Science.gov

Sample records for alimentos secos comerciales

  1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. STONEY DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. STONEY DRIVE IS AT LEFT. LOOKING 220°SW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. CHANNEL IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. CHANNEL IS BEHIND TREES AND BUSHES AT RIGHT AND LEFT. STONEY DRIVE PASSES UNDER PARKWAY. LOOKING 282°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 4. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND ARROYO SECO CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND ARROYO SECO CHANNEL FROM PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. HERITAGE PARK IN REAR. LOOKING 38°NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE (WPA CONSTRUCTION 1938) OVER ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE (WPA CONSTRUCTION 1938) OVER ARROYO SECO CHANNEL NORTH OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. LOOKING 358°N - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN PASCUAL AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING 126°SE - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE CONCRETE EMBANKMENT OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL ON RIGHT. LOOKING 12°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 39. ENTRANCE SIGN AT BEGINNING OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. ENTRANCE SIGN AT BEGINNING OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN PASADENA AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND WALLIS ST. LOOKING 130° SE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE AT CENTER. NOTE PEDESTRIAN FOOTBRIDGE OVER ARROYO SECO AT LOWER RIGHT OF CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL PEDESTRIAN FOOTBRIDGE LOCATED IN ARROYO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL PEDESTRIAN FOOTBRIDGE LOCATED IN ARROYO SECO PARK, JUST SOUTH OF AVENUE 60 BRIDGE OVER THE ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. THIS BRIDGE WAS THE FIRST PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGE ERECTED WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI WHEN IT WAS HOISTED INTO PLACE IN 1951. LOOKING 26°NNE - Arroyo Seco Channel Pedestrian Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco Channel south of Avenue 60, Arroyo Seco Park, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Rancho Seco--Decommissioning Update

    SciTech Connect

    Newey, J. M.; Ronningen, E. T.; Snyder, M. W.

    2003-02-26

    The Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station ceased operation in June of 1989 and entered an extended period of SAFSTOR to allow funds to accumulate for dismantlement. Incremental dismantlement was begun in 1997 of steam systems and based on the successful completion of work, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) board of directors approved full decommissioning in July 1999. A schedule has been developed for completion of decommissioning by 2008, allowing decommissioning funds to accumulate until they are needed. Systems removal began in the Auxiliary Building in October of 1999 and in the Reactor Building in January of 2000. Systems dismantlement continues in the Reactor Building and should be completed by the end of 2003. System removal is near completion in the Auxiliary Building with removal of the final liquid waste tanks in progress. The spent fuel has been moved to dry storage in an onsite ISFSI, with completion on August 21, 2002. The spent fuel racks are currently being removed from the pool, packaged and shipped, and then the pool will be cleaned. Also in the last year the reactor coolant pumps and primary piping were removed and shipped. Characterization and planning work for the reactor vessel and internals is also in progress with various cut-up and/or disposal options being evaluated. In the year ahead the remaining systems in the Reactor Building will be removed, packaged and sent for disposal, including the pressurizer. Work will be started on embedded and underground piping and the large outdoor tanks. Building survey and decontamination will begin. RFP's for removal of the vessel and internals and the steam generators are planned to fix the cost of those components. If the costs are consistent with current estimates the work will go forward. If they are not, hardened SAFSTOR/entombment may be considered.

  11. 22. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE BEGINNING OF SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT. LOOKING 264°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Drive Bridge, Milepost 30.30, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 12. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. NOTE PARALLEL SURFACE STREET AT LEFT AND AVENUE 43 BRIDGE AT RIGHT. LOOKING 342° NNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 24. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT BOTTOM. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ROAD CUT AT ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ROAD CUT AT ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE IRRIGATION PIPE AND DRAINAGE WALL AT LEFT. LOOKING 56°NE - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Drive Bridge, Milepost 30.30, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 19. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT STADIUM WAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT STADIUM WAY EXIT. CHAVEZ RAVINE ON LEFT. ELYSIAN PARK AT CENTER LEFT REAR. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. LOOKING 238°WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT AT ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM CARLOTA BOULEVARD. LOOKING 218°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT: GRAND AVENUE BRIDGE, ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT TOP. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 23. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT TOP. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 5. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM THE ARROYO SECO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM THE ARROYO SECO. THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE IS IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 25. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 5. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ACCESS ROAD AT CENTER REAR AND REFUGE LANE AT LEFT FOREGROUND. LOOKING 212"SSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 2. AVENUE 43 ACCESS ROAD AND BRIDGE ACROSS ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AVENUE 43 ACCESS ROAD AND BRIDGE ACROSS ARROYO SECO WITH NORTHBOUND PARKWAY LANES IN FOREGROUND. LOOKING 76°E. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 43 Bridge, Milepost 27.12, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 11. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM AVENUE 14 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM AVENUE 14 BRIDGE. SAN FERNANDO ROAD BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING 25° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 12. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO BRIDGE. NOTE VIADUCTS AND TUNNEL PORTAL AT REAR. LOOKING 234°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE CENTER ISLAND WITH PALM TREES. LOOKING 42°NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 2. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE CENTER ISLAND WITH PALM TREES. LOOKING 68°ENE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND SOUTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE CENTER ISLAND WITH PALM TREES. LOOKING 42°NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. AERIAL VIEW OF FOURLEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF FOUR-LEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND HIGHWAY 101, HOLLYWOOD FREEWAY. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ON LOWER LEVEL FROM LOWER LEFT TO UPPER RIGHT. LOOKING NORTH - Four Level Interchange, Intersection of Arroyo Seco Parkway & Harbor, Hollywood, & Santa Ana Freeways (milepost 23.69), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. AERIAL VIEW OF FOURLEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF FOUR-LEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND HIGHWAY 101, HOLLYWOOD FREEWAY. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ON LOWER LEVEL AT CENTER. HIGHWAY 101 AT BOTTOM. CAESAR CHAVEZ AVENUE AT CENTER. LOOKING NE - Four Level Interchange, Intersection of Arroyo Seco Parkway & Harbor, Hollywood, & Santa Ana Freeways (milepost 23.69), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND INTERSTATE I-5 INTERCHANGE. NOTE ARROYO SECO DRAINAGE INTO LOS ANGELES RIVER AT BOTTOM CENTER. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 5. SITE OVERVIEW. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SITE OVERVIEW. DETAIL VIEW OF INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT RIGHT, INTERSTATE 1-5 AT CENTER, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT LEFT. NOTE ARROYO SECO CHANNEL PARALLEL TO PARKWAY. NOTE AVENUE 26 BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING 30° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 8. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE. NOTE ARROYO SECO CHANNEL TO RIGHT OF FREEWAY. RAILWAY BRIDGE IS SEEN IN DISTANCE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 26 Bridge, Milepost 25.91, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT AVENUE 60. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT AVENUE 60. AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE AT BACK. NOTE AVENUE 60 ACCESS ROAD AND BRIDGE OVER ARROYO SECO. DEBS PARK HILL AT CENTER IS LOCATION OF CAMERA POSITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS CA-265-13, CA265-14, AND CA-265-V-4. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 6. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. NOTE CHANGE IN ELEVATION OF SOUTHBOUND LANES TO MEET GRADE FOR ELYSIAN PARK ROAD CUT. INTERSTATE I-5 IN CENTER REAR. LOOKING 232°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 26 Bridge, Milepost 25.91, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 3. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY FROM PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING WALL AT RIGHT. RAILROAD BRIDGE AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING 238°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 6. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE ARROYO SECO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE ARROYO SECO. THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE IS IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND, AND THE PIONEER BRIDGE CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 5. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW FROM AVENUE 26 BRIDGE OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. NOTE INTERSTATE I-5 OVERCROSSING AT CENTER REAR AND GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK AT CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING 236°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 26 Bridge, Milepost 25.91, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 40. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, ROAD VIEW DETAIL NEAR YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, ROAD VIEW DETAIL NEAR YORK BOULEVARD EXIT. NOTE SUPER ELEVATED CURVE WITH BANKING OF BOTH SIDES OF PARKWAY. NOTE GUARD WALL AND CURBING. NOTE PARALLEL SURFACE STREET (BRIDEWELL ST.). LOOKING 208°WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 2. AMADOR STREET OVERCROSSING SOUTHBOUND ARROYO SECO PARKWAY LANES. PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AMADOR STREET OVERCROSSING SOUTHBOUND ARROYO SECO PARKWAY LANES. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH PHOTOGRAPH CA-265-G-2-b. NOTE CONSTRUCTION FOR FREEWAY WIDENING OF HILL STREET EXIT. LOOKING 14°N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM ARROYO BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE ROAD CUT IN SOUTH PASADENA. NOTE GRAND AVENUE BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. LOOKING 56°NE - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Drive Bridge, Milepost 30.30, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 36. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT: FREMONT AVENUE BRIDGE; AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE; AND FAIR OAKS AVENUE BRIDGE. NOTE BIG CURVE AS PARKWAY ENDS IN PASADENA. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 7. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM AVENUE 60 BRIDGE. NOTE ACCESS ROAD FOR NORTHBOUND LANES AT RIGHT REAR; AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE AT CENTER DISTANCE; PARK LANDS AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 2°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Avenue 60 Bridge, Milepost 28.76, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 8. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND NORTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND NORTH SIDE OF YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE. NOTE SUPER ELEVATED CURVES AND GRADE SEPARATION OF NORTH AND SOUTHBOUND LANES. LOOKING 196"S. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. NOTE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FEATURES AT RIGHT. LOOKING 248°WSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Rancho Seco-Planning for Large Components

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D. E.; Newey, J. M; Snyder, M. W.

    2002-02-27

    The Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station ceased operation in June of 1989 and entered an extended period of Safestor to allow funds to accumulate for dismantlement. Incremental dismantlement was begun in 1997 of steam systems and based on the successful work to date, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) board of directors approved full decommissioning in July 1999. A schedule has been developed for completion of decommissioning by 2008, allowing decommissioning funds to accumulate until they are needed. Systems removal began in the Auxiliary Building in October of 1999 and in the Reactor Building in January of 2000. Systems dismantlement continues in the Reactor Building and the Auxiliary Building and should be completed by mid 2003. The Spent Fuel is currently being moved to dry storage in an onsite ISFSI, with completion scheduled for late 2002. The personnel resources on site are currently assigned to support both the dry fuel project and the dismantlement of the facility. Once fuel movement is complete more resources will be provided for dismantlement. Characterization of major components other than the vessel is complete and planning for their removal is in progress with various cut-up and/or shipping options being evaluated. Planning for the vessel and internals removal is being performed. The relatively slow pace of the work allows careful evaluation of cost-effective options as they become available in the industry.

  11. 14. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK. MARMION WAY/AVENUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK. MARMION WAY/AVENUE 64 BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND. YORK BOULEVARD BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 28° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 14. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL AND INTERSTATE I5 OVERCROSSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL AND INTERSTATE I-5 OVERCROSSING SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO ROAD BRIDGE. LOOKING 10°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT INTERSTATE I5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT INTERSTATE I-5 INTERCHANGE AND LOS ANGELES RIVER OVERCROSSING. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 33. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE AT BOTTOM; MARMION WAY BRIDGE AT CENTER; PARK BOULEVARD BRIDGE AT REAR. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Novel seco-prezizaane sesquiterpenes from north american illicium species

    PubMed

    Schmidt

    1999-05-01

    Three novel seco-prezizaane sesquiterpenes (1-3) were isolated from leaves of Illicium parviflorum (swamp star anise, yellow star anise), a species occurring endemically in central Florida. Compound 1, named cycloparvifloralone, possesses a hitherto unknown ring system with a cagelike acetal/hemiketal structure. Lactones 2 (cycloparviflorolide) and 3 (parviflorolide) which were obtained as an inseparable mixture, coexist in a hemiketal/keto equilibrium. It could be shown that a 4,7-hemiketal (4) occurs in an analogous fashion to pseudoanisatin 5, a known constituent of other Illicium species. From the fruits of Illiciumfloridanum the novel ortholactone 6 was isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by interpretation of their 1D and 2D homo- and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopic data. The modes of cyclization observed in 1, 2, 4, and 6 have not been described previously, and a biogenetic sequence is proposed for these compounds and further seco-prezizaane sesquiterpenes.

  16. Pectenotoxin-2 seco acid, 7-epi-pectenotoxin-2 seco acid and pectenotoxin-2 in shellfish and plankton from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vale, Paulo; de M Sampayo, Maria Antónia

    2002-07-01

    Pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX2sa) and 7-epi-pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (7-epi-PTX2sa) were found in Portuguese shellfish both by fluorescence detection after ADAM derivatisation and, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection. Two time-series both with blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) from Aveiro lagoon illustrate how PTX2sa has a strong association with Dinophysis acuta occurrence in the plankton, as well as Dinophysis fortii. Data so far excludes D. acuminata from contributing to contamination with pectenotoxins. It also shows that mussel may not be the best indicator of contamination with PTX2sa. At Aveiro lagoon also oyster, razor clam and clams were all less toxic than cockle. Pectenotoxin-2 seco acid was not involved in a previously reported incident of human poisoning that took place in February 1998 after consumption of Donax trunculus. In plankton extracts the most abundant pectenotoxin found was PTX2. Concentration of PTX2sa was around 10% of PTX2, and 7-epi-PTX2sa was not detected.

  17. The SECO suite of codes for site Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roache, P.J.

    1993-03-01

    Modeling for Performance Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP ) has led to development of the SECO suite of codes for groundwater flow, particle tracking, and transport. Algorithm and code developments include the following areas: facilitation of grid convergence tests in multiple domains; correct treatment of transmissivity factors for unconfined aquifers; efficient multigrid algorithms; a formulation of brine Darcy flow equations that uses freshwater head as the dependent able; boundary-fitted coordinates; temporal high order particle tracking; an efficient and accurate implicit Finite Volume TVD algorithm for radionuclide transport in (possibly) fractured porous media; accurate calculation of advection via a flux-based modified method of characteristics; and Quality Assurance procedures.

  18. 13. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK (APPROXIMATELY 34° ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM DEBS PARK (APPROXIMATELY 34° 7' BY 118° 11' ON USGS LOS ANGELES QUADRANGLE). AVENUE 60 BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING 240° WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE ACROSS ARROYO SECO CHANNEL AND PARKWAY. SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AT&SF RAILROAD BRIDGE ACROSS ARROYO SECO CHANNEL AND PARKWAY. SEEN FROM DEBS PARK IN SAME CAMERA LOCATION AS CA-265-13. NOTE FREEWAY 134 AT DISTANT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING 318°NW - Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco Parkway at parkway milepost 29.03, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND AT&SF RAILROAD OVERCROSSING. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND AT&SF RAILROAD OVERCROSSING. NOTE GRADE CHANGE BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTHBOUND LANES IN SUPER-ELEVATED CURVE. LOOKING 56°NE - Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco Parkway at parkway milepost 29.03, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Acylperoxylated and seco-mexicanolides from stems of Khaya anthotheca.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Izabel C Piloto; Cortez, Diógenes A Garcia; das G F da Silva, M Fátima; Fo, Edson Rodrigues; Vieira, Paulo C; Fernandes, João B

    2005-03-01

    The stems of Khaya anthotheca yielded two new limonoids, which were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis as 1alpha,8alpha-oxido-3beta-acetoxy-2alpha-acylperoxy-1alpha,14alpha-dihydroxy-[3.3.1(10,2)]-bicyclomeliac-7,19-olide (3) and 3-acetoxy-8,14-dien-8,30-seco-khayalactone (4). Methyl 1alpha,2beta,3alpha,6,8alpha,14beta-hexahydroxy-[4.2.1(10,30).1(1,4)]-tricyclomeliac-7-oate, scopoletin, and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated. The limonoids were of little value to clarify the basis of the nonresistance against Hypsipyla grandella.

  2. Antiproliferative Activity of seco-Oxacassanes from Acacia schaffneri.

    PubMed

    Torres-Valencia, J Martín; Motilva, Virginia; Manríquez-Torres, J Jesús; García-Mauriño, Sofía; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Zbakh, Hanaa; Calderón-Montaño, José M; Gómez-Hurtado, Mario A; Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan A; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    This work reports the antiproliferative activity of seco-oxacassanes 1-3, isolated from Acacia schaffneri, against human colon (HT-29), lung (A-549), and melanoma (UACC-62) cancer cell lines, as well as against their non-malignant counterparts CCD-841 CoN, MRC-5, and VH-10, respectively, using the sulforhodamine B test. While compounds 1 and 3 were inactive, 2 presented strong activity with IC50 values between 0.12 and 0.92 μg mL(-1). The cytotoxicity mechanisms of 2 were investigated by cell cycle analysis and through DNA repair pathways, indicating that the compound is capable of arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. This effect might be generated through damage to DNA by alkylation. In addition, compound 2 was able to decrease HT-29 migration.

  3. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species.

  4. Immune depression in Rhodnius prolixus by seco-steroids, physalins.

    PubMed

    Castro, D P; Figueiredo, M B; Ribeiro, I M; Tomassini, T C B; Azambuja, P; Garcia, E S

    2008-03-01

    A comparative study of the effects of physalins, seco-steroidal substances of Physalis angulata (Solanaceae), on the immune reactions of R. prolixus was carried out. Ecdysis and mortality were not affected by treatment with physalins B, D, F or G (1-10 microg/ml of blood meal). R. prolixus larvae fed with blood containing physalins and inoculated with 1 microl of Enterobacter cloacae beta12 (5 x 10(3)/insect) exhibited mortality rates three times higher than controls. The insects treated with physalin B, and F (1 microg/ml) and inoculated with E. cloacae beta12 showed significant differences on lysozyme activity in the hemolymph compared to untreated insects. Furthermore, physalin D (1 microg/ml) significantly reduced the antibacterial activity. Concerning cellular immune reactions, all insects treated with physalins (1 microg/ml), exhibited drastic reductions in the quantity of yeast cell-hemocyte binding and subsequent internalization. Insects inoculated with bacteria and treated with physalins B, F and G showed reductions of microaggregate formation but physalin D did not. Physalins B and F also reduced total hemocyte count in the hemolymph. These results suggest that, in different ways, probably due to their different chemical structures, physalin B, D, F and G are immunomodulatory substances for the bloodsucking insect, R. prolixus.

  5. Molecular structure and analytical potential energy function of SeCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Tian, Duan-Liang; Yan, Shi-Ying

    2014-09-01

    The density functional method (B3P86/6-311G) is used for calculating the possible structures of SeC, SeO, and SeCO molecules. The result shows that the ground state of the SeC molecule is 1Σ, the equilibrium nuclear distance is RSeC = 0.1699 nm, and the dissociation energy is De = 8.7246 eV. The ground state of the SeO molecule is 3Σ, with equilibrium nuclear distance RSeO = 0.1707 nm and dissociation energy De = 7.0917 eV. There are two structures for the ground state of the SeCO molecule: Se=C=O and Se=O=C. The linear Se=C=O is 1Σ. Its equilibrium nuclear distances and dissociation energy are RSeC = 0.1715 nm, RCO = 0.1176 nm and 18.8492 eV, respectively. The other structure Se=O=C is 1Σ. Its equilibrium nuclear distances and dissociation energy are RCO = 0.1168 nm, RSeO = 0.1963 nm and 15.5275 eV, respectively. The possible dissociative limit of the SeCO molecule is analyzed. The potential energy function for the SeCO molecule has been obtained from the many-body expansion theory. The contour of the potential energy curve describes the structure characters of the SeCO molecule. Furthermore, contours of the molecular stretching vibration based on this potential energy function are discussed.

  6. Ergosteroids III. Syntheses and biological activity of seco-steroids related to dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Reich, I L; Lardy, H; Wei, Y; Marwah, P; Kneer, N; Powell, D R; Reich, H J

    1998-10-01

    The unusual activity of some D-ring-seco estrogens led us to prepare several seco steroids related to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and to test for their ability to mimic thyroid hormone and 7-oxo-DHEA (1) as inducers of thermogenic enzymes in rats' livers. Only one, 3 beta-acetoxy-17a-oxa-androst-5-ene-7,17-dione (17), was capable of inducing both mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. The closely related 3 beta-hydroxy-17a-oxa-androsta-5,15-diene-7,17-diones (both 14 alpha and 14 beta, 14 and 15) induce the formation of malic enzyme but not of glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. The 3 beta-propionyl ester of the above 14 alpha steroid was not active, presumably because it was not deacylated in vivo. The 16,17 dicarboxylic acid (9) produced by opening the D-ring also induced the formation of malic enzyme but not of glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. 3 beta-Acetoxyandrost-5-ene-7,16,17-trione, an intermediate in the synthesis of D-ring seco compounds enhanced the formation of both enzymes. Twelve other D-ring seco compounds were not active. Seco androstanes oxygenated at position 7 and with expanded A or B rings were not active.

  7. Methodology and application of surrogate plant PRA analysis to the Rancho Seco Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Huenefeld, J.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the development and the first application of generic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information for identifying systems and components important to public risk at nuclear power plants lacking plant-specific PRAs. A methodology is presented for using the results of PRAs for similar (surrogate) plants, along with plant-specific information about the plant of interest and the surrogate plants, to infer important failure modes for systems of the plant of interest. This methodology, and the rationale on which it is based, is presented in the context of its application to the Rancho Seco plant. The Rancho Seco plant has been analyzed using PRA information from two surrogate plants. This analysis has been used to guide development of considerable plant-specific information about Rancho Seco systems and components important to minimizing public risk, which is also presented herein.

  8. A-seco-oleane-type triterpenes from Phomopsis sp. (strain HKI0458) isolated from the mangrove plant Hibiscus tiliaceus.

    PubMed

    Li, Liya; Sattler, Isabel; Deng, Zhiwei; Groth, Ingrid; Walther, Grit; Klaus-Dieter Menzel; Peschel, Gudrun; Grabley, Susanne; Lin, Wenhan

    2008-01-01

    From the fermentation broth of an unidentified Phomopsis sp. (strain HKI0458) isolated from the mangrove plant Hibiscus tiliaceus, four A-seco-oleane-type triterpenes, namely 3,4-seco-olean-11,13-dien-4,15alpha, 22beta,24-tetraol-3-oic acid (1), 3,4-seco-olean-11,13-dien-4,7beta,22beta,24-tetraol-3-oic acid (2), 3,4-seco- olean-13-en-4,7,15,22,24-pentaol-3-oic acid (3), and 3,4-seco-olean-13-en-4,15,22,24-tetraol-3-oic acid (4) were obtained. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic (UV, IR, FABMS, and 2D NMR) data analyses.

  9. Initial development of a cytotoxic amino-seco-CBI warhead for delivery by prodrug systems.

    PubMed

    Twum, Elvis A; Nathubhai, Amit; Wood, Pauline J; Lloyd, Matthew D; Thompson, Andrew S; Threadgill, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    Cyclopropabenzaindoles (CBIs) are exquisitely potent cytotoxins which bind and alkylate in the minor groove of DNA. They are not selective for cancer cells, so prodrugs are required. CBIs can be formed at physiological pH by Winstein cyclisation of 1-chloromethyl-3-substituted-5-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzo[e]indoles (5-OH-seco-CBIs). Corresponding 5-NH2-seco-CBIs should also undergo Winstein cyclisation similarly. A key triply orthogonally protected intermediate on the route to 5-NH2-seco-CBIs has been synthesised, via selective monotrifluoroacetylation of naphthalene-1,3-diamine, Boc protection, electrophilic iodination, selective allylation at the trifluoroacetamide and 5-exo radical ring-closure with TEMPO. This intermediate has potential for introduction of peptide prodrug masking units (deactivating the Winstein cyclisation and cytotoxicity), addition of diverse indole-amide side-chains (enhancing non-covalent binding prior to alkylation) and use of different leaving groups (replacing the usual chlorine, allowing tuning of the rate of Winstein cyclisation). This key intermediate was elaborated into a simple model 5-NH2-seco-CBI with a dimethylaminoethoxyindole side-chain. Conversion to a bio-reactive entity and the bioactivity of this system were confirmed through DNA-melting studies (ΔTm=13°C) and cytotoxicity against LNCaP human prostate cancer cells (IC50=18nM).

  10. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic properties of the Seco Creek Watershed, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.S.; Mosier, John G.; Nalley, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, began a study to evaluate the effects of agricultural best-management practices on surface- and ground-water quantity and quality in the Seco Creek watershed. The USGS study is part of a larger study known as the Seco Creek Water-Quality Demonstration Project, which is intended to demonstrate to urban and rural land and water users the potential to reduce transport of agricultural chemicals and sediment, improve groundwater and downstream surface-water quality, and improve the quality and abundance of vegetative cover. The Seco Creek watershed is approximately 50 miles (mi) west of San Antonio (fig. 1) and has a drainage area of approximately 255 square miles (mi2). Agricultural activities account for more than 99 percent of the land use in the watershed (Steffens and Wright, 1996). The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe the geologic framework and hydrogeologic properties of the Seco Creek watershed.

  11. Restoration of Microtubule Interaction and Cytotoxicity in D-seco Taxanes upon Incorporation of 20-Hydroxymethyl-4-allyloxy Groups.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Rong; Yang, Chun-Gang; Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A; Snyder, James P; Yan, Ning; Sáez-Calvo, Gonzalo; Díaz, José Fernando; Gago, Federico; Fang, Wei-Shuo

    2015-12-18

    To probe the exact role of the oxetane D ring in both tubulin binding and cytotoxicity of taxanes, novel D-seco taxanes bearing a C4 ether substituent have been prepared from paclitaxel 1a. Among them, 20-hydroxymethyl-4-allyloxy D-seco taxane 5e is the most active in both tubulin and cytotoxicity assays. It is only slightly less potent than 1a on tubulin polymerization promotion in vitro and the most cytotoxic among all D-seco taxanes known to date. The reason for the loss and restoration of bioactivity for these D-seco taxanes is also discussed with the assistance of NMR and molecular modeling studies. From these results, we draw a conclusion that the intact D ring of taxanes is not strictly necessary for their binding to tubulin and cytotoxic effects.

  12. A new 3,4-seco-oleanane-type triterpenoid with an unusual enedione moiety from Hypericum ascyron.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmei; Wei, Guangzheng; Zhu, Hucheng; Guo, Yi; Li, Xiao-Nian; Zhang, Jinwen; Liu, Yanfei; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-06-01

    A novel 3,4-seco-oleanane-type triterpenoid named 3,4-seco-olean-13(18)-ene-12,19-dione-3-oic acid (1), bearing an unusual enedione moiety, was isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum ascyron, together with a known feiedelane-type triterpenoid friedelin (2). The structure of 1 with absolute configuration was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  13. 9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanostane triterpene from Salix caprea L. (goat willow).

    PubMed

    Tantry, Mudasir A; Shah, Saba; Dar, Mohammad Y; Mir, Mohammad M; Ghazanfar, Khalid; Sheikh, Faheem A; Khuroo, Mohammad A; Akbar, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigation of low polar solvent extract of Salix caprea through chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of new triterpene as 1α,3β,25-trihydroxy-9(11)-ene-16-one-9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanostane (1) along with fatty alcohols. The structure of compound 1 was established by IR, HRESI/MS and NMR including 1D and 2D experiments. The compound 1 showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity.

  14. A seco-catechin cyclization approach to 4→6-linked catechin dimers.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Gen; Ohmori, Ken; Suzuki, Keisuke

    2014-11-28

    A viable route has been developed for the selective synthesis of the 4→6-linked catechin dimers, scarcely accessible from Nature and/or through synthesis. An acyclic nucleophilic catechin precursor (seco-catechin) was used for the regioselective union with an electrophilic catechin unit, and subsequent pyran cyclization gave the desired 4→6-linked dimers, i.e., procyanidin B6 and catechin-(4α→6)-gallocatechin.

  15. Helicopter Electromagnetic and Magnetic Survey Data and Maps, Seco Creek Area, Medina and Uvalade Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.; Hill, Patricia L.; Labson, Victor F.

    2003-01-01

    A helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic (HEM) survey was completed of a 209 square kilometer (81 square miles) area of the central Edwards aquifer. This open-file report is a release of the airborne geophysical data and a summary of the hydrologic application. The survey area was centered on the Valdina Farms sinkhole along the Seco Creek drainage in western Medina County, Texas. Flight lines were flown north south with three east west tie lines to aid in leveling the magnetic data. Additional lines were flown on each side of the Seco and Little Seco Creek drainages. A five kilometer (4 mile) extension of 15 lines was flown north of the main survey block centered on Seco Creek. This digital data release contains the flight line data, grids, and maps of the HEM survey data. The Edwards aquifer in this area consists of three hydrologic zones: catchment, recharge, and confined. The Glen Rose Formation is exposed in the catchment area. The recharge zone is situated in the Balcones fault zone where the Devils River Group of the Edwards aquifer has been exposed by normal faults. The magnetic data is not discussed in depth here, but does have high amplitude closed anomalies caused by shallow igneous intrusives. The Woodard Cave Fault that separates the recharge and catchment zones is in places associated with a weak linear magnetic low. The HEM data has been processed to produce apparent resistivities for each of the six EM coil pairs and frequencies. Maps of the apparent resistivity for the five horizontal coil pairs show that the catchment, recharge, and confined zones all have numerous linear features that are likely caused by structures, many of which have not been mapped. The distribution of high resistivity areas reflects the lithologic differences within the Trinity and Edwards aquifers.

  16. Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (≤500 μM) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

  17. seco-limonoids and quinoline alkaloids from Raputia heptaphylla and their antileishmanial activity.

    PubMed

    Coy Barrera, Carlos Andres; Coy Barrera, Ericsson David; Granados Falla, Diana Susana; Delgado Murcia, Gabriela; Cuca Suarez, Luis Enrique

    2011-01-01

    A novel seco-limonoid, rel-(1S,5R,9S,7R,8S,9R,10S,11R,13S,14R,15R,17R)-11,19-dihydroxy-7-acetoxy-7-deoxoichangin (raputiolide) (1), and two novel quinolone alkaloids N-methyl-2-phenoxyquinolin-4(1H)-one (heptaphyllone A) (2) and 6-methylbenzofuro[2,3-b]quinolin-4(1H)-one (heptaphyllone B) (3), along with the known seco-limonoid ichangin (4), were isolated from Raputia heptaphylla PITTIER (Rutaceae) stem bark. Five known alkaloids, N-methyl-8-methoxyflindersine (5), skimmianine (6), kokusaginine (7), dictamnine (8) and flindersiamine (9), were also isolated from R. heptaphylla leaves. Their structures were established on the basis of full spectroscopic data interpretation supported by data from the pertinent literature. seco-Limonoid 1 configuration was determined by enhanced nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) molecular modeling. The antileishmanial effect of the isolated compounds was evaluated on Leishmania Viannia panamensis (promastigotes and amastigotes). Whereas alkaloids 2-3, 6-8 and limonoid 4 exhibited no significant parasitocide activity against internalized L. (V.) panamensis amastigotes, limonoid 1 and alkaloid 5 had leishmanicidal activity on intracellular amastigotes (EC₅₀: 8.7 µg/ml) and promastigotes (EC(50): 14.3 µg/ml), respectively.

  18. Structure-activity relationships of seco-prezizaane and picrotoxane/picrodendrane terpenoids by Quasar receptor-surface modeling.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas J; Gurrath, Marion; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2004-08-01

    The seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes pseudoanisatin and parviflorolide from Illicium are noncompetitive antagonists at housefly (Musca domestica) gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. They show selectivity toward the insect receptor and thus represent new leads toward selective insecticides. Based on the binding data for 13 seco-prezizaane terpenoids and 17 picrotoxane and picrodendrane-type terpenoids to housefly and rat GABA receptors, a QSAR study was conducted by quasi-atomistic receptor-surface modeling (Quasar). The resulting models provide insight into the structural basis of selectivity and properties of the binding sites at GABA receptor-coupled chloride channels of insects and mammals.

  19. Managing the Arroyo Seco for Flood Prevention, Erosion Control, Waterway and Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L; Wang, C; Laurant, J

    2003-02-06

    One of the most important tasks for a site facility manager is to ensure that appropriate channel erosion controls are applied to on-site drainage channels. These erosion controls must minimize risks to the public and structures. Water and sediment loads commonly originate from off-site sources and many of the traditional reactionary measures (installing rip-rap or some other form of bed or bank armor) simply transfer or delay the problem. State and federal agency requirements further complicate the management solution. One case in point is the Arroyo Seco, an intermittent stream that runs along the southwest corner of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. In 2001, LLNL contracted Questa Engineering Corporation to conduct hydraulic, geomorphic, and biological investigations and to prepare an alternatives and constraints analysis. From these investigations, LLNL has selected a water management plan that encompasses overall flood prevention, erosion control, and waterway and habitat restoration and enhancement elements. The most unique aspect of the Arroyo Seco management plan is its use of non-traditional and biotechnical techniques.

  20. Expedient preparative isolation and tandem mass spectrometric characterization of C-seco triterpenoids from Neem oil.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Saikat; Mulani, Fayaj A; Aarthy, Thiagarayaselvam; Dandekar, Devdutta S; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V

    2014-10-31

    C-seco triterpenoids are widely bioactive class of natural products with high structural complexity and diversity. The preparative isolation of these molecules with high purity is greatly desirable, although restricted due to the complexity of natural extracts. In this article we have demonstrated a Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography (MPLC) based protocol for the isolation of eight major C-seco triterpenoids of salannin skeleton from Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil. Successive application of normal phase pre-packed silica-gel columns for the fractionation followed by reverse phase in automated MPLC system expedited the process and furnished highly pure metabolites. Furthermore, eight isolated triterpenoids along with five semi-synthesized derivatives were characterized using ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole/orbitrap-MS/MS spectrometry as a rapid and sensitive identification technique. The structure-fragment relationships were established on the basis of plausible mechanistic pathway for the generation of daughter ions. The MS/MS spectral information of the triterpenoids was further utilized for the identification of studied molecules in the complex extract of stem and bark tissues from Neem.

  1. Seco-pregnane steroids target the subgenomic RNA of alphavirus-like RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanmei; Wang, Lihua; Li, Shunlin; Chen, Xiaoying; Shen, Yuemao; Zhang, Zhongkai; He, Hongping; Xu, Wenbo; Shu, Yuelong; Liang, Guodong; Fang, Rongxiang; Hao, Xiaojiang

    2007-05-08

    Plants have evolved multiple mechanisms to selectively suppress pathogens by production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activities. Therefore, direct selections for antiviral compounds from plants can be used to identify new agents with potent antiviral activity but not toxic to hosts. Here, we provide evidence that a class of compounds, seco-pregnane steroid glaucogenin C and its monosugar-glycoside cynatratoside A of Strobilanthes cusia and three new pantasugar-glycosides of glaucogenin C of Cynanchum paniculatum, are effective and selective inhibitors to alphavirus-like positive-strand RNA viruses including plant-infecting tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and animal-infecting Sindbis virus (SINV), eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Getah virus, but not to other RNA or DNA viruses, yet they were not toxic to host cells. In vivo administration of the compounds protected BALB/c mice from lethal SINV infection without adverse effects on the mice. Using TMV and SINV as models, studies on the action mechanism revealed that the compounds predominantly suppress the expression of viral subgenomic RNA(s) without affecting the accumulation of viral genomic RNA. Our work suggested that the viral subgenomic RNA could be a new target for the discovery of antiviral drugs, and that seco-pregnane steroid and its four glycosides found in the two medicinal herbs have the potential for further development as antiviral agents against alphavirus-like positive-strand RNA viruses.

  2. 76 FR 20368 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Plant Protection Feasibility Study in August 2005 to identify alternatives that meet the PCGID-PID's... Feasibility Study for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit to investigate the feasibility of restoration and... developed based on the River Partners 2005 feasibility study, the 2010 Ayres feasibility study, and...

  3. Croton insularis introduces the seco-casbane class with EBC-329 and the first casbane endoperoxide EBC-324.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Lidiya A; Savchenko, Andrei I; Krenske, Elizabeth H; Gordon, Victoria A; Reddell, Paul W; Pierce, Carly J; Parsons, Peter G; Williams, Craig M

    2014-10-21

    Investigation of Croton insularis afforded the first in class seco-casbane diterpene, EBC-329. A highly oxidised casbane, EBC-324, was also isolated. The structural motif within EBC-324, which consists of an epoxidised hemi-acetal endoperoxide, is new to the casbane family.

  4. Cytotoxic 3,4-seco-Atisane Diterpenoids from Croton barorum and Croton goudotii.

    PubMed

    Rakotonandrasana, Olga L; Raharinjato, Fanja H; Rajaonarivelo, Mialy; Dumontet, Vincent; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Bignon, Jérôme; Rasoanaivo, Philippe

    2010-10-22

    In a screening program directed to the discovery of new anticancer agents from Madagascan plants, ethyl acetate extracts of Croton barorum and C. goudotii showed strong cytotoxic activity, with 100% inhibition at 10 μg/mL in a primary screen using the murine lymphocytic leukemia P388 cell line. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new 3,4-seco-atisane diterpenoids, crotobarin (1) and crotogoudin (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. Compounds 1 and 2 produced a net progression in the number of cells arrested at the G2/M growth stage in the cell cycle of the K562 human leukemia cell line at 4 μM.

  5. Environmental radiological studies downstream from Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.W.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1985-03-22

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1984 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides in aquatic releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station. Gamma-emitting radionuclides discharged since 1981 are found in many of the dietary components derived from the creeks receiving the effluent wastewater. Some soils and crops are found to contain radionuclides that originate from the contaminated water that was transferred to land during the irrigation season. /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of fish from the creeks. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased exponentially with distance from the plant. No significant differences in the /sup 137/Cs activity were found between male and female fish of equal size, but concentrations may vary in fish of different size, with the season and diet. 21% of the total /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs discharged between 1981 and 1984 is associated with the creek sediments to a distance of 27 km from the plant. Fractions of the missing inventory have been transferred to land during the irrigation season or to downstream regions more distant than 27 km from the plant. The radiocesium content of the sediments in 1984 decreased significantly in a downstream direction, much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. Radioactivity originating from the plant was not above detection limits in any terrestrial food item sampled beyond 6.5 km from the plant. Based on the usage factors provided by individuals interviewed in a 1984 survey, the fish and aquatic-organism ingestion pathway contributed the largest radiological dose to humans utilizing products contaminated with the radionuclides in the liquid wastes discharged from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station in 1984.

  6. seco-Briarellinone and briarellin S, two new eunicellin-based diterpenoids from the Panamanian octocoral Briareum asbestinum.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Reyes, José Félix; Salazar, Ana; Guzmán, Héctor M; González, Yisett; Fernández, Patricia L; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Gutiérrez, Marcelino

    2012-11-21

    Two new eunicellin-based diterpenes, seco-briarellinone (1) and briarellin S (2), and a known seco-asbestinin (3) have been isolated from the methanolic extract of the common octocoral Briareum asbestinum collected in Bocas del Toro, Caribbean of Panama. The structures and relative stereochemistry of the compounds were defined using extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D, 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Compounds 1 and 2 displayed anti-inflammatory properties inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolisacharide (LPS) in macrophages with an Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC₅₀) of 4.7 μM and 20.3 μM, respectively. This is the first report of briarellin diterpenes containing a ketone group at C-12.

  7. Seco-limonoid derived from Raputia heptaphylla promotes the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Granados-Falla, Diana; Gomez-Galindo, Angela; Daza, Alejandro; Robledo, Sara; Coy-Barrera, Carlos; Cuca, Luis; Delgado, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    The rational search of novel bioactive molecules against pathogens with immunomodulatory activity is presently one of the most significant approaches to discover and design new therapeutic agents for effective control of infectious diseases, such as the infection caused by Leishmania parasites. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the recently characterized immunomodulatory compound 11α,19β-dihydroxy-7-acetoxy-7-deoxoichangin, a seco-limonoid derived from the bark of Raputia heptaphylla (Pittier) using: (1) peritoneal macrophages and (2) Mesocricetus auratus hamsters infected with Leishmania (V.) panamensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. We observed the ability of this seco-limonoid to induce the effective control of the parasite either in vitro [determining an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 59 µ m at the infection model] and in vivo (inducing clinical improvement or even cure in infected animals treated compared with the groups of animals treated with vehicle solution or meglumine antimoniate).

  8. Identification and functional characterization of a flax UDP-glycosyltransferase glucosylating secoisolariciresinol (SECO) into secoisolariciresinol monoglucoside (SMG) and diglucoside (SDG)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignans are a class of diphenolic nonsteroidal phytoestrogens often found glycosylated in planta. Flax seeds are a rich source of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignans. Glycosylation is a process by which a glycosyl group is covalently attached to an aglycone substrate and is catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Until now, very little information was available on UGT genes that may play a role in flax SDG biosynthesis. Here we report on the identification, structural and functional characterization of 5 putative UGTs potentially involved in secoisolariciresinol (SECO) glucosylation in flax. Results Five UGT genes belonging to the glycosyltransferases’ family 1 (EC 2.4.x.y) were cloned and characterized. They fall under four UGT families corresponding to five sub-families referred to as UGT74S1, UGT74T1, UGT89B3, UGT94H1, UGT712B1 that all display the characteristic plant secondary product glycosyltransferase (PSPG) conserved motif. However, diversity was observed within this 44 amino acid sequence, especially in the two peptide sequences WAPQV and HCGWNS known to play a key role in the recognition and binding of diverse aglycone substrates and in the sugar donor specificity. In developing flax seeds, UGT74S1 and UGT94H1 showed a coordinated gene expression with that of pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) and their gene expression patterns correlated with SDG biosynthesis. Enzyme assays of the five heterologously expressed UGTs identified UGT74S1 as the only one using SECO as substrate, forming SECO monoglucoside (SMG) and then SDG in a sequential manner. Conclusion We have cloned and characterized five flax UGTs and provided evidence that UGT74S1 uses SECO as substrate to form SDG in vitro. This study allowed us to propose a model for the missing step in SDG lignan biosynthesis. PMID:24678929

  9. Quaternary geologic map of the north-central part of the Salinas River Valley and Arroyo Seco, Monterey County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Arroyo Seco, a perennial drainage in the central Coast Range of California, records a sequence of strath terraces. These terraces preserve an erosional and depositional history, controlled by both climate change and regional tectonics. These deposits have been mapped and correlated on the basis of field investigations, digital terrain analysis, stream gradient profiles, evaluation of published regional soil maps, and satellite imagery. Seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans have been dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) or infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The OSL and IRSL dates on seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans in Arroyo Seco are approximately >120 ka, >65 ka, 51–46 ka, 36–35 ka, 9 ka, and 2–1 ka. These dates generally fall within the range of ages reported from many well-dated marine terraces on the California coast that are formed during sea-level high stands. Tectonic movements, consistently upward, result in a constantly and slowly emerging coastline, however, the regional effects of climate change and resulting eustatic sea-level rises are interpreted as the driving mechanism for erosion and aggradation in Arroyo Seco.

  10. Design, synthesis and biological properties of seco-d-ring modified 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogues.

    PubMed

    Szybinski, Marcin; Sektas, Katarzyna; Sicinski, Rafal R; Plum, Lori A; Frelek, Jadwiga; DeLuca, Hector F

    2017-03-08

    As a continuation of our efforts directed to the structure-activity relationship studies of vitamin D compounds, we present in this paper the synthesis of new analogues of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 characterized by numerous structural modifications, especially a cleaved D ring. Total synthesis of the CD fragment required for the construction of the target vitamins was based on the Stork approach. The structure of the key intermediate - bicyclic hydroxy lactone - was established by crystallographic and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectral analysis. Following the attachment of the hydroxyalkyl side chain, the formed D-seco Grundmann ketone was subjected to Wittig-Horner coupling with the corresponding A-ring phosphine oxides providing two desired D-seco analogues of 19-nor-1α,25-(OH)2D3, one without a substituent at C-2 and the other possessing a 2-exomethylene group. Both compounds were biologically tested and the latter was found to be more active in in vitro tests. Despite so many structural changes introduced in its structure, the biological activity of the 2-methylene analogue approached that of the natural hormone. The synthesized D-seco vitamins, however, proved to be inactive on bone and intestine in vivo.

  11. Concentration of radionuclides in fresh water fish downstream of Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Wong, X.M.

    1984-12-27

    Fish were collected for radionuclide analysis over a 5-month period in 1984 from creeks downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant, which has been discharging quantities of some fission and activation products to the waterway since 1981. Among the fish, the bluegill was selected for intensive study because it is very territorial and the radionuclide concentrations detected should be representative of the levels in the local environment at the downstream locations sampled. Among the gamma-emitting radionuclides routinely released, only /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs were detected in the edible flesh of fish. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased with distance from the plant. The relationship between concentration and distance was determined to be exponential. Exponential equations were generated to estimate concentrations in fish at downstream locations where no site-specific information was available. Mean concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in bluegill collected during April, May, July and August from specific downstream stations were not significantly different in spite of the release of 131 mCi to the creeks between April and August. The concentrations in fish are not responding to changes in water concentrations brought about by plant discharges. Diet appears to be a more significant factor than size or weight or water concentration in regulating body burdens of /sup 137/Cs in these fish.

  12. Environmental radiological studies downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1986-02-06

    Information compiled in 1985 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides previously discharged with aqueous releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Plant is presented. In October 1984, the quantities of gamma-emitting radionuclides in water discharged to Clay Creek from the plant were reduced below operationally defined detection limits for liquid effluents. However, radionuclides previously discharged persist in the downstream environment and are found in many aquatic dietary components. /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of different fish, crayfish, and frogs. Coefficients for exponential equations are generated, from a least square analysis, that relate the change in concentration of /sup 137/Cs in fish to distance downstream and time between March and October 1985. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in surface creek sediments also decreased in the downstream direction much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. However, there was no significant difference in the radiocesium concentrations in surface sediements collected from comparable locations during both 1984 and 1985.

  13. Vegetation and climate history from Laguna de Río Seco, Sierra Nevada, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. S.; Jimenez-Moreno, G.

    2010-12-01

    The largest mountain range in southern Spain - the Sierra Nevada - is an immense landscape with a rich biological and cultural heritage. Rising to 3,479 m at the summit of Mulhacén, the range was extensively glaciated during the late Pleistocene. Subsequent melting of cirque glaciers allowed formation of numerous small lakes and wetlands. One south-facing basin contains Laguna de Río Seco, a small lake at ca. 3020 m elevation, presently above potential treeline. Pollen analysis of sediment cores documents over 11,000 calendar years of vegetation change there. The early record, to ca. 5,700 cal yr BP, is dominated by pine pollen, with birch, deciduous oak, and grass, with an understory of shrubs types. Pine trees probably never grew at the elevation of the lake, but aquatic microfossils indicate lake levels were highest prior to ca. 7,800 cal yr BP, perhaps as a result of heavy winter precipitation, and early Holocene expansion of the ITCZ. Drier conditions commenced by 5,700 cal yr BP, shown by declines in wetland pollen, and increases in high elevation steppe shrubs more common today (juniper, sage, and others). The local and regional impact of humans increased substantially after ca. 2700 years ago, with the regional loss of pine forest or woodland, increases in pollen and spore types associated with pasturing, and olive cultivation at lower elevations.

  14. La Irradiación de alimentos: Lo que usted debe saber

    Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

    La irradiaciÃÆ'ƒÂ³n de alimentos (la aplicaciÃÆ'Æ’ ³n de radiaciÃÆ'ƒÂ³n ionizante a los alimentos) ...

  15. La Irradiación de alimentos: Lo que usted debe saber

    Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

    La irradiaciÃÆ'ƒÂ³n de alimentos (la aplicaciÃÆ'Æ’ ³n de radiaciÃÆ'ƒÂ³n ionizante a los alimentos ...

  16. Environmental radiological studies conducted during 1986 in the vicinity of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1987-03-01

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1986 for our assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides discharged with aqueous releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Plant. In October 1984, a liquid-effluent control program was initiated that significantly reduced the quantities of radionuclides discharged with liquid waste from the plant. However, results from our sampling program in 1986 indicate that previously discharged radionuclides persist in the downstream environment and are found in many aquatic dietary components although at concentrations much lower than those measured in 1984 and 1985. The greatly reduced activities in the dietary components from the aquatic environment attest to the effectiveness of the liquid-effluent control program. Concentrations in the flesh of fish from the creeks have decreased over time and with distance from the plant outfall. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in fish collected from Laguna Creek at locations more than 7.5 km from Rancho Seco is now comparable to the concentration determined in fresh-water fish randomly selected from Chicago, Illinois, markets. By August 1986, the mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in the flesh of bluegill had fallen to 7% of the concentration measured in fish from comparable locations in 1984 and was 30% of the mean concentration measured in these fish during August 1985. Stable potassium in the water plays a major role in the accumulation of /sup 137/Cs by fish. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in the surface sections of creek sediments also declined between the end of 1984 and 1986 with an effective half-life of approximately 2 y. Surface soils collected around a perimeter 11 km from Rancho Seco and from ranchlands closer to the plant showed only concentrations of /sup 137/Cs originating from global fallout. Soils previously irrigated with Clay Creek water retain levels of both /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs.

  17. Structure-activity relationships of seco-prezizaane terpenoids in gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors of houseflies and rats.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Tadahiko; Schmidt, Thomas J; Okuyama, Emi; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2002-06-01

    Thirteen seco-prezizaane terpenoids isolated from star anise species (Illcium floridanum, Illcium parviflorum, and Illcium verum) were investigated for their ability to inhibit the specific binding of [(3)H]4'-ethynyl-4-n-propylbicycloorthobenzoate (EBOB), a non-competitive antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, to housefly-head and rat-brain membranes. Veranisatin A was found to be the most potent inhibitor in both membranes, with an IC(50)(fly) of 78.5 nM and an IC(50)(rat) of 271 nM, followed by anisatin (IC(50)(fly)=123 nM; IC(50)(rat)=282 nM). Six of the other 11 tested compounds were effective only in housefly-head membranes. Pseudoanisatin proved to display a high (>26-fold) selectivity for housefly versus rat GABA receptors (IC(50)(fly)=376 nM; IC(50)(rat) >10,000 nM). Although pseudoanisatin does not structurally resemble EBOB, Scatchard plots indicated that the two compounds bind to the same site in housefly receptors. Anisatin and pseudoanisatin exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against German cockroaches. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), a method of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) analysis, demonstrated that seco-prezizaane terpenoids can bind to the same site as do picrotoxane terpenoids such as picrotoxinin and picrodendrins, and the CoMFA maps allowed us to identify the parts of the molecules essential to high activity in housefly GABA receptors.

  18. Inhibition of macrophage activation and lipopolysaccaride-induced death by seco-steroids purified from Physalis angulata L.

    PubMed

    Soares, Milena B P; Bellintani, Moema C; Ribeiro, Ivone M; Tomassini, Therezinha C B; Ribeiro dos Santos, Ricardo

    2003-01-10

    Physalis angulata L. is an annual herb widely used in popular medicine for the treatment of a variety of pathologies. Here, we tested immunomodulatory activities of physalins, seco-steroids purified from P. angulata extracts. Addition of physalins B, F or G, but not D, caused a reduction in nitric oxide production by macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccaride and interferon-gamma. In the presence of physalin B, macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccaride, alone or in combination with interferon-gamma, produced lower levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-12. The inhibitory activity of physalin B, unlike that of dexamethasone, was not reversed by RU486 [(4-dimethylamino) phenyl-17beta-hydroxy-17-(1-propynyl)estra-4,9-dien-3-one], an antiglucocorticoid. Physalin B-treated mice had lower levels of serum TNF-alpha than control mice after lipopolysaccaride challenge. More importantly, mice injected with physalins B, F or G survived after a lethal lipopolysaccaride challenge. These results demonstrate that seco-steroids from P. angulata are potent immunomodulatory substances and act through a mechanism distinct from that of dexamethasone.

  19. Sequence-specific DNA alkylation targeting for Kras codon 13 mutation by pyrrole-imidazole polyamide seco-CBI conjugates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rhys Dylan; Asamitsu, Sefan; Takenaka, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Makoto; Hashiya, Kaori; Kawamoto, Yusuke; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-27

    Hairpin N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole polyamide seco-CBI conjugates 2-6 were designed for synthesis by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis, and their DNA-alkylating activities against the Kras codon 13 mutation were compared by high-resolution denaturing gel electrophoresis with 225 base pair (bp) DNA fragments. Conjugate 5 had high reactivity towards the Kras codon 13 mutation site, with alkylation occurring at the A of the sequence 5'-ACGTCACCA-3' (site 2), including minor 1 bp-mismatch alkylation against wild type 5'-ACGCCACCA-3' (site 3). Conjugate 6, which differs from conjugate 5 by exchanging one Py unit with a β unit, showed high selectivity but only weakly alkylated the A of 5'-ACGTCACCA-3' (site 2). The hairpin polyamide seco-CBI conjugate 5 thus alkylates according to Dervan's pairing rule with the pairing recognition which β/β pair targets T-A and A-T pairs. SPR and a computer-minimized model suggest that 5 binds to the target sequence with high affinity in a hairpin conformation, allowing for efficient DNA alkylation.

  20. Pectenotoxin-2 seco acid: a toxin converted from pectenotoxin-2 by the New Zealand Greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Mackenzie, L; Stirling, D; Adamson, J

    2001-04-01

    Comparison of pectenotoxin (PTX) profiles of toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta, Greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus) and Blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Wedge Point, Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand was carried out by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with turbo-ionspray ionization. Although the major PTX homologue in D. acuta was pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), both Greenshell and Blue mussels contained pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX2SA) as the predominant toxin. More than 90% of PTX2 isolated from D. acuta was rapidly converted to PTX2SA and its epimer 7-epi-pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (7-epi-PTX2SA) in the Greenshell mussel extracts. The conversion from PTX2 to PTX2SA and 7-epi-PTX2SA was not observed in phosphate buffers at various pH ranging from 4.1 to 9.1. These findings indicate that PTX2SA and 7-epi-PTX2SA are not artifact toxins resulting from hydrolysis of PTX2, but arise from the conversion of PTX2 by mussel tissues.

  1. Depositional systems in the lower Cretaceous Morro Do Chaves and Coqueiro Seco formations, and their relationship to petroleum accumulations, middle rift sequence, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    de Figueiredo, A.M.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, northeast coast of Brazil, the Lower Cretaceous lacustrine, middle rift sequence is composed of the Morro do Chaves and Coqueiro Seco Formations. Subsurface analysis permitted recognition and mapping of four principal types of depositional environments: Morro do Chaves carbonate platform, and Coqueiro Seco fluvial-deltaic, fan delta, and slope systems. Morro do Chaves lacustrine carbonate sediments were deposited in positive areas flanking the principal point sources (rivers), and are composed of high energy limestones. Contemporaneous deep-water euxinic and bituminous lacustrine shales were deposited under starved basin conditions. Sublacustrine canyon excavation attested to the presence of a destructional slope episode. Coqueiro Seco fluvial-deltaic and fan delta facies display high sand/shale ratios and blocky to massive E-log patterns; slope facies display serrate to digitate E-log patterns and is less sandy. Delta plain channel-fill facies and coarse-grained meanderbelt fluvial facies are dominant in fluvial-deltaic systems of the Alagoas Sub-basin; and proximal to medial conglomerates and coarse conglomeratic sandstones are dominant facies in fan delta systems of the Rio Sao Francisco Sub-basin. Slope facies are composed of sublacustrine fans formed by fine- to medium-grained sandstones enveloped by subbituminous shales, and lacustrine limestones. Coqueiro Seco coarse clastic systems prograded across the basin and buried Morro do Chaves carbonate platforms in response to cyclic tectonic pulses related to rift development. Evaluation of petroleum occurrences in relationship to defined depositional systems permitted recognition of several types of plays characterized by unique structural and stratigraphic relationships exhibited by reservoirs, source beds and structure. The Coqueiro Seco slope play, formed by updip pinchout of turbidite fans, is judged the most promising in the sequence.

  2. Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activity of Pseudopterosins and seco-Pseudopterosins Isolated from the Octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae of San Andrés and Providencia Islands (Southwest Caribbean Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Hebelin; Aristizabal, Fabio; Duque, Carmenza; Kerr, Russell

    2011-01-01

    To expand the potential of pseudopterosins and seco-pseudopterosins isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae of San Andrés and Providencia islands (southwest Caribbean Sea), we report the anti-microbial profile against four pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and report a more complete cytotoxic profile against five human cells lines (HeLa, PC-3, HCT116, MCF-7 and BJ) for the compounds PsG, PsP, PsQ, PsS, PsT, PsU, 3-O-acetyl-PsU, seco-PsJ, seco-PsK and IMNGD. For the cytotoxic profiles, all compounds evaluated showed moderate and non-selective activity against both tumor and normal cell lines, where PsQ and PsG were the most active compounds (GI50 values between 5.8 μM to 12.0 μM). With respect to their anti-microbial activity the compounds showed good and selective activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, while they did not show activity against the Gram-negative bacterium or yeast. PsU, PsQ, PsS, seco-PsK and PsG were the most active compounds (IC50 2.9–4.5 μM) against S. aureus and PsG, PsU and seco-PsK showed good activity (IC50 3.1–3.8 μM) against E. faecalis, comparable to the reference drug vancomycin (4.2 μM). PMID:21556163

  3. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of pseudopterosins and seco-pseudopterosins isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae of San Andrés and Providencia Islands (Southwest Caribbean Sea).

    PubMed

    Correa, Hebelin; Aristizabal, Fabio; Duque, Carmenza; Kerr, Russell

    2011-03-04

    To expand the potential of pseudopterosins and seco-pseudopterosins isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae of San Andrés and Providencia islands (southwest Caribbean Sea), we report the anti-microbial profile against four pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and report a more complete cytotoxic profile against five human cells lines (HeLa, PC-3, HCT116, MCF-7 and BJ) for the compounds PsG, PsP, PsQ, PsS, PsT, PsU, 3-O-acetyl-PsU, seco-PsJ, seco-PsK and IMNGD. For the cytotoxic profiles, all compounds evaluated showed moderate and non-selective activity against both tumor and normal cell lines, where PsQ and PsG were the most active compounds (GI₅₀ values between 5.8 μM to 12.0 μM). With respect to their anti-microbial activity the compounds showed good and selective activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, while they did not show activity against the Gram-negative bacterium or yeast. PsU, PsQ, PsS, seco-PsK and PsG were the most active compounds (IC₅₀ 2.9-4.5 μM) against S. aureus and PsG, PsU and seco-PsK showed good activity (IC₅₀ 3.1-3.8 μM) against E. faecalis, comparable to the reference drug vancomycin (4.2 μM).

  4. Dose to man from a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.R.; Greenly, G.D.

    1981-02-01

    At the request of the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District, we used our computer codes, MATHEW and ADPIC, to assess the environmental impact of a loss-of-coolant accident at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant, about 40 kilometres southeast of Sacramento, California. Meteorological input was selected so that the effluent released by the accident would be transported over the Sacramento metropolitan area. With the release rates provided by the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District, we calculated the largest total dose for a 24-hour release as 70 rem about one kilometre northwest of the reactor. The largest total dose in the Sacramento metropolitan area is 780 millirem. Both doses are from iodine-131, via the forage-cow-milk pathway to an infant's thyroid. The largest dose near the nuclear plant can be minimized by replacing contaminated milk and by giving the cows dry feed. To our knowledge, there are no milk cows within the Sacramento metropolitan area.

  5. 13,14-seco-Withanolides from Physalis minima with Potential Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ru; Guan, Yu-Zhou; Li, Rui-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-07-01

    Four new 13,14-seco-withanolides, minisecolides A - D (1 - 4), together with three known analogues 5 - 7, were isolated from the whole plants of Physalis minima. The structures of new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including (1) H-, (13) C-NMR, 2D-NMR (HMBC, HSQC, ROESY), and HR-ESI-MS. Evaluation of all isolates for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production was conducted on lipopolysaccaride-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 showed inhibitory activities, especially for compound 5 with IC50 value of 3.87 μm.

  6. Ring A-seco limonoids and flavonoids from the Kenyan Vepris uguenensis Engl. and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kiplimo, Joyce J; Shahidul Islam, Md; Koorbanally, Neil A

    2012-11-01

    Two A-seco-limonoids, accorded the trivial names, uguenensene and uguenensone and a C-7 prenylated flavonoid, uguenenprenol were isolated from Vepris uguenensis (Rutaceae). In addition, 11 known compounds, niloticin, chisocheton A, kihadalactone A, limonyl acetate, methyl uguenenoate, 7-O-methylaromadenrin, flindersiamine, 8α,11-elemodiol, tricoccin S₁₃ acetate, skimmianine, and lupeol were isolated. The structures of the compounds were elucidated and characterized by spectroscopic analyses (NMR, GC-MS and IR). Antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds showed that uguenenprenol and 7-O-methylaromadenrin are good antioxidant agents. Significantly high antioxidant activity was also exhibited by 8α,11-elemodiol, which was 72% at 250 μg mL⁻¹ and 57% at 15.62 μg mL⁻¹ when tested with the deoxyribose method. The two liminoids fit nicely into the biosynthetic pathway from niloticin to methyl uguenenoate.

  7. Synthesis, NMR and crystal characterization of dimeric terephthalates derived from epimeric 4,5-seco-cholest-3-yn-5-ols.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Manjarrez, Carlos; Arcos-Ramos, Rafael; Álamo, Marcos Flores; Iglesias-Arteaga, Martín A

    2016-05-01

    Two dimeric steroidal terephthalates derived from epimeric 4,5-seco-cholest-3-yn-5-ols were prepared starting from cholesterol in a five-step synthetic sequence. X-ray crystallography shows that the obtained compounds display novel supramolecular networks in the solid state in which the facial hydrophobicity of the steroidal skeletons plays an important role. Unambiguous NMR characterization of the obtained dimers is also provided.

  8. Three-Dimensional Geologic Model of Complex Fault Structures in the Upper Seco Creek Area, Medina and Uvalde Counties, South-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pantea, Michael P.; Cole, James C.; Smith, Bruce D.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Smith, David V.

    2008-01-01

    This multimedia report shows and describes digital three-dimensional faulted geologic surfaces and volumes of the lithologic units of the Edwards aquifer in the upper Seco Creek area of Medina and Uvalde Counties in south-central Texas. This geologic framework model was produced using (1) geologic maps and interpretations of depositional environments and paleogeography; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from 31 drill holes; (3) rock core and detailed lithologic descriptions from one drill hole; (4) helicopter electromagnetic geophysical data; and (5) known major and minor faults in the study area. These faults were used because of their individual and collective effects on the continuity of the aquifer-forming units in the Edwards Group. Data and information were compared and validated with each other and reflect the complex relationships of structures in the Seco Creek area of the Balcones fault zone. This geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Seco Creek area of the Balcones fault zone and to show the connectivity of hydrologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults. The software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, on this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  9. Physalins B, F and G, seco-steroids purified from Physalis angulata L., inhibit lymphocyte function and allogeneic transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Soares, M B P; Brustolim, D; Santos, L A; Bellintani, M C; Paiva, F P; Ribeiro, Y M; Tomassini, T C B; Ribeiro Dos Santos, R

    2006-03-01

    Physalis angulata is a solanaceae widely used in folk medicine in various tropical countries in the world. We have previously described that seco-steroids (physalins) purified from P. angulata are potent inhibitors of macrophage activation, blocking the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and LPS-induced lethality. Herein we investigated the immunomodulatory activities of these substances in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production and in transplantation. The addition of physalins B, F or G to concanavalin A-activated splenocyte cultures induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of proliferation. Physalin B also inhibited IL-2 production by Con A-activated spleen cells. The addition of 2 mug/ml physalin B to mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) caused a 100% inhibition of proliferation. More importantly, treatment of mice with physalin B, F or G prevented the rejection of allogeneic heterotopic heart transplant. Our results demonstrate the suppressive activity of physalins B, F and G in lymphocyte function and indicate the potential use of physalins as immunosuppressive agents for treatments of pathologies in which inhibition of immune responses is desired.

  10. Selective Targeting of the KRAS Codon 12 Mutation Sequence by Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide seco-CBI Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rhys D; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hashiya, Kaori; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-10-12

    Mutation of KRAS is a key step in many cancers. Mutations occur most frequently at codon 12, but the targeting of KRAS is notoriously difficult. We recently demonstrated selective reduction in the volume of tumors harboring the KRAS codon 12 mutation in a mouse model by using an alkylating hairpin N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole polyamide seco-1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[1,2-c]benz[1,2-e]indol-4-one conjugate (conjugate 4) designed to target the KRAS codon 12 mutation sequence. Herein, we have compared the alkylating activity of 4 against three other conjugates that were also designed to target the KRAS codon 12 mutation sequence. Conjugate 4 displayed greater affinity for the G12D mutation sequence than for the G12V sequence. A computer-minimized model suggested that conjugate 4 could bind more efficiently to the G12D match sequence than to a one-base-pair mismatch sequence. Conjugate 4 was modified for next-generation sequencing. Bind-n-Seq analysis supported the evidence showing that conjugate 4 could target the G12D mutation sequence with exceptionally high affinity and the G12V mutation sequence with much higher affinity than that for the wild-type sequence.

  11. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of historical hydrologic and water-quality data, Seco Creek Watershed, South-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, David W.; Slattery, Richard N.; Gilhousen, Jon R.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic (rainfall, streamflow, and reservoir content) and water-quality data in the Seco Creek watershed, south-central Texas. Most of the data from 15 sites were collected as part of a study in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board to evaluate the effects of agricultural best-management practices on surface- and ground-water quantity and quality in the 255-square-mile watershed. Nearly 400 best-management practices at 58 sites were implemented by landowners in the watershed during March 1990-September 1995. Most of the data are from the early 1990s, the period during and after implementation of best-management practices. Data from five sites include water quality and are summarized in tables and graphics in the text; and data from all 15 sites are summarized on a diskette. Maximum annual rainfall among the sites for which data are presented in the text (excluding one site) for the during-and-after-implementation period (March 1990-September 1995) was 53.27 inches in water year 1992. Maximum annual total streamflow among the sites for the period was 63,400 acre-feet, also in water year 1992. At the one site with water-quality data (under base-flow conditions) for both the before-implementation period and the during-and-after implementation period of best-management practices, percentiles (5, 25, 50, 75, 95) for specific conductance, nitrate concentration, and fecal coliform density were less for the during-and-after-implementation period than for the before-implementation period.

  12. Unprecedented 1,14-seco-crotofolanes from Croton insularis: oxidative cleavage of crotofolin C by a putative homo-Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Lidiya A; Savchenko, Andrei I; Pierce, Carly J; Gordon, Victoria A; Reddell, Paul W; Parsons, Peter G; Williams, Craig M

    2014-10-27

    EBC-162 isolated from Croton insularis, obtained from the northern rainforest of Australia, was structurally affirmed as crotofolin C (4). Novel oxidative degradation products, EBC-233 and EBC-300, which are the first crotofolane endoperoxides, were also isolated. Both endoperoxides were found to be stable intermediates, which are proposed to undergo an unprecedented homo-Baeyer-Villiger biosynthetic rearrangement to give a new class of 1,14-seco-crotofolane diterpenes. Prolonged storage of all isolates assisted in authenticating their natural product status. Anticancer activities of reported compounds are presented.

  13. Possible ecological role of pseudopterosins G and P-U and seco-pseudopterosins J and K from the gorgonian Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae from Providencia Island (SW Caribbean) in regulating microbial surface communities.

    PubMed

    Correa, Hebelin; Zorro, Pamela; Arevalo-Ferro, Catalina; Puyana, Monica; Duque, Carmenza

    2012-09-01

    The gorgonian Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae collected at Providencia Island (Colombia) has an unfouled surface, free of obvious algal and invertebrate growth. This gorgonian produces significant amounts of the glycosilated diterpenes pseudopterosins and seco-pseudopterosins (Ps and seco-Ps). Our previous experiments have shown activity of these compounds against eukaryotic (human cancer cell lines and Candida albicans) and prokaryotic cells (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis). However, the potential role of pseudopterosins on the regulation of the fouling process is still under study. We evaluated the activity of these compounds against bacteria isolated from heavily fouled marine surfaces as an indicator of antifouling activity. Additionally, we assessed their activity against bacteria isolated from P. elisabethae to determine whether potentially they play a role in preventing surface bacterial colonization, thus impairing presumptively the establishment of further successional stages of fouling communities. Results showed that Ps and seco-Ps seem to modulate bacterial growth (controlling Gram-positive bacterial growth and inducing Gram-negative bacterial associations). We thus hypothesized that Ps and seco-Ps may play a role in controlling microbial fouling communities on the surface of this gorgonian. By using bTEFAP and FISH we showed that the most abundant bacteria present in the microbial communities associated with P. elisabethae are Gram-negative bacteria, with Proteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria the most representative. To evaluate whether Ps and seco-Ps have a direct effect on the structure of the bacterial community associated with P. elisabethae, we tested these compounds against culturable bacteria associated with the surface of P. elisabethae, finding remarkable selectivity against Gram-positive bacteria. The evidence presented here suggests that Ps and seco-Ps might have a role in the selection of organisms associated with the

  14. Potential-Field and Seismic Reflection/Refraction Studies of the Eagle Rock and Raymond Faults in Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirer, D. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Catchings, R. D.; Goldman, M.; Fuis, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    In August 2007, we acquired high-resolution gravity and seismic reflection and refraction data across the Eagle Rock and Raymond faults in the Arroyo Seco, located in Pasadena and South Pasadena, California. The studies were conducted to aid in understanding the seismic hazards of these faults in this urban setting, specifically to detect and determine the location of all faults passing through the area and to characterize their dip and possible structural connections. Gravity data were collected along a single ~3-km-long profile, with stations spaced every 25-m close to the fault traces and at greater intervals away from the fault traces. Gravity station elevations from Real-Time Kinematic GPS solutions, along with careful accounting for the gravity effects of the adjacent concrete drainage channel and of the walls of the arroyo, allow for the calculation of gravity anomalies that reflect sub-surface density contrasts across the Eagle Rock and Raymond faults. Seismic reflection and refraction data, including both P-wave and S-wave records, were collected along two profiles, a northern one crossing the Eagle Rock fault with a length of 1200 m, and a southern one crossing the Raymond fault with a length of 450 m. The seismic profiles coincided with the longer gravity profile along the floor of the Arroyo Seco. Seismic sources included Betsy-Seisgun shots, accelerated weight drops, and repeated sledge hammer impacts, and receivers were geophones spaced at a 5-m interval. S-waves were generated and recorded at a subset of sites on each of the seismic lines. Seismic reflection and refraction images indicate that both the Eagle Rock and Raymond faults are comprised of multiple, steeply-dipping fault strands. P- and S-wave seismic tomography of the uppermost 50-100 m show velocity variations that can be converted to likely density variations, which can in turn be subtracted from the density variation needed by the gravity anomaly analysis. This process of stripping off

  15. EPA se mueve hacia la prohibición de desengrasantes en aerosol y quitamanchas para lavado en seco como una de las primeras acciones reglamentarias conforme a la ley reformada de sustancias químicas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comunicado de prensa de EPA: EPA se mueve hacia la prohibición de desengrasantes en aerosol y quitamanchas para lavado en seco como una de las primeras acciones reglamentarias conforme a la ley reformada de sustancias químicas

  16. Holophyllane A: A Triterpenoid Possessing an Unprecedented B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane Architecture from Abies holophylla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Oh, Joonseok; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2017-03-01

    A novel triterpenoid, holophyllane A (1), featuring a B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane, along with its putative precursor, compound 2 were isolated from the methanol extract of the trunks of Abies holophylla. The 2D structure and relative configuration of 1 were initially determined via analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and the assignment was confirmed by quantum mechanics-based NMR chemical shift calculations. The absolute configuration was established by comparison of the experimental and simulated ECD data generated at different theory levels. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxicity and significant inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production.

  17. Holophyllane A: A Triterpenoid Possessing an Unprecedented B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane Architecture from Abies holophylla

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chung Sub; Oh, Joonseok; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2017-01-01

    A novel triterpenoid, holophyllane A (1), featuring a B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane, along with its putative precursor, compound 2 were isolated from the methanol extract of the trunks of Abies holophylla. The 2D structure and relative configuration of 1 were initially determined via analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and the assignment was confirmed by quantum mechanics-based NMR chemical shift calculations. The absolute configuration was established by comparison of the experimental and simulated ECD data generated at different theory levels. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxicity and significant inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production. PMID:28252664

  18. The Ni-Cu-PGE mineralized Brejo Seco mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion, Riacho do Pontal Orogen: Onset of Tonian (ca. 900 Ma) continental rifting in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Silas Santos; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Caxito, Fabrício de Andrade; Uhlein, Alexandre; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Stevenson, Ross

    2016-10-01

    The Brejo Seco mafic-ultramafic Complex (BSC) occurs at the extreme northwest of the Riacho do Pontal Orogen Internal Zone, in the northern margin of the São Francisco Craton in Northeast Brazil. The stratigraphy of this medium size (3.5 km wide and 9 km long) layered intrusion consists of four main zones, from bottom to top: Lower Mafic Zone (LMZ; mainly troctolite), Ultramafic Zone (UZ; mainly dunite and minor troctolite); Transitional Mafic Zone (TMZ; mainly troctolite) and an Upper Mafic Zone (UMZ; gabbro and minor anorthosite, troctolite, and ilmenite magnetitite). Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization occurs at the contact of the UZ with the TMZ, consisting of an up to 50 m thick stratabound zone of disseminated magmatic sulfides. An Mg-tholeiitic affinity to the parental magma is indicated by the geochemical fractionation pattern, by the magmatic crystallization sequence and by the elevated Fo content in olivine. A Smsbnd Nd isochron yielded an age of 903 ± 20 Ma, interpreted as the age of crystallization, with initial εNd = 0.8. Evidence of interaction of the BSC parental magma with sialic crust is given by the Rare Earth and trace element patterns, and by slightly negative and overall low values of εNd(900 Ma) in between -0.2 and +3.3. Contrary to early interpretations that it might constitute an ophiolite complex, based mainly on the geochemistry of the host rocks (Morro Branco metavolcanosedimentary complex), here we interpret the BSC as a typical layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion in continental crust, related to an extensional regime. The BSC is chrono-correlated to mafic dyke swarms, anorogenic granites and thick bimodal volcanics of similar age and tectonic setting in the São Francisco Craton and surrounding areas. Intrusion of the BSC was followed by continued lithospheric thinning, which led to the development of the Paulistana Complex continental rift volcanics around 888 Ma and ultimately to plate separation and the generation of new oceanic crust (Monte

  19. Geological, hydrological, and biological issues related to the proposed development of a park at the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Trenham, Peter C.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Reichard, Eric G.; Tinsley, John C.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Meyer, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    A new park is being considered for the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles County, California. Components of the park development may include creation of a temporary lake on the Los Angeles River, removal of channel lining along part of the Arroyo Seco, restoration of native plants, creation of walking paths, and building of facilities such as a boat ramp and a visitor center. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Mountains Recreation and Conservancy Authority, delineates the geological, hydrological, and biological issues that may have an impact on the park development or result from development at the confluence, and identifies a set a tasks to help address these science issues. Geologic issues of concern relate to surface faulting, earthquake ground motions, liquefaction, landsliding, and induced seismicity. Hydrologic issues of concern relate to the hydraulics and water quality of both surface water and ground water. Biological issues of concern include colonization-extinction dynamics, wildlife corridors, wildlife reintroduction, non-native species, ecotoxicology, and restoration of local habitat and ecology. Potential tasks include (1) basic data collection and follow-up monitoring, and (2) statistical and probabilistic analyses and simulation modeling of the seismic, hydraulic, and ecological processes that may have the greatest impact on the park. The science issues and associated tasks delineated for the proposed confluence park will also have transfer value for river restoration in other urban settings.

  20. Eduardo Primo Yúfera, founder of Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos and pioneer on food science and technology research in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Gascón, M; Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Gandía-Balaguer, A

    2011-12-01

    Eduardo Primo Yúfera was the founder and director of the Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA, 1957-1974) until he was appointed president of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC). His aim to publicize food science led him to create the Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos in 1961, the forerunner of this journal, Food Science and Technology International, which he directed until 1977. Of his scientific output, 50% has been published in this journal. He is considered to be the promoter and exponent of Food Science and Technology and Chemical Ecology in Spain as well as the instigator of the country's innovation model (R&D and innovation). In his work, he was able to combine basic research excellence and socially relevant applied research to move both science and society forward. He was an example and inspiration to many colleagues and followers. The aim of this study is to highlight the influence and importance of Primo Yúfera in the formation, development and consolidation of the journal Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos, and to appraise his scientific contribution to this journal.

  1. DNA sequence selective adenine alkylation, mechanism of adduct repair, and in vivo antitumor activity of the novel achiral seco-amino-cyclopropylbenz[e]indolone analogue of duocarmycin AS-I-145.

    PubMed

    Kiakos, Konstantinos; Sato, Atsushi; Asao, Tetsuji; McHugh, Peter J; Lee, Moses; Hartley, John A

    2007-10-01

    AS-I-145 is a novel achiral seco-amino-cyclopropylbenz[e]indolone (seco-amino-CBI) analogue of duocarmycin that has evolved from an alternative strategy of designing CC-1065/duocarmycin agents lacking the characteristic chiral center of the natural agents. The sequence specificity of this compound was assessed by a Taq polymerase stop assay, identifying the sites of covalent modification on plasmid DNA. The adenine-N3 adducts were confirmed at AT-rich sequences using a thermally induced strand cleavage assay. These studies reveal that this compound retains the inherent sequence selectivity of the related natural compounds. The AS-I-145 sensitivity of yeast mutants deficient in excision and post-replication repair (PRR) pathways was assessed. The sensitivity profile suggests that the sequence-specific adenine-N3 adducts are substrates for nucleotide excision repair (NER) but not base excision repair (BER). Single-strand ligation PCR was employed to follow the induction and repair of the lesions at nucleotide resolution in yeast cells. Sequence specificity was preserved in intact cells, and adduct elimination occurred in a transcription-coupled manner and was dependent on a functional NER pathway and Rad18. The involvement of NER as the predominant excision pathway was confirmed in mammalian DNA repair mutant cells. AS-I-145 showed good in vivo antitumor activity in the National Cancer Institute standard hollow fiber assay and was active against the human breast MDA-MD-435 xenograft when administered i.v. or p.o. Its novel structure and in vivo activity renders AS-I-145 a new paradigm in the design of novel achiral analogues of CC-1065 and the duocarmycins.

  2. Estudio Sobre Portadores Cronicos de Salmonellas en Manipuladores de Alimentos de la Ciudad de Iquitos (Study of Chronic Salmonella Carriers in Food Handlers in the City of Iquitos)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    manipuladores de alimentos en estudio. 779 (77.90%) fueron del sexo femcnino y 221 (22.10%) del sexo masculino. siendo el mayor porcentaje mujeres (234 - 30.04...papel de ios portadlores cr6- Woos en 460 mujeres dadas de alt. del hospital de Chile, encontrandose 34 porta- dores o sea 7.4 % excediindose las...4 sujetos 3.6 % portadores cr6nicos de Salmoncilas. 1S0 En Argentina 1974, se inves:,16 la frecuencia de Saiimoncilas en 146 manipulado- res de

  3. Crystal structure and DFT calculations of 3,4- seco-lup-20(29)-en-3-oic acid isolated from Wrightia tinctoria: Stacking of supramolecular dimers in the crystal lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anindita; Sarkar, Ananda; Mitra, Partha; Banerji, Avijit; Banerji, Julie; Mandal, Suvra; Das, Manosi

    2010-09-01

    3,4- Seco-lup-20(29)-en-3-oic acid ( 1), a rare triterpene, was isolated from Wrightia tinctoria R.Br (Family: Apocyanaceae). It appeared promising to study the structural chemistry of this compound because of its unique bio activity. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that this compound consists of three six membered rings and one five membered ring. The first six membered ring (A) is in the twist boat form while the remaining two six membered rings (B, C) are in the chair form. The crystal of this compound belongs - to the monoclinic crystal system and space group P2 1. Lattice constituents are as follows: a = 13.074(6) Å, b = 11.972(5) Å, c = 17.394(7) Å; α = 90.00°, β = 98.20(13)°, γ = 90.00°; V = 2695(2) Å 3, d = 1.094 Mg/m 3, Z = 4. The optimized geometry of the reported molecule has been calculated with the DFT/B3LYP theory using 6-31G(d,p) basis set.

  4. Differentiation-inducing potency of the seco-steroid JK-1624F2-2 can be increased by combination with an antioxidant and a p38MAPK inhibitor which upregulates the JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Posner, Gary H; Danilenko, Michael; Studzinski, George P

    2007-01-01

    Low calcemic analogs of vitamin D are candidates for differentiation therapy of human myeloid leukemias. We report here that the seco-steroid synthesized to have resistance to intracellular degradation and low calcemia-inducing activity, 1alpha-hydroxymethyl-3beta-16-ene-24,24-difluoro-25-hydroxy-vitamin D(3) (JKF), induces monocytic differentiation in four established human myeloid leukemia cell lines, HL60, U937, THP-1, NB-4, and murine myeloid leukemia cells WEHI-3B D(-). JKF has differentiation-inducing potency which is slightly lower than the physiologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)(2)vitamin D(3) (1,25D). However, simultaneous addition of carnosic acid (CA), an antioxidant, and SB20190 (SB), an inhibitor of p38MAP kinase, increases the differentiation efficiency of JKF to a level similar to the level observed when 1,25D is used in such combinations. We also show for the first time that SB inhibits the phosphorylation of MAPKAPK2, a downstream target of p38MAPK, but upregulates the phosphorylation of at least one of the isoforms of JNK (p46 JNK1) and of c-jun in all four human myeloid cell lines studied here. These studies indicate that the JNK1 pathway is positively associated with monocytic differentiation of several subtypes of myeloid leukemia cells arrested at different developmental stages. Further, since JKF is less calcemic than 1,25D, the data suggest that JKF combined with CA and SB is likely to have a therapeutic advantage over 1,25D-based experimental regimens for myeloid leukemias.

  5. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... where the 400′ contour line intersects the northern boundary of Section 14, T. 19 S., R. 6 E. (5) Then... unnamed light-duty road to the south. (14) Then in a straight south-southeasterly line for approximately 1... coincides with the unnamed light duty road for approximately 0.4 miles and then with the eastern...

  6. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... where the 400′ contour line intersects the northern boundary of Section 14, T. 19 S., R. 6 E. (5) Then... unnamed light-duty road to the south. (14) Then in a straight south-southeasterly line for approximately 1... coincides with the unnamed light duty road for approximately 0.4 miles and then with the eastern...

  7. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... where the 400′ contour line intersects the northern boundary of Section 14, T. 19 S., R. 6 E. (5) Then... unnamed light-duty road to the south. (14) Then in a straight south-southeasterly line for approximately 1... coincides with the unnamed light duty road for approximately 0.4 miles and then with the eastern...

  8. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... where the 400′ contour line intersects the northern boundary of Section 14, T. 19 S., R. 6 E. (5) Then... unnamed light-duty road to the south. (14) Then in a straight south-southeasterly line for approximately 1... coincides with the unnamed light duty road for approximately 0.4 miles and then with the eastern...

  9. 27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... where the 400′ contour line intersects the northern boundary of Section 14, T. 19 S., R. 6 E. (5) Then... unnamed light-duty road to the south. (14) Then in a straight south-southeasterly line for approximately 1... coincides with the unnamed light duty road for approximately 0.4 miles and then with the eastern...

  10. Sedative effect of galphimine B, a nor-seco-triterpenoid from Galphimia glauca.

    PubMed

    Tortoriello, J; Ortega, A

    1993-10-01

    Galphimia glauca Cav. (Malpighiaceae) is used in Mexican traditional medicine as a sedative in the treatment of mental disorders. Sedative properties of a methanolic extract of the aerial parts of this plant have been established in animal trials and an active compound, named galphimine B, has already been isolated. This compound was submitted to neuropharmacological testing, where it was shown that galphimine B had no significant effect as an anticonvulsant, while it exhibited a strong depressant activity on the nervous system.

  11. Effect of removal of Juniperus ashei on evapotranspiration and runoff in the Seco Creek watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugas, W. A.; Hicks, R. A.; Wright, P.

    The water balance of a watershed may be affected by replacing deep-rooted woody species with shallow-rooted herbaceous vegetation. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of removing an individual species of tree, Juniperus ashei (Bucch.), on the runoff (RO) and evapotranspiration (ET) from two adjacent, unreplicated 15-ha areas (termed untreated and treated) in northeast Uvalde County, Texas, U.S.A. Daily ET from the two areas, measured from 1991 through 1995 using the Bowen ratio-energy balance method, varied from near 0 to 6 mm/d. All J. ashei taller than 0.5 m were cut with a chain saw in the treated area in September 1992. During both the pretreatment period (prior to September 1992) and the posttreatment period, the slope of treated ET as a function of untreated ET was ~1, suggesting that for the entire period of measurements, brush removal had no significant effect on ET. Average daily ET from the area to be treated was 0.05 mm/d lower than that from the untreated area during the 2-year pretreatment period, while it was 0.12 mm/d lower during the 3-year posttreatment period. The ET difference (untreated minus treated) was 0.3 mm/d in the first 2 years following removal of J. ashei and decreased thereafter. Removal of J. ashei had no consistent effect on RO. Vegetation management increased the potential for greater water yields in the short term from these rangelands by decreasing ET for the first 2 years after imposition of treatment.

  12. Environmental radiological studies downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station - 1985. Appendices. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1986-01-23

    Eight appendices address the following concentrations of radionuclides: in fish; in frog legs; in crayfish; in sediments; in soil samples; in surface and ground water samples; in water hyacinths; and in beef samples.

  13. Engineering of a Nepetalactol-Producing Platform Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the Production of Plant Seco-Iridoids.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alex; Bauchart, Philippe; Gold, Nicholas D; Zhu, Yun; De Luca, Vincenzo; Martin, Vincent J J

    2016-05-20

    The monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) are a valuable family of chemicals that include the anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. These compounds are of global significance-appearing on the World Health Organization's list of model essential medicines-but remain exorbitantly priced due to low in planta levels. Chemical synthesis and genetic manipulation of MIA producing plants such as Catharanthus roseus have so far failed to find a solution to this problem. Synthetic biology holds a potential answer, by building the pathway into more tractable organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recent work has taken the first steps in this direction by producing small amounts of the intermediate strictosidine in yeast. In order to help improve on these titers, we aimed to optimize the early biosynthetic steps of the MIA pathway to the metabolite nepetalactol. We combined a number of strategies to create a base strain producing 11.4 mg/L of the precursor geraniol. We also show production of the critical intermediate 10-hydroxygeraniol and demonstrate nepetalactol production in vitro. Lastly we demonstrate that activity of the iridoid synthase toward the intermediates geraniol and 10-hydroxygeraniol results in the synthesis of the nonproductive intermediates citronellol and 10-hydroxycitronellol. This discovery has serious implications for the reconstruction of the MIA in heterologous organisms.

  14. Seco-Taondiol, an Unusual Meroterpenoid from the Chilean Seaweed Stypopodium flabelliforme and Its Gastroprotective Effect in Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Areche, Carlos; Benites, Julio; Cornejo, Alberto; Ruiz, Lina M.; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Simirgiotis, Mario J.; Sepúlveda, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Ten known meroterpenoids and the new meroterpenoid 7 were isolated from the Chilean seaweed Stypopodium flabelliforme as their acetylated derivatives. Furthermore, the known metabolite taondiol has been isolated for the first time from this species. The molecular structure of the new metabolite was determined by spectroscopic methods based on 1D- and 2D-NMR. Isolation of 7 represents a key step toward a better understanding of the biogenesis of this class of meroterpenoids. Among the meroditerpenoids isolated, stypodiol, isoepitaondiol, epitaondiol and sargaol exhibited gastroprotective activity on the HCl/Ethanol-induced gastric lesions model in mice. Regarding the mode of gastroprotective action, the activity of epitaondiol was reversed significantly when animals were pretreated with indomethacin, N-ethylmaleimide and N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) suggesting that prostaglandins, sulfhydryl groups and nitric oxide are involved in their mode of gastroprotective action. In the case of sargaol the gastroprotective activity was attenuated with indomethacin and N-ethylmaleimide, which suggests that prostaglandins and sulfhydryl groups are also involved in the mode of action using this model. PMID:25830679

  15. Data Related to Late Quaternary Surface Faulting on the Sangre de Cristo Fault, Rito Seco Site, Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Mahan, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we present detailed maps of the trenches and a compilation of field and laboratory data used to support our interpretation of the history of four (PE1-PE4) prehistoric surface-faulting earthquakes at this site.

  16. 78 FR 76317 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... that is south of the revetment has eroded approximately 600 feet. The erosion on refuge property is...-screening efficiency of the new PCGID-PID pumping plant is now endangered by the bank erosion on the...

  17. Seco-taondiol, an unusual meroterpenoid from the Chilean seaweed Stypopodium flabelliforme and its gastroprotective effect in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Areche, Carlos; Benites, Julio; Cornejo, Alberto; Ruiz, Lina M; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Simirgiotis, Mario J; Sepúlveda, Beatriz

    2015-03-30

    Ten known meroterpenoids and the new meroterpenoid 7 were isolated from the Chilean seaweed Stypopodium flabelliforme as their acetylated derivatives. Furthermore, the known metabolite taondiol has been isolated for the first time from this species. The molecular structure of the new metabolite was determined by spectroscopic methods based on 1D- and 2D-NMR. Isolation of 7 represents a key step toward a better understanding of the biogenesis of this class of meroterpenoids. Among the meroditerpenoids isolated, stypodiol, isoepitaondiol, epitaondiol and sargaol exhibited gastroprotective activity on the HCl/Ethanol-induced gastric lesions model in mice. Regarding the mode of gastroprotective action, the activity of epitaondiol was reversed significantly when animals were pretreated with indomethacin, N-ethylmaleimide and N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) suggesting that prostaglandins, sulfhydryl groups and nitric oxide are involved in their mode of gastroprotective action. In the case of sargaol the gastroprotective activity was attenuated with indomethacin and N-ethylmaleimide, which suggests that prostaglandins and sulfhydryl groups are also involved in the mode of action using this model.

  18. 77 FR 26569 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... flood flows would continue to be diverted from the Sacramento River through the Goose Lake overflow... understanding that our management activities would not impact the Goose Lake overflow structure that diverts... erosion, and the eventual cutoff of an oxbow. This cut off would allow the river to flow parallel to...

  19. 78 FR 16705 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... that flood flows would continue to be diverted from the Sacramento River through the Goose Lake... so with the understanding that our management activities would not impact the Goose Lake overflow... erosion, and the eventual cutoff of an oxbow. This cut off would allow the river to flow parallel to...

  20. A Ring-D-Seco-Tetranortriterpenoid from Seeds of Carapa procera Active against Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Dioum, Mbaye Diaw; Seck, Matar; Silvestre, Virginie; Planchat, Aurélien; Loquet, Denis; Lohard, Steven; Barille-Nion, Sophie; Remaud, Gerald S; Robins, Richard J; Tea, Illa

    2016-07-01

    The seeds of Carapa procera are exploited extensively in West African ethnopharmacy for the treatment of several pathologies, including inflammation. They also are effective as insect antifeedants and as a mosquito repellent. With the aim of identifying bioactive principles, an ethyl acetate extract of the defatted seeds was made and fractionated. Two principle compounds were isolated. One of these, 5,6-dehydro-7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin (1), while known from another genus of the Meliaceae, is newly identified from the genus Carapa and its X-ray structure is described for the first time. In addition, 1 displayed strong anti-clonogenic activity at 10 µM. The other compound, mexicanolide (2), is known from this species and showed neither cytotoxicity nor anti-clonogenicity. These differences in efficacy are discussed in relation to known structure-activity relationships of limonoids.

  1. [Consumption of nuts and vegetal oil in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Ferrer-García, Juan Carlos; Granell Vidal, Lina; Muñoz Izquierdo, Amparo; Sánchez Juan, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: estudios recientes han demostrado los beneficios cardiovasculares de la dieta mediterránea enriquecida con aceite de oliva y frutos secos. Las personas con diabetes, que tienen un mayor riesgo de complicaciones cardiovasculares, podrían beneficiarse en gran medida de seguir ese tipo de patrón alimentario. Objetivos: análisis de la ingesta de grasas vegetales procedentes de frutos secos y aceites vegetales en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1). Métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo que compara 60 personas con DM1 y 60 sujetos sanos. Se recoge la frecuencia de consumo de aceites vegetales y de frutos secos y se calcula el aporte procedente de estos alimentos en ácidos grasos mono y poliinsaturados (ácido oleico, linoleico y -linolénico). Se utilizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo diseñado de forma específica. Se recogen variables antropométricas, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y variables relacionadas con la diabetes. Resultados: el consumo total de grasa vegetal procedente de aceites vegetales fue similar en los pacientes con DM1 frente a los sujetos control (3,02 ± 1,14 vs. 3,07 ± 1,27 Raciones (R)/día, P = 0,822) y de frutos secos (1,35 ± 2,24 vs. 1,60 ± 2,44 R/semana, P = 0,560). El grupo DM1 consumió menos aceite de oliva que el grupo control (2,55 ± 1,17 vs. 3,02 ± 1,34 R/día, P = 0,046). Se detectó un menor consumo de ácido -linolénico respecto al grupo control (1,13 ± 2,06 vs. 2,64 ± 4,37 g/día, P = 0,018), mientras que no hubo diferencias en el resto de ácidos grasos (oleico 28,30 ± 18,13 vs. 29,53 ± 16,90 g/día, P = 0,703; linoleico 13,70 ± 16,80 vs. 15,45 ± 19,90 g/día, P = 0,605). En los DM1 no se demostró una influencia del consumo de las grasas vegetales procedentes de aceites y frutos secos en los parámetros antropométricos, metabólicos y variables específicas de la diabetes. Conclusiones: en las personas con DM1 el consumo total de aceites vegetales y frutos secos no

  2. Revised-Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W C

    2007-12-07

    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box.

  3. Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, CA

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Adams

    2007-12-07

    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box.

  4. Acyclonucleosides, modified seco-nucleosides, and salicyl- or catechol-derived acyclic 5-fluorouracil O,N-acetals: antiproliferative activities, cellular differentiation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Juan A; Núñez, María C; Aránega, Antonia; Gallo, Miguel A; Espinosa, Antonio; Campos, Joaquín M

    2009-01-01

    The goal of cancer chemotherapy with classical drugs - the destruction of the tumor cells - is often complicated by significant toxicity. As an alternative, induced differentiation modulates the cell programme by transforming malignant cells into mature cells with no proliferative potential. Our data demonstrate that (+/-)-1-{[3-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-1-isopropoxy]propyl}-5-fluorouracil inhibits proliferation, induces myogenic differentiation, increases the expression of proteins specifically present in normally differentiated skeletal muscle cells, and modifies the adhesion capacity of these cells against the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line RD. From a designing point of view, a benzene ring was fused to the side chain in order to increase the lipophilicity and anticancer activity of our molecules. Herein we report the preparation and biological activity of three compounds having the general formula (+/-)-1-[2-(5-substituted-2-hydroxybenzyloxy)-1-methoxyethyl]-5-fluorouracils. A catechol-derived compound such as (+/-)-1-[3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-1-methoxypropyl]-5-fluorouracil and two salicyl-derived compounds such as (+/-)-(Z)-1-[4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methoxy-but-3-enyl]-5-fluorouracil [(Z)-43] and its dihydrogenated derivative (+/-)-1-[4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methoxybutyl]-5-fluorouracil were prepared to complete the set of six O,N-acetals. The most active compound against the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was (+/-)-(Z)-43 with an IC(50) = 9.40 +/- 0.64 microM. Differentiated breast cancer cells generate fat deposits within the cytoplasm. The MCF-7 cells trea-ed with (+/-)-(Z)-43 caused an increase in the lipid content over control cells after 3 days of treatment. Our results suggest that there may be significant potential advantages in the use of this new differentiating agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  5. Role of 5-HT2 receptors in diabetes: Swertiamarin seco-iridoid glycoside might be a possible 5-HT2 receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Rakesh Deelip; Deore, Vijaykumar B; Patil, Savita D; Patil, Chandragouda R; Surana, Sanjay J; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2015-05-15

    In the present review, we are focusing on modulators of 5-HT2 receptors, swertiamarin and their role in diabetes. These drugs possess both central and peripheral actions in various animal models of depression, diabetes and obesity. Swertiamarin and 5-HT2 antagonist are reported antidepressant, hypolipidemic and beneficial in peripheral vasculopathy. In contrast to this, 5-HT2C selective agonist decreases hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and insulin secretogogue by action. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known antidepressant having weight gain as an adverse effect. Swertiamarin has similar pharmacological actions as 5-HT2 antagonist and 5-HT2C selective agonist. This warrants that swertiamarin might modulate 5-HT2 receptors rather than affecting the uptake of serotonin. In the light of present investigation, the mechanism of these drugs can correlate the role of central and peripheral 5-HT2 receptors in diabetes.

  6. Physalins B and F, seco-steroids isolated from Physalis angulata L., strongly inhibit proliferation, ultrastructure and infectivity of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Meira, Cássio S; Guimarães, Elisalva T; Bastos, Tanira M; Moreira, Diogo R M; Tomassini, Therezinha C B; Ribeiro, Ivone M; Dos Santos, Ricardo R; Soares, Milena B P

    2013-12-01

    We previously observed that physalins have immunomodulatory properties, as well as antileishmanial and antiplasmodial activities. Here, we investigated the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of physalins B, D, F and G. We found that physalins B and F were the most potent compounds against trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of T. cruzi. Electron microscopy of trypomastigotes incubated with physalin B showed disruption of kinetoplast, alterations in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum, followed by the formation of myelin-like figures, which were stained with MDC to confirm their autophagic vacuole identity. Physalin B-mediated alteration in Golgi apparatus was likely due to T. cruzi protease perturbation; however physalins did not inhibit activity of the trypanosomal protease cruzain. Flow cytometry examination showed that cell death is mainly caused by necrosis. Treatment with physalins reduced the invasion process, as well as intracellular parasite development in macrophage cell culture, with a potency similar to benznidazole. We observed that a combination of physalins and benznidazole has a greater anti-T. cruzi activity than when compounds were used alone. These results indicate that physalins, specifically B and F, are potent and selective trypanocidal agents. They cause structural alterations and induce autophagy, which ultimately lead to parasite cell death by a necrotic process.

  7. Physalin F, a seco-steroid from Physalis angulata L., has immunosuppressive activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with HTLV1-associated myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lorena A; Meira, Cássio S; Villarreal, Cristiane F; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A; de Souza, Claudia V C; Ribeiro, Ivone M; Tomassini, Therezinha C B; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Soares, Milena B P; Grassi, Maria F R

    2016-04-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces a strong activation of the immune system, especially in individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Physalin F is a secosteroid with potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of physalin F on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of HAM/TSP subjects. A concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous proliferation of PBMC from HAM/TSP subjects was observed in the presence of physalin F, as evaluated by (3)H-thymidine uptake. The IC50 for physalin F was 0.97 ± 0.11 μM. Flow cytometry analysis using Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) showed that physalin F (10 μM) significantly reduced the levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, but not IL-17A, in supernatants of PBMC cultures. Next, apoptosis induction was addressed by using flow cytometry to evaluate annexin V expression. Treatment with physalin F (10 μM) increased the apoptotic population of PBMC in HAM/TSP subjects. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of PBMC showed that physalin F induced ultrastructural changes, such as pyknotic nuclei, damaged mitochondria, enhanced autophagic vacuole formation, and the presence of myelin-like figures. In conclusion, physalin F induces apoptosis of PBMC, decreasing the spontaneous proliferation and cytokine production caused by HTLV-1 infection.

  8. [Systemic reaction after performing a food prick-to-prick test. A case report].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, Karen Estefanía; Diez, Libia Susana

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: La prueba por punción epidérmica es la principal prueba para el diagnóstico de enfermedades mediadas por IgE. Para su realización se utilizan extractos comerciales; en el caso de frutas y verduras es mejor emplear alimentos frescos. Si bien ambas modalidades poseen un buen perfil de seguridad, se han registrado reacciones de hipersensibilidad. Caso clínico: Mujer de 47 años de edad con antecedentes de rinitis alérgica persistente, sensibilizada a polen de gramíneas, olivo y salsola; fue remitida a un servicio de alergología por anafilaxia desencadenada por el consumo de aguacate, melón, zanahoria y sandía. Minutos después de la punción cutánea con extracto estandarizado y punción cutánea con alimentos frescos, desarrolló disnea, prurito, eritema, mareo y sibilancias. Se le administraron 0.5 mg de adrenalina intramuscular y 4 inhalaciones de salbutamol; también fue colocada en posición de Trendelemburg. La disnea persistió y el monitoreo de los signos vitales mostró incremento de las frecuencias cardiaca y respiratoria, por lo que se aplicó nuevamente salbutamol, 2 L/min de oxígeno por cánula nasal, líquidos endovenosos y 100 mg de hidrocortisona intravenosa; a los 40 minutos se observó mejoría. La paciente fue hospitalizada durante 48 horas. Conclusiones: Aunque las pruebas cutáneas son seguras, no debe excluirse el riesgo de reacciones de hipersensibilidad y anafilaxia, especialmente en pacientes susceptibles.

  9. PROCENTAJE DE PSILIDOS PORTADORES DE Canidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Y SU RELACION CON LA INCIDENCIA DE HLB EN CINCO HUERTAS COMERCIALES DE LIMON MEXICANO {Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle} EN EL ESTADO DE COLIMA MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) were individually analyzed by qPCR to detect Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The psyllids were collected in Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) trees in five commercial orchards in Tecomán and Manzanillo, Colima with severe symptoms of classical mott...

  10. SMART GROUND Project: SMART data collection and inteGRation platform to enhance availability and accessibility of data and infOrmation in the EU territory on SecoNDary Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; de la Feld, Marco; Pizza, Antonietta; Coulon, Frederic; Wagland, Stuart; Gomes, Diogo

    2016-04-01

    The issue of resource security has come to the forefront of the debate over recent years, partly due to considerable concern over the security of supply of the so called 'critical' materials, with rare earths attracting the greatest attention in the press. Their supply is fundamental to maintain and develop EU economy and its industries relied on a steady supply of Raw Materials. Thus considering the increasing scarcity and raising prices of both, energy raw materials and other raw materials, such as metals and minerals, the recycling and recovery of these materials from anthropogenic deposits such as landfills is of increasing relevance. Europe has somewhere between 150,000 and 500,000 landfill sites, with an estimated 90% of them being "non-sanitary" pre-dating the EU Landfill Directive of 1999. Thus historical background makes the numerous old waste dumps as possible sources of critical and secondary raw materials (SRM and CRM). However, to date there is no inventory available of SRM and CRM present in EU landfills, and best management practices to recover SRM from landfill activities are inefficient. In this context, the EU SMART GROUND (SG) project (Grant Agreement No 641988) intends to foster resource recovery in landfills by improving both the availability and the accessibility of data and information on SRM in the EU and creating synergies among the different stakeholders involved in the SRM value chain. To do so, the project aims to collect and integrate in a single EU databank (SMART GROUND Data Bank) all the data from existing databases and new information retrieved during project activities. Such data will be collected from the different waste streams including municipal, industrial and mining wastes across EU landfills. It will improve data gathering on SRM from different types of waste, by defining new and integrated data acquisition methods and standards. At last, but not least, the project will also improve the SRM economic and employment potential, by i) providing training on the assessment of landfill sites material recovery to targeting end-users, ii) establishing a dedicated network of academic, industrial, regulators and other stakeholders committed to cost-effective research, technology transfer and training. The present contribution will provide an overview of the SMART GROUND project and highlights the results obtained during the first six months of project activity.

  11. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs: substituent effects on the properties of nitro seco-1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benz[e]indol-4-one (nitroCBI) prodrugs of DNA minor groove alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Tercel, Moana; Atwell, Graham J; Yang, Shangjin; Stevenson, Ralph J; Botting, K Jane; Boyd, Maruta; Smith, Eileen; Anderson, Robert F; Denny, William A; Wilson, William R; Pruijn, Frederik B

    2009-11-26

    Nitrochloromethylbenzindolines (nitroCBIs) are a new class of hypoxia-activated prodrugs for antitumor therapy. The recently reported prototypes undergo hypoxia-selective metabolism to form potent DNA minor groove alkylating agents and are selectively toxic to some but not all hypoxic tumor cell lines. Here we report a series of 31 analogues that bear an extra electron-withdrawing substituent that serves to raise the one-electron reduction potential of the nitroCBI. We identify a subset of compounds, those with a basic side chain and sulfonamide or carboxamide substituent, that have consistently high hypoxic selectivity. The best of these, with a 7-sulfonamide substituent, displays hypoxic cytotoxicity ratios of 275 and 330 in Skov3 and HT29 human tumor cell lines, respectively. This compound (28) is efficiently and selectively metabolized to the corresponding aminoCBI, is selectively cytotoxic under hypoxia in all 11 cell lines examined, and demonstrates activity against hypoxic tumor cells in a human tumor xenograft in vivo.

  12. 10. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 5 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 5 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. PART 5 SHOWS ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND AVENUE 43 BRIDGE AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING 334° NNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 9. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. PART 4 SHOWS ARROYO SECO PARKWAY IN FOREGROUND AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CENTER. LOOKING 316° NW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 27 CFR 9.98 - Monterey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beginning point is found on the “Sycamore Flat” U.S.G.S. 7.5 minute map at the junction of Arroyo Seco Road... also the beginning point for the Arroyo Seco viticultural area.) (2) The boundary proceeds directly... Arroyo Seco viticultural areas share the same boundary lines.) (82) Then south along the...

  15. [ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DIETARY GLYCEMIC INDEX AND GLYCEMIC LOAD AND INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS IN A POPULATION AT HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK: A SUBGROUP ANALYSIS IN THE PREDIMED TRIAL].

    PubMed

    Goñi Ruiz, Nuria; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Salas Salvadó, Jordi; Buil Cosiales, Pilar; Diez Espino, Javier; Martinez Vila, Eduardo; Irimia Sierra, Pablo; Ros Rahola, Emilio; Toledo Atucha, Estefania

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: el grosor de la íntima media carotídea (GIMC) es un conocido marcador de arteriosclerosis precoz y un buen predictor de eventos cardiovasculares futuros. Aunque se ha demostrado que la adhesión a la dieta mediterránea, especialmente si está enriquecida con aceite de oliva virgen extra o frutos secos, tiene efectos beneficiosos sobre los cambios en el GIMC, el papel de los carbohidratos en el desarrollo de la arterioesclerosis sigue siendo controvertido. Objetivo: valorar la relación entre el índice glucémico (IG) o la carga glucémica (CG) de la dieta y el GIMC en una población asintomática con alto riesgo cardiovascular. Métodos: en el marco del estudio PREDIMED (PREvención con Dieta MEDiterránea), se seleccionaron de manera aleatorizada 187 sujetos del centro PREDIMED- NAVARRA. A estos pacientes asintomáticos, pero con alto riesgo cardiovascular, se les realizó una ecografía carotídea basal para determinar su GIMC, y tras un año en el estudio se les repitió la misma medición. Se usó un cuestionario validado de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos (137 ítems) tanto basal como anualmente para obtener el IG y la CG, que fueron categorizados en cuartiles, tras ser ajustados por energía. Mediante modelos multivariables (ANCOVA) se estudió la posible asociación entre el IG o la CG de la dieta y el GIMC o su cambio al año. Resultados: en la población estudiada no se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el IG o la CG y el GIMC, ni al inicio ni tras un año de seguimiento.

  16. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Martínez González, Olaia; Vélez de Mendizábal, Itsaso Zabaleta; Galarza Iriarte, Uxue; Vicente Martín, María Soledad; De Vega Castaño, María Del Carmen; Salmerón Egea, Jesús

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la disfagia o dificultad de deglución afecta a 1 de cada 2 mayores hospitalizados y genera problemas de desnutrición o deshidratación, y aparición de neumonía por aspiración. En situaciones de disfagia orofaríngea, cuando la alimentación oral aún es posible, se deben espesar las texturas líquidas de cara a evitar dichas complicaciones. A los alimentos, tanto fríos como calientes, habitualmente se les añaden espesantes comerciales consistentes en almidones modificados siguiendo especificaciones muy generales que hacen difícil conseguir la textura adaptada a las necesidades personales. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la temperatura del alimento (10 oC y 50 oC), la dosificación (néctar, miel y pudin) y el tiempo transcurrido desde la preparación (0, 3, 5, 10, 20 min) sobre los parámetros de textura de agua espesada a base de uno de los espesantes más ampliamente comercializados. Método: las muestras se analizaron por triplicado en un texturómetro TA.XT2i (Stable Micro Systems, UK) mediante ensayo de compresión-extrusión, empleando una sonda de 2,5 cm de diámetro a una velocidad de 3 mm/s y con una célula de carga de 5 kg. A partir de las curvas fuerza vs. tiempo obtenidas se cuantificaron parámetros indicadores de la firmeza, la adhesividad y el trabajo de las muestras. Resultados y conclusión: en general, los parámetros relacionados con la consistencia fueron significativamente (α < 0,05) superiores en las muestras a mayor temperatura, lo que se puede relacionar con fenómenos incipientes de gelatinización. A su vez, se observó un incremento en los valores de todos los parámetros de textura al aumentar la concentración del espesante y a medida que transcurría el tiempo desde la mezcla de este en el agua. Estos resultados apuntan a la necesidad de realizar un trabajo exhaustivo de caracterización, ampliado también a otros productos y matrices alimentarias, de cara a modelizar la

  17. 3. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-1 TO CA-265-4. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 3 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER IN FOREGROUND WITH ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING. LOOKING 76° ENE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. A nonbreeding concentration of Roseate and Common Terns in Bahia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, H.; Lima, P.; Monteiro, L.; DiConstanzo, J.; Cormons, G.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Saliva, Jorge E.; Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Pierce, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report recoveries of banded Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) Terns netted at Mangue Seco, Bahia, Brazil (11? 27'S, 37? 21'W). Mangue Seco is the first reported South American location where large numbers of Roseate Terns concentrate December-March, and where members of both the North American and Caribbean populations occur together during these months. A Roseate Tern recovered at Mangue Seco sets an age record of 25.6 years for the species. Recoveries at Mangue Seco of Common Terns banded in the Azores (37? -38?N, 25? -29?W) suggest there is a regular transatlantic movement by Common Terns between the two locations.

  19. Escoja Alimentos Sanos y Que Deben Hacer los Padres de los Ninos Que Pesan Mucho. (Food Choices for Good Health and Children and Weight: What's a Parent To Do?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Joanne P.; Mitchell, Rita

    These two publications offer parents information on food choices for children and children's weight. The first publication is a guide that lists, for each of the five food groups, which foods should be eaten often, sometimes, or rarely in order to maintain good health. The food groups are: (1) milk and milk products; (2) meats, poultry, fish,…

  20. [Food consumption and the nutritional status of schoolchildren of the Community of Madrid (CAENPE): general methodology and overall food consumption. Consumo de alimentos y estado nutricional de la población escolar].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, C; de Cos, A I; Martínez, P; Jaunsolo, M A; Román, E; Gómez, C; López, T; Hernáez, I; Seijas, V; Ramos, V

    1995-01-01

    The CAENPE study (Food Consumption and Nutritional State of the School Population) was a transversal observational study funded and promoted by the Directorate-General of Food Hygiene in the Ministry of Health, implemented in 1991-93, with the main aim of quantifying food consumption in the school population (6-14 years of age) in the Regional Community of Madrid, together with an anthropometric study and nutritional analysis of that population. This project sets our the General Methodology for the study, paying particular attention to the sampling design, to ensure that the sample is representative of the community, and the results of the overall consumption of food and its comparison with recommended diet and other population studies. Quantification shows a high and rising consumption of meat, meat products, sweets, snacks and prepared dishes, suitable consumption of eggs, legumes and fruit and a notable lack of greens, vegetables and potatoes. The basic results underline the need to introduce educational measures with practical effect on home and school menus.

  1. 9. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA265W10 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA-265-W-10 OF YORK BOULEVARD ACCESS ROAD FOR SOUTHBOUND LANES OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. NOTE BRIDWELL STREET AT CENTER PARALLEL TO PARKWAY. LOOKING 24°NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 10. PART 2 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA265W9 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PART 2 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH CA-265-W-9 OF YORK BOULEVARD ACCESS ROAD FOR SOUTHBOUND LANES OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. NOTE SMALL ISLAND FOR EXIT AND ENTRANCE LANES. LOOKING 70°ENE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, York Boulevard Bridge, Milepost 29.50, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 9. VIEW OF BRIDGE NEAR CENTER SPAN, LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF BRIDGE NEAR CENTER SPAN, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE ARROYO SECO. THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE IS BELOW THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE, THE PIONEER BRIDGE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 6. PART 3 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA265J4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PART 3 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-J-4 AND CA-265-J-5 OF FIGUEROA STREET AND LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. NOTE ARROYO SECO CHANNEL ENTERING LOS ANGELES RIVER UNDER RAILROAD TRESTLE AT RIGHT. LOOKING 268°W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 10. DETAIL NEAR CENTER OF SPAN, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL NEAR CENTER OF SPAN, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE ARROYO SECO. THIS VIEW IS EAST OF THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE, WITH THE PIONEER BRIDGE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 8. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 3 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. LOOKING 290° WNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 11. DETAIL NEAR CENTER OF SPAN, LOOKING SOUTH FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL NEAR CENTER OF SPAN, LOOKING SOUTH FROM THE ARROYO SECO. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE, THE ARROYO CHANNEL, AND THE LOWER PORTION OF THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF STRUCTURE, FROM BELOW. VIEW OF THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE AND PART OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE, SEEN FROM THE ARROYO SECO BELOW THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 76 FR 55349 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... also requested administrative reviews for Asociacion de Cooperativas Argentinas (ACA), Alimentos... companies: (1) Alimentos Naturales-Natural Foods Lavalle, (2) Alma Pura, (3) Apidouro Comercial Exportadora..., 2010, with respect to the following companies: (1) Alimentos Naturales-Natural Foods Lavalle, (2)...

  10. High-oleic peanuts increase diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Duarte Moreira Alves, Raquel; Boroni Moreira, Ana Paula; Silva Macedo, Viviane; Brunoro Costa, Neuza Maria; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cássia; Bressan, Josefina

    2014-05-01

    Antecedentes: Las pruebas sugieren que el consumo de frutos secos puede mejorar el metabolismo energético. Propósito: Este estudio tenía por finalidad comparar los efectos de la ingesta aguda de cacahuetes con alto contenido en oleico y cacahuetes convencionales sobre el apetito, el consumo de alimentos y el metabolismo energético in hombres con sobrepeso y obesos. Métodos: Se distribuyó a 71 individuos (29,8 ± 2,4 kg/m2) a los grupos: control (CT, n = 24); cacahuetes convencionales (CVP, n = 23); cacahuetes con alto contenido en oleico (HOP, n = 24). Los individuos consumieron 56 g de cacahuetes (CVP y HOP) o control (CT) tras un ayuno nocturno. Posteriormente, se evaluó el metabolismo energético a lo largo de 200 minutes, durante los cuales se analizaron la termogénesis inducida por la dieta (TID) y la oxidación de sustratos. La sensación de apetito se registró durante 3 horas. Se realizaron los análisis estadísticos con el programa SAS considerando un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: El consumo de energía posprandial y la TID fueron significativamente superiores en el HOP que el CVP. La oxidación de sustratos no difirió entre los grupos. Sólo el HOP presentó una puntuación por debajo de 100, lo que indicaba una compensación incompleta. El CT y el CVP mostraron una compensación calórica completa (puntuaciones > 100). Con respecto a la sensación de apetito, el grupo CVP se mostró menos “lleno” que los grupos HOP y CT. A las 3 horas, la puntuación de saciedad del CVP volvió a la situación basal, mientras que en los grupos HOP y CT permanecía significativamente superior. Las puntuaciones de hambre volvieron a la situación basal in los grupos CVP y CT y se mantuvieron significativamente por debajo a las del grupo HOP. Conclusión: Los cacahuetes con alto contenido en oleico contribuyen a una mayor TID, mayor sensación de plenitud y una compensation incompleta del consumo de energía en comparación con los cacahuetes

  11. [Quality of the diet of the Spanish population over 80 years non-institutionalized].

    PubMed

    Hernández Galiot, Ana; Goñi Cambrodón, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: los adultos mayores no institucionalizados son un colectivo que suele presentar alto riesgo de malnutrición. Detectar problemas nutricionales mediante indicadores de la calidad global de la dieta, es un reto para los profesionales de la salud, de utilidad para la planificación de políticas nutricionales. Objetivo: determinar la calidad global de la dieta de la población española mayor de 80 años no institucionalizada, para promover y fomentar la calidad de vida del anciano. Metodología: se seleccionaron las personas mayores de 80 años del Estudio Longitudinal Envejecer en España 2011-2013 (n = 159), residentes en diversas zonas españolas. Para valorar la calidad de la dieta se utilizó el índice de alimentación saludable (IAS), la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos y el grado de adhesión al patrón de dieta Mediterránea (ADM). Resultados: la población presentó valores de IAS cercanos a los correspondientes a una dieta saludable. Un porcentaje significativo necesitaba cambios en su alimentación, siendo los mayores de 90 años los que requirieron una mayor intervención dietética. La mayoría de la población cumplió las recomendaciones de la dieta mediterránea, aunque se observó bajo consumo de verduras, hortalizas, frutos secos y vino; y elevado consumo de embutidos. Conclusiones: la dieta consumida habitualmente por los españoles mayores de 80 años no institucionalizados presenta desajustes nutricionales que podrían corregirse realizando pequeños cambios en su patrón dietético. Determinar la calidad global de la dieta permite la planificación de estrategias de intervención para promover cambios alimentarios saludables y emprender acciones orientadas al mantenimiento de una salud óptima en el binomio envejecimiento-nutrición.

  12. [Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and its relation to nutritional status in older people].

    PubMed

    Zaragoza Martí, Ana; Ferrer Cascales, Rosario; Cabañero Martínez, María José; Hurtado Sánchez, Jose Antonio; Laguna Pérez, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: la Dieta Mediterránea (DM) como modelo de dieta de calidad se asocia con una reducción de la mortalidad y con una mejora en la calidad de vida en personas mayores. Objetivo: evaluar la relación entre el estado nutricional y los estilos de vida con el grado de adherencia a la DM en personas mayores Métodos: Muestra compuesta por 60 sujetos que acudían a la consulta de enfermería de un cetro de salud de Alicante con un Índice de Masa Corporal mayor a 24.9. Se utilizó el cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos MEDIS-FFQ, el cuestionario de adherencia a la Dieta Mediterránea PREDIMED y la valoración antropométrica. Resultados: El 83.3% de la población presentó sobrepeso frente a un 16.7% de obesidad, sin diferencias significativas entre sexos. El porcentaje de grasa corporal fue del 40.3% en las mujeres y 29.5% en los hombres (p=0.001). El 65.2% de la mujeres presentó riesgo cardiovascular frente al 81.8% de los hombres (p=0.001). Se observó bajo cumplimento de las recomendaciones alimentarias en los cereales integrales, fruta y frutos secos. Los sujetos con baja adherencia a la DM presentaron mayores índices de obesidad (OR= 1.46; IC 95%, 0.89-2.40), un mayor consumo de tabaco (OR= 1.65; IC 95%, 1.05-2.60) y de alcohol (OR=1.53; IC 95%, 0.91-2.55), un mayor índice cintura-cadera (OR= 2.57; IC 95%, 1.3-4.9) y mayor porcentaje de grasa corporal (OR= 5.3; IC 95%, 1.02-6.48). Conclusión: Los sujetos con una buena adherencia a la (DM) presentaron un menor índice cintura-cadera y un menor porcentaje de grasa corporal.

  13. PubMed

    Redondo Del Río, María Paz; De Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Carreño Enciso, Laura; Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Fernández McPhee, Marina; Camina Martín, María Alicia

    2016-09-20

    Introducción: la alimentación de los jóvenes universitarios se aleja cada vez más de la dieta mediterránea (DM). El binomio alimentación-actividad física es fundamental para mantener un adecuado estado de salud.Objetivo: comparar la ingesta en un grupo de estudiantes universitarios deportistas frente a otro que no realiza deporte habitualmente.Sujetos y métodos:estudio observacional transversal realizado en 49 voluntarios de la Universidad de Valladolid. Se determinaron peso, talla y actividad física (cuestionario GPAQ). La ingesta se evaluó a partir de un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo y un registro de alimentos de 3 días. La adherencia a la DM se estimó con el Mediterranean Diet Score. Las diferencias entre las variables en función del sexo y la práctica deportiva se analizaron con la t de Student o la U-Mann-Whitney. Significación estadística: p < 0,05.Resultados: todos los sujetos presentaron normopeso, sin diferencias en función de la práctica deportiva. El nivel de actividad física fue inferior en las mujeres. En todos los estudiantes la dieta fue ligeramente hiperproteica, rica en grasas y colesterol, con un inadecuado perfil lipídico y deficiente en hidratos de carbono y fibra. Se cubren los requerimientos de micronutrientes. Destaca un escaso consumo de frutas-verdurashortalizas, cereales, aceite de oliva, pescado y frutos secos; y un exceso de carne, mantequilla, bollería-industrial, dulces, snacksy refrescos. El 50% de la muestra tiene una adherencia baja o muy baja a la DM.Conclusión: las dietas de los jóvenes universitarios no cumplen los objetivos nutricionales para la población española y presentan una adherencia media-baja a la DM, independientemente de la práctica deportiva.

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Navarro-González, Inmaculada; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-García, Brígida; Rodríguez-Tadeo, Alejandra; Periago, M Jesús

    2016-07-19

    Introducción y objetivos: la evolución que ha experimentado en los últimos años la sociedad española ha originado una serie de cambios sociológicos y/o culturales que afectan claramente a los hábitos y preferencias alimentarias. El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido evaluar la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea (DM) de la población universitaria en la ciudad de Murcia y la calidad de su desayuno, estableciendo la relación existente entre estas dos variables entre sí, y otras variables sociológicas analizadas.Métodos: se evaluó la adherencia a la DM en una muestra de 312 estudiantes mediante el test KIDMED, cuestionario de 16 preguntas. La calidad del desayuno fue determinada en función de la ingesta de los distintos grupos de alimentos (lácteos, cereales y frutas), de forma que se establecieron las siguientes categorías de calidad: pésima, mala, regular y buena. De cada encuestado se registraron los datos personales, lugar de origen, zona geográfica y tipo de residencia, sexo, edad, titulación universitaria, curso y las variables antropométricas (peso, altura, perímetro de cintura y cadera).Resultados: la muestra estuvo formada por 238 mujeres y 74 hombres todos ellos estudiantes universitarios de distintos títulos de grado. El 7,85% de los universitarios mostró una baja adherencia a la DM, el 48,4% media y el 43,8% alta. Los estudiantes de grado en Educación Primaria mostraron una mayor adherencia media a la DM; los estudiantes de grado en Enfermería tomaron más de una ración de verdura al día; y los de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos consumían una pieza de fruta al día. Teniendo en cuenta el sexo de los participantes, el 37,8% de las mujeres tomaban más de una verdura diaria y el 91,5% desayunaba bollería industrial; mientras que el 54,1% de los hombres tomaban frutos secos (al menos 2 o 3 veces por semana) y el 74,5% desayunaba todos los días. El 1,15% de los estudiantes mostró una calidad del desayuno pésima, el 17

  15. 2. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-1 TO CA-265-4. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 2 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER AND FIGUEROA STREET BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND; INTERSTATE I-5 AT CENTER; AND ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT RIGHT. LOOKING 30° NNE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Indole alkaloids from the leaves of Philippine Alstonia scholaris.

    PubMed

    Macabeo, Allan Patrick G; Krohn, Karsten; Gehle, Dietmar; Read, Roger W; Brophy, Joseph J; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Franzblau, Scott G; Aguinaldo, Alicia M

    2005-05-01

    The first seco-uleine alkaloids, manilamine (1) (18-hydroxy-19,20-dehydro-7,21-seco-uleine) and N4-methyl angustilobine B (2), were isolated from the (pH 5) alkaloid extract of Philippine Alstonia scholaris leaves together with the known indole alkaloids 19,20-(E)-vallesamine (3), angustilobine B N4-oxide (4), 20(S)-tubotaiwine (5), and 6,7-seco-angustilobine B (6). The structure of the alkaloids was established from MS and NMR experiments.

  17. Stream capture and piracy recorded by provenance in fluvial fan strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikesell, Leslie R.; Weissmann, Gary S.; Karachewski, John A.

    2010-03-01

    Stream capture and piracy in tectonically active regions have been described in geomorphic systems worldwide; however, few studies show the influence stream capture has on the rock record. We present an analysis of fluvial fan stratigraphy that developed as a result of multiple stream capture events, building a complex stratigraphic succession beneath the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California. The LLNL site is located in the southeast portion of the tectonically active Livermore Basin, a transpressional basin in the California Coast Ranges. Geomorphic evidence for this stream capture include: (1) the Arroyo Seco enters the basin from the south through an uplifted fault block, (2) south of this fault block lies an abandoned Arroyo Seco fluvial fan, (3) north of the fault block, in the Livermore Basin, Arroyo Seco built a 7-km 2 fluvial fan, apparently forcing the Arroyo Las Positas, a smaller stream that enters the basin from the east, northward around the Arroyo Seco fan, and (4) a knickpoint exists near the point of capture on Arroyo Seco. Stratigraphic evidence reflecting this shift in the Arroyo Seco position into the Livermore Basin was evaluated through a provenance study of 215 gravel units from 34 boreholes spaced evenly over the 2.6 km 2 LLNL site. The Arroyo Seco derives its sediment from both the Jurassic-Cretaceous Franciscan Assemblage and the Altamont Hills (which are comprised of Mesozoic Great Valley Group and Tertiary continental sediments). The Arroyo Las Positas drains only the Altamont Hills and thus lacks the Franciscan Assemblage-derived clasts. The origin of the individual gravel units was determined by the percentage of Franciscan Assemblage indicator pebbles (red chert, green chert and blueschist) in the samples. Through this analysis, we determined that high-percentage Franciscan Assemblage-derived clasts were present below a depth of approximately 35 m below the surface, low-percentage Franciscan Assemblage

  18. 7. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 2 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-6 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. PART 2 SHOWS GRAND VIEW POINT AT LEFT REAR AND FIGUEROA VIADUCT OVERCROSSING; INTERSTATE 1-5 AT REAR CENTER; AVENUE 26 BRIDGE AT RIGHT CENTER. LOOKING 260° W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 4. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 4 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-1 TO CA-265-3. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 4 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER. LOOKING 140° SE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 4. VIEW SHOWING TWO SPANS NEAR CENTER OF BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING TWO SPANS NEAR CENTER OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH. THE SMALLER PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE CAN BE SEEN BELOW THE MAIN BRIDGE, AND THE NEW PIONEER BRIDGE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. THE ARROYO CHANNEL, CONSTRUCTED BY THE WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION DURING THE 1930s, IS VISIBLE ALONG THE ARROYO SECO BELOW THE PARKER-MAYBERRY BRIDGE. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. [Bioimpedance vector analysis as a tool for the determination and adjustment of dry weight in patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Atilano-Carsi, Ximena; Miguel, José Luis; Martínez Ara, Jorge; Sánchez Villanueva, Rafael; González García, Elena; Selgas Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Antecedentes y objetivo: La sobrehidratación en los pacientes en hemodiálisis se asocia con mortalidad cardiovascular, por lo que la adecuada remoción de líquidos y el logro del peso seco es uno de los principales objetivos de la terapia. Hasta el momento no hay parámetros clínicos ni de laboratorio que sean confiables, sencillos y accesibles para su determinación. El análisis de vectores de impedancia (VIBE) es una herramienta que permite identificar y monitorizar el estado de hidratación, por lo que el objetivo de este estudio fue usar el VIBE para ajustar la intensidad del ultrafiltrado y alcanzar el peso seco en pacientes en hemodiálisis. Material y método: Se estudiaron 26 pacientes en hemodiálisis a los cuales se les realizaron medidas mensuales de impedancia bioeléctrica durante cuatro meses. Se graficaron los vectores correspondientes para conocer de manera individual el estado de hidratación, de acuerdo con lo cual se ajustó el peso seco en los casos necesarios. Resultados: Se realizó ajuste de peso seco en 13 pacientes, 7 de ellos necesitaron aumento de peso y 6 disminución del mismo. El desplazamiento de los vectores sobre las elipses correspondió al tipo de intervención realizada. Se logró alcanzar el peso seco en el 84.6% de los pacientes al final del estudio, con una disminución significativa de la presión arterial media y aumento del ángulo de fase en el grupo de disminución de peso seco. Conclusiones: El análisis de vectores de impedancia es útil para el ajuste del peso seco en los pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis.

  2. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  3. Four Argentine crudes in world market

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1995-04-17

    The deregulation of Argentina`s oil industry and the privatization of its state-owned oil company are putting more of the country`s crude oil into the international oil market. Analyses, furnished by YPF, of the four major export crudes--Rincon de los Sauces, Canadon Seco, Medanito, and Escalante--are given in this article. Also presented are true boiling point curves for all except Canadon Seco. The producing areas and supply systems for moving these crude to shipping terminals were described in OGJ, Feb. 13, pp. 50--52. Information is given on the shipping facilities for the crudes.

  4. Optical Coatings 2-6 Microns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    absorptance of the same area was measured usin g DF laser calor imetry. A majori ty (seven of t en) subs t r at es exhibited s tr on g ( 110...S ~~-- -, - - orientation , with the seco nd se t denoting a less st r ongly p re fe r red set of...to r grade HF was p laced in the ce n ter of the contai ner above the level of the samples at commencement of the test . A seco nd p o l v p r o

  5. 1. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 4 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-2 TO CA-265-4. INTERCHANGE OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, INTERSTATE 1-5, AND FIGUEROA STREET AT CROSSINGS OF THE LOS ANGELES RIVER AS SEEN FROM GRAND VIEW POINT IN ELYSIAN PARK. VIEW 1 SHOWS LOS ANGELES RIVER IN FOREGROUND; INTERSTATE I-5 AT CENTER; AND METRO LINK RAILYARD CENTER AT REAR. LOOKING 344° NNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 6. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-7 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL (APPROXIMATELY 34° 5' BY 118° 12'30" ON USGS LOS ANGELES QUADRANGLE). PART 1 SHOWS GRAND VIEW POINT AT RIGHT REAR (LOCATION OF CAMERA POSITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS NOS. 265-1 TO CA-265-5) AND FIGUEROA VIADUCT OVERCROSSING; DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES IS AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 234° SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Emergency Response and Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr I Support food distribution with U.S. ARMY / WFP - 03 to 18Fev2010 15 Dias 637,5 Ton de alimentos ...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 – 21 a 28Mar2010 1.723 Ton de Alimentos em 30 Dias Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr II Supporting food...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 8 Dias 420 Ton de alimentos Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr III Supporting food distribution by

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  9. Expiration Dates Matter

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  11. Cataract Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foods Rich in Vitamin C Help Curb Cataracts Mar 28, 2016 Los Alimentos Ricos en Vitamina C Ayudan a Controlar el Desarrollo de Cataratas Mar 28, 2016 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines ...

  12. Acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children: Evidence from the ECLS-K:2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Seco...

  13. 10 CFR 210.1 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interstate Exxon Couch's Standard Chevron Cougar Oil Marketers Inc. Crude Company (The) Crystal Energy... Company Mathew's Grocery McAuleep Oil Co. McAuley Oil Company Meadows Gathering, Inc. Mellon Energy... Company Roy Baerne Russell Oil Company S. G. Coplen SECO (Scruggs Energy) Saber Crude Oil, Inc....

  14. 10 CFR 210.1 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interstate Exxon Couch's Standard Chevron Cougar Oil Marketers Inc. Crude Company (The) Crystal Energy... Company Mathew's Grocery McAuleep Oil Co. McAuley Oil Company Meadows Gathering, Inc. Mellon Energy... Company Roy Baerne Russell Oil Company S. G. Coplen SECO (Scruggs Energy) Saber Crude Oil, Inc....

  15. 10 CFR 210.1 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Interstate Exxon Couch's Standard Chevron Cougar Oil Marketers Inc. Crude Company (The) Crystal Energy... Company Mathew's Grocery McAuleep Oil Co. McAuley Oil Company Meadows Gathering, Inc. Mellon Energy... Company Roy Baerne Russell Oil Company S. G. Coplen SECO (Scruggs Energy) Saber Crude Oil, Inc....

  16. 10 CFR 210.1 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Interstate Exxon Couch's Standard Chevron Cougar Oil Marketers Inc. Crude Company (The) Crystal Energy... Company Mathew's Grocery McAuleep Oil Co. McAuley Oil Company Meadows Gathering, Inc. Mellon Energy... Company Roy Baerne Russell Oil Company S. G. Coplen SECO (Scruggs Energy) Saber Crude Oil, Inc....

  17. Cook-Off Studies on the General Purpose Cast Explosives PBXC-116 and PBXC-117

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    therniogravimietric analyses and] differential scanning calor ~ri0etr determinations, were included inl tlat preliminary report. These explosives dcmonstrafed ipood...of the thermocouples show flame temperatures. The firing officer reported that flame covered the pit at 40 seco .... .. me thermocouples 16 through 19

  18. Qualitative Process Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    write a heat flow process that violates energy conservation and transfers " caloric fluid" between the source and destination. The assumptions made about...removed in ease of ex1-0ClCits. Seco nd, if’ thle program is drawNing concilsions that rely criticaillyoi atClrsum in, then1 it IIos’t test ss

  19. 4. PART 1 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA265J5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PART 1 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-J-5 AND CA-265-J-6 OF FIGUEROA STREET AND LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. NOTE TUNNEL NO.1 NORTH PORTAL AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 268°W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 5. PART 2 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA265J4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PART 2 OF 3 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-J-4 AND CA-265-J-6 OF FIGUEROA STREET AND LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. LOOKING 308°W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 3. REAR OF NORTH PORTAL TUNNEL NO.4. PART 1 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR OF NORTH PORTAL TUNNEL NO.4. PART 1 OF 2 PART PANORAMA WITH PHOTOGRAPH CA-265-G-2-b. NOTE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR FREEWAY WIDENING OF HILL STREET EXIT. LOOKING 2°N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Spectrally Enhanced Cloud Objects—A generalized framework for automated detection of volcanic ash and dust clouds using passive satellite measurements: 1. Multispectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavolonis, Michael J.; Sieglaff, Justin; Cintineo, John

    2015-08-01

    While satellites are a proven resource for detecting and tracking volcanic ash and dust clouds, existing algorithms for automatically detecting volcanic ash and dust either exhibit poor overall skill or can only be applied to a limited number of sensors and/or geographic regions. As such, existing techniques are not optimized for use in real-time applications like volcanic eruption alerting and data assimilation. In an effort to significantly improve upon existing capabilities, the Spectrally Enhanced Cloud Objects (SECO) algorithm was developed. The SECO algorithm utilizes a combination of radiative transfer theory, a statistical model, and image processing techniques to identify volcanic ash and dust clouds in satellite imagery with a very low false alarm rate. This fully automated technique is globally applicable (day and night) and can be adapted to a wide range of low earth orbit and geostationary satellite sensors or even combinations of satellite sensors. The SECO algorithm consists of four primary components: conversion of satellite measurements into robust spectral metrics, application of a Bayesian method to estimate the probability that a given satellite pixel contains volcanic ash and/or dust, construction of cloud objects, and the selection of cloud objects deemed to have the physical attributes consistent with volcanic ash and/or dust clouds. The first two components of the SECO algorithm are described in this paper, while the final two components are described in a companion paper.

  3. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability Pilot Project at Two Nuclear Power Plants and Associated State Offices of Emergency Preparedness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    CPS andiPs..................4 MATHEW. .. ....... .......... 5 ADPIC . ... ........ ......... 5 PATRIC .. .. ........ ......... 5 III. Utilization of...due to a unit release rate. All contours are calculated by employing the MATHEW/ ADPIC codes ..... .. ...................... ... 15 8. Representative...ARAC model calculations employing MATHEW/ ADPIC codes during the January 19, 1982, test at Rancho Seco. (a) Deposition of 1-131 for a unit source rate

  4. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feed-stocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others.

  5. A Study of Quenching Cooling in Gaseous Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, S. Yu.; Smirnov, A. E.; Kirillov, I. V.; Kurpyakova, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    Prismatic sensors of two standard sizes are used to determine the heat-transfer coefficients of high-pressure nitrogen at different turbine rotor speeds of a SECO/WARWICK 10.0VPT-4020/24N vacuum furnace. The adequacy of the values obtained is estimated.

  6. SERS detection of indirect viral DNA capture using colloidal gold and methylene blue as a Raman label

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An indirect capture model assay using colloidal Au nanoparticles is demonstrated for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy detection of DNA. The sequence targeted for capture is derived from the West Nile Virus (WNV) RNA genome and was selected on the basis of exhibiting minimal seco...

  7. Divergolide congeners illuminate alternative reaction channels for ansamycin diversification.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; Franke, Jakob; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-02-14

    Isolation and structure elucidation of six new divergolides reveal unusual ansamycin diversification reactions including formation of the unusual isobutenyl side chain from a branched polyketide synthase extender unit, azepinone ring closure, macrolide ring contraction and formation of a seco variant by a neighboring group-assisted decarboxylation.

  8. New diterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y H; Chen, C H; Huang, S L

    1998-06-26

    An abietane diterpene, 11,14-dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (1); a seco-abietane diterpene, obtuanhydride (2); and an isopimarane diterpene, 18,19-O-isopropylidene-18, 19-dihydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-diene (3) were isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  9. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF FIGUEROA STREET VIADUCT SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF FIGUEROA STREET VIADUCT SEEN FROM SAN FERNANDO ROAD. NOTE THAT GLOBE OF LAMP FIXTURE APPEARS TO HAVE MELTED. LOOKING 206°SSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF FIGUEROA STREET VIADUCT AND NORTHBOUND ONRAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF FIGUEROA STREET VIADUCT AND NORTHBOUND ON-RAMP FROM SAN FERNANDO ROAD. SAME CAMERA POSITION AS CA-265-J-7. LOOKING 7°N. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Figueroa Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Involvement of Extracellular Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in Cotton Fiber Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of seco...

  12. 12. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO.1, SOUTH PORTAL.SEEN FROM ABOVE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO.1, SOUTH PORTAL.SEEN FROM ABOVE NORTH PORTAL OF TUNNEL NO. 2. LOOKING 140N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 8. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO. 2, SOUTH PORTAL SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNEL NO. 2, SOUTH PORTAL SEEN FROM ABOVE NORTH PORTAL OF TUNNEL NO. 3. LOOKING 12°N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Consumption of functional foods in Europe; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Özen, Asli E; Bibiloni, María del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar las diferencias en el consumo de alimentos funcionales entre los países europeos. Diseño: Revisión sistemática. La búsqueda bibliográfica se realizó en Medlars Online International Literature (MEDLINE), vía PubMed©, y Scopus. Se identificaron veintidós estudios que examinaron las diferencias en el consumo de alimentos funcionales entre los europeos. Resultados: Existen diferencias en la proporción de consumidores de alimentos funcionales entre los países europeos. Así, mientras los alimentos funcionales son muy populares en la mayoría de los países europeos como Finlandia, Suecia, Países Bajos, Polonia, España y Chipre, en algunos países como Dinamarca, Italia y Bélgica no lo son tanto. Un elevado porcentaje de adolescentes europeos mediterráneos (España y Chipre, pero no Italia) consume alimentos funcionales. La evaluación del consumo de alimentos funcionales en función del género es difícil, pues los resultados varían de estudio a estudio. Conclusiones: En los últimos años se ha extendido el consumo de alimentos funcionales en Europa, pero dicho consumo muestra grandes diferencias entre los europeos. Más investigaciones serán necesarias para averiguar las razones subyacentes tras estas diferencias y entender las necesidades de los consumidores de alimentos funcionales.

  15. [Design and validation of a questionnaire to assess dietary behavior in Mexican students in the area of health].

    PubMed

    Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Salazar-Ruiz, Erika Nohemi; Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Altamirano-Martínez, Macedo-Ojeda; Bernal-Orozco, María Fernanda; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: El comportamiento alimentario (CA), que establece la relación del ser humano con los alimentos, influye en el consumo de nutrimentos y por tanto contribuye al estado de salud o enfermedad de la población, incluso en jóvenes universitarios. Existen algunos instrumentos validados para evaluar el consumo de alimentos y nutrimentos, pero son escasos los que valoran el CA.

  16. [The healthy eating index of new students at an university of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cano, Juan Manuel; Córdova-Hernández, Juan Antonio; del Valle-Leveaga, David

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El principal factor asociado al incremento de la prevalencia de enfermedades no transmisibles es el consumo de alimentos industrializados modernos. Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de la dieta de estudiantes de nuevo ingreso. Métodos: Se colectaron datos de 3550 estudiantes con edad  18.65 años mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos. Se evaluaron con diez variables que se calificaron en tres categorías: saludable, necesita cambios y poco saludable. Se compararon los resultados de los de ciencias de la salud con los otros campus. Resultados: Hubo disminución del consumo de alimentos que deberían ser diario como cereales integrales, verduras y frutas. Se encontró incremento de alimentos que deberían ser de consumo ocasional a al menos 1 a 2 por semana. Los puntajes del índice de alimentación saludable fueron 80.2% en la categoría “poco saludable”, 19.7% en “necesita cambios” y 0.1% en “saludable”. Conclusiones: Los resultados son consecuencia de la disminución del consumo de alimentos de la dieta tradicional de Mesoamérica. No se encontró efecto de la selección de campus con el patrón de consumo de alimentos.

  17. Dietary intake and main sources of plant lignans in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Tapanainen, Heli; Christensen, Tue; Lampe, Johanna W.; Fagt, Sisse; Håkansson, Niclas; Lundquist, Annamari; Hallund, Jesper; Valsta, Liisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intakes of plant lignans have been hypothesized to be inversely associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancer. Earlier studies were based on a Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) with two lignan precursors, secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and matairesinol (MAT). More recently, a Dutch database, including SECO and MAT and the newly recognized lignan precursors lariciresinol (LARI) and pinoresinol (PINO), was compiled. The objective was to re-estimate and re-evaluate plant lignan intakes and to identify the main sources of plant lignans in five European countries using the Finnish and Dutch lignan databases, respectively. Methods Forty-two food groups known to contribute to the total lignan intake were selected and attributed a value for SECO and MAT from the Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) or for SECO, MAT, LARI, and PINO from the Dutch database. Total intake of lignans was estimated from food consumption data for adult men and women (19–79 years) from Denmark, Finland, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the contribution of aggregated food groups calculated using the Dutch lignin database. Results Mean dietary lignan intakes estimated using the Dutch database ranged from 1 to 2 mg/day, which was approximately four-fold higher than the intakes estimated from the Fineli® database. When LARI and PINO were included in the estimation of the total lignan intakes, cereals, grain products, vegetables, fruit and berries were the most important dietary sources of lignans. Conclusion Total lignin intake was approximately four-fold higher in the Dutch lignin database, which includes the lignin precursors LARI and PINO, compared to estimates based on the Finnish database based only on SECO and MAT. The main sources of lignans according to the Dutch database in the five countries studied were cereals and grain products, vegetables, fruit, berries, and beverages. PMID:23766759

  18. Ozone-derived Oxysterols Affect Liver X Receptor (LXR) Signaling: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR LIPID-PROTEIN ADDUCTS.

    PubMed

    Speen, Adam M; Kim, Hye-Young H; Bauer, Rebecca N; Meyer, Megan; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Fessler, Michael B; Duncan, Kelly E; Liu, Wei; Porter, Ned A; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-11-25

    When inhaled, ozone (O3) interacts with cholesterols of airway epithelial cell membranes or the lung-lining fluid, generating chemically reactive oxysterols. The mechanism by which O3-derived oxysterols affect molecular function is unknown. Our data show that in vitro exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to O3 results in the formation of oxysterols, epoxycholesterol-α and -β and secosterol A and B (Seco A and Seco B), in cell lysates and apical washes. Similarly, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from human volunteers exposed to O3 contained elevated levels of these oxysterol species. As expected, O3-derived oxysterols have a pro-inflammatory effect and increase NF-κB activity. Interestingly, expression of the cholesterol efflux pump ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), which is regulated by activation of the liver X receptor (LXR), was suppressed in epithelial cells exposed to O3 Additionally, exposure of LXR knock-out mice to O3 enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the lung, suggesting LXR inhibits O3-induced inflammation. Using alkynyl surrogates of O3-derived oxysterols, our data demonstrate adduction of LXR with Seco A. Similarly, supplementation of epithelial cells with alkynyl-tagged cholesterol followed by O3 exposure causes observable lipid-LXR adduct formation. Experiments using Seco A and the LXR agonist T0901317 (T09) showed reduced expression of ABCA1 as compared with stimulation with T0901317 alone, indicating that Seco A-LXR protein adduct formation inhibits LXR activation by traditional agonists. Overall, these data demonstrate that O3-derived oxysterols have pro-inflammatory functions and form lipid-protein adducts with LXR, thus leading to suppressed cholesterol regulatory gene expression and providing a biochemical mechanism mediating O3-derived formation of oxidized lipids in the airways and subsequent adverse health effects.

  19. Software application for the calculation of dietary intake of individual carotenoids and of its contribution to vitamin A intake.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Cuadrado-Vives, Carmen; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las aplicaciones informáticas utilizadas para valorar la ingesta dietética suelen centrarse en macro y micronutrientes, pero no en otros componentes de la dieta con potenciales efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud, entre los que están los carotenoides. El grado en que cada carotenoide ejerce diversas actividades biológicas es diferente y por tanto, interesa utilizar datos de su composición en alimentos de forma individualizada. Objetivo: Elaborar una aplicación informática con datos individualizados de carotenoides que permita el cálculo de su ingesta dietética y la consulta del contenido de estos compuestos en los alimentos. Material y métodos: Aplicación informática desarrollada con Java 7, que incluye una base de datos de carotenoides (luteína, zeaxantina, licopeno, ?-criptoxantina, ?- caroteno y ?-caroteno) en alimentos (incluyendo aquellos que son principales contribuyentes a la ingesta de carotenoides en Europa), generados por HPLC. Se incluyen las variables relativas a los alimentos, sujetos y dietas, que son necesarias para una correcta información del contenido de carotenoides en alimentos y para el cálculo de su ingesta. Resultados: La aplicación informática permite calcular la ingesta dietética individualizada de carotenoides, a partir de 128 alimentos (crudos y cocinados) y su contribución a la ingesta de vitamina A, en las dos formas utilizadas actualmente, equivalentes de retinol y equivalentes de actividad de retinol. Conclusiones: Con esta aplicación informática se facilita la consulta de concentraciones de carotenoides en alimentos y el cálculo de su ingesta de forma ágil, específica y precisa, aspectos imprescindibles en los estudios de investigación sobre dieta y salud.

  20. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Menal-Puey, Susana; Morán Del Ruste, Manuel; Marques-Lopes, Iva

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: una dieta vegetariana puede satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales si está bien planificada. En este sentido, los vegetarianos deben ser aconsejados para elegir alimentos alternativos a los productos de origen animal seleccionando el tamaño de porción adecuada de cada uno de ellos. El valor nutricional de las porciones de los alimentos vegetales tradicionales es bien conocido, sin embargo, el mercado vegetariano ofrece otros productos cuya composición química es menos conocida, ya que no son alimentos ampliamente consumidos por la población. Es necesario conocer tanto el contenido de nutrientes de las porciones de estos alimentos como la biodisponibilidad de estos nutrientes en la dieta vegetariana. Objetivos: este trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la información disponible sobre el aporte nutricional a la dieta de un adulto sano de las porciones de alimentos utilizados por la población vegetariana. Además, se discuten algunos puntos sobre la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más relevantes, y se proponen alternativas para mejorar su utilización. Métodos: los datos de composición de los alimentos veganos, por 100 g, se buscaron en bases de datos de composición de alimentos, y a partir de ellos se calculó la composición química de las porciones. Después, estos datos nutricionales se compararon con las ingestas dietéticas de referencia europeas para la población adulta, y se discutió la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más importantes.

  1. Contaminant Flushing From An Urban Fringe Watershed: Insight Into Hydrologic and Soil Dynamics During the Wet Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, C. J.; Barco, O. J.; Hogue, T. S.

    2009-12-01

    Much attention has been given recently to alterations of the hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic affects and the coupled impact on watershed geochemical characteristics. Of particular concern has been the study of chemical constituent mobilization due to hydrologic processes and the resultant impact on stream water quality. However, our understanding of constituent flushing in response to hydrological conditions remains rather vague, particularly at the timescale of a single hydrological event. This study builds on previous work by focusing on the timescale of individual hydrological events to better understand the temporal behavior of chemical constituents in the undeveloped, upper reach of the Arroyo Seco watershed. This watershed, located on the northeastern (windward) edge of the Los Angeles basin in the San Gabriel Mountains, has high rates of deposition originating from the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Utilizing high-frequency measurements of stream water during rainfall events, this study aims to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of hydrological events in the stream water chemical dynamics. In addition, a soil survey was conducted in the riparian zone of the Arroyo Seco basin to evaluate geochemical profiles. Stream water chemical composition in the upper Arroyo Seco watershed exhibited high variability on the hydrological event time scale. Of the four solutes measured, nitrate was the only constituent which behaved consistently throughout the study period, exhibiting hydrologically enhanced behavior during every storm event. Fluoride, chloride, and sulfate exhibited hydrologically enhanced behavior for the first few storm events of the 2009 water year, then switched to dilution behavior late in the rain season. Results suggest these constituents collect extensively in the watershed during the dry season. A first flush mechanism then mobilizes the constituents from the atmosphere and basin surface and transports them to surface waters during

  2. Evaluation of factors affecting plate waste of inpatients in different healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Valero Díaz, Antonio; Caracuel García, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción/objetivos: La satisfacción de los pacientes con el servicio de comidas continúa siendo uno de los principales retos dirigidos a la modernización de los sistemas de distribución de alimentos. En el presente estudio se evaluó el impacto del tipo de hospital, horario, categoría de alimento y tipo de menú sobre el desecho de comida producido en diferentes recintos hospitalarios espAÑOles. Métodos: El desecho de alimentos se midió a través de una escala semi-cuantitativa con 5 niveles para evaluar la aceptabilidad del alimento («nada en plato» «¼ en plato» «mitad en plato» «¾ en plato» y «todo en plato»). El estudio se llevó a cabo en dos periodos de tres meses cada uno durante 2010 y 2011. Una persona entrenada se encargó del pesaje de platos, los cuales se clasificaron en 726 servicios pertenecientes a 11 menús diferentes. En total, se sirvieron 31.392 platos a 7.868 pacientes. Como prueba estadística se utilizó un test estadístico no paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05). Resultados: Los menús se consumieron de forma satisfactoria ya que más del 50% de los platos se clasificaron dentro de la categoría «nada en plato». Con respecto a las categorías de alimento, un 26,78% de los platos servidos se correspondieron con sopas y purés, mientras que los platos de pasta, arroz y alimentos listos para el consumo fueron distribuidos en un 4-5% de los servicios. Los postres fueron los platos más consumidos, mientras que los vegetales hervidos fueron menos aceptados. Otros factores como el tipo de hospital influyeron sobre el desecho de alimentos (p < 0,05) aunque el horario de servicio de comidas no (p > 0,05). Conclusión: La inspección visual del desecho de alimentos puede ser útil a la hora de optimizar el tipo y calidad de los menús servidos. El tipo de menú y la categoría de alimento podrían tener una gran influencia sobre la aceptabilidad de los platos por los pacientes.

  3. Nutritional adequacy in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mesquita de Carvalho, Cláudia; Dias Mendonça, Dayana; Haas Piovesan, Carla; Edler Macagnan, Fabrício; Pandolfo Feoli, Ana Maria

    2014-11-16

    Introducción: La terapia nutricional en el tratamiento del síndrome metabólico es un factor clave. Es importante educar los pacientes sobre los beneficios de seguir el tratamiento cuando se quiere promover cambios nel estilo de vida. Objetivo: El objetivo fue evaluar la adecuación nutricional en individuos con síndrome metabólico de acuerdo con las recomendaciones dietéticas prescritas. Métodos: Un ensayo clínico con 72 sujetos con síndrome metabólico, llevados a cabo en el sur de Brasil. Asesoramiento nutricional se llevó a cabo, asociada o no con el ejercicio físico durante tres meses. Un retiro de alimentos de 24 horas, y un registro de alimentos de dos días fueron los métodos de referencia para el consumo de alimentos. La adecuación nutricional se determinó mediante la ingesta de energía y nutrientes, grupos de alimentos definidos por la Pirámide de Alimentos del Brasil. Results: Los voluntarios alcanzado un promedio del 80% del consumo de energía se recomienda. La ingestión de proteínas y lípidos fue mayor de lo esperado, y la ingesta de hidratos de carbono fue inferior a los niveles recomendados. Hubo una baja ingesta de cereales, verduras, productos lácteos y frijoles (p.

  4. Diffusion near buildings as determined from atmospheric tracer experiments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Ricks, N.R.; Start, G.E.; Dickson, C.R.

    1980-09-01

    Data from the innermost arcs and roof top samplers of the Rancho Seco and EOCR field studies were used to examine diffusion close to a building. The minimum length plume paths were determined from each release location to each sampler position at these two test sites. Measured concentrations, normalized by source strength (C/Q), were plotted versus plume path length and an envelope containing 95% of the measured values of C/Q was determined. The curves from the two sites were similar in shape and implied three zones of diffusion. Comparisons were also made with current NRC methods for predicting maximum expected concentrations close to a building. The NRC model overestimated concentrations in all but one case. The model was generally within an order of magnitude at EOCR, and within two orders of magnitude at Rancho Seco.

  5. Novel peptidomimetics as BACE-1 inhibitors: synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological studies.

    PubMed

    Butini, Stefania; Gabellieri, Emanuele; Brindisi, Margherita; Casagni, Alice; Guarino, Egeria; Huleatt, Paul B; Relitti, Nicola; La Pietra, Valeria; Marinelli, Luciana; Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at identifying new scaffolds for BACE-1 inhibition devoid of the pharmacokinetic drawbacks of peptide-like structures, we investigated a series of novel peptidomimetics based on a 1,4-benzodiazepine (BDZ) core 1a-h and their seco-analogues 2a-d. We herein discuss synthesis, molecular modeling and in vitro studies which, starting from 1a, led to the seco-analogues (R)-2c and (S)-2d endowed with BACE-1 inhibition properties in the micromolar range both on the isolated enzyme and in cellular studies. These data can encourage to pursue these analogues as hits for the development of a new series of BACE-1 inhibitors active on whole-cells.

  6. Bioactive compounds with added value prepared from terpenes contained in solid wastes from the olive oil industry.

    PubMed

    Parra, Andres; Lopez, Pilar E; Garcia-Granados, Andres

    2010-02-01

    Starting from solid wastes from two-phase olive-oil extraction, the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and maslinic acid were isolated. These natural compounds were transformed into methyl olean-12-en-28-oate (5), which then was transformed into several seco-C-ring triterpene compounds by chemical and photolytic modifications. The triene seco-products were fragmented through several oxidative procedures to produce, simultaneously, cis- and trans-decalin derivatives, both potential synthons for bioactive compounds. The chemical behavior of the isolated fragments was investigated, and a suitable approach to several low-molecular-weight terpenes was performed. These are interesting processes for the value-addition to solid waste from the olive-oil industry.

  7. A-ring modified betulinic acid derivatives as potent cancer preventive agents.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsin-Yi; Nakagawa-Goto, Kyoko; Tokuda, Harukuni; Iida, Akira; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Bori, Ibrahim D; Qian, Keduo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-02-01

    Ten new 3,4-seco betulinic acid (BA) derivatives were designed and synthesized. Among them, compounds 7-15 exhibited enhanced chemopreventive ability in an in vitro short-term 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation assay in Raji cells. Specifically, analogs with a free C-28 carboxylic acid, including 7, 8, 11, and 13, inhibited EBV-EA activation significantly. The most potent compound 8 displayed 100% inhibition at 1×10(3) mol ratio/TPA and 73.4%, 35.9%, and 8.4% inhibition at 5×10(2), 1×10(2), and 1×10 mol ratio/TPA, respectively, comparable with curcumin at high concentration and better than curcumin at low concentration. The potent chemopreventive activity of novel seco A-ring BAs (8 and 11) was further confirmed in an in vivo mouse skin carcinogenesis assay.

  8. Confirmatory Survey Results for the Reactor Building Dome Upper Surfaces, Rancho Saco Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wade C. Adams

    2006-10-25

    Results from a confirmatory survey of the upper structural surfaces of the Reactor Building Dome at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station (RSNGS) performed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education for the NRC. Also includes results of interlaboratory comparison analyses on several archived soil samples that would be provided by RSNGS personnel. The confirmatory surveys were performed on June 7 and 8, 2006.

  9. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Construction of a Fitness Center at Beale Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Pardee gravelly loam, Pardee-Rancho Seco complex, Perkins loam, Redding- Corning complex, and San Joaquin loam (NRCS 2009). These soils were grouped...located on previously disturbed soils within the Redding- Corning complex and the San Joaquin loam. The buildings planned for demolition are located...within the Redding- Corning complex. The Redding- Corning complex soil series consists of moderately deep and well-drained soils that form on old

  10. Bicunningines A and B, two new dimeric diterpenes from Cunninghamia lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xian-Feng; Yao, Sheng; Mándi, Attila; Kurtán, Tibor; Tang, Chun-Ping; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Li, Xi-Qiang; Ye, Yang

    2012-01-20

    Two unprecedented dimeric diterpenoids, with a 2,3-dihydrofuran ring fusing an abietane and a 4,5-seco-abietane diterpene, were isolated from Cunninghamia lanceolata. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic measurements, and their absolute configurations were determined by quantum chemical TDDFT ECD calculations, chemical transformations, and Mosher's method. The Mosher method carried out with MPA and MTPA esters of the sterically hindered sec-hydroxyl group gave contradictory results, while MPA afforded the correct absolute configuration.

  11. An effective O-demethylation of some C19-diterpenoid alkaloids with HBr-glacial acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chun-Lan; Ji, Hong; Xie, Guang-Bo; Chen, Dong-Lin; Wang, Feng-Peng

    2008-01-01

    The aconitine-type alkaloids talatisamine (1), 8,14-diacetyltalatisamine (11), and compound 3, the lycoctonine-type alkaloid deltaline (5), and the 7,17-seco C(19)-diterpenoid alkaloids 7 and 9 were treated with HBr-glacial acetic acid to give useful O-demethylated derivatives 2, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 respectively in good to high yields (49-90%).

  12. Integrated Battlefield Effects Research for the National Training Center. Appendix J. Division/Corps Training Simulation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    thermocnemIcal) :.ole ) 1.354 350 X E -3 .zal (chermochemocal(,cm_ wt. .u~ M’,’ .. 184 300 XE-’ ¢aiorie thermochemLcal) .oule 3. 184 300 caloric ...information interface. 176 HIGHER h.n.aI.*., ECHELON an~aw~az E C H E L O N " I n-p r 1 BDE/BN aba~as L L Figure 3. CEng seco , main CP - external

  13. CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors. Part 1. Simulations of the RCM-1 Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    and caloric equations of state were developed for describing hydrogen, RP- 1, and oxygen propellants over the range of pressures and temperatures...513 I I I0 12 3 4 5 6 7 ,0 513 516 512 522 525 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 U (M/ec) Density (kglm9 ) TKE [ 2/ secO ) Figure 8. Flow Properties at the Injector

  14. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 5. World War II, 1939-1945; Campaigns in North Africa, Italy, and Western Europe. Part 2. Wars of the 20th Century.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    9-11 Sep Sele- Calore Corridor 11 Sep Battipaglia I 12-15 Sep Vietri I 12-15 Sep Tobacco Factory 13-14 Sep Battipaglia II 17-18 Sep -:-> Eboli 17-18...read center seco d in Jp ortance MIT te Cen andthe~point of origin of two major roads leading to the south. The captumre of St. Lo and the high

  15. Watershed Fire Regime Effects On Particulate Organic Carbon Composition in Oregon and California Coast Range Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Borgeld, J. C.; Padgett, J. S.; Pasternack, G. B.; Gray, A. B.; Watson, E. B.; Warrick, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Fire causes major changes to organic carbon, converting biological organic materials to pyrogenic-derived organic carbon (Py-OC), including black carbon. Wildfire also dramatically affects hydrological and erosion processes within watersheds, potentially increasing the erosion and discharge of Py-OC as particulate organic carbon (POC). We hypothesize that the proportion of the POC being discharged as Py-OC will be affected by the watershed’s fire regime, increasing with annual proportion of the watershed burned. During the 2008 and 2009 water years, suspended sediment samples were collected from the Alsea, Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Arroyo Seco Rivers draining the Coast Ranges of Oregon and California. Events and discharges of various magnitudes were captured in this sample set. This sample set also included suspended sediment collected from the Arroyo Seco River after a 2008 wildfire burned through a large portion of its watershed. Fine (<63 μm) and coarse (>63 μm) particulate material was analyzed for OC and N. We used cupric oxide oxidation to determine the contribution of Py-OC and unburned organic matter to the POC load of these rivers. The area weighted mean fire return interval decreases from the Douglas fir dominated forests in the Alsea River watershed in the north to the chaparral dominated Arroyo Seco River watershed in the south (Alsea > Umpqua > Eel > Salinas > Arroyo Seco). This translated into an increase in the proportion of each watershed burned from north to south. With the increase in annual proportion of watershed burned we found that the Py-OC content of coarse and fine POC increased from north to south. These results suggest that fire plays an important role in delivering POC to long-term carbon sinks in the coastal and ocean environment.

  16. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Evaluation of digestible energy and protein for growth and nitrogen retention in juvenile Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile Florida pompano (6.3±0.50 g) were fed one of twelve diets formulated with an array of crude protein (340, 380, 420, 480, or 500 g/kg diet) and crude lipid (60, 100, 120, 160 or 180 g/kg diet) levels and estimated digestible protein/digestible energy (DP/DE) of 18.9 to 26.8 mg/kJ. In a seco...

  18. Histidine 352 (His352) and Tryptophan 355 (Trp355) Are Essential for Flax UGT74S1 Glucosylation Activity toward Secoisolariciresinol

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Kaushik; McCallum, Jason; Sweeney-Nixon, Marva; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2015-01-01

    Flax secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan is a natural phytoestrogen for which a positive role in metabolic diseases is emerging. Until recently however, much less was known about SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG) biosynthesis. Lately, flax UGT74S1 was identified and characterized as an enzyme sequentially glucosylating secoisolariciresinol (SECO) into SMG and SDG when expressed in yeast. However, the amino acids critical for UGT74S1 glucosyltransferase activity were unknown. A 3D structural modeling and docking, site-directed mutagenesis of five amino acids in the plant secondary product glycosyltransferase (PSPG) motif, and enzyme assays were conducted. UGT74S1 appeared to be structurally similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana UGT72B1 model. The ligand docking predicted Ser357 and Trp355 as binding to the phosphate and hydroxyl groups of UDP-glucose, whereas Cys335, Gln337 and Trp355 were predicted to bind the 7-OH, 2-OCH3 and 17-OCH3 of SECO. Site-directed mutagenesis of Cys335, Gln337, His352, Trp355 and Ser357, and enzyme assays revealed an alteration of these binding sites and a significant reduction of UGT74S1 glucosyltransferase catalytic activity towards SECO and UDP-glucose in all mutants. A complete abolition of UGT74S1 activity was observed when Trp355 was substituted to Ala355 and Gly355 or when changing His352 to Asp352, and an altered metabolite profile was observed in Cys335Ala, Gln337Ala, and Ser357Ala mutants. This study provided for the first time evidence that Trp355 and His352 are critical for UGT74S1’s glucosylation activity toward SECO and suggested the possibility for SMG production in vitro. PMID:25714779

  19. Mechanical Cutting of Irradiated Reactor Internal Components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.G.; Fennema, J.A.

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of mechanical cutting methods to volume reduce and package irradiated reactor internal components. The recent completion of the removal of the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) from within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant demonstrates that unlike previous methods used for similar projects, mechanical cutting minimizes exposure to workers, costly water cleanup, and excessive secondary waste generation. (authors)

  20. New monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloid derivatives from the stems of Uncaria hirsuta Havil. and their cytotoxicity and tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui-Qin; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Zhao, Dan; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Chang-Liang; Shi, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Li, Shi-You; Bi, Ying; Wang, Zhen; Yao, Shuai; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2017-01-01

    Four new alkaloids, comprising three 3-oxo-3,7-seco-oxindole alkaloids (hirsutanine D-F, 1-3) and one oxindole alkaloid N-oxide (uncarine B N-oxide, 4), together with four known heteroyohimbine-type oxindole alkaloids, were isolated from the stems of Uncaria hirsuta Havil. Structures of 1-4 were elucidated by extensive NMR and HR-ESIMS data analyses. Compound 3 is the first 3-oxo-3,7-seco-oxindole alkaloid with ring B opened and degraded isolated from the Uncaria genus. Compounds 1-3 exhibited slight inhibition effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231. The positive mode collision-induced dissociation of the 3-oxo-3,7-seco-oxindole alkaloids (1-3) was featured by the β-cleavage and α-cleavage of the amido bond, while the N-oxide (4) showed characteristic neutral eliminations of ·OH and H2O.

  1. [High prevalence of food sensitization among adults with allergic diseases who live in the Guadalajara metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Torres-Álvarez, Nayeli Elizabeth; Contreras-González, Uzziel; Hernández-Colín, Dante; Bedolla-Pulido, Tonantzin Isis; Robles-Figueroa, Martín; Morales-Romero, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: La prevalencia de sensibilización a alimentos en adultos presenta diferencias debido a las condiciones geográficas, regionales y culturales. Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la sensibilización a alimentos en adultos con alguna enfermedad alérgica. Métodos: Estudio transversal en el que se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de adultos con alguna enfermedad alérgica que presentaron al menos una prueba cutánea positiva a aeroalérgenos. Se registró edad, sexo, enfermedad alérgica de base y resultado de la prueba cutánea. El análisis es-tadístico incluyó prevalencia de sensibilización a alimentos e intervalos de confianza (IC) de 95 %, así como análisis multivariado para determinar los factores asociados. Resultados: Se incluyeron 258 pacientes con edad media de 36 años; 75 % fue del sexo femenino. La enfermedad de base más frecuente fue la rinitis alérgica (59 %). La prevalencia de sensibilización a alimentos fue de 37 % (IC 95 %, 31.5-43.3) y no varió significativamente según sexo o enfermedad alérgica. El alimento más sensibilizante fue la soya (44.8 %) y los factores asociados, la sensibil-ización al epitelio de gato (OR = 1.8; IC 95 %, 1.03-3.2) y 5 o más pruebas cutáneas positivas (OR = 4.3; IC95 %, 2.3-8.1). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de sensibilización a alimentos en personas con enfermedad alérgica fue de 40 %; para determinarla en la población general se requieren estudios adicionales.

  2. [FOOD SOURCES OF SODIUM: ANALYSIS BASED ON A NATIONAL SURVEY IN COLOMBIA].

    PubMed

    Gaitán Charry, Diego Alejandro; Estrada, Alejandro; Argenor Lozano, Gustavo; Manjarres, Luz Mariela

    2015-11-01

    La ingesta elevada de sodio es un factor de riesgo independiente para el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares –ECV–. Por este motivo, a nivel global se promueve la implementación de la “reducción de la ingesta de sal/sodio como estrategia para la reducción de las ECV”. Para tal fin es importante identificar las fuentes de sodio en la dieta, lo cual hasta la fecha solo se ha realizado, fundamentalmente, en países desarrollados. Objetivos: identificar los alimentos que más sodio aportan a la dieta de los colombianos, basados en los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional –ENSIN– de Colombia. Además, se pretende determinar el nivel de ingesta de sodio proveniente de alimentos en el país. Métodos: se analizaron datos de 39.413 individuos aparentemente sanos, no gestantes, entre los 2 y los 64 años de edad, obtenidos mediante R24h en la ENSIN. Se determinaron los grupos de alimentos que suponen una fuente de sodio, así como el sodio ingerido a partir de dichos alimentos. Resultados: se reportaron 1.274 alimentos y la agrupación de alimentos se realizó con un total de 95, los cuales aportaron un 72% del sodio total proveniente de los alimentos. Estos últimos se dividieron en 12 grupos. Dentro de estos, el de mayor aporte de sodio a la dieta fue el de productos de panadería (30,5%). El promedio de ingesta de sodio por persona proveniente del total de alimentos, sin adición de sal, fue 816,4 ± 474,1 mg/d. La mediana de la misma variable a nivel nacional fue de 721,0 mg/d (RQ = 476,0-1051,0). La ingesta fue mayor en hombres (784,0 mg/d; RQ = 511,0-1156,0) que en mujeres (665,0 mg/d; RQ = 448,0-953,0); p < 0,001. Conclusión: el presente trabajo identificó las principales fuentes de sodio en la dieta de los colombianos y sugiere la conveniencia de priorizar estrategias para la disminución del contenido de sodio en estos grupos, en especial el grupo de productos de panadería. Igualmente, es necesario tener en cuenta la

  3. Characterizing Ecosystem and Watershed Response to Atmospheric Loading at the Urban Fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curto, V.; Lopez, S.; Hogue, T.; Rademacher, L.

    2006-12-01

    The southern California region, although highly urbanized and densely populated, is also characterized by steep mountain ranges with extensive forests and diverse ecosystems. Growing population pressure in the region has forced continuing development at the urban fringe. The large mountain systems situated on the windward side of the Los Angeles basin experience high atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates from various urban pollutants. Arroyo Seco, a watershed located on the eastern edge of the Los Angeles basin, is no exception to this trend. The present study uses hydrologic and geochemical data to assess current watershed dynamics and ecosystem responses to the impacts of regional urbanization. The Arroyo Seco stream runs through a deeply incised canyon originating in the San Gabriel Mountains and draining into the Los Angeles River. The current riparian habitat, which comprises only 15 percent of the total land cover within the watershed, contains over 705 species of plants and animals. We focused our studies on the upper reaches of the basin (~18 square miles), which remains undeveloped and consists primarily of chaparral and evergreen forests. This portion of the watershed has an average watershed slope of approximately 6 percent and relatively porous soils. However, estimated runoff ratio from the existing USGS gage and local precipitation gages indicates fairly high runoff (discharge/precipitation ratio of 0.29). Weekly stream samples have been collected over a several year period and analyzed for standard geochemical constituents and stable isotopes to assess deposition impacts on ecosystem function and overall watershed behavior. Stable isotopes of water measured in the weekly Arroyo Seco stream samples deviate from the global meteoric water line (GMWL), particularly during summer months. High evaporative rates in the summer may be responsible for the distinct summer pattern and overall deviation from the GMWL of stream isotope values. An

  4. Dietary potential renal Acid load in venezuelan children.

    PubMed

    López-Sayers, Mayerling; Bernal, Jennifer; López, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Determinar y analizar la carga acida potencial renal de la dieta (Potential Renal Acid Load PRAL) y el patron de alimentacion de ninos entre 1 a 6 anos aparentemente sanos. Métodos: Se seleccionaron segun conveniencia a padres de 52 ninos asistentes a una consulta de ninos sanos. La calidad de la dieta y el patron de alimentacion se evaluo mediante un recordatorio de 24 horas y un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos. Se calculo la ingesta de macronutrientes y grupos de alimentos, como carnes, lacteos, frutas y verduras. La ingesta de nutrientes se comparo con las recomendaciones de energia y nutrientes. El PRAL se determino segun el metodo de Remer y Manz, para determinar la carga acida de la dieta. Se aplico estadistica descriptiva y correlaciones entre el PRAL, nutrientes y grupos de alimentos. Resultados: La ingesta de proteinas, de leche y de carnes fue elevada, mientras que la ingesta de rutas y hortalizas fue baja. El PRAL fue positivo en 92% de los ninos, se asocio con mayor ingesta de energia, proteinas, grasas, carne y lacteos. La ingesta de proteinas fue > 2,5 g/kg/ dia en 46,2% de los ninos. Los grupos de alimentos con mayor desequilibrio debido a exceso fueron la carne y los productos lacteos, mientras que por deficit fue el grupo de frutas y hortalizas. Conclusión: La dieta se caracteriza por una elevada carga de acido o PRAL, lo que aumenta el riesgo de acidosis sistemica y sus consecuencias metabolicas.

  5. [Nutritional content of food, and nonalcoholic beverages advertisements broadcasted in children's slot of Colombian national television].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Díaz, Diana Margarita; Carmona-Garcés, Isabel Cristina; Giraldo-López, Paula Andrea; González-Zapata, Laura

    2014-04-01

    Objetivo: Describir el contenido nutricional de alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas publicitados en la franja infantil vs general, en dos canales gratuitos privados de televisión nacional colombiana. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. La grabación se realizó en julio de 2012, durante cuatro días seleccionados aleatoriamente de 6:00 am a 12:30 pm. El contenido nutricional se clasificó según los criterios de perfiles nutricionales de la Food Standards Agency para nutrientes trazadores de riesgo, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud para grasa trans, y la Resolución colombiana 333 de 2011 para clasificar los alimentos como fuente o no, de nutrientes protectores. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva, prueba de Kolmogorov- Smirnov para establecer la normalidad y prueba de Chi cuadrado para la comparación entre variables. Se consideró un p < 0,05. Resultados: En 52 horas de grabación se emitieron 1.560 pautas publicitarias, de las cuales el 23,3% (364 pautas), fue de publicidad de alimentos y bebidas y de estas, el 56,3% se publicitaron en la franja infantil. En cuanto al contenido nutricional, se destacó mayor porcentaje de alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas clasificados como “altos” en azúcar, sodio y grasa saturada en la franja infantil (69,0%, 56,0%, 57,1%) respecto a la franja general. Por el contrario, el porcentaje de alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas clasificados como “alto” en grasa total fue mayor en la franja general vs la franja infantil (70,4%, 29,6% respectivamente). Conclusiones: Una mayor exposición a la publicidad de alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas se evidenció en la franja infantil, caracterizada por alto contenido de nutrientes trazadores de riesgo y bajo contenido de nutrientes protectores de los alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas publicitados.

  6. Addition of dietary fiber sources to shakes reduces postprandial glycemia and alters food intake.

    PubMed

    Galvão Cândido, Flávia; Silva Ton, Winder Tadeu; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cássia

    2014-09-15

    Introducción: Obesidad y diabetes de tipo 2 pueden ser controlados por alimentos capaces de modular la ingesta de alimentos y la glucemia. Objetivos: Se investigó si la adición de alimentos fuentes de fibra o fasolamina a batidos puede controlar la ingesta de alimentos y reducir la glucemia posprandial. Métodos: Estudio aleatorizado, simple ciego, de diseño cruzado (ingesta de alimentos:n=22; glucemia:n=10). Cinco batidos con cantidades similares de macronutrientes (C - control batido, SA - salvado de avena batido, L - linaza batido, FB - extracto de frijol blanco batido y PI - harina de plátano no maduro batido) fueron consumidos en cinco días no consecutivos. Las participantes registraron la ingesta de alimentos en las 24 horas subsiguientes. La glucosa en sangre se midió a 0 (inmediatamente antes), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 y 120 minutos después de la ingestión de cada batido y se calcularon las áreas incrementales bajo las curvas (AIBC). Resultados: En comparación a C, hubo un aumento significativo en la ingesta de fibra después de que el consumo de SA(+17,9g), SL(+19,1g), y PI(+12,6g), y en la grasa después del consumo de SA(+25,4g). Se encontró una reducción no significativa de la ingesta diaria de energía en L (1524kJ, P=0,10) en comparación con C. Hubo una reducción del 43% en el AIBC (P=0,03) en respuesta al consumo PI. Conclusiones: Harina de plátano no maduro reduce la respuesta glucémica posprandial de batidos casi a la mitad. El efecto de salvado de avena y linaza en la ingesta de alimentos requiere mayor investigación en estudios a largo plazo.

  7. Tv food advertising geared to children in Latin-American countries and Hispanics in the USA: a review.

    PubMed

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: El propósito de esta revisión fue analizar los estudios sobre anuncios de alimentos en la TV en Latinoamérica y en los EEUU dirigidos a Hispanos. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de trabajos publicados de 1986 a 2015, en las bases de datos de MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SCIELO, y CINAHL, en internet de acceso abierto, sobre anuncios de alimentos en la televisión dirigidos a niños en países latinoamericanos y a Hispanos que viven en los Estados Unidos. Resultados: La búsqueda dio como resultado veinticuatro estudios, seis realizados en Chile, cinco en México, cuatro en Brasil, tres en Hispanos de EEUU, y uno en cada uno de los siguientes países: Argentina, Perú, Colombia, Honduras y Venezuela. Una gran proporción de anuncios sobre alimentos en la TV están dirigidos a los niños y a sus familias. Esta exposición ha sido asociada a la preferencia y solicitud de compra de estos alimentos por los niños y con un aumento del IMC, sobrepeso y obesidad en niños y adultos. Conclusión: Se observa una alarmante alta exposición de anuncios de alimentos en la TV dirigida a niños, lo que demanda políticas regulatorias, supervisión, y rendimiento de cuentas eficaces.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION TO REDUCE THE CONSUMPTION OF HIGH-CALORIE FOODS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN IN TERESINA, PIAUÍ (BRAZIL).

    PubMed

    Melo dos Santos, Marize; Passos Oliveira, Vanessa; Teixeira Lima, Sueli Maria; Clímaco Cruz, Kyria Jayanne; Soares de Oliveira, Ana Raquel; Soares Severo, Juliana

    2015-08-01

    Introdución: existe una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso y hábitos alimentarios pobres entre los adolescentes, y estos factores contribuyen al desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la efectividad de una intervención educativa diseñada para reducir el consumo de alimentos con alto contenido calórico en los niños de las escuelas públicas en Teresina, Piauí (Brasil). Material y métodos: estudio cuasi-experimental, aleatorizados y de intervención cuantitativo realizado con adolescentes (n = 126), con edades comprendidas entre 10 y 14 años, de ambos sexos. La intervención educativa se desarrolló durante nueve semanas, con reuniones semanales. Se realizó una encuesta previa y posterior a la intervención. Las asociaciones entre las variables fueron examinadas usando una prueba de chi-cuadrado (x2). Resultados: se observó una reducción significativa en el consumo de refrescos y jugos procesados posterior a la intervención educativa (p = 0,007). Tiene una mayor reducción en el consumo semanal de alimentos embutidos (p = 0,072). El consumo semanal de los adolescentes de alimentos fritos y patatas fritas también se redujo significativamente después de la intervención educativa (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: el programa educativo de alimentación y nutrición fue eficaz en la reducción de la ingesta de alimentos altos en calorías y bebidas de los adolescentes, lo cual contribuyó a una mejora en la calidad de los alimentos consumidos por los niños de las escuelas evaluadas.

  9. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a four-component O-demethylase from human intestinal bacterium Eubacterium limosum ZL-II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Xing; Deng, Chao-Yin; Zhang, Ying-Tao; Liu, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Ping-Zhang; Liu, Shu-Lin; Qian, Wei; Yang, Dong-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Eubacterium limosum ZL-II was described to convert secoisolariciresinol (SECO) to its demethylating product 4,4'-dihydroxyenterodiol (DHEND) under anoxic conditions. However, the reaction cascade remains unclear. Here, the O-demethylase being responsible for the conversion was identified and characterized. Nine genes encoding two methyltransferase-Is (MT-I), two corrinoid proteins (CP), two methyltransferase-IIs (MT-II), and three activating enzymes (AE) were screened, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Four of the nine predicted enzymes, including ELI_2003 (MT-I), ELI_2004 (CP), ELI_2005 (MT-II), and ELI_0370 (AE), were confirmed to constitute the O-demethylase in E. limosum ZL-II. The complete O-demethylase (combining the four components) reaction system was reconstructed in vitro. As expected, the demethylating products 3-demethyl-SECO and DHEND were both produced. During the reaction process, ELI_2003 (MT-I) initially catalyzed the transfer of methyl group from SECO to the corrinoid of ELI_2004 ([Co(I)]-CP), yielding demethylating products and [CH3-Co(III)]-CP; then ELI_2005 (MT-II) mediated the transfer of methyl group from [CH3-Co(III)]-CP to tetrahydrofolate, forming methyltetrahydrofolate and [Co(I)]-CP. Due to the low redox potential of [Co(II)]/[Co(I)], [Co(I)]-CP was oxidized to [Co(II)]-CP immediately in vitro, and ELI_0370 (AE) was responsible for catalyzing the reduction of [Co(II)]-CP to its active form [Co(I)]-CP. The active-site residues in ELI_2003, ELI_2005, and ELI_0370 were subsequently determined using molecular modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the identification and characterization of a four-component O-demethylase from E. limosum ZL-II, which will facilitate the development of method to artificial synthesis of related bioactive chemicals.

  10. Withanolides from three species of the genus Deprea (Solanaceae). Chemotaxonomical considerations.

    PubMed

    Casero, Carina N; Oberti, Juan C; Orozco, Clara I; Cárdenas, Alejandro; Brito, Iván; Barboza, Gloria E; Nicotra, Viviana E

    2015-02-01

    Nine withanolides were isolated from the aerial parts of Deprea bitteriana, Depreacuyacensis, and Depreazamorae. D.bitteriana yielded two withaphysalins, D. cuyacensis gave two 13,14-seco withaphysalins, while D. zamorae yielded five physangulidines. The compounds were fully characterized by a combination of spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR and MS). All compounds isolated from D.bitteriana and D. cuyacensis were obtained as epimeric mixtures at C-18. The structure of physangulidine D was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The skeletons found in this research support the chemotaxonomical position of the genus Deprea in the tribe Physalideae.

  11. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-02-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others. Key milestones included producing hydrogenated coal in the Hydrotreating Facility for the first time. The facility is now operational, although digital controls have not yet been completely wired. In addition, ultrasound is being used to investigate enhanced dissolution of coal. Experiments have been carried out.

  12. A stereoselective approach to peptidomimetic BACE1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Butini, Stefania; Gabellieri, Emanuele; Brindisi, Margherita; Giovani, Simone; Maramai, Samuele; Kshirsagar, Giridhar; Guarino, Egeria; Brogi, Simone; La Pietra, Valeria; Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Cappelli, Andrea; Gemma, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at identifying new scaffolds to generate beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors we developed peptidomimetics based on a 1,4-benzodiazepine core (3a-d), their seco-analogs (4a-b), and linear analogs (5a-h), by stereoselective approaches. We herein discuss the synthesis, molecular modeling and in vitro studies for the newly developed ligands. Compounds 5c and 5h behaved as BACE1 inhibitors on the isolated enzyme and in cellular studies. Particularly, for its low molecular weight, inhibitor 5h is a prototypic hit to develop a series of BACE1 inhibitors more potent and active on whole-cells.

  13. Antitussive stemoninine alkaloids from the roots of Stemona tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Gen; Li, Kan Man; Tang, Chun-Ping; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Rudd, John A; Lin, Ge; Ye, Yang

    2008-06-01

    Investigation of the roots of Stemona tuberosa afforded five minor constituents, stemoenonine (1), 9a- O-methylstemoenonine (2), oxystemoenonine (3), 1,9a- seco-stemoenonine (4), and oxystemoninine (5), along with the known compound stemoninoamide (6). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectra and other spectroscopic studies. Alkaloids 1, 2, and 6, as well as the representative stemoninine-type alkaloid, stemoninine (7), were screened for antitussive activity in the citric acid-induced guinea pig cough model. Compounds 6 and 7 exhibited strong antitussive activity after oral and intraperitoneal administrations.

  14. A new rearranged tricyclic abietane diterpenoid from Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. & Allen.

    PubMed

    Salimikia, Iraj; Moridi Farimani, Mahdi; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid Reza; Gohari, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Salvia chloroleuca led to the isolation and identification of a new rearranged abietane diterpenoid (1). Its structure was elucidated by interpretation of the 1D and 2D NMR spectra and completed by the analysis of the HR-ESI-MS data. Compound 1 is the secondly reported compound on a rearranged tricyclic abietane (4,5-seco-5,10-friedo-abietane) diterpenoid with a ketal functionality between C-2 and C-11. A plausible biosynthetic pathway of 1 was also proposed.

  15. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Salvia yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Yan; Liao, Yang; Yang, Zi-Gang; Yang, Xing-Wei; Shen, Xiao-Ling; Li, Rong-Tao; Xu, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Forty-six abietane type diterpenoids possessing nine different fused ring systems were characterized from the roots of Salvia yunnanensis, six of which (salyunnanins A-F, 1-6) had different nor-abietane, homo-abietane, seco-abietane, and normal abietane architectures. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. The inhibitory activities of these isolates against six human tumor lines were tested in vitro. Several of the compounds exhibited substantial cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 0.86-10.1μM.

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, June 1996. Volume 43, Number 6

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report covers the issuances received during the specified period form the Commission, the Atomic Safety and licensing Boards, the administrative Law Judges, the Director`s decisions and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. Included are a memorandum and order on the decommissioning plan for Yankee Nuclear Power Station, a memorandum and order suspending byproduct material license for Eastern Testing and Inspection, Inc., an initial decision of the source materials license for Sequoyah Fuels Corporation, Director`s decisions for Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Indian Point, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Trojan Nuclear Plant, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, and Yankee Nuclear Power Station.

  17. Headed for the last shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Rancho Seco nuclear power plant, near Sacramento, California has been closed 13 of its first 18 months in operation due to malfunctioning equipment. Today, the plant is shut down again, this time as a result of its third serious cooling accident. Between 1975 and 1986, average rates have increased by 184%. Given the safety and economic history of the plant, a group called Sacramentans for Safe Energy (SAFE) recently lead a successful petition drive that will put the issue on the ballot. The election will be held in June, 1988.

  18. Heme-binding activity of methoxyflavones from Pentzia monodiana Maire (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Sergio; Dali-Yahia, Kamel; Vasquez-Ocmin, Pedro; Grougnet, Raphaël; Grellier, Philippe; Michel, Sylvie; Maciuk, Alexandre; Boutefnouchet, Sabrina

    2017-04-01

    A heme-binding assay based on mass spectrometry was performed on P. monodiana Maire (Asteraceae) extracts to identify metabolites able to form adducts with heminic part of haemoglobin, as potential antimalarial drugs. Main adducts were characterized and their stability was measured. Isolation of main constituents of P. monodiana Maire lead to identification of the two methoxyflavones 3'-O-methyleupatorin (7) and artemetin (8) involved in the adducts formation. Four seco-tanapartholides (1-4), a guaianolide (5), a germacranolide (6) and two other methoxyflavones (9, 10) were also characterized. Evaluation of isolated compounds on P. falciparum and T. brucei brucei showed a moderate antiprotozoal activity of the two methoxyflavones.

  19. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively.

  20. Brevisulcatic acids, marine ladder-frame polyethers from the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevisulcata in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Rina; Irie, Raku; Harntaweesup, Yanit; Tachibana, Kazuo; Holland, Patrick T; Harwood, D Tim; Shi, Feng; Beuzenberg, Veronica; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Pascal, Steven; Edwards, Patrick J B; Satake, Masayuki

    2014-11-21

    The isolation and structural determination of new marine ladder-frame polyethers, brevisulcatic acids-1 (1) and -4 (2) are reported. Brevisulcatic acids were isolated from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevisulcata, which was identified as the causative species of a major red tide event in New Zealand in 1998. The ether ring composition and a β-hydroxy, γ-methylene valeric acid side chain of 1 and 2 are common, but 2 has a γ-lactone as the 5-membered A-ring while 1 is the seco acid analogue. Compound 2 has structural and bioactivity similarities to brevetoxin A.

  1. [DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF AN IMAGE FOR DISSEMINATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CHILEAN DIETARY GUIDELINES].

    PubMed

    Olivares Cortés, Sonia; Zacarías Hasbún, Isabel; González González, Carmen Gloria; Fonseca Morán, Lilian; Mediano Stoltze, Fernanda; Pinheiro Fernandes, Anna Christina; Rodríguez Osiac, Lorena

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: las Guías Alimentarias Basadas en Alimentos (GABA) generalmente van acompañadas de una imagen para su difusión e implementación. Objetivo: diseñar y validar una imagen que represente la variedad y proporcionalidad de las nuevas guías alimentarias para la población chilena, incluyendo los alimentos altos en nutrientes críticos que es necesario evitar y la actividad física. Método: un panel de expertos analizó siete propuestas gráficas y seleccionó tres que fueron validadas con 12 grupos focales de personas de 10-14 y 20-40 años, distinto sexo, nivel socioeconómico y sector urbano/rural. Se analizó la percepción de la variedad y proporcionalidad de los grupos de alimentos a comer diariamente y la motivación a la acción en alimentación y actividad física. Se trabajó con METAPLÁN, método ya utilizado en la validación de las GABA. Resultados y discusión: la imagen definitiva es un círculo que presenta la variedad y proporcionalidad de los grupos de alimentos a consumir durante el día (en fotografías), incluye la actividad física en una franja que rodea la mitad del círculo y un rectángulo inferior con ejemplos de alimentos altos en nutrientes críticos en blanco y negro. La imagen elegida fue modificada con las aportaciones de los participantes y validada con tres nuevos grupos focales, mejorando su comprensión y aceptación. Conclusión: la mayoría de los participantes comprendió que la imagen representaba la relación entre la alimentación saludable y la actividad física diaria, identificando los grupos de alimentos de los que se sugiere comer más y de los que se necesita reducir o evitar su consumo.

  2. Modifiable environmental obesity risk factors among elementary school children in a Mexico-us border city.

    PubMed

    López-Barrón, Rita Gabriela; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2015-05-01

    Antecedentes: El aumento de la prevalencia de sobrepeso (SP) y la obesidad (OB) en niños mexicanos, hace necesario la valoración de los factores de riesgo ambientales. Objetivo: Valorar si existe asociación entre la disponibilidad de alimentos en el entorno de los niños y el consume de alimentos con el puntaje Z de IMC y la circunferencia de cintura (CC). Métodos: Participaron en el estudio 684, 264 padres, 22 maestros, el personal de cafetería de las escuelas, y vendedores ambulantes. Se valoró el peso, la estatura la CC, de niños de quinto año de educación básica. Se aplicaron a los padres, niños y maestros un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, uno de actividad física y uno de hábitos alimentarios. Un inventario de alimentos se aplicó a los padres, al personal de la cafetería de la escuela, a los vendedores y a las tiendas cercanas a las escuelas. Resultados: La media de edad de los niños fue 10.5 años. 28% de los niños tenían SP, 26% OB, y 25% obesidad abdominal (OA). Se observó una correlación positiva entre el consumo de alimentos densamente energéticos (ADE), frutas, y verduras con la disponibilidad en casa y con el consumo semanal. También se observó una correlación entre el consumo de refrescos y otras ADE. El factor que más contribuía al consumo de alimentos fue la disponibilidad en casa y en la escuela (R2 = 0.11, p = 0.0001). Se observó una asociación positiva entre el tiempo que los niños ven televisión con el de sus padres. Por cada hora de aumento (de 0 a 7) de ver televisión al día, los niños tenían más posibilidades de tener SP o OB (OR=1.22 95% CI 1.02-1.45, p=0.026). Conclusión: La disponibilidad de ADE, de frutas y verduras en o fuera de casa o de la escuela, además de las horas de ver televisión estuvieron positivamente asociadas con la obesidad.

  3. New allo-cedrane type sesquiterpene hemiketals and further sesquiterpene lactones from fruits of Illicium floridanum.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T J; Müller, E; Fronczek, F R

    2001-04-01

    Three new tetracyclic sesquiterpene hemiketals possessing the very rare allo-cedrane carbon skeleton, debenzoyl-7-deoxo-1 alpha,7 alpha-dihydroxytashironin, debenzoyl-7-deoxo-7 alpha-hydroxytashironin, and debenzoyl-7-deoxo-7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxotashironin (1--3), were isolated from the fruits of Illicium floridanum ELLIS (American Star Anise, Star bush). Their structures were elucidated by mass and NMR spectroscopic analyses. The molecular structure of 1, including absolute stereochemistry, was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction of its monohydrate. Only one compound of this type, tashironin, has previously been isolated from Illicium tashiroi. Furthermore, a new sesquiterpene lactone of the seco-prezizaane type, 3,4-anhydro-13,14-dihydroxyfloridanolide (4), and the known anislactone B (5) were isolated. The occurrence of further allo-cedrane sesquiterpenes in another Illicium species confirms the hypothesis of previous authors that this type of compound is a biogenetic precursor of the typical seco-prezizaane sesquiterpene lactones found in this genus. Moreover, regarding their co-occurrence with anislactone B as reported here, they may also be considered precursors for the anislactone skeletal type.

  4. Conversion to drip irrigated agriculture may offset historic anthropogenic and wildfire contributions to sediment production.

    PubMed

    Gray, A B; Pasternack, G B; Watson, E B; Goñi, M A; Hatten, J A; Warrick, J A

    2016-06-15

    This study is an investigation into the roles of wildfire and changing agricultural practices in controlling the inter-decadal scale trends of suspended sediment production from semi-arid mountainous rivers. In the test case, a decreasing trend in suspended sediment concentrations was found in the lower Salinas River, California between 1967 and 2011. Event to decadal scale patterns in sediment production in the Salinas River have been found to be largely controlled by antecedent hydrologic conditions. Decreasing suspended sediment concentrations over the last 15years of the record departed from those expected from climatic/hydrologic forcing. Sediment production from the mountainous headwaters of the central California Coast Ranges is known to be dominated by the interaction of wildfire and large rainfall/runoff events, including the Arroyo Seco, an ~700km(2) subbasin of the Salinas River. However, the decreasing trend in Salinas River suspended sediment concentrations run contrary to increases in the watershed's effective burn area over time. The sediment source area of the Salinas River is an order of magnitude larger than that of the Arroyo Seco, and includes a more complicated mosaic of land cover and land use. The departure from hydrologic forcings on suspended sediment concentration patterns was found to coincide with a rapid conversion of irrigation practices from sprinkler and furrow to subsurface drip irrigation. Changes in agricultural operations appear to have decreased sediment supply to the Salinas River over the late 20th to early 21st centuries, obscuring the influence of wildfire on suspended sediment production.

  5. Biotransformation of ent-kaur-16-ene and ent-trachylobane 7β-acetoxy derivatives by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium fujikuroi).

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; Bressa, Carlo; González-Vallejo, Victoria; González, Pedro; Guillermo, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Candol A (7β-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-ene) (6) is efficiently transformed by Gibberella fujikuroi into the gibberellin plant hormones. In this work, the biotransformation of its acetate by this fungus has led to the formation of 7β-acetoxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3), whose corresponding alcohol is a short-lived intermediate in the biosynthesis of gibberellins and seco-ring ent-kaurenoids in this fungus. Further biotransformation of this compound led to the hydroxylation of the 3β-positions to give 7β-acetoxy-3β-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (14), followed by a 2β- or 18-hydroxylation of this metabolite. The incubation of epicandicandiol 7β-monoacetate (7β-acetoxy-18-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-ene) (10) produces also the 19-hydroxylation to form the 18,19 diol (20), which is oxidized to give the corresponding C-18 or C-19 acids. These results indicated that the presence of a 7β-acetoxy group does not inhibit the fungal oxidation of C-19 in 7β-acetoxy-ent-kaur-16-ene, but avoids the ring B contraction that leads to the gibberellins and the 6β-hydroxylation necessary for the formation of seco-ring B ent-kaurenoids. The biotransformation of 7β-acetoxy-ent-trachylobane (trachinol acetate) (27) only led to the formation of 7β-acetoxy-18-hydroxy-ent-trachylobane (33).

  6. A Darwinian mystery: fluctuations in runoff from the la Plata basin (Alexander von Humboldt Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R. T.

    2012-04-01

    During the voyage of HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin sailed in a small boat along the River Paraná, a major tributary of the la Plata drainage system. He wrote about the occurrence of severe droughts (the latest of which had been termed the "gran seco") alternating with periods of severe flooding. From reports received, he concluded that these events appeared to be cyclic with a period "of about fifteen years". Because extended periods of low flow in Brazilian rivers are of immense economic importance, the presentation describes a search for the material which led Darwin to this conclusion. A prolonged period of low flow in another la Plata tributary - the River Paraguay - not unlike the "gran seco" reported by Darwin, has occurred more recently; if such low flows were to recur in the future, the consequences would be severe for a region where more than 70% of energy is supplied by hydropower. A priori considerations suggest the use of statistical long-memory models for predicting River Paraguay water-levels, and some preliminary results from their use are presented.

  7. HEMISPHERIC CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-31

    The Online Measurement of Decontamination project team received a commitment for a demonstration in May from the Sacramento (California) Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Rancho Seco site. Since this site is a member of the DOE Commercial Utilities Consortium, the demonstration will fulfill the DOE and commercial technology demonstration requirements. Discussion on deployment of the Integrated Vertical and Overhead Decontamination (IVOD) System at Rancho Seco was conducted; date for deployment tentatively scheduled for early spring. Based upon fictional requirements from SRS for a shiny monitor in a high-level waste tank, FIU-HCET developed and delivered a draft slurry monitor design and draft test plan. Experiments measuring slurry settling time for SRS slurry simulant at 10 wt% have been completed on FIU-HCET'S flow loop with SRS dip. The completed design package of the test mockup for evaluating Non-Intrusive Location of Buried Items Technologies was sent to Fluor Fernald and the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program for review. Comments are due at the end of January. Preliminary experiments to determine size distribution of aerosols generated during metal cutting were performed. A 1/4-inch-thick iron plate was cut using a plasma arc torch, and the size distribution of airborne particles was measured using a multistage impactor. Per request of DOE-Ohio, FIU-HCET participated in a weeklong value engineering study for the characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement of their critical path facility.

  8. Chemical traits of hemiparasitism in Odontites luteus.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Frezza, Claudio; Foddai, Sebastiano; Serafini, Mauro; Nicoletti, Marcello; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-12-20

    The study of the monoterpene glycosides content of Odontites luteus has shown the presence of a total of fifteen iridoid glucosides. The presence of compounds (1-5) and (7-10) is perfectly on-line with both the biogenetic pathway for iridoids biosynthesis in Lamiales and the current botanical classification of the species. On the other side, the presence of compounds like agnuside (6), adoxosidic acid (11), monotropein (12), 6,7-dihydromonotropein (13), methyl oleoside (14) and methyl gluco-oleoside (15) is of high interest because, first of all, they have never been reported before in Lamiales. In second instance, the majority of the last compounds are formally derived from a different biogenetic pathway which involves desoxyloganic acid/loganin and led to the formation of decarboxylated iridoid showing the 8β-stereochemistry. Furthermore, a second abnormality was found during our study and this regards compounds (14) and (15) which are seco-iriodids and thus not typical for this family. The presence of these unusual compounds, biogenetically not related to species belonging to Lamiales, is a clear evidence of the metabolites transfer from the hosts. In fact, the collection area is also populated by species belonging to Oleaceae and Ericaceae which could be the possible hosts since the biosynthesis of seco-iridoids and or iridoids related to deoxyloganic acid/loganin pathway, with the 8β-stereochemistry, is well documented in these species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. An unusual 2,3-secotaraxerene and other cytotoxic triterpenoids from Pleiocarpa pycnantha (Apocynaceae) leaves collected from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omoyeni, Olubunmi A; Meyer, Mervin; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Green, Ivan; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2014-03-20

    Three known triterpenoids, namely ursolic acid (1), and the 27-E- and 27-Z-p-coumaric esters of ursolic acid (compounds 2, 3), were isolated together with a new triterpene 2,3-seco-taraxer-14-en-2,3-lactone [pycanocarpine (4)] from an ethanolic extract of Pleiocarpa pycnantha leaves. The structure of 4 was unambiguously assigned using NMR, HREIMS and X-ray crystallography. The cytotoxic activities of the compounds were evaluated against HeLa, MCF-7, KMST-6 and HT-29 cells using the WST-1 assay. Ursolic acid (1) displayed potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa, HT-29 and MCF-7 cells with IC₅₀ values of 10, 10 and 20 µM respectively. The new compound 4 and its hydrolysed derivative 5 were selectively cytotoxic to the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 with IC₅₀ values 20 and 10 µM respectively. This is the first report on isolation of a 2,3-seco-taraxerene derivative from the Apocynaceae family and cytotoxic activity of P. pycnantha constituents.

  10. New terpenes from Salvia palaestina Benth. and Salvia syriaca L. growing wild in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abrouni, Khadeja K; Al-Qudah, Mahmuod A; Abu Zarga, Musa H

    2012-01-01

    The novel seco-ursane-type triterpenoid 3β,11α-dihydroxy-17,22-seco-17(28), 12-ursadien-22-oic acid (1) was isolated for the first time from a natural source from two Salvia species growing wild in Jordan, Salvia palaestina Benth. and Salvia syrica L. In addition to compound 1, S. syriaca afforded a new sesquiterpene named syriacine (2). S. palaestina also afforded 15 other known compounds, 6 of which are isolated for the first time from the plant, and these include velutin, hyptadienic acid, cirsilineol, 2α,3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2α,3α-dihydroxy-24-nor-4(23),12-oleanan-28-oic acid, and 2α,3β,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid. S. syriaca also afforded 16 other known compounds, 7 of which are isolated for the first time from the plant. These are 1α,3α-dihydroxyolean-9(11),12-diene, maslinic acid, 2α,3β,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 11-oxo-oleanolic acid, 11-oxo-ursolic acid, poriferast-5-en-3,7-diol, and pectolinangenin.

  11. [Dietary training for school food service providers in support of the Acuerdo Nacional para la Salud Alimentaria].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Dávila, Carolina; Rangel-Peniche, Diana Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: en apoyo a la problemática de sobrepeso y obesidad en México, en el 2010 se publicó el Acuerdo Nacional para la Salud Alimentaria. A nivel escolar, los comodatarios se consideraron fundamentales para cumplir con ciertos compromisos. El objetivo de esta intervención fue capacitar a comodatarios de los Establecimientos de Consumo Escolar (ECE) en cuanto a los criterios establecidos en los “Lineamientos Generales para el Expendio y Distribución de Alimentos en Planteles de Educación Básica.” Métodos: participaron 13 ECE en San Luis Potosí. Con base en un diagnóstico inicial, se diseñó un curso-taller de 5 sesiones. Se evaluaron conocimientos en materia alimentaria al inicio y al final de las sesiones. Se obtuvo el porcentaje de apego en cuanto a higiene general, preparación y distribución de alimentos, al inicio, al mes y a los dos meses postintervención. Resultados: los comodatarios presentaron pocos conocimientos en los objetivos que persigue el “Acuerdo” en grupos y combinación de alimentos así como en lectura de etiquetas; con cambios significativos en los dos últimos tras la intervención. El porcentaje inicial de cumplimiento en higiene general fue del 60 %, con un incremento de casi 20 % postcapacitación. La preparación y distribución de alimentos no presentaron cambios significativos. Conclusiones: los comodatarios adquirieron conocimientos sobre los lineamientos que debe cubrir un ECE, sin ponerlos en práctica, dado el impacto que ello implica en su economía.

  12. ASSOCIATION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND FOOD INTAKE.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Daianne Cristina; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; de Oliveira Lima, José Wellington; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Posso Lima, Gláucia; Ribeiro de Oliveira, Ticihana; Araújo Chagas Vergara, Clarice Maria; Sousa Nunes Pinheiro, Diana Célia; Lima Herculano Júnior, José Ruver; de Pontes Ellery, Thais Helena

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la infección por H. pylori afecta a más de la mitad de la humanidad, siendo un problema de salud pública. Su prevalencia es significativamente mayor en los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. Se ha sugerido que la infección por H. pylori puede influir en la ingesta y la homeostasis calórica. Propósito: comparar el estado nutricional y la ingesta de alimentos de los pacientes incluidos en el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con y sin infección por H. pylori. Métodos: se evaluarón 140 pacientes. Realizaron la endoscopia digestiva alta para investigar la presencia de H. pylori. Se midieron el peso corporal y la altura de los pacientes. La ingesta de alimentos se investigó a través de dos recordatorios de 24 horas, con los dados transformados en gramos y analizados en el software DietWin Professional 2.0. Los resultados se compararon mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado o la prueba t de Student. Se adoptó de p < 0,05 como nivel de significación. Resultados: hubo predominio de pacientes con exceso de peso tanto para Hp - (60,3%) como Hp + (67,7%), sin diferencias entre ellos. La ingesta de alimentos de los grupos evaluados fue similar. Conclusiones: no hubo diferencias en el estado nutricional y la ingesta de alimentos entre los dos grupos.

  13. [SNACK HIGH WHEY PROTEIN IMPROVES THE LEVEL OF SATIETY AND REDUCES APPETITE HEALTHY WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Reyna, Nadia; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Urdaneta, Andrés; Artigas, Carlos; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    Antecedentes: el contenido nutricional y la densidad energética de los alimentos están relacionados con un mayor control del apetito, la saciedad y la reducción de la ingesta de alimentos. Material y métodos: el estudio consistió en un diseño cruzado aleatorizado que incluyó 20 mujeres sanas, con edades entre 20 y 30 años y con un IMC de 20 y 24,9 kg/m2 que se sometieron durante tres días a una prueba de ocho horas comparando meriendas de 130 kcal consumidas por la tarde: yogur con adición de proteína de suero de leche (PSL), galletas y chocolate. Consumieron un menú estandarizado; la merienda se consumía tres horas después del almuerzo. El hambre percibida y la plenitud se evaluaron durante la tarde hasta el consumo voluntario de la cena ad libitum. Resultados: el consumo de yogur con PSL ocasionó una mayor reducción del apetito y un aumento de la saciedad tras su ingesta y hasta la cena, respecto a la merienda de chocolate y galletas (p < 0,001), no existiendo diferencias entre estas últimas. La merienda de yogur con PSL ocasionó una reducción significativa de la ingesta calórica en la cena, en comparación con las otras meriendas (p < 0,001) y una solicitud más tardía de alimentos de hasta 45 minutos. Conclusiones: las meriendas con baja densidad energética y ricas en proteína (y concretamente el yogur con PSL), pueden ser una solución eficaz para mejorar el control del apetito y reducir la ingesta de alimentos en mujeres sanas.

  14. Variability of glycemic and insulin response to a standard meal, within and between healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Sandra; Barrera, Gladys; Leiva, Laura; de la Maza, María Pía; Bunout, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la variabilidad inter e intra individual de la respuesta glicémica frente a la ingestión de un alimento estándar en sujetos sanos. Material y métodos: Se midió en 6 oportunidades la respuesta glicémica e insulínica de un alimento estándar (pan batido blanco) en 10 voluntarios sanos. A cada sujeto se le midió la glicemia e insulina en ayuno a los 15, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 y 180 minutos, después de ingerir el alimento estándar. Posteriormente se calculó el área bajo la curva (ABC) de glicemia e insulina en cada sujeto. Se calculó el coeficiente de variación intra e inter individual del ABC de glucosa e insulina. Resultados: La variación intra-individual total del ABC de glucosa fue de 51,8% (rango: 24,9%-91,4%). La variación inter-individual del ABC de glucosa total fue 75,2%. La variación intra-individual del ABC de insulina fue de 51,9% (rango: 7,7%-103%). La variación inter-individual del ABC de insulina total fue de 86%. Conclusión: La respuesta glicémica e insulínica a un alimento estándar tiene poca reproducibilidad, tanto intra e inter individual. En consecuencia, su utilidad clínica para la prescripción dietaria individual, está limitada.

  15. [Validity of an instrument for assessing food consumption, food habits and cooking skills in 8-11 years old students].

    PubMed

    Lera, Lydia; Fretes, Gabriela; González, Carmen Gloria; Salinas, Judith; Vio del Rio, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: Para medir cambios en prácticas alimentarias, se requieren instrumentos que midan conocimiento, consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en alimentos en las escuelas. Objetivo: Validar un instrumento que permita medir cambios en conocimiento, consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en niños de 8 a 11 años, de tercero a quinto básico, en escuelas públicas de Chile. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de validación de un cuestionario de 42 preguntas de conocimiento, consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en la escuela. Se realizó en dos etapas: la primera en 45 niños para evaluar la estabilidad temporal, concordancia y consistencia interna. La segunda fue aplicar el instrumento modificado con los resultados de la primera etapa en 90 niños para medir consistencia interna. Resultados: El cuestionario aplicado en los 45 niños mostró estabilidad temporal, concordancia y consistencia interna aceptables para habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en la escuela. La consistencia fue buena para frecuencia de consumo, pero mala en conocimiento. En la validación final con 90 niños, se confirmó la buena consistencia para frecuencia de consumo y mala para conocimiento. Se observó que aquellos niños con habilidades culinarias, consumen más alimentos saludables y los que gastan más dinero en la escuela, consumen menos alimentos saludables. Conclusiones: Al instrumento se le quitaron las preguntas de conocimiento, quedando con 28 preguntas de consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gasto en alimentos en las escuelas. Este instrumento es útil para medir cambios en intervenciones educativas en alimentación y nutrición en niños de 8 a 11 años.

  16. TV food advertisements' effect on food consumption and adiposity among women and children in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Díaz-Ramírez, Glenda; Cruz López, Brenda; López Zuñiga, Erika; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-11-01

    Antecedentes: El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar la asociación entre los anuncios de alimentos en TV, los alimentos consumidos por las madres y los niños, y el peso corporal de madres y niños entre población con diferentes niveles socioeconómicos. Métodos: De junio a octubre de 2011 en Tijuana y Tuxtla Gutiérrez, se grabaron los programas de dos canales nacionales durante un período de cinco horas, cinco días laborables. Se realizaron entrevistas a las madres de enero a julio de 2012, para explorar los alimentos consumidos por las madres y los niños. Para identificar las diferencias entre el número de horas de TV, el número de unidades de TV, y el número de anuncios que recordaban se realizó análisis de una vía de ANOVA. Resultados: Se observó una asociación entre el consumo de los alimentos anunciados y la frecuencia en la que se anuncian en la TV. También se observó una asociación entre las horas de televisión, el IMC de las madres y el puntaje Z-score de los niños. Conclusiones: Se observó una asociación entre las horas de televisión y los indicadores de adiposidad en las madres y los niños. El mayor aumento en la exposición a la TV puede incrementar el riesgo de obesidad infantil.

  17. [Vitamin and minerals consumed food group by Chilean university students].

    PubMed

    Durán Aguero, Samuel; Reyes García, Susanne; Gaete, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La etapa universitaria es un proceso en el cual las personas pasan por periodos prolongados de inactividad física y horarios irregulares de comidas, lo que conlleva al incremento en el consumo de alimentos procesados y de comida rápida. Objetivo: Fue determinar el aporte vitaminas y minerales por grupo de alimentos en la alimentación de estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: Se trabajó con una muestra de 654 estudiantes universitarios chilenos (18-24 años, 54% mujeres), a quienes se les aplicó un cuestionario de frecuencia semanal de consumo de alimentos, la información recolectada se clasificó en 12 grupos representativos de cada conjunto de alimentos y se determinó la ingesta de vitaminas y minerales. Resultados: Los principales resultados fueron: (a) las mujeres presentaron menor ingesta de la mayoría de micronutrientes que los hombres; (b) el ácido pantotenico, la vitamina B12 y E, el calcio, magnesio y el hierro son los nutrientes que presentaron ingestas promedio inferiores a las recomendaciones diarias; (c) el consumo de pan es fundamental para el aporte de vitaminas del complejo B, hierro, cobre y selenio. Conclusión: En la dieta habitual de los estudiantes universitarios chilenos, el pan constituye un elemento fundamental para el aporte dietario de vitaminas del complejo B, hierro, cobre y selenio; así como los lácteos para el calcio; las carnes y pescado para la vitamina B12 y el zinc; las verduras para la vitamina A y las frutas para la vitamina C.

  18. [FOOD PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH A HEALTY BODY WEIGHT IN CHILEAN STUDENTS OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Fernández Godoy, Eloina; Fuentes Fuentes, Jessica; Hidalgo Fernández, Andrea; Quintana Muñoz, Carol; Yunge Hidalgo, Wilma; Fehrman Rosas, Pamela; Delgado Sánchez, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: determinar los patrones de alimentación y asociar el consumo de diversos alimentos con el estado nutricional de estudiantes universitarios chilenos de Nutrición y Dietética. Material y métodos: estudio transversal. Se evaluaron 634 estudiantes de Nutrición y Dietética de la Universidad San Sebastián de las ciudades de Santiago, Concepción, Valdivia y Puerto Montt. A cada estudiante se le aplicó una encuesta alimentaria y se le realizó una evaluación antropométrica. Resultados: el 68% de los estudiantes consume desayuno diariamente, 36,1% y 37,1% consume las porciones recomendadas de frutas y verduras, el 64,9% consume bebidas azucaradas frecuentemente. Se observa una asociación entre un buen peso corporal y el consumo de verduras (≥ 2 porciones/día) OR = 0,662 (0,440-0,996), alimentos integrales OR = 0,474 (0,224-1,002) y un bajo consumo de frituras y snack dulces OR = 0,643 (0,406- 1,019) y OR = 0,545 (0,360-0,825), respectivamente. Conclusiones: los estudiantes presentan una ingesta insuficiente de alimentos saludables y un elevado consumo de alimentos poco saludables, además se observa que la ingesta de verduras y cereales integrales, así como un bajo consumo de frituras y bocadillos dulces se asocian a un estado nutricional normal en los estudiantes evaluados.

  19. Estimation of antioxidants dietary intake in wet age-related macular degeneration patients.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Zapata, Maria Elisa; Aragón, Juan A; Pons, Antoni; Olea, José Luis; Tur, Josep A

    2014-04-01

    Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la ingesta de nutrientes antioxidantes en pacientes con degeneración macular asociada a la edad (AMD) variedad húmeda, un trastorno degenerativo y progresivo de la mácula, la parte central de la retina, asociada con la pérdida de la visión central. Métodos: En una muestra de pacientes diagnosticados de AMD (n = 52, 78,9 ± 6,6 años, 40,4% mujeres y 59,6% hombres) se registraron medidas antropométricas, dos recordatorios de 24 h, un cuestionario semicuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos y cuestiones sociodemográficas y de estilo de vida. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes con AMD húmeda mostraron una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes antioxidantes (< 2/3 de las Ingestas Dietéticas Recomendadas, RDI) y más de 60% de los pacientes mostraron un déficit grave (< 1/3 RDI) de luteína y zeaxantina. Los alimentos ricos en antioxidantes más consumidos sólo aportaron bajas contribuciones a la ingesta de antioxidantes. Aunque la adiposidad es un factor de riesgo para la progresión de la AMD, el consumo de grasas y ácidos grasos saturados (SFA) de los pacientes fueron superiores a las recomendaciones; la prevalencia de sobrepeso fue del 61,9% hombres y 58.1% en las mujeres; y el 83% de los pacientes (90,5% hombres y 77,4% mujeres) mostró una masa grasa superior a los límites. Conclusiones: El patrón alimentario de los pacientes con AMD debería mejorarse aumentando el consumo de alimentos ricos en antioxidantes y disminuyendo los alimentos ricos en SFA.

  20. [CONTENT OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN SPAIN].

    PubMed

    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: los ácidos grasos trans están asociados con problemas de salud, como enfermedad coronaria o diabetes. Objetivos: conocer la cantidad de ácidos grasos trans en los alimentos en España, y el porcentaje que representan con respecto al total de los ácidos grasos. Métodos: se estudió el contenido en ácidos grasos de 443 alimentos adquiridos en España en el año 2010, y clasificados en grupos. Determinación analítica de grasas en los productos mediante cromatografía de gases. Se calcularon estimadores de tendencia central y dispersión de la cantidad de ácidos grasos trans en cada grupo (g de ácidos grasos trans/100 g de producto). Se calculó el porcentaje de ácidos grasos trans con respecto a la grasa total en cada grupo. Resultados: los productos se agruparon en 42 grupos. En todos, salvo uno, la mediana de ácidos grasos trans fue inferior a 0,55 g/100 g de producto. El 83 % de los grupos tienen menos del 2 % de ácidos grasos trans con respecto a las grasas totales, y el 71 %, menos del 1 %. Discusión: el contenido de AGT en los alimentos en España es bajo y no representa actualmente un problema de salud pública.

  1. [Food neophobia: impact on food habits and acceptance of healthy foods in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Tadeo, Alejandra; Patiño Villena, Begoña; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Vidaña-Gaytán, María Elena; Periago Caston, María Jesús; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; González Martinez-Lacuesta, Eduardo

    2014-09-21

    Introducción: En los niños la neofobia puede afectar las elecciones alimentarias y limitar la variedad de la dieta así como afectar la aceptación sensorial de nuevos alimentos. Objetivo: Identificar el impacto de la neofobia alimentaria en los hábitos alimentarios y preferencias de alimentos saludables en usuarios de comedores escolares en la ciudad de Murcia. Materiales y Métodos: Participaron 242 escolares de segundo y tercer ciclo de educación primaria, de 8-12 años, con estratificación por sexo y ciclo escolar. Se aplicó una encuesta de hábitos y preferencias alimentarias, neofobia alimentaria y aceptación de alimentos de consumo habitual en el comedor. Además se realizó una prueba sensorial y se midió el consumo de ensaladas y frutas en el comedor, mediante el método de pesada. Resultados: La prevalencia de neofobia fue de 16%, sin diferencia entre sexos, ciclo escolar, tiempo del uso del comedor, origen de los padres y tener sobrepeso o bajo peso. La neofobia se asoció a un detrimento en el consumo de verduras y frutas, el gusto por las legumbres y menor consumo de cereales y sus derivados en el desayuno y a menor preferencia de frutas, verduras y hortalizas (p.

  2. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  3. The density and species of mite breeding in stored products in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Sun, Entao; Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Huiyong; He, Ji; Wang, Jiajia; He, Lianping

    2014-09-12

    Objetivo: El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar las especies y la densidad de reproducción de ácaros en productos almacenados en China. Métodos: Provisionalmente, se recogieron muestras de productos almacenados en naves, locales comerciales y viviendas. Resultados: Los resultados sugirieron que los ácaros varíaban mucho en cuanto a especies respecto a sus hábitos y habitats ecológicos. Aún así, la densidad de reproducción en distintas muestras estuvo asociada a las condiciones de muestreo. Conclusiones: Estas discrepancias pueden estar asociadas con las muestras recogidas en diversos ambientes para los ácaros, y los resultados sugieren visiblemente que los ácaros tienen una distribución universal.

  4. PubMed

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países.

  5. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  6. [Are antioxidant supplements effective in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Candia-Luján, Ramón; De Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo

    2014-10-05

    Introducción: En los últimos años los suplementos antioxidantes han cobrado popularidad para contrarrestar los efectos de los radicales libres y los síntomas del daño muscular, entre los que se encuentra el dolor muscular tardío (DMT). Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática en diferentes bases de datos para conocer los efectos de los suplementos antioxidantes sobre el DMT. Método: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda en las bases de datos; Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Scopus y SportDiscus y la Web Of Science (WOS). Las palabras y acrónimos usados fueron; Delayed onset muscle soreness, exercise induced muscle damage, DOMS, EIMD, antioxidant y oxidative stress. Resultados: Se identificaron 54 artículos de los cuales se recuperaron 48, todos ellos en inglés, 17 relacionados con la vitamina C y E, catorce corresponden a suplementos polifenòlicos, once a otros suplementos antioxidantes y seis a suplementos comerciales todos ellos usados para combatir, entre otras variables, el DMT. Conclusiones: Tanto las vitaminas como los suplementos comerciales presentan baja efectividad en la disminución del DMT, mientras que los polifenoles y otros suplementos antioxidantes muestran entre moderada y buena efectividad en el combate al DMT. Sin embargo, gran parte de los estudios presentan efectividad en la disminución de otros síntomas del daño muscular además de ayudar en la recuperación postejercicio.

  7. [Oral chemotherapy: food-drug interactions].

    PubMed

    Santana Martínez, Sara; Marcos Rodríguez, José Antonio; Romero Carreño, Elia

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: el uso de citostáticos orales está cada vez más extendido en oncología. Presenta ventajas importantes, como la comodidad para el paciente, pero también supone nuevos retos que no se planteaban con la terapia intravenosa. Algunos de estos fármacos presentan interacciones con los alimentos, dando lugar a cambios en su biodisponibilidad. Al tratarse de fármacos de estrecho margen terapéutico, pueden dar lugar a alteraciones en su eficacia y/o toxicidad. Objetivos: evaluar el nivel de conocimiento sobre el modo de administración por parte de los pacientes que acuden a la consulta de pacientes externos de oncohematología del hospital de aquellos citostáticos orales que presentan alguna restricción respecto a su consumo con alimentos (deben tomarse o bien en ayunas. o bien con alimentos). Minimizar al máximo la administración incorrecta de los citostáticos dispensados y el riesgo de que se produzcan interacciones con los alimentos, proporcionando información a los pacientes acerca del modo correcto de administración. Material y métodos: una vez identificados los citostáticos orales con restricciones respecto a su consumo con alimentos, además de la información aportada por farmacia, se preguntó a los pacientes la información que habían recibido por parte del médico acerca de cómo debía administrarse el fármaco, el modo en que se lo tomaban finalmente y, en caso de no hacerlo adecuadamente, se les reforzó la información pertinente. En el siguiente ciclo se confirmó si efectivamente el paciente se lo administraba correctamente, en caso de hacerlo previamente de forma incorrecta (intervención aceptada/no aceptada). Resultados y conclusiones: un 40% de los pacientes entrevistados se administraban el fármaco incorrectamente. Los resultados muestran una gran diversidad en función del fármaco dispensado. Se realizaron un total de 39 intervenciones, que fueron aceptadas en un 95%. Los datos obtenidos sugieren la necesidad de

  8. [Oral anaphylaxis by ingestion of mite contaminated food in Panama City, 2011-2014].

    PubMed

    Barrera, Olga M; Murgas, Ingrid L; Bermúdez, Sergio; Miranda, Roberto J

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: la anafilaxia oral por ácaros, o síndrome de las panquecas, ocurre cuando individuos atópicos ingieren alimentos elaborados con harina de trigo contaminada con ácaros, lo que induce reacciones alérgicas moderadas o severas, incluso fatales. Los reportes provienen de ambientes tropicales y subtropicales, donde las condiciones para la proliferación de ácaros domésticos son favorables. Se ha encontrado una asociación importante con la hipersensibilidad a ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS)-antiinflamatorios no esteroides (AINES) y el ejercicio físico. Objetivo: documentar el estudio clínico y descriptivo de casos de anafilaxia oral por ácaros atendidos en Ciudad de Panamá durante los años 2011 a 2014. Material y método: estudio clínico descriptivo y retrospectivo, que incluyó pruebas cutáneas de punción para cinco especies de ácaros domésticos. La identificación taxonómica de los ácaros se realizó bajo microscopio y se calculó la densidad de ácaros por gramo de alimento en tres casos. Resultados: se estudiaron 10 casos compatibles con anafilaxia oral por ácaros, la panqueca fue el alimento implicado con más frecuencia. Los primeros síntomas aparecieron entre 25 y 60 minutos después de la ingestión del alimento. Todos los pacientes fueron adultos jóvenes atópicos, cuatro con hipersensibilidad a AAS-AINES. Los pacientes resultaron positivos a las pruebas cutáneas de punción para los ácaros: Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus y Suidasia pontifica. Tres muestras de harina de trigo estudiadas motraron altas densidades de ácaros. Conclusiones: la panqueca fue el alimento implicado con más frecuencia en los casos de anafilaxia oral por ácaros. Suidasia pontifica y Blomia tropicalis parecen ser los ácaros más importantes relacionados con este síndrome en nuestro país.

  9. Low-Level Waste Forum notes and summary reports for 1994. Volume 9, Number 3, May-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    This issue includes the following articles: Vermont ratifies Texas compact; Pennsylvania study on rates of decay for classes of low-level radioactive waste; South Carolina legislature adjourns without extending access to Barnwell for out-of-region generators; Southeast Compact Commission authorizes payments for facility development, also votes on petitions, access contracts; storage of low-level radioactive waste at Rancho Seco removed from consideration; plutonium estimates for Ward Valley, California; judgment issued in Ward Valley lawsuits; Central Midwest Commission questions court`s jurisdiction over surcharge rebates litigation; Supreme Court decides commerce clause case involving solid waste; parties voluntarily dismiss Envirocare case; appellate court affirms dismissal of suit against Central Commission; LLW Forum mixed waste working group meets; US EPA Office of Radiation and Indoor Air rulemakings; EPA issues draft radiation site cleanup regulation; EPA extends mixed waste enforcement moratorium; and NRC denies petition to amend low-level radioactive waste classification regulations.

  10. Quality criteria in bariatric surgery: Consensus review and recommendations of the Spanish Association of Surgeons and the Spanish Society of Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sabench Pereferrer, Fátima; Domínguez-Adame Lanuza, Eduardo; Ibarzabal, Ainitze; Socas Macias, María; Valentí Azcárate, Víctor; García Ruiz de Gordejuela, Amador; García-Moreno Nisa, Francisca; González Fernández, Jesús; Vilallonga Puy, Ramón; Vilarrasa García, Nuria; Sánchez Santos, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has proven to be highly effective in controlling obesity and metabolic syndrome; the results of this surgery are not only expressed in terms of weight loss, but also in terms of resolution of comorbidities, improved quality of life and complications. The different parameters used to measure these outcomes require uniformity and reference patterns. Therefore, it is essential to identify those indicators and quality criteria that are helpful in defining the «best practice» principles in bariatric surgery. In this regard, the Section of Obesity of the Spanish Association of Surgeons, in collaboration with the Spanish Society for Bariatric Surgery (SECO), present as an objective to identify the key points that define «quality» in this type of surgery. We describe the main indicators based on the published literature as well as the criteria for referral of the main comorbidities according to the evidence found and grades of recommendation.

  11. Isolation and anti-hepatitis B virus activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yongbo; Li, Xifeng; Du, Xue; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Weiguang; Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Jijun; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong

    2015-08-01

    Seven lignans with a dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton, termed schinlignans A-G, and a 6,7-seco-homolignan, schischinone, together with seven known lignans, were isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, IR, UV, and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, COSY, and HMBC experiments). The stereochemistry at the chiral centers and the biphenyl moiety, were determined using ROESY, as well as via interpretation of their ECD spectra. Schinlignan G and methylgomisin O exhibited potent anti-hepatitis B virus activity against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 5.13 and 5.49μgmL(-1), respectively.

  12. Novel and Neuroprotective Tetranortriterpenoids from Chinese Mangrove Xylocarpus granatum Koenig

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Yao, Li-Gong; Xin, Guo-Rong; Li, Xu-Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Eight new tetranortriterpenoids (1–8) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of the Chinese mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum, together with four related known ones (9–12). The structures of new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 9-epixylogranatin A (1) was determined by time-dependent density functional theory-electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations of the solution conformers. Xylogranatumin A (2) represents the first example of the 9, 10-seco limonoid with an unprecedented oxygen-bridged B ring (2,7-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]-heptane). All the isolates were evaluated for the in vitro neuroprotective activity, both compounds 11 and 12 displayed moderate effects against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells at the concentration of 10 μM, with an increase in cell viability of 12.0% and 11.6%, respectively. PMID:27658619

  13. Cytotoxic principles from the formosan milkweed, Asclepias curassavica.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael C; Chang, Fang-Rong; Huang, Hsiao-Chu; Chiang, Michael Y-N; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2005-10-01

    A series of cardenolides and related compounds have been isolated from the aerial parts and roots of the ornamental milkweed, Asclepias curassavica. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Among them, three derivatives of calactinic acid methyl ester (13-15), 19-nor-16 alpha-acetoxy-10 beta-hydroxyasclepin (16), 20 beta,21-dihydroxypregna-4,6-dien-3-one (19), and 3,4-seco-urs-20(30)-en-3-oic acid (22) are new compounds. The relative configuration of calactinic acid methyl ester (12) has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis on its derivative 13. Most of the cardenolides obtained showed pronounced cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (IC(50) 0.01 to 2.0 microg/mL).

  14. Atmospheric release advisory capability pilot project at two nuclear power plants and associated state offices of emergency preparedness. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    A project to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) limited service with commercial nuclear power plants and their associated state offices of emergency preparedness is discussed. Preliminary planning, installation and testing of the ARAC site facilities at Indian Point Nucler Power Station, New York State; at New York State Office of Emergency Preparedness, Albany, New York; at Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, California; and at the State of California Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento, California, are summarized. ARAC participation in the Robert E. Ginna nuclear generating plant accident in New York on January 25, 1982, is discussed. The ARAC system is evaluated with emphasis on communications, the suite of models contained within the ARAC system, and the staff. The implications of this project in designing the next-generation ARAC system to service federal and state needs are assessed.

  15. A Novel, Unusually Efficacious Duocarmycin Carbamate Prodrug That Releases No Residual Byproduct

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Amanda L.; Duncan, Katharine K.; Parelkar, Nikhil K.; Weir, Scott J.; Vielhauer, George A.; Boger, Dale L.

    2012-01-01

    A unique heterocyclic carbamate prodrug of seco-CBI-indole2 that releases no residual byproduct is reported as a new member of a class of hydrolyzable prodrugs of the duocarmycin and CC-1065 family of natural products. The prodrug was designed to be activated by hydrolysis of a carbamate releasing the free drug without the cleavage release of a traceable extraneous group. Unlike prior carbamate prodrugs examined that are rapidly cleaved in vivo, the cyclic carbamate was found to be exceptionally stable to hydrolysis under both chemical and biological conditions providing a slow, sustained release of the exceptionally potent free drug. An in vivo evaluation of the prodrug found that its efficacy exceeded that of the parent drug, that its therapeutic window of efficacy versus toxicity is much larger than the parent drug, and that its slow free drug release permitted the safe and efficacious use of doses 150-fold higher than the parent compound. PMID:22650244

  16. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  17. Quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Katsunori; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Awale, Suresh; Li, Feng; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2009-12-01

    Ten new structurally diverse quassinoids (1-10) and 14 known compounds were isolated from the stems of Eurycoma longifolia. The new compounds were two eurycomanone-type C(20) quassinoids (1, 2), one klaineanone-type C(20) quassinoid (3), one C(19) quassinoid (4) with a 1,2-seco-1-nor-6(5-->10)-abeo-picrasan-2,5-olide skeleton, and six eurycomalactone-type C(19) quassinoids (5-10). Compounds 5 and 6 both possessed a 3,4-epoxy group observed for the first time in eurycomalactones. Compound 1 had an alpha-oriented OH group at C-14 that had not been reported previously in eurycomanone-type quassinoids. All of the isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity toward the highly metastatic HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line, and compounds 11, 23, and 24 showed potent cytotoxicity (IC(50) values 0.93-1.1 microM).

  18. Inhibition of KRAS codon 12 mutants using a novel DNA-alkylating pyrrole-imidazole polyamide conjugate.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kiriko; Inoue, Takahiro; Taylor, Rhys Dylan; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Ken-ichi; Takatori, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Hirokazu; Maru, Yoshiaki; Denda, Tadamichi; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Balmain, Allan; Ozaki, Toshinori; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki

    2015-04-27

    Despite extensive efforts to target mutated RAS proteins, anticancer agents capable of selectively killing tumour cells harbouring KRAS mutations have remained unavailable. Here we demonstrate the direct targeting of KRAS mutant DNA using a synthetic alkylating agent (pyrrole-imidazole polyamide indole-seco-CBI conjugate; KR12) that selectively recognizes oncogenic codon 12 KRAS mutations. KR12 alkylates adenine N3 at the target sequence, causing strand cleavage and growth suppression in human colon cancer cells with G12D or G12V mutations, thus inducing senescence and apoptosis. In xenograft models, KR12 infusions induce significant tumour growth suppression, with low host toxicity in KRAS-mutated but not wild-type tumours. This newly developed approach may be applicable to the targeting of other mutant driver oncogenes in human tumours.

  19. Novel and Neuroprotective Tetranortriterpenoids from Chinese Mangrove Xylocarpus granatum Koenig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Yao, Li-Gong; Xin, Guo-Rong; Li, Xu-Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Eight new tetranortriterpenoids (1–8) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of the Chinese mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum, together with four related known ones (9–12). The structures of new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 9-epixylogranatin A (1) was determined by time-dependent density functional theory-electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations of the solution conformers. Xylogranatumin A (2) represents the first example of the 9, 10-seco limonoid with an unprecedented oxygen-bridged B ring (2,7-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]-heptane). All the isolates were evaluated for the in vitro neuroprotective activity, both compounds 11 and 12 displayed moderate effects against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells at the concentration of 10 μM, with an increase in cell viability of 12.0% and 11.6%, respectively.

  20. Fimbriatols A–J, Highly Oxidized ent-Kaurane Diterpenoids from Traditional Chinese Plant Flickingeria fimbriata (B1.) Hawkes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Gang; Fei, Jiaodong; Wang, Jing; Xie, Yong; Li, Rongtao; Gong, Ningbo; Lv, Yang; Yu, Changyuan; Zou, Zhongmei

    2016-01-01

    Fimbriatols A–J (1–10), ten new ent-kaurane diterpenoids possessing differently highly oxidized sites, were isolated from Flickingeria fimbriata (B1.) Hawkes. The structures of these new compounds were determined by HRESI-MS, NMR, CD spectra and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 displayed moderately inhibitory ratio (48.5%) compared with the positive compound NSC-87877 (81.6%) at the concentration of 0.022 μg/mL. Compounds 7–10 possess 3, 4-seco-ent-kaurane skeleton containing a disaccharide moiety with an unusual linkage at C-2′ to C-1′′ instead of the common linkage at C-6′ to C-1′′, and this is the first report in 600 more ent-kauranes found in nature, which might be originated from ent-kaurane diterpenoids through post-modified reactions of Baeyer-Villiger oxygenation and glycosylation. PMID:27484744

  1. Withanolides from Physalis minima and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yu-Zhou; Shan, Si-Ming; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Jian-Guang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Six new withanolides (1-6), including two uncommon 1,10-seco withanolides (1 and 2), together with five known withanolides (7-11), were isolated from the whole plants of Physalis minima Linn.. The structures of new compounds were elucidated through spectroscopic methods, including (1)H, (13)C NMR, 2D-NMR, HRESIMS and circular dichroism (CD). Inhibitory effects of the isolates on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccaride-activated RAW264.7 macrophages were evaluated. Compounds 2 and 5 showed strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 8.04 and 10.01 μM, respectively. Compounds 1, 9 and 10 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities with IC50 values from 25.54 to 43.58 μM.

  2. Koetjapic acid, a natural triterpenoid, induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Zeyad D; Aisha, Abdalrahim F A; Idris, Norshirin; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B; Ismail, Zhari; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Alrokayan, Salman A; Shah Abdul Majid, Amin Malik

    2012-03-01

    Deregulated cell signaling pathways result in cancer development. More than one signal transduction pathway is involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis and progression. Koetjapic acid (KA) is a naturally occurring seco-A-ring oleanene triterpene isolated from the Sandoricum koetjape stem bark. We report the cellular and molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity of KA towards human colorectal cancer. The results showed that KA induces apoptosis in HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells by inducing the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic caspases. We confirmed that KA-induced apoptosis was mediated by DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation and disruption in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies on the effect of KA on cancer pathways show that the compound causes down-regulation of Wnt, HIF-1α, MAP/ERK/JNK and Myc/Max signaling pathways and up-regulates the NF-κB signaling pathway. The result of this study highlights the anticancer potential of KA against colorectal cancer.

  3. Scapiformolactones A-I: germacrane sesquiterpenoids with an unusual Δ3-15,6-lactone moiety from Salvia scapiformis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yongji; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Mengke; Zhang, Jinwen; Tang, Wei; Liu, Junjun; Lei, Liang; Yan, Juming; Luo, Zengwei; Zuo, Jianping; Li, Yan; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-12-01

    Nine germacrane sesquiterpenoids with an unusual Δ(3)-15,6-lactone moiety, scapiformolactones A-I (1-9), and one known seco-germacrane sesquiterpenoid, 3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-l,6,9-triene-3,11-diol (10), were isolated from whole plants of Salvia scapiformis Hance. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including HR-ESIMS, IR, UV, NMR, and CD, as well as by quantum mechanical calculations and chemical transformations. Structures of compounds 1-3 were also confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Six germacrane 6,15-diol derivatives (11-16) were obtained by chemical transformation. Compounds 1-9 and 11-16 were evaluated for their in vitro immunomodulatory effects on T and B cells, as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480.

  4. Triterpenoids from the roots of Rubus parvifolius.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Yang, Wan-Qing; Su, Cong; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Jiao; Shi, She-Po; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-05-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoids, parvifolactone A (1) and rubuside P (2), together with 11 known triterpenoids, fupenzic acid (3), 18,19-seco,2α,3α-dihydroxyl-19-oxo-urs-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid (4), euscaphic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 1β- hydroxyeuscaphic acid (7), 2α,3α,19α,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (8), 2α,3β,19α,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (9), glucosyl pinfaensate (10), rubuside J (11), 2α,3α,19α,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-24,28-dioic acid (12), and 2α,3β,19α- trihydroxyurs-12-en-23,28-dioic acid (13), were isolated from the roots of Rubus parvifolius.

  5. Triterpenoid Saponins with Potential Cytotoxic Activities from the Root Bark of Ilex rotunda Thunb.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Jie; Peng, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Hao; Liu, Xian-Fang; Liang, Jing-Yu; Sun, Jian-Bo

    2017-02-01

    A new 19-oxo-18,19-seco-ursane-type triterpeonoid saponin, laevigin E (8), together with 17 known compounds (1 - 7 and 9 - 18) were isolated from the root bark of Ilex rotunda Thunb. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic analysis. Among them, compounds 6, 9, 11, and 18 were isolated from this species for the first time, while compounds 10 and 12 were firstly isolated from the family Aquifoliaceae. Biological activity assay showed that all triterpenoids exhibit moderate cytotoxic activities against MCF7, A549, HeLa and LN229 cell lines. The four triterpenoid saponins (3, 4, 6, and 8) exhibit slightly better activities compared to the four triterpenoid sapogenins (1, 2, 5, and 7). Compound 8 showed the best cytotoxicity against A549, HeLa and LN229 cell lines with IC50 of 17.83, 22.58 and 30.98 μm, respectively.

  6. Putting the sun to work in Sacramento

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, D.E.

    2000-06-01

    At dawn this morning, the sun went to work for customers of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The largest photovoltaic (PV) power plant in the world, adjacent to the closed nuclear power plant at Rancho Seco, generated enough electricity for over a thousand customers, rooftop solar water heaters lowered thousands of residential electric bills and rooftop PV systems turned hundreds of Sacramento homes into mini power plants. SMUD, in partnership with their customers-owners, is leading the way in putting the sun to work today. SMUD plans to have at least half of its energy come from energy efficiency, existing hydroelectric plants and renewable resources in this decade. SMUD expects investments made in solar power today to provide its customer-owners with substantial long-term energy, environmental and community benefits. This article describes some of SMUD's efforts.

  7. Ribozyme knockdown functionally links a 1,25(OH)2D3 membrane binding protein (1,25D3-MARRS) and phosphate uptake in intestinal cells

    PubMed Central

    Nemere, I.; Farach-Carson, M. C.; Rohe, B.; Sterling, T. M.; Norman, A. W.; Boyan, B. D.; Safford, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    We used a ribozyme loss-of-function approach to demonstrate that the protein product of a cDNA encoding a multifunctional membrane-associated protein binds the seco-steroid 1,25(OH)2D3 and transduces its stimulatory effects on phosphate uptake. These results are paralleled by studies in which the ability of the hormone to stimulate phosphate uptake in isolated chick intestinal epithelial cells is abolished by preincubation with Ab099 directed against the amino terminus of the protein. We now report the complete sequence of the cloned chicken cDNA for the 1,25D3-MARRS (membrane-associated, rapid-response steroid-binding) protein and reveal it to be identical to the multifunctional protein ERp57. Functional studies showed that active ribozyme, but not a scrambled control, decreased specific membrane-associated 1,25(OH)2D3 binding, but did not affect binding to the nuclear receptor for 1,25(OH)2D3. Seco-steroid-dependent stimulation of protein kinase C activity was diminished as 1,25D3-MARRS protein levels were reduced in the presence of the ribozyme, as judged by Western blot analyses. Phosphate uptake in isolated cells is an index of intestinal phosphate transport that occurs during growth and maturation. Whereas cells and perfused duodena robustly responded to 1,25(OH)2D3 in preparations from young birds, older animals no longer responded with stimulated phosphate uptake or transport. The age-related decline was accompanied by a decrease in 1,25D3-MARRS mRNA that was apparent up to 1 year of age. Together, these studies functionally link phosphate transport in the chick duodenum with the 1,25D3-MARRS protein and point to a previously uncharacterized role for this multifunctional protein class. PMID:15123837

  8. Part I. Halichondrin B: Studies on the total synthesis. Part II. Levuglandins: Generation from PGH sub 2 and binding with proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Jirousek, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Halichondrins are a new family of extremely bioactive marine natural products present in minute quantities in a sponge, Halichondria Okadai Kadota. Halichondrin B is the most biologically active member of this family and shows remarkably effective in vivo antitumor activity. A practical synthesis would allow clinical testing of this rare molecule. The C6-C12 fragment corresponds to a heptulose which might cyclize to the required polyheterocycle in analogy with the presumed biosynthesis of halichondrin B. The key heptulose intermediate was prepared from D-ribose. A novel mixed ethyl dimethoxybenzyl acetal of formylmethylenetriphenylphosphorane stereoselectively gave a cis alkene upon reaction with the aldehyde obtained from oxidation of methyl isopropylidene D-riboside. Osmium tetraoxide-catalyzed vicinal hydroxylation of the resulting cis alkene, protection of the diol as an acetonide, and hydrolysis of the acetal under neutral conditions using DDQ delivered two diastereomers of the desired aldehyde in excellent yield. Absolute stereochemical characterization of these diastereomers was achieved by correlation with derivatives of D-allose and L-talose. An effective new method was developed for purification of the prostaglandin endoperoxide PGH{sub 2} based on centrifugal partition chromatography and a novel aprotic two phase ternary solvent system. Recent studies showed that solvent-induced decomposition of PGH{sub 2} produces levuglandins, {gamma}-ketoaldehydes with 10,11-seco prostanoic acid (levuglandin E{sub 2} LGE{sub 2}) or 9,10-seco prostanoic acid (levuglandin D{sub 2},LGD{sub 2}) structures. The abundant supply of pure PGH{sub 2} now available and a simple HPLC assay procedure developed for detection of levuglandins allowed a reexamination of the silica gel-catalyzed decomposition of PGH{sub 2}.

  9. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild birds in north-central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernando S; Nava, Santiago; Batallán, Gonzalo; Tauro, Laura B; Contigiani, Marta S; Diaz, Luis A; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-10-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from wild birds in five ecoregions in north-central Argentina, namely: Selva de las Yungas, Esteros del Iberá, Delta e Islas del Paraná, Selva Paranaense and Chaco Seco. A total of 2199 birds belonging to 139 species, 106 genera, 31 families and 11 orders were captured, but ticks were collected only from 121 birds (prevalence=5.5%) belonging to 39 species (28.1%) and three Orders: Tinamiformes (Tinamidae) and Falconiformes (Falconidae) in Selva de las Yungas and Passeriformes (Conopophagidae, Corvidae, Emberizidae, Furnariidae, Icteridae, Parulidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Troglodytidae, Turdidae) for all ecoregions. The following tick species were found: Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes pararicinus plus Amblyomma sp. and Haemaphysalis sp. in Selva de las Yungas; Amblyomma triste and Ixodes auritulus in Delta e Islas del Paraná; Amblyomma dubitatum, A. triste and Amblyomma sp. in Esteros del Iberá; Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma sp. in Selva Paranaense, and Amblyomma tigrinum in Chaco Seco. Amblyomma dubitatum was found for the first time on Passeriformes, while the records of A. ovale on avian hosts are the first for Argentina. Birds are also new hosts for I. pararicinus females. Besides 2 larvae and 1 nymph, and 1 larvae found on Tinamidae (Tinamiformes) and Falconidae (Falconiformes), respectively, all other ticks (691 larvae, 74 nymphs and 2 females) were found on Passeriformes with a relevant contribution of the family Turdidae. Birds are important hosts for I. pararicinus as shown by a prevalence of 45% while all others prevalence were below 15%. All the species of Amblyomma and Haemaphysalis found on birds in Argentina have been also detected on humans and are proven or potential vectors for human diseases. Therefore, their avian hosts are probable reservoirs of human pathogens in Argentina.

  10. The role of snow cover in ground thermal conditions in three sites with contrasted topography in Sierra Nevada (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Salvador, Ferran; Gómez Ortiz, Antonio; Salvà, Montserrat

    2014-05-01

    Snow cover has a high capacity to insulate the soil from the external thermal influences. In regions of high snowfall, such as the summit areas of the highest Iberian mountain ranges, the presence of a thick snow cover may condition the existence or inexistence of permafrost conditions. In order to analyze the impact of the thickness, duration and interannual variability of snow cover on the ground thermal regime in the massif of Sierra Nevada, we have analyzed soil temperatures at a depth of 2 cm for the period 2006-2012 in three sites of contrasting topography as well as air temperatures for the same period: (a) Corral del Veleta (3100 m) in a rock glacier located in the northern Veleta cirque, with high and persistent snow cover. (b) Collado de los Machos (3300 m), in a summit area with relict stone circles, with little snow accumulation due to wind effect. (c) Río Seco (3000 m), in a solifluction lobe located in this southern glacial cirque with moderate snowfall. Considering the air and 2 cm depth soil temperature records, the freezing degree-days were calculated for each year from November to May in order to characterize the role of snow as a thermal insulator of the ground during the cold season (Frauenfeld et al., 2007). In all cases, the highest values of freezing degree-days correspond to years with little snowfall (2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2011-2012), while in years with a thicker snow cover (2008-2009, 2009-2010, 2010-2011) the total freezing degree-days were significantly lower. The accumulation of freezing degree-days is maximum at the wind-exposed site of Collado de los Machos, where the wind redistributes snow and favours the penetration of cold into the ground. The opposite pattern occurs in the Veleta cirque, where most persistent snow cover conditions determine lower accumulated freezing degree-days than in Collado de los Machos and Rio Seco.

  11. Dietary flaxseed lignan extract lowers plasma cholesterol and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Yi; Tian, Haimei; Flickinger, Brent; Empie, Mark W; Sun, Sam Z

    2008-06-01

    Lignans, derived from flaxseed, are phyto-oestrogens being increasingly studied for their health benefits. An 8-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in fifty-five hypercholesterolaemic subjects, using treatments of 0 (placebo), 300 or 600 mg/d of dietary secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) from flaxseed extract to determine the effect on plasma lipids and fasting glucose levels. Significant treatment effects were achieved (P < 0.05 to < 0.001) for the decrease of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose concentrations, as well as their percentage decrease from baseline. At weeks 6 and 8 in the 600 mg SDG group, the decreases of TC and LDL-C concentrations were in the range from 22.0 to 24.38 % respectively (all P < 0.005 compared with placebo). For the 300 mg SDG group, only significant differences from baseline were observed for decreases of TC and LDL-C. A substantial effect on lowering concentrations of fasting plasma glucose was also noted in the 600 mg SDG group at weeks 6 and 8, especially in the subjects with baseline glucose concentrations > or = 5.83 mmol/l (lowered 25.56 and 24.96 %; P = 0.015 and P = 0.012 compared with placebo, respectively). Plasma concentrations of secoisolariciresinol (SECO), enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone were all significantly raised in the groups supplemented with flaxseed lignan. The observed cholesterol-lowering values were correlated with the concentrations of plasma SECO and ED (r 0.128-0.302; P < 0.05 to < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary flaxseed lignan extract decreased plasma cholesterol and glucose concentrations in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Embedded wavelet-based face recognition under variable position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotret, Pascal; Chevobbe, Stéphane; Darouich, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    For several years, face recognition has been a hot topic in the image processing field: this technique is applied in several domains such as CCTV, electronic devices delocking and so on. In this context, this work studies the efficiency of a wavelet-based face recognition method in terms of subject position robustness and performance on various systems. The use of wavelet transform has a limited impact on the position robustness of PCA-based face recognition. This work shows, for a well-known database (Yale face database B*), that subject position in a 3D space can vary up to 10% of the original ROI size without decreasing recognition rates. Face recognition is performed on approximation coefficients of the image wavelet transform: results are still satisfying after 3 levels of decomposition. Furthermore, face database size can be divided by a factor 64 (22K with K = 3). In the context of ultra-embedded vision systems, memory footprint is one of the key points to be addressed; that is the reason why compression techniques such as wavelet transform are interesting. Furthermore, it leads to a low-complexity face detection stage compliant with limited computation resources available on such systems. The approach described in this work is tested on three platforms from a standard x86-based computer towards nanocomputers such as RaspberryPi and SECO boards. For K = 3 and a database with 40 faces, the execution mean time for one frame is 0.64 ms on a x86-based computer, 9 ms on a SECO board and 26 ms on a RaspberryPi (B model).

  13. Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food groups and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara; Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Rodríguez-Rocha, Norma Patricia; López-Uriarte, Patricia Josefina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan D

    2013-11-01

    Introducción. Los cuestionarios semicuantitativos de frecuencia de consumo (CFC) analizan ingestión promedio de alimentos y nutrimentos en períodos extensos para asociar consumo habitual con problemas de salud, como enfermedades crónicas. En México, no existe una herramienta similar, aplicable en mujeres y hombres. Objetivo. Validar un CFC en mujeres y hombres adultos. Métodos. El estudio incluyó 97 participantes (61% mujeres). Dos CFC fueron aplicados (un año entre ambos) para medir reproducibilidad. Para validez, se comparó el segundo CFC con registros dietéticos de nueve días. Los análisis incluyeron correlaciones de Pearson y coeficientes de correlación intraclase (CCI). Se controló desatenuación de CCI provocada por la variabilidad intraindividual. El análisis de validez se complementó con la comparación de la capacidad de clasificación entre CFC y registros dietéticos, mediante concordancia de categorías de consumo y gráficos de Bland y Altman. Resultados. Reproducibilidad: los CCI para grupos de alimentos oscilaron entre 0.42-0.87 y para nutrimentos entre 0.34-0.82. Validez: los CCI para grupos de alimentos variaron entre 0.35-0.84 y para nutrimentos entre 0.36-0.77. La mayoría de sujetos (56.7-76.3%) clasificaron en el mismo quintil o adyacente por ambos métodos (media 66.1%), para nutrimentos. La mala clasificación extrema para todos los ítems fue.

  14. [Proposal of reference values of microbiological environment monitoring in foodservice establishments].

    PubMed

    Soler Quiles, Carla; Mañes, Jordi; Savino, Angelo; Soriano, José M

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Proponer una nueva referencia microbiológica ambiental en los servicios de restauración. Objetivo: El presente trabajo muestra la determinación y evaluación de la contaminación microbiológica generada en un establecimiento de servicio de alimentos. Método: Se basa en el muestreo microbiológico de superficie utilizando filtros de membrana de ésteres mixtos de celulosa y en el muestreo de aire utilizando placas de Petri. Resultados: Los límites de contaminación se establecieron antes y durante la elaboración de alimentos, mediante el análisis microbiológico de las superficies y del medio ambiente, sistemas de equipos, hasta límites confiables y estableciendo niveles de aceptación en cada punto seleccionado. Por último, se estableció un programa de vigilancia microbiológica del medio ambiente incluyendo la evaluación de todos los parámetros que la componen y están implícitos en la zona, asegurando de esta manera y el apoyo a su continuidad con la documentación y los registros desarrollados para el área de seguridad. Las muestras para el análisis microbiológico se recogieron durante un período durante diez días diferentes, en dos horas diferentes. Se identificaron doce puntos como peligrosos. Además, los alimentos clasificados como de alto riesgo fueron recogidos periódicamente para el análisis microbiológico. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de utilizar de una amplia gama de medios selectivos, muy por encima del número limitado utilizado en este estudio, permite el análisis de muchas especies microbianas individuales.

  15. A strategy for weight loss based on healthy dietary habits and control of emotional response to food.

    PubMed

    Pontes Torrado, Yolanda; García-Villaraco Velasco, Ana; Hernández Galiot, Ana; Goñi Cambrodón, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: el sedentarismo y los hábitos alimentarios poco saludables son las principales causas de un balance energético negativo y un exceso de peso corporal. El estilo de vida del patrón de dieta mediterránea reduce significativamente los factores de riesgo de enfermedades no transmisibles. Por otra parte, las emociones tienen un poderoso efecto en el comportamiento alimentario. Existe una relación directa entre la elección de alimentos, las emociones y el aumento de la ingesta energética. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento emocional de los individuos para facilitar el establecimiento de pautas dietéticas personalizadas basadas en hábitos alimentarios saludables y aumentar la fidelidad del paciente hasta conseguir el peso deseado. Material y métodos: 99 personas adultas con sobrepeso fueron sometidos a un programa de reducción de peso basado en establecer unos hábitos alimentarios y un estilo de vida saludables. La adhesión al patrón de dieta Mediterránea y el efecto de las emociones en la elección de alimentos se determinaron utilizando los cuestionarios MEDAS (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) y EEQ (Emocional Eater Questionnaire), respectivamente. Resultados: la población estudiada era sedentaria, consumía una dieta poco saludable y su conducta alimentaria era dependiente de las emociones. La mayoría de los participantes (66% mujeres y 71% hombres) fueron clasificados como comedores emocionales. Durante el programa de tratamiento, los participantes modificaron sus hábitos alimentarios y su estilo de vida, consiguiendo reducir el peso corporal en al menos un 10% respecto al peso inicial. Conclusión: conocer la relación entre la ingesta de alimentos y las emociones permite personalizar la estrategia dietética para disminuir el peso corporal y la tasa de abandono.

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Salinas, Judith

    2016-07-19

    Objetivo: mediante la técnica de consenso Delphi, conocer la opinión de un grupo de expertos en nutrición, educación y gastronomía para buscar consenso sobre metodologías educativas en alimentación saludable, alumnos de tercero a quinto año básico, sus familias y profesores.Métodos: con los resultados de encuestas y grupos focales realizados previamente a niños, padres y profesores, se elaboró un cuestionario que fue enviado a 51 expertos en nutrición, educación y gastronomía en una primera ronda. Los resultados fueron analizados y reenviados en una segunda ronda con las preguntas no consensuadas, obteniendo 38 respuestas.Resultados: hubo consenso en que se pueden cambiar hábitos en escuelas mediante talleres de cocina con chefs o monitores, educación activo-participativa y huertos escolares. Padres y profesores deben tener habilidades culinarias saludables para educar a los niños. Estos deben hacer uso racional del dinero en la escuela. Para ello es necesario cambiar la oferta del kiosko hacia alimentos saludables, o suprimirlo si no es saludable. Los profesores deben capacitarse con talleres de autocuidado y vida sana para educar en alimentación saludable a los niños en horarios de clase con material educativo, talleres de cocina con recetas y aprovechar horarios de desayuno y almuerzo para actividades educativas. Los padres deben participar en talleres para escoger alimentos saludables en lugares de venta y preparar menús saludables. Los niños deben aprender habilidades culinarias simples, preparando y degustando alimentos saludables. Conclusiones: estos resultados son fundamentales para diseñar materiales educativos en alimentación saludable que cambien los malos hábitos alimentarios actuales.

  17. [Prevalence of sensitization to cow's milk and egg among patients with suspicion of IgE mediated diseases].

    PubMed

    Mopan, José; Sánchez, Jorge; Chinchilla, Carlos; Cardona, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: en Latinoamérica existen muy pocos datos epidemiológicos de alergia alimentaria y sensibilización a leche o huevo. Objetivo: describir la frecuencia de sensibilización a leche y huevo en una población con sospecha de enfermedades mediadas por IgE. Material y método: estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de pacientes que consultaron a un servicio de Alergología, con sospecha de exacerbación con ciertos alimentos. Todos los pacientes seleccionados tenían pruebas cutáneas con leche y huevo y otros alimentos sospechosos; además, tenían una historia clínica completa que permitía correlacionar el resultado con la comorbilidad del paciente. Resultados: la sensibilización a un alimento ocurrió en 29.7% de los pacientes. La sensibilización a huevo se observó en 6.1% de los pacientes y se asoció de manera significativa con asma, rinitis y eosinofilia gastrointestinal, especialmente en menores de cinco años, mientras que la sensibilización a leche se observó en 4.5% y no se asoció con ninguno de los fenotipos estudiados. Conclusiones: en Colombia, la sensibilización a leche y huevo es relativamente baja comparada con lo reportado en otros estudios en población con riesgo de sensibilización. Sin embargo, la sensibilización temprana a huevo podría ser un marcador de mal pronóstico en los pacientes atópicos.

  18. Effect of the intake of liquids rich in polyphenols on blood pressure and fat liver deposition in rats submitted to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Palmisciano Bedê, Teresa; Pascoal, Ana Cláudia; Hauaji Facó, Lucas; de Salvo Castro, Eduardo; Mattoso, Vânia; Furtado Dias, Juliana; Blondet de Azeredo, Vilma

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: en busca de una mejor calidad de vida, crece el número de estudios sobre alimentos funcionales y la prevención de enfermedades. Destacan el jugo de uva roja (JU) y el vino tinto (VT), que son ricos en polifenoles, y tienen efecto antioxidante y antiinflamatorio. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la ingesta de JU, VT y solución de resveratrol (SR) sobre la presión arterial y la deposición de grasa hepática en ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Métodos: durante 60 días, 50 adultos de Rattus norvegicus Wistar Albino fueron divididos en grupos: control (GC) - dieta equilibrada y hiperlipídica (GH), vino tinto (GV), jugo de uva (JV) y resveratrol (GR) - dieta rica en grasas. El alimento y el agua se ofrecieron ad libttum a todos los grupos. JU, VT y SR se ofrecen diariamente a la GS, GV y GR, respectivamente. Se midió la presión arterial en la cola mediante manguito inflable. Los animales fueron anestesiados y sacrificados y se les extirpó el hígado, que fue pesado y del cual se extrajo la grasa con el extractor Soxhlet. Resultados: no hubo diferencia en la ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, peso del hígado y presión arterial diastólica entre los grupos. Sin embargo, la presión arterial sistólica (mmHg) y la concentración de grasa en el hígado (g%) fueron menores (p.

  19. Special Course on V/STOL Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    the past, so they will not deal exclusively with the latest tri• phs of science or technology. Since we can afford only a limited number of lecturers...CONCEPTS LIFT ENGINE+*LIFT CRUISE FC TLIF NCELL SE (R SZ"/ LIF VECTOR ED THRUT/RJS VECTDILUTE THETT H EJECTR ALIMENTO W"CLCJE 5-15 FIG. 8 TWO POSTER...114,495; 114,496; and 114,497, 1974. 71. Poisson-Quinton, Ph ., and Christophe, J., "Special Ground Testing Facilities and Testing Techniques for STOL

  20. Review of complementary feeding practices in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Mendoza, Itzayana Y; Meléndez, Guillermo; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E

    2014-10-19

    Antecedentes: El inicio de la alimentación complementaria temprana coincide con un aumento significativo en la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad especialmente en los niños, lo cual se debe entre otras causas a los cambios en los patrones de alimentación que se han experimentado. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las prácticas de alimentación complementaria en niños mexicanos. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de los estudios que evaluaron las prácticas alimentarias en menores de 2 años en México en Medline, Lilacs y de forma manual con los siguientes términos: alimentación complementaria, alimentación suplementaria, México, ablactación y destete. Se recabó la edad de inicio de la alimentación complementaria, tipo de alimento consumido, frecuencia de consumo de los alimentos y motivo por el que iniciaban la alimentación complementaria. Se realizó un análisis cualitativo de la información recolectada y los datos en las gráficas son mostrados como proporciones. Resultados: Se incluyeron 7 estudios que mostraron que los niños inician la alimentación complementaria antes de los 6 meses predominantemente con frutas, aunque también consumieron jugos industrializados, refrescos y frituras. El consumo de estos productos aumenta con el crecimiento de los niños, aunado a un bajo consumo de alimentos con proteína de alto valor biológico, especialmente las carnes rojas. Conclusiones: Los resultados de los estudios incluidos mostraron que los menores reciben alimentos con alta densidad energética, mientras que es bajo el consumo de aquellos que aportan proteína animal y hierro en particular, lo que puede contribuir a problemas de salud como sobrepeso, obesidad, desnutrición y anemia.

  1. GASTRIC CANCER AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Galvão de Azevedo, Ioná; Leal Muniz Carneiro, Izabel Cristina; Oliveira Tomiya, Marília Tokiko; Pessoa de Araújo Burgos, Maria Goretti

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: a pesar de la disminución de la incidencia y la mortalidad, el cáncer gástrico sigue siendo el cuarto tumor más frecuente y la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo. Objetivos: analizar los factores asociados con el cáncer gástrico en pacientes hospitalizados. Método: estudio de corte serie de casos, realizado en hospitales de Recife. Los datos fueron obtenidos a partir de cuestionarios adaptados de un modelo previamente validado, que contenían los problemas socioeconómicos, los hábitos alimentarios, el estilo de vida, los antecedentes familiares de cáncer, la infección por H. pylori y los datos antropométricos. Resultados: de los 33 pacientes, tuvieron un ligero predominio las mujeres con edades ≥ 60 años, de zonas rurales, con bajos niveles de educación e ingresos. De acuerdo con el IMC, el 57,6% fueron normales y el 69,7% en riesgo nutricional cuando se utiliza% PP. Se encontró que el 42,4% no se sometió a examen para H. pylori, el 48,5% tenían una predisposición genética, el 75,8% eran sedentarios, el 60,6% eran fumadores y ex fumadores, el 51,5% eran adictos al alcohol y el 36,4% tenían sobrepeso. Hubo consumo frecuente de alimentos salados, alimentos fritos, baja ingesta de frutas, alimentos que contienen nitratos/ nitritos, así como una inadecuada conservación de los alimentos. Conclusión: el bajo nivel socioeconómico, la inactividad física y los hábitos alimentarios inadecuados fueron factores predominantes para el cáncer gástrico en el grupo analizado.

  2. [Issues regarding the legal regulation of drugs in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Bignone, Inés M

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the main functions and attributions of the National Administration of Medicines, Food and Medical Technology (Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica, ANMAT) of Argentina in the control and supervision of pharmaceutical products. The four properties that a medicine must full-fill (efficacy, safety, quality and accessibility) are described, and the role of ANMAT with regard to each one is specified. Criteria employed in the classification of pharmaceutical products marketed in Argentina with the regulatory agency permission are specified, and a reference to pharmaceutical products not registered before the Agency is also included.

  3. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients; comparing adults and older adults.

    PubMed

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la ingesta de nutrientes y el estado nutricional de los alimentos en pacientes con cáncer ingresados en un hospital universitario, comparando por categoría de edad entre adulto y adulto mayor. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Este estudio incluía pacientes cancerosos ingresados en un hospital en 2010. Se recogieron los hábitos dietéticos mediante un cuestionario brasileño de frecuencia de alimentos. Se dividieron los participantes en dos grupos: adultos y adultos mayores y en 4 categorías de cáncer: hematológico, pulmonar, gastrointestinal y otros. El estado nutricional se evaluó con el índice de masa corporal. Resultados: Se evaluó a un total de 86 pacientes con una edad promedio de 56,5 años, siendo el 55 % varones y el 42 % adultos mayores. La categoría de adultos mayores tenía con mayor frecuencia peso bajo (24,4 % frente a 16,3 %, p < 0,01) y una menor frecuencia de sobrepeso (7 % frente a 15,1 %, p < 0,01) que los adultos. En ambos grupos había una frecuencia elevada de fumadores, consumo de alcohol e inactividad física. Los adultos mayores tenían un menor consumo de calorías, ingesta de hierro y ácido fólico. Se observó una ingesta inadecuada de vitaminas en ambos grupos; respectivamente, 52 %, 43 %, 95 %, 76 % y 88 % para las vitaminas A, C, D, E y el ácido fólico. Los adultos mayores tenían más ingesta inadecuada de ácido fólico y calcio que los adultos (97 % frente a 82 %, p < 0,01; 88 % frente a 72 %, p < 0,01). No hubo una asociación entre la ingesta de micronutrientes con el cáncer ni con el estado nutritivo. Conclusión: La ingesta de alimentos y de macro y micronutrientes es insuficiente en los individuos con cáncer. La ingesta de alimentos en adultos mayores fue menor en comparación con los adultos. Hubo una prevalencia elevada de IMC excesivo en el grupo de adultos y un peor estado nutricional en la categoría de adultos mayores.

  4. [Profile of sensitization to allergens in children with atopic dermatitis assisting to Allergology Service of University Hospital, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Palma-Gómez, Samuel; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: la sensibilización a alergenos observada en la dermatitis atópica aumenta el riesgo del niño a padecer rinitis alérgica y asma. Los estudios recientes indican que entre mayor actividad de proteasas haya en los alergenos a los que se está sensibilizado, hay mayor defecto en la barrera cutánea y mayor gravedad de la enfermedad. Objetivos: conocer el patrón de sensibilización a los alergenos en niños con dermatitis atópica atendidos en el Servicio de Alergología del Hospital Universitario de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León y conocer si estos niños tienen mayor sensibilización a los antígenos con actividad proteolítica. Material y método: estudio retrospectivo en el que revisamos los reportes de las pruebas cutáneas por punción realizadas en nuestro servicio a niños de 5 meses a 16 años de edad, con diagnóstico de dermatitis atópica, de enero de 2012 a enero de 2014. Evaluamos la frecuencia de sensibilización a aeroalergenos y alimentos, así como el tamaño de la roncha en la respuesta cutánea para cada alergeno en particular. Resultados: se incluyeron los reportes de pruebas cutáneas de 66 niños, 30 hombres y 36 mujeres. Cuarenta y seis pacientes estaban sensibilizados a aeroalergenos y 38 a alimentos. Los ácaros del polvo de casa (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/Dermatophagoides farinae) fueron los alergenos con mayor frecuencia de respuesta positiva en las pruebas cutáneas. De los niños con sensibilización a alimentos, sólo los niños sensibilizados a la leche de vaca, al huevo y al pescado tuvieron una roncha mayor de 6 mm de diámetro. CONCLUSIÓN: en los niños con dermatitis atópica es común la sensibilización a aeroalergenos con alta actividad de proteasas y la polisensibilización es muy común. La sensibilización a alimentos es común en estos pacientes, pero sólo un pequeño porcentaje de ellos muestra respuestas cutáneas lo suficientemente grandes para relacionarlas con gravedad de la enfermedad.

  5. ACCEPTANCE OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD AMONG CHILEAN CONSUMERS: APPLE LEATHER.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Maya; Adasme-Berrios, Cristian; Schnettler, Berta

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es medir la aceptación de un alimento funcional como la lámina frutal de manzana, en base a características organolépticas. Se identificaron tipos de consumidores y sus preferencias hacia los aditivos naturales que aumentan la funcionalidad del producto y satisfacen las necesidades nutricionales actuales. Materiales y método: una muestra de 800 consumidores permitió la evaluación de la lámina frutal de manzana en términos de aceptación (gusto). se llevó a cabo un panel sensorial utilizando una escala hedónica de nueve puntos. Se utilizó el análisis de conglomerados para establecer diferentes tipos de consumidores, basados en la aceptación del producto. Además, el análisis conjunto permitió determinar la preferencia sobre diferentes aditivos. Resultados: el análisis de conglomerados permitió identificar cuatro grupos con diferencias significativas en los gustos promedios, obtenidos del panel sensorial. Los resultados indican que el dulzor de la lámina frutal de manzana fue mejor evaluada entre todos los grupos y, en promedio, el color fue calificado como el peor atributo. Además, a pesar de que existe una “aceptabilidad global” por el producto, existen diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Los resultados del análisis conjunto indican que, en general, los consumidores prefieren la agregación de aditivos naturales que aumentan la funcionalidad del producto. Conclusiones: en este estudio, la lámina frutal de manzana como alimento funcional se ajusta con el hábito de las personas de consumir alimentos dulces, lo que promueve su aceptación. Además, la agregación de aditivos naturales al producto, tales como anticariogénicos y antioxidantes, permite considerarlo como un alimento funcional sustituto de los snacks, poco saludables y/o de los caramelos.

  6. [Vitamin D intake in a representative sample of Spanish population aged 7-16 years. Differences in the contribution and in the food sources of the vitamin according to age].

    PubMed

    Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; López-Sobaler, Ana María; López Plaza, Bricia; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Ortega Anta, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La vitamina D juega un importante papel en el mantenimiento de la salud ósea y prevención de la aparición de diversas enfermedades. Muy pocos alimentos son fuente natural de esta vitamina y, además, éstos no se consumen de manera habitual, siendo las fuentes dietéticas más importantes el pescado azul y la yema del huevo. Objetivos: Analizar la ingesta y las fuentes de vitamina D en escolares de 7-16 años. Métodos: Se estudió una muestra representativa de la población española de 7 a 16 años (n = 1.976), seleccionada en diez provincias españolas. El estudio dietético se realizó por registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días. Los parámetros antropométricos estudiados fueron el peso y la talla. Resultados y discusión: La ingesta media de vitamina D (1,63 (0,96-3,35) μg/día) fue inferior a la recomendada (IR) en un 85,4% de los estudiados, estando influenciada por la edad (OR = 0,935; IC: 0,889-0,983; p < 0,01). La principal fuente de vitamina D fueron los huevos (27,7%) seguidos de cereales (25,8%), pescados (20,9%) y lácteos (12,7%). Además, se ha observado que es más fácil cubrir las ingestas recomendadas de vitamina D cuanto mayor es el consumo de pescado (r = 0,734; p < 0,001), y que por cada ración que aumenta el consumo de este grupo de alimentos el riesgo de no cubrir las IR de vitamina D disminuye un 72,5%. Conclusiones: La ingesta de vitamina D es inferior a la recomendada en un elevado porcentaje de los estudiados. Teniendo en cuenta que los pescados juegan un importante papel en el aporte de vitamina D de los niños y adolescentes españoles, aumentar el consumo de este grupo de alimentos resulta deseable. Los niños de menor edad merecen atención especial.

  7. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF DEFICIENCY OR EXCESS OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN 4 TO 14 YEAR-OLD CHILEAN CHILDREN: A CRITICAL REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Rozowski Narkunska, Jaime; Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Figari Jullian, Nicole; García-Díaz, Diego F; Cruchet Muñoz, Sylvia; Weisstaub Nuta, Gerardo; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Gotteland Russel, Martín

    2015-12-01

    La prevalencia de obesidad en niños chilenos ha aumentado consistentemente en las últimas dos décadas. El primer estudio que determinó el estado nutricional y la ingesta de alimentos efectuado en una muestra representativa de la población fue llevado a cabo en 1960. Recientemente el Ministerio de Salud publicó la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo Alimentario (ENCA), efectuada en el año 2012. Sin embargo, este estudio no incluyó mediciones bioquímicas de nutrientes que permitan un diagnóstico integral y representativo de la condición nutricional del niño en Chile. Objetivos: revisar la literatura disponible entre los años 2004 y 2014 sobre ingesta de alimentos y estado nutricional en niños chilenos de 4 a 14 años de edad. Método: un total de 362 referencias publicadas en ese período se obtuvieron de las bases de datos PubMed, Lilacs, Embase y Scielo. De estos, 40 artículos fueron seleccionados para una revisión completa. Resultados: la ingesta de alimentos se caracteriza por una ingesta calórica alta; un bajo consumo de frutas, verduras y productos lácteos y un alto consumo de pan. La ENCA concluyó que un 95% de los chilenos presenta una dieta deficiente. Se observa una alta prevalencia de obesidad desde edades tempranas. Desde 1960 no ha habido un estudio representativo de la población que incluya niveles plasmáticos de micronutrientes, que proveerían información más confiable sobre el estado nutricional de los niños, además de encuestas de consumo de alimentos. Conclusión: los niños chilenos presentan un estado nutricional y una alimentación deficientes; sin embargo, no hay evidencia representativa de los niveles plasmáticos de nutrientes, por lo que es imperativo desarrollar un estudio representativo que incluya indicadores bioquímicos de micronutrientes con objeto de desarrollar estrategias para mejorar el estado nutricional de los niños.

  8. Food choices coping strategies of eating disorder patients' parents: what happens when both mother and father work?

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Ruiz-Prieto, I; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Garrido-Casals, O

    2013-11-01

    Objetivo: recientemente se ha comunicado que la elección de alimentos por parte de familiares de pacientes con trastornos alimentarios no es adecuada teniendo en cuenta un modelo saludable de hábitos de alimentación. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar de que forma las condiciones de trabajo se relacionan con las estrategias de afrontamiento en la elección de alimentos tanto en familias con algún miembro que padece un trastorno alimentario como en otras sin miembros con estos trastornos También se analizaron las diferencias en el tipo de estrategias usadas por unas y otras familias. Métodos: Un total de 80 padres (n = 27) y madres (n = 53) de pacientes con trastornos alimentarios (n = 50), con trabajo extra-doméstico, e hijos sin alteraciones psicopatológicas (n = 30) fueron entrevistados. La edad media fue de 43.57 ± 5.69 años y los ingresos económicos fueron moderados. Las estrategias de afrontamiento en la elección de alimentos usadas para integrar vida laboral y familiar fueron evaluadas mediante 22 ítems incluidos en cinco categorías. Resultados: Los padres y madres de pacientes con trastornos alimentarios presentaron mejores estrategias que los de hijos sin patologías. El hecho de preparar más comidas en casa y usar menos comida rápida como comida principal son algunos ejemplos de esas mejores estrategias así como presentar menos pérdidas de desayunos y almuerzos debido al conflicto familia-trabajo, presentar menor picoteo y menor frecuencia de sobreingestas tras haber perdido alguna comida. Discusión: El esfuerzo terapéutico para mejorar la elección de alimentos en los padres de pacientes con trastornos alimentarios, especialmente cuando ambos trabajan fuera de casa, es un punto clave para mejorar los hábitos de alimentación de los pacientes contribuyendo ello a unos mejores resultados del tratamiento global.

  9. [Assessing food acceptance in scholar children; qualitative visual record versus food waste analysis].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Tadeo, Alejandra; Patiño Villena, Begoña; Periago Castón, María Jesús; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; González Martínez-Lacuesta, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Los comedores escolares cuentan con normativa de gestión y supervisión de menús, sin embargo no se ha valorado si son consumidos en su totalidad. Objetivo: Valorar la aceptación de alimentos mediante pesado de restos y validación de una metodología visual para su estimación en comedores escolares de Murcia. Metodología: Participaron escolares de segundo y tercer ciclo de educación primaria, de 8-12 años. La estimación de restos se realizó mediante pesado de alimentos de 765 bandejas. La valoración visual (300 bandejas) se realizó con escala categórica: 1 = 0-25%; 2 = 26-50%; 3 = 51- 75% y 4 = 76-100%, por dos dietistas y se valoró la fiabilidad con respecto al pesado de alimentos. La concordancia entre ambos métodos fue evaluada en dos muestras estratificadas por la presencia/ausencia de cocina en la escuela. Resultados: Los primeros platos con más restos fueron pasta, arroz y purés de verduras siendo mayor en aquellos colegios sin cocina en el centro (p < 0,05). También los segundos platos a base de legumbres, ave y pescado y ensaladas de guarnición. Las frutas y el total de restos son superiores en colegios sin cocina (p < 0,05). La concordancia entre evaluadoras fue alta en platos a base de carnes y en ensaladas, y considerable en legumbres, precocinados, tortilla de huevo, pasta, pescado y arroz. Conclusiones: Los restos son elevados y existieron diferencias en la aceptación de ciertos alimentos acorde al tipo de menú ofertado. La escala visual es una herramienta confiable para medir la aceptación de forma indirecta, pero necesita capacitación y entrenamiento del personal implicado.

  10. FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS DURING PREGNANCY: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY IN A REGION OF THE NORTH EAST OF BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Da Mota Santana, Jerusa; Alves de Oliveira Queiroz, Valterlinda; Monteiro Brito, Sheila; Barbosa Dos Santos, Djanilson; Marlucia Oliveira Assis, Ana

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: las perspectivas de crecimiento en Brasil indican que los patrones dietéticos de la población se caracterizan por el aumento del consumo de grasas saturadas y trans, sodio, azúcares y refrescos. Este punto de vista epidemiológico y nutricional refleja el cambio en el patrón de la enfermedad y la muerte. Objetivo: este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los patrones de consumo de alimentos y los cambios en la dieta en el primer y tercer trimestres del embarazo. Metodología: se trata de un estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 185 mujeres embarazadas del Estado de Bahía, a partir de 2012 a 2013. Se utilizó el cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos para evaluar la ingesta alimentaria. Para identificar la norma alimentaria se adoptó el análisis factorial de componentes principales. Se utilizó la prueba de correlación de Pearson para identificar la correlación entre los patrones extraídos en cada trimestre. Resultados: se identificaron cuatro patrones de consumo de alimentos durante el embarazo. Hemos observado cambios en los patrones de alimentación durante los trimestres evaluados, especialmente para los grupos de frutas, café, grasas, frituras, azúcar y dulces. Discusión: estos cambios en la dieta durante el embarazo acompañan a los cambios fisiológicos de cada embarazo. En el primer trimestre son síntomas comunes las náuseas y los vómitos; por otro lado, también se manifiesta antojos en el mismo periodo, lo cual puede justificar el consumo de mayor cantidad de alimentos considerados saludables. Conclusión: se observaron cambios en el patrón alimentario a lo largo de los diversos trimestres del embarazo examinados, especialmente para los grupos de frutas, café, grasas, frituras, azúcar y dulces.

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Vergara, Diego; Ríos-Reina, Rocío; Úbeda, Cristina; Escudero-Gilete, M Luisa; Callejón, Raquel M

    2016-06-30

    Introducción: en la actualidad existe un déficit en la evaluación de comedores dirigidos a niños menores de 3 años, a pesar de que se han realizado numerosas intervenciones en los comedores escolares con el fin de conseguir una alimentación segura y adecuada.Objetivo: realizar una evaluación nutricional de los menús ofertados en los centros de educación infantil de Sevilla.Material y métodos: se evaluó la frecuencia, variedad, rotación de alimentos, métodos culinarios e información de los menús de seis centros infantiles de Sevilla. Se valoró el aporte energético y nutricional mediante el programa Dietowin® y el método de pesada.Resultados: las frutas y verduras fueron deficitarias en la mayoría de los menús, y excesivas la carne, patatas, pasta y arroz. Se observó una escasa variedad de recetas por grupo de alimentos y no se daba una información completa del menú. Sin embargo, la variedad de procesos culinarios y la rotación de alimentos fueron adecuadas. Aunque la energía y el aporte de carbohidratos (~55%) se ajustaban a las necesidades, se observó un aporte excesivo de proteínas (~19%) y deficiente de lípidos (< 30%), sobre todo de grasas insaturadas. Respecto a los micronutrientes,solo vitamina C, E y calcio estaban por debajo de lo recomendado.Conclusiones: los centros de educación infantil están haciendo un gran esfuerzo por cumplir las recomendaciones nutricionales, pero todavía deben disminuir el aporte proteico y aumentar las grasas insaturadas de la dieta. Además, deben fomentar la oferta de frutas y verduras, ampliar la variedad de recetas, dar mayor información y disminuir el aporte de alimentos cárnicos.

  12. Como Lo Hago Yo: Defectos Del Cierre Del Tubo Neural En Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Juan Bosco

    2014-01-01

    En Nicaragua no hay un plan de forltificación de alimentos con ácido fólico. Las madres son muy jóvenes. En La Mascota operamos mas de cuarenta niños por año. Derivación tardía es un problema. La infección preoperatoria tiene que ser descartada. Vancomicina y Ceftriaxone estan indicadas. Estricta regla de asepsia operatoria. Suturamos la plaqueta para asemejar su forma al cilindro normal de la médula. No ceramos la capa de músculo. PMID:24791221

  13. [Impact of a nutrition education intervention in teachers, preschool and basic school-age children in Valparaiso region in Chile].

    PubMed

    Vio, Fernando; Salinas, Judith; Montenegro, Edith; González, Carmen Gloria; Lera, Lydia

    2014-06-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del programa educativo realizado en profesores, en el estado nutricional, conocimiento y consumo de alimentos saludables de alumnos de prekinder a segundo básico intervenidos y sus controles. Material y Método: Se trata de una intervención en educación nutricional en profesores de prebásica y básica, durante un año escolar, con una evaluación antes y después de sus alumnos, comparado con un grupo control. La muestra quedó constituida por 817 alumnos (389 hombres y 428 mujeres) de prekinder, kínder, 1º y 2º básico, 465 en los dos colegios intervenidos (Liceo 1 = 283 y Liceo 2 = 182) y 352 en el control. La intervención consistió en 9 talleres participativos y con uso de Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TIC) a los profesores y en una evaluación de estado nutricional y encuesta de conocimiento y consumo de sus alumnos, al inicio y final del año académico. Resultados: En estado nutricional no se produjeron diferencias significativas entre el inicio y final de la intervención. En uno de los colegios intervenidos se observó una disminución significativa de la obesidad, en mujeres y en el grupo de 7 a 9 años. En los colegios intervenidos hubo una mejoría significativa en conocimiento y disminución en el consumo de alimentos poco saludables con respecto al control, en el cual se mantuvo la alimentación poco saludable y disminuyó el consumo de verduras y legumbres. Conclusiones: Al igual que en otros estudios, queda demostrado que una intervención educativa participativa, con uso de TIC y de corta duración en profesores y alumnos de prebásica y básica, puede producir cambios positivos en el estado nutricional, mejorando significativamente el conocimiento y consumo de alimentos saludables y disminuyendo el consumo de alimentos no saludables, lo que no sucede en el grupo control. Sin embargo, queda pendiente una estrategia de como implicar a los padres en esta tarea.

  14. [Aluminum content in individual components, used to prepare adult total parenteral nutrition mixtures in Argentine, and in comparison with international regulation].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A M; Farías, S S; Servant, R; Morisio, Y; Misischia, Y; Simón, S; Weisstaub, A R; Martín de Portela, M L Pita

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: aluminio (Al) es un elemento tóxico que puede ser contaminante de productos farmacéuticos utilizados para preparar mezclas de nutrición parenteral (NP). Objetivos: 1) determinar la concentración de Al en componentes individuales utilizados para preparar mezclas de NP; 2) comparar las cantidades detectadas con los límites de la regulación internacional (FDA); 3) calcular la cantidad de Al administrada en fórmulas habituales de NP para neonatos, niños y adultos. Materiales y métodos: El Aluminio fue determinado por Espectroscopía de Emisión Atómica-Plasma-Inductivo de Argón (Perkin Elmer 5100 DV) en 44 productos comerciales, de diferentes laboratorios y lotes, correspondientes a 16 componentes individuales: dextrosa; aminoácidos para adultos y pediátricos; lípidos; cloruro de potasio; cloruro de sodio, sulfato de magnesio; fosfato de sodio; gluconato de calcio; glicerofosfato de sodio; sulfato de zinc; elementos multitraza; agua estéril en ampollas y de gran volumen. Resultados: Todos los componentes de gran volumen, excepto el agua, contenían entre 249 y 1.580 μg/L, superando entre 4 y 180 veces mas que los niveles establecidos por la FDA (25 μg/L). Los componentes de pequeño volumen contenían entre 85 y 4.909 μg/L, no declarados en los rótulos. Conclusiones: 1) La mayor cantidad de aluminio se encontró en el gluconato de calcio, fosfato de sodio y elementos multitraza. 2) Las mezclas de uso habitual para NP presentan niveles de Al mayores al límite de FDA. Los componentes que aportan mayor cantidad de aluminio en las mezclas de NP para adultos son: glucosa, aminoácidos y lípidos, pero en las de neonatos, el mayor aporte proviene de la dextrosa y gluconato de calcio. 3) En las mezclas de NP para neonatos, niños y adultos la cantidad de aluminio administrado por kg de peso supera la recomendación de FDA (5 μg/kg de peso /día). Los productos comerciales deberían declarar el contenido de Al para no comprometer la evoluci

  15. Therapeutic monitoring of pediatric transplant patients with conversion to generic tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Riva, Natalia; Cáceres Guido, Paulo; Licciardone, Nieves; Imventarza, Oscar; Monteverde, Marta; Staciuk, Raquel; Charroqui, Alberto; Schaiquevich, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Objetivo: La monitorización terapéutica durante el intercambio de marcas comerciales de inmunosupresores es esencial para mantener una similar exposición al fármaco en pacientes trasplantados. Sin embargo, la información disponible en trasplante pediátrico es limitada. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la exposición, seguridad y eficacia en pacientes pediátricos trasplantados en etapa de mantenimiento, sujetos a intercambio entre el producto innovador y el genérico de tacrolimus. Método: El Área de Farmacia del hospital detectó aquellos pacientes sujetos a intercambio de formulaciones según la disponibilidad de medicamentos. Se obtuvieron las concentraciones de tacrolimus en el valle (C0), parámetros de laboratorio y características clínicas antes y después del intercambio. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante el test de muestras pareadas de Wilcoxon. Resultados: Se incluyeron 10 pacientes con trasplante renal, hepático, cardíaco y de células hematopoyéticas. La mediana (rango) del C0 normalizado por la dosis pre y post intercambio fue 74,8[(ng/ml)/(mg/kg)](13,8-518,4) y 65,1[(ng/ml)/(mg/kg)] (13,5-723,5), respectivamente (p>0,05). La dosis de tacrolimus fue 0,070(mg/kg) (0,024-0,461) y 0,069(mg/kg) (0,017-0,571) para el innovador y el genérico, respectivamente (p>0,05). Los parámetros de laboratorio de funcionalidad renal y hepática no cambiaron con la conversión de marcas (p>0,05). No se observaron eventos adversos, rechazo agudo, muerte o pérdida del injerto durante el periodo analizado. Conclusiones: En la población estudiada, no se observaron diferencias significativas en los parámetros de laboratorio, exposición al tacrolimus o dosis en el intercambio de marcas comerciales. Destacamos el rol de la monitorización terapéutica a la hora de garantizar una sustitución segura, especialmente en poblaciones vulnerables.

  16. Antibiotic treatments in zootechnology and effects induced on the food chain of domestic species and, comparatively, the human specie.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Beniamino; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Laurino, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: los antibióticos se emplean ampliamente en la alimentación zootécnica para proteger a las especies humana y animal de las zoonosis por agentes infecciosos patogénicos. Objetivo: dado el creciente número de enfermedades relacionadas con la dieta (p. ej., intolerancias alimentarias), investigamos los efectos tóxicos inducidos por los residuos antibióticos, oxitetraciclinas, presentes en los alimentos industriales tanto sobre la salud humana como animal. Se destacan los productos zootécnicos obtenidos de la transformación industrial de los huesos animales y sus efectos tóxicos relacionados. Métodos: análisis comparativo de las publicaciones realizadas desde 1910 hasta 2014. Resultados: el análisis comparativo reveló la presencia de residuos de oxitetraciclina y otros antibióticos en alimentos pensados para el consumo humano y animal, lo que produjo efectos tóxicos multisistémicos. Discusión: el metabolismo y las posibles medidas para evitar la exposición a la oxitetraciclina también se han examinado, sin embargo, se precisa de un conocimiento más detallado de los efectos bioquímicos de tal clase de antibióticos.

  17. [A FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE TO ASSESS DIET QUALITY IN THE PREVENTION OF IRON DEFICIENCY].

    PubMed

    Toxqui Abascal, Laura; Díaz Álvarez, Alejandra; Vaquero, María Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: A pesar del amplio conocimiento sobre la biodisponibilidad del hierro, no se ha implementado aún un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos (CFCA) para su aplicación en grupos poblacionales con predisposición a anemia. Objetivos: Diseñar un CFCA basado en los potenciadores e inhibidores de la absorción del hierro y valorar su aplicabilidad en un grupo de mujeres en edad fértil. Métodos: Se elaboró un CFCA específico de 28 preguntas, 10 de ellas con indicación del momento de consumo de alimentos, en el desayuno y en comida/cena (CC). Se seleccionaron 179 mujeres sanas jóvenes que se distribuyeron en 3 grupos en función de su estado del hierro, ferritina sérica 30 ng/mL. Resultados: La reproducibilidad del CFCA fue muy alta (coeficiente de Spearman>0.500, p.

  18. [Implementation of the food choice questionnaire in young adolescents and their relationship to overweight and other socio-demographic variables].

    PubMed

    Canales Ronda, Pedro; Hernández Fernández, Asunción

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo se centra en analizar el comportamiento en la elección de los alimentos entre los jóvenes adolescentes españoles, así como su efecto sobre los posibles problemas relacionados con su peso (sobrepeso y obesidad) y otras variables socio-demográficas. Método: En el estudio participaron 590 alumnos de colegios públicos y privados de la ciudad de Valencia, con edades entre los 14 y 17 años, elegidos aleatoriamente. Se realizó un cuestionario personal basado en el Food Choice Questionaire. Resultados: En general, los jóvenes eligen sus alimentos en función de los aspectos sensoriales y el precio de los mismos, y no les preocupan los efectos que sobre su peso tienen sus hábitos alimentarios. No se detectan diferencias entre los alumnos de centros públicos o privados, ni tampoco entre aquellos con normopeso o sobrepeso. Si que existe alguna diferencia en cuanto al género del encuestado. Conclusiones: Los adolescentes, a la hora de elegir su alimentación, no son muy conscientes de los posibles efectos de los mismos sobre su salud actual y futura.

  19. The Spanish diet: an update.

    PubMed

    Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ruiz, Emma; Valero, Teresa; Avila, José Manuel; del Pozo, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Antecedentes/objetivos: La Encuesta de Consumo de Alimentos, realizada durante 20 años por el Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente (MAGRAMA), es la fuente más fiable de datos para evaluar el consumo de alimentos y patrones dietéticos en España. El objetivo de este artículo fue revisar las tendencias dietéticas en España y su evolución. Se describe la evaluación de la disponibilidad de alimentos per cápita y día, que permite el cálculo de consumo de energía y nutrientes y su comparación con el Consumo Recomendado de Nutrientes para la población española. Además, se han evaluado diferentes marcadores de la calidad de la dieta. Métodos: La muestra consistió en los datos de consumo y distribución, obtenidos de la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Alimentos para el período 2000-2012. Se aplicó un método de muestreo en dos etapas en el que, en la primera etapa, las unidades que se muestreaban fueron ciudades y entidades locales y, en la segunda, se seleccionaron los hogares que conformaron la muestra final a partir de las entidades locales. Las unidades consistieron en ciudades o entidades locales del territorio nacional. Los datos permitieron el cálculo de consumo de energía y nutrientes utilizando las tablas de Consumo de Alimentos (Moreiras et al., 2013). También se evaluó la calidad de la dieta: la adecuación de la dieta para alcanzar los consumos de energía y nutrientes recomendados; perfil de energía; calidad de la grasa de la dieta; calidad de la proteína de la dieta; densidad de nutrientes; índices de adecuación de la dieta mediterránea. Los datos actuales se compararon con los datos previos obtenidos por nuestro grupo de investigación en 1964, 1981 y 1991. Resultados: Utilizando los datos más recientes, el consumo promedio comprendía: leche y derivados (356 g/persona/día), frutas (323 g/persona/día), verduras y hortalizas (339 g/persona/día), cereales y derivados (197 g/persona/día), carne y productos c

  20. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Herrera Valenzuela, Tomás; Poblete Aro, Carlos; Durán Acevedo, Angelo; Valdés Badilla, Pablo

    2016-03-25

    Objetivo: determinar los patrones alimentarios de ultramaratonistas chilenos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, con enfoque cuantitativo. La muestra incluyó 20 ultramaratonistas (n = 3 mujeres), quienes promediaban para la edad 33,0 ± 7,8 años, peso 71,1 ± 6,6 kg y estatura 1,72 ± 0,05 m. Se aplicó una encuesta de hábitos alimentarios validada y un punto de significación de p < 0,05. Resultados: los ultramaratonistas chilenos presentan bajo consumo de alimentos de acuerdo a las porciones recomendadas de frutas, verduras, pescado y leguminosas, y el 75% de ellos consume desayuno diariamente. Se observa ingestas moderadas de bebidas azucaradas, snacks dulces y alcohol, mientras que la ingesta de frituras (65%) corresponde al hábito no saludable más frecuente. Conclusión: los ultramaratonistas chilenos presentan un bajo cumplimiento en las porciones recomendadas de alimentos, pese al gran esfuerzo físico que realizan.

  1. [Trends in food consumption of university students].

    PubMed

    De Piero, Alexia; Bassett, Natalia; Rossi, Analia; Sammán, Norma

    2015-04-01

    Los jóvenes universitarios necesitan consolidar buenos hábitos alimentarios basados en una adecuada selección de alimentos, los cuales constituyen un factor de fundamental importancia para mantener un buen estado de salud y prevenir enfermedades. Objetivo: Evaluar la ingesta de alimentos y el perfil de la dieta de estudiantes universitarios de Tucumán y su variación a través del tiempo. Analizar si cumplen las recomendaciones dietéticas actuales. Materiales y métodos: La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo durante los años 1998-1999 (G1) y 2012-2013 (G2); se realizó mediante una autoencuesta alimentaria y cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos. Fue aplicada a 329 estudiantes universitarios seleccionados en forma aleatoria. El perfil alimentario se describió según la frecuencia de consumo habitual de los principales grupos de alimentos. Resultados: Los estudiantes resultaron 25,2% hombres y 74,8% mujeres, con edad promedio de 23±3 años. En general, en ambos grupos, la mayoría de los estudiantes presentó un IMC normal, sin embargo se destacó un elevado porcentaje de hombres con sobrepeso (18,2%) y obesidad (12,1%) y mujeres con bajo peso (11,6%). Según los grupos analizados y en función del sexo se observaron algunas diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la composición de macronutrientes de la dieta: en G1 fue mayor el consumo de carbohidratos en detrimento de proteínas y lípidos; se encontraron también diferencias en la ingesta de algunos micronutrientes, observándose mayor consumo de hierro y menor de vitaminas B1, B2, niacina y C en el G2. La dieta fue monótona para ambos grupos y con diferencias en el perfil de nutrientes que la conforman. La más notable fue el incremento gradual del consumo de productos azucarados, alimentos procesados, snacks y menor consumo de lácteos, pescados, frutas y vegetales en el G2. En ambos grupos, la adecuación de la ingesta alimentaria de la población estudiantil no cubrió las

  2. [CAFFEINE AND QUININE IN SOFT DRINKS; CONTRIBUTION TO THE DIETARY INTAKE].

    PubMed

    González Reyes, Ana Belén; Hardisson de la Torre, Arturo; Gutiérrez Fernández, Angel José; Rubio Armendáriz, Carmen; Frías Tejera, Inmaculada; Revert Gironés, Consuelo

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: las bebidas refrescantes son cada vez más consumidas por la sociedad. Están compuestas por una gran variedad de sustancias, de las cuales algunas, si se consumen en dosis altas y con elevada frecuencia, pueden provocar efectos negativos. Objetivos: determinar la concentración de cafeína y quinina para comprobar si sus niveles se encuentran por debajo de los máximos permitidos por la reglamentación técnico-sanitaria vigente y calcular la contribución a la ingesta dietética obteniendo la Ingesta Diaria Estimada. Método: se analizaron las concentraciones de cafeína y quinina en las principales marcas comerciales de refrescos, usando para ello la técnica de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Resultados: se obtuvieron concentraciones para todas las marcas analizadas, que permitieron estimar la media en cada una. Conclusiones: se ha observado que en ningún caso se superan las concentraciones máximas y que la contribución a la ingesta no genera aparición alguna de reacción adversa.

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  4. Evolution and flooding history of the Sacramento River over the late Quaternary illustrated on pristine floodplains near Chico, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, M.; Aalto, R. E.; Singer, M. B.; Fuchs, M.

    2009-12-01

    Different river systems are often seen to respond individually to climate and environmental forcing during the late Quaternary, with a large number of prior studies investigating the unique history of various European rivers. In order to broaden our understanding of climate-induced late Quaternary morpho-dynamic change within a wider range of fluvial environments, more studies are needed from regions that differ substantially from Europe. The Sacramento River downstream of the city of Chico, California, features three different types of surface (palaeo) channel systems - meandering, braiding and anastomosing. This provides an excellent study region to investigate controls on channel and floodplain development by external (and internal) forcing over the Quaternary. This and the fact that two of these palaeochannel systems play a major role in flood and sediment conveyance make this area attractive for research on flooding and river/floodplain development. Furthermore, the climate and sea level forcing over the Quaternary are substantially different here from most European study areas, providing valuable new perspective. We present results from our investigation of a near-pristine fluvial environment along the largest river in California - the Llano Seco reach of the Sacramento River, between Chico and the downstream wetlands of Butte Sink. The Llano Seco Ranch has a unique ownership history that makes it the only remaining significant undisturbed floodplain along the Sacramento River, featuring more than 20,000 acres of superb habitat nourished by a natural geomorphic system. Despite its importance to science and society and the prior recognition of beautifully preserved Quaternary and Holocene channel systems, fluvial features in this area have not been rigorously dated. Furthermore, there have been no detailed studies of deep stratigraphic profiles afforded by the extensive, well preserved deposits of fluvial sediments and floodplain soils. Our research

  5. Using Geophysics to Define Hydrostratigraphic Units in the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Blome, C. D.; Clark, A. K.; Kress, W.; Smith, D. V.

    2007-05-01

    Airborne and ground geophysical surveys conducted in Uvalde, Medina, and northern Bexar counties, Texas, can be used to define and characterize hydrostratigraphic units of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Airborne magnetic surveys have defined numerous Cretaceous intrusive stocks and laccoliths, mainly in Uvalde County, that influence local hydrology and perhaps regional ground-water flow paths. Depositional environments in the aquifers can be classified as shallow water platforms (San Marcos Platform, Edwards Group), shoal and reef facies (Devils River Trend, Devils River Formation), and deeper water basins (Maverick Basin, West Nueces, McKnight, and Salmon Peak Formations). Detailed airborne and ground electromagnetic surveys have been conducted over the Edwards aquifer catchment zone (exposed Trinity aquifer rocks), recharge zone (exposed Edwards aquifer rocks), and artesian zone (confined Edwards) in the Seco Creek area (northeast Uvalde and Medina Counties; Devils River Trend). These geophysical survey data have been used to divide the Edwards exposed within the Balcones fault zone into upper and lower hydrostratigraphic units. Although both units are high electrical resistivity, the upper unit has slightly lower resistivity than the lower unit. The Georgetown Formation, at the top of the Edwards Group has a moderate resistivity. The formations that comprise the upper confining units to the Edwards aquifer rocks have varying resistivities. The Eagleford and Del Rio Groups (mainly clays) have very low resistivities and are excellent electrical marker beds in the Seco Creek area. The Buda Limestone is characterized by high resistivities. Moderate resistivities characterize the Austin Group rocks (mainly chalk). The older Trinity aquifer, underlying the Edwards aquifer rocks, is characterized by less limestone (electrically resistive or low conductivity units) and greater quantities of mudstones (electrically conductive or low resistivity units). In the western

  6. Late Quaternary Offset of Alluvial Fan Surfaces along the Central Sierra Madre Fault, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, A.; Burgette, R. J.; Scharer, K. M.; Midttun, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Sierra Madre fault (SMF) is an east-west trending reverse fault system along the southern flank of the San Gabriel Mountains near Los Angeles, California. The ~140 km long SMF is separated into four segments, we focus on the multi-stranded, ~60 km long Central Sierra Madre fault (CSMF; W118.3-W117.7) as it lacks a well-characterized long-term geologic slip rate. We combine 1-m lidar DEM with geologic and geomorphic mapping to correlate alluvial fan surfaces along strike and across the fault strands in order to derive fault slip rates that cross the CSMF. We have refined mapping on two sets of terraces described by Crook et al. (1987) and references therein: a flight of Q3 surfaces (after nomenclature of Crook et al., 1987; McFadden, 1982) in Arroyo Seco with distinct terraces ~30 m, ~40 m, ~50 m, and ~55 m above the modern stream and in Pickens Canyon divided a Q3 and Q2 surface, with heights that are ~35 m and ~25 m above the modern stream respectively. Relative degree of clast weathering and soil development is consistent with geomorphic relationships; for example, hues of 7.5 YR to 10 YR are typical of Q3, while hues of 10 YR to 2.5 Y are typical of Q2. A scarp in the Q3 surface at Arroyo Seco has a vertical offset of ~16 m and a scarp in the Q3 at Pickens Canyon has a vertical offset of ~14 m, while the Q2 surface is not faulted. Our Quaternary dating strategy is focused on dating suites of terraces offset along CSMF scarps in order to provide broader stratigraphic context for the cosmogenic radionuclide and luminescence dating. We will present (pending) cosmogenic radionuclide depth profiles from the Q3 surfaces. A better-constrained slip rate for the CSMF will improve earthquake hazard assessment for the Los Angeles area and help clarify the tectonic role of the SMF in the broader plate boundary system. Additionally, the fan chronology will provide information about the timing of alluvial fan aggradation and incision in the western Transverse Ranges.

  7. Emergency Assessment of Postfire Debris-Flow Hazards for the 2009 Station Fire, San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Staley, Dennis M.; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2009 Station fire in Los Angeles County, southern California. Statistical-empirical models developed for postfire debris flows are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 drainage basins within the burned area and to generate maps of areas that may be inundated along the San Gabriel mountain front by the estimated volume of material. Debris-flow probabilities and volumes are estimated as combined functions of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and material properties in response to both a 3-hour-duration, 1-year-recurrence thunderstorm and to a 12-hour-duration, 2-year recurrence storm. Debris-flow inundation areas are mapped for scenarios where all sediment-retention basins are empty and where the basins are all completely full. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two winters following the fire. Tributary basins that drain into Pacoima Canyon, Big Tujunga Canyon, Arroyo Seco, West Fork of the San Gabriel River, and Devils Canyon were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, the potential to produce debris flows with volumes greater than 100,000 m3, and the highest Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking in response to both storms. The predicted high probability and large magnitude of the response to such short-recurrence storms indicates the potential for significant debris-flow impacts to any buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and downstream from the burned area. These areas will require appropriate debris-flow mitigation and warning efforts. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 m3, and high

  8. [Morphometric characteristics of the asterion and the posterolateral surface of the skull: its relationship with dural venous sinuses and its neurosurgical importance].

    PubMed

    Galindo-de León, Salvador; Hernández-Rodríguez, Alejandra Nohemí; Morales-Ávalos, Rodolfo; Theriot-Girón, María Del Carmen; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: el conocimiento de la ubicación y características morfométricas del seno venoso lateral (transverso y sigmoides), así como de su relación con este y otros puntos de referencia anatómicos superficiales, es imprescindible durante los abordajes posterolaterales de la fosa craneal posterior para evitar lesionar las estructuras vasculares y las complicaciones quirúrgicas. Objetivo: determinar un área anatómica de seguridad para realizar un trépano que permita ingresar en la fosa craneal posterior sin lesionar estructuras adyacentes, y estudiar las características morfométricas del asterion, el seno lateral y puntos de referencia óseos de la superficie posterolateral del cráneo. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo efectuado en el Departamento de Anatomía Humana de las Facultad de Medicina y de Odontología de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Se analizaron 176 hemicráneos secos, estructuralmente íntegros y sin ninguna patología o anormalidad evidente. Se utilizó una broca de 1.3 mm de diámetro con la que se perforaron ambos lados de 88 cráneos secos (176 hemicráneos). Los puntos de referencia anatómicos estudiados fueron: asterion, vértice de la apófisis mastoides, espina suprameatal, plano horizontal de Frankfurt, raíz posterior del arco cigomático, protuberancia occipital externa y su relación con el seno venoso lateral. Resultados: el asterion tipo I prevalece en 74.4% de las piezas. En 82.4% de los cráneos el seno venoso lateral se encuentra a nivel del asterion inferior a éste en 12.5% y superior en 5.1%. Conclusiones: con los datos obtenidos de esta y otras investigaciones, el trépano inicial debe situarse 15 mm por debajo del asterion inferior y 15 mm posterior a éste para disminuir los riesgos de lesión del seno venoso lateral.

  9. [Food-related lifestyles and eating habits inside and outside the home in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Peña, Juan Pablo; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Distinguir tipologías de consumidores en base a su estilo de vida en relación a la alimentación en las principales comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile, y caracterizarlas según sus hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del hogar, características sociodemográficas y su nivel de satisfacción con su alimentación. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra de 951 personas en las principales comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago (más de 100.000 habitantes). El instrumento de recogida de información incluyó una adaptación del cuestionario de estilos de vida en relación a la alimentación (FRL) y la escala SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life). Se consultaron los hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del hogar y variables de clasificación sociodemográfica de los encuestados. Resultados: Mediante análisis cluster se distinguieron cinco tipologías con diferencias significativas en los cinco componentes obtenidos del FRL, con análisis factorial de componentes principales. Las tipologías presentaron distinto perfil de género, edad y nivel socioeconómico y difirieron en los puntajes obtenidos en la SWFL. Se diferenciaron en la frecuencia en que la persona almuerza, toma once y cena en su hogar. Respecto a las comidas fuera del hogar, las tipologías se distinguieron según la frecuencia de comidas en restaurantes, locales de comida rápida y en la compra de comida preparada. Conclusiones: Un estilo de vida en relación a la alimentación con baja implicación y disfrute de los alimentos se asocia con un mayor nivel socioeconómico y menor edad de las personas. Adicionalmente, se asocia con comportamientos alimentarios poco saludables y no beneficiosos para las personas, como una mayor frecuencia de comidas en restaurantes y de compra de comida preparada, junto a una menor frecuencia de comidas en el hogar, lo que estaría influyendo en un nivel inferior de

  10. A REVIEW OF GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONS USED IN THE DIETARY GUIDELINES OF SELECTED COUNTRIES IN THE AMERICAS, EUROPE AND ASIA.

    PubMed

    Altamirano Martínez, Martha Betzaida; Cordero Muñoz, Aida Yanet; Macedo Ojeda, Gabriela; Márquez Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Vizmanos, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: las Guías Alimentarias Basadas en Alimentos “Food-Based Dietary Guidelines” (FBDG) son una propuesta de la Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) y la World Health Organization (WHO) para que cada país plantee sus principios de educación nutricional de manera clara y concreta con el fin de orientar y promover la buena salud en la población. Muchas de estas guías incluyen una representación gráfica (GR) como ayuda visual en el proceso de orientación alimentaria. Objetivos: analizar las características de las GR de países de tres continentes, para conocer las tendencias internacionales de los mensajes gráficos y para facilitar su transmisión durante el proceso educativo a la población a la que van dirigidos. Métodos: revisión de las GR de las FBDG de países de América, Europa y Asia, cuya información estuviera accesible, en español o en inglés. Resultados y discusión: las figuras más utilizadas son el círculo y la pirámide. Las GR ilustran las siguientes recomendaciones: todas (n = 37) grupos de alimentos, 21 actividad física, 17 consumo de agua, 7 restricción de sal, 1 convivencia familiar, 1 relajación y 10 recomendaciones cuantitativas. Las GR de Grecia y Estados Unidos no muestran imágenes de alimentos. Los aspectos considerados en las GR dependen de la región, la cultura y algunas características epidemiológicas de cada país. Se observa una tendencia al uso de la figura del círculo en países como Estados Unidos, España y México, además de incluir recomendaciones sobre el estilo de vida en la ilustración. Las recomendaciones cuantitativas pueden clarificar la información en el proceso educativo.

  11. [Determination of folate content in ready-to-eat food products].

    PubMed

    Fajardo Martín, Violeta; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los productos ready-to-eat, ya cocinados, envasados y refrigerados, son cada vez más consumidos en nuestro país. Sin embargo, no existen estudios que cuantifiquen su disponibilidad comercial, composición e información detallada para poder estimar su impacto sobre las ingestas, particularmente de folatos, en los diferentes grupos de población. Objetivos: La finalidad de este trabajo de investigación ha consistido en conocer la disponibilidad actual de alimentos ready-to-eat de base vegetal y aportar datos sobre el contenido de folato total de los mismos. Métodos: La concentración de folato total se determinó en 17 productos precocinados refrigerados, con ingredientes vegetales, mediante el método microbiológico basado en el crecimiento del Lactobacillus casei subespecie rhamnosus resistente a cloranfenicol. La precisión del procedimiento analítico se comprobó mediante un material de referencia certificado y por una prueba de recuperación con ácido fólico tritiado. Resultados y discusión: El contenido medio de FT varió desde 13,6 hasta 103,8 μg/100 g de peso fresco, siendo superior en hamburguesas vegetales, recetas con garbanzos, guisantes o alcachofas con jamón. Los alimentos se sometieron al tratamiento térmico indicado por el fabricante previo a su consumo, observándose que no existen pérdidas de folatos durante este último procesado. El coeficiente de variación de los duplicados del mismo producto fue inferior al 15%. Conclusiones: Se presentan datos pioneros relativos al análisis de folatos en alimentos ready-to-eat en el mercado español, que ayudarán a evaluar la adecuación de la ingesta de folatos en la población. El contenido de folatos de estos productos, su facilidad de consumo y atractiva presentación, los convierte en fuentes potenciales de la vitamina.

  12. [Consumption of eggs may prevent vitamin D deficiency in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; López-Sobaler, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La vitamina D es esencial para la prevención de diversas enfermedades crónicas. Aunque se puede sintetizar a nivel cutáneo, esta fuente no es siempre suficiente para cubrir sus necesidades, por lo que el consumo de alimentos ricos en la misma, como el huevo, podría ser muy beneficioso en individuos que están en riesgo de presentar deficiencia. Objetivo: Estudiar la relación entre el estatus en vitamina D y el consumo diario de huevos en un colectivo de escolares. Metodología: Se incluyeron 564 escolares (9 a 12 años) de la Comunidad de Madrid. La ingesta de alimentos, de energía y nutrientes (incluidos el huevo y la vitamina D), se determinó empleando un registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días. Se calculó el Índice de Masa Corporal a través del peso corporal y la talla. Se valoró el colesterol total, lipoproteínas, triglicéridos y vitamina D sérica. Resultados: El consumo medio de huevos fue de 32,7 ± 20,9 g/día (inferior a 0,5 huevo/día recomendados en el 36,3% de los escolares). Se dividió a los escolares en función de que tuvieran un consumo ≥?o < 0,5 huevo/día (grupos SH e IH, respectivamente). La ingesta y los niveles séricos de vitamina D fueron significativamente superiores en el grupo SH que en el IH. Además, los primeros tuvieron menor riesgo de presentar deficiencia moderada de vitamina D (< 50 nmol/L) (OR = 0,41 (0,19-0,88); p = 0,022). No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en relación con las cifras de colesterol total y triglicéridos. Conclusión: Es recomendable fomentar el consumo deal menos 0,5 huevo/día entre la población infantil debidoa su alto contenido en vitamina D, lo que podría evitar laaparición de problemas de salud.

  13. EVALUATION OF DIET ACCEPTANCE BY PATIENTS WITH HAEMATOLOGICAL CANCER DURING CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Prockmann, Stéphanie; Ruschel Freitas, Ana Helena; Gonçalves Ferreira, Marilyn; Kunradi Vieira, Francilene Gracieli; Kuerten de Salles, Raquel

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: el estado nutricional amenazado es uno de los factores que puede elevar la morbimortalidad de los pacientes sometidos a quimioterapia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la aceptación de la dieta por parte de pacientes con cáncer hematológico durante la internación para quimioterapia. Métodos: investigación transversal, descriptiva y cuantitativa llevada a cabo entre febrero y octubre de 2014 con pacientes adultos de ambos sexos diagnosticados de linfoma y leucemia. Se realizó la evaluación diaria del consumo alimentario mediante la utilización de herramientas para colección de datos preparado por el autor. Se utilizó ANOVA para medidas repetidas. Resultados: fueron evaluados 32 pacientes con edad promedio de 42 ± 11 años, siendo la mayoría mujeres (66%). Observamos trastornos gastrointestinales en el 72% de los pacientes, la mayoría de las molestias fueron náuseas (59%) además de xerostomía (34%), vómitos (28%), inapetencia (28%) y disgeusia (25%). El porcentaje de resto de ingesta alimentaria fue significativo, oscilando entre el 23% y el 35%. El mayor rechazo ocurrió en el almuerzo y la cena. Las meriendas fueron mejor aceptadas, con un porcentaje del 75% al 100%. Conclusión de la investigación: los registros de alimentos mostraron que durante los ciclos de quimioterapia se produjo un rechazo significativo de alimentos sobre todo en las comidas de mayor volumen, como el almuerzo y la cena, mientras que las comidas pequeñas, tales como aperitivos, son mejor toleradas. El uso de opciones de alimentos enumerados por los pacientes puede ser una estrategia para mejorar el cumplimiento de la dieta. Se necesitan más estudios sobre este tema para mejorar la atención a esta población, con el objetivo de prevenir y/o recuperar el estado nutricional de estos pacientes.

  14. Usefulness of dietary enrichment on energy and protein intake in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition discharged to home.

    PubMed

    Trabal, Joan; Hervas, Sonia; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: La desnutrición es causa de preocupación en muchos pacientes ingresados, siendo frecuente al ingreso y alta hospitalaria. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar si el enriquecimiento de la dieta con pequeñas raciones de alimentos densos en energía y nutrientes mejora la ingesta energética y de nutrientes en pacientes ancianos con riesgo de desnutrición dados de alta al domicilio. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de una serie de casos en paciente ancianos con riesgo de desnutrición tratados con enriquecimiento de la dieta. Se revisaron los datos de la historia clínica y dietética de pacientes ancianos dados de alta a domicilio. Cuarenta-y-un pacientes, con una edad media de 83 ± 5 años, cumplieron los criterios de inclusión; 13 pacientes se perdieron después de 4 semanas de tratamiento y un total de 24 después de 12 semanas. El historial contenía datos de la ingesta de alimentos valorada a nivel basal, y después de 4 y 12 semanas de tratamiento. El Mini Nutritional Assessment, las medidas antropométricas, los parámetros bioquímicos rutinarios y el Índice de Barthel fueron valorados a nivel basal y después de 12 semanas. Resultados: En comparación al inicio, los pacientes mejoraron significativamente su ingesta energética y proteica después de 4 semanas de tratamiento, cumpliendo con los requerimientos nutricionales medios. La mejora en la ingesta de energía y proteínas todavía era manifiesta en la semana 12. Después de 12 semanas de enriquecimiento de la dieta, también se observó un incremento significativo en el peso (4.1%, p = 0.011). No se detectaron cambios significativos en el estado funcional. Conclusiones: El uso de pequeñas raciones de alimentos con elevada densidad energética y proteica para enriquecer las comidas parece ser un tratamiento nutricional factible para incrementar la ingesta energética y proteica y cumplir con los objetivos nutricionales en paciente ancianos dados de alta al domicilio.

  15. The high glycemic index diet was an independent predictor to explain changes in agouti-related protein in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin Netto, Bárbara; Landi Masquio, Deborah Cristina; Da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; De Lima Sanches, Priscila; Campos Corgosinho, Flavia; Tock, Lian; Missae Oyama, Lila; Túlio de Mello, Marco; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2014-02-01

    La Dieta de alto índice glucémico es un predictor independiente para explicar los cambios en la proteína relacionada al agouti en adolescentes obesos. Introducción y objetivos: El papel de la dieta de índice glucémico (GI) en el control de los factores orexigénicos y anorexígenos del balance de energía todavía no está claro. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar si la dieta habitual, de acuerdo con diferentes alimentos con IG, ejerce influencia sobre la regulación de los marcadores del balance de energía y los efectos de la intervención interdisciplinaria en adolescentes obesos. Métodos: Un total de 55 adolescentes obesos, con edades de 14 a 19 años, han sido sometidos a un año de tratamiento interdisciplinario y se dividieron en dos grupos, de acuerdo al patrón de dieta predominante de la ingesta de alimentos: el grupo IG alto (H-GI; n = 29) y GI moderada/bajo grupo (M/L-GI, n = 26). Resultados: La concentración de orexigenic factor de AgRP (p < 0,01), la grasa visceral (p = 0,04) y la relación visceral/ subcutánea (p = 0,03) fueron mayores en el grupo de HGI en comparación con el grupo M/L-GI. Por otra parte, el consumo habitual de alimentos H-GI fue un predictor independiente para explicar los cambios en las concentraciones de AgRP. Después de un año de tratamiento interdisciplinario, los adolescentes presentan una reducción significativa en el peso corporal, la grasa corporal total (%), visceral y la grasa subcutánea y el HOMA-IR, así como un aumento significativo de la masa libre de grasa (%). Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados pueden sugerir que la dieta H-GI habitual podría upregulate vías orexigénicos, contribuyendo al círculo vicioso entre las dietas indeseables, desregula el equilibrio energético y predisponen a la obesidad. Uno por otro lado, un año de tratamiento interdisciplinario puede perfil metabólico mejora significativa y la obesidad central en los adolescentes.

  16. [ASSOCIATION OF OLFACTORY SENSITIVITY WITH ENERGY INTAKE: ROLE IN DEVELOPMENT OF OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Valladares Vega, Macarena; Obregón Rivas, Ana Maria

    2015-12-01

    La obesidad se produce por un desequilibrio entre la energía consumida y el gasto de energía generado. Dentro de los factores que regulan la ingesta no homeostática se encuentra el sentido del olfato, que constituye una importante señal externa que induce la ingesta de alimentos. Los humanos lo utilizan para apreciar la palatabilidad de los alimentos y, en general, para seleccionar alimentos. Materiales y método: se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de artículos en las bases de datos de Pubmed y Scielo, donde se utilizaron las palabras claves: “olfato”, “ingesta energética” y “obesidad”; adicionalmente se sumaron los siguientes límites para restringir la exploración: “animales”, “humanos”, “ensayo clínico” y “metaanálisis”. Resultados: el estado de hambre individual esta modulado por la sensibilidad olfatoria, donde se observa que la sensibilidad del olfato aumenta frente a un estado de ayunas. Existen dos hormonas que han permitido relacionar el sentido del olfato con la ingesta energética: orexina, que aumenta la sensibilidad olfativa y la ingesta, y leptina, que disminuye la sensibilidad olfativa y la ingesta. Las personas obesas con IMC > 45 presentan baja sensibilidad olfativa, situación que no varía después de la cirugía bariátrica. Conclusiones: determinar la relación entre el olfato, la ingesta energética y la obesidad es un campo escasamente estudiado y que abre nuevos caminos para el tratamiento de patologías en las que existen trastornos alimentarios como la obesidad. A futuro es necesario la realización de ensayos clínicos que permitan determinar la causalidad entre ambas variables, así como estudios moleculares para comprender mejor las señales que relacionan el olfato con la ingesta energética.

  17. EFFECT OF HYPOENERGETIC DIET COMBINED WITH CONSUMPTION OF COCONUT FLOUR IN OVERWEIGHT WOMEN.

    PubMed

    de Paula Franco, Elizabeth; Moraes de Oliveira, Gláucia Maria; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la prevalencia de la obesidad ha aumentado, sobre todo entre las mujeres. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de una dieta hipoenergética combinada con harina de coco en los datos antropométricos y bioquímicos y, así como la calidad de la dieta. Métodos: se realizó un ensayo clínico cruzado que incluyó un paso solo con dieta hipoenergética y otro con la dieta asociada con el consumo de harina de coco (26 g) a lo largo de nueve meses. Los voluntarios fueron reclutados de la ciudad de São Gonçalo de Río de Janeiro. Antropométrica, datos bioquímicos y dietéticos fueron recolectados mensualmente. Fueron evaluados el índice de calidad de la dieta revisado para la población brasileña (ICD-R) y el consumo de alimentos y aditivos ultraprocesados. Se realizaron las pruebas de Wilcoxon y Mann-Whitney, con p < 0,05, considerado estadísticamente significativo. Resultados: participaron cuarenta y dos mujeres con un promedio de 47,5 ± 9,5 años de edad. La dieta hipoenergética promovió una disminución de la grasa corporal, el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de la cintura, la relación cintura-talla, el índice de adiposidad visceral, la presión arterial diastólica, los triglicéridos y VLDL. El consumo de harina de coco promovió una caída en los niveles de colesterol y glucosa totales al complementar la dieta hipoenergética. La mejora de la calidad de la dieta puede observarse en la disminución del consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados como el aceite vegetal, el chocolate y los refrescos. Conclusión: la dieta hipoenergética promovió una disminución en los parámetros antropométricos, la presión arterial y los triglicéridos. El consumo de harina de coco favoreció una disminución de los niveles de colesterol y de glucosa totales cuando se complementa la dieta hipoenergética. La calidad de la dieta mejorada se puede ver en la disminución del consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados.

  18. [Food intake, nutritional status and physical activity between elderly with and without chronic constipation. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Vargas-García, Elisa Joan; Vargas-Salado, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: el estreñimiento es uno de los trastornos gastrointestinales más comunes en la población de edad avanzada porque con el paso de los años los factores implicados en su causa se modifican y repercuten en la ingestión de alimentos, el estado de nutrición y la actividad física. Objetivo: evaluar en el adulto mayor el efecto en el estreñimiento crónico del consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de fibra, el estado nutricio, y la actividad física. Material y métodos: estudio comparativo, prospectivo y transversal efectuado en 140 adultos mayores de la consulta externa de la Unidad de Medicina Familiar51 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social en la ciudad de León, Guanajuato, durante el periodo del 4 mayo al 30 de octubre de 2009. Se valoró si padecían o no estreñimiento de acuerdo con los criterios de Roma III. Se valoró: peso,talla, circunferencia del brazo, pliegue cutáneo tricipital; se aplicó un cuestionario de actividad física validado, y se obtuvo el registro dietético de tres días (dos de entre semana y uno de sábado o domingo). Resultados: la ingestión promedio de fibra y agua no esultó estadísticamente diferente entre los grupos estudiados. Los pacientes con estreñimiento tuvieron dietas menos completas y variadas (p < 0.02; p < 0.03). El estado nutricio predominante en los adultos mayores de ambos grupos fue de sobrepeso (p= 0.49) pero el grupo sin estreñimiento tuvo niveles más altos de actividad física en comparación con los estreñidos (1664 vs 1049 METs, p= 0.004).Conclusiones: el menor nivel de actividad física, la monotonía en la dieta, y no incluir todos los grupos de alimentos son factores que se asocian con el estreñimiento en el adulto mayor. De acuerdo con los resultados de este estudio la menor ingestión de fibra no se relacionó con el estreñimiento.

  19. DESCRIPTION OF INDEXES BASED ON THE ADHERENCE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN DIETARY PATTERN: A REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ruiz, Angela; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra Hernández, Eduardo J; Amiano, Pilar; Azpiri, Mikel; Molina-Montes, Esther

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: los índices de calidad la de dieta son herramientas que sirven para cuantificar el cumplimiento de un patrón dietético definido. Estos índices son una medida combinada de factores dietéticos (grupos alimenticios, alimentos, nutrientes y ratios) y/o estilos de vida. La dieta mediterránea (DM) es un patrón dietético que se caracteriza por sus efectos positivos contra ciertas enfermedades crónicas. Existen numerosos índices propuestos para la valoración de este patrón dietético. Es por lo tanto conveniente una evaluación de su composición y sus efectos sobre la salud. Objetivo: el objetivo es evaluar los índices de adhesión al patrón dietético mediterráneo en cuanto a su definición, aspectos metodológicos y validación en estudios epidemiológicos. Métodos: se buscaron en PubMed estudios que desarrollaron índices de DM hasta octubre de 2014. Resultados: se identificaron un total de 22 índices, con diferencias en cuanto al número de componentes (7-28), puntuación (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 o 10, en el caso de cumplimiento), rango (0-100) y tipo de componentes (grupos de alimentos/alimentos o su combinación con nutrientes). Entre los componentes positivos, los más comunes fueron frutas y verduras, y carnes entre los negativos. También hubo diferencias con respecto a su composición y evaluación (p. ej. criterios de consumo moderado de alcohol), así como con el sistema de puntuación (en medianas, terciles o raciones establecidas). Conclusiones: esta revisión sugiere que existe una gran heterogeneidad en la definición de DM. Sería por tanto apropiado establecer con mayor claridad los componentes que deben incluirse, así como definir criterios comunes para cuantificar este patrón dietético.

  20. [RISK OF MALNUTRITION ASSOCIATED WITH POOR FOOD INTAKE, PROLONGED HOSPITAL STAY AND READMISSION IN A HIGH COMPLEXITY HOSPITAL IN COLOMBIA].

    PubMed

    Vesga Varela, Andrea Liliana; Gamboa Delgado, Edna Magaly

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición hospitalaria es altamente prevalente y se relaciona con estancias hospitalarias prolongadas, aumento de costes de la atención y complicaciones clínicas asociadas. Objetivo: determinar el riesgo de desnutrición en pacientes hospitalizados en una institución de cuarto nivel de atención y sus factores asociados. Métodos: se aplicaron los cuestionarios de la iniciativa Nutrition Day a 70 pacientes adultos de una institución de salud de alto nivel de complejidad, en Bucaramanga, Colombia. Los parámetros del estudio incluyeron datos antropométricos y demográficos, historia clínica, factores relacionados a la dieta y percepción del estado de salud. Se aplicó el Malnutrition Screenning Tool (MST, por sus siglas en inglés) para medir el riesgo de desnutrición. Para establecer las razones de prevalencia (RP) se utilizaron modelos de regresión binomial. Resultados: la edad y los días de estancia hospitalaria, en el momento de la medición basal fueron, en promedio, 61,89 ± 15,17 años y 7,96 ± 9,79 días. La prevalencia de riesgo de desnutrición fue 52,86% (IC 95%: 40,55% - 64,91%); 40,91% en mujeres y 58,33% en hombres (p = 0,175). Un 18,57% de los pacientes no consumió alimento alguno en el almuerzo. Un 40,00% de los participantes manifestó haber tenido una ingesta de alimentos menor a la normal, durante la última semana. Las variables asociadas a riesgo de desnutrición, ajustadas por edad y sexo, fueron: ingesta de alimentos al corte del estudio, reingreso y días de estancia hospitalaria al seguimiento. Conclusión: la evidencia sobre la importancia del diagnóstico temprano y el manejo nutricional adecuado de la desnutrición hospitalaria indican la necesidad de implementar intervenciones nutricionales efectivas.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF LETTUCE SALADS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS SPP.

    PubMed

    Guimarães César, Josi; Madruga Peres, Andriele; Pereira das Neves, Caroline; Tupiniquim Freitas de Abreu, Érica; Fagundes de Mello, Jozi; Nunes Moreira, Ângela; Lameiro Rodrigues, Kelly

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la procura por estabelecimientos que ofrecen alimentos prontos para consumo ha aumentado, sin embrago, los alimentos disponibles en estos locales pueden estar contaminados con microorganismos patogénicos, pudiendo causar enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos. Objetivos: evaluar la calidad microbiológica de las ensaladas de lechuga en los restaurantes de Pelotas RS Brasil, a través de los recuentos de coliformes termotolerantes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp. y la detección de Salmonella spp. Resistencia a los antimicrobianos de Staphylococcus spp. también se evalúan. Métodos: fueron colectadas 36 muestras de ensaladas de lechuga en nueve restaurantes y realizada la cuantificación de coliformes termotolerantes, Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus spp. e investigación de Salmonella spp., siguiendo la metodología del Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Los aislados de Staphylococcus spp. fueron sometidos al examen de resistencia a antimicrobianos por el método de difusión con discos. Resultados y discusión: de las 36 muestras de ensalada de lechuga, 61,1% presentaron cuantificación de coliformes termotolerantes superiores a lo permitido por la legislación brasileña, y hubo confirmación de E. coli en 5,6% de las muestras. La cuantificación de Staphylococcus coagulasa positiva representó 5,6% de los aislados y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa representó 77,8%. Todas las muestras presentaron ausencia de Salmonella spp. De los 30 aislados de Staphylococcus spp. examinados, 56,7% fueron resistentes a penicilina, 46,7% a oxacilina, 26,7% a eritromicina y 23,3% fueron multirresistentes. Conclusión: la calidad microbiológica de las ensaladas de lechuga se mostró inadecuada debido a la presencia de microorganismos patogénicos, y los aislados de Staphylococcus spp. presentaron elevado porcentaje de resistencia antimicrobiana.

  2. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Higuera Pulgar, Isabel; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; Carrascal Fabián, María Luisa; Prieto García, Alicia; Menchén Viso, Luis; Nogales Rincón, Óscar; Iglesias Hernández, Natalia Covadonga; Issasa Rodríguez, Leire; García Peris, Pilar

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: la esofagitis eosinofílica (EEo) es una enfermedad inmunoalérgica crónica emergente en adultos. Surge como respuesta disfuncional frente a los antígenos de los alimentos y se caracteriza por síntomas recurrentes de disfunción esofágica e inflamación. El tratamiento farmacológico y dietético se basa en su patogénesis y debe ser individualizado. Uno de los posibles abordajes dietéticos se basa en la eliminación empírica de alimentos que con mayor frecuencia causan EEo.Objetivo: evaluar la ingesta dietética de los pacientes con EEo que siguen la dieta de exclusión de los seis grupos de alimentos (DESGA) y conocer sus posibles carencias nutricionales.Métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo en un grupo de pacientes con EEo que inició tratamiento con DESGA durante el periodo de marzo de 2013 hasta marzo de 2015. Se evaluó la ingesta mediante registro de 72 horas. Se compararon los resultados con las referencias para población adulta sana española (23). Para el análisis estadístico se usaron los test de Mann-Whitney, Krhuskall-Wallis y Chi-cuadrado. Significación p < 0,05.Resultados: se incluyeron en el estudio 14 pacientes. En algunos de ellos, la ingesta dietética siguiendo DESGA fue deficitaria en energía, proteínas y fibra. Tampoco consiguieron cubrir las ingestas de micronutrientes de calcio, zinc, magnesio, ácido fólico, niacina y vitaminas B2 y D, teniendo en cuenta edad y sexo, el 60% de la muestra.Conclusiones: el abordaje terapéutico mediante DESGA, teniendo en cuenta las características de la dieta, debe acompañarse de una evaluación periódica del estado nutricional, que incluya micronutrientes y una pauta de suplementación específica.

  3. [Clinical-epidemiological profile of patients with suspicion of alimentary allergy in Mexico. Mexipreval Study].

    PubMed

    Medina-Hernández, Alejandra; Huerta-Hernández, Rosa Elena; Góngora-Meléndez, Marco A; Domínguez-Silva, M Gabriela; Mendoza-Hernández, David A; Romero-Tapia, Sergio J; Iduñate-Palacios, Fernando; Cisneros-Rivero, María Gozos; Covarrubias-Carrillo, Rosa Martha; Juan-Pineda, María Ángeles; Zárate-Hernández, María Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: las enfermedades alérgicas asociadas con alimentos se incrementan anualmente. Tienen una prevalencia de 2 a 4% en adultos y de 6 a 8% en niños. El cuadro clínico varía de síntomas leves hasta reacciones anafilácticas. El diagnóstico se basa en la historia clínica, pero debe demostrarse evidencia de sensibilización específica para el alergeno. Objetivo: conocer el perfil clínico-epidemiológico de los pacientes con sospecha de alergia alimentaria vistos en consultorios médicos (alergólogos y no alergólogos), así como la conducta diagnóstica y tratamiento habitual. Material y método: estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo, efectuado en consultorios de médicos que atienden pacientes con alergia alimentaria en la República Mexicana durante un año natural de abril de 2013 a marzo de 2014, mediante un muestreo por conveniencia. Resultados: se realizaron 1,971 encuestas. No se encontró diferencia en relación con el género. En relación con la edad, se reportó una distribución bimodal, con picos a los 2 y 35 años de edad. Había antecedente de alergia respiratoria en 75% de los casos. El 80% de los pacientes tuvo algún síntoma antes de buscar atención y las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes afectaron la piel (57.1%). El 5% refirió haber padecido al menos un evento de anafilaxia. Conclusión: el tipo de alimento implicado cambia con la edad. La forma de manifestación clínica más frecuente fue la cutánea, pero varía con el tipo de alimento. Aun cuando la sospecha clínica sea alta, deben utilizarse métodos específicos que confirmen el diagnóstico.

  4. Sodium intake may promote weight gain; results of the FANPE study in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Navia, Beatriz; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Perea, José Miguel; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleon; Villar-Villalba, Carmen; Labrado, Estefania; Ortega, Rosa María

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: Estudios recientes, han señalado que las dietas ricas en sodio podrían predisponer a la aparición de obesidad, ya sea de forma directa, o por estar asociadas con el consumo de alimentos que favorecen el aumento de peso. Objetivo: El objeto de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre sodio urinario y presencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, en una muestra representativa de adultos españoles, así como conocer si el mayor consumo de sal, se asocia con unos peores hábitos alimentarios y con una mayor ingesta de alimentos, que puedan predisponer a la aparición de la misma. Métodos: Se ha estudiado un grupo de 418 adultos (196 hombres y 222 mujeres) de 18 a 60 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura y se calculó, a partir de ellos, el IMC y el índice cintura/talla. Con el fin de conocer el consumo de alimentos, se aplicó un “Recuerdo de 24 horas” durante dos días consecutivos y se determinó el sodio en orina de 24 horas. Resultados: Un 34,4% de la población presentó sobrepeso y un 13,6% obesidad. Se observó una asociación positiva entre el IMC y la excreción urinaria de sodio. Los valores de sodio en orina también se relacionaron de forma directa con otros parámetros indicadores de adiposidad, como la circunferencia de la cintura o la relación cintura/talla. Tanto el peso, como el IMC, la circunferencia de la cintura y la relación cintura/talla, fueron mayores en el grupo con una excreción urinaria de sodio ≥154 mmol/l (Percentil 50) (P50). Además, las personas con una mayor eliminación urinaria de sodio presentaron una mayor ingesta calórica y un mayor consumo de alimentos totales y, en concreto, de carnes, precocinados y aperitivos. Tras ajustar por la ingesta de energía, la mayor ingesta de sodio resultó ser un factor de riesgo de tener un IMC más alto (OR = 1.0041, IC 95% 1.0015-1.0067, p < 0,01). Conclusiones: La ingesta de sal estuvo asociada con la presencia de obesidad, ya

  5. Vaccines in Argentina: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A C; Diez, R A

    2003-07-28

    In Argentina, vaccines for immuno-preventable diseases are regulated by the national regulatory agency, the Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica (the National Administration of Drugs, Food and Medical Devices, or ANMAT) created in 1992 to ensure efficacy and safety of drugs, food and medical devices available in the country, according to Law 16,463 and Decree 150/92. ANMAT has licensed 84 out of 157 vaccines registered in Argentina. Since 1994, ANMAT evaluated, approved and inspected 20 clinical trials with vaccines (1.8% of the 1062 trials approved by the agency since that time). The National System of Pharmaco-vigilance has received 318 communications of eventual adverse post-vaccination events (0.3% of the total). In addition, ANMAT provides support to the National Immunisation Programme. The current procedure is to follow international guidelines in the field, to be prepared for new, rapidly changing scenarios.

  6. [Cytogenetic findings in patients with Down's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cortés, F; Alliende, M; Curotto, B

    1990-01-01

    In order to describe the frequency of non classical forms of 21 trisomy in patients with Down's syndrome at the cytogenetic's laboratory of our institution (Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile) 201 chromosomal studies from peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients referred with a clinical diagnosis of Down's syndrome were analyzed. Among them 22 (11%) cases showed no chromosomal abnormalities, 161 (80%) had classic 21 trisomy, 7 (3.5%), showed 21 trisomy by translocation, 5 (2.5%) had 21 trisomy mosaicism, 6 (3%) showed 21 trisomy plus an autosomic balanced translocation. Male to female rate was 1.18:1 and diagnosis was done at the neonatal period in 26.8% of cases. Early recognition of the different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities in Down's syndrome is important if appropriate genetic council is the goal.

  7. Age group, menarche and regularity of menstrual cycles as efficiency predictors in the treatment of overweight.

    PubMed

    Kuzmar, Isaac; Cortés, Ernesto; Rizo, Mercedes

    2014-10-30

    Objetivo: Evaluar si existe una relacion entre los grupos de edad, la menarquia, ciclos menstruales y embarazos previos con el exito en la perdida de peso en pacientes obesos en una clinica de nutricion. Métodos: Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio entre pacientes con sobrepeso y obesidad que acudieron a una clinica de nutricion en la ciudad de Barranquilla (Colombia) con el fin de recibir un tratamiento nutricional. A todos los pacientes se les realizo un tratamiento nutricional semanal personalizado por 16 semanas continuas en los que se registraron los patrones de consumo de alimentos, medidas antropometricas, la imagen corporal y la auto-percepcion. Resultados: Se evaluaron un total de 135 pacientes. 41 (30,4%) de los cuales no completaron el estudio. 69,6% perdieron peso y 83,7% perdieron cintura. Estas perdidas son menores en edades mas avanzadas (95,5%

  8. [Sodium and potassium content of various Chilean foods].

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Araya, C; Farah, M; Zuccarelli, M T; Masson, L

    1981-03-01

    Sodium and potassium contents of 40 high-protein dietary products were determined in order to complete the Table de Composición Química se Alimentos Chilenos (Chemical Composition Table of Chilean Foods). These cations' level must be strictly controlled in diets of many renal and heart patients. In Chile, Nutritionists who are in charge of preparing these diets, do not have a national composition table related to the sodium and potassium content for most of the food products. Samples of fluid cow's milk, dried milk with different fat contents, some cheeses, hen eggs, bovine entrails, some meat derivates and several meat cuts, including bovine, pork, lamb and chicken were studied.

  9. Isostatic gravity map of the Point Sur 30 x 60 quadrangle and adjacent areas, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.T.; Morin, R.L.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of a regional effort to investigate the tectonics and water resources of the central Coast Range. This map serves as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults in the area. Local spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field (after removing variations caused by instrument drift, earth-tides, latitude, elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure), as expressed by the isostatic anomaly, reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust, which in turn can be related to rock type. Steep gradients in the isostatic gravity field often indicate lithologic or structural boundaries. Gravity highs reflect the Mesozoic granitic and Franciscan Complex basement rocks that comprise both the northwest-trending Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges, whereas gravity lows in Salinas Valley and the offshore basins reflect the thick accumulations of low-density alluvial and marine sediment. Gravity lows also occur where there are thick deposits of low-density Monterey Formation in the hills southeast of Arroyo Seco (>2 km, Marion, 1986). Within the map area, isostatic residual gravity values range from approximately -60 mGal offshore in the northern part of the Sur basin to approximately 22 mGal in the Santa Lucia Range.

  10. Tectonic setting of basic igneous and metaigneous rocks of Borborema Province, Brazil using multi-dimensional geochemical discrimination diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.

    2015-03-01

    Fifteen multi-dimensional diagrams for basic and ultrabasic rocks, based on log-ratio transformations, were used to infer tectonic setting for eight case studies of Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The applications of these diagrams indicated the following results: (1) a mid-ocean ridge setting for Forquilha eclogites (Central Ceará domain) during the Mesoproterozoic; (2) an oceanic plateau setting for Algodões amphibolites (Central Ceará domain) during the Paleoproterozoic; (3) an island arc setting for Brejo Seco amphibolites (Riacho do Pontal belt) during the Proterozoic; (4) an island arc to mid-ocean ridge setting for greenschists of the Monte Orebe Complex (Riacho do Pontal belt) during the Neoproterozoic; (5) within-plate (continental) setting for Vaza Barris domain mafic rocks (Sergipano belt) during the Neoproterozoic; (6) a less precise arc to continental rift for the Gentileza unit metadiorite/gabbro (Sergipano belt) during the Neoproterozoic; (7) an island arc setting for the Novo Gosto unit metabasalts (Sergipano belt) during Neoproterozoic; (8) continental rift setting for Rio Grande do Norte basic rocks during Miocene.

  11. Analysis of acyclic nucleoside modifications in siRNAs finds sensitivity at position 1 that is restored by 5′-terminal phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kenski, Denise M.; Cooper, Abby J.; Li, Jenny J.; Willingham, Aarron T.; Haringsma, Henry J.; Young, Tracy A.; Kuklin, Nelly A.; Jones, Jeffrey J.; Cancilla, Mark T.; McMasters, Daniel R.; Mathur, Melina; Sachs, Alan B.; Flanagan, W. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are short, double-stranded RNAs that use the endogenous RNAi pathway to mediate gene silencing. Phosphorylation facilitates loading of a siRNA into the Ago2 complex and subsequent cleavage of the target mRNA. In this study, 2′, 3′ seco nucleoside modifications, which contain an acylic ribose ring and are commonly called unlocked nucleic acids (UNAs), were evaluated at all positions along the guide strand of a siRNA targeting apolipoprotein B (ApoB). UNA modifications at positions 1, 2 and 3 were detrimental to siRNA activity. UNAs at positions 1 and 2 prevented phosphorylation by Clp1 kinase, abrogated binding to Ago2, and impaired Ago2-mediated cleavage of the mRNA target. The addition of a 5′-terminal phosphate to siRNA containing a position 1 UNA restored ApoB mRNA silencing, Ago2 binding, and Ago2 mediated cleavage activity. Position 1 UNA modified siRNA containing a 5′-terminal phosphate exhibited a partial restoration of siRNA silencing activity in vivo. These data reveal the complexity of interpreting the effects of chemical modification on siRNA activity, and exemplify the importance of using multiple biochemical, cell-based and in vivo assays to rationally design chemically modified siRNA destined for therapeutic use. PMID:19917641

  12. Early Holocene human remains from the Argentinean Pampas: additional evidence for distinctive cranial morphology of early South Americans.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Perez, S Ivan; Politis, Gustavo G

    2010-10-01

    The cranial morphology of Early Holocene American human samples is characterized by a long and narrow cranial vault, whereas more recent samples exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the morphological differences between early and late-American samples: (a) the migratory hypothesis that suggests that the morphological variation between early and late American samples was the result of a variable number of migratory waves; and (b) the local diversification hypothesis, that is, the morphological differences between early and late American samples were mainly generated by local, random (genetic drift), and nonrandom factors (selection and phenotypic plasticity). We present the first craniometric study of three early skulls from the Argentinean Pampas, dated ∼8,000 cal. years BP (Arroyo Seco 2, Chocorí, and La Tigra), and one associated with mega-faunal remains (Fontezuelas skull). In addition, we studied several Late Holocene samples. We show that the skulls from the Argentinean Pampas are morphologically similar to other Early Holocene American skulls (i.e., Lagoa Santa from Brazil, Tequendama, Checua, and Aguazuque from Colombia, Lauricocha from Peru, and early Mexicans) that exhibit long and narrow cranial vaults. These samples differ from the Late Holocene American samples that exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Our results underscore the important differences in cranial morphology between early and late-American samples. However, we emphasize the need for further studies to discuss alternative hypotheses regarding such differences.

  13. New Sesquiterpene Lactones from Illicium floridanum

    PubMed

    Schmidt; Schmidt; Müller; Peters; Fronczek; Truesdale; Fischer

    1998-02-27

    In continuation of our phytochemical investigation of Illicium floridanum Ellis (American star anise, star bush), three new sesquiterpene lactones possessing the anisatin-type carbon skeleton (8,9-seco-prezizaane skeleton), 14-acetoxy-3-oxofloridanolide (1), 13-acetoxy-14-(n-butyryloxy)floridanolide (2), and 3beta-acetoxy-14-n-butyryloxy-10-deoxyfloridanolide (3), were isolated from fruits of this plant. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR measurements. The molecular structure of 1 was obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The 11,3-delta-lactone structure of the compound previously described as debenzoyldunnianin in our previous communication, on grounds of NMR spectral evidence and X-ray crystallographic analysis is revised to a delta-lactone closed between C-11 and C-7 (compound 4). The neurotoxic sesquiterpene lactone anisatin (5) and its isomer 2alpha-hydroxyneoanisatin (3-deoxy-2alpha-hydroxyanisatin, 6) were also isolated and identified by spectroscopic means. The presence of the neurotoxin 5 in relatively high amounts in the fruits and leaves confirms and explains early reports on the toxicity of this plant.

  14. Ergosteroids V: preparation and biological activity of various D-ring derivatives in the 7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone series.

    PubMed

    Reich, Ieva L; Reich, Hans J; Kneer, Nancy; Lardy, Henry

    2002-03-01

    Our previous finding that D-ring seco derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone retained biologic activity (Reich et al., Steroids 1998;63:542-53) motivated us to synthesize and test a number of steroids in which the D-ring is retained but altered in various ways. Several new steroids were synthesized and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The availability of a number of closely related compounds allowed detailed (13)C chemical shift correlations. Using the induction of two thermogenic enzymes in rats, liver mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and cytosolic malic enzyme, as criteria of biologic activity some 30 compounds were assayed. Hydroxylation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at the 16 alpha position was previously shown to diminish activity (Lardy et al., Steroids 1998;63:158-65); the corresponding 7-oxo compound is fully active. Hydroxylation at the 15 beta position of DHEA, 7-oxo-DHEA, or 16 alpha-hydroxy-7-oxo-DHEA greatly diminished the induction of GPDH but induction of malic enzyme was retained. Most 5,15 diene steroids tested had 2 weak, or no, ability to enhance the formation of GPDH but did increase malic enzyme.

  15. [Clinical-epidemiological aspects of pityriasis versicolor (PV) in a fishing community of the semiarid region in Falcon State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta Quintero, María Eugenia; Cazorla Perfetti, Dalmiro José

    2004-12-01

    Between August 2001 and May 2002, the prevalence and several epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pityriasis versicolor (PV) were studied in 902 individuals aged two months- 60 years, 426 females and 476 males, from a fishery community of Río Seco, a semiarid region in the state of Falcon, north-western Venezuela. The overall prevalence of the disease was 15.52% (140/902). The frequency of infection was higher in females (65.7% vs. 34.3%), children under one year of age and adolescents (27.9% y 32.1%, respectively), and dark skin (67.9%). The most commonly affected anatomical areas were the face (57.9%) and thorax (27.1%). The most important clinical features of the disease were: hypochromic (91.4%), multicentric (73.6%), pruritic (92.9%), fine scaled (80.7%) and irregularly shaped borders (91.4%). On the basis of these results, the possible risk factors on transmission dynamic and maintenance of the disease endemically is discussed.

  16. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  17. Rickettsial infection in ticks infesting wild birds from two eco-regions of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernando Sebastián; Costa, Francisco Borges; Nava, Santiago; Diaz, Luiz Adrián; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2016-01-01

    Several tick-borne Rickettsia species are recognized human pathogens in Argentina. Here we evaluated rickettsial infection in ticks collected on passerine birds during 2011-2012 in two eco-regions of Argentina. The ticks were processed by molecular analysis through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection and DNA sequencing of fragments of two rickettsial genes, gltA and ompA. A total of 594 tick specimens (532 larvae and 62 nymphs), representing at least 4 species (Amblyomma tigrinum, Ixodes pararicinus, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris), were evaluated. At least one A. tigrinum larva, collected on Coryphospingus cucullatus in Chaco Seco, was infected with Rickettsia parkeri, whereas at least 12 larvae and 1 nymph of I. pararicinus, collected from Troglodytes aedon, Turdus amaurochalinus, Turdus rufiventris, C. cucullatus and Zonotrichia capensis, were infected with an undescribed Rickettsia agent, genetically related to several rickettsial endosymbionts of ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. R. parkeri is a recognized human pathogen in several American countries including Argentina, where a recent study incriminated A. tigrinum as the potential vector of R. parkeri to humans. Birds could play an important role in dispersing R. parkeri-infected A. tigrinum ticks. Additionally, we report for the first time a rickettsial agent infecting I. pararicinus ticks.

  18. Genome Mining in Streptomyces avermitilis. A Biochemical Baeyer-Villiger Reaction and Discovery of a New Branch of the Pentalenolactone Family Tree†

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiaoyang; Tetzlaff, Charles N.; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Iwatsuki, Masato; Komatsu, Mamoru; Ikeda, Haruo; Cane, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Incubation of 1-deoxy-11-oxopentalenic acid (12) with recombinant PtlE protein from Streptomyces avermitilis in the presence of NADPH and catalytic FAD gave the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation product, the previously unknown compound neopentalenolactone D (13), representing a new branch of the pentalenolactone biosynthetic pathway. The structure and stereochemistry of the derived neopentalenolactone D methyl ester (13-Me) were fully assigned by a combination of GC-MS and NMR analysis and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Neopentalenolactone D (13) was also isolated from engineered cultures of S. avermitilis from which the ptlD gene within the 13.4-kb (neo)-ptl biosynthetic gene cluster had been deleted. The ΔptlEΔptlD double deletion mutant accumulated 12, the substrate for the ptlE gene product, while the corresponding single ΔptlE mutant produced 12 as well as the related oxidation products 14 and 15. Engineered strains of S. avermitilis, SUKA5 and pKU462::ermRp-ptl cluster, harboring the complete (neo)ptl cluster produced the oxidized lactone 18 and the closely related seco acid hydrolysis products 16 and 17. PMID:19485417

  19. The Arrival of Homo sapiens into the Southern Cone at 14,000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Gustavo G.; Gutiérrez, María A.; Blasi, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P.) and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.). Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna. The occurrence of hunter-gatherers in the Southern Cone at ca. 14,000 cal yrs B.P. is added to the growing list of American sites that indicate a human occupation earlier than the Clovis dispersal episode, but posterior to the onset of the deglaciation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North America. PMID:27683248

  20. Topical anti-inflammatory potential of Physalin E from Physalis angulata on experimental dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Pinto, N B; Morais, T C; Carvalho, K M B; Silva, C R; Andrade, G M; Brito, G A C; Veras, M L; Pessoa, O D L; Rao, V S; Santos, F A

    2010-08-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of physalin E, a seco-steroid isolated from Physalis angulata L. was evaluated on acute and chronic models of dermatitis induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and oxazolone, respectively, in mouse ear. The changes in ear edema/thickness, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and histological and immunohistochemical findings were analysed, as indicators of dermal inflammation. Similar to dexamethasone, topically applied Physalin E (0.125; 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ear) potently inhibited the TPA and oxazolone-induced dermatitis, leading to substantial reductions in ear edema/thickness, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and MPO activity. These effects were reversed by mifepristone, a steroid antagonist and confirmed by immunohistochemical and histopathological analysis. The data suggest that physalin E may be a potent and topically effective anti-inflammatory agent useful to treat the acute and chronic skin inflammatory conditions.

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF DIOXINS, FURANS, AND COPLANAR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently collaborated on a statistically-based, national survey of dioxin-like compounds, including dioxins, furans, and coplanar PCBs, in the back fat from slaughtered cattle. Back fat was selected because it was a matrix that could easily be sampled by the veterinarians at the slaughter establishments. Also, since it was a matrix that was very high in fat content (in the range of 60-90% lipid), the ability to measure the dioxin-like compounds with a given sample volume was maximized. A principal use of the results of the national beef survey is to evaluate the exposure of individuals in the United States to these compounds through consumption of beef. In order to use the data for this purpose, an assumption needs to be made regarding the relationship between lipid concentrations of these compounds in back fat compared to the concentrations in meat products. However, data on the concentrations of these compounds in different cattle fat reservoirs to derive the proper assumption are sparse. There is some information on compounds with similar properties (lipophilic, persistent), including residues of HCB, PBB, and DDT, and these data do suggest that their lipid-based concentrations in various fat reservoirs in cattle are similar. In order to evaluate whether the same can be said of the dioxin-like compounds, the EPA and USDA collaborated on a seco

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  3. Persistent Contamination of Octopuses and Mussels with Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins during Spring Dinophysis Blooms in a Subtropical Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Mafra, Luiz L.; Lopes, Daiana; Bonilauri, Vanessa C.; Uchida, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and their producing phytoplankton species in southern Brazil, as well as the potential for toxin accumulation in co-occurring mussels (Perna perna) and octopuses (Octopus vulgaris). During the spring in 2012 and 2013, cells of Dinophysis acuminata complex were always present, sometimes at relatively high abundances (max. 1143 cells L−1), likely the main source of okadaic acid (OA) in the plankton (max. 34 ng L−1). Dinophysis caudata occurred at lower cell densities in 2013 when the lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and PTX-2 seco acid were detected in plankton and mussel samples. Here, we report for the first time the accumulation of DSTs in octopuses, probably linked to the consumption of contaminated bivalves. Perna perna mussels were consistently contaminated with different DSTs (max. 42 µg kg−1), and all octopuses analyzed (n = 5) accumulated OA in different organs/tissues: digestive glands (DGs) > arms > gills > kidneys > stomach + intestine. Additionally, similar concentrations of 7-O-palmytoyl OA and 7-O-palmytoly dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) were frequently detected in the hepatopancreas of P. perna and DGs of O. vulgaris. Therefore, octopuses can be considered a potential vector of DSTs to both humans and top predators such as marine mammals. PMID:26096277

  4. Delineation of Steroid-Degrading Microorganisms through Comparative Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrand, Lee H.; Cardenas, Erick; Holert, Johannes; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Steroids are ubiquitous in natural environments and are a significant growth substrate for microorganisms. Microbial steroid metabolism is also important for some pathogens and for biotechnical applications. This study delineated the distribution of aerobic steroid catabolism pathways among over 8,000 microorganisms whose genomes are available in the NCBI RefSeq database. Combined analysis of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genomes with both hidden Markov models and reciprocal BLAST identified 265 putative steroid degraders within only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which mainly originated from soil, eukaryotic host, and aquatic environments. These bacteria include members of 17 genera not previously known to contain steroid degraders. A pathway for cholesterol degradation was conserved in many actinobacterial genera, particularly in members of the Corynebacterineae, and a pathway for cholate degradation was conserved in members of the genus Rhodococcus. A pathway for testosterone and, sometimes, cholate degradation had a patchy distribution among Proteobacteria. The steroid degradation genes tended to occur within large gene clusters. Growth experiments confirmed bioinformatic predictions of steroid metabolism capacity in nine bacterial strains. The results indicate there was a single ancestral 9,10-seco-steroid degradation pathway. Gene duplication, likely in a progenitor of Rhodococcus, later gave rise to a cholate degradation pathway. Proteobacteria and additional Actinobacteria subsequently obtained a cholate degradation pathway via horizontal gene transfer, in some cases facilitated by plasmids. Catabolism of steroids appears to be an important component of the ecological niches of broad groups of Actinobacteria and individual species of Proteobacteria. PMID:26956583

  5. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of Catharanthus roseus hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase gene promoter from the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Ginis, Olivia; Courdavault, Vincent; Melin, Céline; Lanoue, Arnaud; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; St-Pierre, Benoit; Courtois, Martine; Oudin, Audrey

    2012-05-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle produces monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA) of high interest due to their therapeutical values. The terpenoid moiety of MIA is derived from the methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) and seco-iridoid pathways. These pathways are regarded as the limiting branch for MIA biosynthesis in C. roseus cell and tissue cultures. In previous studies, we demonstrated a coordinated regulation at the transcriptional and spatial levels of genes from both pathways. We report here on the isolation of the 5'-flanking region (1,049 bp) of the hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (HDS) gene from the MEP pathway. To investigate promoter transcriptional activities, the HDS promoter was fused to GUS reporter gene. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of young tobacco leaves revealed that the cloned HDS promoter displays a tissue-specific GUS staining restricted to the vascular region of the leaves and limited to a part of the vein that encompasses the phloem in agreement with the previous localization of HDS transcripts in C. roseus aerial organs. Further functional characterizations in stably or transiently transformed C. roseus cells allowed us to identify the region that can be consider as the minimal promoter and to demonstrate the induction of HDS promoter by several hormonal signals (auxin, cytokinin, methyljasmonate and ethylene) leading to MIA production. These results, and the bioinformatic analysis of the HDS 5'-region, suggest that the HDS promoter harbours a number of cis-elements binding specific transcription factors that would regulate the flux of terpenoid precursors involved in MIA biosynthesis.

  6. Phytochemical analysis of Achillea ligustica All. from Lipari Island (Aeolian Islands).

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Guarcini, Laura; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2016-01-01

    A complete chemical investigation of Achillea ligustica All. growing at Lipari (Aeolian Island, Sicily) has been carried out. Seventeen metabolites have been isolated and characterised from dichloromethane and methanol extracts of flowers and aerial parts, and GC/MS analyses of petroleum ether extracts was carried out, revealing a composition in sesquiterpenoids similar to those reported for populations from Greece, Sicily and Algeria, showing the presence of (3RS,6RS)-2,6-dimethyl-1,7-octadiene-3,6-diol (1), 2,6-dimethyl-octa-3(E),7-diene-2,6-diol (2), iso-seco-tanapartholide (3) from DCM fraction. In addition from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts, peculiar flavonoid glucuronides have been isolated: i.e. apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (12) and quercetin 3-O-glucuronide (14). These metabolites have been reported in this species for the first time. The isolated flavonoids were previously recognised in several species of this complex genus and for this reason seems to be highly retained secondary metabolites of importance from the chemotaxonomic point of view.

  7. Does biopolymers composition in seeds contribute to the flax resistance against the Fusarium infection?

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Ahmed M; Preisner, Marta; Kulma, Anna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Starzycki, Michal; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, the cultivation of fibrous flax declined heavily. There are number of reasons for that fact; one of them is flax susceptibility to the pathogen infection. Damages caused mainly by fungi from genus Fusarium lead to the significant losses when cultivating flax, which in turn discourage farmers to grow flax. Therefore, to launch the new products from flax with attractive properties there is a need to obtain new flax varieties with increased resistance to pathogens. In order to obtain the better quality of flax fiber, we previously generated flax with reduced pectin or lignin level (cell wall polymers). The modifications altered also plants' resistance to the Fusarium infection. Undoubtedly, the plant defense system is complex, however, in this article we aimed to investigate the composition of modified flax seeds and to correlate it with the observed changes in the flax resistance to the pathogen attack. In particular, we evaluated the content and composition of carbohydrates (cell wall polymers: pectin, cellulose, hemicelluloses and mucilage), and phenylpropanoid compounds (lignin, lignans, phenolics). From the obtained results we concluded that the observed changes in the vulnerability to pathogens putatively correlate with the antioxidant potential of phenylpropanoids accumulated in seeds, seco-isolariciresinol and coumaric acid diglycosides in particular, and with pectin level as a carbon source for pathogens. Surprisingly, relatively less important for the resistance was the physical barrier, including lignin and cellulose amount and cellulose structure. Certainly, the hypothesis should be verified on a larger number of genotypes.

  8. The Chemical Constituents of Uninvestigated Plants in Hiroshima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Sachiko

    2017-01-01

     Recently, the investigation of bioactive constituents from natural products has been performed extensively around the world, yet many plants remain to be studied, even now. The author is especially interested in saponins, which are included in various natural products and Kampo medicines. Based on these study aims, we isolated the chemical constituents of Dianthus japonicus and Clethra barbinervis. The aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus were isolated into nine new (1-9) and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins. The structural elucidation of their chemical constituents was examined by several spectroscopic methods. Two new C-glycosyl flavones, two glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amides and a maltol glucoside were also isolated from this plant. The isolated compounds were evaluated according to cytotoxic inhibition toward A549 cell lines. Compounds 7-9 showed moderate inhibitory activity. The isolation of a MeOH extract of Clethra barbinervis leaves led to three new triterpene glucosides, i.e. an ursane (ryobunin A, 22), a seco-ursane (ryobunin B, 23) and an oleanane-type glucoside (ryobunin C, 24), along with four known compounds.

  9. Total Synthesis and Biological Assessment of Mandelalide A.

    PubMed

    Brütsch, Tobias Michael; Bucher, Pascal; Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-22

    A new convergent total synthesis of the marine macrolide mandelalide A (1) has been developed that is based on macrocyclic ring closure by a Shiina-type macrolactonization and the construction of the requisite precursor seco acid by a highly efficient Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction between two fragments of comparable complexity. Key steps in the elaboration of the acid building block were the enantioselective, catalytic addition of a protected acetylene to crotonaldehyde and the construction of the tetrahydropyran unit that is embedded in the macrocycle by means of an acid-catalyzed Prins reaction. The synthesis of the alcohol fragment features the formation of the trisubstituted tetrahydrofuran ring through an acetal cleavage/epoxide opening cascade reaction and a rarely used radical alkynylation of a primary alkyl iodide. Intriguingly, the dihydroxylation of a terminal double bond as part of the synthesis of this building block gave the same major product for both the α- and β-AD-mix reagents, albeit with moderate or low selectivity. Synthetic mandelalide A (1) was a potent proliferation inhibitor of A549, HT460, and H1299 human lung cancer cells in vitro, but not of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. However, in no case did we observe complete cell kill even at the highest compound concentration tested (5 μm).

  10. A water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 1; South county

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Hord, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation made of rainfall, surface water, groundwater, and water quality monitoring networks in Salinas River basin in southern Monterey County, California, proposed all long-term rain gages be continued for extending short-term records and suggested the installation of two additional recording gages. Eight new storage rain gages were suggested at midaltitudes of east and west sides of Salinas Valley where few data are available. The evaluation revealed some short-term gaging stations could be discontinued because of good regression relations between them and the long-term stations Arroyo Seco near Soledad. Of 16 stations selected for the proposed network, 4 are new recording stations, 6 are new nonrecording streamflow and water quality sampling sites, 5 are existing stations, and the last is a station operated from 1969 to 1976; also included are water quality sampling stations on Lakes Nacimiento and San Antonio. The proposed groundwater network was developed from information on geology, geohydrology, and groundwater quality, high priority objectives for groundwater network, and consideration for providing good areal coverage of levels and water quality. Of 145 sites selected, 86 are existing monitoring wells. (USGS)

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of physalin E from Physalis angulata on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through inhibition of NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Jun; Yi, Lang; Wang, Qing; Xie, Bing-Bing; Dong, Yan; Sha, Cong-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Physalin E is a naturally occurring seco-steroid isolated from the stems and aerial parts of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae). This study was aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of physalin E on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the potential underlying mechanisms. The results showed that physalin E significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression and secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike dexamethasone, these effects could not be blocked by miferstone (RU486). Meanwhile, physalin E reduced the degradation of I-kappa B protein in the cytoplasm and downregulated the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 protein in the nuclear, which resulted in the inhibition of the NF-κB nuclear translocation. In conclusion, physalin E exerts its anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-induced macrophages. Physalin E can inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  12. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of phenolics and glucosinolate hydrolysis products and their synergy with streptomycin against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Maria J; Borges, Anabela; Dias, Carla; Aires, Alfredo; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo S; Simões, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial effects of different classes of important and common dietary phytochemicals (5 simple phenolics - tyrosol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid; chalcone - phloridzin; flavan-3-ol - (-) epicatechin; seco-iridoid - oleuropein glucoside; 3 glucosinolate hydrolysis products - allylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Another objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual combinations of streptomycin with the different phytochemicals on antibacterial activity. A disc diffusion assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals and 3 standard antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin) against the four bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of single compounds and dual combinations (streptomycin-phytochemicals) were quantitatively assessed by measuring the inhibitory halos. The results showed that all of the isothiocyanates had significant antimicrobial activities, while the phenolics were much less efficient. No antimicrobial activity was observed with phloridzin. In general P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive microorganism and L. monocytogenes the most resistant. The application of dual combinations demonstrated synergy between streptomycin and gallic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, allylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate against the Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, phytochemical products and more specifically the isothiocyanates were effective inhibitors of the in vitro growth of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, they can act synergistically with less efficient antibiotics to control bacterial growth.

  14. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Anacacho Limestone, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, C.S.; Sullivan, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Anacacho Limestone is exposed in outcrops between the cities of San Antonio and Del Rio, Texas. A detailed study of four outcrops (Blanco Creek section, Sabinal River section, Seco Creek section, Hondo Creek section) shows that the Anacacho Limestone rests on the Upson Clay (which contains fauna of early Campanian age) and is overlain by the Corsicana Marl (which contains fauna of early Maastrichtian age). An unconformity within the Anacacho Limestone is used herein to separate the limestone into a lower member and an upper member. The lower Anacacho member contains fauna of early Campanian age, whereas the upper Anacacho member contains fauna of middle Campanian age. The lower Anacacho member consists predominantly of wackestones to packstones, which are overlain by packstones to grainstones capped by the unconformity. This unconformity is interpreted as a marine flooding surface, delineating a transition from carbonate grainstones deposited in shallow water (<30 m depth) to a chalk deposited in deeper water. Above the unconformity, the upper Anacacho member is characterized by a chalk, overlain by wackestones and packstones. The uppermost section of the Anacacho Limestone consists of packstones and grainstones with abundant and diverse fossils. Most of the Anacacho Limestone developed in relatively shallow water (<50 m depth) leeward of a large carbonate build-up (possibly a rudistid reef) that now comprises the Anacacho Mountains. The environment, however, was open to marine water throughout deposition of the Anacacho Limestone. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Comamonas testosteroni as an androgen degrader in sewage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yang, Fu-Chun; Ismail, Wael; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shih, Chao-Jen; Wu, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1 mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87–96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage. PMID:27734937

  16. Who pays to close a nuke

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualetti, M.J.; Rothwell, G.

    1993-01-15

    Treating nuclear power plant decommissioning as an externality helps reduce the costs of the decisions we will be forced to make soon. According to the British magazine Atom, more than 60 nuclear power plants will be candidates for decommissioning worldwide by 2000. Another 350 commercial reactors worldwide will become eligible for decommissioning two decades after that. The United States has about one-quarter of the world's commercial reactors, many of which are nearing the end of their licensed life. While various organizations and government agencies debate the future direction of nuclear power in the United States, reactor retirements already are starting to accumulate. Vermont Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Indian Point 1, Dresden 1, LaCrosse, Peach Bottom 1, Ft. St. Vrain, Three Mile Island 2, Rancho Seco, and Humboldt Bay 3 all have been announced for decommissioning. Shippingport Atomic Station, near Pittsburgh, has been dismantled and removed. Many questions are emerging as the specter of abandoned hulks and mountains of radioactive debris begins to loom on the horizon. A useful way to address some of the problems of nuclear decommissioning is through the work of University of Chicago Professor Ronald Coase. Coase received the Nobel Prize in economics in October 1991 primarily for his work on externalities; that is, the by-products of production or consumption activities that affect others besides the producer or consumer.

  17. Microbiological transformation of two 15α-hydroxy-ent-kaur-9(11),16-diene derivatives by the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Guillermo, Ricardo; Amaro-Luis, Juan M

    2013-05-01

    The incubation of 15α-hydroxy-ent-kaur-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid (15α-hydroxy-grandiflorenic acid) with the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi gave as main metabolite its 3β,6β-dihydroxy derivative, which by an oxidative decarboxylation afforded a 19-nor compound with a 4,18-double bond. Other substances obtained were a 3α-hydroxy-19,6α-lactone, 3β-hydroxy-6β,7β-epoxy-ent-kaur-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid and 3β-hydroxy-6-oxo-ent-kaur-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid. Moreover, the biotransformation of 15α,18-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-9(11),16-diene led to the isolation of the corresponding 3β-, 6β-, 7α- and 12β-hydroxy derivatives. Two metabolites formed by 16β,17-epoxidation of the last compound and of the substrate were also obtained. These results indicated that the presence of the 9,11-double bond in the substrate impedes its 7β-hydroxylation, which is necessary for the formation of gibberellins and seco-ring B ent-kaurenoids. However, this 9,11-unsaturation does not hinder a 6,7-dehydrogenation and further 6β,7β-epoxidation, characteristic steps of the kaurenolide biosynthetic pathway.

  18. Morphological variation in the tropical anole, Anolis casildae (Squamata: Polychrotidae).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, K E; Roberto Ibáñez, D; Jaramillo, C A; Lips, K R

    2001-06-01

    We describe morphological variation (scalation and coloration) observed among eight individuals of the Panamanian lizard species Anolis casildae. This variation was not observed in the holotype and aids in identification of this recently described species (originally described on the basis of a single, male specimen). This species occurs only in the Reserva Forestal Fortuna (Chiriquí Province) and the adjacent Bosque Protector Palo Seco (Bocas del Toro Province) in western Panama. Anolis casildae can be distinguished from all other Panamanian anole species via six features: (1) two enlarged superciliary scales (the first larger than the second); (2) an anterior nasal scale in contact with the rostral scale or separated from the rostral by one scale; (3) 6-8 sublabial scales to the center of the eye; (4) 3-4 scales between the supraobital semicircles; (5) unique coloration (4-6 oblique brown bands interspersed by blue-outlined yellow patches; dewlap is a dirty cream color with broad yellow scale rows irregularly interspersed with smaller emerald green scales) and (6) A. casildae occurs from 1,050 to 1,400 m in the Cordillera Central. We also compare our natural history observations of A. casildae to a similar large anole, A. frenatus, a species which we believe A. casildae to be closely related.

  19. Persistent Contamination of Octopuses and Mussels with Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins during Spring Dinophysis Blooms in a Subtropical Estuary.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Luiz L; Lopes, Daiana; Bonilauri, Vanessa C; Uchida, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-18

    This study investigates the occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and their producing phytoplankton species in southern Brazil, as well as the potential for toxin accumulation in co-occurring mussels (Perna perna) and octopuses (Octopus vulgaris). During the spring in 2012 and 2013, cells of Dinophysis acuminata complex were always present, sometimes at relatively high abundances (max. 1143 cells L-1), likely the main source of okadaic acid (OA) in the plankton (max. 34 ng L-1). Dinophysis caudata occurred at lower cell densities in 2013 when the lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and PTX-2 seco acid were detected in plankton and mussel samples. Here, we report for the first time the accumulation of DSTs in octopuses, probably linked to the consumption of contaminated bivalves. Perna perna mussels were consistently contaminated with different DSTs (max. 42 µg kg-1), and all octopuses analyzed (n = 5) accumulated OA in different organs/tissues: digestive glands (DGs) > arms > gills > kidneys > stomach + intestine. Additionally, similar concentrations of 7-O-palmytoyl OA and 7-O-palmytoly dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) were frequently detected in the hepatopancreas of P. perna and DGs of O. vulgaris. Therefore, octopuses can be considered a potential vector of DSTs to both humans and top predators such as marine mammals.

  20. Study of ultrasonically assisted turning of stainless steel and brass alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdy, S. M. A.; Gouda, M. A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonically assisted turning (UAT) is a hybrid machining technique employing high-frequency small-amplitude vibration superimposed on the tool movement during turning. It is superior to conventional turning (CT) with regard to cutting forces, surface quality and machining accuracy. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different machining parameters on stainless steel and brass alloys, during both UAT and CT, and evaluate improvements of cutting forces, surface roughness, surface integrity, and machining accuracy. An experimental setup for UAT at Loughborough University was used to accomplish this investigation. This setup used a Picoscope data acquisition add-on with Kistler three-component dynamometer, Seco DNMG cutting inserts were utilized, a surface tester from Taylor Hobson was used to evaluate surface roughness, Alicona Infinite Focus microscope was used to evaluate surface roughness and surface integrity, while Metris CMM with Renishaw probe was employed to evaluate machining accuracy. Cylindrical workpieces of steel and brass alloys were turned under CT and UAT conditions; cutting forces, surface roughness, and machining accuracy produced with both techniques where compared. Significant improvements were noticed in the ultrasonically assisted machining when compared to the CT for both alloys.

  1. Brief account of the effect of overcooling accidents on the integrity of PWR pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The occurrence in recent years of several (PWR) accident initiating events that could lead to severe thermal shock to the reactor pressure vessel, and the growing awareness that copper and nickel in the vessel material significantly enhance radiation damage in the vessel, have resulted in a reevaluation of pressure-vessel integrity during postulated overcooling accidents. Analyses indicate that the accidents of concern are those involving both thermal shock and pressure loadings, and that an accident similar to that at Rancho Seco in 1978 could, under some circumstances and at a time late in the normal life of the vessel, result in propagation of preexistent flaws in the vessel wall to the extent that they might completely penetrate the wall. More severe accidents have been postulated that would result in even shorter permissible lifetimes. However, the state-of-the-art fracture-mechanics analysis may contain excessive conservatism, and this possibility is being investigated. Furthermore, there are several remedial measures, such as fuel shuffling, to reduce the damage rate, and vessel annealing, to restore favorable material properties, that may be practical and used if necessary. 5 figures.

  2. Ground temperature regime and periglacial dynamics in three different sites from the summit area in Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) from 2006 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Oliva, Marc; Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ground temperatures and its control on snow cover are crucial factors conditioning the activity of current periglacial processes in the highest lands of Sierra Nevada (Betique Range, Iberian Peninsula). We present summary results of the monitoring period from September 2006 to August 2012 in three sites with contrasting topography, aspect and snow cover. Temperatures loggers have recorded data at 2 hours time lapse at: a) Veleta glacial cirque, an environment with marginal permafrost and a small active rock glacier in it (3107 m asl), b) the flat summit plateau of Collado de los Machos (3297 m) characterized by the existence of inactive sorted circles with scarce snow cover, and c) the southern cirque of Rio Seco, an area with moderate snow cover and widespread solifluction lobes (3105 m). We discuss the periglacial activity in the three study sites in relation with ground temperatures. Results show evidence of the decisive control played by snow cover (duration and thickness) in the thermal regime of the ground (rhythm, depth and intensity of freezing). Only the site in the Veleta cirque has revealed the existence of permafrost, which is inexistent at the summit plateaus and southern cirques. The freezing and thawing of the ground depends substantially on the geographical characteristics of the sites, although a common pattern is detected: the thawing occurs more rapidly than the freezing and the number of freeze-thaw cycles in air temperatures is substantially higher than in ground temperatures.

  3. Applications of Anabolic Vitamin D Analogs as Countermeasures to Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karin, Norman J.

    1998-01-01

    The experiments in Round 2 were designed to extend the results of our efforts in Round 1 which led us to hypothesize that the seco-steroid, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[1,25(OH)2D3], acts in synergy with parathyroid hormone (PTH) to regulate bone calcium homeostasis. Our work centered on one particular target of 1,25(OH)2D3 action, the voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC's), which are activated acutely by this steroid within milliseconds of exposure . A second area of research focused on the effects of mechanical strain on VSCC expression in bone. These experiments were performed in collaboration with Dr. Steven Goldstein (Univ. Michigan), who generously provided RNA extracted from dog bones that had been exposed to mechanical strain in vivo. Our results suggest that mechanical loading elevated VSCC expression in the long bones from 3 of the 6 animals tested. A second line of experimentation, carried out in collaboration with Dr. Randall Duncan, a NASA-funded investigator in Indianapolis, centered on RT-PCR analysis of effects of mechanical strain on Ca2(+) channel expression in cultured bone cells. Compared to unstrained controls, the expression of vitamin-D-sensidve Ca2(+) channels is elevated 3- to 5-fold over a 24 hr period.

  4. Ursane-type nortriterpenes with a five-membered A-ring from Rubus innominatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Tong, Ling; Feng, Yuanli; Wu, Jizhou; Zhao, Xiaoya; Ruan, Hanli; Pi, Huifang; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Two nortriterpenes (rubuminatus A and B), which contain a distinctive contracted a five-membered A-ring ursane-type skeleton, and six triterpenes along with 17 known triterpenes were isolated from the roots of Rubus innominatus S. Moore. These structures were determined to be 19α-hydroxy-2-oxo-nor- A(3)-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 1β,19α-dihydroxy-2-oxo-nor-A(3)-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 1β,2α,3α,19α-tetrahy droxyurs-12-en-23-formyl-28-oic acid, 1β,2α,3α,19α,23- pentahydroxyurs-11-en-28-oic acid, 1-oxo-siaresinolic acid, 2α,3α-dihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-19β,28-olide, 1β,2α,3α-trihydroxy-19-oxo- 18,19-seco-urs-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid, and 2-O-benzoyl alphitolic acid based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. In vitro anti-inflammatory abilities to modulate the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages of the compounds were determined. Rubuminatus A and B, as well as 1-oxo-siaresinolic acid and 2α,3α-dihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-19β,28-olide, exhibited significant inhibitory effects on these cytokines.

  5. An entomological and seroepidemiological study of the vectorial-transmission risk of Chagas disease in the coast of northern Chile.

    PubMed

    González, C R; Reyes, C; Canals, A; Parra, A; Muñoz, X; Rodríguez, K

    2015-12-01

    Four species of triatomines are known from Chile: Triatoma infestans Klug, Mepraia spinolai Porter, M. gajardoi Frías, Henry & González, and M. parapatrica Frías (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the last three are endemic. The geographical distribution of M. gajardoi includes the coastal areas in the north of Chile between 18° and 21°S, an area with both a resident workforce and summer-season visitors. A study was developed to assess the risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by M. gajardoi in hut settlements on the coast of the Tarapacá Region, in particular in Caleta San Marcos and Caleta Río Seco. The study comprised fingerstick sampling of 95 persons, venous samples from 29 domestic dogs and capture of 52 triatomines, from both fishing coves. The samples were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The results show that, of the total number of persons studied, 100% were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) antibodies, 10.34% of canids were positive for the antibody and 5.8% of M. gajardoi were infected to the PCR technique. The presence of this species in areas close to human settlements constitutes a risk to human populations established on the coast of northern Chile.

  6. The role of new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid and known eudesmane derivatives from the red alga Laurencia obtusa as potential antifungal-antitumour agents.

    PubMed

    Alarif, Walied M; Al-Footy, Khalid O; Zubair, Muhammad Sulaiman; Halid Ph, Mohamed; Ghandourah, Mohamed A; Basaif, Salim A; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Badria, Farid A

    2016-01-01

    A new eudesmane sesquiterpenoid, eudesma-4(15),7-diene-5,11-diol (1) along with the known trinor-sesquiterene, teuhetenone (2), and a seco-eudesmane sesquiterpene, chabrolidione B (3), have been isolated from the Red Sea red alga Laurencia obtusa. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antifungal and cytotoxic activities of the isolated metabolites were tested against several fungi, yeast and human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Compounds 1 and 3 showed a much better activity [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 2.9 μM] than that of amphotericin B (MIC: 4.6 μM). Interestingly, compound 2, the least active antifungal compound, retained the high anticancer activity against MCF-7 (22 μM) in comparison with cisplatin (59 μM), which was determined by employing lactate dehydrogenase assay. Compounds 1-3 are recorded here for the first time from algal flora. The chemotaxonomic importance of the isolated metabolites was discussed.

  7. Sesquiterpene constituents from the essential oils of the liverworts Mylia taylorii and Mylia nuda.

    PubMed

    von Reuss, Stephan H; Wu, Chia-Li; Muhle, Hermann; König, Wilfried A

    2004-08-01

    The essential oils and extracts of Mylia taylorii and M. nuda were investigated by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy and chemical correlations. Beside several known compounds 13 new constituents including three new carbon skeletons could be identified. Four hydrocarbons with a molecular formula of C15H22 (m/z 202) were identified as myli-4(15)-ene (1), aromadendra-1(10),4(15)-diene (19), aromadendra-4,10(14)-diene (20) and aromadendra-4,9-diene (21). Three oxaspiro-compounds were identified as 7-epi-bourbon-3-en-5,11-oxide (22), guai-3,10(14)-dien-5,11-oxide (23) and guai-3,9-dien-5,11-oxide (24). The absolute configuration of myli-4(15)-en-3-one (5) could be established by chemical correlation. Together with alpha-taylorione (7) the corresponding 6,11-seco-compound taylopyran (25) with a new carbon skeleton was identified which serves as a precursor to taylocyclane (26) and taylofuran (27). Taynudol (28) contains a new carbon skeleton with a cyclobutenyl structure.

  8. Mechanical cutting of irradiated reactor internal components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael G.

    2008-01-15

    Mechanical cutting methods to volume reduce and package reactor internal components are now a viable solution for stakeholders challenged with the retirement of first generation nuclear facilities. The recent completion of the removal of the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) from within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant demonstrates that unlike previous methods, inclusive of plasma arc and abrasive water-jet cutting, mechanical cutting minimizes exposure to workers, costly water cleanup, and excessive secondary waste generation. Reactor internal components were segmented, packaged, and removed from the reactor building for shipment or storage, allowing the reactor cavity to be drained and follow-on reactor segmentation activities to proceed in the dry state. Area exposure rates at the work positions during the segmentation process were generally 1 mR per hr. Radiological exposure documented for the underwater segmentation processes totaled 13 person rem. The reactor internals weighing 343,000 pounds were segmented into over 200 pieces for maximum shipping package efficiency and produced 5,600 lb of stainless steel chips and shavings which were packaged in void spaces of existing disposal containers, therefore creating no additional disposal volume. Because no secondary waste was driven into suspension in the reactor cavity water, the water was free released after one pass through a charcoal bed and ion exchange filter system. Mechanical cutting techniques are capable of underwater segmentation of highly radioactive components on a large scale. This method minimized radiological exposure and costly water cleanup while creating no secondary waste.

  9. Growth and toxin production in the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus polynesiensis (Dinophyceae) in culture.

    PubMed

    Chinain, Mireille; Darius, H Taiana; Ung, André; Cruchet, Philippe; Wang, Zhihong; Ponton, Dominique; Laurent, Dominique; Pauillac, Serge

    2010-10-01

    The growth and toxin production in a clonal strain of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis, TB-92, was examined in batch culture conditions. The mean growth rate at exponential phase was (0.13+/-0.03)division day(-1). Regardless of the age of cultures, all mice injected with dichloromethanolic and methanolic extracts showed symptoms specific to ciguatoxin (CTX) and maitotoxin (MTX) bioactivity, respectively. The highest total toxicity assessed in TB-92 cultures was 10.4 x 10(-4) mouse unit cell(-1). The toxin production pattern reveals an enhanced cellular toxin content with the age of the culture. CTX- and MTX-like compounds each accounted for approx. 50% of the total toxicity of TB-92 cultures, except in aged cells where CTXs were dominant. The high ciguatoxic activity of TB-92 was further confirmed in dichloromethanolic extracts by means of the receptor-binding assay. The highest CTX level monitored at late stationary phase was (11.9+/-0.4)pg P-CTX-3C equiv cell(-1). Further HPLC and LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of five CTXs congeners in lipid-soluble extracts, i.e. CTX-3C, -3B, -4A, -4B and M-seco-CTX-3C, and of new CTX congeners. Toxin composition comparison between two G. polynesiensis strains suggests that the toxin profile is a stable characteristic in this species. G. polynesiensis clones also proved inherently more toxic than other Gambierdiscus species isolated from other geographical areas.

  10. Relationship between High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprints and Uric Acid-Lowering Activities of Cichorium intybus L.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chun-Sheng; Zhang, Bing; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Wang, Xue-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Sun, Xiao-Xia; Xiao, Ming-Liang

    2015-05-22

    This study aimed to explore the spectrum-effect relationships between high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and the uric acid-lowering activities of chicory. Chemical fingerprints of chicory samples from ten different sources were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and then investigated by similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Pharmacodynamics experiments were conducted in animals to obtain the uric acid-lowering activity information of each chicory sample. The spectrum-effect relationships between chemical fingerprints and the uric acid-lowering activities of chicory were established by canonical correlation analysis. The structures of potential effective peaks were identified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that a close correlation existed between the spectrum and effect of chicory. Aesculin, chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid A/B/C and 13,14-seco-stigma5(6),14(15)-diene-3α-ol might be the main effective constituents. This work provides a general model of the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and uric acid-lowering activities to study the spectrum-effect relationships of chicory, which can be used to discover the principle components responsible for the bioactivity.

  11. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la cuantificación y registro de la ingesta alimentaria del paciente hospitalizado es clave dentro del plan de cuidado nutricional. Objetivo: evaluar la validez de un cuestionario semicuantitativo de valoración del consumo comparado con una técnica de registro de alimentos por observación y pesada de los platos incluidos en la dieta hospitalaria. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual. Las técnicas de valoración del consumo que se compararon fueron un registro por doble pesada y un cuestionario semicuantitativo por observación de la ingesta de cinco categorías (todo [> 80%], casi todo [80-60%], la mitad [60-40%], casi nada [40-20%] o nada [< 20%]), ambas realizadas por un dietista-nutricionista. La comparación entre ambas herramientas fue realizada con el índice kappa con ponderación cuadrática e intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: fueron realizadas un total de 1.980 valoraciones. Se observó con el cuestionario semicuantitativo que en el 50% de los casos se ingirió todo, en el 19% casi todo, en el 13% la mitad, en el 9% menos de la mitad y en el 9% nada. La mediana de la ingesta por doble pesada de alimentos fue de 76,8 (RIC 45,8)%. Se observó que existió un acuerdo satisfactorio entre la técnica de doble pesada y la valoración visual del consumo con un valor κ = 0,907 (IC 95% 0,894-0,925). Conclusión: la escala visual empleada en este estudio permite cuantificar la ingesta real del paciente de forma precisa y adecuada por personal cualificado.

  12. Eating habits, nutritional status and quality of life of patients in late postoperative gastric bypass Roux-Y.

    PubMed

    Prazeres de Assis, Priscila; Alves da Silva, Silvia; Sousa Vieira de Melo, Camila Yandara; de Arruda Moreira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos alimenticios, el estado nutricional y la calidad de vida de pacientes en el periodo posoperatorio de la cirugía bariátrica de Fobi-Capella. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico transversal en 66 pacientes sometidos a cirugía bariátrica y monitorizados por el personal del Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz (HUOC), en el noreste de Brasil. Se aplicó un cuestionario que contemplaba características sociodemográficas e información demográfica relativa a los hábitos alimenticios, y también se evaluaba la calidad de vida por el método BAROS. Resultados: En la tolerancia a los alimentos, en la categoría de «difícil de comer» se notificaron alimentos tales como carne, pollo, arroz, ensalada cruda y maíz y en la «no ingeridos» estaban maíz, seguido de caramelos, carne y pollo. Hubo una reducción del peso corporal total y del IMC y, en consecuencia, un aumento del PEP% con el tiempo. Con respecto a la calidad de vida, se pudo observar que la mayor parte de los pacientes la clasificaron como «buena» en ambos grupos de 6-18 meses y de > 18 meses. Conclusiones: Nuestro resultados demuestran que la cirugía bariátrica produjo unos efectos satisfactorios en esta población; sin embargo, existe la necesidad de una educación nutricional continuada, especialmente en el grupo de más de 18 meses tras la cirugía.

  13. Availability of food stores and consumption of fruit, legumes and vegetables in a Brazilian urban area.

    PubMed

    Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Loures Mendes, Larissa; Teixeira Caiaffa, Waleska; Carvalho Malta, Deborah; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2014-12-17

    Antecedentes: El ambiente alimentar puede tener una influencia importante en la disponibilidad y el acceso a ellos, éste desempeña un papel importante en la salud de las poblaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el consumo de frutas, legumbres y hortalizas (FLV) de adultos y la disponibilidad de las tiendas de alimentos en el contexto del espacio socioeconómico y geográfico en el territorio de las unidades básicas de salud en una capital brasileña. Métodos: El estudio se desarrolló a partir de la información obtenida a través de la Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo para Enfermedades no Transmisibles Prevención de Encuesta Telefónica (VIGITEL), utilizando muestras de la ciudad de Belo Horizonte en los años de 2008 a 2010. Un total de 5.611 registros fueron geo-codificados usando el código postal. Una puntuación fue creada en base a la frecuencia semanal y diario del consumo de FLV . El área de las unidades básicas de salud se utilizó como unidad vecinal. Se utilizaron los datos geo-referenciados de los comercios de venta de comida en la ciudad y el barrio. Resultados: A medida que aumentaba la renta del barrio, hubo un aumento en la distribución de los establecimientos de comida e bebidas para todas las categorías estudiadas. Se observaron las puntuaciones más altas de consumo FLV en zonas con niveles de ingresos más altos. Conclusión: La mayor concentración de tiendas de alimentos e bebidas e mayor puntuación de consumo, independientemente da calidad de los productos ofrecidos, fue observado en las áreas geográficas con mayor poder adquisitivo.

  14. [Capacity analysis of health food choice by reference to consumers in two models of nutritional labeling; crossover study].

    PubMed

    Babio, Nancy; López, Leonor; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar dos modelos de etiquetado nutricional en la parte frontal del envase alimentario, en referencia a la capacidad de los consumidores de realizar elecciones alimentarias más cercanas a las recomendaciones nutricionales. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio aleatorizado cruzado en 32 adultos (18 a 65 años) de ambos sexos. Los participantes fueron aleatorizados a realizar dos condiciones experimentales utilizando el sistema semáforo nutricional (SSN) o el sistema monocromo (S-M), en las que debían escoger sus elecciones de alimentos dentro de un menú cerrado según la información del etiquetado nutricional. Para cada alimento, el participante tenía tres opciones con diferente composición nutricional. Se calculó el promedio de energía, grasa total y saturada, azúcar y sal a partir de las opciones elegidas por cada participante. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas con respecto a sexo, edad, IMC ni nivel socioeconómico en función del orden de inicio de la condición experimental. Los sujetos tendieron a escoger una dieta con un menor, pero no significativo contenido en energía de 23,0 ± 67,5 kcal (P = 0,063) y un significativo menor contenido en azúcares de 3,5 ± 9,2 g; P < 0.001 y de 0,6 ± 1 g; P < 0,003 en sal. Conclusiones: En comparación con el sistema monocromo, el sistema del semáforo nutricional puede ayudar probablemente a realizar elecciones alimentarias con menor cantidad en azúcares y sal en una situación similar a la habitual de compra en la que existe una limitación de tiempo.

  15. [Nutrition and cancer].

    PubMed

    Hernando Requejo, Ovidio; Rubio Rodríguez, Ma Carmen

    2015-07-18

    Introducción: hoy día se conoce cómo la dieta juega un importante papel tanto en la producción como en la prevención del cáncer. Métodos: se ha realizado una completa revisión bibliográfica para intentar conocer mejor aquellas dietas que pueden ser protectoras contra el cáncer o aquellas con más riesgo de producir cáncer. Resultados: entre los alimentos que pueden proteger de la aparición del cáncer destacan las frutas y verduras, también la soja y sus derivados y los pescados han mostrado protección frente a algunos tipos de tumores. Como claros factores que aumentan el riesgo de cáncer caben destacar la carne roja o procesada, los lácteos y el alcohol. El papel protector de vitaminas, antioxidantes y otros micronutrientes ha de ser explorado más a fondo. La obesidad parece un factor etiológico claro, asimismo la restricción calórica podría, de forma antagónica a la obesidad, proteger contra la aparición de tumores en estudios de laboratorio, pero se requerirán estudios clínicos para validar esta hipótesis. Conclusiones: el control de la dieta y la selección adecuada de los alimentos sería un método muy útil y de bajo coste en la prevención de tumores.

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martin, Ismael; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Paredes Barato, Víctor; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: la tradición de la comida picante desempeña un papel muy importante en el gusto por este tipo de comida y su tolerancia. Las preferencias alimentarias muestran influencia genética y ambiental.Objetivos: estudiar la tolerancia y el gusto por el picante de tres poblaciones, y la influencia hereditaria y del ambiente.Métodos:se realizó una encuesta a 522 sujetos, de tres continentes (Asia, Europa y Latinoamérica) en tres idiomas (español, inglés y chino) a través de Internet. Se realizaron preguntas acerca de la tolerancia al picante, el gusto por los alimentos picantes, su uso, la edad de comienzo de consumo, el gusto del padre y de la madre y si ella lo consumía durante el embarazo y/o lactancia.Resultados: existe diferencia entre el gusto por el picante del hijo y el sexo (p < 0,001), la tolerancia (p < 0,001) y, solo en el sexo femenino, el gusto de la madre por el picante (p < 0,001), su consumo durante el embarazo (p < 0,001) y la lactancia (p = 0,005) y el gusto del padre por el picante (p = 0,003). Existe correlación entre el continente de residencia (p = 0,007) y de nacimiento (p = 0,012) y la tolerancia a los alimentos picantes.Conclusión: la influencia de los progenitores, el género y la composición corporal se relacionaron con gustos y tolerancias diferentes.

  17. [Information perceived by consumers through food labeling on fats: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-11-22

    Objetivo: Revisar la literatura científica relacionada con la información que reciben los consumidores sobre los distintos tipos de grasas de los alimentos a través del etiquetado. Método: Revisión sistemática de la documentación obtenida en las bases de datos MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, FSTA, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS y LILACS; hasta septiembre 2013. Los términos utilizados, como descriptores y texto libre, fueron: «dietary fats», «dietary fats, unsaturated» y «food labeling». Se utilizó el límite «humanos». Resultados: Se recuperaron 549 referencias, de las que se seleccionaron 36 artículos tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Los principales efectos relacionados con la información del etiquetado estuvieron relacionados con el precio y lugar de compra/consumo, las dimensiones sensoriales, los hábitos dietéticos, la interpretación de logotipos y la educación. Conclusiones: El etiquetado sobre el contenido de grasa en los alimentos es una buena ayuda a la hora de tomar decisiones de consumo. La educación nutricional y de los significados de las etiquetas es fundamental y se mostró efectiva aunque no se haya logrado el “consumidor informado”. Se deberían dirigir las acciones formativas hacia las creencias y actitudes anteriores de los consumidores para hacer coherente el mensaje de salud y alimentación. Las etiquetas deberían ser homogéneas y reales a la hora de expresar composición o exponer logotipos. Los mensajes incluidos en el empaquetado deben ser claros y no inducir a engaño.

  18. [Nutritional characteristics of school lunch menus in Biscay (Basque Country, Spain) in 2012/2013].

    PubMed

    Sancho Uriarte, Patricia; Cirarda Larrea, Francisco Borja; Valcárcel Alonso, Santiago

    2014-09-28

    Introducción: Uno de los elementos abordados desde la Estrategia para la Nutrición, Actividad física y prevención de la Obesidad y Salud (NAOS) es la alimentación en el medio escolar. Objetivo: Evaluar, tomando como referencia el conjunto mínimo de indicadores y recomendaciones de la Estrategia NAOS, una muestra de menús distribuidos en varios comedores escolares de Bizkaia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal basado en la revisión teórica de los menús basales distribuidos por siete cocinas centrales que abastecen a 324 centros escolares (80.969 alumnos). Se determinó y valoró la frecuencia semanal de varios grupos de alimentos; los documentos de referencia fueron “Evaluación y Seguimiento de la Estrategia NAOS: Conjunto de Indicadores” y las recomendaciones del “Documento de Consenso sobre la alimentación en los centros educativos”. Resultados y discusión: El 100% de los comedores cumple con los mínimos relativos a legumbres, pescados y precocinados y con las recomendaciones relativas a carne y productos cárnicos. Si bien se aproximan bastante, ninguno cumple con los mínimos de fruta, verdura o con la información nutricional complementaria. Se han evidenciado diferencias entre las recomendaciones de La Estrategia NAOS y las condiciones exigidas por el Departamento de Educación, así como dificultades en la cuantificación y clasificación de varios alimentos. Conclusiones: Se recomienda incrementar el contenido en frutas, verduras, huevos y pescado azul de los menús escolares, así como ofrecer a las familias una información de los menús más detallada.

  19. [Association between food behavior and hypercholesterolemia-LDL in university students].

    PubMed

    Salazar Ruiz, Erika Nohemi; Márquez Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Vizmanos Lamotte, Bárbara; Altamirano Martínez, Martha Betzaida; Salgado Bernabé, Aralia Berenice; Salgado Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz Valle, José Francisco; Parra Rojas, Isela

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la hipercolesterolemia-LDL (H-LDL) se asocia a mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. La asociacion entre H-LDL y alimentacion se ha centrado en aspectos nutrimentales. El estudio de la asociacion entre el comportamiento alimentario (CA) y la H-LDL en estudiantes universitarios podria brindar elementos de correccion y/o prevencion nutricional en esta poblacion. Objetivo: evaluar la asociacion entre CA e H-LDL en estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado en una muestra de 167 estudiantes de la Universidad Autonoma de Guerrero, Mexico. Se midio el colesterol-LDL serico, considerandose hipercolesterolemia una concentracion ≥100 mg/dL. El CA se evaluo mediante un cuestionario previamente validado. La asociacion entre CA e H-LDL se determino con una regresion logistica bivariada, ajustando por sexo, edad, nivel socioeconomico, tabaquismo, ingesta de energia, actividad fisica, presencia o no de obesidad y antecedentes familiares. Resultados: consumir el almuerzo (colacion matutina) se asocio con un 63% de menos riesgo de H-LDL (OR 0,37; 95% IC 0,15, 0,90). Ingerir alimentos fuera de casa una o dos veces a la semana, se asocio con cuatro veces mas riesgo de H-LDL (R 5,14; 95% IC 1,12, 23,62). Los sujetos que referian consumir alimentos en exceso (1 o 2, y 3 o mas veces/semana) tuvieron mayor riesgo de H-LDL (OR 3,26; 95% IC 1,10, 9,64 y OR 10,52; 95% IC 2,66, 41,60, respectivamente). Conclusiones: algunos CA habituales de los estudiantes universitarios de Guerrero implican mayor riesgo de H-LDL. Por ello, promover acciones correctivas y/o preventivas centradas en estos CA podria mejorar la salud de esta poblacion.

  20. [CONSUMPTION OF OMEGA- 3 FATTY ACIDS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS FROM SONORA, MEXICO].

    PubMed

    Rubi Vargas, María; González Lomelí, Daniel; Terrazas Medina, Efraín A; Peralta Peña, Sandra L; Jordán Jinez, Ma Lourdes; Ruiz Paloalto, Ma Laura; Cupul Uicab, Lea A

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: estudios recientes sugieren que los niveles bajos de acidos grasos poliinsaturados omega-3 se relacionan con una mayor prevalencia de depresion; sin embargo, los resultados no son concluyentes. Objetivo: evaluar la asociacion entre el bajo consumo de acidos grasos omega-3 y la presencia de sintomas depresivos en jovenes universitarios del noroeste de Mexico. Métodos: se realizo un estudio transversal en una muestra de 706 universitarios de 18 a 24 anos de edad de ambos sexos. La presencia de sintomatologia depresiva se estimo con la escala de Depresion del Centro de Estudios Epidemiologicos (CES-D) empleando un punto de corte ≥ 24. El consumo semanal de acidos grasos alfalinolenico (ALA) y de eicosapentaenoico (EPA) mas docosahexaenoico (DHA) en mg/g de alimento se estimo por medio de un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos validado para la poblacion mexicana. La asociacion del consumo de omega-3 con la presencia de sintomas depresivos se evaluo con modelos de regresion logistica. Resultados: el 67% de los participantes fueron mujeres; en general, el 16,6% presentaron sintomatologia depresiva. El consumo bajo de ALA y EPA + DHA no se asocio con mayor prevalencia de sintomatologia depresiva antes y despues de ajustar por confusores. En aquellos casos con sintomatologia depresiva, los niveles ALA derivados solo de las nueces fueron significativamente menores. Conclusiones: en esta poblacion no se observo asociacion entre el bajo consumo de acidos grasos omega-3 y la sintomatologia depresiva. La posible asociacion entre el consumo de nueces y la sintomatologia depresiva requiere de mas estudios.

  1. [Food consumption in and around the school].

    PubMed

    Alvear-Galindo, M Guadalupe; Yamamoto-Kimura, Liria T; Morán-Álvarez, Cristina; Solís-Días, M Guadalupe; Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Acuña-Sánchez, M Eugenia; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: en México, los niños de primaria permanecen aproximadamente 4.5 horas en la escuela, por lo que fuera de ese espacio es donde consumen la mayor parte de sus alimentos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue explorar las conductas alimentarias más allá del entorno escolar que pudieran favorecer la obesidad. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de niños de una escuela primaria oficial en el Distrito Federal. Los hábitos alimentarios se conocieron por un cuestionario y las características antropométricas, por medición física. Resultados: los participantes indicaron consumir refrescos y jugos enlatados con alta frecuencia y en cantidades importantes (80 %), así como productos lácteos industrializados con alto valor calórico y bajo contenido de proteínas; ingerían pocos alimentos de origen animal; 30 % comía cuatro o cinco veces al día y 10 %, una o dos veces. Los resultados se asociaron con las características omatométricas de los niños, 37.6 % de los cuales presentó sobrepeso u obesidad y 12 %, bajo peso. Conclusiones: para la prevención de la obesidad son necesarios programas de educación que involucren a profesores, padres de familia y escolares, para obtener conductas saludables y preservar la salud.

  2. Environmental changes in Sierra Nevada during the last 6 ky BP inferred from solifluction lobes and lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, M.; Gómez Ortiz, A.; Schulte, L.

    2009-04-01

    Holocene climate variability drove important landscape changes in Sierra Nevada, heightened due to the emplacement of Sierra Nevada at 37°N in southwestern Europe and, therefore, the different crossing influences in this region: geographical Europe/Africa), maritime (Atlantic/Mediterranean), climatic (subtropical high-pressure belt/ mid-latitude westerlies). Despite the existence of several kinds of sedimentary records in Sierra Nevada, only two of them can provide further information about Holocene landscape changes in this massif: solifluction lobes and mountain lakes. The numerous sedimentological changes inferred from terrestrial and aquatic records suggest the proximity of geomorphological processes in the massif of their climate boundaries and the small climate range necessary to carry environmental changes in the summits of the Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada holds the highest lakes in Europe, all of them related to a glacial origin. Four lakes were cored in Sierra Nevada, three of them southern exposed (Aguas Verdes, Rio Seco and Rio Seco lagoon) and only one with northern orientation (San Juan lagoon). Sedimentological properties of these cores assert evidences of different phases of coarse-grained inputs into the lakes, with low organic matter proportion and high mineral contents. These pulses correspond to geomorphic periods with enhanced slope instability, interfingered in phases with lower sediment transfer onto the lakes. These relative stable periods show a fine-grained texture with less mineral fraction and increases in the organic composition of the sediments. The similar evolution of the C/N ratio and Corg contents reflects the low productivity of these oligotrophic lakes and the terrestrial origin of the organic matter present in their sediments; both proxies also confirm a general pattern characterized in Sierra Nevada by an arid trend since the HWP, when the headwaters of the highest catchments stored a denser vegetation cover. We report an

  3. [Translation and adaptation to Spanish language of the quality of life questionnaire for celiac people called Canadian Celiac Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Pelegrí, Cristina; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Adaptar y valorar el cuestionario de calidad de vida denominado Canadian Celiac Health Survey (CCHS). Objetivo: Traducir y adaptar en castellano el cuestionario CCHS para poder ser utilizado por la población de habla hispana puesto que se trata de un cuestionario específico para la celiaquía. Método: La adaptación del CCHS, que consta de 76 ítems distribuidos en 11 secciones diferentes, se realizó mediante el método de traducción-retrotraducción y tras ser revisado y consensuado se procedió a realizar una prueba piloto con 25 personas celíacas, de forma individual y por un miembro del grupo de investigación, para valorar la comprensión de los ítems y sus secciones. Las aportaciones fueron introducidas, configurando el cuestionario definitivo. Resultados: La máxima dificultad en la traducción se produjo en la pregunta donde existían principios activos y nombres comerciales de medicamentos, optándose para ello a los comercializados a nivel nacional. Por otro lado, para el estudio piloto del cuestionario se observó un buen valor de la naturalidad de la comprensión con valores comprendidos entre 8,4 y 10,0. Conclusiones: La herramienta específica CHCS permitirá el uso de un cuestionario que pueda ser utilizado por la población de habla hispana en estudios, ensayos clínicos o en la práctica profesional sanitaria cotidiana, permitiendo un mejor conocimiento del estado de salud de los celíacos.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Attitudes toward Damage-Causing Mammalian Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    KANSKY, RUTH; KIDD, MARTIN; KNIGHT, ANDREW T

    2014-01-01

    íferos Silvestres Causantes de Daños Resumen Muchas poblaciones de mamíferos amenazados persisten fuera de áreas protegidas formales y su supervivencia depende de la buena voluntad de las comunidades que coexisten con ellos. Un entendimiento de las posturas, y específicamente de la tolerancia, de los individuos y las comunidades y los factores que los determinan es fundamental para diseñar estrategias que alivien el conflicto humano – vida silvestre. Llevamos a cabo un meta-análisis para identificar los factores que afectaron las posturas hacia cuatro grupos de mamíferos terrestres. Los elefantes (65%) provocaron las posturas más positivas. Los siguieron los primates (55%), los ungulados (53%) y los carnívoros (44%). Los residentes urbanos presentaron las posturas más positivas (80%), seguidos por los granjeros comerciales (51%) y los granjeros comunales (26%). Un índice de tolerancia a los daños mostró que la tolerancia humana a los ungulados y primates fue proporcional a la probabilidad de experimentar daños mientras que los elefantes provocaron niveles de tolerancia más altos de lo esperado y los carnívoros provocaron niveles de tolerancia más bajos de lo esperado. Contrario a la sabiduría convencional, experimentar daños no fue siempre el factor dominante para determinar las posturas. Los granjeros comunales tuvieron una baja probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los carnívoros independientemente de la probabilidad de experimentar daños, mientras que los granjeros comerciales y los residentes urbanos tuvieron mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los carnívoros independientemente de los daños. Los residentes urbanos tuvieron mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los ungulados, los elefantes y los primates cuando la probabilidad de daños fue baja, pero no cuando fue alta. Los granjeros comerciales y comunales tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de ser positivos hacia los ungulados, los primates y los elefantes independientemente de la probabilidad de

  5. Energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation of non-covalent ions: charge- and guest-dependence of decomplexation reaction efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Carroy, Glenn; Lemaur, Vincent; De Winter, Julien; Isaacs, Lyle; De Pauw, Edwin; Cornil, Jérôme; Gerbaux, Pascal

    2016-05-14

    Supramolecular chemistry, and especially host-guest chemistry, has been the subject of great interest in the past few decades leading to the synthesis of host cage molecules such as calixarenes, cyclodextrins and more recently cucurbiturils. Mass spectrometry methods are increasingly used to decipher at the molecular level the non-covalent interactions between the different associated molecules. The present article illustrates that the association between mass spectrometry and computational chemistry techniques proves very complementary to depict the gas-phase dissociation processes of ionic non-covalent complexes when subjected to collisional activation. The selected system associates a nor-seco-cucurbit[10]uril bitopic receptor with different amino compounds (adamantylamine, para-xylylenediamine, and para-phenylenediamine). When subjected to CID experiments, the ternary complexes undergo fragmentation via dissociation of non-covalently bound partners. Interestingly, depending on their charge state, the collisionally excited complexes can selectively expel either a neutral guest molecule or a protonated guest molecule. Moreover, based on energy-resolved CID experiments, it is possible to evaluate the guest molecule dependence on the gas phase dissociation efficiency. We observed that the relative order of gas phase dissociation is charge state dependent, with the adamantylamine-containing complexes being the weakest when triply charged and the strongest when doubly charged. The energetics of the gas-phase dissociation reactions have been estimated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We succeeded in theoretically rationalizing the experimental collision-induced dissociation results with a special emphasis on: (i) the charge state of the expelled guest molecule and (ii) the nature of the guest molecule.

  6. A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer's Oleander. “Jaundice curative tree” in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827). Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi) because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29)-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, β-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and β-sitosterol, 14α-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation. PMID:24600194

  7. An investigation on generalization ability of artificial neural networks and M5 model tree in modeling reference evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Kilic, Yasin

    2016-11-01

    The generalization ability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and M5 model tree (M5Tree) in modeling reference evapotranspiration ( ET 0 ) is investigated in this study. Daily climatic data, average temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity from six different stations operated by California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) located in two different regions of the USA were used in the applications. King-City Oasis Rd., Arroyo Seco, and Salinas North stations are located in San Joaquin region, and San Luis Obispo, Santa Monica, and Santa Barbara stations are located in the Southern region. In the first part of the study, the ANN and M5Tree models were used for estimating ET 0 of six stations and results were compared with the empirical methods. The ANN and M5Tree models were found to be better than the empirical models. In the second part of the study, the ANN and M5Tree models obtained from one station were tested using the data from the other two stations for each region. ANN models performed better than the CIMIS Penman, Hargreaves, Ritchie, and Turc models in two stations while the M5Tree models generally showed better accuracy than the corresponding empirical models in all stations. In the third part of the study, the ANN and M5Tree models were calibrated using three stations located in San Joaquin region and tested using the data from the other three stations located in the Southern region. Four-input ANN and M5Tree models performed better than the CIMIS Penman in only one station while the two-input ANN models were found to be better than the Hargreaves, Ritchie, and Turc models in two stations.

  8. Trypanosoma rangeli: effects of physalin B on the immune reactions of the infected larvae of Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Eloi S; Castro, Daniele P; Ribeiro, Ivone M; Tomassini, Therezinha C B; Azambuja, Patrícia

    2006-01-01

    Physalins are seco-steroids obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae. Herein, we tested Physalis angulata L purified physalin B as an immunomodulatory compound in 5th-instar larvae of Rhodnius prolixus, which were systemically infected with the H14 Trypanosoma rangeli strain protozoan. In uninfected insects, the effective concentration of physalin B, which inhibited 50% of the blood ingested (ED(50)) volume, was 15.2+/-1.6 microg/ml of the meal. Ecdysis processes and mortality in uninfected larvae, treated orally with physalin B in concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 microg/ml, was similar to that observed in insects not treated with physalin B. However, R. prolixus larvae previously fed on blood containing 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 microg of physalin B/ml exhibited mortality rates of 78.1, 54.3, and 12.7%, respectively, 6 days after inoculation of T. rangeli (1 x 10(3) parasites/insect), whereas only 7.2% mortality was observed in the control group, injected with sterile culture medium. The insects treated with physalin B (0.1 microg/ml) and inoculated with T. rangeli did not modify the phenoloxidase (PO) activity and total hemocyte count in the hemolymph. However, physalin B treatment caused a reduction in hemocyte micro-aggregation and nitric oxide production and enhanced the parasitemia in the hemolymph. These results demonstrate that physalin B from P. angulata is a potent immunomodulatory substance for the bloodsucking insect, R. prolixus.

  9. A blue corrinoid from partial degradation of vitamin B12 in aqueous bicarbonate: spectra, structure, and interaction with proteins of B12 transport.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Ruetz, Markus; Gruber, Karl; Fedosova, Natalya U; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2011-09-20

    Cobalamin (Cbl) is a complex cofactor produced only by bacteria but used by all animals and humans. Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12), CNCbl) is one commonly isolated form of cobalamin. B(12) belongs to a large group of corrinoids, which are characterized by a distinct red color conferred by the system of conjugated double bonds of the corrin ring retaining a Co(III) ion. A unique blue Cbl derivative was produced by hydrolysis of CNCbl in a weakly alkaline aqueous solution of bicarbonate. This corrinoid was purified and isolated as dark blue crystals. Its spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallography revealed B-ring opening with formation of 7,8-seco-cyanocobalamin (7,8-sCNCbl). The unprecedented structural change was caused by cleavage of the peripheral C-C bond between saturated carbons 7 and 8 of the corrin macrocycle accompanied by formation of a C═C bond at C7 and a carbonyl group at C8. Additionally, the C-amide was hydrolyzed to a carboxylic acid. The extended conjugation of the π-system caused a considerable red shift of the absorbance spectrum. Formation and degradation of 7,8-sCNCbl were analyzed qualitatively. Its interaction with the proteins of mammalian Cbl transport revealed both a slow binding kinetics and a low overall affinity. The binding data were compared to those of other monocarboxylic derivatives and agreed with the earlier proposed scheme for two-step ligand recognition. The obtained results are consistent with the structural models of 7,8-sCNCbl and the transport proteins intrinsic factor and transcobalamin. Potential applications of the novel derivative for drug conjugation are discussed.

  10. Texas LPG fuel cell development and demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2004-07-26

    The State Energy Conservation Office has executed its first Fuel Cell Project which was awarded under a Department of Energy competitive grant process. The Texas LPG Fuel Processor Development and Fuel Cell Demonstration Program is a broad-based public/private partnership led by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO). Partners include the Alternative Fuels Research and Education Division (AFRED) of the Railroad Commission of Texas; Plug Power, Inc., Latham, NY, UOP/HyRadix, Des Plaines, IL; Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), San Antonio, TX; the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). The team proposes to mount a development and demonstration program to field-test and evaluate markets for HyRadix's LPG fuel processor system integrated into Plug Power's residential-scale GenSys(TM) 5C (5 kW) PEM fuel cell system in a variety of building types and conditions of service. The program's primary goal is to develop, test, and install a prototype propane-fueled residential fuel cell power system supplied by Plug Power and HyRadix in Texas. The propane industry is currently funding development of an optimized propane fuel processor by project partner UOP/HyRadix through its national checkoff program, the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC). Following integration and independent verification of performance by Southwest Research Institute, Plug Power and HyRadix will produce a production-ready prototype unit for use in a field demonstration. The demonstration unit produced during this task will be delivered and installed at the Texas Department of Transportation's TransGuide headquarters in San Antonio, Texas. Simultaneously, the team will undertake a market study aimed at identifying and quantifying early-entry customers, technical and regulatory requirements, and other challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed in planning commercialization of the units. For further

  11. Heterotermetallic indium lithium halostannates: low-temperature single-source precursors for tin-rich indium tin oxides and their application for thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Samedov, Kerim; Aksu, Yilmaz; Driess, Matthias

    2012-06-18

    The syntheses and structural elucidation of dimeric [Sn(OCyHex)(2)] (1), its corresponding (cyclohexoxy)alkalistannates(II) [{M(OCyHex)(3)Sn}(2)] (M = Li (2), Na (3), K (4)), and of the first heteroleptic heterotermetallic Li/In/Sn-haloalkoxide clusters [X(2)In{LiSn(2)(OCyHex)(6)}] (X = Br (5), Cl (6)) with a double seco-norcubane core are reported. They represent suitable precursors for new amorphous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials as transparent conducting oxides with drastically reduced concentrations of expensive indium, while maintaining their high electrical performance. In fact, compounds 5 and 6 were successfully degraded under dry synthetic air at relatively low temperature, resulting in new semiconducting tin-rich ITOs homogeneously dispersed in a tin oxide/lithium oxide matrix. The obtained particles were investigated and characterised by different analytical techniques, such as powder XRD, IR spectroscopy, SEM, TEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The analytical data confirm that the final materials consist of tin-containing indium oxide embedded in an amorphous tin oxide matrix. The typical broadening and shift of the observed indium oxide reflections to higher 2θ values in the powder XRD pattern clearly indicated that tin centres were successfully incorporated into the In(2)O(3) lattice and partially occupied In(3+) sites. Investigations by EDX mapping proved that Sn was homogeneously distributed in the final materials. Thin-film field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated by spin-coating of silicon wafers with solutions of 5 in toluene and subsequent calcination under dry air (25-700 °C). The FETs prepared with precursor 5 exhibited excellent performances, as shown by a charge-carrier mobility of 6.36×10(-1)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s (calcination at 250 °C) and an on/off current ratio of 10(6).

  12. Identification of Binding Targets of a Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide KR12 in the LS180 Colorectal Cancer Genome

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takayoshi; Kuo, Tony; Shinozaki, Yoshinao; Takatori, Atsushi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Otsuki, Joe; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are versatile DNA minor groove binders and attractive therapeutic options against oncological targets, especially upon functionalization with an alkylating agent such as seco-CBI. These molecules also provide an alternative for oncogenes deemed “undruggable” at the protein level, where the absence of solvent-accessible pockets or structural crevices prevent the formation of protein-inhibitor ligands; nevertheless, the genome-wide effect of pyrrole-imidazole polyamide binding remain largely unclear to-date. Here we propose a next-generation sequencing-based workflow combined with whole genome expression arrays to address such issue using a candidate anti-cancer alkylating agent, KR12, against codon 12 mutant KRAS. Biotinylating KR12 enables the means to identify its genome-wide effects in living cells and possible biological implications via a coupled workflow of enrichment-based sequencing and expression microarrays. The subsequent computational pathway and expression analyses allow the identification of its genomic binding sites, as well as a route to explore a polyamide’s possible genome-wide effects. Among the 3,343 KR12 binding sites identified in the human LS180 colorectal cancer genome, the reduction of KR12-bound gene expressions was also observed. Additionally, the coupled microarray-sequencing analysis also revealed some insights about the effect of local chromatin structure on pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, which had not been fully understood to-date. A comparative analysis with KR12 in a different human colorectal cancer genome SW480 also showed agreeable agreements of KR12 binding affecting gene expressions. Combination of these analyses thus suggested the possibility of applying this approach to other pyrrole-imidazole polyamides to reveal further biological details about the effect of polyamide binding in a genome. PMID:27798693

  13. Crystal structure of tetra­kis­[μ2-2-(di­methyl­amino)­ethano­lato-κ3 N,O:O]di-μ3-hydroxido-di­thio­cyanato-κ2 N-dichromium(III)dilead(II) di­thio­cyanate aceto­nitrile monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Rusanova, Julia A.; Semenaka, Valentyna V.; Omelchenko, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    The tetra­nuclear complex cation of the title compound, [Cr2Pb2(NCS)2(OH)2(C4H10NO)4](SCN)2·CH3CN, lies on an inversion centre. The main structural feature of the cation is a distorted seco-norcubane Pb2Cr2O6 cage with a central four-membered Cr2O2 ring. The CrIII ion is coordinated in a distorted octa­hedron, which involves two N atoms of one bidentate ligand and one thio­cyanate anion, two μ2-O atoms of 2-(di­methyl­amino)­ethano­late ligands and two μ3-O atoms of hydroxide ions. The coordination geometry of the PbII ion is a distorted disphenoid, which involves one N atom, two μ2-O atoms and one μ3-O atom. In addition, weak Pb⋯S inter­actions involving the coordinating and non-coordinating thio­cyanate anions are observed. In the crystal, the complex cations are linked through the thio­cyanate anions via the Pb⋯S inter­actions and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds into chains along the c axis. The chains are further linked together via S⋯S contacts. The contribution of the disordered solvent aceto­nitrile mol­ecule was removed with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] procedure in PLATON. The solvent is included in the reported mol­ecular formula, weight and density. PMID:27375871

  14. Identification of Binding Targets of a Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamide KR12 in the LS180 Colorectal Cancer Genome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jason; Hiraoka, Kiriko; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Kuo, Tony; Shinozaki, Yoshinao; Takatori, Atsushi; Koshikawa, Nobuko; Chandran, Anandhakumar; Otsuki, Joe; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Horton, Paul; Nagase, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are versatile DNA minor groove binders and attractive therapeutic options against oncological targets, especially upon functionalization with an alkylating agent such as seco-CBI. These molecules also provide an alternative for oncogenes deemed "undruggable" at the protein level, where the absence of solvent-accessible pockets or structural crevices prevent the formation of protein-inhibitor ligands; nevertheless, the genome-wide effect of pyrrole-imidazole polyamide binding remain largely unclear to-date. Here we propose a next-generation sequencing-based workflow combined with whole genome expression arrays to address such issue using a candidate anti-cancer alkylating agent, KR12, against codon 12 mutant KRAS. Biotinylating KR12 enables the means to identify its genome-wide effects in living cells and possible biological implications via a coupled workflow of enrichment-based sequencing and expression microarrays. The subsequent computational pathway and expression analyses allow the identification of its genomic binding sites, as well as a route to explore a polyamide's possible genome-wide effects. Among the 3,343 KR12 binding sites identified in the human LS180 colorectal cancer genome, the reduction of KR12-bound gene expressions was also observed. Additionally, the coupled microarray-sequencing analysis also revealed some insights about the effect of local chromatin structure on pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, which had not been fully understood to-date. A comparative analysis with KR12 in a different human colorectal cancer genome SW480 also showed agreeable agreements of KR12 binding affecting gene expressions. Combination of these analyses thus suggested the possibility of applying this approach to other pyrrole-imidazole polyamides to reveal further biological details about the effect of polyamide binding in a genome.

  15. Pre- and post-fire pollutant loads in an urban fringe watershed in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Burke, M P; Hogue, T S; Kinoshita, A M; Barco, J; Wessel, C; Stein, E D

    2013-12-01

    Post-fire runoff has the potential to be a large source of contaminants to downstream areas. However, the magnitude of this effect in urban fringe watersheds adjacent to large sources of airborne contaminants is not well documented. The current study investigates the impacts of wildfire on stormwater contaminant loading from the upper Arroyo Seco watershed, burned in 2009. This watershed is adjacent to the Greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area and has not burned in over 60 years. Consequently, it acts as a sink for regional urban pollutants and presents an opportunity to study the impacts of wildfire. Pre- and post-fire storm samples were collected and analyzed for basic cations, trace metals, and total suspended solids. The loss of vegetation and changes in soil properties from the fire greatly increased the magnitude of storm runoff, resulting in sediment-laden floods carrying high concentrations of particulate-bound constituents. Post-fire concentrations and loads were up to three orders of magnitude greater than pre-fire values for many trace metals, including lead and cadmium. A shift was also observed in the timing of chemical delivery, where maximum suspended sediment, trace metal, and cation concentrations coincided with, rather than preceded, peak discharge in the post-fire runoff, amplifying the fire's impacts on mass loading. The results emphasize the importance of sediment delivery as a primary mechanism for post-fire contaminant transport and suggest that traditional management practices that focus on treating only the early portion of storm runoff may be less effective following wildfire. We also advocate that watersheds impacted by regional urban pollutants have the potential to pose significant risk for downstream communities and ecosystems after fire.

  16. The effect of methyl jasmonate on triterpene and sterol metabolisms of Centella asiatica, Ruscus aculeatus and Galphimia glauca cultured plants.

    PubMed

    Mangas, Susana; Bonfill, Mercè; Osuna, Lidia; Moyano, Elisabeth; Tortoriello, Jaime; Cusido, Rosa M; Piñol, M Teresa; Palazón, Javier

    2006-09-01

    Considering that exogenously applied methyl jasmonate can enhance secondary metabolite production in a variety of plant species and that 2,3-oxidosqualene is a common precursor of triterpenes and sterols in plants, we have studied Centella asiatica and Galphimia glauca (both synthesizing triterpenoid secondary compounds) and Ruscus aculeatus (which synthesizes steroidal secondary compounds) for their growth rate and content of free sterols and respective secondary compounds, after culturing with or without 100 microM methyl jasmonate. Our results show that elicited plantlets of G. glauca and to a higher degree C. asiatica (up to 152-times more) increased their content of triterpenoids directly synthesized from 2,3-oxidosqualene (ursane saponins and nor-seco-friedelane galphimines, respectively) at the same time as growth decreased. In contrast, the free sterol content of C. asiatica decreased notably, and remained practically unaltered in G. glauca. However, in the case of R. aculeatus, which synthesizes steroidal saponins (mainly spirostane type) indirectly from 2,3-oxidosqualene after the latter is converted to the plant phytosterol-precursor cycloartenol, while the growth rate and free sterol content clearly decreased, the spirostane saponine content was virtually unchanged (aerial part) or somewhat lower (roots) in presence of the same elicitor concentration. Our results suggest that while methyl jasmonate may be used as an inducer of enzymes involved in the triterpenoid synthesis downstream from 2,3-oxidosqualene in both C. asiatica and G. glauca plantlets, in those of C. asiatica and R. aculeatus it inhibited the enzymes involved in sterol synthesis downstream from cycloartenol.

  17. [Eating habits and attitudes towards change in Spanish university students and workers].

    PubMed

    Zazpe, Itziar; Marqués, María; Sánchez-Tainta, Ana; Rodríguez-Mourille, Ana; Beunza, Juan-José; Santiago, Susana; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El entorno educativo y laboral ha adquirido protagonismo como ámbito prometedor para llevar a cabo intervenciones nutricionales en población adulta. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los hábitos alimentarios y actitudes hacia el cambio en trabajadores y alumnos universitarios con distinto perfil académico. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de tipo transversal en población universitaria española de 1.429 sujetos. Se analizaron los hábitos alimentarios y las actitudes hacia el cambio de hábitos. Resultados: La edad media de los trabajadores fue de 37 años y en los estudiantes de 23 años. En ambos grupos el fraccionamiento de la ingesta más frecuente fue de cuatro tomas al día. En los alumnos se observó menor frecuencia de consumo de verdura, vino, pescado y frutos secos y mayor de bebidas carbonatadas, repostería comercial, fast-food y carnes rojas. Por otro lado, en general los hábitos alimentarios de los estudiantes de ciencias fueron más saludables que los de letras. Aunque no se observaron diferencias significativas en las actitudes hacia el cambio entre estudiantes y trabajadores, el 32% de los empleados y el 39% de los estudiantes afirmaron estar planteándose seriamente cambiar sus costumbres. Conclusiones: El patrón alimentario fue más saludable entre los trabajadores que entre los alumnos, especialmente en aquellos que cursan grados de letras, que constituyen el grupo más vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional. Además, aproximadamente un tercio de los trabajadores y alumnos se planteaba modificar sus hábitos.

  18. Ruminal Prevotella spp. May Play an Important Role in the Conversion of Plant Lignans into Human Health Beneficial Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Schogor, Ana L. B.; Huws, Sharon A.; Santos, Geraldo T. D.; Scollan, Nigel D.; Hauck, Barbara D.; Winters, Ana L.; Kim, Eun J.; Petit, Hélène V.

    2014-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL), the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4×4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM), or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis). Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO), with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen. PMID:24709940

  19. Coliform risk assessment through use of the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana as animal sentinel for shellfish harvesting areas in Brazil's northeast.

    PubMed

    Lima-Filho, José Vitor; Interaminense, Juliana A; Batista, Jacqueline E; Vaz, Renata V; Ventura, Roberta F; Oliveira, Isabella B; Soares, Roberta B; Peixoto, Sílvio M

    2015-08-01

    Outbreaks of food-borne diseases related to consumption of contaminated shellfish have been reported in many countries, but not in Brazil, possibly due to deficient reporting. Here we investigated the suitability of the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana as an animal sentinel for coliform monitoring in shellfish harvesting areas of Brazil's northeast. Samples of shellfish meats (40 clams per sample; n = 8 per collection) were collected at random from April 2009 through March 2010 in the bay area of Mangue Seco (state of Pernambuco). The numbers of thermotolerant coliforms were analyzed through the most probable number technique, and these contamination levels were tentatively correlated with the precipitation recorded on the day of sampling or 24 to 48 h beforehand. A. brasiliana shellfish meats from local retail shops (250 g per sample/ n = 3 per market) sold frozen were also investigated from August 2010 through June 2011. We found that the highest coliform contamination levels were correlated with recent rainfall events, limited to 24 h before sampling. However, irrespective of the rainfall level, the mean contamination above the Brazilian legal threshold of < 3 × 10(2) MPN/ 100 g for shellfish harvesting areas ranged from 18.7 to 93.7 % of samples analyzed monthly. Additionally, a large number of samples obtained from retail shops were also highly contaminated by coliforms during rainy periods, and therefore were not proper for human consumption. We conclude that A. brasiliana can be successfully used to monitor the contamination levels of coliforms in shellfish harvesting areas in Brazil's northeast coast.

  20. Rapid determination of polyether marine toxins using liquid chromatography-multiple tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández Puente, Patricia; Fidalgo Sáez, María José; Hamilton, Brett; Lehane, Mary; Ramstad, Hanne; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

    2004-11-12

    The diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTX); pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and pectenotoxin-2 seco acids, were determined in marine phytoplankton, Dinophysis acuta, and mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected along the southwest coast of Ireland. Liquid chromatography-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the simultaneous determination of a series of marine toxins with large polarity differences. Separation of five DSP toxins was achieved on a C18 column (Luna-2, 150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) using an acetonitrile-water gradient with ammonium acetate as an eluent modifier. Electrospray ionisation (ESI) in negative mode, was used to generate the molecule related ion, [M-H]-, for each toxin. To develop a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method, fragmentation studies were performed to determine the optimum precursor-product ion combinations: OA (803/255), DTX2 (803/255), DTX1 (817/255), PTX2SAs (875/137) and PTX2 (857/137). This highly sensitive method had detection limits better than 1 pg (on-column). Linear calibrations were obtained for shellfish extracts that were spiked with toxins, OA, 0.007-1.00 microg/ml (r2 = 0.9993, N = 3) and DTX2, 0.054-8.5 microg/ml (r2 = 0.9992, N = 3). Good reproducibility data were also achieved with %RSD values (N = 3) ranging from 3.15% (0.56 microg DTX2/ml) to 5.71% (0.14 microg DTX2/ml), for shellfish extracts. The method was sufficiently sensitive to permit the determination of DSP toxins in small numbers of picked phytoplankton cells (N = 12-40). In one sample of D. acuta the average toxin composition per cell was: OA (7.0 pg), DTX2 (11 pg) and PTX2 (7.2 pg).

  1. The effects of fire-flood events on the sediment yield of a coastal California watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, J. A.; Hatten, J. A.; Gray, A. B.; Watson, E. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Goni, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfire can dramatically alter the physical and geochemical conditions of the landscape and modify rates of runoff and erosion. The occurrence of two large wildfires in the Arroyo Seco watershed (293 km2) of California along with water and sediment sampling before and after both fires provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the watershed-scale effects of wildfire on water, sediment and carbon fluxes. Here we show that the effects of the two wildfires differed markedly. The 1977 Marble Cone wildfire was followed by an exceptionally wet winter, which resulted in concentrations and fluxes of both fine and coarse suspended sediment that were approximately 35-fold greater than average (sediment yield during the 1977-78 water year was 11,000 t/km2/yr). We suggest that this kind of fire-flood event has a recurrence interval that is greater than 1000 yr. In contrast, the 2008 Basin Complex wildfire was followed by a drier than normal year, and although suspended-sediment fluxes and concentrations were significantly elevated compared to those expected during unburned conditions, the sediment yield during 2008-09 water year was less than 1/100th of the previous fire (90 t/km2/yr). We suggest that these differences resulted from the presence and lack of, respectively, precipitation-enhanced erosion processes, such as rilling and mass movements. These concepts are explored further using a stochastic model of sediment yield, which suggests that the long-term effects of wildfire are greater suspended-sediment fluxes and exceptionally rare fire-flood events (~1000-yr recurrence) such as observed in 1977-78 that export suspended sediment at rates at least an order-of-magnitude greater than would be expected without wildfire.

  2. Sequence-selective single-molecule alkylation with a pyrrole-imidazole polyamide visualized in a DNA nanoscaffold.

    PubMed

    Yoshidome, Tomofumi; Endo, Masayuki; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Hidaka, Kumi; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-03-14

    We demonstrate a novel strategy for visualizing sequence-selective alkylation of target double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using a synthetic pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide in a designed DNA origami scaffold. Doubly functionalized PI polyamide was designed by introduction of an alkylating agent 1-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-benz[e]indole (seco-CBI) and biotin for sequence-selective alkylation at the target sequence and subsequent streptavidin labeling, respectively. Selective alkylation of the target site in the substrate DNA was observed by analysis using sequencing gel electrophoresis. For the single-molecule observation of the alkylation by functionalized PI polyamide using atomic force microscopy (AFM), the target position in the dsDNA (∼200 base pairs) was alkylated and then visualized by labeling with streptavidin. Newly designed DNA origami scaffold named "five-well DNA frame" carrying five different dsDNA sequences in its cavities was used for the detailed analysis of the sequence-selectivity and alkylation. The 64-mer dsDNAs were introduced to five individual wells, in which target sequence AGTXCCA/TGGYACT (XY = AT, TA, GC, CG) was employed as fully matched (X = G) and one-base mismatched (X = A, T, C) sequences. The fully matched sequence was alkylated with 88% selectivity over other mismatched sequences. In addition, the PI polyamide failed to attach to the target sequence lacking the alkylation site after washing and streptavidin treatment. Therefore, the PI polyamide discriminated the one mismatched nucleotide at the single-molecule level, and alkylation anchored the PI polyamide to the target dsDNA.

  3. Investigation of the Antiproliferative Properties of Natural Sesquiterpenes from Artemisia asiatica and Onopordum acanthium on HL-60 Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Judit; Szebeni, Gábor J.; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Szekeres, Thomas; Saiko, Philipp; Ocsovszki, Imre; Puskás, László G.; Hohmann, Judit; Zupkó, István

    2016-01-01

    Plants and plant extracts play a crucial role in the research into novel antineoplastic agents. Four sesquiterpene lactones, artecanin (1), 3β-chloro-4α,10α-dihydroxy-1α,2α-epoxy-5α,7αH-guaia-11(13)-en-12,6α-olide (2), iso-seco-tanapartholide 3-O-methyl ether (3) and 4β,15-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (4), were isolated from two traditionally used Asteraceae species (Onopordum acanthium and Artemisia asiatica). When tested for antiproliferative action on HL-60 leukemia cells, these compounds exhibited reasonable IC50 values in the range 3.6–13.5 μM. Treatment with the tested compounds resulted in a cell cycle disturbance characterized by increases in the G1 and G2/M populations, while there was a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, 1–3 elicited increases in the hypodiploid (subG1) population. The compounds elicited concentration-dependent chromatin condensation and disruption of the membrane integrity, as revealed by Hoechst 33258–propidium staining. Treatment for 24 h resulted in significant increases in activity of caspases-3 and -9, indicating that the tested sesquiterpenes induced the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The proapoptotic properties of the sesquiterpene lactones were additionally demonstrated withannexin V staining. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the Bax/Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expressions of CDK1 and cyclin B2, as determined at the mRNA level by means of RT-PCR. These experimental results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones may be regarded as potential starting structures for the development of novel anticancer agents. PMID:26901188

  4. Accumulation, transformation and breakdown of DSP toxins from the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Hansen, Per Juel; Krock, Bernd; Vismann, Bent

    2016-07-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTX) and pectenotoxins (PTX) produced by the dinoflagellates Dinophysis spp. can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning upon human consumption. Shellfish toxicity is a result of algal abundance and toxicity as well as accumulation and depuration kinetics in mussels. We mass-cultured Dinophysis acuta containing OA, DTX-1b and PTX-2 and fed it to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis under controlled laboratory conditions for a week to study toxin accumulation and transformation. Contents of OA and DTX-1b in mussels increased linearly with incubation time, and the net toxin accumulation was 66% and 71% for OA and DTX-1b, respectively. Large proportions (≈50%) of both these toxins were transformed to fatty acid esters. Most PTX-2 was transformed to PTX-2 seco-acid and net accumulation was initially high, but decreased progressively throughout the experiment, likely due to esterification and loss of detectability. We also quantified depuration during the subsequent four days and found half-life times of 5-6 days for OA and DTX-1b. Measurements of dissolved toxins revealed that depuration was achieved through excreting rather than metabolizing toxins. This is the first study to construct a full mass balance of DSP toxins during both accumulation and depuration, and we demonstrate rapid toxin accumulation in mussels at realistic in situ levels of Dinophysis. Applying the observed accumulation and depuration kinetics, we model mussel toxicity, and demonstrate that a concentration of only 75 Dinophysis cells l(-1) is enough to make 60 mm long mussels exceed the regulatory threshold for OA equivalents.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and detection of the mecA gene besides enterotoxin-encoding genes among coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from clam meat of Anomalocardia brasiliana.

    PubMed

    Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Ferreira, Ewerton Lucena; Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ventura, Roberta Ferreira; de Oliveira, Wagner Luis Mendes; Leal, Nilma Cintra; Lima-Filho, José Vitor

    2013-12-01

    The marine clam Anomalocardia brasiliana is a candidate as a sentinel animal to monitor the contamination levels of coliforms in shellfish-harvesting areas of Brazil's northeastern region. The aim of the present study was to search enterotoxin-encoding genes plus the mecA gene among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates from shellfish meats of A. brasiliana. The specimen clam (n=48; 40 clams per sample) was collected during low tide in the bay area of Mangue Seco from April through June 2009, and random samples of chilled and frozen shelled clam meat (n=33; 250 g per sample) were obtained from retail shops from January through March 2012. Seventy-nine CNS isolates were identified, including Staphylococcus xylosus, S. cohnii spp. urealyticus, S. sciuri, and S. lentus. A high percentage of isolates resistant to erythromycin (58.5%), penicillin (51.2%), and tetracycline (43.9%), and the fluoroquinolones levofloxacin (39%) and ciprofloxacin (34.1%) were recorded from those environmental samples. Isolates from retail shops were particularly resistant to oxacillin (55.3%) and penicillin (36.8%). All CNS resistant to oxacillin and/or cefoxitin were positive for the presence of the mecA gene, but phenotypically susceptible to vancomycin. Also, the enterotoxin-encoding genes seg and seh were detected through multiplex-polymerase chain reaction in 77.7% and 88.8% of the isolates from environmental samples, versus 90.5% and 100% of the isolates from retail shops, respectively. The data reveal the risk to public health due to consuming raw or undercooked shellfish containing enterotoxigenic plus methicillin-resistant CNS.

  7. Key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily precipitation of Costa Rica: Caribbean Sea versus Eastern Pacific Ocean moisture sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Murillo, R.; Birkel, C.; Welsh, K.; Esquivel-Hernández, G.; Corrales-Salazar, J.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Roupsard, O.; Sáenz-Rosales, O.; Katchan, I.; Arce-Mesén, R.; Soulsby, C.; Araguás-Araguás, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives moisture inputs directly from the Caribbean Sea and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This location includes unique mountainous and lowland microclimates, but only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition. Therefore, the main scope of this project is to identify the key drivers controlling stable isotope variations in daily-scale precipitation of Costa Rica. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ to -0.9‰ δ18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ δ18O). HYSPLIT air mass back trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of three main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet, the Colombian Low Level Jet, and localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that lifted condensation level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to a) enhance groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management, b) improve the re-construction of paleoclimatic records in the Central American land bridge, c) calibrate and validate regional circulation models.

  8. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Hernando-Requejo, Virgilio

    2016-07-12

    La demencia, estrechamente ligada a factores predisponentes ambientales como la dieta, supone un problema de salud pública de magnitud creciente: actualmente más de 35 millones de pacientes con demencia tipo alzhéimer, y se espera que superen los 135 millones en 2050. Si conseguimos retrasar el desarrollo de la demencia 5 años, reduciremos su prevalencia en un 50%. Los pacientes con demencia alteran su dieta y se han reportado déficits, entre otros, de ácido fólico, vitaminas B12, B6, C, E, A, D, K, betacarotenos y omega tres, que deben ser resueltos con una dieta adecuada y, en según qué casos, con aportes extra. Pero para reducir o al menos retrasar la prevalencia debemos preconizar la prevención mediante una dieta adecuada desde el inicio de la vida, idea reforzada por el hecho de que los factores de riesgo cardiovascular se relacionen de forma directa con el desarrollo de demencia. Disponemos de abundante bibliografía que, aunque con límites, nos permite hacer recomendaciones nutricionales para prevenir el deterioro cognitivo. Se han conseguido mejores resultados cuando se han estudiado dietas completas que cuando se han considerado nutrientes específicos. De especial interés es la dieta mediterránea, que garantiza un aporte elevado de vegetales, frutas, frutos secos, legumbres, cereales, pescado y aceite de oliva, y moderado de carne, productos lácteos y alcohol, y en la que nos centraremos en este artículo.

  9. Discovering Oxysterols in Plasma: A Window on the Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, William J.; Hornshaw, Martin; Woffendin, Gary; Baker, Sharon F.; Lockhart, Andrew; Heidelberger, Sibylle; Gustafsson, Magnus; Sjövall, Jan; Wang, Yuqin

    2008-01-01

    While the proteome defines the expressed gene products, the metabolome results from reactions controlled by such gene products. Plasma represents an accessible “window” to the metabolome both in regard of availability and content. The wide range of the plasma metabolome, in terms of molecular diversity and abundance, makes its comprehensive analysis challenging. Here we demonstrate an analytical method designed to target one region of the metabolome i.e. oxysterols. Since the discovery of their biological activity as ligands to nuclear receptors there has been a reawakening of interest in oxysterols and their analysis. In addition, the oxysterols, 24S- and 27-hydroxycholesterol, are currently under investigation as potential biomarkers associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis; widespread analysis of these lipids in clinical studies will require the development of robust, sensitive and rapid analytical techniques. In this communication we present results of an investigation of the oxysterols content of human plasma using a newly developed high-performance liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method incorporating charge-tagging and high-resolution MS. The method has allowed the identification in plasma of monohydroxylated cholesterol molecules, 7α-, 24S- and 27-hydroxycholesterol; the cholestenetriol 7α,27-dihydroxycholesterol; and 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-27-oic acid and its metabolite and 3β,7α-dihydroxycholest-5-en-27-oic acid. The methodology described is also applicable for the analysis of other sterols in plasma i.e. cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, and desmosterol, as well as cholesterol 5,6-seco-sterols and steroid hormones. Although involving derivatisation, sample preparation is straight forward and chromatographic analysis rapid (17 min), while the MS method offers high sensitivity (ng/mL of sterol in plasma, or pg on-column) and specificity. The methodology is suitable for

  10. Crystal structure of tetra-kis-[μ2-2-(di-methyl-amino)-ethano-lato-κ(3) N,O:O]di-μ3-hydroxido-di-thio-cyanato-κ(2) N-dichromium(III)dilead(II) di-thio-cyanate aceto-nitrile monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Rusanova, Julia A; Semenaka, Valentyna V; Omelchenko, Irina V

    2016-04-01

    The tetra-nuclear complex cation of the title compound, [Cr2Pb2(NCS)2(OH)2(C4H10NO)4](SCN)2·CH3CN, lies on an inversion centre. The main structural feature of the cation is a distorted seco-norcubane Pb2Cr2O6 cage with a central four-membered Cr2O2 ring. The Cr(III) ion is coordinated in a distorted octa-hedron, which involves two N atoms of one bidentate ligand and one thio-cyanate anion, two μ2-O atoms of 2-(di-methyl-amino)-ethano-late ligands and two μ3-O atoms of hydroxide ions. The coordination geometry of the Pb(II) ion is a distorted disphenoid, which involves one N atom, two μ2-O atoms and one μ3-O atom. In addition, weak Pb⋯S inter-actions involving the coordinating and non-coordinating thio-cyanate anions are observed. In the crystal, the complex cations are linked through the thio-cyanate anions via the Pb⋯S inter-actions and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds into chains along the c axis. The chains are further linked together via S⋯S contacts. The contribution of the disordered solvent aceto-nitrile mol-ecule was removed with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] procedure in PLATON. The solvent is included in the reported mol-ecular formula, weight and density.

  11. 16-Aza-ent-beyerane and 16-Aza-ent-trachylobane: potent mechanism-based inhibitors of recombinant ent-kaurene synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnab; Roberts, Frank G; Wilderman, P Ross; Zhou, Ke; Peters, Reuben J; Coates, Robert M

    2007-10-17

    The secondary ent-beyeran-16-yl carbocation (7) is a key branch point intermediate in mechanistic schemes to rationalize the cyclic structures of many tetra- and pentacyclic diterpenes, including ent-beyerene, ent-kaurene, ent-trachylobane, and ent-atiserene, presumed precursors to >1000 known diterpenes. To evaluate these mechanistic hypotheses, we synthesized the heterocyclic analogues 16-aza-ent-beyerane (12) and 16-aza-ent-trachylobane (13) by means of Hg(II)- and Pb(IV)-induced cyclizations onto the Delta12 double bonds of tricyclic intermediates bearing carbamoylmethyl and aminomethyl groups at C-8. The 13,16-seco-16-norcarbamate (20a) was obtained from ent-beyeran-16-one oxime (17) by Beckmann fragmentation, hydrolysis, and Curtius rearrangement. The aza analogues inhibited recombinant ent-kaurene synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (GST-rAtKS) with inhibition constants (IC50 = 1 x 10-7 and 1 x 10-6 M) similar in magnitude to the pseudo-binding constant of the bicyclic ent-copalyl diphosphate substrate (Km = 3 x 10-7 M). Large enhancements of binding affinities (IC50 = 4 x 10-9 and 2 x 10-8 M) were observed in the presence of 1 mM pyrophosphate, which is consistent with a tightly bound ent-beyeranyl+/pyrophosphate- ion pair intermediate in the cyclization-rearrangement catalyzed by this diterpene synthase. The weak inhibition (IC50 = 1 x 10-5 M) exhibited by ent-beyeran-16-exo-yl diphosphate (11) and its failure to undergo bridge rearrangement to kaurene appear to rule out the covalent diphosphate as a free intermediate. 16-Aza-ent-beyerane is proposed as an effective mimic for the ent-beyeran-16-yl carbocation with potential applications as an active site probe for the various ent-diterpene cyclases and as a novel, selective inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis in plants.

  12. Integrated exploration workflow in the south Middle Magdalena Valley (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Isabelle; Charry, German Rodriguez; Morales, Marcela Mayorga; Mondragon, Juan Carlos

    2010-03-01

    The HC exploration is presently active in the southern part of the Middle Magdalena Valley but only moderate size discoveries have been made up to date. The majority of these discoveries are at shallow depth in the Tertiary section. The structures located in the Valley are faulted anticlines charged by lateral migration from the Cretaceous source rocks that are assumed to be present and mature eastward below the main thrusts and the Guaduas Syncline. Upper Cretaceous reservoirs have also been positively tested. To reduce the risks linked to the exploration of deeper structures below the western thrusts of the Eastern Cordillera, an integrated study was carried out. It includes the acquisition of new seismic data, the integration of all surface and subsurface data within a 3D-geomodel, a quality control of the structural model by restoration and a modeling of the petroleum system (presence and maturity of the Cretaceous source rocks, potential migration pathways). The various steps of this workflow will be presented as well as the main conclusions in term of source rock, deformation phases and timing of the thrust emplacement versus oil maturation and migration. Our data suggest (or confirm) The good potential of the Umir Fm as a source rock. The early (Paleogene) deformation of the Bituima Trigo fault area. The maturity gap within the Cretaceous source rock between the hangingwall and footwall of the Bituima fault that proves an initial offset of Cretaceous burial in the range of 4.5 km between the Upper Cretaceous series westward and the Lower Cretaceous ones eastward of this fault zone. The post Miocene weak reactivation as dextral strike slip of Cretaceous faults such as the San Juan de Rio Seco fault that corresponds to change in the Cretaceous thickness and therefore in the depth of the thrust decollement.

  13. Impact of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Gussago, Cristina; Arosio, Beatrice; Guerini, Franca Rosa; Ferri, Evelyn; Costa, Andrea Saul; Casati, Martina; Bollini, Elisa Mariadele; Ronchetti, Francesco; Colombo, Elena; Bernardelli, Giuseppina; Clerici, Mario; Mari, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D is a seco-sterol produced endogenously in the skin or obtained from certain foods. It exerts its action through binding to intracellular vitamin D receptor (VDR). Lately, the role of vitamin D has been revised regarding its potential advantage on delaying the process of aging. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of VDR gene polymorphisms in healthy aging and longevity. We evaluated the frequency of four polymorphisms of the VDR gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) in centenarians (102 subjects, mean age: 102.3 ± 0.3 years), compared to septuagenarians (163 subjects, mean age: 73.0 ± 0.6 years) and we analyzed a variety of pathophysiologically relevant functions in centenarians. BsmI and ApaI provided a significant association with longevity: there was a highly significant difference in the frequency of BsmI genotypes (p = 0.037), ApaI genotypes (p = 0.022), and ApaI alleles (p = 0.050) in centenarians versus septuagenarians. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation of all the VDR gene polymorphisms in centenarians with some measured variables such as hand grip strength, body mass index, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and mini-mental state examination. We also found a correlation with the prevalence of medical history of hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, angina, venous insufficiency, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arthrosis. In conclusion, this study proposes a new scenario in which the variability of the VDR gene is relevant in the aging process and emphasizes the role of VDR genetic background in determining healthy aging.

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  15. The effects of wildfire on the sediment yield of a coastal California watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Hatten, J.A.; Pasternack, G.B.; Gray, A.B.; Goni, M.A.; Wheatcroft, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of two wildfires separated by 31 yr in the chaparral-dominated Arroyo Seco watershed (293 km) of California provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of wildfire on suspended-sediment yield. Here, we compile discharge and suspended-sediment sampling data from before and after the fires and show that the effects of the postfire responses differed markedly. The 1977 Marble Cone wildfire was followed by an exceptionally wet winter, which resulted in concentrations and fluxes of both fine and coarse suspended sediment that were ˜35 times greater than average (sediment yield during the 1978 water year was 11,000 t/km2/yr). We suggest that the combined 1977–1978 fire and flood had a recurrence interval of greater than 1000 yr. In contrast, the 2008 Basin Complex wildfire was followed by a drier than normal year, and although suspended-sediment fluxes and concentrations were significantly elevated compared to those expected for unburned conditions, the sediment yield during the 2009 water year was less than 1% of the post–Marble Cone wildfire yield. After the first postfire winters, sediment concentrations and yield decreased with time toward prefire relationships and continued to have significant rainfall dependence. We hypothesize that the differences in sediment yield were related to precipitation-enhanced hillslope erosion processes, such as rilling and mass movements. The millennial-scale effects of wildfire on sediment yield were explored further using Monte Carlo simulations, and these analyses suggest that infrequent wildfires followed by floods increase long-term suspended-sediment fluxes markedly. Thus, we suggest that the current approach of estimating sediment yield from sediment rating curves and discharge data—without including periodic perturbations from wildfires—may grossly underestimate actual sediment yields.

  16. [Mediterranean and Western dietary patterns in adult population of a Mediterranean area; a cluster analysis].

    PubMed

    Ciprián, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Ma; Garcia de la Hera, Manuela; Giménez-Monzo, Daniel; González-Palacios, Sandra; Quiles, Joan; Vioque, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes/objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio ha sido identificar patrones dietéticos a partir de los datos recogidos en la Encuesta de Nutrición y Salud de la Comunidad Valenciana realizada sobre una muestra representativa de población adulta y explorar los posibles factores asociados a los patrones identificados. Metodología: Un total de 1.803 individuos adultos (973 mujeres) participaron en la encuesta de Nutrición y Salud realizada en 1994 en la Comunidad Valenciana. La dieta fue evaluada mediante cuestionario de frecuencia alimentaria (CFA) validado de 93 ítems alimentarios. Las ingestas de alimentos se ajustaron por mil calorías y se crearon 26 grupos de alimentos usando valores estandarizados (z-scores) para la identificación de patrones dietéticos por el método análisis de k-medias prefijando 3 clúster. Se usó regresión logística multinomial múltiple para explorar la asociación entre patrones y variables sociodemográficas, antropométricas y de estilos de vida. Resultados: Se identificaron tres patrones dietéticos denominados como Prudente, Mediterráneo y Occidental. El patrón Prudente (57,2%) se caracterizó por un consumo intermedio de los principales grupos de alimentos; el Mediterráneo (29,1%) destacó por un elevado consumo de frutas, verduras y pescado; y el Occidental (13,7%) por un alto consumo de carnes rojas, embutidos, platos preparados, croquetas, bebidas azucaradas, dulces, chocolates y bebidas alcohólicas. El patrón Mediterráneo presentó las mayores puntuaciones para varios índices de calidad alimentaria analizados y definidos a priori en la literatura. Usando como referencia el patrón Mediterráneo, los que seguían un patrón Occidental fueron significativamente más jóvenes, un mayor número de hombres y fumadores; los que seguían un patrón Prudente presentaron un mayor número de hombres, no practicaban actividad física regular y menor consumo de alcohol. Conclusión: De los tres patrones diet

  17. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Molina Recio, Guillermo; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Rodríguez, María; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: un gran número de encuestas nutricionales en Perú han identificado la magnitud y la ubicación de los diferentes tipos de desnutrición, siendo la forma crónica la más prevalente. Sin embargo, aunque las tasas pueden considerarse alarmantes (aún más en las zonas rurales), sólo un trabajo contiene información sobre las características de la ingesta, usando recordatorios de 24 horas (R24). Es decir, se carece de otros sistemas de estudio centrados en conocer las características gastronómicas de sus regiones y la biodisponibilidad de los alimentos, con el fin de localizar el origen de esta situación en cada área y proponer soluciones verdaderamente eficaces y eficientes.Objetivo: determinar el valor nutricional de los platos principales consumidos por los residentes de un barrio pobre de la Amazonía Peruana, para identificar las causas de la pérdida de un estado nutricional saludable.Métodos: noventa y ocho participantes completaron tres R24. Basándonos en estos datos, se seleccionaron los 25 platos más comúnmente consumidos y evaluamos su composición nutricional. Tomamos nota de las recetas, pesos y medidas caseras. Además, se observó la preparación y cocción. La composición nutricional media de cada plato se calculó por 100 g utilizando el software Nutriplato 4.6. También se calcularon lasganancias o pérdidas derivadas de los tratamientos culinarios.Resultados: dentro de los platos basados en la leche, el de más alta densidad de energía es el mingado de arroz. En el grupo de los pescados, la mayor cantidad de energía es aportada por el pescado frito, mientras que en las recetas a base de carne, las más energéticas son el tallarín con pollo, la res asada y el cerdo frito. Como platos preparados, el juane tiene la más alta densidad de energía de todas las recetas. Dentro de las guarniciones, aquellas que utilizan los plátanos como el ingrediente principal, el plátano frito y el madurito, son las más energ

  18. Nutritional status influences the length of stay and clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized in internal medicine wards.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Ana Manuela; Madalozzo Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana; Cestonaro, Talita; Cardoso Neto, João; Ligocki Campos, Antônio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Vincular el estado nutricional (EN) con la evolución clínica y la duración de la estancia de los pacientes ingresados en las clínicas médicas de un hospital universitario. Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que los datos analíticos se obtuvieron de los pacientes ingresados durante el período de un año. Para la evaluación del EN se utilizaron: la valoración global subjetiva (VGS), el índice de masa corporal (IMC), el pliegue cutáneo triciptal (PCT), la circunferencia muscular del brazo (CMB) y el diagnostico del estado nutricional por la combinación de métodos (VGS, medidas de antropometría y bioquímicas). El análisis estadístico se realizó con el poder de confianza del 95% (p < 0,05). Para las categorías de comparación se utilizó chi-cuadrado. Para examinar la asociación entre la duración de la estancia y variables relacionadas con el EN se utilizaron Mann-Whitney y Kruskal-Wallis con comparaciones múltiples. Resultados: De los 396 sujetos estudiados 57,8% eran adultos. Ser mayor se asoció con la presencia de hipertensión arterial (p <0,001), diabetes mellitus (p = 0,003) y requerir cambios en la consistencia de la dieta (p = 0,003). Al final de la evaluación el 45,7% eran desnutridos. Presentar disminución de la ingesta de alimentos (p = 0,01), malnutrición según el SGA (p = 0,02) y la CMB (p = 0,03) se asoció con mortalidad. Estuvieron más tiempo hospitalizados los pacientes con nivel terciario de atención (p = 0,01), disminución de la ingestión de alimentos (p = 0,001), que murieron (p = 0,004), con un diagnóstico de desnutrición por VGS (p = 0,001) y por la combinación de métodos (p = 0,001). Conclusión: pacientes desnutridos según VGS y con disminución de la ingestión de alimentos al comienzo de la hospitalización se mantuvieron más tiempo en el hospital y tuvieron peores resultados clínicos (mayor número de muertes). El diagnóstico de la desnutrición por CMB también se relacion

  19. Flow paths in the Edwards aquifer, northern Medina and northeastern Uvalde counties, Texas, based on hydrologic identification and geochemical characterization and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Allan K.; Journey, Celeste

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, conducted a 4-year study during 2001– 04 to identify major ground-water flow paths in the Edwards aquifer in northern Medina and northeastern Uvalde Counties, Texas. The study involved use of geologic structure, surfacewater and ground-water data, and geochemistry to identify ground-water flow paths. Relay ramps and associated faulting in northern Medina County appear to channel ground-water flow along four distinct flow paths that move water toward the southwest. The northwestern Medina flow path is bounded on the north by the Woodard Cave fault and on the south by the Parkers Creek fault. Water moves downdip toward the southwest until the flow encounters a cross fault along Seco Creek. This barrier to flow might force part or most of the flow to the south. Departure hydrographs for two wells and discharge departure for a streamflow-gaging station provide evidence for flow in the northwestern Medina flow path. The north-central Medina flow path (northern part) is bounded by the Parkers Creek fault on the north and the Medina Lake fault on the south. The adjacent north-central Medina flow path (southern part) is bounded on the north by the Medina Lake fault and on the south by the Diversion Lake fault. The north-central Medina flow path is separated into a northern and southern part because of water-level differences. Ground water in both parts of the northcentral Medina flow path moves downgradient (and down relay ramp) from eastern Medina County toward the southwest. The north-central Medina flow path is hypothesized to turn south in the vicinity of Seco Creek as it begins to be influenced by structural features. Departure hydrographs for four wells and Medina Lake and discharge departure for a streamflow-gaging station provide evidence for flow in the north-central Medina flow path. The south-central Medina flow path is bounded on the north by the Seco Creek and Diversion Lake faults

  20. Predictors of adherence to the Mediterranean diet from the first to the second trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Sandra; Santos, Paula Clara; Moreira, Pedro; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Montenegro, Nuno; Mota, Jorge

    2014-10-04

    Introducción: Aunque los cambios en los patrones pueden ocurrir durante la gestación, predictores de estos cambios no han sido exploradas. Este estudio pretende identificar predictores de la adhesión a la dieta mediterránea (DM) desde el primer al segundo trimestre del embarazo. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo con 102 embarazadas de edad 18-40, de la ciudad de Oporto, Portugal. Se evaluaron las características socio-demográficas y de estilo de vida a través de un cuestionario. Consumo de alimentos se evaluó con un diario de alimentos de tres días concluido durante los primeras y segundo trimestres. Los participantes fueron categorizados según su cambio en la adhesión a la DM en el cambio negativo (es decir, las mujeres que tenían poca adhesión en cada trimestre o tenido alta adhesión en el primer trimestre y luego baja adhesión en el segundo) y el grupo de cambio positivo (es decir, las mujeres que tenían alta adhesión en ambos trimestres o tenía baja adhesión en el primer trimestre y luego elevada adhesión en el segundo). Modelos de regresión logística stepwise condicional se realizaron para evaluar los posibles predictores de la variación negativa de DM. Resultados: Entre las 102 mujeres, 39,2% tenían cambio negativo del primer al segundo trimestre. Los resultados model´s logística muestran que estar casada (OR = 0,26, IC95%: 0,10, 0,76) y tener una mayor ingesta de verduras en el primer trimestre (OR = 0,17, IC95%: 0,10, 0,43) se asociaron con menor probabilidad de tener un cambio negativo en la adhesión a la DM del primer al segundo trimestre. Conclusiones: Estado civil y el consumo de vegetal parecen estar asociado con una menor ocurrencia de cambio negativo en la adhesión a la MD desde temprano a medio embarazo.

  1. [ADHERENCE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET AND HYDRATION IN SPANISH AND MOROCCAN POPULATIONS].

    PubMed

    Benhammou, Samira; Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Ortega, Virginia; Rivas, Ana; Ortega, Eduardo; Lorenzo, M Luisa; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la dieta mediterránea (DM) comprende la ribera europea, africana y asiática del mar Mediterráneo. Características de la DM son variedad de alimentos y sobriedad. Junto a los nutrientes, es esencial la ingesta de agua y bebidas. Objetivo: estudiar la DM y la contribución del agua y las bebidas a la hidratación de dos poblaciones de la ribera mediterránea. Métodos: adultos procedentes del noroeste de Marruecos y sur de España (n = 400), completaron un cuestionario semi-cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos. Se analizó agua envasada consumida por la población y comprada en el mercado local (17 marcas/ tipos en Marruecos y 30 en el sur de España). Resultados: por cromatografía de intercambio iónico se analizaron diversas sales. El rango fue: Ca entre 140,16 y 439 mg/L; Mg entre 53,15 y 87,5 mg/L; Na entre 1169,78 y 257,2 mg/L y K 50,26 y 26,5 mg/L, valores tanto para muestras españolas como marroquís. Son aguas de mineralización media y su ingesta de minerales no contribuye más del 7% a la RDA de las poblaciones estudiadas. El seguimiento de la DM es superior en la población española (6,28 ± 1,38) que en la marroquí (4,42 ± 1,52). El perfil de ingesta de bebidas permite clasificar a la población al encontrar valores OR que van desde 1,6 a 11,01 para mayor ingesta de zumo, refrescos, te, agua envasada y total de ingesta de líquidos para la población marroquí frente a la española. Conclusión: el consumo de aguas envasadas no supone un suplemento mineral de interés en estas poblaciones.

  2. PubMed

    Muñoz de Mier, Gema; Lozano Estevan, María Del Carmen; Romero Magdalena, Carlos Santiago; Pérez de Diego, Javier; Veiga Herreros, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Objetivo: el propósito de este estudio ha sido evaluar la calidad de la alimentación de los estudiantes de la Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio (Madrid) y establecer si tener una formación específica sobre temas de nutrición produce efectos positivos en los comportamientos alimentarios. Métodos: la muestra estuvo formada por 390 estudiantes, 72,63% de Ciencias de la Salud (CS) y 27,37% de otras carreras (No CS), con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 25 años. A través de un cuestionario se recabó información sobre frecuencia de consumo de alimentos. También se obtuvieron datos sobre el peso y la talla para calcular el índice de masa corporal (IMC).Resultados: la distribución de la población según el IMC fue la siguiente: 75,54% normopeso, 11,06% bajo peso, 13,4% obesidad; valores dentro de la normalidad y similares a los de otros grupos de estudiantes. Los dos grupos presentaron un consumo inferior al recomendado de cereales, verduras, hortalizas y fruta; a su vez, el consumo de legumbres fue superior a la media española y a la de otros jóvenes, llegando casi al mínimo recomendado. También se dio, en ambos grupos, un elevado consumo de lácteos. No se ha encontrado diferencias significativas entre titulaciones. Al comparar los datos para la variable sexo, el grupo de mujeres presentó un patrón de consumo más adecuado, con una mayor ingesta de fruta, verdura y pescado blanco. Conclusión: no se han visto diferencias en el comportamiento alimentario entre los dos grupos analizados (CS y No CS). Los resultados obtenidos indican que el consumo de alimentos de esta población se aleja de las recomendaciones establecidas, por lo que convendría diseñar un plan de actuación en materia nutricional.

  3. Efficacy of photographic educational materials for carbohydrate counting training of adolescents with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Servilha Gandolfo, Adriana; Vasconcelos Bastos, Débora; Jabur Makluf, Bruna Abreu; de Cassya Lopes Neri, Lenycia; Diaz Savoldelli, Roberta; Della Manna, Thais; Damiani, Durval; Archanjo Ferraro, Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    Antecedentes: El conteo de carbohidratos (CCH) es reconocido por la Asociación Americana de Diabetes (AAD) como una herramienta importante. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de materiales educativos fotográficos en el entrenamiento de adolescentes con DM para realizar el CCH. Sujetos y Métodos: se distribuyó al azar a 76 adolescentes a dos grupos de orientación de CCH: mediante materiales fotográficos (Foto) o mediante listado de alimentos (Lista). Un mes después, se contactó a los participantes por teléfono para responder a preguntas sobre CCH para reforzar el entrenamiento (Encuesta). Dos días después de la encuesta, se pidió a los participantes que visitaran una cocina experimental para observar las porciones de los alimentos al natural y responder a un cuestionario sobre los pesos en gramos o equivalentes de carbohidratos de estas porciones. Se estableció la significación estadística en un valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: 54 adolescentes completaron el estudio (79,7 % mujeres), siendo el 51,8 % asignados al grupo Foto y el 48,1 % al grupo Lista. La edad promedio fue de 13,8 ± 2,0 años y el índice de masa corporal (IMC) promedio fue de 21,0 ± 3,2 kg/m2. Los participantes tenían un promedio de 7,9 ± 1,5 años de escolarización, y sus padres 8,0 ± 3,8 años. EL conocimiento en el CCH fue similar en ambos grupos antes de la intervención. Después de la misma, el grupo Foto consiguió una diferencia significativa en la tasa de aciertos en el test de evaluación del CCH con respecto al grupo Lista (Foto: 2,5 frente a Lista: 1.0; p = 0,03). Conclusiones: el material educativo fotográfico fue más eficaz a la hora de ayudar a los adolescentes con DM a comprender y aprender a realizar el conteo de hidratos de carbono.

  4. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los hábitos alimentarios saludables influyen sobre la salud oral. El tratamiento de la caries comprende la restauración dental con selladores y composites dentales, la mayoría con bisfenol A (BPA). Hipótesis: a) el desayuno y hábitos de higiene oral son factores importantes en el desarrollo de caries; b) el tratamiento de la caries con epoxirresinas conlleva riesgo de exposición oral a monómeros plásticos. Objetivo: relacionar la ingesta del desayuno y los hábitos de higiene oral con la caries dental y determinar la presencia de selladores/composites como fuentes potenciales de exposición al BPA. Métodos: se analizaron 582 niños/as en edad escolar de Granada (sur de España) de 7 años de edad (7,55 [0,64] años). Se empleó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, 3 recordatorios de 24 h y variables de estilo de vida, incluyendo la higiene bucodental. La calidad del desayuno fue estimada con el Breakfast Quality Index (BQI). Resultados: se detectó un 21,7% de caries. El valor medio del BQI fue 5,18 (1,29). El 24% de la población realizó un desayuno con alimentos ricos en azúcares simples (> 5% de la energía total), asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries en el análisis de regresión logística. El 35,8% de los participantes tomaron galletas; asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries. La ingesta de productos de panadería, cereales y lácteos mostró una asociación inversamente significativa con la frecuencia de caries. Conclusión: se necesitan más investigaciones para aclarar el papel de la dieta en la caries y el riesgo de exposición a xenobióticos estrogénicos, como el BPA.

  5. [STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE THE NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH CHARACTERISTICS OF MEAT PIE OF MURCIA].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Zamora, Salvador; Frutos, María José; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2015-12-01

    Objetivos: mejorar la composición nutritiva y las características saludables del pastel de carne de Murcia (PCM), manteniendo sus apreciadas cualidades organolépticas y el diseño de un PCM funcional, mediante la adición de un ingrediente natural rico en fuctooligosacáridos. Métodos: mediante cambios relacionados con el tipo y cantidad de algunos de sus ingredientes se han elaborado diversas formulaciones del PCM (PCM saludable y PCM funcional). Se ha determinado la composición nutritiva, el valor calórico, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la calidad de la grasa. Además, se han valorado diversos atributos sensoriales y la aceptación global utilizando una escala descriptiva hedónica de nueve puntos. Resultados y discusión: el PCM saludable presenta un menor contenido de energía (15,4%), grasa total (39%), grasa saturada (48%) y sal (45%), así como una disminución de la potencial capacidad aterogénica (27%), trombogénica (30%) e hipercolesterolémica (30%) que el PCM tradicional. De las cuatro cantidades ensayadas (2,5, 5, 10 y 15%), solo la sustitución del 2,5 y 5% del ingrediente funcional no disminuyeron la aceptación global del PCM funcional, en comparación con el PCM tradicional. Conclusiones: los cambios en la formulación han mejorado la composición nutritiva y las características saludables del PCM tradicional, manteniendo sus cualidades organolépticas. El PCM funcional, elaborado con el ingrediente funcional al 5%, representa una mejora factible en las características funcionales del alimento estudiado. Estas estrategias contribuyen a mantener este tipo de alimentos tradicionales y a evitar la pérdida en la cultura, identidad y herencia gastronómica de España en general y de la Región de Murcia en particular.

  6. Changing dietary habits among Akwen Xerente.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Tatiana Evangelista da Silva; Silva, Reijane Pinheiro da; Nascimento, Maira Messias do

    2016-06-01

    The research aimed to identify the current feed of Xerente people in Indian villages Porteira and Funil in the city of Tocantinia / TO. It was used a qualitative ethnographic approach. Conducted from September 2013 to August 2014. The data were presented in a diary, through participant observation of food practices with the guidance of a script. A process of dietary change that permeates the culture of this people is taking place. Factors such as the deficit in the planting gardens, the recent arrival of energy, and therefore the technology has allowed access to processed foods. But some families still maintain the farming of cassava, yam, and beans. The main animals that are hunted in the village are peccary, deer and armadillo. It was possible to point which foods are inserted in the Xerente feed and factors related to this situation. A pesquisa objetivou identificar a alimentação atual do povo Xerente, nas aldeias indígenas Porteira e Funil, no município de Tocantínia / TO. Utilizou-se uma abordagem etnográfica qualitativa. Realizada entre setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. Os dados foram descritos através de um diário de campo, por meio da observação das práticas alimentares com a orientação de um roteiro. Está ocorrendo um processo de mudança alimentar na cultura deste povo. Fatores como o déficit no plantio das roças, a chegada da energia, e consequentemente a tecnologia, permitiu o acesso a alimentos industrializados. Mas algumas famílias ainda mantem o cultivo de mandioca, inhame, feijão andu. Os principais animais que são caçados na aldeia são caititu, veado e tatu. Foi possível encontrar a presença de alimentos industrializados inseridos na alimentação do Xerente e isso tem provocado alterações nos hábitos desse povo.

  7. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la esperanza de vida está aumentando y convirtiéndose en un fenómeno característico de los países desarrollados y, cada vez más, de los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiológicas, como la pérdida del olfato o gusto o pérdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos más longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.Métodos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Missões - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos y dietéticos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuación de nutrientes se evaluó de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 años y el 15.6% (n = 66) con más de 80 años. La ingesta de energía y proteínas fue insuficiente tanto para jóvenes adultos como para los más ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepción del hierro, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores sólo en cuanto al consumo de lípidos y vitamina B12. Conclusión: la mayoría de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este artículo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, por lo tanto, a cambios fisiológicos y patológicos que pondrían en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energía y de macronutrientes resultó insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos más longevos. Además, el consumo de vitaminas y

  8. NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC ASSESSMENT IN OVERWEIGHT PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT HYPERPROLACTINEMIA CAUSED BY PROLACTINOMA.

    PubMed

    Breyer Freitas, Bruna; Rothen, Renata Elisabeth; Zeni, Débora; Garcia Soares Leães, Carolina; Costa Oliveira, Miriam; Michielin Busnello, Fernanda; Fernanda Semmelmann Pereira-Lima, Júlia

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: los prolactinomas son adenomas hipofisarios que expresan y secretan prolactina. Estos pacientes tienen sobrepeso y el mecanismo está en estudio. Objetivos: evaluar el estado nutricional y metabólico de los pacientes con sobrepeso con y sin hiperprolactinemia causada por prolactinoma y compararlos. Materiales y métodos: es un estudio transversal con pacientes con índice de masa corporal (IMC) ≥ 25 kg/m2 con y sin prolactinoma: 1) 20 normoprolactinémicos (NPrl) con prolactinoma; 2) 23 hiperprolactinémicos (HPrl) con prolactinoma; 3) 28 controles sin prolactinoma o alteraciones en los niveles de prolactina. Evaluados a través de estudios antropométricos evaluación dietética y bioquímica. Resultados: de los 71 pacientes evaluados, la mayoría eran mujeres obesas con macroprolactinomas. Los tres grupos tenían dietas con baja ingesta de calorías y ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA), el grupo NPrl tenía ingesta baja en carbohidratos (CHO) y alta en lípidos (LIP) y ácidos grasos saturados (SFA), y los grupos NPrl y HPrl tenían ingesta apropiada de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA). El grupo HPrl tenía el colesterol sérico por encima del valor recomendado, mientras el colesterol HDL estaba por debajo del valor recomendado en la mayoría de los pacientes. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las variables antropométricas y bioquímicas entre los grupos. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los pacientes con prolactinomas y los controles son obesos y metabólicamente similares, independientemente de los niveles de prolactina. Todos los grupos presentaron baja ingesta de calorías y de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados. Proteínas, LIP, SFA y colesterol fueron significativamente diferentes entre los grupos, el grupo de NPrl ingiere menos cantidad de proteína y mayor de grasa. La mayoría de los pacientes manifiestan picar entre las comidas y cambios en el consumo de alimentos los fines de semana. Este es el primer

  9. [Characterization and nutritional value of a food artisan: the meat pie of Murcia].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; González-Silvera, Daniel; Frutos, Maria José; Zamora, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Describir las características de un producto típico de la gastronomía murciana, determinar su valor nutritivo y energético, analizar su perfil de ácidos grasos y la calidad de su grasa. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron 24 muestras de Pastel de carne de Murcia, procedentes de los seis establecimientos de mayor venta en la Región. (Cuatro unidades por establecimiento). Mediante los métodos oficiales de análisis de alimentos se determinaron los contenidos de humedad, proteína, grasa, carbohidratos, fibra y minerales, el valor energético, el perfil de ácidos grasos (Método de Folch et al. 1957) y la calidad de la grasa. Todos los análisis se realizaron por triplicado. Resultados y discusión: El peso medio fue de 192,3 ± 11,8 g, y en él se diferenciaron tres partes (base, relleno y tapa de hojaldre). Todos sus ingredientes fueron materias primas naturales: harina de trigo, manteca de cerdo, carne picada de ternera, rodajas de huevo cocido y de chorizo, agua y especias (sal, pimienta, ajo, pimentón y nuez moscada). La mayoría de sus atributos organolépticos son debidos al tipo y cantidad de la grasa, manteca de cerdo. El resto de atributos los aporta la combinación de los otros ingredientes y particularmente la formulación de las especias. Por su contenido en proteínas (11,0%), este producto puede sustituir a otros platos a base de carne, e incorporarlo a una dieta equilibrada, pero teniendo en cuenta su contenido en grasa (17,3%) y su aporte energético (317 kcal/100 g). A diferencia de otros muchos productos actuales de pastelería, éste no contiene ácidos grasos trans. Conclusiones: El estudio revela que el producto analizado sigue siendo, en el momento actual, un alimento artesanal, y ofrece información fiable y representativa del valor nutritivo y energético del pastel de carne de Murcia, un producto típico de la gastronomía de la Región de Murcia.

  10. [Breastfeeding for the prevention of overweight and obesity in children and teenagers; systematic review].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Sánchez López, Antonio Manuel; Madrid Baños, Nayra; Mur Villar, Norma; Expósito Ruiz, Manuela; Hermoso Rodríguez, Enrique

    2014-11-30

    Introducción: La Lactancia materna es una práctica recomendada desde las instituciones nacionales e internacionales debido a los beneficios que reporta para la salud, tanto del lactante como de la madre. En la actualidad, el sobrepeso y la obesidad conllevan una mayor morbilidad en los diferentes períodos de la vida. Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática es conocer las características de la lactancia materna en la prevención del sobrepeso y la obesidad en la infancia. Método: Se ha efectuado una búsqueda sistemática y se han seleccionado 113 artículos: 20 meta-análisis y revisiones, 6 artículos originales de ensayos clínicos, 42 estudios de cohorte o longitudinales, 19 estudios correlaciónales de muestra amplia, 24 descriptivos y 2 libros. Resultados: Según los artículos analizados, existe una relación causal entre la lactancia materna y la prevención de la obesidad infantil. Discusión/conclusión: En los diferentes estudios se ha podido verificar que los máximos beneficios de la lactancia materna se obtienen cuando su duración es mayor de 6 meses y se prolonga hasta los dos años, apoyada con otros alimentos. Otros estudios muestran que la lactancia materna es eficaz en la prevención de la obesidad, aunque su duración sea breve. También es importante que la alimentación complementaria se introduzca pasados los 6 meses de vida, para disminuir el riesgo de alergia a los alimentos y prevenir así la obesidad. Igualmente, se han relacionado con la obesidad infantil el peso de la madre durante el embarazo, el peso del niño al nacer, el tabaquismo materno y el nivel socioeconómico.

  11. Mites and the implications on human health.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Patrícia; Bosco, Simone Morelo Dal; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La infestación por ácaros de productos almacenados es de gran importancia económica y de salud pública, con consecuencias para la salud humana. Objetivos: Describir las especies de ácaros asociados a los productos alimenticios almacenados y que causan consecuencias para la salud humana, así como para analizar la pérdida de la calidad y la composición nutricional de los alimentos infestados. Método: Revisión de la literatura en LILACS-BIREME, SciELO y MEDLINE bases de datos de las publicaciones en Inglés, portugués y español con los descriptores “ácaros”, “alimentos”, “ácaros de almacenamiento”, “los ácaros del producto de su tienda”, “los ácaros del polvo”, “calidad control “,” alimentos de calidad “,” composición química “,” química “,” alérgenos “y” salud “. Se identificaron 80 artículos, pero sólo 55 estaban relacionados con los objetivos del estudio. Dieciséis referencias fueron mencionados en los artículos que se encontraron después de verificado su relevancia. Resultados y discusión: La actividad de los ácaros causan pérdida de calidad sanitaria, el peso y la composición nutricional de los productos infestados, con grandes pérdidas económicas en la industria del grano. La inhalación, ingestión o contacto de los ácaros, subproductos del metabolismo y las heces pueden sensibilizar individuos susceptibles y causar asma, rinitis alérgica, dermatitis de contacto, enteritis y conducir a la anafilaxis. El control de la temperatura y la humedad es esencial para el control de ácaros, así como una mejor conservación y la higiene de las unidades de almacenamiento de grano.

  12. [Food allergy diagnosis in patients with elimination diet history. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Rodríguez, Elsy Maureen; Del Río-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Pozo-Beltrán, César Fireth; García-Fajardo, Daniela Edith; Saucedo-Ramírez, Omar Josué; Castelán-Chávez, Enrique Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el diagnóstico de alergia alimentaria se realiza idealmente con reto doble ciego controlado con placebo; sin embargo, en muchas ocasiones sólo se basa en la historia clínica, en las pruebas cutáneas o, incluso, en la percepción de los padres. Con gran frecuencia se prescriben dietas de eliminación sin el abordaje adecuado. Objetivos: analizar los resultados de las pruebas diagnósticas de alergia alimentaria en un grupo de niños con dieta de eliminación y verificar esos estudios con la prueba de reto doble ciego. Material y método: estudio observacional, analítico, prospectivo, efectuado en un grupo de pacientes con dieta de eliminación por sospecha de alergia alimentaria. Se realizaron pruebas por punción, Prick-to-Prick y de parche a todos los pacientes y posteriormente se verificó la positividad de esas pruebas mediante reto doble ciego controlado con placebo. Resultados: se incluyeron 43 pacientes con un total de 1,935 pruebas. En el abordaje para sensibilidad inmediata y tardía no se encontró ninguna relación estadísticamente significativa entre la positividad de la prueba y la eliminación del alimento. Al momento se han realizado 50 retos, de los que 4 fueron positivos (8%). Conclusiones: la frecuencia de alergia comprobada por reto doble ciego controlado con placebo en 50 retos fue de 8% (4/50), por lo que en este reporte preliminar encontramos una alta frecuencia de eliminación de alimentos sin el sustento adecuado. Es muy importante que el diagnóstico de alergia alimentaria sea acertado y se base en el abordaje adecuado, porque la implementación de una dieta de eliminación en una población muy vulnerable, como los pacientes pediátricos, es de suma importancia y puede influir de manera negativa en su crecimiento y desarrollo.

  13. Differences in food intake and nutritional habits between Spanish adolescents who engage in ski activity and those who do not.

    PubMed

    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Monteagudo, Celia; Hernandez-Elizondo, Jessenia; Benhammou, Samira; Lorenzo, M Luisa; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2014-10-31

    Antecedentes: El aumento de la obesidad entre los adolescentes en países desarrollados puede ser consecuencia de malos hábitos alimentarios y falta de actividad. Objetivo: Determinar las diferencias en la ingesta de alimentos, hábitos nutricionales e índice de masa corporal entre adolescentes españoles que practican esquí y los que no lo hacen. Métodos: Una muestra de 300 adolescentes españoles de 10 a 18 años completó una encuesta que incluyó variables sociodemográficas, un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, recordatorio de 24h y un cuestionario de actividad física. Se utilizaron test de comparación paramétricos y no paramétricos para comparar los resultados entre adolescentes que practican (SP) y no practican (N-SP) esquí, en función al sexo. Resultados: Los adolescentes SP dedicaron más de 4h diarias a la realización de actividad física mientras que los adolescentes N-SP dedicaron menos de 1 hora diaria a la actividad física. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la ingesta de nutrientes o los hábitos nutricionales entre adolescentes SP y N-SP. La ingesta de proteínas y lípidos de ambos grupos estuvo por encima de los niveles recomendados. El sobrepeso fue más frecuente entre adolescentes N-SP. El análisis de regresión logística mostró que el mantenimiento de un peso normal se ve favorecido por la práctica del esquí, el consumo de bebidas sin azúcar y la suplementación con vitaminas/minerales y se asoció negativamente con la insatisfacción con el peso corporal, el consumo de suplementos nutricionales distintos a vitaminas o minerales y el consumo de aperitivos. Conclusiones: La dieta de esta población adolescente fue desequilibrada. La participación en la actividad física parece ser un factor clave en el mantenimiento de un índice de masa corporal saludable.

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Perales-García, Aránzazu; Estévez-Martínez, Isabel; Urrialde, Rafael

    2016-07-12

    Introducción: la hidratación se define como el aporte de agua proveniente de alimentos y bebidas. Su estudio constituye desde hace unos años un área en sí misma dentro de la nutrición, que ha supuesto que en 2010 la European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) aprobara las recomendaciones de ingesta de agua; pero el estudio del estado de hidratación implica un elevado nivel metodológico que presenta ciertos desafíos. Objetivo: ofrecer una visión general de los principales problemas metodológicos en estudios sobre el estado de hidratación. Material y métodos: revisión de la bibliografía científica existente. Resultados: los principales problemas metodológicos presentes son: selección de la muestra (ámbito de investigación y diseño muestral), selección del método de evaluación del estado de hidratación (técnicas de dilución, impedancia bioeléctrica, indicadores plasmáticos y urinarios, cambios en la composición corporal, pérdidas de agua y síntomas clínicos), selección del método de valoración de la ingesta de agua (biomarcadores, cuestionarios, programas informáticos, uso de smartphones, registro 24 h, historia dietética y frecuencia de consumo de alimentos), así como sus principales fuentes dietéticas. Conclusiones: el estado de hidratación debe ser entendido como un modelo rutinario, de frecuencia diaria y variable en función de la edad, sexo, actividad física y condiciones ambientales; por todo ello es de especial importancia un correcto diseño metodológico capaz de recoger estos matices.

  15. PubMed

    Ledesma Ríos, Natalia Inés; Sepúlveda Herrera, Diana María; Cárdenas Sánchez, Diana Liseth; Manjarrés Correa, Luz Mariela

    2016-09-20

    Introducción: a escala mundial y nacional se reporta una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en menores de 5 años. La etiología es multifactorial, pero factores ambientales como sedentarismo y el progresivo deterioro de la alimentación promueven el exceso de peso y conllevan a mayor riesgo de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en temprana edad.Objetivo: describir la ingesta de alimentos, energía y nutrientes en los niños de 2-4 años con obesidad y eutróficos del programa "Buen Comienzo".Método: estudio de corte con 111 niños con obesidad clasificada según IMC >3 DE, que fueron pareados por sexo, edad y tipo de atención con un niño clasificado con estado nutricional normal. Personal entrenado realizó la valoración antropométrica con equipos y métodos estandarizados y se evaluó la ingesta dietética a través de recordatorio de 24 horas. Se aplicó la prueba t-student y U de Mann Whitney en el análisis bivariado y para determinar el patrón de consumo de alimentos y se efectuó un análisis de clases latentes (ACL).Resultados: los niños tienen un consumo de energía superior a su requerimiento, pero existe diferencia significativa según el estado nutricional; el consumo en los niños obesos es de 1.632 kcal (IQR: 1.475-1.801 kcal) y eutróficos de 1.798 kcal (IQR 1.702-1.632 kcal) (p = 0,00). Los niños con peso adecuado tienen mayor ingesta de macronutrientes y micronutrientes (p < 0,05); hay una mayor ingesta de proteínas y micronutrientes durante la semana (p < 0,05); el 30% de los niños no consumió ninguna verdura y el 60% ninguna fruta el día anterior a la encuesta y tuvieron, además, un alto consumo de azúcares y dulces.Conclusiones: los niños están sometidos a una dieta obesogénica caracterizada por un bajo consumo de frutas y verduras y una alta ingesta de energía, grasas saturadas y carbohidratos concentrados, lo que promueve una ganancia de peso no deseado.

  16. [Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess lipid and phytochemical intake].

    PubMed

    Perovic, Nilda R; Defago, Maria D; Aguinaldo, Anabel; Joekes, Silvia; Actis, Adriana B

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: estudios epidemiológicos sugieren que el consumo de ciertos alimentos puede reducir el riesgo de enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT). Objetivo: analizar la validez y reproducibilidad de un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo alimentario (FFQ) destinado a evaluar la ingesta de lípidos y fitoquímicos. Material y métodos: el FFQ fue administrado a 45 personas de ambos sexos, con edades entre 20 y 72 años de edad, residentes en Córdoba, Argentina. Incluyó 257 preguntas referidas a los alimentos, su frecuencia de consumo y tamaño de la porción. Se consideró la estacionalidad para el consumo de frutas y verduras. El cuestionario se aplicó en dos períodos diferentes (FFQ1 y FFQ2) con un intervalo de seis meses y se acompañó por un recordatorio de 24 horas (24HDR) utilizado en tres periodos de tiempo. Se realizó la estimación de: ingesta promedio FFQ1-FFQ2 y 24HDR-FFQ2, diferencia de medias, desviación absoluta de diferencias de medias, prueba de los rangos con signo de Wilcoxon y test de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: los coeficientes de correlación para FFQ1-FFQ2 variaron de 0,52 para el ácido graso eicosapentanoico 20:5 n3 (EPA) a 0,89 para ácido graso butírico 4:0 (p<0,05). Para 24HDR-FFQ2, los valores de correlación oscilaron entre 0,19 para licopeno y 0,93 para el EPA (p <0,05). Conclusión: el análisis realizado mostró una validez aceptable y reproducibilidad del FFQ, permitiendo así que sea utilizado en investigaciones sobre ingesta de lípidos y fitoquímicos y el riesgo de ENT.

  17. Dietary patterns of young adolescents in urban areas of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Célia Márcia Medeiros; Pinheiro, Liana Galvão Bacurau; Lima, Severina Carla Vieira Cunha; Lyra, Clelia Oliveira; de Sena Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Mauricio; Lima, Kenio Costa; Pedrosa, Lucia Fatima Campos

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Estudios nacionales de evolución temporal encuentran que la tendencia del consumo alimentario se asocia con aumento de la prevalencia de las enfermedades crónicas. Objetivos: Caracterizar los hábitos alimentarios de los adolescentes en un área urbana del Noreste de Brasil, relacionándolos con los marcadores dietéticos saludables. Métodos: Estudio transversal con adolescentes (n=430) de las escuelas públicas de Natal-RN, Brasil. El consumo alimentario se evaluó mediante dos recordatorios 24h. La técnica de Análisis de Componentes Principales fue utilizada para derivar patrones dietéticos, de acuerdo con: alimentos en gramos (g), la energía en Kcal y la fibra en gramos, lo que resulta, respectivamente, en 3 componentes principales distintos: 7, 8 y 4 (varianza acumulada >70%; cargas factoriales >0,4). La asociación entre las variables independientes y los escores de los factores de todos los componentes obtenidos, se determinó por la razón de prevalencia (IC 95%). Resultados: Los patrones dietéticos fueron: el (1) Sistema Alimentario Tradicional puro representó el primero componente de los modelos; el (2) Sistema Alimentario Combinado y de riesgo reveló marcadores de alimentación no saludables, debido a la alta frecuencia de azucares refinados, grasas saturadas y sal; y el (3) Sistema Alimentario Modificado fue identificado en el modelo de las fibras, el patrón 1 de nuevo fue observado en este patrón. Las asociaciones observadas, en particular del patrón SATm, distinguen por sexo, edad y estado nutricional. Conclusiones: Los patrones dietéticos 1 y 3 se caracterizaron por la preservación de las prácticas regionales de alimentos, muy saludables, desde el punto de vista de la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas, mientras que el 2 representó alerta y riesgo para la salud. Los hallazgos pueden subvencionar Políticas de Atención a la Salud para infancia y adolescencia en carácter intersectorial.

  18. Effect of beta-glucans in the control of blood glucose levels of diabetic patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Francelino Andrade, Eric; Vieira Lobato, Raquel; Vasques Araújo, Ticiana; Gilberto Zangerônimo, Márcio; Vicente Sousa, Raimundo; José Pereira, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Alimentos funcionales han sido ampliamente utilizados para reducir los síntomas de diversas enfermedades como la diabetes mellitus (DM). Entre los alimentos utilizados en el combate de estos efectos, están las fibras solubles, principalmente aquellas que tienen buena cantidad de beta-glucano (BG’s). Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática fue evaluar los efectos de los BG´s en los parámetros metabólicos de individuos diabéticos. Métodos: Fue conducida una búsqueda en las bases de datos Pubmed, ScienceDirect y cielo, utilizando las siguientes palabras-clave: diabetes mellitus and beta- glucano and glucosa and glucemia. Como criterio de inclusión, fueron seleccionados solamente estudios en individuos diabéticos (tipo 1 o tipo 2) que consumieron BG´s. Resultados y Discusión: De los 819 trabajos inicialmente encontrados, 10 artículos se encuadraron en los criterios de inclusión, y por eso fueran utilizados en el estudio. Fue observado que dosis superiores de 6,0 g/ individuo/día, o dosis más grandes que 3,0 g/individuo/ día por un periodo de tiempo más largo, son suficientes para provocar mejoras en los parámetros glucémicos y lipidicos de portadores de DM. Bajas dosis de BG por al menos 12 semanas también presentaron efectos metabólicos benéficos. Conclusión: Tomando en cuenta los resultados observados, se concluye que los BG´s son eficientes en la atenuación de los efectos indeseables del DM, siendo las dosis más grandes o el consumo de pequeñas cantidades por un tiempo más largo las que promueven resultados mejores.

  19. [Nutritional analysis of breakfast on rising and mid-morning snack in a college population].

    PubMed

    Durá Travé, T

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Realizar un estudio descriptivo del modelo de desayuno de una población universitaria y analizar su aporte energético y de nutrientes en relación con los requerimientos nutricionales establecidos. Material y métodos: Registro de consumo de alimentos durante la mañana (desayuno/almuerzo) de un día lectivo a una muestra de 740 universitarios (286 varones y 454 mujeres) con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 25 años. De cada encuestado se registraba sexo, edad, peso, talla e índice de masa corporal y tipo de residencia. Se han calculado las ingestas porcentuales de nutrientes en relación con las ingestas recomendadas (%IR). Resultados: El 98,6% desayunaba y el 54,2% almorzaba diariamente, y el 53.5% realizaba ambas ingestas. Lácteos (92,6%), cereales (58,8%) y dulces (57,9%) en el desayuno, y cereales (46,6%), frutas (40,7%) y embutidos (34,9%) en el almuerzo eran los alimentos más habituales. El %IR de la ingesta calórica (desayuno/almuerzo) era del 24,4% en varones y del 24,6% en mujeres (NS). El %IR de la ingesta de colesterol (desayuno:/almuerzo) era de 38,2% en varones y del 23,9% en mujeres (p < 0,05). En el desayuno los %IR de minerales y vitaminas eran significativamente superiores (p < 0,05) respecto a los del almuerzo. Conclusiones: Este modelo de desayuno/almuerzo difería del prototipo dietético saludable con un consumo excesivo de dulces, bollería y repostería (desayuno) y carnes y derivados (almuerzo). La mitad de los encuestados no almorzaban y su ingesta calórica matutina estaba por debajo de lo recomendado. Tratándose de estudiantes universitarios inquieta el efecto potencialmente negativo que pudiera tener sobre el rendimiento académico.

  20. IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BURITI FRUIT (MAURITIA FLEXUOSA L.F.).

    PubMed

    da Rocha Romero, Amanda Batista; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Moreira Nunes, Paulo Humberto; Ravenna Trindade Ferreira, Nayara; da Silva Brito, Ana Karolinne; Marinho da Cunha, Polliana Farias; de Lima, Alessandro; de Assis, Regina Célia; Moreira Araújo, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: estudios previos han demostrado que la fruta Burití (Mauritia flexuosa L.f). posee una alta concentración de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados, carotenoides, polifenoles y ácido ascórbico. Este estudio evaluó la actividad antioxidante in vitro e in vivo del Burití. Métodos: fueron determinadas la composición química, el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y de carotenoides tanto de la pulpa del Burití como de las raciones de alimento. La actividad antioxidante in vitro fue analizada utilizando el ensayo del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH). Ratas Wistar (21 días de edad) fueron asignadas al azar (n = 10) en grupos controles y grupos experimentales (alimentación enriquecida con pulpa de Burití). Después de 60 días, la actividad antioxidante in vivo se evaluó mediante la actividad enzimática de la catalasa y grupos sulfhidrílo no proteico (NPSH) en el hígado, y se cuantificó el malondialdehído (MDA) en plasma y tejidos. Resultados: la pulpa del Burití presentó alto contenido de ácido graso oleico (73,3%), compuestos fenólicos (192 ± 0,3 mg/100 g) y carotenoides (23,9 ± 0,5 mg/100 g), así como una elevada actividad antioxidante in vitro. La dieta enriquecida tenía mayor contenido de fenoles y carotenoides, y una mayor actividad antioxidante en comparación con la alimentación estándar (p < 0,05). No se observaron diferencias entre los grupos con respecto a la actividad de la catalasa en el hígado y las concentraciones de MDA en plasma, hígado y riñones. Las ratas macho del grupo experimental tuvieron concentraciones hepáticas más altas de NPSH (p < 0,05). Conclusión: estos resultados pueden corroborar la hipótesis de que la fruta Burití es un alimento funcional antioxidante y su consumo es conveniente en una dieta nutricionalmente equilibrada.

  1. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena

    2015-07-18

    Objetivos: las guías alimentarias para conseguir una alimentación correcta establecen como aconsejable tomar tres o más raciones de cereales integrales de grano completo al día. Sin embargo, la norma es poco conocida en nuestro entorno, afectando el incumplimiento a la práctica totalidad de la población. Por ello, el objetivo de la presente revisión es analizar los beneficios nutricionales y sanitarios asociados al consumo de cereales de grano completo y las posibles ventajas que podrían derivarse del cumplimiento con consumo aconsejado para estos alimentos. Métodos: búsqueda bibliográfica en relación con el tema. Resultados: los cereales de grano completo aportan cantidades elevadas de hidratos de carbono, fibra, vitaminas y minerales, cuya contribución a la dieta media ayuda a alcanzar las ingestas recomendadas y los objetivos nutricionales vigentes, por lo que su consumo en la cantidad aconsejada supone un beneficio nutricional. Por otra parte, diversos estudios señalan que un aumento en el consumo de cereales de grano completo se asocia con una protección frente al padecimiento de diversas enfermedades crónico-degenerativas (cardiovasculares, diabetes, síndrome metabólico y cáncer), ayudando en el mantenimiento de la salud digestiva y del peso corporal. Estos resultados pueden ser debidos al aporte de nutrientes, fibra y fitoquímicos, procedente de estos alimentos, así como al desplazamiento de la dieta de otros productos con un perfil nutricional menos conveniente, teniendo en cuenta la composición de la dieta media española. De hecho, el consumo de cereales de grano completo ha sido relacionado con una posible mejora en la microbiota intestinal y una mayor protección antioxidante. Pese a estas ventajas, el consumo de cereales es mirado con recelo por diversos individuos, especialmente por aquellas personas preocupadas por el control de peso, y los beneficios adicionales asociados al consumo de cereales de grano completo no son

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE FOOD PATTERNS OF IMMIGRANT ECUADORIAN POPULATION IN SOUTHERN SPAIN BASED ON A 24-H FOOD RECALL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Sanchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: ecuador es un país con limitada información nutricional con la excepción de algunos estudios de carácter general realizados por FAO (Food Agriculture Organization). Objetivos: realizar una evaluación nutricional de la dieta de la población inmigrante ecuatoriana en el sur de España para determinar diferencias en los patrones alimentarios y posibles deficiencias nutricionales. Métodos: la evaluación nutricional se basa en un estudio de recordatorio de alimentos de 24 horas llevado acabo sobre la población ecuatoriana residente en Sevilla y Córdoba (España) en combinación con la aplicación de bases de datos nacionales e internacionales de composición de alimentos. Se estimaron los niveles de ingesta de nutrientes y el cumplimiento de las ingestas dietéticas de referencia (IDR) que se analizaron estadísticamente para los factores, genero, edad, profesión y ciudad. Resultados: según las IDR utilizadas, la distribución de macronutrientes y los niveles de ingesta de nutrientes fueron, en la mayoría de los casos, adecuadas. De manera destacada, se constató que los hábitos alimentarios ecuatorianos permanecieron en la población inmigrante, con el arroz como fuente principal de energía. Los niveles de ingesta fueron significativamente diferentes para diferentes nutrientes dependiendo del grupo de edad, sexo, lugar de residencia y ocupación profesional. Comparando estos datos con un estudio previo en Ecuador reveló que la población inmigrante en España presenta un mejor estado nutricional, si bien en ambas poblaciones se detectaron deficiencias en fibra, vitamina E, I y Se. En cuanto a estas deficiencias, los resultados no pueden considerarse concluyentes debido a limitaciones propias de las bases de datos (por ej. Se) y a la carencia de estudios adecuados que permitan una evaluación más precisa (por ej. estudios de larga duración para vitamina E). Conclusiones: estos resultados evidencian que la población inmigrante

  3. Interactions of grass spontaneous cover in olive orchards with site conditions and management: a study case using biodiversity indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Carmen; Taguas, Encarnación; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Gómez, Jose A.

    2014-05-01

    Spontaneous herbaceous plants are an inexpensive control measure of soil erosion in olive orchards. Grass covers on steep areas are a requirement for compliance by farmers with basic standards concerning the environment, derived from Common Agricultural Policy (cross-compliances). In addition to ground cover, other aspects such as biodiversity and OC storage capacity of these systems are often not considered, despite the fact that the occupation of many ecological niches by different species might provide substantial environmental and landscape benefits. In this study, we evaluated different biodiversity indices on grass cover in two olive orchard catchments with different managements (conventional tillage and non-tillage with natural herbaceous plants) during 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples/ha) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the indicators: number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shanon's and Pielou's indices. The specific objectives of this work were: i) to describe and to compare the biodiversity indices in two contrasting olive orchard catchments of 6 and 9 ha with different soil types, precipitation, topography and management; ii) to explore possible relationships of these indexes with soil organic carbon content and soil loss. The results will allow improving our knowledge of environmental functions of this type of ground cover as well as factors determining its development. These features can be particularly interesting to enhance the environmental values of marginal olive orchards in steep locations. REFERENCES Aguilera L. 2012.Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar Evolución espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba (Spain) Gimeno E. 2011. Análisis de la variabilidad de la cobertura vegetal en tres pequeñas cuencas de olivar

  4. [Probiotics: from the lab to the consumer].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J M

    2015-02-07

    Introducción: En los últimos años, el campo de los probióticos ha experimentado un gran auge. Sin embargo, de los miles de cepas aisladas cada año por su potencial probiótico en los laboratorios de todo el mundo, muy pocas pasan a una fase de desarrollo industrial y menos aún son las que consiguen una vida comercial. Objetivo: En este artículo, se revisan los principales aspectos que se deben tener en cuenta en el, habitualmente, largo y tortuoso camino que debe seguir una cepa desde su aislamiento inicial hasta su comercialización. Resultados y conclusiones: Cualquier microorganismo probiótico debe estar correctamente identificado a nivel de especie y cepa. La secuencia del genoma es la mejor identificación posible, además de proporcionar información muy valiosa sobre su seguridad, funcionalidad y propiedades de interés tecnológico. Los casos en los que se ha podido establecer una relación entre un probiótico y un efecto adverso son muy escasos y han afectado a personas con patologías subyacentes. Globalmente, aunque las distintas pruebas in vitro, ex vivo y en modelos animales proporcionan información útil durante el proceso de selección de cepas, los únicos datos que permiten evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de un probiótico de una forma directa son los que se obtienen en el curso de ensayos clínicos correctamente diseñados y dirigidos específicamente a la población diana. Por otra parte, las empresas que comercializan probióticos tienen la necesidad de obtener una biomasa muy elevada de forma económicamente rentable y de que la concentración de bacterias viables necesaria para ejercer el efecto beneficioso se mantenga hasta el final de la vida útil del producto. Finalmente, los aspectos comerciales son determinantes en la decisión de afrontar el desarrollo industrial y la puesta en el mercado de un probiótico.

  5. [Comparative study of habits in students before and during the university in northwest area of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Iglesias López, María Teresa; Cuesta Santa Teresa, Elvira; Sáez Crespo, Antonio

    2014-11-12

    Introducción: En la mayoria de los paises occidentales los jovenes, adoptan estilos de vida que afectan negativamente a su salud, incrementando de esta manera el riesgo de la aparicion prematura de enfermedades cronicas. Objetivo: Comparar los patrones de habitos en estudiantes preuniversitarios y universitarios en la zona noroeste de Madrid. Material y método: Estudio longitudinal descriptivo con estudiantes madrilenos de universidades madrilenas y colegios-institutos de la zona centro-oeste de Madrid capital, aceptando participar 1590 alumnos de ambos sexos preuniversitarios y universitarios: 653 varones (41,1%) y 937 mujeres (58,9%). Se clasifico a los estudiantes en grupos etarios, ≤ 17 anos y ≥ 18 anos Resultados: Se estudia el IMC, la actividad fisica, el consumo de alcohol y los habitos negativos en cuanto al consumo de alimentos. Casi el 80% presenta normo peso, son mas activos los preuniversitarios. Conclusión: Se han constatado diferencias entre sexos, que deben guiar las actuaciones de intervencion en cuanto a la actividad fisica o habitos, por lo que parece fundamental realizar programas de intervencion nutricional y psicosocial en los adolescentes y jovenes para prevenir y/o reducir el consumo de alcohol.

  6. Adequacy of energy and nutrient intake in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sanches Machado d'Almeida, Karina; Dalira Schweigert Perry, Ingrid; Clausell, Nadine; Corrêa Souza, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Factores nutricionales tienen una influencia significativa en el pronóstico de pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca (IC). Objetivos: Evaluar la ingesta de alimentos de pacientes con IC estable. Métodos: Pacientes de ambos sexos, mayores de 18 años, con diagnóstico confirmado de IC fueron reclutados y emparejados por edad, sexo y IMC con individuos sanos. La ingesta nutricional fue evaluada mediante el registro alimentario y pesaje de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de las DRIs y NCEP-ATP III para la evaluación de la adecuación de la ingesta nutricional. Resultados: El 65% de los 40 pacientes con IC y el 48% de los 25 individuos control eran hombres. La edad media en los grupos fue de 54±8 años y los valores del IMC fueron indicativos de sobrepeso. La ingesta de carbohidratos, ácidos grasos trans y sodio fue mayor en el grupo IC que en el grupo control (p=0,006, p.

  7. [PREVALENCE OF DEHYDRATION BEFORE TRAINING IN PROFESIONAL CHILEAN SOCCER PLAYERS].

    PubMed

    Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Astudillo, Sebastian; Álvarez, Cristian; Zapata-Lamana, Rafael; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Jorquera, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: existen pocos estudios relacionados con el estado de hidratación pre-entrenamiento en futbolistas profesionales. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de deshidratación pre-entrenamiento en jugadores profesionales de fútbol. Métodos: se incluyeron un total de 156 jugadores de fútbol (edad 25,4 ± 5,2 años) de seis clubes profesionales chilenos. No se hicieron recomendaciones previas de hidratación ni de ingesta de alimentos, con el objetivo de evaluar el estado de hidratación bajo condiciones regulares “reales”. Se evaluó la masa corporal, la talla y la gravedad específica de la orina (GEO) antes de sus sesiones de entrenamiento. Resultados: la deshidratación (entre moderada y grave) pre-entrenamiento se observó en el 98% de los futbolistas. Discusión: la deshidratación pre-entrenamiento es el estado de hidratación más frecuente en los jugadores profesionales de fútbol de Chile, lo que puede afectar negativamente a su rendimiento y podría incrementar su riesgo de lesiones relacionadas con el calor.

  8. Chia induces clinically discrete weight loss and improves lipid profile only in altered previous values.

    PubMed

    Tavares Toscano, Luciana; Tavares Toscano, Lydiane; Leite Tavares, Renata; da Oliveira Silva, Cássia Surama; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2014-12-14

    Introducción: Debido al alto contenido de fibra dietética, la chía (Salvia hispánica L.) han sido propuesta para la pérdida de peso y mejora del perfil lipídico y glucémico. Pero los datos en humanos son escasos o inexistentes, en función de la variable analizada. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con harina de chía en la composición corporal, perfil lipídico y glucémico de individuos con sobrepeso y obesidad. Métodos: hombres y mujeres fueron asignados aleatoriamente en grupos que consumieron 35 g / día de chía (CHIA; n = 19; 48.8 ± 1.8 años) o placebo (PLA; n = 7; 51.4 ± 3.1 años) durante 12 semanas. La composición corporal y el consumo de alimentos fueron evaluados la cada cuatro semanas de intervención. Perfil lipídico y los niveles de glucosa se midieron al principio y al final del estudio. Resultados: La chía promovió reducción significativa en el peso corporal (-1.1kg; p.

  9. Milk and dairy products intake in child-juvenile population in Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-10-01

    Objetivo: Realizar un estudio descriptivo del consumo de leche y derivados lácteos en una población de escolares y adolescentes y analizar su contribución nutricional en la dieta de estos jóvenes. Material y Métodos: Registro de consumo de alimentos de tres días lectivos consecutivos en una muestra de 353 alumnos que cursaban Educación Primaria, entre 9 y 12 años de edad; y a 406 alumnos que cursaban Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, entre 13 y 16 años, en la ciudad de Pamplona (Navarra, España). Resultados: El 94% de los encuestados referían haber tomado lácteos en el desayuno y, en menor proporción, en la cena (69,3%), comida del mediodía (42,1%), merienda (23,3%) y almuerzo (16,4%). No existían diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos de edad. El valor medio del número de raciones de lácteos consumidas por la totalidad de los encuestados era de 2 diarias, siendo significativamente superior (p.

  10. [How to prescribe for patients with dysphagia: a review for the adaptation of the pharmaceutical guide in a socio-sanitary hospital].

    PubMed

    Hernández Martín, J; Correa Ballester, M; Vial Escolano, R; Forcano García, M; Gómez Navarro, R; González García, P

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Revisar la guía farmacoterapéutica del hospital para incluir formas farmacéuticas adaptadas a pacientes con disfagia y recomendaciones para la administración de medicamentos en estos pacientes. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica para elaborar las recomendaciones generales de administración de medicamentos en disfagia. Se comprobó para cada principio activo: a) si existían comercializadas otras formas farmacéuticas más recomendables; b) si había posibilidad de manipular los comprimidos o cápsulas, y c) si eran compatibles con alimentos. Resultados: Se desarrolló un algoritmo de decisión para ayudar en la selección de la forma farmacéutica y de su método de administración. Se incluyó un apartado de recomendaciones de administración para cada principio activo. La búsqueda supuso la inclusión de once formas bucodispersables, veintiséis líquidas y ocho como polvo. Conclusiones: La revisión mejorará la utilidad de la guía como instrumento para la prescripción, validación y administración de medicamentos en disfagia.

  11. [Lipid - lowering effect of mate tea intake in dyslipidemic subjects].

    PubMed

    Messina, Diego; Soto, Catalina; Méndez, Ailín; Corte, Carla; Kemnitz, Mariana; Avena, Virginia; Del Balzo, Diego; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: El mate es la infusión nacional de Argentina y sus propiedades en la salud humana no han sido totalmente aclaradas. Objetivos: Evaluar las modificaciones del perfil lipídico en pacientes dislipidémicos suplementados con yerba mate. Métodos: Se estudiaron 121 individuos dislipidémicos (Colesterol Total (CT), Colesterol LDL (CLDL) y/o Triglicéridos (TG) elevados) de ambos sexos (74 mujeres y 47 varones) entre 40 y 60 años, sin tratamiento hipolipemiante. Luego de seis semanas de abstinencia de mate, se analizó su perfil lipídico e índice aterogénico (IA), composición corporal a través de antropometría y consumo reciente de energía, nutrientes y grupos de alimentos a través de cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo. Se indicó el consumo diario de mate preparado con 50g o 100g de yerba mate. Se indicó no alterar hábitos alimentarios, tabaquismo, medicación ni ejercicio físico. Se repitieron las determinaciones luego de seis y doce semanas. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante prueba T de Student para muestras relacionadas o prueba de Wilcoxon según normalidad de las variables (p.

  12. [Independent ethics committees for clinical research in Argentina. An evaluation and a system to guarantee their independence].

    PubMed

    Gonorazky, Sergio E

    2008-01-01

    The Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica de la República Argentina (ANMAT) requires that an independent ethics committee of sponsors and/or researchers must previously evaluate and approve all the new pharmacological research protocols carried out on human beings. However, due to the lucrative nature of the evaluation, and because the selection of the Independent Ethics Committee is carried out by the sponsors and/or researchers, the assumed autonomy of the former can be reduced to merely a relationship of "service provider-customer". The Institutional Review Board of the Mar del Plata s Community Hospital has evaluated, between 2005 and 2006, thirty three research protocols (with their corresponding information sheets for patients and informed consent forms) previously approved by a non-institutional Independent Ethics Committee. The median number of objections made by the Institutional Review Board, which prompted the previously mentioned protocols to be modified in order to be approved, was of three per protocol. In other words, the accreditation of an Independent Ethics Committee requires a system that guarantees actual independence from the sponsors and/or researchers, as well as management control mechanisms that may lead them into an eventual loss of accreditation. Several measures are proposed in order to correct the deficiencies of the present system.

  13. Controlled trial of copper supplementation during the recovery from marasmus.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Durán, C; Fisberg, M; Valenzuela, A; Egaña, J I; Uauy, R

    1983-06-01

    To evaluate copper nutritional status and the effect of a Cu supplement during recuperation, 27 marasmic infants were selected on admission to the nutrition recovery center at the Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos. Thirteen infants received 80 micrograms/kg/day of copper supplement as sulphate and the remaining a placebo. They were paired by birth weight, age, and sex. Anthropometric indices, complete blood count, ceruloplasmin, and Cu were measured on admission and at monthly intervals. Superoxide dismutase activity was measured in hypocupremic infants and was found to be low. The mean +/- SE Cu levels on admission were 127 +/- 10 micrograms/dl for the supplemented group and 137 +/- 10 micrograms/dl for the control. We found an increase in plasma Cu to 159 and 162 micrograms/dl on days 30 and 60 in the supplement group, and a significant decrease after day 30 in the placebo group. The ceruloplasmin levels followed this trend. Hypocupremia was found in 30% of the placebo group and none in the supplement group. The placebo group had a significantly higher prevalence of severe lower respiratory infections. It is concluded that a significant proportion of marasmic infants fed a milk-based diet present, during recovery, biochemical evidence of Cu deficiency. Supplementation with Cu is suggested.

  14. [Consumption of carbonated beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners in Latin American university students].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Record Cornwall, Jiniva; Encina Vega, Claudia; Salazar de Ariza, Julieta; Cordón Arrivillaga, Karla; Cereceda Bujaico, María del Pilar; Antezana Alzamora, Sonia; Espinoza Bernardo, Sissy

    2014-09-12

    Introducción: El consumo de bebidas carbonatadas con edulcorantes no nutritivos (ENN) es cada vez más común con el objetivo de mantener un peso saludable, sin embargo el efecto de los ENN sobre el peso corporal es controversial. Materiales y métodos: Estudiantes universitarios (n=1.229) de ambos sexos de 18 a 26 años, de los cuales 472 de Chile, 300 de Panamá, 253 de Guatemala y 204 de Perú. A cada estudiante se le aplicó una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo semanal de alimentos apoyada con fotografías de bebidas con ENN para cada país para determinar la ingesta de ellos. Asimismo y se les realizó una evaluación antropométrica. Resultados: El 80% de los estudiantes consumían bebidas carbonatadas con ENN, ninguno de ellos superó la ingesta diaria admitida para sucralosa, acesulfame de potasio y aspartame. El mayor consumo tanto en hombres como mujeres se observó en estudiantes universitarios chilenos (p.

  15. Impact of a high-fat diet containing canola or soybean oil on body development and bone; parameters in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Soares da Costa, Carlos Alberto; De Sousa dos Santos, Aline; Santana Carlos, Aluana; Lopes Gonzalez, Gabrielle de Paula; Pontes Gaspar Reis, Rejane; Carneiro, Cynthia; Soares Alves, Sanderson; Pereira Albuquerque, Karine; Alves da Silva, Paula Cristina; Cavalcante Ribeiro, Danielle; Teles Boaventura, Gilson; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Alves do Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: El papel del ácido graso en la prevención o la progresión de las enfermedades crónicas ha generado un interés significativo por parte de los investigadores. Por lo tanto, nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los efectos a largo plazo de la dieta alta en grasas que contienen soja o aceite de canola en los parámetros de desarrollo del cuerpo y los huesos de ratas macho. Métodos: Después del destete, las ratas se agruparon y se alimentaron con una dieta control (7S) o una dieta alta en grasa que contiene soja (19S) o aceite de canola (19C). Fémur y vértebras lumbares (LV4) estructura se determinaron a los 180 días por absorciometría dual de rayos X y tomografía computarizada. Resultados: Los grupos mostraron similares ingesta de alimentos, la masa corporal y el desarrollo de longitud. Los parámetros óseos de la 19C fueron similares al grupo control, mientras que los 19S mostró parámetros óseos inferiores en comparación con los otros grupos. Conclusiones: La dieta alta en grasas que contiene aceite de soja fue desfavorable a la estructura ósea, mientras que el aceite de canola contribuyó salud de los huesos en la etapa adulta de la vida.

  16. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  17. [Design and implementation of a questionnaire to evaluate the dietary quality of school meals].

    PubMed

    de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Camina Martín, M Alicia; Ojeda Sainz, Berta; Carreño Enciso, Laura; de la Cruz Marcos, Sandra; Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Redondo del Río, Paz

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: El comedor escolar es el centro de comida habitual para muchos niños. Aunque actualmente se dispone de guías y recomendaciones para los menús escolares, resulta difícil evaluar su calidad dietética. Objetivos: Diseñar un cuestionario para evaluar la calidad desde el punto de vista dietético de los menús escolares de forma rápida y sencilla. Material y métodos: Partiendo de las recomendaciones, se ha diseñado un cuestionario (COMES) de 15 ítems que hacen referencia a la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos y otras características de los menús escolares. A continuación se realizó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo en el que se analizaron con este cuestionario 36 planillas de menús de 4 empresas de restauración colectiva que prestaban el servicio de comedor escolar en Castilla y León durante los cursos 2006-2007 a 2010-2011. Se analizaron las diferencias en función del sistema de gestión de las empresas mediante la prueba U de Mann-Whitney y el test de Kruskal- Wallis. La significación se alcanzó con una p.

  18. PubMed

    López Gómez, Juan José; Pérez Castrillón, José Luis; Romero Bobillo, Enrique; De Luis Román, Daniel A

    2016-11-29

    La obesidad interfiere con el metabolismo óseo a través de factores mecánicos, hormonales e inflamatorios. El principal tratamiento de dicha enfermedad es la dieta, modificación de la cantidad y tipo de alimento. Este tratamiento nutricional tiene una influencia sobre el metabolismo óseo en dos sentidos: modifica el efecto del sobrepeso y la obesidad sobre el hueso e interviene directamente en el turnoveróseo a través de las características de los nutrientes utilizados. Esta revisión analiza la evidencia del efecto sobre el hueso del descenso de peso y del patrón dietético utilizado. Por otra parte, se valorarán las modificaciones que se pueden realizar en la dieta indicada en un paciente obeso para prevenir la pérdida ósea, a corto y largo plazo, y disminuir el riesgo de fractura.

  19. URINARY LOSS OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY HOSPITAL SERVICE.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Andressa Feijó; Souza Santos, Roberta Deh; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina; Carvalho da Cunha, Selma Freire; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Marques Miguel Suen, Vivian

    2015-08-01

    Introducción/objetivos: la deficiencia de micronutrientes puede contribuir a un menor control de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la excreción urinaria de micronutrientes en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: los pacientes con diabetes y los controles fueron evaluados por la ingesta de alimentos, la antropometría, la pérdida urinaria de micronutrientes y comparados por Mann Whitney no paramétrico (p < 0,05). Resultados: fueron evaluados nueve sujetos diabéticos (52 ± 14 años con un IMC de 30 ± 11 kg/m² y la circunferencia de la cintura (CC) de 99 ± 25 cm) y nueve sujetos control (51 ± 16 años, IMC 26 ± 5 kg/m² y CA total de 90 ± 13 cm). La excreción de hierro más alta se observó en el grupo diabético y la mayor excreción de magnesio en el grupo de control. Conclusiones: el tipo 2 de pacientes diabéticos estudiados aquí no mostraron un aumento en la excreción de micronutrientes en la orina en comparación con los controles.

  20. [Calibration tools menu and calculation of the composition nutritional food; validity and variability].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Hernández Rodríguez, B

    2014-04-01

    Introducción: Las tablas de composición de alimentos (TCA) constituyen una herramienta básica para conocer el aporte de energía y la composición nutricional de los mismos. Objetivos: Demostrar mediante un menú modelo la variabilidad existente entre las distintas TCAs y bases de datos de los programas informáticos empleados. Métodos: Se calibró un menú con el programa Alimentador, y fue valorado posteriormente con los programas DIAL, EasyDiet, y con las TCAs de la RedBEDCA, CESNID, Mataix, 2003 y Moreiras O., 2013. Resultados: Muchos de los nutrientes no se pudieron comparar por la falta de datos. El rango de los datos comparables obtenidos para cada nutriente, difiere entre un 8% y un 84%, siendo mayor en micronutrientes que en macronutrientes o energía. Conclusión: Hemos demostrado la variabilidad entre las TCA y algunos programas informáticos, lo que resulta en cuestionarse la validez científica del uso de estas herramientas, tan habituales para profesionales de la nutrición.