulted in significant retention of nitrogen (+3.4 g/24 h) and phosphorus (+218 mg/24 h), despite provision of only 60% of caloric requirements. With GH, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and potassium fell, whereas glucose and insulin tended to rise, and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 increased three to fourfold. Weight gain occurred with GH and was associated with positive mineral and water balance. Six patients received GH (10 mg subcutaneously daily) for 13-25 consecutive days after an initial control week. Significant nitrogen and phosphorus retention occurred over the entire period of GH administration, and no significant side effects were observed. In these depleted patients, GH caused significant and sustained nitrogen retention over a wide range of nutritional support. GH appears to enhance the efficacy of parenteral nutrition in stable individuals requiring repletion of body protein. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3133995

  19. Pulmonary function in rats dying from long-term parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dahl, P E; Kjaeve, J C

    2003-01-01

    Infusion of Vamin or Intralipid causes death in a rat model of continuous parenteral nutrition. Morphological investigations have shown vascular injury and thrombus formation in the lungs. In this study, lung function in rats was examined before death due to parenteral nutrition. The rats were fed saline intravenously (group I); 100 mL kg(-1) day(-1) (controls); a 7% amino acid-glucose solution (Vamin-Glukos) (group II); 100 mL kg(-1) day(-1), or 20% fat emulsion (Intralipid) (group III); 40 mL kg(-1) day(-1). The infusion was stopped when the condition of the rats deteriorated. In a saline-perfused, isolated lung model, pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), transpulmonary pressure (Ptp), endothelial function, measured as inactivation of serotonin (bioassay), and the capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) were determined. Haematological parameters were also evaluated. Constant findings in group II and III were central thrombus formation, anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Ppa increased from 0.7 (0.04) kPa in group I to 1.4 (0.1) kPa and 1.7 (0.1) kPa in groups II and III, respectively (p<0.001). Inactivation of serotonin was reduced to 36% (2) in group II and 37% (2) in group III compared with 74% (5) in group I (p<0.002). CFC increased to 25 mg min(-1) (5) (group II) and 30 mg min(-1) (6) (group III) compared with 13 mg min(-1) (2) in controls (p=0.01). The study shows that major pulmonary hypertension and severe reduction of the endothelial function are present when rats deteriorate after infusion of parenteral nutrition substrates.

  20. The role of parenteral lipids in supporting gluconeogenesis in very premature infants.

    PubMed

    Sunehag, Agneta L

    2003-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated that very premature infants receiving glucose at 17 micromol/kg min plus appropriate supply of parenteral lipids (Intralipid) and amino acids (TrophAmine) maintained normoglycemia by glucose produced primarily via gluconeogenesis. The present study addressed the individual roles of parenteral lipids and amino acids in supporting gluconeogenesis. Fourteen premature infants (993 +/- 36 g 27 +/- 1 wk) (mean +/- SE) were studied for 8 h on d 5 +/- 1 of life. All infants were receiving standard TPN prior to the study. At start of study, the glucose infusion rate was decreased to approximately 17 micromol/kg min and either Intralipid (g + AA; n = 8) or TrophAmine (g + IL; n = 6) was discontinued. Data from 14 previously studied infants receiving glucose (approximately 17 micromol/kg min) + TrophAmine + Intralipid (g + AA + IL) are included for comparison. Gluconeogenesis was measured by [U-13 C]glucose, (g + AA) and (8 infants of the g + AA + IL group) or [2-13C]glycerol, (g + IL) and (6 infants of the g + AA + IL group). Infants studied by the same method were compared. Withdrawal of Intralipid resulted in decreased gluconeogenesis, 6.3 +/- 0.9 (g +AA) vs. 8.4 +/- 0.7 micromol/kg min (g + AA + IL) (p = 0.03). Withdrawal of TrophAmine affected neither total gluconeogenesis, 7.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 7.9 +/- 0.9 micromol/kg min nor gluconeogenesis from glycerol, 4.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.7 micromol/kg min (g+ IL and g + AA + IL groups, respectively). In conclusion, in parenterally fed very premature infants, lipids play a primary role in supporting gluconeogenesis.

  1. Preventive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Simić, Dusica; Milojević, Irina; Bogićević, Dragana; Milenović, Miodrag; Radlović, Vladimir; Drasković, Biljana; Benka, Anna Uram; Sindjić, Sanja; Maksimović, Ruzica

    2014-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis is well recognized phenomenon in the term and preterm infant receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) use on cholestasis in newborns on prolonged TPN. A total of 56 infants were enrolled in this retrospective study: control group consisted of lower (1500 g) birth weight infants (n = 30), as well as the group of pediatric (n = 11) and surgical patients (n = 15) treated with UDCA. Blood chemistries were obtained two times weekly. All of 56 newborns developed cholestasis but duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) before onset of cholestasis was significantly longer in UDCA treated patients. Average duration of PN before the onset of cholestasis in control group of patients was 25 days in distinction from treated pediatric and surgical patients (39 and 34 days, respectively).The peak serum conjugated bilirubin (CB), AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels were significantly lower in the treated groups.There was no significant difference among treated pediatric and surgical patients and between lower and higher birth weight infants considering the CB, ALT, AST and AP peak. Duration of cholestasis was significantly decreased in all treated groups.There was a significant difference in time needed to achieve complete enteral intake between pediatric and surgical patient group. Cholestasis developed significantly later in treated groups than in the controls. UDCA appears to be very successful in reducing the symptoms of cholestasis. The difference in efficacy of UDCA treatment between lower and higher birth weight infants could not be proven.

  2. A Pilot Project Demonstrating that Combat Medics Can Safely Administer Parenteral Medications in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Steven G; Cunningham, Cord W; Fisher, Andrew D; DeLorenzo, Robert A

    2017-08-15

    Introduction Select units in the military have improved combat medic training by integrating their functions into routine clinical care activities with measurable improvements in battlefield care. This level of integration is currently limited to special operations units. It is unknown if regular Army units and combat medics can emulate these successes. The goal of this project was to determine whether US Army combat medics can be integrated into routine emergency department (ED) clinical care, specifically medication administration. Project Design This was a quality assurance project that monitored training of combat medics to administer parenteral medications and to ensure patient safety. Combat medics were provided training that included direct supervision during medication administration. Once proficiency was demonstrated, combat medics would prepare the medications under direct supervision, followed by indirect supervision during administration. As part of the quality assurance and safety processes, combat medics were required to document all medication administrations, supervising provider, and unexpected adverse events. Additional quality assurance follow-up occurred via complete chart review by the project lead. Data During the project period, the combat medics administered the following medications: ketamine (n=13), morphine (n=8), ketorolac (n=7), fentanyl (n=5), ondansetron (n=4), and other (n=6). No adverse events or patient safety events were reported by the combat medics or discovered during the quality assurance process. In this limited case series, combat medics safely administered parenteral medications under indirect provider supervision. Future research is needed to further develop this training model for both the military and civilian setting. Schauer SG , Cunningham C W, Fisher AD , DeLorenzo RA . A pilot project demonstrating that combat medics can safely administer parenteral medications in the emergency department.

  3. Brief history of parenteral and enteral nutrition in the hospital in the USA.

    PubMed

    Bistrian, Bruce R

    2009-01-01

    The meteoric rise in parenteral and enteral nutrition was largely a consequence of the development of total parenteral nutrition and chemically defined diets in the late 1960s and early 1970s and the recognition of the extensive prevalence of protein calorie malnutrition associated with disease in this same period. The establishment of Nutrition Support Services (NSS) using the novel, multidisciplinary model of physician, clinical nurse specialist, pharmacist, and dietitian, which, at its peak in the 1990s, approached 550 well-established services in about 10% of the US acute care hospitals, also fostered growth. The American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, a multidisciplinary society reflecting the interaction of these specialties, was established in 1976 and grew from less than 1,000 members to nearly 8,000 by 1990. Several developments in the 1990s initially slowed and then stopped this growth. A system of payments, called diagnosis-related groups, put extreme cost constraints on hospital finances which often limited financial support for NSS teams, particularly the physician and nurse specialist members. Furthermore, as the concern for the nutritional status of patients spread to other specialties, critical care physicians, trauma surgeons, gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, and nephrologists often took responsibility for nutrition support in their area of expertise with a dwindling of the model of an internist or general surgeon with special skills in nutrition support playing the key MD role across the specialties. Nutrition support of the hospitalized patient has dramatically improved in the US over the past 35 years, but the loss of major benefits possible and unacceptable risks of invasive nutritional support if not delivered when appropriate, delivered without monitoring by nutrition experts, or employed where inappropriate or ineffective will require continued attention by medical authorities, hospitals, funding agencies, and industry in

  4. Early combined parenteral and enteral nutrition for pancreaticoduodenectomy - Retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Probst, Pascal; Keller, Daniel; Steimer, Johannes; Gmür, Emanuel; Haller, Alois; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Rühlin, Maya; Gelpke, Hans; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Suggested guidelines for nutritional support after pancreaticoduodenectomy are still controversial. Recent evidence suggests that combining enteral nutrition (EN) with parenteral nutrition (PN) improves outcome. For ten years, patients have been treated with Early Combined Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ECPEN) after PD. The aim of this study was to report on rationale, safety, effectiveness and outcome associated with this method. Consecutive PD performed between 2003 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Early EN and PN was standardized and started immediately after surgery. EN was increased to 40 ml/h (1 kcal/ml) over 24 h, while PN was supplemented based on a daily energy target of 25 kcal/kg. Standard enteral and parenteral products were used. Sixty-nine patients were nutritionally supplemented according to ECPEN. The median coverage of kcal per patients related to the total caloric requirements during the entire hospitalization (nutrition balance) was 93.4% (range: 100%-69.3%). The nutritional balance in patients with needle catheter jejunostomy (NCJ) was significantly higher than in the group with nasojejunal tube (97.1% vs. 91.6%; p < 0.0001). Mortality rate was 5.8%, while major complications (Clavien-Dindo 3-5) occurred in 21.7% of patients. Neither the presence of preoperative malnutrition nor the application of preoperative immunonutrition was associated with postoperative clinical outcome. This is the first European study of ECPEN after PD. ECPEN is safe and, especially in combination with NCJ, provides comprehensive coverage of caloric requirements during the postoperative phase. Clinical controlled trials are needed to investigate potential benefits of complete energy supplementation during the early postoperative phase after PD.

  5. [Effects of supply with glutamine on antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in patients with parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Abilés, J; Moreno-Torres, R; Moratalla, G; Castaño, J; Pérez Abúd, R; Mudarra, A; Machado, Ma J; Planells, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A

    2008-01-01

    In the critically ill patient, there is a continuous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that need to be neutralized to prevent oxidative stress (OS). Quantitatively speaking, the glutathione system (GSH) is the most important anti-oxidant endogenous defense. To increase it, glutamine supplementation has been shown to be effective by protecting against the oxidative damage and reducing the morbimortality. To assess the effect of adding an alanylglutamine dipeptide to PN on lipid peroxidation lipidica and glutathione metabolism, as well as its relationship with morbidity in critically ill patients. Determination through spectrophotometry techniques of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total glutathione, and maloniladdehyde at admission adn after seven days of hospitalization at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in 20 patients older than 18 years on parenteral nutrition therapy. The group of patients receiving parenteral nutrition with glutamine supplementation had significant increases in total glutathione (42.35+/-13 vs 55.29+/-12 micromol/l; p<0.05) and the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidasa (470+/-195 vs 705+/-214 micromol/l; p<0.05) within one week of nutritional therapy, whereas the group on conventional parenteral nutrition did not show significant changes of any of the parameters studied (p>0.05). However, both mortality and ICU stay were not different between the study group, whereas the severity (assessed by the SOFA score) was lower in the group of patients receiving glutamine (SOFA 5+/-2 vs 8+/-1.8; p<0.05). Glutamine intake in critically ill patients improves the antioxidant defenses, which leads to lower lipid peroxidation and lower morbidity during admission at the ICU.

  6. [Infections of central venous catheters in home parenteral nutrition: a retrospective monocentric study over 2 years].

    PubMed

    Moreau, E; Bresson, V; Bosdure, E; Sarles, J; Coste, M-É

    2014-06-01

    Infection of the central venous catheter (CVC) is the main aggravating factor of parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to determine the ecology of these infections in our home parenteral nutrition center and to evaluate our care protocol. The present study was monocentric and retrospective, and was conducted in the parenteral nutrition service of the Marseille University Hospital between 1 January 2011 and 31 May 2012. During this period, all the children who presented fever and a positive hemoculture in a medical emergency were taken into account, and the characteristics of the infection were analyzed. After 17 months, 17 children had been subject to an infection in their central catheter: 47 bacteremia were identified, which is equivalent to 5.4 infections for 1000 days of CVC. An average 2.8 hemocultures were performed during this time. The most common bacterium was Staphylococcus hominis. The children affected by a digestive stoma or by a gastrostomy were not subject to more infections and their ecology was not different. All the children were referred to the hospital and treated with an intravenous antibiotic through the CVC. As expected during the time of the study, the infection rate was very high. This finding led us to reassess our prevention protocol. It is also very likely that the number of infections was overestimated due to the protocol for sampling in the hemocultures and their subsequent analysis. Lastly, some children relapsed easily, although no predisposing factor was found in the present study. The therapy chosen was in agreement with the best practices and the ecology recovered. The high number of infections observed during the study encourages a prospective evaluation of current practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of arteriovenous fistulae for home parenteral nutrition--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Azzam; Wood, Jonathan; Atturu, Gnanesh; Gouda, Mohammed R; Donnellan, Clare F; Burke, Dermot A

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of home parenteral nutrition (HPN), traditionally via tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) is associated with several complications, the commonest being catheter related bloodstream infections. We have reviewed the literature to investigate the use of arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) as a viable alternative to traditional routes for long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). A literature search was performed using the Medline database, PubMed and a Google Scholar search. Search terms (keywords) used were: parenteral AND nutrition AND arteriovenous AND fistula for Title and Abstract. Our search yielded 12 articles (1972-2012). Two were excluded because of foreign language and difficult retrieval. The final yield was 10 papers There were four case reports, six original papers (one Swedish, one French--both excluded), one abstract and one letter to the editor. There were 19 native AVF, 11 bovine grafts (BG), four synthetic grafts (SG) and 10 autologous venous grafts (AVG). The maximum recorded length of use was 86, 54, 16.7 and 300 months, respectively. Complication rates per fistula calculated from literature were 0.47, 1.18, 2.0 and 0.3 respectively. Apart from these results, a recent retrospective study (13) of 62 AVFs for HPN patients revealed an infection rate far lower than all types of CVC and a slightly higher occlusion rate than long-term CVCs. There is relatively little data regarding this method. AVFs have been used successfully for HPN in patients with poor vasculature, on hemodialysis or recurrent line sepsis. This technique perhaps warrants more thorough exploration. Further research is required.

  8. Standardized parenteral nutrition in preterm infants: early impact on fluid and electrolyte balance.

    PubMed

    Iacobelli, Silvia; Bonsante, Francesco; Vintéjoux, Amélie; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard

    2010-06-01

    Parenteral nutrition is commonly given to premature infants. It has previously been suggested that standardized parenteral nutrition (SPN) may offer nutritional advantages compared to individualized parenteral nutrition (IPN). However, whether the same level of biochemical control is assured with SPN and with IPN remains uncertain. To compare fluid and electrolyte balance in preterm infants receiving IPN versus SPN in the first week of life. 107 infants born at <33 weeks gestation were prospectively evaluated. Serum and urinary creatinine and electrolyte concentration, urine volume, body weight, fluid, electrolyte and energy intakes were recorded daily. 40 infants received IPN and 67 SPN. Infants in IPN had significantly more water and less sodium intake than those receiving SPN. Energy and amino acid intakes were significantly lower in IPN than in SPN groups. Incidence of hypernatremia and hyponatremia was similar in both groups. Nonoliguric hyperkalemia (NOHK) was significantly more frequent in IPN than in SPN (20.0 vs. 2.9%) and mean serum K(+) peak over the first 3 days was higher in IPN than in SPN (5.63 +/- 1.05 vs. 4.91 +/- 0.78 mmol/l). Weight loss (% of birth weight) at day 7 was significantly higher in IPN than in SPN (7.7 +/- 5.8 vs. 4.2 +/- 6.5) without differences in urine output/input fluid intake ratio and glomerular renal function between the two groups. There were no significant differences in water and sodium balance in preterm infants who received IPN versus SPN. The risk of NOHK was higher in IPN. Also, SPN significantly increased amino acid and caloric intakes, and it reduced early weight loss.

  9. Tissue-specific accumulation of hepatic zinc metallothionein following parenteral iron loading

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    The synthesis in various tissues of the unique metal-binding protein, metallothionein, can be influenced by the administration of certain trace elements. Zinc and cadmium, both of which bind to metallothionein, are most widely recognized as potent inducers. Preliminary results in our laboratory suggested that iron loading causes a marked accumulation of hepatic zinc metallothionein. In this report the effects of parenteral iron administration on metallothionein concentration in various tissues are presented. Male chicks (300-350 g) received (ip) either a single injection (+1 Fe) of iron (10 mg Fe/kg, as FeCl/sub 3/), two injections (+2 Fe) given 24-hr apart, three injections (+3 Fe) each given 24-hr apart, or an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline (control). Twenty-four hours following the final injection, chicks were killed and tissues analyzed for cytoplasmic zinc and metallothionein (Zn-MT). The parenteral administration of ferric iron, FeCl/sub 3/, resulted in a marked tissue-specific accumulation of zinc as metallothionein. In chicks given +2 Fe, hepatic Zn-MT increased more than 10-fold with a third injection (+3 Fe) causing no further change. The concentration of Zn-MT in renal and pancreatic tissue was unaffected by iron loading. An increase in hepatic Zn-MT was evident prior to detectable changes in total hepatic iron. The administration of other ferrous iron compounds at a similar rate produced comparable changes in hepatic Zn-MT. Feeding excess dietary iron, however, had no effect on liver Zn-MT levels even though similar hepatic iron concentrations were attained. Results indicated that parenteral administration, but not feeding, of various iron compounds causes a marked increase in zinc metallothionein, specifically in liver tissue.

  10. Early combined parenteral and enteral nutrition for pancreaticoduodenectomy – Retrospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Pascal; Keller, Daniel; Steimer, Johannes; Gmür, Emanuel; Haller, Alois; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Rühlin, Maya; Gelpke, Hans; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Suggested guidelines for nutritional support after pancreaticoduodenectomy are still controversial. Recent evidence suggests that combining enteral nutrition (EN) with parenteral nutrition (PN) improves outcome. For ten years, patients have been treated with Early Combined Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ECPEN) after PD. The aim of this study was to report on rationale, safety, effectiveness and outcome associated with this method. Methods Consecutive PD performed between 2003 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Early EN and PN was standardized and started immediately after surgery. EN was increased to 40 ml/h (1 kcal/ml) over 24 h, while PN was supplemented based on a daily energy target of 25 kcal/kg. Standard enteral and parenteral products were used. Results Sixty-nine patients were nutritionally supplemented according to ECPEN. The median coverage of kcal per patients related to the total caloric requirements during the entire hospitalization (nutrition balance) was 93.4% (range: 100%–69.3%). The nutritional balance in patients with needle catheter jejunostomy (NCJ) was significantly higher than in the group with nasojejunal tube (97.1% vs. 91.6%; p < 0.0001). Mortality rate was 5.8%, while major complications (Clavien-Dindo 3–5) occurred in 21.7% of patients. Neither the presence of preoperative malnutrition nor the application of preoperative immunonutrition was associated with postoperative clinical outcome. Conclusion This is the first European study of ECPEN after PD. ECPEN is safe and, especially in combination with NCJ, provides comprehensive coverage of caloric requirements during the postoperative phase. Clinical controlled trials are needed to investigate potential benefits of complete energy supplementation during the early postoperative phase after PD. PMID:26955477

  11. Enteral versus parenteral feeding. Effects on septic morbidity after blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Kudsk, K A; Croce, M A; Fabian, T C; Minard, G; Tolley, E A; Poret, H A; Kuhl, M R; Brown, R O

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the importance of route of nutrient administration on septic complications after blunt and penetrating trauma, 98 patients with an abdominal trauma index of at least 15 were randomized to either enteral or parenteral feeding within 24 hours of injury. Septic morbidity was defined as pneumonia, intra-abdominal abscess, empyema, line sepsis, or fasciitis with wound dehiscence. Patients were fed formulas with almost identical amounts of fat, carbohydrate, and protein. Two patients died early in the study. The enteral group sustained significantly fewer pneumonias (11.8% versus total parenteral nutrition 31.%, p less than 0.02), intra-abdominal abscess (1.9% versus total parenteral nutrition 13.3%, p less than 0.04), and line sepsis (1.9% versus total parenteral nutrition 13.3%, p less than 0.04), and sustained significantly fewer infections per patient (p less than 0.03), as well as significantly fewer infections per infected patient (p less than 0.05). Although there were no differences in infection rates in patients with injury severity score less than 20 or abdominal trauma index less than or equal to 24, there were significantly fewer infections in patients with an injury severity score greater than 20 (p less than 0.002) and abdominal trauma index greater than 24 (p less than 0.005). Enteral feeding produced significantly fewer infections in the penetrating group (p less than 0.05) and barely missed the statistical significance in the blunt-injured patients (p = 0.08). In the subpopulation of patients requiring more than 20 units of blood, sustaining an abdominal trauma index greater than 40 or requiring reoperation within 72 hours, there were significantly fewer infections per patient (p = 0.03) and significantly fewer infections per infected patient (p less than 0.01). There is a significantly lower incidence of septic morbidity in patients fed enterally after blunt and penetrating trauma, with most of the significant changes occurring in the

  12. Observations of vitamin A toxicity in three patients with renal failure receiving parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Gleghorn, E E; Eisenberg, L D; Hack, S; Parton, P; Merritt, R J

    1986-07-01

    Elevated serum retinol concentrations have been previously reported in patients with renal failure, although overt clinical toxicity has been described only rarely. We present three patients with renal failure receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) who developed biochemical and clinical findings of hypervitaminosis A. Improvement followed deletion of vitamin A from the TPN. These cases demonstrate that patients with renal failure may be at risk for symptomatic vitamin A toxicity if given TPN with standard retinol supplementation. Such patients should be carefully observed clinically and biochemically if supplementation is given.

  13. [Supplemental parenteral nutrition for intensive care patients: a logical combination with enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Thibault, Ronan; Berger, Mette M; Pichard, Claude

    2009-12-09

    Undernutrition is a widespread problem in the intensive care and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Enteral nutrition is the recommended nutritional support in ICU patients. However, enteral nutrition is frequently insufficient to cover protein-energy needs. The initiation of supplemental parenteral nutrition, when enteral nutrition is insufficient, could optimize the nutritional therapy. Such a combination could allow reducing morbidity, length of stay and recovery, as well as improving quality of life and health care costs. Prospective studies are currently underway to test this hypothesis.

  14. Right atrial thrombus associated with subclavian catheter developed due to total parenteral nutrition application

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Nursel; Basarici, Ibrahim; Erbasan, Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheterization as a frequent routine clinical procedure may have significant complications. Mechanical complications may occur during catheter placement, whereas thromboembolic and infectious complications can be seen during follow-up. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) associated central venous catheterizations may result in early mechanical complications and thrombotic and infectious complications in the long term. This paper describes a patient diagnosed as mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy requiring long-term central venous catheterization for TPN implementation, who had an infected thrombus on the catheter tip resected by cardiac surgery. PMID:27212985

  15. Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy in an Academic Practice in Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Touzard Romo, F; Resnick, B; Perez-Cioe, M; Flanigan, TP; Kojic, E; Beckwith, CG

    2015-01-01

    Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is an increasingly utilized treatment modality that has been proven to be safe and cost-effective for treating infections that require prolonged antimicrobial treatment. Adequate patient selection, a structured OPAT team with an effective communication system, and routine clinical monitoring are key elements to establish a successful OPAT program. The Infectious Diseases and Immunology Center at The Miriam Hospital offers a multidisciplinary OPAT model coordinated by infectious diseases specialists and serves as a major referral center in Rhode Island. PMID:25562060

  16. Acute mediastinitis due to extravasation of parenteral nutritional formula via a central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Marín, Miguel Ruiz; Rodríguez, Maria Encarnación Tamayo; Buleje, Jorge Alejandro Benavides; Valverde, Francisco Miguel González; Martínez, Marcelino Méndez; Pérez, Patricia Pastor; Ruiz, María Vicente; Rodríguez, Ana Ruiz; Sales, Alejandro Puerta; Rodríguez, Pedro Marín; Blázquez, Antonio Albarracín Marín

    2012-07-01

    Mediastinitis is a complication generally associated with thoracic surgery. Its occurrence after placement of a central venous catheter is uncommon, and only a few cases have been reported. An 83-year-old man who had mediastinitis due to extravasation of parenteral nutritional formula via a central venous catheter is presented. The signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of this unusual complication are described. This complication should be included in the differential diagnosis of mediastinitis in patients with a central venous catheter in place who have not had thoracic surgery.

  17. Examination of factors that lead to complications for new home parenteral nutrition patients.

    PubMed

    de Burgoa, Lori Jeris; Seidner, Douglas; Hamilton, Cindy; Stafford, Judy; Steiger, Ezra

    2006-01-01

    Home parenteral nutrition carries a risk of infectious, metabolic, and mechanical complications that cause significant morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the incidence and the causative factors of these complications that occur within the first 90 days after discharge from the hospital to home. Data were prospectively collected and analyzed for 97 adult patients. A complication developed in one third of the patients, and the majority required rehospitalization. Infectious complications were the most prevalent, followed by mechanical and then metabolic complications. The authors describe their methods of collecting data in a quantifiable manner with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes.

  18. Gamma processing technology: an alternative technology for terminal sterilization of parenterals.

    PubMed

    Reid, B D

    1995-01-01

    This paper will outline the advantages of utilizing gamma radiation as a means for terminally sterilizing parenterals and other pharmaceutical products. The factors which must be evaluated in order to qualify a product for radiation sterilization will be detailed. It will also compare the characteristics of this method with other technologies currently available. The highest SAL can be achieved by combining a knowledge of the microbial quality of the raw materials, and the manufacturing environment with a formulation designed to promote the most radiation stable form of the product.

  19. Parenteral organophosphorus poisoning in a rural emergency department: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poisoning is a common presentation in the emergency department. Oral exposures to organophosphorus compounds are especially frequent in rural and agricultural regions of South Asia and throughout the developing world. Case presentation Here we report a case of deliberate self-harm with an organophosphorus pesticide via the relatively uncommon parenteral route. A young woman injected herself with chlorpyriphos. Although the cholinergic effects were mild, cellulitis and abscess development were noted as a result. Conclusion Resource limited agricultural countries like Nepal present health care workers with numerous challenges in poisoning management. This case represents a rare but potentially morbid method of agrochemical poison exposure. PMID:24321121

  20. SolEmuls technology: a way to overcome the drawback of parenteral administration of insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Junghanns, J-U; Buttle, I; Müller, R H; Araújo, I B; Silva, A K A; Egito, E S T; Damasceno, B P G L

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a nanosuspension of AmB was prepared and mixed with the preformed parenteral emulsion Lipofundin and subjected to high-pressure homogenization (SolEmuls technology). Characterization was performed by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser diffractometry (LD), and zeta potential measurements. Drug incorporation was studied by using light microscopy. The produced emulsions were further investigated by comparing them with the commercially available Fungizone in regard to antifungal efficiency and toxicity. Results suggest that through the SolEmuls process the AmB forms a reservoir, out of which it is released in such a manner that it is more efficient and less toxic than Fungizone.

  1. [III Working Meeting SENPE-Baxter: complementary parenteral nutrition in the critically ill patient].

    PubMed

    de Lorenzo, A García; Grau, T; Montejo, J C; Leyba, C Ortiz; Santana, S Ruiz

    2008-01-01

    In the setting of a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the available evidence as well as the experience from experts, the indications and management guidelines for Complementary Parenteral Nutrition (CPN) in the critically ill patient are established. The conclusion refers to the importance of its indication in all the cases where enteral nutrition (EN) is insufficient to cover at least 60% of the caloric-protein target. At least 80% of the patient's caloric requirements should be covered with EN and CPN, with the recommendation of targeting 100% of the demands.

  2. Effect of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition on mortality in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Gordon S

    2011-02-01

    Glutamine is recognized as a critical amino acid involved in immunity, intestinal health, and nitrogen transport between organs. Prior to the pivotal study by Griffiths and colleagues in 1997, no clinical trials had demonstrated a positive effect from glutamine supplementation on improving long-term survival in critically ill intensive care unit patients receiving parenteral nutrition. Subsequent investigations have confirmed these findings, but further data are needed to determine the optimal dose and timing of glutamine as well as the form of glutamine (ie, free vs dipeptide) that produces the most significant improvement in outcome parameters.

  3. A Comparison of Fish Oil Sources for Parenteral Lipid Emulsions in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Gillian L.; Cho, Bennet S.; Pan, Amy; Nose, Vania; Anez-Bustillos, Lorenzo; Dao, Duy; Baker, Meredith A.; Nandivada, Prathima; Gura, Kathleen M.; Puder, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background Parenteral fat emulsions are important components of parenteral nutrition (PN). For patients who develop PN-associated liver disease (PNALD), use of fish oil (FO) fat emulsions reverses cholestasis. The European Pharmacopeia contains two FO monographs. One is “fish oil; rich in omega-3 fatty acids,” (NFO). The other is “omega-3 acids,” (PFO) derived from NFO but enriched in omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of 20% NFO and PFO emulsions produced in the laboratory and tested in a murine model. Methods Lipid emulsions (20% oil) were compounded containing different oils: United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)-grade soybean oil (SO), NFO, PFO with 66% of the purified fatty acids in triglyceride form (PFO66), and PFO with 90% of the purified fatty acids in triglyceride form (PFO90). Chow-fed C57BL/6 mice received saline, one of the above emulsions, or a commercial FO (OM) by tail vein injection (2.4g/kg/day) for 19 days. Effects after each dose were recorded. On day 19, animals were euthanized and livers, spleens, and lungs were procured for histologic analysis. Results Animals administered OM, SO, NFO, and PFO90 tolerated injections well clinically, while those administered PFO66 developed tachypnea and lethargy for ~1 minute following injections. At euthanasia, PFO66- and PFO90-treated animals had organomegaly compared to the other groups. On histologic analysis, PFO66 and PFO90 groups had splenic fat-laden macrophages and hepatic sinusoidal lipid-laden Kupffer cells with no inflammation or necrosis. Lungs in these groups had scattered fat deposits. All other groups had normal-appearing livers, spleens, and lungs. Conclusions Use of PFO lipid emulsions is an attractive possibility for improving systemic inflammation in PN-dependent patients and optimizing management of PNALD by concentrating anti-inflammatory EPA and DHA. However, when

  4. Quality of life of patients on chronic parenteral nutrition before and after gastrointestinal tract continuity restoration.

    PubMed

    Ławiński, Michał; Kot-Mielczarska, Edyta; Gradowska, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    The issue of the quality of life considering patients with a temporary or permanent intestinal stoma, as well as the necessity for chronic parenteral nutrition at home remain a poorly understood problem. Daily care of the intestinal stoma and the need to comply with sterile procedures required for parenteral nutrition require such patients to commit their time, which secondarily is associated with the broad aspects of social and personal life. The aim of the study was to analyse the quality of life considering patients with intestinal stomas subjected to chronic parenteral nutrition, before and after gastrointestinal tract continuity restoration. The survey was conducted between May and July, 2014 on a group of 71 patients (33 female and 38 male) who were under the care of the Department of General Surgery and Clinical Nutrition, Warsaw Medical University, operated during the period between 2007 and July, 2014 with a present stoma (32 patients - 45%), as well as after stoma closure (39 patients - 55%). The analysed questionnaire contained 31 questions, and the SF-36 questionnaire was additionally used, determining the quality of life. Analysis of the study material showed differences in the quality of life, considering three most important determinants. Significantly worse assessment of the quality of life was reported by patients with a stoma and subject to intravenous nutrition (83.2±30.5), as compared to those after stoma closure subject to normal nutrition (52.3±33.8). Based on the SF-36 questionnaire differences between patients with a stoma and those without amounted to t(69)=2.84 (p=0.006) demonstrating that those with a stoma reported a lower quality of life. Analysis between younger and older patients, based on the SF-36 questionnaire (t(62.87)=2.49; p=0.016) showed that younger patients achieved lower results, considering dissatisfaction with life (61.55±27.5), as compared to the elderly (80.8±36.9). The group of patients without a stoma seem to be

  5. Parenteral morphine prescribing patterns among inpatients with pain from advanced cancer: a prospective survey of intravenous and subcutaneous use.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Declan; Perin, Mary Lou; McIver, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Prescribing patterns for parenteral morphine for symptom control in advanced cancer were studied in 50 consecutive hospital admissions (27 men, 23 women, median age, 62 years). Patients were interviewed daily (median time, 9 days) concerning analgesia while they were receiving parenteral morphine. Five major inpatient prescribing patterns were identified: (1) intravenous to oral, (2) intravenous to subcutaneous, (3) intravenous only, (4) subcutaneous only, and (5) mixed. The intravenoustooral group had more stable pain control than the intravenous-to-subcutaneous group. Pain control was good in the mixed group, suggesting that flexibility in the route of administration contributes to better pain control. Patients with neuropathic pain required higher doses of morphine. These patterns of parenteral morphine application reflect the complexity of the challenge presented by the various cancer pain syndromes. Physicians should be knowledgeable about the appropriate and flexible use of different routes of administration for morphine and other opioids.

  6. Zinc in denture adhesive: a rare cause of copper deficiency in a patient on home parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rakesh; Hawthorne, Barney; Durai, Dharmaraj; McDowell, Ian

    2015-10-09

    A 65-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, who had been on home parenteral nutrition for many years, presented with perioral paraesthesia and a burning sensation in the mouth. Initial blood tests including serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate, were normal apart from mild pancytopaenia. Serum copper was low, in spite of receiving regular copper in her parenteral feeds. The copper in her parenteral feeds was increased initially, but when it did not improve, she was started on weekly intravenous copper infusions. She was using dental adhesive, which had zinc in it, and a possibility that this was causing her copper deficiency was raised. Serum zinc levels were normal, but urinary zinc was very high. The patient was advised to use zinc-free dental adhesive and her copper level returned to normal within a few months with normalisation of her pancytopaenia, and partial resolution of her oral paraesthesia. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. [Indication and effectiveness of endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy as a route of parenteral alimentation for the home care patient].

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Hida, S; Higasa, K; Shinomiya, S; Matsumoto, T; Fukuoka, K; Yamanaka, E; Ozaki, S; Takayama, E

    2000-12-01

    We are managing 8 home care patients who have a gastrostomy made using an endoscopic percutaneous technique as a route of parenteral alimentation. Based on our experience, the preconditions for an endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy as a route of parenteral alimentation are 1. normal gastrointestinal function, 2. difficulty in swallowing, 3. possibility that the caregiver can manage the gastrostomy. When we performed an endoscopic percutaneous gastrostomy as a route of parenteral alimentation for 8 home care patients, we obtained the several advantages mentioned below. 1. Swallowing pneumonia was prevented. 2. Adequate amount of alimental liquid could be infused. 3. Patient could take a bath or shower with the gastrostomy, and good QOL was realized. 4. The home care patient with the gastrostomy could have a satisfactorily long life.

  8. High rates of resolution of cholestasis in parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease with fish oil-based lipid emulsion monotherapy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our research was conducted to determine factors leading to resolution of cholestasis in patients with parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease treated with fish-oil-based lipid emulsion (FOLE). We used a prospective observational study of 57 infants <6 months of age with parenteral nutrition-as...

  9. Antitoxic immunity in experimental cholera: protection, and serum and local antibody responses in rabbits after enteral and parenteral immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A M; Ouchterlony, O; Anderson, A; Walletström, G; Westerberg-Berndtsson, U

    1975-01-01

    The protective effect of enternal and parenteral immunization with cholera toxin antigen against experimental cholera in rabbits was studied by using the small-bowel loop technique. Subcutaneous injection of crude toxin as well as purified toxin or toxoids gave rise to significant protection against toxin challenge. The enhanced resistance to toxin was found to correspond to a many-fold higher magnitude of protection against challenge with live vibrios. In the primary response the protection increased during the first month. Booster immunization gave rise to a further increased immunity which, however, declined rapidly. Multiple oral or repeated intraintestinal antigen administrations also induced protective antitoxic immunity although of less magnitude than that obtained by parenteral immunization. Enteral and, to a lesser extent, parenteral immunization gave rise to increased antitoxic antibody titers and immunoglobulin levels in intestinal washings and mucosa scraping. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG antitoxins predominated, but after enteral immunization total IgA and specific IgA antibodies occasionally reached levels similar to those for IgG. In serum, significantly increased antibody levels (IgG) were only recorded after parenteral immunization. Both the primary binding and the neutralizing antitoxin titers showed a stayistically significant correlation with the degree of protection against toxin challenge; however, for the neutralizing antibodies this correlation was not without exceptions. No relation to protection was found for intestinal antibodies. The results of the present study indicate that enternal as well as parenteral immunization with toxin antigen can give rise to effective cholera immunity. After enternal immunization, the protection appears to be medicated by locally synthesized antibodies. After parenteral vaccination both serum-derived and locally produced antibodies seem to be effective. PMID:54337

  10. Review of data of the patients receiving total parenteral nutrition at the intensive care unit of a university hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Ovayolu, Nimet; Torun, Seda; Ucan, Ozlem; Ozdemir, Perihan; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Geyik, Ramazan

    2006-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition is commonly administered to patients in intensive care units who cannot be fed gastrointestinally. Several problems might be encountered during parenteral nutrition. We designed this study to evaluate two years' data of the patients who received parenteral nutrition at the intensive care unit of the university hospital. Forty-five patients who were treated at this hospital between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2005 were included in this study. Patient data were collected via questionnaires designed based on the information in the literature. Blood, urinary, oropharyngeal and catheter entry site cultures were obtained and analyzed on the third and seventh days of the treatment. We found the following results: 31.1% of the patients received parenteral nutrition due to renal insufficiency; ready-made amino acid/lipid solutions were used in 86.7% of the patients; 77.8% of the solutions were administered through a peripheral vein; 88.6% of total parenteral nutrition solutions given thorough the peripheral vein had higher osmolarities than 800 mOsmol/L; routine Fe and Fe binding capacity, prothrombin time, cholesterol and triglyceride level assessments were not performed before the initiation of treatment; and the culture tests most commonly revealed Staphylococcus epidermidis in the blood, Candido species in urine, Streptococcus in throat, and Staphylococcus aureus at catheter entry sites. Based on these results, we suggest that organizing a nutrition support team would be useful in order to improve the quality of the nursery and to provide close and rational management and follow-up of the patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. PMID:17225841

  11. Hospital length-of-stay and costs among pulmonary embolism patients treated with rivaroxaban versus parenteral bridging to warfarin.

    PubMed

    Weeda, Erin R; Wells, Philip S; Peacock, W Frank; Fermann, Gregory J; Baugh, Christopher W; Ashton, Veronica; Crivera, Concetta; Wildgoose, Peter; Schein, Jeff R; Coleman, Craig I

    2017-04-01

    We sought to compare length-of-stay (LOS), total hospital costs, and readmissions among pulmonary embolism (PE) patients treated with rivaroxaban versus parenterally bridged warfarin. We identified adult PE (primary diagnostic code = 415.1x) patients in the Premier Database (11/2012-9/2015), and included those with ≥1 PE diagnostic test on days 0-2. Rivaroxaban users (allowing ≤2 days of prior parenteral therapy) were 1:1 propensity score matched to patients parenterally bridged to warfarin. LOS, total costs, and readmission for venous thromboembolism (VTE) or major bleeding within the same or subsequent 2 months were compared between cohorts. Separate analyses were performed in low-risk PE patients. Rivaroxaban use was associated with a 1.4-day [95 % confidence interval (CI) -1.47 to -1.28] shorter LOS, and $2322 (95 % CI -$2499 to -$2146) reduction in costs compared to parenterally bridged warfarin (p < 0.001 for both). There was no difference in readmission for VTE (1.5 versus 1.7 %) or major bleeding (0.3 versus 0.2 %) between the rivaroxaban and parenterally bridged warfarin cohorts (p ≥ 0.27 for both). Results were similar in low-risk patients (0.2-1.0 day and $251-$1751 reductions in LOS and costs, respectively, p ≤ 0.01 for all). In patients with PE, rivaroxaban was associated with reduced LOS and costs, without increased risk of readmission versus parenterally bridged warfarin. Similar results were observed in low-risk PE patients.

  12. A multicenter, retrospective study of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension transitioned from parenteral prostacyclin therapy to inhaled iloprost

    PubMed Central

    Channick, Richard N.; Frantz, Robert P.; Kawut, Steven M.; Palevsky, Harold; Tumuluri, Ramagopal; Sulica, Roxana; Lauto, Paula O.; Benton, Wade W.; de Boisblanc, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance, leading to right heart failure and death. Guidelines recommend customization of treatment, necessitating the development of effective strategies for transitioning patients among treatments. In this study, we characterized our experience with patient transitions from parenteral prostacyclin to inhaled iloprost. We retrospectively assessed records from 11 centers of 37 consecutive patients with PAH aged ≥ 18 years who were treated with intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) prostacyclin analogues and transitioned to inhaled iloprost. The transition period began on the first day of inhaled iloprost with the intent of discontinuing parenteral prostacyclin and ended on the first day on inhaled iloprost free of parenteral prostacyclin. Persistence was defined as the absence of (1) parenteral prostacyclin while remaining on inhaled iloprost during post-transition Days 1-90 and (2) no reinitiation of parenteral prostacyclin during post-transition Days 90-365. All patients were clinically stable before transitioning to inhaled iloprost. The mean age was 46.5 years, 70.3% were female, 51.4% had idiopathic PAH, and 43.0% were in New York Heart Association Functional Class III. Among patients with an overlapping transition, the mean transition period was 10.5 days. A transition dosing algorithm was used in 10 patients (27.0%). At one year, 78.4% of the patients remained persistent on inhaled iloprost and 81.1% were free of clinical worsening. In selected patients on background oral PAH therapy, transitioning from parenteral prostacyclin to inhaled iloprost appears safe and feasible and is associated with long-term success. Further study is needed to define the optimal patient selection criteria and transition algorithm. PMID:24015339

  13. Bacterial infection of central venous catheters in short-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Ngeow, Y F; Parasakthi, N

    1998-03-01

    Fourteen severely ill ventilated patients in an intensive care unit, requiring short-term total parenteral nutrition, were examined for catheter-related infection. Microbiological analysis using Maki's SQ technique was carried out on catheter exit site, catheter hub, proximal subcutaneous segment of catheter and catheter up. Qualitative cultures were carried out on total parenteral nutrition and peripheral blood samples. Twenty six of 29 catheters removed (90%) were culture positive but only 7 catheters were related to positive blood cultures, giving a catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) rate of 24%. Haematogenous seeding was strongly implicated in 7/29 (24%) of catheters. Patients' skin flora appeared to be the main source of catheter-related infection. The organisms isolated for patients with CRB included coagulase-negative staphylococci, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. It is suggested that to control infective complications of central venous catheters, emphasis should be focused on specialised intravenous therapy teams and the use of strict protocols for insertion and care of central lines.

  14. Assessing Selenium, Manganese, and Iodine Status in Pediatric Patients Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Jacob Clarke; Reese, Susan Anne; Mackay, Mark; Anderson, Collin R; Jackson, Daniel; Paul, Irasema Libertad

    2017-08-01

    Pediatric patients who are receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) unsupplemented with trace minerals can become deficient. Due to shortages in trace mineral products and the 2004 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition report stating that individualized trace element supplementation may be warranted, a review was conducted concerning the trace minerals selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and iodine (I). A retrospective review of pediatric patients receiving PN that contained Se and Mn was conducted to determine if a difference existed between them and patients receiving PN without Se and Mn. Statistical analysis was done to assess a difference between trace mineral levels and the time to deficiency between supplemented and unsupplemented patients. Unsupplemented I patients had urine I levels assessed to determine deficiencies in patients receiving PN. Plasma Se levels were measured at a mean of 20 days for supplemented patients (n = 131) and 19 days for nonsupplemented patients (n = 57) with no difference between groups ( P = .2973). Plasma Mn levels were measured at a mean of 28 days, showing no statistical difference ( P = .721). Of the 177 nonsupplemented I patients, 74% demonstrated I deficiencies without supplementation. Time to the development of a Se, Mn, or I deficiency is important to guide supplementation of exclusive PN in children when trace mineral products are short in supply. Our retrospective experience supports assessment of the trace minerals Se at 21 days and Mn at 30 days. It also suggests that some pediatric patients receiving PN are deficient in I.

  15. Review of Copper Provision in the Parenteral Nutrition of Adults [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Callum

    2017-04-01

    The essential trace element copper (Cu) is required for a range of physiologic processes, including wound healing and functioning of the immune system. The correct amount of Cu must be provided in parenteral nutrition (PN) if deficiency and toxicity are to be avoided. While provision in line with the standard recommendations should suffice for most patients, Cu requirements may be higher in patients with increased gastrointestinal losses and severe burns and lower in those with cholestasis. The tests of Cu status that are currently available for clinical use are unreliable. Serum Cu concentration is the most commonly ordered test but is insensitive to Cu deficiency and toxicity and is misleadingly increased during the acute phase response. These limitations make it difficult for prescribers to assess Cu status and to decide how much Cu to provide. There is a need for better tests of Cu status to be developed to decrease uncertainty and improve individualization of Cu dosing. More information is needed on Cu requirements in disease and Cu contamination of PN components and other intravenous fluids. New multi-trace element products should be developed that provide Cu doses in line with the 2012 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommendations. This article discusses the evaluation and treatment of Cu deficiency and toxicity in patients treated with PN.

  16. Total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in rats: comparison of different amino acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Belli, D C; Fournier, L A; Lepage, G; Yousef, I; Weber, A M; Tuchweber, B; Roy, C C

    1987-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity of amino acids perfused is a pathogenetic factor in total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated hepatotoxicity. However, the effect of the qualitative pattern of amino acid solutions has not been studied. Rats on parenteral nutrition for 5 days received 10.2 g of dextrose and 3.4 g of amino acids daily. Bile flow (microliter/min/g liver protein) after administration of Vamin was 16.2 +/- 0.8, which was similar to that in controls given chow and dextrose iv, but it was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than those on Travasol (12.3 +/- 0.8). The decrease in bile flow was not related to the large concentrations of alanine and glycine present in Travasol. However, the addition to Travasol of serine present only in Vamin increased bile flow significantly. Bile acid secretion rate, biliary lipid constituents, calcium, sodium, and glucose showed little change. In contrast, alpha-amino nitrogen was increased (p less than 0.05) in Vamin-perfused animals. Steatosis was noted in only a few animals in the Travasol group, and was not associated with an increase in the triglycerides content of the liver. Glycogen and protein content of the livers did not differ. The data show that the composition of amino acid solutions may be a determinant of TPN-induced cholestasis and suggest that the presence of methyl donor amino acids may have a protective effect.

  17. Calcium Chloride in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition: Compatibility Studies Using Laser Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Robert K.; Christensen, J. Mark; Karnpracha, Chanida; Rosa, Jill E.; Clark, Sara M.; Migaki, Evelyn A.; Wu, YingXing

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We have previously reported results of precipitation studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions containing calcium chloride and sodium phosphate using visual methods to determine compatibility. The purpose of this study was to do further testing of compatibility for solutions containing calcium chloride using more sensitive methods. Methods Solutions of Trophamine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA) and Premasol (Baxter Pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, IL) were compounded with calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. Controls contained no calcium or phosphate. After incubation at 37° for 24 hours solutions without visual precipitation were analyzed to determine mean particle size using dynamic light scattering from a laser light source. Results Particle sizes were similar for control solutions and those without visual precipitation and a mean particle size <1000 nm. Compatible solutions were defined as those with added calcium and phosphate with no visual evidence of precipitation and mean particle size <1000 nm. In solutions containing 2.5–3% amino acids and 10 mmol/L of calcium chloride the maximum amount of potassium phosphate that was compatible was 7.5 mmol/L. Conclusion Maximum amounts of phosphate that could be added to parenteral nutrition solutions containing Trophamine and calcium chloride were about 7.5–10 mmol/L less for a given concentration of calcium based upon laser methodology compared to visual techniques to determine compatibility. There were minor differences in compatibility when adding calcium chloride and potassium phosphate to Premasol versus Trophamine. PMID:25192060

  18. Plasma ammonia levels in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with crystalline L-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Shohat, M; Wielunsky, E; Reisner, S H

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the severity and incidence of hyperammonemia in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with crystalline L-amino acids having high arginine content (Travasol), we determined the plasma ammonia (PA) levels in a group of 29 preterm infants on TPN, weekly and 1 wk posttherapy. Their mean gestational age was 29.9 +/- 2.6 wk and mean birth weight 1208 +/- 262 g. Thirty five blood samples obtained from 15 preterm infants not on TPN with mean gestational age 32.2 +/- 1.9 wk and a birth weight of 1495 +/- 161 g served as a control. In the parenteral nutrition group the mean PA level (140 +/- 58 micrograms/100 ml) was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than that in the same group one week post TPN (97 +/- 34 micrograms/100 ml) and in the control group (86 +/- 35 micrograms/100 ml). The incidence of hyperammonemia (greater than 160 micrograms/100 ml) was 30% in the TPN group versus 3% in the controls (p less than 0.01). Maximal PA level during that treatment was 405 versus 216 micrograms/100 ml 1 wk post-TPN versus 163 micrograms/100 ml in the controls. The data show a significant increase in PA levels in preterm infants receiving TPN with Travasol, possibly because of its high glycine content.

  19. An outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) map to identify risks associated with an OPAT service.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Mark; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Patel, Jignesh P

    2008-07-01

    Administering parenteral antibiotics outside the confines of a ward setting is becoming an attractive way of treating infections in the UK. However, as well as having many advantages, an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) service potentially introduces new risks to staff and patients involved. In the United States, healthcare organizations are now prospectively analysing processes to try and prevent errors occurring using the Healthcare Failure Mode Effect Analysis (HFMEA) tool. The objectives of this study were to map out and agree the OPAT process and sub-processes and to identify potential OPAT system failures using steps 1-3 of the HFMEA tool, so that the resulting OPAT map can be used to design an OPAT service where risk is minimized. The study was undertaken using a consensus development panel to which the HFMEA process was applied. Key stakeholders in the local OPAT process were invited to join the HFMEA team with the aim of describing and agreeing (defined as 100% participant agreement) an OPAT map, its sub-processes and potential OPAT system failures. The HFMEA team identified 6 processes, 67 sub-processes and 217 possible failures over the course of four meetings. Key areas identified in the OPAT map concerned identifying and checking patient suitability for an OPAT service, involvement of a multidisciplinary team and robust communication channels. An OPAT map was developed, which may serve as a practical model for other organizations setting up a similar service.

  20. Effectiveness and tolerability of parenteral testosterone undecanoate: a post-marketing surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jan; Keipert, Dieter; Motazedi, Heiko; Ernst, Michael; Nettleship, Joanne; Gooren, Louis

    2017-08-16

    This observational post-marketing study of parenteral testosterone undecanoate (TU) in a non-selected population aimed to: examine the effectiveness of TU as treatment of hypogonadism; record adverse drug reactions (ADR) quantitatively particularly regarding polycythemia, prostate safety and cardiovascular-related metabolic risk factors; and verify whether recommended injection intervals apply to routine clinical practice. Eight hundred and seventy subjects from 259 outpatient units scheduled to visit the clinic six times were included. Effectiveness and tolerability of TU administration were assessed on a 4-point scale. Body weight, waist girth, blood pressure, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and digital rectal prostate examination were assessed. Over 90% of subjects completed the observational duration of 52.8 ± 9.7 weeks (mean ± SD) and 56% judged effectiveness as very good, 30.8% as good. 63.1% judged tolerability as very good, and 24.4% as good. No adverse effects on indicators of cardiovascular risk were observed. Polycythemia occurred in one subject and a supranormal hematocrit in one subject. Four subjects developed supranormal PSA levels. Prostate carcinoma was found in one subject, one subject had recurrence of a previously surgically treated prostate carcinoma, and the other two showed no indication of malignancy. Parenteral TU is safe, effective, and well-tolerated in clinical practice proving a good therapeutic option for hypogonadism.

  1. Intrauterine-like growth rates can be achieved with premixed parenteral nutrition solution in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Jacques; Senterre, Thibault

    2013-12-01

    Growth failure in neonatal intensive care units is a major challenge for pediatricians and neonatologists. The use of early "aggressive" parenteral nutrition (PN), with >2.5 g/(kg ·d) of amino acids and at least 40 kcal/(kg ·d) of energy from the first day of life, has been shown to provide nutritional intakes in the range recommended by international guidelines, reducing nutritional deficit and the incidence of postnatal growth restriction in preterm infants. However, nutritional practices and adherence to recommendations may vary in different hospitals. Two ready-to-use (RTU), premixed parenteral solutions (PSs) designed for preterm infants have been prospectively evaluated: a binary RTU premixed PS from our hospital pharmacy and a commercially premixed 3-chamber bag (Baxter Healthcare). These premixed PSs provide nitrogen and energy intakes in the range of the most recent recommendations, reducing or eliminating the early cumulative nutritional deficit in very-low-birth-weight infants, and avoiding the development of postnatal growth restriction. A further rationale for RTU premixed PSs is that preterm infants require balanced PN that contains not only amino acids and energy but also minerals and electrolytes from the first day of life in order to reduce the incidence of metabolic disorders frequently reported in extremely-low-birth-weight infants during the early weeks of life.

  2. Water, electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 7

    PubMed Central

    Biesalski, H. K.; Bischoff, S. C.; Boehles, H. J.; Muehlhoefer, A.

    2009-01-01

    A close cooperation between medical teams is necessary when calculating the fluid intake of parenterally fed patients. Fluids supplied parenterally, orally and enterally, other infusions, and additional fluid losses (e.g. diarrhea) must be considered. Targeted diagnostic monitoring (volume status) is required in patients with disturbed water or electrolyte balance. Fluid requirements of adults with normal hydration status is approximately 30–40 ml/kg body weight/d, but fluid needs usually increase during fever. Serum electrolyte concentrations should be determined prior to PN, and patients with normal fluid and electrolyte balance should receive intakes follwing standard recommendations with PN. Additional requirements should usually be administered via separate infusion pumps. Concentrated potassium (1 mval/ml) or 20% NaCl solutions should be infused via a central venous catheter. Electrolyte intake should be adjusted according to the results of regular laboratory analyses. Individual determination of electrolyte intake is required when electrolyte balance is initially altered (e.g. due to chronic diarrhea, recurring vomiting, renal insufficiency etc.). Vitamins and trace elements should be generally substituted in PN, unless there are contraindications. The supplementation of vitamins and trace elements is obligatory after a PN of >1 week. A standard dosage of vitamins and trace elements based on current dietary reference intakes for oral feeding is generally recommended unless certain clinical situations require other intakes. PMID:20049067

  3. Carnitine deficiency in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition: effect of L-carnitine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Penn, D; Wolf, H

    1983-06-01

    To investigate whether L-carnitine supplementation may correct nutritional carnitine deficiency and associated metabolic disturbances in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition, an intravenous fat tolerance test (1 gm/kg Intralipid over four hours) was performed in 29 premature infants 6 to 10 days of age (15 receiving carnitine supplement 10 mg/kg . day L-carnitine IV, and 14 receiving no supplement). Total carnitine plasma values were normal or slightly elevated in supplemented but decreased in nonsupplemented infants. In both groups, fat infusion resulted in an increase in plasma concentrations of triglycerides, free fatty acids, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, and short-chain and long-chain acylcarnitine, but total carnitine values did not change. After fat infusion, the free fatty acids/D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ratios were lower and the increase of acylcarnitine greater in supplemented infants of 29 to 33 weeks' gestation than in nonsupplemented infants of the same gestational age. This study provides evidence that premature infants of less than 34 weeks' gestation requiring total parenteral nutrition develop nutritional carnitine deficiency with impaired fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. Carnitine supplementation improves this metabolic disturbance.

  4. Information systems in clinical pharmacy applied to parenteral nutrition management and traceability: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martínez Gabarrón, Josefa; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2017-01-01

    To review the scientific literature on clinical pharmacy information systems applied to parenteral nutrition (PN) management and traceability. A systematic review of the documents retrieved from the MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and Google Scholar databases up to May, 2016. The terms used, as descriptors and free text, were: "Parenteral Nutrition" and "Drug Information Services". The quality of the articles was assessed using the STROBE Questionnaire. The search was completed through consultation with experts and the bibliographic review of the articles selected. From the 153 references retrieved in our search, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 6 articles were selected for review. In three of them, flowcharts or some kind of graphical notation were designed in order to develop standard management systems, while three were based on computer programs. In two of the articles selected, a comprehensive management system had been designed for PN control and traceability. PN must be integrated within a standardized system, to ensure its quality and reduce the risks associated with this therapy. The development of technologies applied to PN would enable to set up management systems that are more complete and easier to apply in a real setting. Therefore, we think it will be necessary to generate new specific articles and developments associated with PN management and traceability, in order to allow their constant monitoring and assessment. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in total body water and extracellular fluid volume in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Coran, A G; Drongowski, R A; Wesley, J R

    1984-12-01

    The nature of weight gain seen in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition continues to be controversial. The debate centers around whether or not the weight gain represents an increase in body mass or water retention. The following study was carried out to answer this question. Eighteen infants receiving peripheral or central intravenous nutrition following major surgery were studied for periods ranging from 1 to 17 weeks. The following studies were carried out after receiving informed consent from the parents and in accordance with the standards established by the Human Use Committee. Total body water was measured using the nonradioactive isotope, deuterium oxide; extracellular fluid volume was assayed using the nonradioactive isotope, sodium bromide. Both body fluid compartments were calculated using the Fick principle of dye dilution. Following double vacuum distillation, serum deuterium oxide was assayed using the falling drop technique. Serum bromide was measured by a technique developed in our laboratory that involves the complexing of bromide with gold chloride and the measurement of this chemical complex colorimetrically. Weight gain was observed in all patients. Total body water percent body weight was 82% +/- 15% prior to the initiation of intravenous nutrition; it decreased within the first week to 71% +/- 12% and then stabilized for the remainder of the study period at 75% +/- 7%. The extracellular fluid volume percent body weight was 56% +/- 15% prior to the start of intravenous nutrition; it fell to 47% +/- 10% during the first week of parenteral nutrition, and then stabilized at 40% +/- 9%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. [Description and evaluation of the adequacy of parenteral nutrition in our hospital].

    PubMed

    Alcázar, V; del Olmo, D; García Benayas, E; Diago, J; Koning, M A; Icaya, P M; López del Val, T; Sola, D; Jaunsolo, M A; Vázquez, C

    1998-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a form of nutrition that can be very beneficial, but it does have some indications and complications that should be taken into consideration. With this work we would like to describe the characteristics of our patients with PN, as well as their follow up, and to evaluate the appropriateness of its prescription. Retrospective study carried out at a hospital with 415 beds. All patients who received PN during the first six months of 1996 were reviewed. Inadequacy criteria are established and a nutritional assessment was carried out by means of clinical and analytical parameters. Catheter infections were recorded according to specific criteria and the clinical and analytical evolution of the patients was followed. A total of 83 patients were given parenteral nutrition. The most frequent indication was prolonged fasting after a surgical resection of the digestive apparatus. The most common nutritional status when beginning the PN was severe protein malnutrition (23%). There were 33 cases (39.7%) of PN that was not indicated and/or potentially avoidable. A catheter infection was reported in 7 cases (8.4%).

  7. Ampicillin-sulbactam: an update on the use of parenteral and oral forms in bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Betrosian, Alex P; Douzinas, Emmanuel E

    2009-09-01

    Ampicillin-sulbactam has a wide range of antibacterial activity that includes Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. However, the drug is not active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and pathogens producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The combination could be considered particularly active against Acinetobacter baumannii infections due to the intrinsic activity of sulbactam. The drug is indicated as empirical therapy for a broad range of community acquired infections supervened in adults or children and is effective in either parenteral (ampicillin-sulbactam) or oral (as a mutual prodrug sultamicillin) form. In clinical trials, sultamicillin has proved clinically and bacteriologically effective in adults and children against a variety of frequently encountered infections, including mild upper and lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, diabetic foot and skin and soft tissue infections. Furthermore, adverse effects rarely occur with the diarrhoea to represent the most commonly reported. The parenteral ampicillin-sulbactam is indicated for community infections of mild-to-moderate severity acquired infections such as intra-abdominal or gynecological. Moreover, it seems to represent the alternative of choice for the treatment of A. baumannii infections for carbapenem-resistant strains in the nosocomial setting. Thus, ampicillin-sulbactam remains a valuable agent in the physician's armamentarium in the management of adult and pediatric infections.

  8. Development of a process using electron beam for a terminal sterilization for parenteral formulations of pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matagne, D.; Delbar, N.; Hartmann, H.-J.; Gray, M.; Stickelmeyer, M.

    2004-09-01

    As pharmaceutical technology advances and sensitive drug formulations demand ever-greater stability, radiation processing is likely the only alternative that can be used to terminally sterilize thermo-labile pharmaceutical products intended for parenteral administration. To this end, a radiation process using e-beam technology has been developed. A key feature of this process is the elucidation of defined conditions of radiation processing in order to achieve the homogeneity of the absorbed dose inside a single vial and throughout a tray containing several vials. Results of several dosimetry studies, using e-beam technology, demonstrate the beneficial effects of the use of aluminum or stainless-steel plates to scatter the beam and therefore to obtain an excellent Dmax/ Dmin across all dose-monitoring positions within the vial and throughout a tray containing 260 vials filled with a dry powder or a tray containing approximately 30 vials filled with an aqueous solution. This ionizing radiation process can be directly applicable, at a manufacturing level, for a terminal sterilization of parenteral formulations of pharmaceuticals.

  9. Validation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Kushner, R.F.; Jones, P.J.

    1986-08-01

    The doubly labeled water method was compared with intake-balance for measuring energy expenditure in five patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Because parenteral solutions were isotopically different from local water, patients had to be placed on TPN at least 10 days before the metabolic period. Approximately 0.1 g 2H2O and 0.25 g H2(18)O per kg total body water were given orally. We collected saliva before, 3 h, and 4 h after the dose for measurement of total body water and urine before, 1 day, and 14 days after the dose for measurement of isotope eliminations. On day 14, total body weight was remeasured and change in body energy stores was calculated, assuming constant hydration. Intake was assessed from weights of TPN fluids plus dietary record for any oral intake. Energy expenditure from doubly labeled water (+/- SD) averaged 3 +/- 6% greater than intake-balance. Doubly labeled water method is a noninvasive, nonrestrictive method for measuring energy expenditure in patients receiving TPN.

  10. Early enteral nutrition vs parenteral nutrition following pancreaticoduodenectomy: Experience from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian-Wen; Liu, Chang; Du, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Xue-Min; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze and compare postoperative morbidity between patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and early enteral nutrition supplemented with parenteral nutrition (EEN + PN). METHODS: Three hundred and forty patients receiving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) from 2009 to 2013 at our center were enrolled retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups depending on postoperative nutrition support scheme: an EEN + PN group (n = 87) and a TPN group (n = 253). Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, preoperative biochemical parameters, pathological diagnosis, intraoperative information, and postoperative complications of the two groups were analyzed. RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in demographic characteristics, preoperative comorbidities, preoperative biochemical parameters or pathological findings (P > 0.05 for all). However, patients with EEN + PN following PD had a higher incidence of delayed gastric emptying (16.1% vs 6.7%, P = 0.016), pulmonary infection (10.3% vs 3.6%, P = 0.024), and probably intraperitoneal infection (18.4% vs 10.3%, P = 0.059), which might account for their longer nasogastric tube retention time (9 d vs 5 d, P = 0.006), postoperative hospital stay (25 d vs 20 d, P = 0.055) and higher hospitalization expenses (USD10397 vs USD8663.9, P = 0.008), compared to those with TPN. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that TPN might be safe and sufficient for patient recovery after PD. Postoperative EEN should only be performed scrupulously and selectively. PMID:27076767

  11. Parenteral metoclopramide for acute migraine: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Ian; Brown, Michael D; Innes, Grant D; Grafstein, Eric; Roberts, Ted E; Rowe, Brian H

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the evidence from controlled trials on the efficacy and tolerability of parenteral metoclopramide for acute migraine in adults. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, conference proceedings, clinical practice guidelines, and other sources. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of parenteral metoclopramide for acute migraine in adults. Results We reviewed 596 potentially relevant abstracts and found 13 eligible trials totalling 655 adults. In studies comparing metoclopramide with placebo, metoclopramide was more likely to provide significant reduction in migraine pain (odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 7.68). Used as the only agent, metoclopramide showed mixed effectiveness when compared with other single agents. Heterogeneity of studies for combination treatment prevented statistical pooling. Treatments that did include metoclopramide were as, or more, effective than comparison treatments for pain, nausea, and relapse outcomes reported in all studies. Conclusions Metoclopramide is an effective treatment for migraine headache and may be effective when combined with other treatments. Given its non-narcotic and antiemetic properties, metoclopramide should be considered a primary agent in the treatment of acute migraines in emergency departments. PMID:15550401

  12. Medium-chain triglycerides for parenteral nutrition: kinetic profile in humans.

    PubMed

    Mingrone, G; De Gaetano, A; Greco, A V; Capristo, E; Castagneto, M; Gasbarrini, G

    1995-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) have been introduced as lipid substrates in parenteral nutrition because of their rapid and complete oxidation. Although there are many clinical studies on the use of MCTs in parenteral nutrition there are only a few studies on their kinetics; most of these studies used indirect methods (such as light scattering) to determine MCT concentrations in plasma. We determined the hydrolysis rate of MCTs to medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and the disposition rate of MCFAs in nine healthy volunteers who received an intravenous bolus of MCTs as 10% MCT + 10% long-chain triglyceride solution. MCTs and MCFAs were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. One linear compartment model was used and its parameters were numerically estimated. The first-order transformation constant of the hydrolysis step from MCT to MCFA was 0.0964 +/- 0.0152 min-1(for 8- and 10-carbon pooled together); the rate constant for tissue MCFA uptake from plasma was 0.0725 +/- 0.0230 min-1. The apparent volumes of distribution were about 4.5 L for MCT and 19 L for MCFA in a typical 70-kg subject. The plasma half-life of MCT was 11 min and that of MCFA was 17 min. The limiting step in the clinical use of MCTs seems to be tissue uptake of MCFAs.

  13. Parenteral nutrition improves nutritional status, autonomic symptoms and quality of life in transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Stancanelli, Claudia; Mazzeo, Anna; Vita, Giuseppe; Messina, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is an inherited amyloidosis, leading to death in about ten years in most cases due to cardiac failure or wasting syndrome. Previous studies showed that modified body mass index was related to time before death, duration of gastrointestinal disturbances, malabsorption and functional capacity. We report two patients in whom nutritional status worsened despite diet modification, hypercaloric supplement and two relevant therapeutic approaches such as liver transplant and tafamidis meglumine, respectively. The first patient, a 52-year-old lady carrying Thr49Ala mutation, had a disease duration of twelve years and had lost weight up to 35 kg because of daily diarrhea. The second patient, a 63-year-old man with Glu89Gln mutation and a disease duration of fifteen years, was in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification class III and his weight was 39 kg. In both cases, a peripherally inserted central catheter was placed for parenteral nutrition. It allowed to improve their nutritional status and clinical conditions, with body weight gains of 11 and 8 kg in a one year follow-up, respectively. Moreover, reduction of autonomic symptoms including postural hypotension, nausea and diarrhoea was recorded with ameliorated quality of life. Our experience suggests that parenteral nutrition may be useful in reducing complications and disabilities in TTR-FAP patients, even when all dietary adjustments have been ineffective. Reasonably, the improvement in nutritional status may prolong survival in TTR-FAP patients.

  14. Probability-based compatibility curves for calcium and phosphates in parenteral nutrition formulations.

    PubMed

    Gonyon, Thomas; Carter, Phillip W; Phillips, Gerald; Owen, Heather; Patel, Dipa; Kotha, Priyanka; Green, John-Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    The information content of the calcium phosphate compatibility curves for adult parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions may benefit from a more sophisticated statistical treatment. Binary logistic regression analyses were evaluated as part of an alternate method for generating formulation compatibility curves. A commercial PN solution was challenged with a systematic array of calcium and phosphate concentrations. These formulations were then characterized for particulates by visual inspection, light obscuration, and filtration followed by optical microscopy. Logistic regression analyses of the data were compared with traditional treatments for generating compatibility curves. Assay-dependent differences were observed in the compatibility curves and associated probability contours; the microscopic method of precipitate detection generated the most robust results. Calcium and phosphate compatibility data generated from small-volume glass containers reasonably predicted the observed compatibility of clinically relevant flexible containers. The published methods for creating calcium and phosphate compatibility curves via connecting the highest passing or lowest failing calcium concentrations should be augmented or replaced by probability contours of the entire experimental design to determine zones of formulation incompatibilities. We recommend researchers evaluate their data with logistic regression analysis to help build a more comprehensive probabilistic database of compatibility information. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Hepatic Overexpression of GRP94 in a Rabbit Model of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xueping; Zhang, Xiaomin; Yu, Lingling; Xu, Yumin; Feng, Xing; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To use a rabbit model of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) to study changes of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) marker glucose regulatory protein 94 (GRP94) and determine its role in the pathogenesis of PNALD. Methods. A rabbit PNALD model total parenteral nutrition (TPN) group was established. A corresponding control group received breast-feeding for one week. Serum biochemical parameters were measured and liver histological examinations were performed. The level of GRP94 mRNA and protein were measured. Results. The results showed that the serum TBIL, DBIL, and γ-GT levels in the TPN group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while levels of serum ALB in TPN group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The immunohistochemistry results showed that the protein expression level of GRP94 in the liver of TPN group was significantly increased compared with the control group. The RT-PCR results showed that the level of GRP94 mRNA in the liver of the TPN group was significantly higher compared with the control group. Conclusions. The mRNA and protein levels of GRP94 in the TPN group were both significantly increased, indicating that ERS may be directly related to the occurrence and development of PNALD. PMID:25918521

  16. Parenteral magnesium load testing with /sup 28/Mg in weanling and young adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Caddell, J.L.; Calhoun, N.R.; Howard, M.P.; Patterson, K.Y.; Smith, J.C. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    A sound diagnostic test for Mg deficiency is needed. This is a report of the parenteral Mg load test conducted in weanling and young adult rats fed a purified basal diet containing 3 mg magnesium/100 g with 150 mg of added magnesium/100 g (control) or 0 added magnesium (deficient). Weanlings were studied at about 1 week of dietary treatment and young adults at 2 weeks. The protocol included: a) a 6-hour preload urinary collection; b) an intraperitoneal load of 15 mg of magnesium/kg (weanlings) or 12 mg/kg (young adults) with 2 microCi 28Mg given simultaneously with each load; c) a 6-hour postload urinary collection; d) chemical analysis of selected tissues and urine for Mg; and e) 28Mg counting 6 and 24 hours postload. Controls all excreted large amounts of Mg pre- and postload, retaining less than 26% of nonradioactive loads. They had high urinary 28Mg counts. In Mg-deficient animals, the concentration of Mg in bone more than halved. These animals avidly conserved Mg and retained over 85% of nonradioactive Mg loads. Their 28Mg activity in vital organs was 3--6 times greater than in controls. We concluded that the parenteral Mg load test reliably identifies severe Mg deficiency.

  17. Influence of Preoperative Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition with Micronutrients after Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hsiu-Chih; Hu, Shu-Hui; Yang, Hui-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The inflammatory reactions are stronger after surgery of malnourished preoperative patients. Many studies have shown vitamin and trace element deficiencies appear to affect the functioning of immune cells. Enteral nutrition is often inadequate for malnourished patients. Therefore, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is considered an effective method for providing preoperative nutritional support. TPN needs a central vein catheter, and there are more risks associated with TPN. However, peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) often does not provide enough energy or nutrients. Purpose. This study investigated the inflammatory response and prognosis for patients receiving a modified form of PPN with added fat emulsion infusion, multiple vitamins (MTV), and trace elements (TE) to assess the feasibility of preoperative nutritional support. Methods. A cross-sectional design was used to compare the influence of PPN with or without adding MTV and TE on malnourished abdominal surgery patients. Results. Both preoperative groups received equal calories and protein, but due to the lack of micronutrients, patients in preoperative Group B exhibited higher inflammation, lower serum albumin levels, and higher anastomotic leak rates and also required prolonged hospital stays. Conclusion. Malnourished patients who receive micronutrient supplementation preoperatively have lower postoperative inflammatory responses and better prognoses. PPN with added fat emulsion, MTV, and TE provides valid and effective preoperative nutritional support. PMID:26000296

  18. Construction and characterization of human rotavirus recombinant VP8* subunit parenteral vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaobo; Cao, Dianjun; Jones, Ronald W; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka

    2012-09-21

    Two currently licensed live oral rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, the efficacy of such vaccines in selected low-income African and Asian countries is much lower than that in middle or high-income countries. Additionally, these two vaccines have recently been associated with rare case of intussusception in vaccinated infants. We developed a novel recombinant subunit parenteral rotavirus vaccine which may be more effective in low-income countries and also avert the potential problem of intussusception. Truncated recombinant VP8* (ΔVP8*) protein of human rotavirus strain Wa P[8], DS-1 P[4] or 1076 P[6] expressed in Escherichia coli was highly soluble and was generated in high yield. Guinea pigs hyperimmunized intramuscularly with each of the ΔVP8* proteins (i.e., P[8], P[4] or P[6]) developed high levels of homotypic as well as variable levels of heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, the selected ΔVP8* proteins when administered to mice at a clinically relevant dosage, route and schedule, elicited high levels of serum anti-VP8* IgG and/or neutralizing antibodies. Our data indicated that the ΔVP8* proteins may be a plausible additional candidate as new parenteral rotavirus vaccines.

  19. Construction and Characterization of Human Rotavirus Recombinant VP8* Subunit Parenteral Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaobo; Cao, Dianjun; Jones, Ronald W.; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka

    2012-01-01

    Two currently licensed live oral rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, the efficacy of such vaccines in selected low-income African and Asian countries is much lower than that in middle or high-income countries. Additionally, these two vaccines have recently been associated with rare case of intussusception in vaccinated infants. We developed a novel recombinant subunit parenteral rotavirus vaccine which may be more effective in low-income countries and also avert the potential problem of intussusception. Truncated recombinant VP8* (ΔVP8*) protein of human rotavirus strain Wa P[8], DS-1 P[4] or 1076 P[6] expressed in E. coli was highly soluble and was generated in high yield. Guinea pigs hyperimmunized intramuscularly with each of the ΔVP8* proteins (i.e., (P[8], P[4] or P[6]) developed high levels of homotypic as well as variable levels of heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, the selected ΔVP8* proteins when administered to mice at a clinically relevant dosage, route and schedule, elicited high levels of serum anti-VP8* IgG and/or neutralizing antibodies. Our data indicated that the ΔVP8* proteins may be a plausible additional candidate as new parenteral rotavirus vaccines. PMID:22885016

  20. Incidence and Risk Factors of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis in Omani Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Sharef, Sharef W.; Al-Sinani, Siham; Al-Naamani, Khalid; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Reyes, Zenaida S.; Al-Ryiami, Hilal; Khan, Ashfaq A.; Al-Mamari, Watfa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is one of the most challenging complications of prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) in neonates. There is a lack of research investigating its incidence in newborn infants in Oman and the Arab region. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the incidence of PNAC and its risk factors in Omani neonates. Methods: This retrospective study took place between January and April 2014. All neonates who received PN for ≥14 days during a four-year period (June 2009 to May 2013) at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, were enrolled. Results: A total of 1,857 neonates were admitted to the NICU over the study period and 135 neonates (7.3%) received PN for ≥14 days. Determining the incidence of PNAC was only possible in 97 neonates; of these, 38 (39%) had PNAC. The main risk factors associated with PNAC were duration of PN, duration of enteral starvation, gastrointestinal surgeries, blood transfusions and sepsis. Neonates with PNAC had a slightly higher incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in comparison to those without PNAC. Conclusion: This study found a PNAC incidence of 39% in Omani neonates. There were several significant risk factors for PNAC in Omani neonates; however, after logistic regression analysis, only total PN duration remained statistically significant. Preventive strategies should be implemented in NICUs so as to avoid future chronic liver disease in this population. PMID:26052457

  1. Parenteral Soy Oil and Fish Oil Emulsions: Impact of Dose Restriction on Bile Flow and Brain Size of Parenteral Nutrition-Fed Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Jessica; Turner, Justine M; Field, Catherine J; Wizzard, Pamela R; Nation, Patrick N; Sergi, Consolato; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Wales, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated liver disease (PNALD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for neonates dependent on PN. Total fat emulsion dose and composition, particularly the large amount of ω-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plant oils, have been proposed as risk factors for PNALD. We hypothesized restriction of the dose of emulsion would prevent PNALD, regardless of the composition, but growth could be compromised. Using a neonatal piglet model, we compared conventional soy oil emulsion (Intralipid), dosed high (SO10, n = 8: 10 g/kg/d) and low (SO5, n = 6: 5 g/kg/d), with fish oil (Omegaven), dosed low (FO5, n = 8: 5 g/kg/d). Piglets were given isonitrogenous PN for 14 days. The normal range for all parameters was determined by measurement in equivalent aged sow-reared piglets. Bile flow was lower with high-dose Intralipid, outside the normal range, while higher for the other groups (SO10, 5.4 µg/g; SO5, 8.6 µg/g; FO5, 13.4 µg/g; P = .010; normal range, 6.5-12.2 µg/g). Total body weight was low in all treatment groups (SO10, 4.4 kg; SO5, 4.5 kg; FO5, 5.0 kg; P = .038; normal range, 5.2-7.3 kg). Brain weight was not different between groups (SO10, 40.3 g; SO5, 36.0 g; FO5, 36.6 g; P = .122; normal range, 41.8-51.4 g). Corrected for body weight, brain weight was lowest in the fish oil group (SO10, 9.3 g/kg; SO5, 8.0 g/kg; FO5, 7.3 g/kg; P < .001; normal range, 5.9-9.0 g/kg). Low-dose fat emulsions reduce the risk of developing PNALD. Further investigation of the risk to brain development in neonates exposed to dose restriction, particularly with fish oil, is required. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  2. Organisation, regulations, preparation and logistics of parenteral nutrition in hospitals and homes; the role of the nutrition support team - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 8.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, S C; Kester, L; Meier, R; Radziwill, R; Schwab, D; Thul, P

    2009-11-18

    PN (parenteral nutrition) should be standardised to ensure quality and to reduce complications, and it should be carried out in consultation with a specialised nutrition support team whenever possible. Interdisciplinary nutrition support teams should be established in all hospitals because effectiveness and efficiency in the implementation of PN are increased. The tasks of the team include improvements of quality of care as well as enhancing the benefit to cost ratio. Therapeutic decisions must be taken by attending physicians, who should collaborate with the nutrition support team. "All-in-One" bags are generally preferred for PN in hospitals and may be industrially manufactured, industrially manufactured with the necessity to add micronutrients, or be prepared "on-demand" within or outside the hospital according to a standardised or individual composition and under consideration of sterile and aseptic conditions. A standardised procedure should be established for introduction and advancement of enteral or oral nutrition. Home PN may be indicated if the expected duration of when PN exceeds 4 weeks. Home PN is a well established method for providing long-term PN, which should be indicated by the attending physician and be reviewed by the nutrition support team. The care of home PN patients should be standardised whenever possible. The indication for home PN should be regularly reviewed during the course of PN.

  3. Utilization of Parenteral Morphine by Application of ATC/DDD Methodology: Retrospective Study in the Referral Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Rancic, Nemanja; Stamenkovic, Dusica; Simic, Radoje

    2017-01-01

    Few studies analyzed the pattern of opioid analgesic utilization in hospital settings. The aim of this study was to determine the consumption pattern of parenteral morphine in patients hospitalized in the Serbian referral teaching hospital and to correlate it with utilization at the national and international level. In retrospective study, the required data were extracted from medical records of surgical patients who received parenteral morphine in the 5-year period, from 2011 to 2015. We used the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification/Defined Daily Doses (DDD) international system for consumption evaluation. While the number of performed surgical procedures in our hospital steadily increased from 2011 to 2015, the number of inpatient bed-days decreased from 2012. However, the consumption of parenteral morphine varied and was not more than 0.867 DDD/100 bed-days in the observed period. Based on the available data, parenteral morphine consumption in our hospital was lower compared with international data. The low level of morphine use in the hospital was in accordance with national data, and compared with other countries, morphine consumption applied for medical indications in Serbia was low. Adequate legal provision to ensure the availability of opioids, better education and training of medical personnel, as well as multidisciplinary approach should enable more rational and individual pain management in the future, not only within the hospitals.

  4. Fish oil–based lipid emulsions in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: An ongoing positive experience

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We previously reported the beneficial effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLEs) as monotherapy in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). In this report, we share our ongoing experience at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, in the use of FOLE in treatment of P...

  5. 10 CFR 35.396 - Training for the parenteral administration of unsealed byproduct material requiring a written...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... byproduct material requiring a written directive. 35.396 Section 35.396 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Unsealed Byproduct Material-Written Directive Required § 35.396 Training for the parenteral administration of unsealed byproduct material requiring a written directive. Except...

  6. 10 CFR 35.396 - Training for the parenteral administration of unsealed byproduct material requiring a written...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... byproduct material requiring a written directive. 35.396 Section 35.396 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Unsealed Byproduct Material-Written Directive Required § 35.396 Training for the parenteral administration of unsealed byproduct material requiring a written directive. Except...

  7. 10 CFR 35.396 - Training for the parenteral administration of unsealed byproduct material requiring a written...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... byproduct material requiring a written directive. 35.396 Section 35.396 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Unsealed Byproduct Material-Written Directive Required § 35.396 Training for the parenteral administration of unsealed byproduct material requiring a written directive. Except...

  8. 10 CFR 35.396 - Training for the parenteral administration of unsealed byproduct material requiring a written...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... byproduct material requiring a written directive. 35.396 Section 35.396 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Unsealed Byproduct Material-Written Directive Required § 35.396 Training for the parenteral administration of unsealed byproduct material requiring a written directive. Except...

  9. First Report on Infant Acute Urticaria after Mother’s Parenteral Use of Meglumine Antimoniate (Glucantime): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    MOZAFARI, Omid; SHOROFI, Seyed Afshin; YOUSEFI, Seyde Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Pentavalent antimonials are still the first drug of choice for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Like other treatments, they can cause adverse reactions including musculoskeletal pain, gastrointestinal disturbances, and mild to moderate headaches. In this paper, we report the first case of an infant who developed acute urticaria after her mother’s parenteral use of meglumine antimoniate (glucantime). PMID:27957467

  10. Parenteral Nutrition Additive Shortages: The Short-Term, Long-Term and Potential Epigenetic Implications in Premature and Hospitalized Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Thoene, Melissa; Wagner, Julie; Collier, Dean; Lecci, Kassandra; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition support practitioners are currently dealing with shortages of parenteral nutrition micronutrients, including multivitamins (MVI), selenium and zinc. A recent survey from the American Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition (ASPEN) indicates that this shortage is having a profound effect on clinical practice. A majority of respondents reported taking some aggressive measures to ration existing supplies. Most premature infants and many infants with congenital anomalies are dependent on parenteral nutrition for the first weeks of life to meet nutritional needs. Because of fragile health and poor reserves, they are uniquely susceptible to this problem. It should be understood that shortages and rationing have been associated with adverse outcomes, such as lactic acidosis and Wernicke encephalopathy from thiamine deficiency or pulmonary and skeletal development concerns related to inadequate stores of Vitamin A and D. In this review, we will discuss the current parenteral shortages and the possible impact on a population of very low birth weight infants. This review will also present a case study of a neonate who was impacted by these current shortages. PMID:23223000

  11. [The utilization of parenteral nutrition at Hospital de Jerez (Cádiz): a description and comparison with other hospital centers].

    PubMed

    Gómez Henry, J C; Méndez Martínez, C; Blanco Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez Quirós, M

    1996-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to analyze, and compare with other Spanish hospitals, the use of parenteral nutrition, its characteristics and complications, in a general hospital with 610 beds, during 1992. To conduct this study, we have used clinical histories and follow up sheets made up by the Department of Pharmacy for each patient, as well as the results of the sample processing in the microbiology laboratory. Between 1992 and 1993 we have seen an increase in the use of parenteral nutrition, with the number of bags increasing from 2134 to 2575. The departments which have used parenteral nutrition most, were Surgery (57.3%), and ICU (24.8%), with the mean duration being 10.4 days 8SD = +/- 9.3 days). The most frequently used access route in the hospital was the drum, but there are significant differences between the departments. Gastroenterological pathology was, with 71.4% the most frequent indication for its use, and within this, the neoplasias stand out with 26.3% of the total of parenteral nutrition. The complications which affected most patients are: increases of the liver enzymes, hypokalemias, hyponatremias, and hyperglycemias.

  12. Effects of short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine abundance.

    PubMed

    Milo, L A; Reardon, K A; Tappenden, K A

    2002-09-01

    We examined the effect of short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on proinflammatory cytokine levels in piglets. Piglets (N = 22) received either standard total parenteral nutrition or total parenteral nutrition supplemented with short-chain fatty acids. After seven days of continuous nutrient infusion, proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6) abundance in plasma, jejunal, and ileal samples and small intestinal myeloperoxidase was determined using western blotting. No differences were seen in TNF-alpha small intestinal abundance. IL-1beta was higher in the small intestine of the short-chain fatty acid group (P < 0.05). IL-6 was higher in intestinal samples of the short-chain fatty acid group (P = 0.05), with the ileum having a greater abundance of IL-6 than the jejunum (P < 0.005). No differences in proinflammatory cytokine abundance in the plasma or tissue myeloperoxidase were seen. These results indicate short-chain fatty acids beneficially increase small intestinal abundance of IL-1beta and IL-6 during total parenteral nutrition administration, while not affecting systemic production of these cytokines or intestinal inflammation.

  13. [Study of parenteral iron use in a health facility and its impact in terms of hospital economics].

    PubMed

    Vonesch, M-A; Grangier, G; Girard, P; Dussart, C

    2016-07-01

    Administration of parenteral iron is a mainstay of iron deficiency treatment. Evaluation and control of this element is an issue for healthcare facilities. Study of parenteral iron use is thus to be evaluated in its impact in terms of hospital economics. Parenteral iron administrations that took place on 2014 in our healthcare facility were retrospectively identified by pharmacists. Following data were extracted from Pharma™ and Crossway™ softwares: indication, diagnostic coding and total dose of iron received. They were then compared to the summary of product characteristics. Of 198 analyzed prescriptions, iron deficiency was known or suspected for 97% of patients. However, the total dose of iron administered was not in compliance for three quarters of prescriptions. Sixty-eight percent of patients appear under-dosed. Administration's traceability was found for two-thirds. Eighty-five hospital discharges did not have the right coding and 34 stays were charged like an external act instead sessions. Financial loss for the hospital is estimated at 49,300 euros. As part of improving practice, close pharmaceutical monitoring of parenteral iron prescribed dosing regimen is essential. Effective communication with the medical information department and regular awareness raising of prescribers should also allow to give more value to this act. Hospital economics is a real tool to aid decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Addition of parenteral cefoxitin to regimen of oral antibiotics for elective colorectal operations. A randomized prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Schoetz, D J; Roberts, P L; Murray, J J; Coller, J A; Veidenheimer, M C

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of cefoxitin, a perioperative parenteral antibiotic, combined with mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics to prevent wound infections and other septic complications in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations, was examined in a prospective randomized study. All 197 patients who completed the study received mechanical bowel preparation and oral neomycin/erythromycin base. In addition a perioperative parenteral antibiotic was given in three divided doses to 101 patients. The other 96 patients received no parenteral antibiotics. The overall incidence of intra-abdominal septic complications was 7.3% (7 of 96) in the control group (no cefoxitin) and 5% (5 of 101) in the treatment group (cefoxitin). This difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of abdominal wound infection was 14.6% in the control group and 5% in the treatment group, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.02). The addition of perioperative parenteral cefoxitin greatly reduced the incidence of wound infections in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations who had been prepared with mechanical bowel cleansing and oral antimicrobial agents. PMID:2100983

  15. Gluconeogenesis is not regulated by either glucose or insulin in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 11 hou...

  16. Enteral feeding induces diet-dependent mucosal dysfunction, bacterial overgrowth and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm parenterally-fed pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preterm neonates have an immature gut and metabolism and may benefit from a period of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) before enteral food introduction. Conversely, delayed enteral feeding may inhibit gut maturation and sensitize to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intestinal mass and NEC lesions we...

  17. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: central venous catheters (access, care, diagnosis and therapy of complications).

    PubMed

    Pittiruti, Mauro; Hamilton, Helen; Biffi, Roberto; MacFie, John; Pertkiewicz, Marek

    2009-08-01

    When planning parenteral nutrition (PN), the proper choice, insertion, and nursing of the venous access are of paramount importance. In hospitalized patients, PN can be delivered through short-term, non-tunneled central venous catheters, through peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), or - for limited period of time and with limitation in the osmolarity and composition of the solution - through peripheral venous access devices (short cannulas and midline catheters). Home PN usually requires PICCs or - if planned for an extended or unlimited time - long-term venous access devices (tunneled catheters and totally implantable ports). The most appropriate site for central venous access will take into account many factors, including the patient's conditions and the relative risk of infective and non-infective complications associated with each site. Ultrasound-guided venepuncture is strongly recommended for access to all central veins. For parenteral nutrition, the ideal position of the catheter tip is between the lower third of the superior cava vein and the upper third of the right atrium; this should preferably be checked during the procedure. Catheter-related bloodstream infection is an important and still too common complication of parenteral nutrition. The risk of infection can be reduced by adopting cost-effective, evidence-based interventions such as proper education and specific training of the staff, an adequate hand washing policy, proper choices of the type of device and the site of insertion, use of maximal barrier protection during insertion, use of chlorhexidine as antiseptic prior to insertion and for disinfecting the exit site thereafter, appropriate policies for the dressing of the exit site, routine changes of administration sets, and removal of central lines as soon as they are no longer necessary. Most non-infective complications of central venous access devices can also be prevented by appropriate, standardized protocols for line insertion

  18. Evidence that phenylalanine hydroxylation rates are overestimated in neonatal subjects receiving total parenteral nutrition with a high phenylalanine content.

    PubMed

    House, J D; Thorpe, J M; Wykes, L J; Pencharz, P B; Ball, R O

    1998-04-01

    Recent publications have indicated that the parenterally fed neonate has a substantial ability to hydroxylate phenylalanine. Examination of these data suggests that, at high phenylalanine intakes, estimated rates of hydroxylation exceed rates of intake. This implies significant net tissue breakdown. However, the quantitative validity of the estimates of phenylalanine hydroxylation cannot be assessed without nitrogen balance data. We have recently developed a parenterally fed neonatal piglet model and have used this to study aromatic amino acid metabolism in piglets fed different amino acid solutions. Reappraisal of the data from these studies has allowed us to estimate both phenylalanine hydroxylation and tissue protein accretion. Piglets were parenterally fed Vamin [292 micromol of Phe x kg(-1) x h(-1), 26 micromol of Tyr x kg(-1) x h(-1)], Vaminolact + Phe [VLP, 277 micromol of Phe x kg(-1) x h(-1), 26 micromol Tyr x kg(-1) x h(-1)], or Vaminolact + glycyl-L-tyrosine [VLGT, 152 micromol of Phe x kg(-1) x h(-1), 159 micromol of Tyr x kg(-1) x h(-1)] for 8 d. Nitrogen balance was measured over the last 5 study d, and aromatic amino acid kinetics were determined using a primed continuous infusion of L-[1-4C]phenylalanine on d 8. Average body protein gain, derived from nitrogen balance, was 11 g x kg(-1) x d(-1). For the Vamin and VLP groups, the rates of phenylalanine hydroxylation were estimated to be 139 and 90% of intake, respectively. However, phenylalanine hydroxylation was only 16% of intake for the VLGT group. In view of the tissue protein accretion data, it appears that the rate of phenylalanine hydroxylation may be overestimated in neonates fed high phenylalanine parenteral nutrition. The extent to which the parenterally fed neonate can adapt to a high phenylalanine intake, by increasing the rate of phenylalanine hydroxylation, remains to be determined.

  19. [Endocarditis caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatumin a patient receiving home parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Peralta, Laura I; Mañas Vera, Ma Reyes; García Delgado, Manuel J; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio J

    2013-01-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) improves the quality of life of the patients although it has complications. Catheter-related infections and mechanical complications are the most frequent ones. We report the case of endocarditis over catheter in a man suffering from short bowel and receiving HPN. The special features of the case are firstly the catheter was a remaining fragment on the right atrial and secondly the infection was caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an isolated fact regarding this pathology so far. Conventional surgery was applied to take the catheter out. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were isolated from the surgical specimen. The extraction of the infected catheter along with antibiotic therapy led to the complete recovery of the subject. Ochrobactrum anthropi and Trichoderma longibrachiatum are unusual microorganisms but they are acquiring more relevance. Although there is no agreement about intravascular retained catheter management, the most recommended approach consists on monitoring them and removing the device in case of complications.

  20. Use of intravenous iron dextran injection in children receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; Bertino, J S; Halpin, T C

    1981-09-01

    We conducted studies using intravenous (IV) iron dextran injection in 14 hospitalized infants and children with iron deficiency who required total parenteral nutrition. A single, total dose of IV iron dextran was administered during a two-hour period (preceded by a test dose of 25 mg). Doses administered ranged from 50 to 782 mg, with an average dose of 15.2 mg/kg body weight. No adverse reactions were noted during the test dose or infusion. The IV administration of iron dextran appears to be a safe method of treatment for iron repletion in children who are unable to tolerate feedings as a result of malabsorption, inflammatory bowel disease, or chronic debilitating diseases.

  1. Red cell folate concentrations in patients with Crohn's disease on parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, M.; Iida, M.; Aoyagi, K.; Kohrogi, N.; Matsui, T.; Fujishima, M.

    1989-01-01

    To examine changes in the folate concentrations in red cell during relatively long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN), 10 Japanese patients with Crohn's disease (7 males), the mean Crohn's disease activity index on admission being 211, were given folic acid in a dose of 400 micrograms/day (AMA-FDA formulation) or 800 micrograms/day for 6-16 weeks (mean 10.5). The red cell folate concentrations were determined before TPN and once every week or 2-4 weeks thereafter. The folate concentrations were very low even after TPN with folic acid of 400 micrograms/day. In those given 800 micrograms of daily folic acid, the folate levels tended to increase, but did not reach the normal range. We propose that folic acid over 800 micrograms/day or a double dose of AMA-FDA formulation should be prescribed for Crohn's disease treated with long-term TPN. PMID:2515529

  2. Stability of cocarboxylase in parenteral nutrition mixtures stored in multilayer bags.

    PubMed

    Allwood, M C; Martin, H

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the stability of cocarboxylase, a thiamine derivative employed as a vitamin B1 source in multivitamin additives, in parenteral nutrition (PN) mixtures containing different commercial amino acid infusions. In particular, the influence of a metabisulphite-containing amino acid product, Freamine III, was investigated. A liquid chromatographic assay method for cocarboxylase was developed and employed to investigate cocarboxylase degradation during extended storage of PN mixtures at 5 degrees C in multilayered bags. Results indicated that cocarboxylase was relatively stable over the 28-day storage period in PN mixtures containing Synthamin or Vamin products as amino acid source. In contrast, degradation was accelerated in PN mixtures containing Freamine III, suggesting that cocarboxylase is degraded by sodium metabisulphite, showing similar sensitivity to thiamine.

  3. [Circulating lipids in prolonged postoperative parenteral feeding: their changes depending on the nature of energy intake].

    PubMed

    Manelli, J C; Lallemand, J; Kiégel, P; Siccardi, F; Bimar, J

    1977-01-01

    Repeated estimations of circulating total lipids and various fractions were made during the postoperative period in patients receiving parenteral nutrition for more than ten days. The patients were paired in relation to the underlying pathology and divided into two group : the first receiving energy supplements in the form of carbohydrates alone, whilst the second received part of this supply in the form of lipid emulsions (Trive 1000). Total lipids and various plasma fractions, with the exception of free fatty acids, increased progressively during the postoperative period, regardless of the inital values and independently of the lipid content of the nutrition fluids given. There was no significant difference between those patients who received lipid emulsions and those who did not. Free fatty acids remained at levels slightly greater than normal in the group which did not receive lipids. They were significantly higher in the group given lipid emulsions, though it was not possible to precisely define their orgin.

  4. Reduced alternative complement pathway control protein levels in anorexia nervosa: response to parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, R J; Farrell, M; Berry, P L; Forristal, J; Maloney, M J; West, C D

    1982-05-01

    Serum levels of 16 proteins, including 11 component and control proteins of the complement system were determined before and after nutritional repletion in five female patients with severe malnutrition secondary to anorexia nervosa. Before parenteral alimentation significantly decreased serum levels were found for IgG, IgM, transferrin, Clq, C2, C3, factor B, beta lH, C3b inactivator, properdin, and C4 binding protein. A significant increase in posttreatment serum levels compared with pretreatment levels were found for transferrin, C3, factor B, beta lH, and C3b inactivator. Of the proteins measured, the C3b amplification loop control and component proteins, beta lH, C3b inactivator, C3, and factor B rose to the normal range in response to therapy most rapidly. In the absence of an acute phase reaction, these proteins appear to be particularly good indices of malnutrition and its response to therapy.

  5. Beneficial effect of prolonged total parenteral nutrition in a very malnourished cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, M; Cappello, G; Cortinovis, A M; De Pinto, M; Bertasi, S

    1990-01-01

    A very malnourished Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patient was treated with integrative Parenteral Nutrition (PN). With a mean caloric supplementation of 2,550 Kcal/day a weight gain of 6.5 Kg was achieved. In spite of severe pulmonary complications (pneumotorax and pneumomediastinum), pO2 increased from 53 to 72 mmHg and pCO2 from 38 to 56 mm Hg. General conditions improved, appetite was restored and the patient cleared off continuous oxygen therapy; he left the hospital and did not present any more pulmonary exacerbations. In the following 8-month period he maintained a daily caloric intake of 80 Kcal/kg with a further weight gain of 4.5 Kg.

  6. Total parenteral nutrition in patients with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Overett, T K; Bistrian, B R; Lowry, S F; Hopkins, B S; Miller, D; Blackburn, G L

    1986-01-01

    The clinical course of 24 patients with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus who had received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was retrospectively analyzed. Routine nutritional assessment disclosed significant depression of anthropometric indices and secretory protein levels in patients with chronic renal failure complicating juvenile onset diabetes mellitus (JODM). Biochemical complications including hypo- or hyperglycemia were significantly more frequent (p less than 0.001) in JODM than in maturity-onset diabetes and found to a lesser degree in patients with renal failure. The catheter infection rate was substantially higher (17%) than usually encountered in TPN therapy. Positive nitrogen balance was achieved in the majority of patients with an average 84% and 92% of estimated protein and caloric requirements being provided. Close monitoring and a protocol of infusion plus supplemental subcutaneous regular insulin was useful in providing adequate TPN safely to these high-risk patients.

  7. [Generalized persistent lymphadenopathy syndrome in parenteral drug addicts. Lymph node biopsy study of 41 patients].

    PubMed

    Vera-Sempere, G; Vera-Sempere, F J; Guix-García, J

    1990-12-01

    Of a total of 41 VIH positive patients, parenteral drug addicts, with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome, we performed 43 lymph-node biopsies. In two sequential biopsies, 2 and 12 months respectively after the first biopsy, were carried-out. After a clinical follow-up (ranging between 4-28 months) 12 patients (24.3%) were qualified as SIDA cases according to CDC-1987 criteria. Lymph-node biopsy was of diagnostic or prognostic value in 16.27% and in 6.97% respectively. Upon comparing histological types and peripheral lymphocyte subsets it was demonstrated how the forms of major morphological deterioration tend to associate with a lower number of OKT4+ lymphocytes and a lower relation OKT4+/OKT8+.

  8. [TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN A PREGNANT PATIENT WITH ACUTE PANCREATITIS AND LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Bolívar, Victoria; González-Molero, Inmaculada; Valdivieso, Pedro; Olveira, Gabriel

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of severe acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia secondary to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency in a pregnant patient with gestational diabetes, initially maneged with diet but it was later necessary to carry out artificial nutricional support measures: total parenteral nutrition. LPL deficiency might cause severe hypertriglyceridemia, repetition acute pancreatitis which is an unwieldy and severe situation during pregnancy. Acute familial hypertriglyceridemia pancreatitis accounts for 5% of cases, including LPL deficiency. The goal of treatment is to reach triglycerides levels below 500 mg/dl, being very low fat diet the treatment of choice, drugs or plasmapheresis techniques can also be associated. TPN enriched in ω3 fatty acids and glutamine was safe and effective in our patient with significant decrease in triglyceride levels.

  9. Evidence-based practice in the management of vascular access devices for home parenteral nutrition therapy.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection and catheter occlusion are potential significant complications of parenteral nutrition therapy. The increased incidence and associated morbidity, mortality, increased costs, and quality-of-life issues experienced with these adverse events necessitate specialized management of vascular access devices. The host coagulation response to biomaterials and the associated development of biofilm on vascular devices are complex phenomena. Multiple interventions are required to prevent access of bacteria to both intraluminal and extraluminal catheter surfaces, and the occurrence of catheter occlusion. The discovery of the biofilm form of microbial life and the associated recalcitrance of biofilm bacteria to antimicrobials has provided insight into the failure of current prevention, diagnostic, and treatment protocols. Critical interventions are presented correlating current evidence with new discoveries in pathogenesis.

  10. Efectiveness of long-term home parenteral nutrition with peripherally inserted central catheter: a case report

    PubMed

    Santacruz-Cerdán, Elisa; Arcano, Karina; Arrieta Blanco, Francisco; Ortiz Flores, Andrés; Mateo Lobo, Raquel; Botella Carretero, José Ignacio; Vázquez Martínez, Clotilde; Zamarrón Cuesta, Isabel

    2016-02-16

    The use of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in patients who can not obtain their nutritional requirements by the enteral route is increasing in recent years, allowing normalization lifestyle of patients. Neoplasm and mesenteric ischaemia are some of the diseases that most frequently require HPN in Spain. However, HPN is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of much less frequent illnesses as in the case of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. We present the case of a patient with encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis and HPN support for more than 7 years with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) for over 6 years without complications and the autonomy to perform his normal business activity. Given the exceptional nature of the case we refer it to its publication.

  11. [Glucose or sugar substitutes in parenteral infusions? The choice of carbohydrates in postoperative infusion therapy].

    PubMed

    Leutenegger, A F

    1980-12-18

    The aim of parenteral nutrition should be to optimise fluid, energy and nitrogen balance. In the post-traumatic or post-operative phase a stress induced glucose intolerance may occur and it may become difficult to meet the patient's energy requirements with glucose alone. For these reasons the use of sugar substitutes (fructose, sorbitol and xylitol) in combination with glucose is recommended as an alternative. Patients receiving a mixed sugar solution of glucose, fructose and xylitol at a ratio of 1:2:1 require less exogenous insulin and yet maintain a lower blood glucose concentration. Used in limited quantities, we encountered no side effects either in patients undergoing elective surgery or requiring intensive care.

  12. A.S.P.E.N. parenteral nutrition safety consensus recommendations.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Phil; Adams, Stephen; Boullata, Joseph; Gervasio, Jane; Holcombe, Beverly; Kraft, Michael D; Marshall, Neil; Neal, Antoinette; Sacks, Gordon; Seres, David S; Worthington, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) serves as an important therapeutic modality that is used in adults, children, and infants for a variety of indications. The appropriate use of this complex therapy aims to maximize clinical benefit while minimizing the potential risks for adverse events. Complications can occur as a result of the therapy and as the result of the PN process. These consensus recommendations are based on practices that are generally accepted to minimize errors with PN therapy, categorized in the areas of PN prescribing, order review and verification, compounding, and administration. These recommendations should be used in conjunction with other A.S.P.E.N. publications, and researchers should consider studying the questions brought forth in this document.

  13. Total parenteral nutrition in a methylcholanthrene-induced rat sarcoma model.

    PubMed

    Popp, M B; Morrison, S D; Brennan, M F

    1981-01-01

    Problems with currently available studies of the effects of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on rat tumor models include: inadequate definition of the natural history of the tumor model; use of nutritional techniques and solutions which have not been proven effective; failure to allow animals to recover from stress of catheterization before starting nutritional manipulation; short-term studies; failure to use sham-operated orally fed control animals; and inadequate evaluation of nutritional result. We have instituted TPN after a 4-day postcatheterization recovery period in a defined methylcholanthrene-induced rat sarcoma model. Preliminary results suggest that TPN increases tumor weight without changing tumor composition of water, nitrogen, or fat. TPN also increases carcass fat and water content, but not carcass protein. In tumor-bearing animals, the percentage of energy expended on activity decreases with increasing tumor burden in both TPN and orally fed controls. TPN in these studies appears to support fat stores and stimulate tumor growth.

  14. Evaluation of a new amino acid source for use in parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, M D; O'Neill, J A; Meng, H C; Stahlman, M H

    1977-01-01

    Ninety-two patients, ranging from two days to 92 years of age, received parenteral nutrition using a new synthetic amino acid solution designed to provide optimal nitrogen retention and obviate metabolic complications. Weight gain and positive nitrogen balance were produced in the majority of patients. Hyperchloremic acidosis and hypophosphatemia did not occur. Hyperammonemia in infants was avoided with the exception of occasional, transient, asymptomatic elevations of blood ammonia in low birth weight infants. It was suspected that an inadequate nonprotein calorie/gram of nitrogen ratio may have been employed in these infants. Blood ammonia levels declined from initial levels in 80% of adult patient. Nitrogen retention was directly proportional to the supply of nonprotein calories. PMID:402123

  15. Active viral B hepatitis in parenteral drug abusers with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Leevy, C B; Nurse, H; Kapila, R

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-percent of 47 parenteral drug abusers with hepatomegaly and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome had HBV DNA in serum, although only 27% were HBsAg or "e" antigen-positive by polyclonal radioimmunoassay. Liver biopsies from each of 37 HBV DNA seropositive patients showed HBV DNA and were HBcAg-positive. The absence of positive HBsAg and "e" antigen in HBV DNA-positive patients was attributable to the presence of immune complexes; after in vitro dissociation of these complexes there was an increase in HBsAg from 24% to 86%, and of "e" antigen from 19% to 62%. These data indicate that actively replicating hepatitis B virus is common in patients with AIDS, and that precautions should be taken to prevent its dissemination. Therapy in these patients should address both human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B virus infections.

  16. Management of Parenteral Nutrition in Hospitalized Adult Patients [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Mundi, Manpreet S; Nystrom, Erin M; Hurley, Daniel L; McMahon, M Molly

    2017-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of malnutrition in adult hospitalized patients, surveys continue to report that many clinicians are undertrained in clinical nutrition, making targeted nutrition education for clinicians essential for best patient care. Clinical practice models also continue to evolve, with more disciplines prescribing parenteral nutrition (PN) or managing the cases of patients who are receiving it, further adding to the need for proficiency in general PN skills. This tutorial focuses on the daily management of adult hospitalized patients already receiving PN and reviews the following topics: (1) PN basics, including the determination of energy and volume requirements; (2) PN macronutrient content (protein, dextrose, and intravenous fat emulsion); (3) PN micronutrient content (electrolytes, minerals, vitamins, and trace elements); (4) alteration of PN for special situations, such as obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, refeeding, and hepatic/renal disease; (5) daily monitoring and adjustment of PN formula; and (6) PN-related complications (PN-associated liver disease and catheter-related complications).

  17. Total parenteral alimentation via indwelling umbilical catheters in the newborn period.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R T; Rhodes, P G

    1976-01-01

    Total parenteral alimentation (TPA) was delivered to 80 infants via indwelling umbilical artery and to 9 via indwelling umbilical venous catheters. The primary indication for catheter placement and maintenance was monitoring of arterial blood gases (umbilical venous catheter tip in left atrium) in a group of sick neonates requiring increased inspired oxygen or assisted ventilation. Results were compared with those from 23 infants who had tunnelled jugular catheters for a variety of chronic medical and surgical problems preventing gastric or intestinal feeding. A mean weight gain was achieved in both groups. Mortality and morbidity rates were similar in both groups. The most common complications were infection and thrombotic phenomena. Metabolic complications were few. It is concluded that infusing TPA solutions via indwelling umbilical catheters presents no greater risk than infusion via tunnelled jugular catheters, and provides a method for supplying adequate caloric intake for growth during the acute stage of illness. PMID:827978

  18. Effect of intradialytic parenteral nutrition on quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Siskind, M S; Lien, Y H

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) on the quality of life of malnourished patients with end-stage renal disease on high-efficiency and high-flux hemodialysis therapy. Patients, who met the Medicare eligibility requirements for IDPN, were asked to fill out and extensive questionnaire covering several measures of quality of life prior to initiating and again after completing four months of IDPN therapy. Although the IDPN improved serum albumin levels significantly, aside from improved sleep patterns, no significant improvements in quality of life could be demonstrated. The mortality rate of these enrolled patients was as high as 28% within 4 months. We concluded that the limited amount of nutrition delivered over the course of a short dialysis session may not be enough to appreciably change the lives of our malnourished patients.

  19. Formulation, stability, and administration of parenteral nutrition with new lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Gil; Puzovic, Marko

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLE) are an important source of energy and essential fatty acids and their incorporation into pediatric and adult parenteral nutrition (PN) regimens has revolutionized nutrition therapy. However, their clinical use has not been without risk, and will continue to remain so because of the intravenous route of administration. Pharmaceutical and microbiological concerns are centered around the methods of compounding all-in-one (AIO) admixtures, but these can be largely minimized with today's technologies and advanced understanding of aseptic principles. Modern lipid products, based on olive, coconut, and/or fish oils, have demonstrable formulation and clinical benefits over traditional soybean and safflower IVLE and, when combined in the new multi-chamber bags, can also offer improvements in stability and safety. This review outlines the rationale for different lipid formulations in PN admixtures, reviews the factors influencing stability and efficacy of lipid-based AIO regimens and evaluates some technologies for minimizing peroxidation and maximizing stability of AIO admixtures.

  20. Wernicke's encephalopathy after total parenteral nutrition in patients with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, In Seub; Seok, Hyeri; Eun, Yeong Hee; Lee, You-Bin; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Eun Ran; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies in Crohn's disease (CD) patients are not uncommon and usually result in a combination of reduced dietary intake, disease-related malabsorption, and a catabolic state. Decreased serum thiamine levels are often reported in patients with CD. Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe form of thiamine deficiency that can cause serious neurologic complications. Although WE is known to occur frequently in alcoholics, a number of non-alcoholic causes have also been reported. Here, we report two cases of non-alcoholic WE that developed in two severely malnourished CD patients who were supported by prolonged total parenteral nutrition without thiamine supplementation. These patients complained of sudden-onset ophthalmopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed definitive diagnosis for WE despite poor sensitivity. The intravenous administration of thiamine alleviated the symptoms of WE dramatically. We emphasize the importance of thiamine supplementation for malnourished patients even if they are not alcoholics, especially in those with CD. PMID:27175122