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Sample records for aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction

  1. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  2. Stable isotope investigations of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.; Heraty, L. J.; Holt, B. D.; Huang, L.; Sturchio, N. C.

    1999-06-01

    Stable isotope ratio measurements for carbon (C) and chlorine (Cl) can be used to elucidate the processes affecting transformation and transportation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in the environment. Methods recently developed in our laboratory for isotopic analysis of CAHs have been applied to laboratory measurements of the kinetic isotope effects associated with aerobic degradation of dichloromethane (DCM) and with both anaerobic and aerobic cometabolic degradation of trichlomethene (TCE) in batch and column microbial cultures. These experimental determinations of fractionation factors are crucial for understanding the behavior of CAHs in complex natural systems, where the extent of biotransformation can be masked by dispersion and volatilization. We have also performed laboratory investigations of kinetic isotope effects accompanying evaporation of CAHs, as well as field investigations of natural attenuation and in situ remediation of CAHs in a number of contaminated shallow aquifers at sites operated by the federal government and the private sector.

  3. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the Murchison meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, J.R.; Pizzarello, S. )

    1990-10-01

    The indigenous organic compounds of carbonaceous chondrites have been difficult to characterize because of problems arising from terrestrial contamination. The fall of the Murchison meteorite (CM2) provided pristine samples which allowed the resolution of some prior ambiguities as, for example, in the case of the amino acids. However, the nature of the aliphatic hydrocarbons has remained unclear. Shortly after the Murchison fall, one laboratory found them to be mainly cycloalkanes; another found, in order of abundance, branched alkanes, olefins, and cycloalkanes; while a third reported predominantly n-alkanes followed by methyl alkanes and olefins. The authors have reinvestigated this question using benzene-methanol as the extraction solvent, silica-gel chromatography for fractionation of the extract, and GC-MS, and IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques for the analyses. When interior samples were obtained and the analyses carried out under conditions that minimized environmental contaminants, they have found the principal aliphatic components of the Murchison meteorite to be a structurally diverse suite of C{sub 15} to C{sub 30} branched alkyl-substituted mono-, di-, and tricyclic alkanes. Comparative analyses were carried out on the Murray (CM2), Allende (CV3), and New Concord (L6) chondrites that illustrate the nature of the contamination problem encountered with carbonaceous chondrites.

  4. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the Murchison meteorite.

    PubMed

    Cronin, J R; Pizzarello, S

    1990-01-01

    The indigenous organic compounds of carbonaceous chondrites have been difficult to characterize because of problems arising from terrestrial contamination. The fall of the Murchison meteorite (CM2) provided pristine samples which allowed the resolution of some prior ambiguities as, for example, in the case of the amino acids. However, the nature of the aliphatic hydrocarbons has remained unclear. Shortly after the Murchison fall, one laboratory found them to be mainly cycloalkanes; another found, in order of abundance, branched alkanes, olefins, and cycloalkanes; while a third reported predominantly n-alkanes followed by methyl alkanes and olefins. We have reinvestigated this question using benzene-methanol as the extraction solvent, silica-gel chromatography for fractionation of the extract, and GC-MS, and IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques for the analyses. When interior samples were obtained and the analyses carried out under conditions that minimized environmental contaminants, we have found the principal aliphatic components of the Murchison meteorite to be a structurally diverse suite of C15 to C30 branched alkyl-substituted mono-, di-, and tricyclic alkanes. Comparative analyses were carried out on the Murray (CM2), Allende (CV3), and New Concord (L6) chondrites that illustrate the nature of the contamination problem encountered with carbonaceous chondrites.

  5. Spreading coefficients of aliphatic hydrocarbons on water

    SciTech Connect

    Takii, Taichi; Mori, Y.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the equilibrium spreading coefficients of some aliphatic hydrocarbons (C[sub 6]C[sub 10]) on water. The thickness of a discrete lens of each hydrocarbon sample floating on a stagnant water pool was measured interferometrically and used to calculate the spreading coefficient of the hydrocarbon with the aid of Langmuir's capillarity theory. The dependences of the spreading coefficient, thus observed, on temperature (0--50 C) and on the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule are in qualitative agreement with the predictions based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces.

  6. Determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the alga Himanthalia elongata.

    PubMed

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2004-02-01

    The algae considered new foods according to Regulation CE 258/97 need a guarantee of their healthfulness before being in the European market. In this work ten samples of the brown alga Himanthalia elongata have been analyzed with the aim of verifying the absence of aliphatic hydrocarbons, due to the ability of the macroalgae to capture lipophilic organic compounds of the marine water coming from accidental or continuous leaks of raw oil and refined products, which happen each year with the growth of the industrialization and the demand of energy. The fat of the samples were Soxhlet extracted using hexane:dichloromethane (1:1) for 7h. The organic fractions were purified using silica microcolumns. The identification and quantification of the aliphatic hydrocarbons have been carried out using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). The total hydrocarbon content was between 14.8 and 40.2 microg g(-1) dry weight. PMID:14759670

  7. Biofiltration of gasoline and diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Halecky, Martin; Rousova, Jana; Paca, Jan; Kozliak, Evguenii; Seames, Wayne; Jones, Kim

    2015-02-01

    The ability of a biofilm to switch between the mixtures of mostly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated to assess biofiltration efficiency and potential substrate interactions. A switch from gasoline, which consisted of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, to a mixture of volatile diesel n-alkanes resulted in a significant increase in biofiltration efficiency, despite the lack of readily biodegradable aromatic hydrocarbons in the diesel mixture. This improved biofilter performance was shown to be the result of the presence of larger size (C₉-C(12)) linear alkanes in diesel, which turned out to be more degradable than their shorter-chain (C₆-C₈) homologues in gasoline. The evidence obtained from both biofiltration-based and independent microbiological tests indicated that the rate was limited by biochemical reactions, with the inhibition of shorter chain alkane biodegradation by their larger size homologues as corroborated by a significant substrate specialization along the biofilter bed. These observations were explained by the lack of specific enzymes designed for the oxidation of short-chain alkanes as opposed to their longer carbon chain homologues.

  8. Biodegradation of aliphatic vs. aromatic hydrocarbons in fertilized arctic soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out to test a simple bioremediation treatment strategy in the Arctic and analyze the influence of fertilization the degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., pristine, n-tetradecane, n-pentadecane, 2-methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, and acenaphthalene. The site was a coarse sand pad that once supported fuel storage tanks. Diesel-range organics concentrations were 250-860 mg/kg soil at the beginning of the study. Replicate field plots treated with fertilizer yielded final concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg N/kg soil. Soil pH and soil-water potentials decreased due to fertilizer application. The addition of fertilizer considerably increased soil respiration potentials, but not the populations of microorganisms measured. Fertilizer addition also led to ??? 50% loss of measured aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in surface and subsurface soils. For fertilized plots, hydrocarbon loss was not associated with the quantity of fertilizer added. Losses of aliphatic hydrocarbons were ascribed to biotic processes, while losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were due to biotic and abiotic processes.

  9. Aliphatics hydrocarbon content in surface sediment from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YAzis, M.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbons content have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively using GC/MS method in eight coastal stations located in the Jakarta Bay, North of Jakarta, Indonesia. The total concentrations n-alkanes have ranged from 480 μg.kg-1to 1,935 μg.kg-1sediment dry weight. Several ratios (e.g. CPI24-32, NAR, TAR, Pr/Phy, n-C17/Pr, n- C18/Phyt,n-C29/n-C17, Ʃn-alkanes/n-C16LMW/HMW, Paq and TMD) were used to evaluate the possible sources of terrestrial-marine inputs of these hydrocarbons in the sediments. The various origins of aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally biogenic, including both terrigenous and marine, with an anthropogenic pyrolytic contribution (petrogenic and biogenic combustion). Two stations (G,H) were thehighest concentration and had potential risk to environment

  10. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  11. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in Great Barrier Reef organisms and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, M.; Connell, D. W.; Bodero, J.; Miller, G. J.; Back, R.

    1986-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the chemical nature, occurrence, and possible origin of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments, water, and a suite of seven species from widely separated coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef area were analysed by gas chromatography, and by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The hydrocarbons found were substantially of biogenic origin. The major components were n-pentadecane, n-heptadecane, pristane and mono-alkenes based on heptadecane, and were believed to originate from benthic algae and phytoplankton. There was no evidence to suggest that lipid content had any influence on hydrocarbon content. Hydrocarbons from the organisms and sediments have characteristic composition patterns which would be altered by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. An unresolved complex mixture, usually considered indicative of petroleum contamination, was found in greater than trace amounts only in Holothuria (sea cucumber) and Acropora (coral) from the Capricorn Group, and in some sediment samples from the Capricorn Group and Lizard Island area.

  12. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water. Part 2. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 37 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aliphatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For 14 systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem and another one can be in the methanol + hydrocarbon subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  13. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediments from the Ushuaia Bay (Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Commendatore, Marta G; Nievas, Marina L; Amin, Oscar; Esteves, José L

    2012-03-01

    The environmental quality of Ushuaia Bay, located at the southernmost tip of South America, is affected by the anthropogenic pressure of Ushuaia city. In this study, levels and sources of hydrocarbons in coastal sediments were assessed. Aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions ranged between 5.5 and 1185.3 μg/g dry weight and PAHs from not detected to 360 ng/g. Aliphatic diagnostic indices, the nalkanes homologous series occurrence, Aliphatic Unresolved Complex Mixtures (AliUCMs), and pristane and phytane isoprenoids indicated a petrogenic input. Some sites showed biogenic features masked by the anthropogenic signature. Particularly in port areas biodegradation processes were evident. PAH ratios showed a mixture of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Aliphatic and aromatic UCMs were strongly correlated, reflecting chronic pollution. Three areas were distinguished inside the bay: (1) east, with low hydrocarbons impact; (2) central, where hydrocarbons accumulation was related to source proximity and sediment characteristics; (3) south-west, where sediment characteristics and current circulation favour hydrocarbons accumulation.

  14. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons of Cladosporium resinae Cultured on Glucose, Glutamic Acid, and Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J. D.; Cooney, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon source markedly influenced the qualitative and quantitative composition of cellular hydrocarbons in Cladosporium resinae. Total lipid and hydrocarbon content was greater in cells grown on n-alkanes than in cells grown on glucose or glutamic acid. Glucose-grown cells contained a spectrum of aliphatic hydrocarbons from C7 to C36; pristane and n-hexadecane comprised 98% of the total. Cells grown on glutamic acid contained C7 to C23 hydrocarbons; n-tridecane, n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, and pristane made up 74% of the total. n-Decane-grown cells yielded C8 to C32 compounds, and n-hexadecane (96%) was the major hydrocarbon. Cells grown on individual n-alkanes from C11 to C15 all contained C11 to C28 hydrocarbons, and cells grown on n-hexadecane contained C11 to C32 hydrocarbons. In n-undecane-grown cells, n-hexadecane and pristane made up 92% of the total, but in cells grown on C12 to C16 n-alkanes the major cellular hydrocarbon was the one on which the cells were grown. This suggests that cells cultured on n-alkanes of C12 or longer accumulate n-alkanes prior to oxidizing them. PMID:4762391

  15. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons characterisation of Coimbra and Oporto PM2.5 urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. C.; Mirante, F.; Gonçalves, C.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C.; Evtyugina, M.; Kowacz, M.; Pio, C.; Rocha, C.; Vasconcelos, T.

    2009-04-01

    The concentration of organic pollutants in urban areas is mostly due to incomplete combustion from vehicles, industries and domestic heating. Some of these compounds, principally the aliphatic (ALIPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) promote harmful effects in human health. The determination of the ALIPH and PAHs concentration levels and their possible emission sources are useful for air quality management and source apportionment studies. In order to estimate and compare the ambient concentrations and establish the main sources of these compounds, the fine fraction of the atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected simultaneously in Oporto and Coimbra during summer and winter seasons using a high volume sampler. The organic compounds were extracted from the particulate matter, under reflux with dichloromethane and the total organic extract (TOE) was fractionated by flash chromatography using five different eluents with increasing polarity. The hydrocarbon fractions were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Here we present and discuss the qualitative and quantitative composition of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions present in PM2.5 samples from both cities. The homologous series of C14 to C34 n-alkanes, isoprenoid hydrocarbons (pristane and phytane), PAHs and some petroleum markers have been identified and quantified. With the purpose of identifying the possible sources, various molecular diagnostic ratios were calculated. The global carbon preference index (CPI) closer to the unity, the large concentration of the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and the presence of PAHs indicate that motor vehicle exhaust was the main emission source of the aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of Oporto and Coimbra aerosol, especially in the first city. Also, the remarkable presence of petroleum biomarkers such, as hopanes, confirms the previous results. Concentration ratios between PAHs were calculated and used to assign emission

  16. Organochlorine compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons in Pacific walrus blubber.

    PubMed

    Seagars, D J; Garlich-Miller, J

    2001-01-01

    Blubber samples were collected from 8 male and 19 female Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) taken during a 1991 joint USA/USSR cruise traveling widely through the Bering Sea. Dieldrin was found at a level similar to that reported 10 years earlier; oxychlordane was found at a slightly higher concentration than reported previously (Taylor et aL, 1989). Heptachlor epoxide was detected for the first time and found at a low concentration. An initial testing for alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH detected concentrations similar to those in other Bering Sea pinnipeds. Mean summation of PCB was 0.45 microg g(-1) wet weight in males and 0.16 microg g(-1) in females; only one sample was > 1 microg g(-1). Traces of aliphatic hydrocarbons were detected in all sampled animals, only pristane (x = 0.48 microg g(-1)) was found in concentrations > 1 microg g(-1). Small sample sizes, a lack of samples from immature animals, and uniformly low concentrations of contaminants precluded meaningful analysis of age-related effects and regional differences.

  17. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Neuquen River, Argentine Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Monza, Liliana B; Loewy, Ruth M; Savini, Mónica C; Pechen de d'Angelo, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution and probable sources of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (AHs, PAHs) were investigated in surface sediments collected along the bank of the Neuquen River, Argentina. Total concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons ranged between 0.41 and 125 μg/g dw. Six stations presented low values of resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons and the n-alkane distribution indexes applied suggested a clear biogenic source. These values can be considered the baseline levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons for the river sediments. This constitutes important information for the assessment of future impacts since a strong impulse in the exploitation of shale gas and shale oil in these zones is nowadays undergoing. For the other 11 stations, a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons of petrogenic and biogenic origin was observed. The spatial distribution reflects local inputs of these pollutants with a significant increase in concentrations in the lower course, where two major cities are located. The highest values of total aliphatic hydrocarbons were found in this sector which, in turn, was the only one where individual PAHs were detected.

  18. A statistical approach to the interpretation of aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions in marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Q-mode factor analysis was used to quantitate the distribution of the major aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-alkanes, pristane, phytane) systems in sediments from a variety of marine environments. The compositions of the pure end members of the systems were obtained from factor scores and the distribution of the systems within each sample was obtained from factor loadings. All the data, from the diverse environments sampled (estuarine (San Francisco Bay), fresh-water (San Francisco Peninsula), polar-marine (Antarctica) and geothermal-marine (Gorda Ridge) sediments), were reduced to three major systems: a terrestrial system (mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with odd-numbered-carbon predominance), a mature system (mostly low molecular weight aliphatics without predominance) and a system containing mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with even-numbered-carbon predominance. With this statistical approach, it is possible to assign the percentage contribution from various sources to the observed distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in each sediment sample. ?? 1991.

  19. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments of Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.B.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Clifton, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor are two adjacent estuaries along the coast of Washington state. Willapa Bay is a recreational area minimally affected by industry; Grays Harbor, on the other hand, is moderately industrialized. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from these two estuaries reflect the differences in human activities. For example, the mean concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons for seven stations in Willapa Bay is 1,000 ?g/g (relative to organic carbon) while in Grays Harbor this mean concentration for six stations is 1,900 ?g/g. The difference is attributed mainly to the greater urban and industrial pollution in Grays Harbor. The gas chromatographic records of aliphatic hydrocarbons also reflect the extent of hydrocarbon pollution by the presence of a chromatographically unresolved mixture of hydrocarbons. This kind of mixture is more evident in sediments from Grays Harbor, and in both estuaries it is more concentrated in sediments collected nearest to urban centers.

  20. Seasonal distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the Vaza Barris Estuarine System, Sergipe, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, José Carlos S; Santos, Lukas G G V; Sant'Anna, Mércia V S; Souza, Michel R R; Damasceno, Flaviana C; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2016-03-15

    The seasonal assessment of anthropogenic activities in the Vaza Barris estuarine river system, located in the Sergipe state, northeastern Brazil, was performed using the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution. The aliphatic hydrocarbon and isoprenoid (Pristane and Phytane) concentrations ranged between 0.19 μg g(-1) and 8.5 μg g(-1) of dry weight. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, with significance level set at p<0.05, and no seasonality distribution change was observed. The Carbon Preference Index (CPI), associated with n-alkanes/n-C16, Low Molecular Weight/High Molecular Weight ratio (LMW/HMW) and Terrigenous to Aquatic Ratio (TAR) suggested biogenic input of aliphatic hydrocarbons for most samples, with significant contribution of higher plants.

  1. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the presence of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril.

    PubMed

    Pasumarthi, Rajesh; Kumar, Vikash; Chandrasekharan, Sivaraman; Ganguly, Anasuya; Banerjee, Mainak; Mutnuri, Srikanth

    2014-11-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major environmental pollutants with reduced bioavailability. The present study focuses on the effect of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril on the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. A bacterial consortium was used for biodegradation studies under saline and non-saline conditions. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results it was found that the consortium under saline conditions had two different strains. The experiment was conducted in microcosms with tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane and mixture of the mentioned hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source. The residual hydrocarbon was quantified using gas chromatography every 24h. It was found that biodegradation of tetradecane and hexadecane, as individual carbon source increased in the presence of hydroxy CB[6], probably due to the increase in their bioavailability. In case of octadecane this did not happen. Bioavailability of all three aliphatic hydrocarbons was increased when provided as a mixture to the consortium under saline conditions.

  2. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the presence of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril.

    PubMed

    Pasumarthi, Rajesh; Kumar, Vikash; Chandrasekharan, Sivaraman; Ganguly, Anasuya; Banerjee, Mainak; Mutnuri, Srikanth

    2014-11-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major environmental pollutants with reduced bioavailability. The present study focuses on the effect of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril on the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. A bacterial consortium was used for biodegradation studies under saline and non-saline conditions. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results it was found that the consortium under saline conditions had two different strains. The experiment was conducted in microcosms with tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane and mixture of the mentioned hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source. The residual hydrocarbon was quantified using gas chromatography every 24h. It was found that biodegradation of tetradecane and hexadecane, as individual carbon source increased in the presence of hydroxy CB[6], probably due to the increase in their bioavailability. In case of octadecane this did not happen. Bioavailability of all three aliphatic hydrocarbons was increased when provided as a mixture to the consortium under saline conditions. PMID:25277552

  3. Polymeric membrane and process for separation of aliphatically unsaturated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, W.S.W.

    1991-11-05

    This patent describes a process for separating at least one unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon feed steam containing the unsaturated hydrocarbon. It comprises contacting the feed stream against a first side of a solid, homogeneous membrane comprising a hydrophilic polymer selected from the group consisting of a polyvinylalcohol, polyvinylacetate, sulfonyl-containing polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene oxide, polyacrylamide, copolymers thereof, and blends thereof a transition metal or transition metal ion capable of reversibly complexing with the unsaturated hydrocarbon, and a hydrophilic salt of a Group I metal; and withdrawing at a second side of the membrane a permeate comprising the unsaturated hydrocarbon in higher concentration than in the feed stream. This patent also describes a solid, homogeneous membrane for separating at least one unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon stream containing the unsaturated hydrocarbon. It comprises a hydrophilic polymer selected from the group consisting of polyvinylalcohol, polyvinylacetate, sulfonyl-containing polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene oxide, polyacrylamide, copolymers thereof, and blends thereof, a transition metal or transition metal ion capable of reversibly complexing with the unsaturated hydrocarbon, and a hydrophilic salt of a Group I metal.

  4. Polymeric membrane and process for separating aliphatically unsaturated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, W.S.W.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a process for separating at least one unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon feed stream containing. It comprises: contacting the feed stream against a first side of a solid, homogeneous membrane consisting essentially of a hydrophilic polymer selected from the group consisting of polyvinylalcohol, polyvinylacetate, sulfonyl containing polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene oxide, polyacrylamide, copolymers thereof, and blends thereof, and a metal or metal ion capable of reversibly complexing with the unsaturated hydrocarbon, the metal or metal ion is distributed homogeneously in the hydrophilic polymer; and withdrawing at a second side of the membrane a permeate comprising the unsaturated hydrocarbon in higher concentration than in the feed stream; whereby the membrane provides high permeability and selectivity for unsaturated hydrocarbons and substantially increases the rate at which the permeate is withdrawn.

  5. SELECTIVE ENUMERATION OF AROMATIC AND ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON DEGRADING BACTERIA BY A MOST-PROBABLE-NUMBER PROCEDURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A most-portable-number (MPN) procedure was developed to separately enumerate aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, because most of the currently available methods are unable to distinguish between these two groups. Separate 96-well microtiter plates are used to ...

  6. Preliminary chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. [Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-derived materials from experimental runs of Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated's (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. This process differs from two-stage coal liquefaction processes in that catalyst is used in both stages. Samples from both the first and second stages were class-fractionated by alumina adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; direct probe, low voltage mass spectrometry; and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Mutagenicity assays were performed with the crude and class fractions in Salmonella typhimurium, TA98. Preliminary results of chemical analyses indicate that >80% CTSL materials from both process stages were aliphatic hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Furthermore, the gross and specific chemical composition of process materials from the first stage were very similar to those of the second stage. In general, the unfractionated materials were only slightly active in the TA98 mutagenicity assay. Like other coal liquefaction materials investigated in this laboratory, the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) class fractions were responsible for the bulk of the mutagenic activity of the crudes. Finally, it was shown that this activity correlated with the presence of amino-PAH. 20 figures, 9 tables.

  7. Biodegradation of individual and multiple chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by methane-oxidizing cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H L; Alvarez-Cohen, L

    1996-01-01

    The microbial degradation of chlorinated and nonchlorinated methanes, ethanes, and ethanes by a mixed methane-oxidizing culture grown under chemostat and batch conditions is evaluated and compared with that by two pure methanotrophic strains: CAC1 (isolated from the mixed culture) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. With the exception of 1,1-dichloroethylene, the transformation capacity (Tc) for each chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon was generally found to be in inverse proportion to its chlorine content within each aliphatic group (i.e., methanes, ethanes, and ethenes), whereas similar trends were not observed for degradation rate constants. Tc trends were similar for all methane-oxidizing cultures tested. None of the cultures were able to degrade the fully chlorinated aliphatics such as perchloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. Of the four cultures tested, the chemostat-grown mixed culture exhibited the highest Tc for trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane, whereas the pure batch-grown OB3b culture exhibited the highest Tc for all other compounds tested. The product toxicity of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in a mixture containing multiple compounds was cumulative and predictable when using parameters measured from the degradation of individual compounds. The Tc for each chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon in a mixture (Tcmix) and the total Tc for the mixture (sigma Tcmix) are functions of the individual Tc, the initial substrate concentration (S0), and the first-order rate constant (k/Ks) of each compound in the mixture, indicating the importance of identifying the properties and compositions of all potentially degradable compounds in a contaminant mixture. PMID:8795228

  8. {Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons in gas and particle phases in two sites of Mexico: MILAGRO project}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador-Muñoz, O.; Villalobos-Pietrini, R.; Castro, T.; Gaspariano-Larino, R.

    2009-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are markers of anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources1; meanwhile PAHs are generated by incomplete combustion sources2. The last ones are important compounds due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties3,4. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs in gas and particles phases of the atmospheric aerosol and to determine the day and night time behavior during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local Global and Research Observations) campaign. The gas phase was collected on polyurethane foam, while particles less than 2.5 m (PM2.5) were collected on glass fiber filters covered with Teflon (TIGF, pallflex) of 8x10 in. Samplings were carried out with a high volume sampler (Tisch) with a flow of 1.13 m3 min-1 at two sites: Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0) and Tecamac (T1) located at North and Northeast of Mexico City, respectively during day (7:00 am-7:00 pm) and night time (7:00 pm-7:00 am) from 1 to 29 of March, 2006. Ninteen PAHs and 23 aliphatic hydrocarbons from n-C13H28 to n-C35H72 were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in impact mode. The samples were spiked with deuterads PAHs and aliphatics hydrocarbons before ultrasound extraction. Medians comparisons were made with Mann-Whitney U test. PAHs with molecular weight (MW) less than 228 g mol-1 were distributed in the gas phase, in both sites. Higher concentrations of PAHs ≥ 228 g mol-1 in PM2.5, were observed during night period (p

  9. Autothermal reforming of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented from a study of the autothermal reforming of paraffins and aromatics over nickel catalysts. The trials were performed to examine the carbon products that appear when steam is passed over hydrocarbon liquids to form H2-rich gases, i.e., the autothermal process (ATR). Attention was given to n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene, and benzene solutions of naphthalene with reactant preheat to 1000-1150 F. The carbon-formation limit was sought as a function of the steam-to-carbon and oxygen to carbon molar ratios at constant pressure and the preheat temperatures. The catalyst bed was examined after each trial to identify the locations and types of carbon formed using SEM, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X ray diffraction techniques. The hydrocarbon fuels each had a separate temperature and reaction profile, as well as carbon formation characteristics. No carbon formation was observed in the upper layer of the reactor bed, while both gas phase and surface-grown deposits were present in the lower part. The results are concluded of use in the study of No. 2 fuel oil for ATR feedstock.

  10. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF MIXTURES OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS BY AN ACETATE-GROWN METHANOGENIC ENRICHMENT CULTURE. (R825549C053)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions has received considerable attention due to the prevalence of these compounds as groundwater contaminants. However, information concerning the impact of mixtures of chlorinated compounds on their...

  11. Unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly porous metal-organic framework made of extended aliphatic ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunhao; Lee, Jeongyong; Olson, David H; Emge, Thomas J; Bi, Wenhua; Eibling, Matthew J; Li, Jing

    2008-12-14

    High and unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly stable guest-free microporous metal-organic framework constructed on rigid aliphatic ligands, H(2)bodc and ted, is reported in this work. PMID:19082093

  12. Hydrogen addition reactions of aliphatic hydrocarbons in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hitomi; Watanabe, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Fukushima, T.; Kawakita, H.

    2013-10-01

    Comets are thought as remnants of early solar nebula. Their chemical compositions are precious clue to chemical and physical evolution of the proto-planetary disk. Some hydrocarbons such as C2H6, C2H2 and CH4 in comets have been observed by using near-infrared spectroscopy. Although the compositions of C2H6 were about 1% relative to the water in normal comets, there are few reports on the detection of C2H6 in ISM. Some formation mechanisms of C2H6 in ISM have been proposed, and there are two leading hypotheses; one is the dimerizations of CH3 and another is the hydrogen addition reactions of C2H2 on cold icy grains. To evaluate these formation mechanisms for cometary C2H6 quantitatively, it is important to search the C2H4 in comets, which is the intermediate product of the hydrogen addition reactions toward C2H6. However, it is very difficult to detect the C2H4 in comets in NIR (3 microns) regions because of observing circumstances. The hydrogen addition reactions of C2H2 at low temperature conditions are not well characterized both theoretically and experimentally. For example, there are no reports on the reaction rate coefficients of those reaction system. To determine the production rates of those hydrogen addition reactions, we performed the laboratory experiments of the hydrogenation of C2H2 and C2H4. We used four types of the initial composition of the ices: pure C2H4, pure C2H2, C2H2 on amorphous solid water (ASW) and C2H4 on ASW at three different temperatures of 10, 20, and 30K. We found 1) reactions are more efficient when there are ASW in the initial compositions of the ice; 2) hydrogenation of C2H4 occur more rapid than that of C2H2.

  13. Atomic contributions to bond dissociation energies in aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Chérif F.; Castillo, Norberto; Boyd, Russell J.

    2006-11-01

    This paper explores the atomic contributions to the electronic vibrationless bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) at 0K of the central C-C bond in straight-chain alkanes (CnH2n+2) and trans-alkenes (CnH2n) with an even number of carbon atoms, where n =2, 4, 6, 8. This is achieved using the partitioning of the total molecular energy according to the quantum theory of atoms in molecules by comparing the atomic energies in the intact molecule and its dissociation products. The study is conducted at the MP2(full)/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. It is found that the bulk of the electronic energy necessary to sever a single C-C bond is not supplied by these two carbon atoms (the α-carbons) but instead by the atoms directly bonded to them. Thus, the burden of the electronic part of the BDE is primarily carried by the two hydrogens attached to each of the α-carbons and by the β-carbons. The effect drops off rapidly with distance along the hydrocarbon chain. The situation is more complex in the case of the double bond in alkenes, since here the burden is shared between the α-carbons as well as the atoms directly bonded to them, namely, again the α-hydrogens and the β-carbons. These observations may lead to a better understanding of the bond dissociation process and should be taken into account when locally dense basis sets are introduced to improve the accuracy of BDE calculations.

  14. Spatial variations and chronologies of aliphatic hydrocarbons in Lake Michigan sediments.

    PubMed

    Doskey, P V

    2001-01-15

    Four sediment cores were collected in fine-grained depositional areas of the southern basin of Lake Michigan. Spatial variations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surficial sediments were consistent with a lakeward movement of riverine sediments in a series of resuspension-settling cycles in which an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons associated with dense sediments is deposited in nearshore areas, fine-grained sediments of terrestrial origin accumulate in the deep basin, and planktonic hydrocarbons are depleted by microbial degradation during transport to the deep basin. The rate of accumulation of the UCM (a marker of petroleum residues) in deep basin sediments has increased by more than an order of magnitude since 1880, from 60 microg m(-2) x a(-1) to approximately 960 microg m(-2) x a(-1) in 1980. Crude estimates of the atmospheric loading of the UCM (1100 microg m(-2) x a(-1)) indicate that accumulations in deep-basin sediments might be supported by atmospheric deposition. Agreement was poor between the atmospheric flux of the terrestrial n-alkanes (sigmaC25, C27, C29, C31) to the deep basin (3200 microg m(-2) x a(-1)) and the sediment accumulation rate (660 microg m(-2) x a(-1)). Understanding of atmospheric fluxes, estimated from the very few available data, would be improved by more frequent measurement of the levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons in air and precipitation and a better knowledge of the particle deposition velocities and precipitation scavenging coefficients.

  15. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided.

  16. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided. PMID:26874310

  17. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the southern basin of Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Doskey, P.V.; Andren, A.W.

    1991-10-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the southern basin of Lake Michigan have planktonic, terrigenous, and petroleum residue origins. Surficial sediments collected near the eastern shore in 60-80 m of water contained more petroleum residue and planktonic hydrocarbons and exhibited less terrigenous character than sediments collected from the deepest location in the basin. Petroleum residue inputs have increased since 1900 as evidenced by a change in the flux of an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons from 6 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr to a flux of approximately 100 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr in 1980. Sediment profiles of the UCM exhibited subsurface concentration maxima that may be due to reduced inputs of combustion products or feeding by oligochaetes. Profiles of n-C{sub l7} and pristane indicated that planktonic n-alkanes undergo degradation in the aerobic, mixed zone of the sediments.

  18. Friction of iron lubricated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of oxygen and various organic molecules on the reduction of the friction of an iron (011) single crystal surface was investigated. A comparison was made between aliphatic and aromatic structures, all of which contained six carbon atoms, and among various halogen atoms. Results of the investigation indicate that hexane and benzene give similar friction coefficients over a range of loads except at very light loads. At light loads, the friction decreased with an increase in the load where the halogens fluorine and chlorine are incorporated into the benzene molecular structure; however, over the same load range when bromine and iodine were present, the friction was relatively unchanged. The aliphatic compound chlorohexane exhibited lower friction coefficients than the aromatic structure chlorobenzene at very light loads. With the brominated benzene structures, however, friction was essentially the same. Oxygen was more effective in reducing friction than were the simple hydrocarbons.

  19. Methyl oleate deoxygenation for production of diesel fuel aliphatic hydrocarbons over Pd/SBA-15 catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Catalytic deoxygenation is a prominent process for production of renewable fuels from vegetable oil. In this work, deoxygenation of technical grade methyl oleate to diesel fuel aliphatic hydrocarbons (C15 – C18) is evaluated with several parameters including temperature, hydrogen pressure and reaction time in a stirred batch reactor over Pd/SBA-15 catalysts. Results Two different SBA-15 morphologies i.e. spherelike and necklacelike structures have been synthesize as supports for Pd active metal. It is found that Pd dispersion on necklacelike SBA-15 is higher than that of spherelike SBA-15. Notably, higher Pd dispersion on necklacelike SBA-15 provides significant deoxygenation efficiency as compared to Pd/SBA-15-spherelike. Results show that H2 pressures greatly determine the total ester conversion and selectivity to C15 – C18 aliphatic hydrocarbons. Total ester conversions with 55< selectivity to n-heptadecane are achieved using Pd/SBA-15-necklacelike at 270°C and 60 bar H2 pressure within 6 h reaction time. Gas phase study reveals that formation of C17 is generated via indirect decarbonylation when the reaction time is prolonged. Conclusions Pd/SBA-15-necklacelike catalyst exhibits good catalytic performance with high selectivity to diesellike aliphatic hydrocarbons (C15 – C18). The physicochemical properties of the Pd supported on different SBA-15 morphologies influence the deoxygenation activity of the catalysts. Furthermore, the reaction pathways are governed by the H2 pressure as well as reaction duration. PMID:24011181

  20. External validation of a QSAR for the acute toxicity of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Jonsson, J. . Dept. of Organic Chemistry); Berglind, R. . NBC-Defense Research)

    1993-07-01

    The validation of the predictive capability of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a significant step toward the construction of a reliable model. This point is discussed and illustrated with data for a class of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons. For this class of compounds, a QSAR concerning their acute toxicity toward rate was recently published. This QSAR is verified in this by selecting and testing an external validation set comprising six compounds. The QSAR is also used for predicting the acute toxicity of 28 nontested members of this class.

  1. Brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons and sterols from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria with their bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Lu, Yanan; Lin, Xiuping; Yang, Bin; Yang, Xianwen; Liu, Yonghong

    2011-10-01

    Four brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons (1-4), including a novel brominated ene-tetrahydrofuran named as mutafuran H (1), and five sterols (5-9) were isolated from the South China Sea sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of NMR ((1)H, (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, and NOESY), MS, and optical rotation analysis. Known compounds were identified by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. Compounds 1-4, and 6-9 were evaluated for their toxicity against Artemia salina larvae, and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity.

  2. In-Situ Heating Decrease Kinetics of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Tagish Lake Meteorite by Micro-FTIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebukawa, Y.; Nakashima, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are known to contain up to 3wt.% C, the major part of which corresponds to a macromolecular organic fraction. Chondritic organic matter is based on small aromatic units, cross-linked by short aliphatic chains rather than large clusters of polyaromatic structures. Two main characteristic features of those organics measured by FTIR are: (1) an equivalent intensity of the asymmetric stretching mode absorptions for CH3 (2960/cm) and CH2 (2920/cm) and (2) a lack of aromatic CH-stretching mode (3040/cm). Tagish Lake is a new type of water- and carbon-rich type 2 carbonaceous chondrite. Its total carbon content is approx. 5 wt%, of which the organic carbon content reaches approx. 1.3 wt%. Tagish Lake may have never experienced temperatures higher than 120 C after formation of organics based on the disappearance of infrared (IR) organic peaks in step heating experiments. Here we report in-situ kinetic heating experiments of organics in Tagish Lake by micro-FTIR to characterize the nature of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their thermal stabilities.

  3. A molecular model for H(2) interactions in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Gerstenmaier, Susana; Giudice, Simona; Cavallo, Luigi; Milano, Giuseppe

    2009-05-28

    A model for molecular hydrogen interacting with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons is presented. The model has been derived using ab initio techniques and molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, quadrupole moments of hydrogen, and variation on energy with intermolecular distance of different conformations for the hydrogen-benzene couple were calculated using the Møller-Plesset method. Hydrogen was modelled using a two-centre Lennard-Jones potential plus electrostatic interactions. Lennard-Jones parameters were optimized on the basis of a correct reproduction of experimental data of hydrogen solubility in benzene and cyclohexane, calculated using the test particle insertion method. Different sets of parameters for specific interactions (hydrogen-aliphatic and hydrogen-aromatic systems) were considered avoiding the simple use of Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules. Additionally, structural and thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-benzene, hydrogen-cyclohexane and hydrogen in an equimolar mixture of benzene-cyclohexane at different low concentrations of hydrogen were investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Electrostatic charges were taken from ab initio quantum mechanical calculations but after careful analysis of the calculated properties, their irrelevance was evidenced. Moreover, Coulombic interactions make simulations more expensive and, therefore, we do not recommend their inclusion in the modelling of hydrogen-aliphatic and aromatic interactions. PMID:19440622

  4. Spatial variations and chronologies of aliphatic hydrocarbons in Lake Michigan sediments.

    SciTech Connect

    Doskey, P. V.; Environmental Research

    2001-01-15

    Four sediment cores were collected in fine-grained depositional areas of the southern basin of Lake Michigan. Spatial variations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surficial sediments were consistent with a lakeward movement of riverine sediments in a series of resuspension-settling cycles in which an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons associated with dense sediments is deposited in nearshore areas, fine-grained sediments of terrestrial origin accumulate in the deep basin, and planktonic hydrocarbons are depleted by microbial degradation during transport to the deep basin. The rate of accumulation of the UCM (a marker of petroleum residues) in deep basin sediments has increased by more than an order of magnitude since 1880, from 60 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1} to approximately 960 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1} in 1980. Crude estimates of the atmospheric loading of the UCM (1100 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}) indicate that accumulations in deep-basin sediments might be supported by atmospheric deposition. Agreement was poor between the atmospheric flux of the terrestrial n-alkanes ({Sigma}C{sub 25}, C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}) to the deep basin (3200 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}) and the sediment accumulation rate (660 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}). Understanding of atmospheric fluxes, estimated from the very few available data, would be improved by more frequent measurement of the levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons in air and precipitation and a better knowledge of the particle deposition velocities and precipitation scavenging coefficients.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons pollution at the coast of Aliağa (Turkey) ship recycling zone.

    PubMed

    Neşer, Gökdeniz; Kontas, Aynur; Unsalan, Deniz; Altay, Oya; Darılmaz, Enis; Uluturhan, Esin; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Tekoğul, Nermin; Yercan, Funda

    2012-05-01

    Aliağa Bay is one of the most important maritime zones of Turkey where shipping activity, shipbreaking industry, steel works and petrochemical complexes exist together. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment of the Aliağa Bay were investigated to evaluate an environmental risk assessment from PAHs contamination in 2009-2010. Aliphatic and PAHs diagnostic ratios were showed to be mainly petroleum-originated and pyrolitic contaminations, respectively. The TEL/PEL analysis suggests that Aliağa sediments were likely to be contaminated by acutely toxic PAH compounds.

  6. Complete genome of Zhongshania aliphaticivorans SM-2(T), an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Jia, Baolei; Jeong, Hye Im; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-05-20

    Zhongshania aliphaticivorans SM-2(T), a degrader of aliphatic hydrocarbons, is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, flagellated, facultatively aerobic bacterium. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain SM-2(T), which has a size of 4,204,359bp with 44 tRNAs, 9 rRNAs, and 3664 protein-coding genes. In addition, several genes encoding aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders (alkane 1-monooxygenase, haloalkane dehalogenase, and cytochrome P450) were detected in the genome shedding light on the function of pollutants degradation.

  7. Process for producing benzene by hydrodealkylation of a hydrocarbon fraction comprising alkylaromatic hydrocarbons, olefinic hydrocarbons and sulfur compound

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, M.; Cosyns, J.

    1984-07-31

    A stabilized hydrocarbon fraction comprising toluene, xylene, sulfur and olefinic hydrocarbons is converted to benzene by catalytic hydrodesulfurization, hydrodealkylation and catalytic hydrogenation.

  8. Source apportionment of sediment-associated aliphatic hydrocarbon in a eutrophicated shallow lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Zhong; Yang, Ze-Yu; Chen, Tian-Hu

    2012-11-01

    Chaohu Lake, one of the most eutrophicated lakes in China, has been suffering from long-term outside pollution, urban sewage, river outflows, and agricultural runoff which expectedly have been the main contributors of hydrocarbons. However, the contributions from these various sources have not been specified. The present study is aimed at identifying the potential sources of hydrocarbons in surface sediment around the whole lake and assessing the relative contributions using principal components analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR). Sixty-one surface sediments covering the whole Chaohu Lake and three main estuaries of inflowing rivers were collected, dried, extracted, and analyzed for 27 normal alkanes (n-alkanes, from C(12) to C(38), defined Σ(27)AH) and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) by GC/MS. Diagnostic ratios and PCA-MLR were utilized to apportion their sources. The concentrations of Σ(27)AH and UCM ranged from 434 to 3,870 ng/g and 11.9 to 325 μg/g dry weight, respectively, for all samples. The concentrations of Σ(27)AH in western region and estuary of Nanfei River were slightly higher but without statistical significance than those from eastern region and estuaries of Yuxi River and Hangbu River. The concentration of UCM from western region was significantly higher than that obtained from eastern region. These results reflect the importance of input of urban runoff by Nanfei River and serious eutrophication in western region. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in Chaohu Lake were mainly derived from high plant wax with mixed sources of phytoplankton and petroleum. Weak microbial decomposition of n-alkanes would be expected to occur from the low ratios of isoprenoid hydrocarbons pristine (pri) and phytane (phy) to n-C(17) and n-C(18), respectively. Higher plant, fossil combustion, petroleum residue, and phytoplankton were proposed as the main origines of aliphatic hydrocarbons by PCA while the contributions of individual n-alkane homologues, pri and phy

  9. The Galactic Distribution of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    1995-01-01

    The infrared absorption feature near 2950/ cm (3.4 microns), characteristic of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), is attributed to C-H stretching vibrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons. We show here that the strength of the band does not scale linearly with visual extinction everywhere, but instead increases more rapidly for objects near the center of the Galaxy, a behavior that parallels that of the Si-O stretching band due to silicate materials in the diffuse ISM. This implies that the grains responsible for the diffuse medium aliphatic C-H and silicate Si-O stretching bands are different from those responsible for much of the observed visual extinction. It also suggests that the distribution of the carbonaceous component of the diffuse ISM is not uniform throughout the Galaxy, but instead may increase in density toward the center of the Galaxy. The similar behavior of the C-H and Si-O stretching bands suggests that these two components may be coupled, perhaps in the form of silicate-core, organic-mantle grains. Several possible models of the distribution of this material are presented and it is demonstrated that the inner parts of the Galaxy has a carrier density that is 5 to 35 times higher than in the local ISM. Depending on the model used, the density of aliphatic material in the local ISM is found to be about 1 to 2 -CH3 groups /cc and about 2 to 5 -CH2- groups/cc. These densities are consistent with the strengths of the 2955 and 2925/ cm (3.38 and 3.42 microns) subfeatures (due to -CH3 and -CH2- groups, respectively) within the overall 2950/ cm (3.4 microns) band being described by the relations A(sub upsilon)/tau(sub 2925/cm) = 270 +/- 40 and A(sub upsilon)/tau(sub 2925/cm) = 250 +/- 40 in the local diffuse ISM.

  10. The galactic distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    1995-01-01

    The infrared absorption feature near 2950(exp -1) (3.4 micron), characteristic of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), is attributed to C-H stretching vibrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons. We show here that the strength of the band does not scale linearly with visual extinction everywhere, but instead increases more rapidly for objects near the center of the Galaxy, a behavior that parallels that of the Si-O stretching band due to silicate materials in the diffuse ISM. This implies that the grains responsible for the diffuse medium aliphatic C-H and silicate Si-O stretching bands are different from those responsible for much of the observed visual extinction. It also suggests that the distribution of the carbonaceous component of the diffuse ISM is not uniform throughout the Galaxy, but instead may increase in density toward the center of the Galaxy. The similar behavior of the C-H and Si-O stretching bands suggests that these two components may be coupled, perhaps in the form of silicate-core, organic-mantle grains. Several possible models of the distribution of this material are presented and it is demonstrated that the inner parts of the Galaxy has a carrier density that is 5 to 35 times higher than in the local ISM. Depending on the model used, the density of aliphatic material in the local ISM is found to be about 1 to 2 -CH3 groups m(exp -3) and about 2 to 5 -CH2- groups m(exp -3). These densities are consistent with the strengths of the 2955 and 2925 cm(exp -1) (3.4 micron) band being described by the relations A(sub nu)/tau(sub 2955 cm(exp -1)) = 270 +/- 40 and A(sub nu)/tau(sub 2925 cm(exp -1)) = 250 +/- 40 in the local diffuse ISM.

  11. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in different sized aerosols over the Mediterranean Sea: Occurrence and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicre, M. A.; Marty, J. C.; Saliot, A.; Aparicio, X.; Grimalt, J.; Albaiges, J.

    Marine aerosols were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor during the PHYCEMED II cruise in the Western Mediterranean Sea (October 1983). Their composition in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs) was analyzed, representing the first time that concentrations of polynuclear aromatic HCs (PAH) are reported in relation to particle size for aerosols of remote marine areas. The HC concentrations were found to be dependent on the origin of the air masses. They were higher for air coming from North European countries than for air originating in the Atlantic and the South of Spain. The concentrations range between 7 and 14 ng m -3for n-alkanes and between 0.2 and 0.4 ng m -3for total PAH. Based on molecular criteria, several sources for these HCs have been identified: continental higher plant waxes, petroleum and pyrolysis (namely coal combustion and vehicular exhausts). Mass medium equivalent diameters (MMED) for the naturally derived n-alkanes are in the 1.79-2.53 μm range, indicating an origin related with the emission of large particles from higher plant waxes or from soil dusts. In contrast, MMED for the anthropogenic HCs, both aliphatic and aromatic, are smaller than the micron, suggesting initial emission of PAH through pyrolytic processes in the vapor phase followed by condensation onto larger sub-μm particles.

  12. Complexes of ruthenium and rhodium with aliphatic amines in the catalysis of hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Turisbekova, K.K.; Shuikina, L.P.; Parenago, O.P.; Frolov, V.F.

    1989-02-01

    The authors synthesized new catalysts highly active in the hydrogenations of unsaturated hydrocarbons, based on complexes of ruthenium and rhodium with higher aliphatic amines, which are soluble in aromatic solvents. The complexes acquired catalytic activity in hydrogenation as a result of their treatment with diisobutyl aluminum hydride. Olefins (1-hexene, cyclopentene, cyclohexene) or dienes (isoprene) were used as the unsaturated compounds. For the ruthenium based catalysts, the highest activity was observed during the hydrogenation of 1-hexene. For the rhodium-based catalysts, the activity in the hydrogenation of olefins and dienes was approximately the same. In the case of the rhodium complex catalysts, the hydrogenation of 1-hexene was accompanied by a side-reaction consisting in isomerization into olefins with inner double bonds.

  13. Fully Deuterated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Obtained From Iron Carbide Treated with DCl and D2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquez, C.; Lazcano, A.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.

    1966-01-01

    According to Oparin, Mendeleev thought that the origin of petroleum was the result of the hydrolysis of iron carbides by superheated steam under pressure from the deep interior of the Earth through geological formations where the metal carbides exist. As early as 1877, Mendeleev described the reaction leading to the synthesis of hydrocarbons according to the general equation 3Fe(sub m)C(sub n) + mH2O yields mFe3O4 + C(sub 3n)H(sub 8m). Other experimental studies on the production of hydrocarbons from cast iron have been reported. Because of the possibility that hydrocarbons may have been trapped within the carbon matrix of the cast iron, which usually has a high content of carbon, we have studied the reaction of pure iron carbide with deuterium chloride and deuterated water. This was done in order to distinguish any newly formed deuterated hydrocarbons from any possible impurities of trapped hydrocarbons. The experiments were carried out by simply allowing iron carbide to react with concentrated deuterium chloride in D2O. The volatile hydrocarbon fraction examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), using a Finnigan 1020/OWA instrument. contained low molecular weight hydrocarbons in a range C3 to C7. Lower molecular weight hydrocarbons were not detected by GC/MS because the MS scanning mode was preset above mass 40 to exclude components of air. The identified hydrocarbons are similar to those obtained under prebiotic conditions using high frequency discharge. The hydrocarbons found in common were propane, butane, pentane, 3-methylpentane, hexane, and heptane. The percent yields decline with increasing carbon number (propane 11%, n-heptane 1%). Similar results have been obtained by the direct treatment of metal carbides by pulse laser vaporization mass spectrometry. These results show that the hydrolysis of iron carbides may have been a significant source of hydrocarbons on the primitive Earth. There appears to be a predominance of straight chain

  14. The C-H Stretching Features at 3.2--3.5 μm of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Aliphatic Sidegroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. J.; Li, Aigen; Glaser, R.; Zhong, J. X.

    2016-07-01

    The so-called “unidentified” infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm are ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of astrophysical regions. The UIE features are characteristic of the stretching and bending vibrations of aromatic hydrocarbon materials, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. The 3.3 μm aromatic C-H stretching feature is often accompanied by a weaker feature at 3.4 μm. The latter is generally thought to result from the C-H stretch of aliphatic groups attached to the aromatic systems. The ratio of the observed intensity of the 3.3 μm aromatic C-H feature to that of the 3.4 μm aliphatic C-H feature allows one to estimate the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers, provided that the intrinsic oscillator strengths of the 3.3 μm aromatic C-H stretch ({A}3.3) and the 3.4 μm aliphatic C-H stretch ({A}3.4) are known. While previous studies on the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers were mostly based on the {A}3.4/{A}3.3 ratios derived from the mono-methyl derivatives of small PAH molecules, in this work we employ density functional theory to compute the infrared vibrational spectra of PAH molecules with a wide range of sidegroups including ethyl, propyl, butyl, and several unsaturated alkyl chains, as well as all the isomers of dimethyl-substituted pyrene. We find that, except for PAHs with unsaturated alkyl chains, the corresponding {A}3.4/{A}3.3 ratios are close to that of mono-methyl PAHs. This confirms the predominantly aromatic nature of the UIE carriers previously inferred from the {A}3.4/{A}3.3 ratio derived from mono-methyl PAHs.

  15. Microbiota associated with the migration and transformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiangyu; Liu, Fei; Xie, Yuxuan; Zhu, Lingling; Han, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Pollution of groundwater with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) is a serious environmental problem which is threatening human health. Microorganisms are the major participants in degrading these contaminants. Here, groundwater contaminated for a decade with CAHs was investigated. Numerical simulation and field measurements were used to track and forecast the migration and transformation of the pollutants. The diversity, abundance, and possible activity of groundwater microbial communities at CAH-polluted sites were characterized by molecular approaches. The number of microorganisms was between 5.65E+05 and 1.49E+08 16S rRNA gene clone numbers per liter according to quantitative real-time PCR analysis. In 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from samples along the groundwater flow, eight phyla were detected, and Proteobacteria were dominant (72.8 %). The microbial communities varied with the composition and concentration of pollutants. Meanwhile, toluene monooxygenases and methane monooxygenases capable of degradation of PCE and TCE were detected, demonstrating the major mechanism for PCE and TCE degradation and possibility for in situ remediation by addition of oxygen in this study.

  16. Determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic, hyporheic river sediments polluted with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hamonts, Kelly; Ryngaert, Annemie; Smidt, Hauke; Springael, Dirk; Dejonghe, Winnie

    2014-03-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater baseflow. As biotransformation of CAHs in the impacted river sediments might be an effective remediation strategy, we investigated the determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic, CAH-polluted sediments of the Zenne River. Based on PCR-DGGE analysis, a high diversity of Bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, Geobacteraceae, methanogenic archaea, and CAH-respiring Dehalococcoides was found. Depth in the riverbed, organic carbon content, CAH content and texture of the sediment, pore water temperature and conductivity, and concentrations of toluene and methane significantly contributed to the variance in the microbial community structure. On a meter scale, CAH concentrations alone explained only 6% of the variance in the Dehalococcoides and sulfate-reducing communities. On a cm-scale, however, CAHs explained 14.5-35% of the variation in DGGE profiles of Geobacteraceae, methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and Bacteria, while organic carbon content explained 2-14%. Neither the presence of the CAH reductive dehalogenase genes tceA, bvcA, and vcrA, nor the community structure of the targeted groups significantly differed between riverbed locations showing either no attenuation or reductive dechlorination, indicating that the microbial community composition was not a limiting factor for biotransformation in the Zenne sediments.

  17. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  18. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  19. Degradation kinetics of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by methane oxidizers naturally-associated with wetland plant roots.

    PubMed

    Powell, C L; Goltz, M N; Agrawal, A

    2014-12-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) are common groundwater contaminants that can be removed from the environment by natural attenuation processes. CAH biodegradation can occur in wetland environments by reductive dechlorination as well as oxidation pathways. In particular, CAH oxidation may occur in vegetated wetlands, by microorganisms that are naturally associated with the roots of wetland plants. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cometabolic degradation kinetics of the CAHs, cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1TCA), by methane-oxidizing bacteria associated with the roots of a typical wetland plant in soil-free system. Laboratory microcosms with washed live roots investigated aerobic, cometabolic degradation of CAHs by the root-associated methane-oxidizing bacteria at initial aqueous [CH4] ~1.9mgL(-1), and initial aqueous [CAH] ~150μgL(-1); cisDCE and TCE (in the presence of 1,1,1TCA) degraded significantly, with a removal efficiency of approximately 90% and 46%, respectively. 1,1,1TCA degradation was not observed in the presence of active methane oxidizers. The pseudo first-order degradation rate-constants of TCE and cisDCE were 0.12±0.01 and 0.59±0.07d(-1), respectively, which are comparable to published values. However, their biomass-normalized degradation rate constants obtained in this study were significantly smaller than pure-culture studies, yet they were comparable to values reported for biofilm systems. The study suggests that CAH removal in wetland plant roots may be comparable to processes within biofilms. This has led us to speculate that the active biomass may be on the root surface as a biofilm. The cisDCE and TCE mass losses due to methane oxidizers in this study offer insight into the role of shallow, vegetated wetlands as an environmental sink for such xenobiotic compounds.

  20. Degradation kinetics of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by methane oxidizers naturally-associated with wetland plant roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, C. L.; Goltz, M. N.; Agrawal, A.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) are common groundwater contaminants that can be removed from the environment by natural attenuation processes. CAH biodegradation can occur in wetland environments by reductive dechlorination as well as oxidation pathways. In particular, CAH oxidation may occur in vegetated wetlands, by microorganisms that are naturally associated with the roots of wetland plants. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cometabolic degradation kinetics of the CAHs, cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1TCA), by methane-oxidizing bacteria associated with the roots of a typical wetland plant in soil-free system. Laboratory microcosms with washed live roots investigated aerobic, cometabolic degradation of CAHs by the root-associated methane-oxidizing bacteria at initial aqueous [CH4] ~ 1.9 mg L- 1, and initial aqueous [CAH] ~ 150 μg L- 1; cisDCE and TCE (in the presence of 1,1,1TCA) degraded significantly, with a removal efficiency of approximately 90% and 46%, respectively. 1,1,1TCA degradation was not observed in the presence of active methane oxidizers. The pseudo first-order degradation rate-constants of TCE and cisDCE were 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.59 ± 0.07 d- 1, respectively, which are comparable to published values. However, their biomass-normalized degradation rate constants obtained in this study were significantly smaller than pure-culture studies, yet they were comparable to values reported for biofilm systems. The study suggests that CAH removal in wetland plant roots may be comparable to processes within biofilms. This has led us to speculate that the active biomass may be on the root surface as a biofilm. The cisDCE and TCE mass losses due to methane oxidizers in this study offer insight into the role of shallow, vegetated wetlands as an environmental sink for such xenobiotic compounds.

  1. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment.

    PubMed

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases.

  2. A New, Rapid, Precise and Sensitive Method for Chlorine Stable Isotope Analysis of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Acker, M. R.; Shahar, A.; Young, E. D.; Coleman, M. L.

    2005-12-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) are recognized common groundwater contaminants. Because of their physico-chemical properties, their lifespan in groundwater is in the order of decades (Pankow and Cherry, 1996). Stable isotopes can play a role in determining the rate and extent of CAH attenuation (Slater, 2003). The use of chlorine has been hampered by the current time consuming and insensitive analytical methods. We present a new analytical procedure to measure chlorine stable isotope values using a gas chromatograph coupled to a multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometer (GC-MC-ICP-MS). The GC has a Porapack Q packed column. The carrier gas was helium and the temperature was constant at 160°C. The GC was coupled to the MC-ICP-MS by heated stainless steel tubing. Our high resolution spectra showed that 37Cl is free of its main interference 36Ar-H over a range of 0.004 amu. Two pure CAH, trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE), were used for zero enrichment (sample relative to itself) and standard-sample difference measurements. Integrations and background corrections of transient signals were performed using Microsoft Excel after import of the raw data from the MC-ICPMS acquisition software. Zero enrichment tests with TCE and PCE yielded δ37Cl of -0.04±0.16‰ and -0.03±0.17‰, respectively, results for sample injections of 0.12 to 0.02 microliters. Accuracy was tested by injecting 0.24 microliters of a 50/50 mixture of TCE and PCE of known isotopic compositions as the difference between the two solvents was of paramount interest. The δ37Cl(TCE) value of PCE was -1.99±0.16‰. A highly satisfactory comparison with the conventional method is shown by published values for TCE and PCE, -2.04±0.12‰ and -0.30±0.14‰, respectively (Jendrzejewski et al., 2001), giving a δ37Cl(TCE) value for PCE of -2.34±0.18‰. These tests of the GC-MC-ICP-MS method showed that we can obtain reproducible and accurate Cl isotope values using an

  3. Forensic investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sediments from selected mangrove ecosystems in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaiton; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Masood, Najat; Magam, Sami Mohsen; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo

    2015-11-15

    Peninsular Malaysia has gone through fast development during recent decades resulting in the release of large amounts of petroleum and its products into the environment. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major components of petroleum. Surface sediment samples were collected from five rivers along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total concentrations of C10 to C36 n-alkanes ranged from 27,945 to 254,463ng·g(-1)dry weight (dw). Evaluation of various n-alkane indices such as carbon preference index (CPI; 0.35 to 3.10) and average chain length (ACL; 26.74 to 29.23) of C25 to C33 n-alkanes indicated a predominance of petrogenic source n-alkanes in the lower parts of the Rivers, while biogenic origin n-alkanes from vascular plants are more predominant in the upper parts, especially in less polluted areas. Petrogenic sources of n-alkanes are predominantly heavy and degraded oil versus fresh oil inputs. PMID:26323864

  4. Forensic investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sediments from selected mangrove ecosystems in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaiton; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Masood, Najat; Magam, Sami Mohsen; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo

    2015-11-15

    Peninsular Malaysia has gone through fast development during recent decades resulting in the release of large amounts of petroleum and its products into the environment. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major components of petroleum. Surface sediment samples were collected from five rivers along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total concentrations of C10 to C36 n-alkanes ranged from 27,945 to 254,463ng·g(-1)dry weight (dw). Evaluation of various n-alkane indices such as carbon preference index (CPI; 0.35 to 3.10) and average chain length (ACL; 26.74 to 29.23) of C25 to C33 n-alkanes indicated a predominance of petrogenic source n-alkanes in the lower parts of the Rivers, while biogenic origin n-alkanes from vascular plants are more predominant in the upper parts, especially in less polluted areas. Petrogenic sources of n-alkanes are predominantly heavy and degraded oil versus fresh oil inputs.

  5. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alkanes (2 to 460-580 Alkanes (8 to 22% Aromatics) 1.49 * Average Boiling Point = (Initial Boiling Point + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-580 Alkanes (2 to 460-580 Alkanes (8 to 22% Aromatics) 1.49 * Average Boiling Point = (Initial Boiling Point + Dry Point)/2(b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point* (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor (g O3/g VOC) 1...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-580 Alkanes (2 to 460-580 Alkanes (8 to 22% Aromatics) 1.49 * Average Boiling Point = (Initial Boiling Point + Dry Point)/2(b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point* (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor (g O3/g VOC) 1...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-580 Alkanes (2 to 460-580 Alkanes (8 to 22% Aromatics) 1.49 * Average Boiling Point = (Initial Boiling Point + Dry Point)/2(b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point* (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor (g O3/g VOC) 1...

  9. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alkanes (2 to 460-580 Alkanes (8 to 22% Aromatics) 1.49 * Average Boiling Point = (Initial Boiling Point + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205...

  10. Presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near-surface sediments of an oil spill area in Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuanglin; Zhang, Shengyin; Dong, Heping; Zhao, Qingfang; Cao, Chunhui

    2015-11-15

    In order to determine the source of organic matter and the fingerprint of the oil components, 50 samples collected from the near-surface sediments of the oil spill area in Bohai Sea, China, were analyzed for grain size, total organic carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of C15-35 n-alkanes and 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant PAHs were found in the ranges of 0.88-3.48μg g(-1) and 9.97-490.13ng/g, respectively. The terrestrial organic matters characterized by C27-C35 n-alkanes and PAHs, resulting from the combustion of higher plants, are dominantly contributed from the transportation of these plants by rivers. Marine organic matters produced from plankton and aquatic plants were represented by C17-C26 n-alkanes in AHs. Crude oil, characterized by C17-C21 n-alkanes, unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a mean response factor of C19 n-alkanes, low levels of perylene, and a high InP/(InP+BghiP) ratio, seeped into the oceans from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, as a result of geological faults.

  11. Presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near-surface sediments of an oil spill area in Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuanglin; Zhang, Shengyin; Dong, Heping; Zhao, Qingfang; Cao, Chunhui

    2015-11-15

    In order to determine the source of organic matter and the fingerprint of the oil components, 50 samples collected from the near-surface sediments of the oil spill area in Bohai Sea, China, were analyzed for grain size, total organic carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of C15-35 n-alkanes and 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant PAHs were found in the ranges of 0.88-3.48μg g(-1) and 9.97-490.13ng/g, respectively. The terrestrial organic matters characterized by C27-C35 n-alkanes and PAHs, resulting from the combustion of higher plants, are dominantly contributed from the transportation of these plants by rivers. Marine organic matters produced from plankton and aquatic plants were represented by C17-C26 n-alkanes in AHs. Crude oil, characterized by C17-C21 n-alkanes, unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a mean response factor of C19 n-alkanes, low levels of perylene, and a high InP/(InP+BghiP) ratio, seeped into the oceans from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, as a result of geological faults. PMID:26375779

  12. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and Fatty Acids of Some Marine and Freshwater Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Oró, J.; Tornabene, T. G.; Nooner, D. W.; Gelpi, E.

    1967-01-01

    Gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have been used to study the fatty acids and hydrocarbons of a bacterium from the Pacific Ocean, Vibrio marinus, a freshwater blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans, and algal mat communities from the Gulf of Mexico. Both types of microorganisms (bacteria and algae) showed relatively simple hydrocarbon and fatty acid patterns, the hydrocarbons predominating in the region of C-17 and the fatty acids in the range of C-14 to C-18. The patterns of V. marinus were more comparable to those of the algal populations than to patterns reported for other bacteria. An incomplete correlation between fatty acids and hydrocarbons in both types of organisms was observed, making it difficult to accept the concept that the biosynthesis of hydrocarbons follows a simple fatty acid decarboxylation process. PMID:6025301

  13. Method and apparatus for fractionating hydrocarbon crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.

    1987-05-12

    A distillation method is described comprising: introducing heated hydrocarbon feed into a first distillation zone of a vacuum distillation means having first and second distillation zones physically separated from each other by divider means to cause a first separation of the feed into a descending liquid portion and an ascending vapor portion substantially all of the separated descending liquid remaining in the first distillation zone; withdrawing at least part of the liquid from the first distillation zone; reheating the withdrawn liquid portion; and introducing the reheated liquid portion into a second distillation zone which is part of the same distillation column as the first distillation zone, to cause a second separation of the reheated liquid portion into a descending liquid portion and an ascending vapor portion substantially all of the reheated, separated descending liquid remaining in the second distillation zone.

  14. Marine organic pollutants of the Eastern Aegean: aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Candarli Gulf surficial sediments.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Pazi, Idil; Gonul, L Tolga

    2012-11-01

    Aliphatics and PAHs were determined in sediments from the Candarli Gulf in 2009. Aliphatics ranged from 3.88 to 24.7 μg g(-1) while aromatics varied between <4.15 and 405 ng g(-1) (dw). PAHs ranged from a relatively low to a moderate PAHs pollution compared to other urbanized coastal areas worldwide. 3-ring PAHs were most abundant in the sampling area. Both pyrolytic and petrogenic PAHs were present in most samples, although petroleum derived PAHs were dominant at the stations situated near the refinery and petrochemical, metal industry and pyrolytic sources were mainly prevalent in the estuary of Bakircay River. The ratio of UCM to n-alkanes and CPI values in station 6 indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. PAH levels at all sites were below the ERL and ERM except fluorene. The results indicated that the sediments should have no potential biological impact except stations 6 and 14.

  15. Catalytic C-H bond activation at nanoscale Lewis acidic aluminium fluorides: H/D exchange reactions at aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Prechtl, Martin H G; Teltewskoi, Michael; Dimitrov, Anton; Kemnitz, Erhard; Braun, Thomas

    2011-12-16

    Nanoscopic amorphous Lewis acidic aluminium fluorides, such as aluminium chlorofluoride (ACF) and high-surface aluminium fluoride (HS-AlF(3)), are capable of activating C-H bonds of aliphatic hydrocarbons. H/D exchange reactions are catalysed under mild conditions (40 °C).

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, trace elements, and monooxygenase activity in birds nesting on the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Custer, C M; Dickerson, K; Allen, K; Melancon, M J; Schmidt, L J

    2001-03-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and house wren (Troglodytes aedon) eggs and chicks were collected near a refinery site on the North Platte River, Casper. Wyoming, USA and at a reference site 10 km upstream. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in swallow and wren chicks were higher at the refinery site than at the reference site. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediment and chick dietary samples were consistent with these findings. The general lack of methylated PAHs in sediment, diet, and bird carcasses suggested that the PAHs were derived from combustion and not from petroleum. The predominance of odd-numbered aliphatic hydrocarbons and the low ratios (< or =0.25) of pristane:n-C17 and phytane:n-C18 in chick and diet samples also suggested that swallow and wren chicks were not being chronically exposed to petroleum. Mean ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities in tree swallow livers averaged nine times higher at the refinery site than at the reference site and were probably induced by exposure to PAHs. Trace element concentrations in eggs and livers of swallows and wrens were similar or greater at the reference site than at the refinery site. Selenium, strontium, and boron concentrations were elevated in eggs and livers of swallows and wrens at both the refinery and reference sites. PMID:11349865

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, trace elements and monooxygenase activity in birds nesting on the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dickerson, K.; Allen, K.; Melancon, M.J.; Schmidt, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and house wren (Troglodytes aedon) eggs and chicks were collected near a refinery site on the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming, USA and at a reference site 10 km upstream. Total polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in swallow and wren chicks were higher at the refinery site than at the reference site. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediment and chick dietary samples were consistent with these findings. The general lack of methylated PAHs in sediment, diet, and bird carcasses suggested that the PAHs were derived from combustion and not from petroleum. The predominance of odd numbered aliphatic hydrocarbons and the low ratios (≤ 0.25) of pristane: n-C17 and phytane: n-C18 in chick and diet samples also suggested that swallow and wren chicks were not being chronically exposed to petroleum. Mean ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities in tree swallow livers averaged nine times higher at the refinery site than at the reference site and were probably induced by exposure to PAHs. Trace element concentrations in eggs and livers of swallows and wrens were similar or greater at the reference site than at the refinery site. Selenium, strontium, and boron concentrations were elevated in eggs and livers of swallows and wrens at both the refinery and reference sites.

  18. Distributions and sources of petroleum, aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Hu, Xiaoke; Zhang, Haijiang; He, Shijie; Lv, Shuangyan

    2015-01-15

    Surface sediment samples from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China, were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbon, PAHs and biomarkers in order to determine the distribution, composition and source of organic matter in a coastal environment. Results suggested that the input of organic matter from anthropogenic activities has a more significant influence on its distribution than that from natural processes. Petroleum contamination, mainly from offshore oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. PAHs were mostly of pyrogenic origin; while some sites in Yellow River Estuary were derived mainly from the petrogenic sources. The toxic assessment suggested that the PAHs in surface sediments will not cause immediately adverse biological effects in sediments from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China. PMID:25499964

  19. Distributions and sources of petroleum, aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Hu, Xiaoke; Zhang, Haijiang; He, Shijie; Lv, Shuangyan

    2015-01-15

    Surface sediment samples from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China, were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbon, PAHs and biomarkers in order to determine the distribution, composition and source of organic matter in a coastal environment. Results suggested that the input of organic matter from anthropogenic activities has a more significant influence on its distribution than that from natural processes. Petroleum contamination, mainly from offshore oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. PAHs were mostly of pyrogenic origin; while some sites in Yellow River Estuary were derived mainly from the petrogenic sources. The toxic assessment suggested that the PAHs in surface sediments will not cause immediately adverse biological effects in sediments from Bohai Bay and its adjacent river, China.

  20. Controlled oxidation of aliphatic CH bonds in metallo-monooxygenases: mechanistic insights derived from studies on deuterated and fluorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Sheng; Luo, Wen-I; Yang, Chung-Ling; Tu, Yi-Jung; Chang, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Chi-Yao; Chan, Sunney I; Yu, Steve S-F

    2014-05-01

    The control over the regio- and/or stereo-selective aliphatic CH oxidation by metalloenzymes is of great interest to scientists. Typically, these enzymes invoke host-guest chemistry to sequester the substrates within the protein pockets, exploiting sizes, shapes and specific interactions such as hydrogen-bonding, electrostatic forces and/or van der Waals interactions to control the substrate specificity, regio-specificity and stereo-selectivity. Over the years, we have developed a series of deuterated and fluorinated variants of these hydrocarbon substrates as probes to gain insights into the controlled CH oxidations of hydrocarbons facilitated by these enzymes. In this review, we illustrate the application of these designed probes in the study of three monooxygenases: (i) the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), which oxidizes straight-chain C1-C5 alkanes and alkenes to form their corresponding 2-alcohols and epoxides, respectively; (ii) the recombinant alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) from Pseudomonas putida GPo1, which oxidizes the primary CH bonds of C5-C12 linear alkanes; and (iii) the recombinant cytochrome P450 from Bacillus megaterium, which oxidizes C12-C20 fatty acids at the ω-1, ω-2 or ω-3 CH positions.

  1. Assessment of degradation potential of aliphatic hydrocarbons by autochthonous filamentous fungi from a historically polluted clay soil.

    PubMed

    Covino, Stefano; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Stazi, Silvia Rita; Cajthaml, Tomas; Čvančarová, Monika; Stella, Tatiana; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The present work was aimed at isolating and identifying the main members of the mycobiota of a clay soil historically contaminated by mid- and long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (AH) and to subsequently assess their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. All the isolates were Ascomycetes and, among them, the most interesting was Pseudoallescheria sp. 18A, which displayed both the ability to use AH as the sole carbon source and to profusely colonize a wheat straw:poplar wood chip (70:30, w/w) lignocellulosic mixture (LM) selected as the amendment for subsequent soil remediation microcosms. After a 60 d mycoaugmentation with Pseudoallescheria sp. of the aforementioned soil, mixed with the sterile LM (5:1 mass ratio), a 79.7% AH reduction and a significant detoxification, inferred by a drop in mortality of Folsomia candida from 90 to 24%, were observed. However, similar degradation and detoxification outcomes were found in the non-inoculated incubation control soil that had been amended with the sterile LM. This was due to the biostimulation exerted by the amendment on the resident microbiota, fungi in particular, the activity and density of which were low, instead, in the non-amended incubation control soil.

  2. Frequency of genes in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways within bacterial populations from Alaskan sediments.

    PubMed

    Sotsky, J B; Greer, C W; Atlas, R M

    1994-11-01

    A significant proportion of the naturally occurring hydrocarbon-degrading populations within Alaskan sediments affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill had both the xylE and alkB genes and could convert hexadecane and naphthalene to carbon dioxide; a greater proportion of the population had xylE than had alkB, reflecting the composition of the residual oil at the time of sampling; nearly equal populations with xylE alone, alkB alone, and xylE + alkB genes together were found after exposure to fresh crude oil; populations with xylE lacking alkB increased after enrichment on naphthalene. Thus, the genotypes of hydrocarbon-degrading populations reflected the composition of the hydrocarbons to which they were exposed. PMID:7804909

  3. Distribution and fate of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Antarctic fauna and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, H. M.; Mackie, P. R.

    1980-03-01

    With the depletion of oil resources in more accessible areas, those of remote regions are being considered or indeed are now being exploited. In many of these regions, especially the polar ones, little is known of the effects such exploitation will have on the environment. But it is known that the ecosystems are often subject to great stress by natural climatic conditions and additional burdens imposed by man may have catastrophic environmental effects. South Georgia, a sub-Antarctic island, has a history of industrial activity mainly concerned with whaling operations that peaked around 1925-1935 but has since declined to virtually nothing. Studies of the ecology of the area provided a unique opportunity to assess the long-term effects that such activities had on the ecosystem. Off the whaling stations a considerable amount of waste material, including fuel oil, was released into the bays and inevitably some of this material was deposited in the sediments. Chemical evidence in the form of both paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons still persists in the sediments. The implications of this persistence in relation to the possible influence of the low temperature conditions are discussed. The superficial sediments, marine biota and terrestrial plants, which since 1965 have returned virtually to a pristine state, contain hydrocarbons essentially similar to unpolluted areas around the coast of Britain. Relatively high levels of carcinogenic/mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments suggests a world-wide background of abiogenic hydrocarbons probably disseminated by airborne transport. This appears to indicate that contamination reaches even remote parts of the world in relatively undiminished quantities.

  4. Differential responses to branched and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in the rat olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Sabrina L.; Johnson, Brett A.; Chen, Andrew L.; Leon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to understand mammalian olfactory processing, we have been describing the responses to systematically different odorants in the glomerular layer of the main olfactory bulb of rats. Previously, we have demonstrated chemotopically organized and distinct olfactory responses to a homologous series of straight-chained alkanes that consisted of purely hydrocarbon structures, indicating that hydrocarbon chains could serve as molecular features in the combinatorial coding of odorant information. To better understand the processing of hydrocarbon odorants, we now have examined responses to other types of chemical changes in this kind of molecules, namely branching and carbon-carbon bond saturation. To this end, we used the [14C]2-deoxyglucose method to determine glomerular responses to a group of eight-carbon branched alkane isomers, unsaturated octenes (double-bonded), and octynes (triple-bonded). In contrast to the differential responses we observed previously for straight-chained alkanes of differing carbon number, the rat olfactory system was not particularly sensitive to these variations in branching and bond saturation. This result was unexpected, given the distinct molecular conformations and property profiles of the odorants. The similarity in activity patterns was paralleled by a similarity in spontaneous perceptual responses measured using a habituation assay. These results demonstrate again the functional relationship between bulbar activity patterns and odor perception. The results further suggest that the olfactory system does not respond equally to all aspects of odorant chemistry, functioning as a specific, rather than a general chemical analysis system. PMID:17029262

  5. Determination of solid mass fraction in partially frozen hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotterell, E. M.; Mossadegh, R.; Bruce, A. J.; Moynihan, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    Filtration procedures alone are insufficient to determine the amounts of crystalline solid in a partially frozen hydrocarbon distillate fraction. This is due to the nature of the solidification process by which a large amount of liquid becomes entrapped within an interconnected crystalline structure. A technique has been developed to supplement filtration methods with an independent determination of the amount of liquid in the precipitate thereby revealing the actual value of mass percent crystalline solid, %S. A non-crystallizing dye is injected into the fuel and used as a tracer during the filtration. The relative concentrations of the dye in the filtrate and precipitate fractions is subsequently detected by a spectrophotometric comparison. The filtration apparatus was assembled so that the temperature of the sample is recorded immediately above the filter. Also, a second method of calculation has been established which allows significant reduction in test time while retaining acceptable accuracy of results. Data have been obtained for eight different kerosene range hydrocarbon fuels.

  6. Aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and salmon farmed close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez Pineiro, M.E.; Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C.; Lozano, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal region. Subsequently, an impropitious combination of a high tide and a change in wind direction caused the resulting slick to rapidly spread into the port. Measures aimed at cleaning up affected areas and evacuating the ca. 11,215 tonnes of oil remaining in the supertanker were immediately implemented. However, within just a few days the resulting contamination had killed some 15000 turbot juveniles and larvae, which are cultivated in fish farms close to the accident site. The environmental impact of major oil spillages has been widely studied. Several scientists have suggested that, in terms of the negative effects on the seawater quality and productive capacity of the affected maritime regions, the magnitudes of the Aegean Sea and Amoco Cadiz accidents are comparable. This paper reports variations over time of aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and Atlantic salmon sampled from fish farms close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Identifying sources of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in a residential area in Italy using the integral pumping test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Luca; Lombi, Silvia; Zanini, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The results of integral pumping tests (IPTs) performed in the city of Fabriano, Italy, are presented. The IPT methodology was developed by the European Union project INCORE, as a tool for groundwater investigation and source localization in contaminated areas. This methodology consists of a multiple-well pumping test in which the wells are positioned along a control plane downstream of suspected contaminant source zones and perpendicular to the mean groundwater flow direction. During the pumping, concentration time series of target contaminants are measured. In Fabriano, two control planes were realized to identify a chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon plume, to estimate the mass fluxes and draw up a ranked list of the main contamination sources. A numerical flow model was implemented to support the IPT design and to interpret the results. This study revealed low-level trichloroethylene contamination (concentration below 8 μg/l), tetrachloroethylene contamination (mean concentration up to 500 μg/l) and a mass flow rate of about 300 g/day. Through the application of the IPT method, the mean contaminant concentrations, the spatial distribution of concentration values along the control planes, and the total contaminant mass flow rates were evaluated, and the investigation area was reduced for further and deeper investigation activities.

  8. Impact of carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of microscale zerovalent iron particles on its reactivity towards chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, Milica; Larsson, Per-Olof; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2013-11-01

    Zerovalent iron (ZVI) abiotically degrades several chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) via reductive dechlorination, which offers perspectives for in situ groundwater remediation applications. The difference in reactivity between ZVI particles is often linked with their specific surface area. However, other parameters may influence the reactivity as well. Earlier, we reported for a set of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles the disappearance kinetic of different CAHs which were collected under consistent experimental conditions. In the present study, these kinetic data were correlated with the carbon, oxygen and sulfur content of mZVI particles. It was confirmed that not only the specific surface area affects the disappearance kinetic of CAHs, but also the chemical composition of the mZVI particles. The chemical composition, in addition, influences CAHs removal mechanism inducing sorption onto mZVI particles instead of dechlorination. Generally, high disappearance kinetic of CAHs was observed for particles containing less oxygen. A high carbon content, on the other hand, induced nonreactive sorption of the contaminants on the mZVI particles. To obtain efficient remediation of CAHs by mZVI particles, this study suggested that the carbon and oxygen content should not exceed 0.5% and 1% respectively. Finally, the efficiency of the mZVI particles may be improved to some extent by enriching them with sulfur. However, the impact of sulfur content on the reactivity of mZVI particles is less pronounced than that of the carbon and oxygen content.

  9. Ion-molecule reactions of ArN + 2 with simple aliphatic hydrocarbons at thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Masaharu; Matsumura, Ken-ichi; Kouno, Hiroyuki; Aizawa, Masato; Nishimura, Yukio

    1994-11-01

    The product ion distributions and rate constants are determined for ion-molecule reactions of ArN+2 with C2Hn (n=2,4,6) and C3Hn (n=6,8) by using a thermal ion-beam apparatus. Although charge-transfer channels leading to parent ions and/or fragment ions are found, no displacement reaction leading to ArCmH+n and N2CmH+n is detected. A comparison of the product ion distributions with breakdown patterns of the parent ions suggests that fragment ions, formed through cleavage of C-H and/or C-C bonds, are produced via near-resonant ionic states in the 13.1-13.4 eV range. The branching ratios of parent ions for C2H4 (68%) and C3H6 (20%) are larger than those for C2H6 (5%) and C3H8 (5%). The large branching ratios of the parent ions for the unsaturated hydrocarbons are explained as due to a strong interaction of a vacant orbital of ArN+2 with the highest occupied πC=C orbital of the unsaturated hydrocarbons which induces nonresonant charge transfer. The total rate constant for C2H2 is 6.8×10-10 cm3 s-1, while those for C2Hn (n=4,6) and C3Hn (n=6,8) are in the range (8.5-9.8)×10-10 cm3 s-1. The former and the latter values correspond to 69% and 77%-90% of the calculated values from Langevin or average dipole orientation (ADO) theory. The smaller kobs/kcalc ratio for C2H2 is attributed to the lack of near-resonant ionic states with favorable Franck-Condon factors for ionization.

  10. Isolation, characterization of Rhodococcus sp. P14 capable of degrading high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaohui; Xu, Yan; Li, Gangmin; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Tongwang; Hu, Zhong

    2011-10-01

    Rhodococcus sp. P14 was isolated from crude oil-contaminated sediments. This strain was capable of utilizing three to five rings polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a sole carbon and energy source. After cultivated with 50mg/L of each PAH, strain P14 removed 43% Phe, 34% Pyr and 30% BaP in 30 d. Four different hydroxyphenanthrene products derived from Phe by strain P14 (1,2,3,4-hydroxyphenanthrene) were detected using SPME-GC-MS. Strain P14 also was capable of degrading mineral oil with n-alkanes of C17 to C21 carbon chain length. Compared with glucose-grown cells, PAHs-grown cells had decreased contents of shorter-chain length fatty acids (≤ C16:0), increased contents of C18:0, Me-C19:0 and disappeared odd-number carbon chain fatty acids. The contents of unsaturated C19:1, Me-C19:0 increased and C18:0 decreased in mineral oil-grown cells. At the same time, the strain P14 tended to float when cultivated in mineral oil-supplemented liquid medium. The degradation capability of P14 to alkane and PAHs and its floating characteristics will be very helpful for future's application in oil-spill bioremediation. PMID:21871639

  11. Sequential chemical oxidation and aerobic biodegradation of equivalent carbon number-based hydrocarbon fractions in jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guibo; Barcelona, Michael J

    2003-10-15

    Remediation of petroleum mixtures is complicated by the differing environmental degradabilities of hundreds of individual hydrocarbons in the mixtures. By grouping the individual hydrocarbons into a few fractions based on equivalent carbon number (EC), the present study examined the chemical and biological degradation of the fractions. With or without prechemical oxidation (25 days) by three oxidants (KMnO4, H202, MgO2), sterile and live microcosms were constituted with aquifer samples for aerobic biodegradation (134 days) of JP-4 jet fuel. Eighty-seven hydrocarbons were recovered and grouped into nine EC fractions. The apparent removal and actual transformation rate constants were estimated for both chemical and biological degradations. The data show that prechemical oxidations facilitated removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (up to 80%) within shorter times (<50 days) than biological alone. KMnO4 and H202 were better oxidants in terms of mass reduction in shorter times yet to some extent inhibited the subsequent microbial activity. MgO2 was a moderate oxidant with less inhibition of microbial activity. Selective degradation of the EC fractions was observed for both chemical and biological processes. The biological processes were much less effective than the prechemical oxidations in transforming aromatic fractions, the more toxic fractions. The favorable substrates (i.e., aliphatic EC approximately 10) for microbial growth were also those most subject to chemical oxidation. The results suggest that for remediation of petroleum contaminants, sequential chemical and biological technologies may surpass biological alone and more moderate oxidants such as MgO2 may be better candidates. More work is needed on the optimal dose and residence time for applied oxidants and on the application to engineering design and formulation of cleanup standards.

  12. Solubility of aliphatic hydrocarbons in piperidinium ionic liquids: measurements and modeling in terms of perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory.

    PubMed

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Domańska, Urszula

    2011-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) reveal many unique properties which make them very interesting for applications in modern "green" technologies. For that reason, detailed knowledge about correlations between the ions' structure, their combinations, and the bulk properties is of great importance. That knowledge can be accessed by reliable measurements and modeling of systems with ILs in terms of various theoretical approaches. In this paper we report new experimental results on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) measurements of 10 binary systems composed of piperidinium ILs [namely, 1-propyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide] and aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, cyclohexane, and cycloheptane). Moreover, new results on liquid density of pure 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide are presented. Upper critical solution temperature type of phase behavior for all studied systems was observed. Decrease of solubility of n-alkane with an increase of its alkyl chain length and increase of solubility when changing linear into cyclic structure of hydrocarbon were detected. LLE modeling of investigated systems was performed in terms of two modern theories, namely, perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory (NRHB). Pure fluid parameters of the models were obtained from fitting of experimental liquid density and solubility parameter data at ambient pressure and tested against high pressure densities. Then literature values of activity coefficients of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at infinitely diluted mixtures with ILs were used to optimize binary interaction parameters of the models. Finally, the LLE phase diagrams were calculated with average absolute relative deviations of 4.1% and 3.4% of the IL mole fraction for PC-SAFT and NRHB, respectively. The PC-SAFT and NRHB models were both able to capture phase

  13. Solubility of aliphatic hydrocarbons in piperidinium ionic liquids: measurements and modeling in terms of perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory.

    PubMed

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Domańska, Urszula

    2011-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) reveal many unique properties which make them very interesting for applications in modern "green" technologies. For that reason, detailed knowledge about correlations between the ions' structure, their combinations, and the bulk properties is of great importance. That knowledge can be accessed by reliable measurements and modeling of systems with ILs in terms of various theoretical approaches. In this paper we report new experimental results on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) measurements of 10 binary systems composed of piperidinium ILs [namely, 1-propyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide] and aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, cyclohexane, and cycloheptane). Moreover, new results on liquid density of pure 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide are presented. Upper critical solution temperature type of phase behavior for all studied systems was observed. Decrease of solubility of n-alkane with an increase of its alkyl chain length and increase of solubility when changing linear into cyclic structure of hydrocarbon were detected. LLE modeling of investigated systems was performed in terms of two modern theories, namely, perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) and nonrandom hydrogen-bonding theory (NRHB). Pure fluid parameters of the models were obtained from fitting of experimental liquid density and solubility parameter data at ambient pressure and tested against high pressure densities. Then literature values of activity coefficients of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at infinitely diluted mixtures with ILs were used to optimize binary interaction parameters of the models. Finally, the LLE phase diagrams were calculated with average absolute relative deviations of 4.1% and 3.4% of the IL mole fraction for PC-SAFT and NRHB, respectively. The PC-SAFT and NRHB models were both able to capture phase

  14. Supra-Atomic Coarse-Grained GROMOS Force Field for Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Liquid Phase.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, Andreas P; Huang, Wei; Riniker, Sereina; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2015-07-14

    A supra-atomic coarse-grained (CG) force field for liquid n-alkanes is presented. The model was calibrated using experimental thermodynamic data and structural as well as energetic properties for 14 n-alkanes as obtained from atomistic fine-grained (FG) simulations of the corresponding hydrocarbons using the GROMOS 45A3 biomolecular force field. A variation of the nonbonded force-field parameters obtained from mapping the FG interactions onto the CG degrees of freedom to fit the density and heat of vaporization to experimental values turned out to be mandatory for a correct reproduction of these data by the CG model, while the bonded force-field parameters for the CG model could be obtained from a Boltzmann-weighted fit with some variations with respect to the corresponding properties from the FG simulations mapped onto the CG degrees of freedom. The model presents 6 different CG bead types, for bead sizes from 2 to 4 distinguishing between terminal and nonterminal beads within an alkane chain (end or middle). It contains different nonbonded Lennard-Jones parameters for the interaction of CG alkanes with CG water. The CG alkane model was further tested by comparing predictions of the excess free energy, the self-diffusion constant, surface tension, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and shear viscosity for n-alkanes to experimental values. The CG model offers a thermodynamically calibrated basis for the development of CG models of lipids.

  15. Hydrocarbon group analysis of Arabian crude oils TBP-fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, S.A.; Mahmud, F.; AlHarbi, D.K. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors present experimental studies carried out on hydrocarbon group analysis of commercial Arabian crude oil fractions corresponding to the true boiling point ranges of 200-400{sup 0}F, 400-500{sup 0}F, 500-650{sup 0}F, 650-850{sup 0}F and 850{sup 0}F+. The crude oils included Arab heavy (API{sup 0} = 28.0), Arab medium (API{sup 0} = 30.0), Arab light (API{sup 0} = 33.3), and Arab Berry extra light (API{sup 0} = 36.9). Waters Hydrocarbon Group Analyzer (HGA) system interfaced with model 730 Data Module has been used to obtain the compositional analysis in terms of saturates, neutral aromatics, polar aromatics and asphaltenes.

  16. New insight on aliphatic linkages in the macromolecular organic fraction of Orgueil and Murchison meteorites through ruthenium tetroxide oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remusat, Laurent; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2005-09-01

    Ruthenium tetroxide oxidation was used to examine the macromolecular insoluble organic matter (IOM) from the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites and especially to characterize the aliphatic linkages. Already applied to various terrestrial samples, ruthenium tetroxide is a selective oxidant which destroys aromatic units, converting them into CO 2, and yields aliphatic and aromatic acids. In our experiment on chondritic IOM, it produces mainly short aliphatic diacids and polycarboxylic aromatic acids. Some short hydroxyacids are also detected. Aliphatic diacids are interpreted as aliphatic bridges between aromatic units in the chemical structure, and polycarboxylic aromatic acids are the result of the fusion of polyaromatic units. The product distribution shows that aliphatic links are short with numerous substitutions. No indigenous monocarboxylic acid was detected, showing that free aliphatic chains must be very short (less than three carbon atoms). The hydroxyacids are related to the occurrence of ester and ether functional groups within the aliphatic bridges between the aromatic units. This technique thus allows us to characterize in detail the aliphatic linkages of the IOMs, and the derived conclusions are in agreement with spectroscopic, pyrolytic, and degradative results previously reported. Compared to terrestrial samples, the aliphatic part of chondritic IOM is shorter and highly substituted. Aromatic units are smaller and more cross-linked than in coals, as already proposed from NMR data. Orgueil and Murchison IOM exhibit some tiny differences, especially in the length of aliphatic chains.

  17. Dissociative charge-transfer reactions of Ar + with simple aliphatic hydrocarbons at thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Masaharu; Kouno, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Ken-ichi; Funatsu, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Yukio; Obase, Hiroshi; Kugishima, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Kouichi

    1993-02-01

    A flowing-afterglow apparatus coupled with a low pressure chamber has been used to measure product ion distributions and rate constants in the charge-transfer reactions of Ar+ with CH4, C2Hn(n=2,4,6), and C3Hn(n=6,8) at thermal energy. Only parent cation is formed for C2H2 due to energy restriction. Major product channels are dissociative charge transfer followed by cleavage of C-H bond(s) for CH4, C2H4, C2H6, and C3H6, while by cleavage of a C-C bond for C3H8. A comparison of the product ion distributions with the photoelectron-photoion coincidence data for CH4, C2H4, and C2H6 leads us to conclude that the mean energies of precursor (pre)dissociative states are 15.3-15.5 eV, which are 0.3-0.5 eV below the resonance states. Thus the fractions of available energy deposited into internal modes of precursor parent ions at the instant of charge transfer are estimated to be 85%-95%, indicating that most of the CT reactions occurs without significant momentum transfer. The total rate constants for CH4, C2Hn(n=4,6), and C3Hn(n=6,8) are (0.78-1.1)×10-9 cm3 s-1, corresponding to 60%-92% of the calculated values from the Langevin theory. The rate constant for C2H2, 4.2×10-10 cm3 s-1, amounts to 38% of the kcalcd value. The small kobsd/kcalcd ratio is attributed to the lack of ionic states with favorable Franck-Condon factors for ionization.

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Petroleum Solvent Groups 1 4 Table 4 to Subpart RRRR of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1 You May Use the Mass Fraction Values in the Following Fable for... EC, Naphtha, Mixed Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Naphtha, Naphthol Spirits,...

  19. Toxicity of jet fuel aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures on human epidermal keratinocytes: evaluation based on in vitro cytotoxicity and interleukin-8 release.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jen-Hung; Lee, Chia-Hue; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Riviere, Jim E; Tsang, Chau-Loong; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2006-08-01

    Jet fuels are complex mixtures of aliphatic (ALI) and aromatic (ARO) hydrocarbons that vary significantly in individual cytotoxicity and proinflammatory activity in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). In order to delineate the toxicological interactions among individual hydrocarbons in a mixture and their contributions to cutaneous toxicity, nine ALI and five ARO hydrocarbons were each divided into five (high/medium/low cytotoxic and strong/weak IL-8 induction) groups and intra/inter-mixed to assess for their mixture effects on HEK mortality and IL-8 release. Addition of single hydrocarbon to JP-8 fuel was also evaluated for their changes in fuel dermatotoxicity. The results indicated that when hydrocarbons were mixed, HEK mortality and IL-8 release were not all predictable by their individual ability affecting these two parameters. The lowest HEK mortality (7%) and the highest IL-8 production were induced with mixtures including high cytotoxic and weak IL-8 inductive ARO hydrocarbons. Antagonistic reactions not consistently correlated with ALI carbon chain length and ARO structure were evident and carried different weight in the overall mixture toxicities. Single addition of benzene, toluene, xylene or ethylbenzene for up to tenfold in JP-8 did not increase HEK mortality while single addition of ALI hydrocarbons exhibited dose-related differential response in IL-8. In an all ALI environment, no single hydrocarbon is the dominating factor in the determination of HEK cytotoxicity while deletion of hexadecane resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in IL-8 production. Overall, decane, undecane and dodecane were the major hydrocarbons associated with high cytotoxicity while tetradecane, pentadecane and hexadecane were those which had the greatest buffering effect attenuating dermatotoxicity. The mixture effects must be considered when evaluating jet fuel toxicity to HEK.

  20. Petroleum pollution in surface sediments of Daya Bay, South China, revealed by chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuelu; Chen, Shaoyong

    2008-10-01

    Nine surface sediments collected from Daya Bay have been Soxhlet-extracted with 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol. The non-aromatic hydrocarbon (NAH) fraction of solvent extractable organic matter (EOM) and some bulk geochemical parameters have been analyzed to determine petroleum pollution of the bay. The NAH content varies from 32 to 276 μg g -1 (average 104 μg g -1) dry sediment and accounts for 5.8-64.1% (average 41.6%) of the EOM. n-Alkanes with carbon number ranging from 15 to 35 are identified to be derived from both biogenic and petrogenic sources in varying proportions. The contribution of marine authigenic input to the sedimentary n-alkanes is lower than the allochthonous input based on the average n-C 31/ n-C 19 alkane ratio. 25.6-46.5% of the n-alkanes, with a mean of 35.6%, are contributed by vascular plant wax. Results of unresolved complex mixture, isoprenoid hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes also suggest possible petroleum contamination. There is strong evidence of a common petroleum contamination source in the bay.

  1. Temporal variations in natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in eutrophic river sediments impacted by a contaminated groundwater plume.

    PubMed

    Hamonts, Kelly; Kuhn, Thomas; Vos, Johan; Maesen, Miranda; Kalka, Harald; Smidt, Hauke; Springael, Dirk; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Dejonghe, Winnie

    2012-04-15

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater baseflow. Biotransformation, sorption and dilution of CAHs in the impacted river sediments have been reported to reduce discharge, but the effect of temporal variations in environmental conditions on the occurrence and extent of those processes in river sediments is largely unknown. We monitored the reduction of CAH discharge into the Zenne River during a 21-month period. Despite a relatively stable influx of CAHs from the groundwater, the total reduction in CAH discharge from 120 to 20 cm depth in the river sediments, on average 74 ± 21%, showed moderate to large temporal variations, depending on the riverbed location. High organic carbon and anaerobic conditions in the river sediments allowed microbial reductive dechlorination of both chlorinated ethenes and chlorinated ethanes. δ(13)C values of the CAHs showed that this biotransformation was remarkably stable over time, despite fluctuating pore water temperatures. Daughter products of the CAHs, however, were not detected in stoichiometric amounts and suggested the co-occurrence of a physical process reducing the concentrations of CAHs in the riverbed. This process was the main process causing temporal variations in natural attenuation of the CAHs and was most likely dilution by surface water-mixing. However, higher spatial resolution monitoring of flow transients in the riverbed is required to prove dilution contributions due to dynamic surface water-groundwater flow exchanges. δ(13)C values and a site-specific isotope enrichment factor for reductive dechlorination of the main groundwater pollutant vinyl chloride (VC) allowed assessment of changes over time in the extent of both biotransformation and dilution of VC for different scenarios in which those processes either occurred consecutively or simultaneously between 120 and 20 cm depth in the riverbed. The extent of reductive dechlorination of VC ranged from 27

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption on selected solid particulate matter fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, Frantisek; Huzlik, Jiri; Pawelczyk, Adam; Hoza, Ignac; Naplavova, Magdalena; Jedlicka, Jiri

    2016-02-01

    This article is directed to evaluating the proportion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) captured on particulate matter (PM) classified as PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, i.e. particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5-10 μm and 2.5 μm. During three week-long and one 2-day campaigns, 22 paired air samples were taken in parallel of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions inside the Mrázovka tunnel in Prague, Czech Republic. Following sample preparation, concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Concentrations of individual pairs of each PAH were tested by the nonparametric method using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. At significance level p < 0.01, it was demonstrated that all individual PAHs, including their totals, were bound to the PM2.5 fraction. Exceptions were seen in the cases of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, the concentrations of which fluctuated around the detection limit, where increased measurement error can be expected.

  3. Particulate Fluxes of Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Near-shore Waters to the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, and the Effect of Continental Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raoux, C.; Boyona, J. M.; Miquel, J.-C.; Teyssie, J.-L.; Fowler, S. W.; Albaigés, J.

    1999-05-01

    Particulate fluxes of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured with a sediment trap moored at 80m depth offshore Monaco (200m water column) during an 18-month period. The highest fluxes of n -alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ( c . 300 and 10μg m -2day -1, respectively) were noted following a strong rainfall event (March-April 1989) and were mostly accounted for by continental runoff and river outflows. Fluxes during periods of low precipitation (August 1989-August 1990) were one order of magnitude lower for PAHs (1·51±1·40μg m -2day -1) or two orders of magnitude lower for n -alkanes (4·79±3·3μg m -2day -1) than during the earlier period (March-April 1989). The total PAH and total particle fluxes exhibited a positive linear correlation during the entire sampling period ( r =0·87, N =31, P< 0·05) underscoring the strong affinity of PAHs for particles. Examination of the seasonal variability of fecal pellet content, associated parameters (total organic carbon, total carbon, nitrogen), and individual hydrocarbon content of particles by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were clustered in several subgroups in the PCA loading plots according to their origin. n -Alkanes were grouped in two clusters: (i) lower molecular weight ( n -C 16-19) and (ii) the higher molecular weight alkanes ( n -C 20-38) suggesting different pathways into the coastal zone (i.e. runoff vs atmospheric deposition). The distribution of lycopane, pristane and phytane indicated multiple origins. However, the closer location of the two isoprenoids, lycopane and pristane to fecal pellets, suggests a zooplanktonic origin but phytane to fossil fuel source. PAHs exhibited a variety of pyrolytic sources and only fluoranthene and pyrene were not grouped with the remaining PAHs suggesting multiple sources of pollution in these waters.

  4. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  5. Foaming of mixtures of pure hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. V.; Woods, W. W.

    1950-01-01

    Mixtures of pure liquid hydrocarbons are capable of foaming. Nine hydrocarbons were mixed in pairs, in all possible combinations, and four proportions of each combination. These mixtures were sealed in glass tubes, and the foaming was tested by shaking. Mixtures of aliphatic with other aliphatic hydrocarbons, or of alkyl benzenes with other alkyl benzenes, did not foam. Mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons with alkyl benzenes did foam. The proportions of the mixtures greatly affected the foaming, the maximum foaming of 12 of 20 pairs being at the composition 20 percent aliphatic hydrocarbon, 80 percent alkyl benzene. Six seconds was the maximum foam lifetime of any of these mixtures. Aeroshell 120 lubricating oil was fractionated into 52 fractions and a residue by extraction with acetone in a fractionating extractor. The index of refraction, foam lifetime, color, and viscosity of these fractions were measured. Low viscosity and high index fractions were extracted first. The viscosity of the fractions extracted rose and the index decreased as fractionation proceeded. Foam lifetimes and color were lowest in the middle fractions. Significance is attached to the observation that none of the foam lifetimes of the fractions or residue is as high as the foam lifetime of the original Aeroshell, indicating that the foaming is not due to a particular foaming constituent, but rather to the entire mixture.

  6. Identification and biotransformation of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge-Date Palm waste using Pyrolysis-GC/MS technique.

    PubMed

    El Fels, Loubna; Lemee, Laurent; Ambles, André; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    The behavior of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge activated with palm tree waste was studied for 6 months using Py-GC/MS. The main aliphatic compounds represented as doublet alkenes/alkanes can be classified into three groups. The first group consists of 11 alkenes (undecene, tridecene, pentadecene, hexadecene, heptadecene, octadecene, nonadecene, eicosene, uncosene, docosene, tricosene) and 15 alkanes (heptane, octane, nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, heptadecane, octadecane, nonadecane, eicosane, uncosane, docosane, and tricosane), which remain stable during the co-composting process. The stability of these compounds is related to their recalcitrance behavior. The second group consists of five alkenes (heptene, octene, nonene, decene, dodecene) and tridecane as a single alkane that decreases during co-composting. The decrease in these compounds is the combined result of their metabolism and their conversion into other compounds. The third group is constituted with tetradecene and hexadecane that increase during composting, which could be explained by accumulation of these compounds, which are released by the partial breakdown of the substrate. As a result, these molecules are incorporated or adsorbed in the structure of humic substances. PMID:27197656

  7. Compositional and stable carbon isotopic fractionation during non-autocatalytic thermochemical sulfate reduction by gaseous hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, Xinyu; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ma, Qisheng; Tang, Yongchun

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of autocatalysis during thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) by gaseous hydrocarbons was investigated by examination of previously reported laboratory and field data. This reaction was found to be a kinetically controlled non-autocatalytic process, and the apparent lack of autocatalysis is thought to be due to the absence of the required intermediate species. Kinetic parameters for chemical and carbon isotopic fractionations of gaseous hydrocarbons affected by TSR were calculated and found to be consistent with experimentally derived values for TSR involving long-chain hydrocarbons. Model predictions based on these kinetic values indicate that TSR by gaseous hydrocarbon requires high-temperature conditions. The oxidation of C2–5 hydrocarbons by sulfate reduction is accompanied by carbon isotopic fractionation with the residual C2–5 hydrocarbons becoming more enriched in 13C. Kinetic parameters were calculated for the stable carbon isotopic fractionation of gaseous hydrocarbons that have experienced TSR. Model predictions based on these kinetics indicate that it may be difficult to distinguish the effects of TSR from those of thermal maturation at lower levels of hydrocarbon oxidation; however, unusually heavy δ13C2+ values (>−10‰) can be diagnostic of high levels of conversion (>50%). Stoichiometric and stable carbon isotopic data show that methane is stable under the investigated reaction conditions and is likely a product of TSR by other gaseous hydrocarbons rather than a significant reactant. These results indicate that the overall TSR reaction mechanism for oxidation of organic substrates containing long-chain hydrocarbons involves three distinct phases as follows: (1) an initial slow and non-autocatalytic stage characterized by the reduction of reactive sulfate by long-chain saturated hydrocarbons; (2) a second autocatalytic reaction phase dominated by reactions involving reduced sulfur species and partially oxidized hydrocarbons; (3

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons and linear alkylbenzenes in the particulate phase from a subtropical estuary (Guaratuba Bay, SW Atlantic) under seasonal population fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Martins, César C

    2015-12-01

    Guaratuba Bay, a subtropical estuary located in the SW Atlantic, is under variable anthropogenic pressure throughout the year. Samples of surficial suspended particulate matter (SPM) were collected at 22 sites during three different periods to evaluate the temporal and spatial variability of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). These compounds were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The spatial distributions of both compound classes were similar and varied among the sampling campaigns. Generally, the highest concentrations were observed during the austral summer, highlighting the importance of the increased human influence during this season. The compound distributions were also affected by the natural geochemical processes of organic matter accumulation. AHs were associated with petroleum, derived from boat and vehicle traffic, and biogenic sources, related to mangrove forests and autochthonous production. The LAB composition evidenced preferential degradation processes during the austral summer.

  9. Assessment of the intrinsic bioremediation capacity of an eutrophic river sediment polluted by discharging chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons: a compound-specific isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas K; Hamonts, Kelly; Dijk, John A; Kalka, Harald; Stichler, Willibald; Springael, Dirk; Dejonghe, Winnie; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2009-07-15

    At a field site in the industrial area of Vilvoorde, Belgium, we investigated the capacity of the indigenous microbial community of a eutrophic river sediment to biodegrade chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) originating from discharging, polluted groundwater using a compound-specific isotope approach. We specifically targeted the site's major pollutants cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Analysis of Rayleigh correlation plots enabled us to assess the extent to which microbial and abiotic natural attenuation processes contributed to the mitigation of a pollution of the surface water due to discharging CAH-contaminated groundwater. Our results provide evidence for (i) the occurrence of biodegradation of cis-DCE and VC by reductive dechlorination in parts of the aquifer and at several positions in the river sediment (ii) the presence of river sediment zones exhibiting attenuation of chloroethenes by a combination of biodegradation and dilution through unpolluted water, (iii) the existence of zones in the river sediment lacking significant biodegradation, and thus (iv) a pronounced spatial heterogeneity in the occurrence and extent of biodegradation in the aquifer and river sediment. We conclude that at many investigated positions in the river sediment the indigenous microbial community failed to facilitate complete biodegradation of the groundwater-sourced chloroethenes. The overall intrinsic bioremediation capacity of the river sediment was thus not high enough to completely prevent the release of these pollutants into the surface water. These findings and conclusions are thus in agreement with those of our companion paper (1), which investigated the river sediments at the Vilvoorde study site by a combination of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of water and the detection of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) and their dechlorination products.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in Chukchi Sea biota and sediments and their toxicological response in the Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, H. Rodger; Taylor, Karen A.; Pie, Hannah V.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.

    2014-04-01

    As part of the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area-Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) project, we determined the distribution and concentrations of aliphatic n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments (0-1 cm) among 52 sites across the Chukchi Sea and in muscle tissues of the benthic Northern whelk, Neptunea heros, collected opportunistically. In addition, downcore profiles of contaminants were determined at three targeted sites to establish historic patterns. Baseline responses of PAH exposure and its potential toxicological effects were examined in the common Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida, through measures of cytochrome P4501A/ ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (CYP1A/EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver tissue. The total concentration of PAHs in surface sediments throughout the study area, including parent and alkyl-homologs, were very low (<1600 ng g-1 dry wt) except for a single station, where values were 2-20-fold greater than at other baseline sites (2956 ng g-1 dry wt). Alkyl-substituted PAHs were the dominant form in all surface (54-93%) and subsurface sediments (50-81% of the total), with a general decrease in total PAH concentrations observed downcore. In biota, larger Neptunea showed lower total concentrations of PAHs in foot muscles (4.5-10.7 ng g-1 wet wt) compared to smaller animals; yet aliphatic n-alkane (C19-C33) concentrations (0.655-5.20 μg g-1 wet wt) increased in larger organisms with distributions dominated by long-chain (C23-C33) hydrocarbons. In B. saida, CYP1A1, GST, and SOD enzyme levels were comparable to baseline levels previously reported in other pristine systems. Of the three assays, only SOD had a significant correlation between gene expression and enzyme activity.

  11. Approach to estimation of absorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from interior materials in an automobile cabin by inhalation toxicokinetic analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    The interior air of an automobile cabin has been demonstrated in our previous studies to be contaminated by high concentrations of a large variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from the interior materials. In the present study, the amounts of seven selected aliphatic hydrocarbons absorbed by the car driver were estimated by evaluating their inhalation toxicokinetics in rats. Measured amounts of the substances were injected into a closed chamber system in which a rat had been placed, and the concentration changes in the chamber were examined. The toxicokinetics of the substances were evaluated based on concentration-time courses using a nonlinear compartment model. Their absorption amounts in humans at the levels of actual concentrations in the cabins without ventilation were extrapolated from the results found with the rats. The absorption amounts estimated for a driver during a 2 h drive were as follows: 6 microg/60 kg of human body weight for methylcyclopentane (interior concentration 23 microg/m(3) as median value in previous study), 5 microg for 2-methylpentane (36 microg/m(3)), 13 microg for n-hexane (65 microg/m(3)), 51 microg for n-heptane (150 microg/m(3)), 26 microg for 2,4-dimethylheptane (97 microg/m(3)), 17 microg for n-nonane (25 microg/m(3)) and 49 microg for n-decane (68 microg/m(3)). An inverse relationship was found between the exposure and absorption among the substances (e.g. between n-decane and 2,4-dimethylheptane). These findings suggest that not only the exposure concentrations but also the absorption amounts should be taken into account to evaluate the health effects of exposure to low concentrations of volatile compounds as environmental contaminants. PMID:19743389

  12. Preferences in removal of aliphatic and aromatic gasoline components by biofiltration under varied loading.

    PubMed

    Halecky, Martin; Paca, Jan; Kozliak, Evguenii I

    2012-01-01

    Removal of gasoline vapors from waste air was investigated in a bench-scale perlite biofilter for three aromatic-to-aliphatic mass ratios (62/38, 92/8 and 44/56) under different loads, varied by changing both the substrate inlet concentration and air flow rate. The measurement of concentration profiles along the bed height allowed for an assessment of interactions between the aromatic and aliphatic fractions of gasoline. Variations in both the inlet concentrations and empty bed residence time significantly influenced the removal of aliphatic gasoline components. Except for the lowest organic loads, the whole biofilter bed was required for achieving an acceptable removal efficiency of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The presence of large amounts of aromatics negatively impacted the removal of aliphatics. By contrast, the aromatic gasoline components were near-completely removed from any mixtures; the bulk of them were degraded in the first (out of three) biofilter section, even at high concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The observed effect was shown to be due to competitive interactions of aliphatic and aromatic components, which is consistent with the biological steps being rate limiting. Mass transfer, particularly for aliphatic components due to their high Henry's law constants, was shown to be rate-limiting under extreme scenarios, such as low loading rates and EBRT.

  13. Degradation of recalcitrant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by a dioxin-degrader Rhodococcus sp. strain p52.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Yan; Jia, Rui-Bao; Chen, Bin; Li, Li

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the ability of Rhodococcus sp. strain p52, a dioxin degrader, to biodegrade petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain p52 can use linear alkanes (tetradecane, tetracosane, and dotriacontane), branched alkane (pristane), and aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene and phenanthrene) as sole carbon and energy sources. Specifically, the strain removes 85.7 % of tetradecane within 48 h at a degradation rate of 3.8 mg h(-1) g(-1) dry cells, and 79.4 % of tetracosane, 66.4 % of dotriacontane, and 63.9 % of pristane within 9-11 days at degradation rates of 20.5, 14.7, and 20.3 mg day(-1) g(-1) dry cells, respectively. Moreover, strain p52 consumes 100 % naphthalene and 55.3 % phenanthrene within 9-11 days at respective degradation rates of 16 and 12.9 mg day(-1) g(-1) dry cells. Metabolites of the petroleum hydrocarbons by strain p52 were analyzed. Genes encoding alkane-hydroxylating enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme (CYP185) and two alkane-1-monooxygenases, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The transcriptional activities of these genes in the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed potential of strain p52 to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:24859700

  14. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOEpatents

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  15. Oceanobacter-related bacteria are important for the degradation of petroleum aliphatic hydrocarbons in the tropical marine environment.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Maki; Suzuki, Masahito; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Hatmanti, Ariani; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2009-10-01

    Petroleum-hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were obtained after enrichment on crude oil (as a 'chocolate mousse') in a continuous supply of Indonesian seawater amended with nitrogen, phosphorus and iron nutrients. They were related to Alcanivorax and Marinobacter strains, which are ubiquitous petroleum-hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in marine environments, and to Oceanobacter kriegii (96.4-96.5 % similarities in almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences). The Oceanobacter-related bacteria showed high n-alkane-degrading activity, comparable to that of Alcanivorax borkumensis strain SK2. On the other hand, Alcanivorax strains exhibited high activity for branched-alkane degradation and thus could be key bacteria for branched-alkane biodegradation in tropical seas. Oceanobacter-related bacteria became most dominant in microcosms that simulated a crude oil spill event with Indonesian seawater. The dominance was observed in microcosms that were unamended or amended with fertilizer, suggesting that the Oceanobacter-related strains could become dominant in the natural tropical marine environment after an accidental oil spill, and would continue to dominate in the environment after biostimulation. These results suggest that Oceanobacter-related bacteria could be major degraders of petroleum n-alkanes spilt in the tropical sea. PMID:19541999

  16. Study of the branched hydrocarbon fraction of intramuscular lipids from Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Petrón, M J; Tejeda, J F; Muriel, E; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    2005-01-01

    Branched hydrocarbons from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction of intramuscular fat from Iberian dry-cured hams were analyzed. Thirty-four hams were distributed into four groups according to the feed system of the pigs (extensive system "Montanera" and intensive system "Pienso") and genotype (Iberian and Iberian×Duroc). A total of 35 different hydrocarbons were identified in this study. Some differences were found in the levels of branched, cyclical and unsaturated hydrocarbons as a function of the diet of the pigs (3-hexyl-1,1-dimethyl cyclopentane, p<0.05; 3-octadecene, p<0.01; neophytadiene, p<0.001; 1-ethylundecyl benzene, p<0.01; cyclohexadecane, p<0.001; cyclotriacontane, p<0.05). However, the genotype had a limited effect in the level of branched hydrocarbons found. The study of branched hydrocarbons in intramuscular fat from dry-cured Iberian ham allows differentiation between the pigs management systems.

  17. Zinc oxide/polypyrrole nanocomposite as a novel solid phase microextraction coating for extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from water and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Amanzadeh, Hatam; Yamini, Yadollah; Moradi, Morteza

    2015-07-16

    In this work, ZnO/PPy nanocomposite coating was fabricated on stainless steel and evaluated as a novel headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) fiber coating for extraction of ultra-trace amounts of environmental pollutants; namely, aliphatic hydrocarbons in water and soil samples. The ZnO/PPy nanocomposite were prepared by a two-step process including the electrochemical deposition of PPy on the surface of stainless steel in the first step, and the synthesis of ZnO nanorods by hydrothermal process in the pores of PPy matrix in the second step. Porous structure together with ZnO nanorods with the average diameter of 70 nm were observed on the surface by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effective parameters on HS-SPME of hydrocarbons (i.e., extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption temperature, desorption time, salt concentration, and stirring rate) were investigated and optimized by one-variable-at-a-time method. Under optimized conditions (extraction temperature, 65±1°C; extraction time, 15 min; desorption temperature, 250°C; desorption time, 3 min; salt concentration, 10% w/v; and stirring rate, 1200 rpm), the limits of detection (LODs) were found in the range of 0.08-0.5 μg L(-1), whereas the repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were in the range 5.4-7.6% and 8.6-10.4%, respectively. Also, the accuracies obtained for the spiked n-alkanes were in the range of 85-108%; indicating the absence of matrix effects in the proposed HS-SPME method. The results obtained in this work suggest that ZnO/PPy can be promising coating materials for future applications of SPME and related sample preparation techniques.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a Mycobacterium species capable of degrading three- and four-ring aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, S.A.; Harper, J.P.; Churchill, P.F.

    1999-02-01

    Mycobacterium sp. strain CH1 was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated freshwater sediments and identified by analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Strain CH1 was capable of mineralizing three- and four-ring PAHs including phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene. In addition, strain CH1 could utilize phenanthrene or pyrene as a sole carbon and energy source. A lag phase of at least 3 days was observed during pyrene mineralization. This lag phase decreased to less than 1 day when strain CH1 was grown in the presence of phenanthrene or fluoranthene. Strain CH1 also was capable of using a wide range of alkanes as sole carbon and energy sources. No DNA hybridization was detected with the nahAc gene probe, indicating that enzymes involved in PAH metabolism are not related to the well-characterized naphthalene dioxygenase gene. DNA hybridization was not detected when the alkB gene from Pseudomonas oleovorans was used under high-stringency conditions. However, there was slight but detectable hybridization under low-stringency conditions. This suggests a distant relationship between genes involved in alkane oxidation.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of a Mycobacterium Species Capable of Degrading Three- and Four-Ring Aromatic and Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Sharon A.; Harper, Jennifer P.; Churchill, Perry F.

    1999-01-01

    Mycobacterium sp. strain CH1 was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated freshwater sediments and identified by analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Strain CH1 was capable of mineralizing three- and four-ring PAHs including phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene. In addition, strain CH1 could utilize phenanthrene or pyrene as a sole carbon and energy source. A lag phase of at least 3 days was observed during pyrene mineralization. This lag phase decreased to less than 1 day when strain CH1 was grown in the presence of phenanthrene or fluoranthene. Strain CH1 also was capable of using a wide range of alkanes as sole carbon and energy sources. No DNA hybridization was detected with the nahAc gene probe, indicating that enzymes involved in PAH metabolism are not related to the well-characterized naphthalene dioxygenase gene. DNA hybridization was not detected when the alkB gene from Pseudomonas oleovorans was used under high-stringency conditions. However, there was slight but detectable hybridization under low-stringency conditions. This suggests a distant relationship between genes involved in alkane oxidation. PMID:9925581

  20. Composition of the Aliphatic Components of Suberin of the Endodermal Fraction from the First Internode of Etiolated Sorghum Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Espelie, Karl E.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The stems from etiolated seedlings of Sorghum bicolor were separated into epidermal and endodermal fractions by manually removing the stele from the cortex. The epidermal fraction was shown to contain a lipid polymer whose monomeric composition was characteristic of cutin with dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid as a major component (25%). The endodermal fraction contained a lipid polymer whose monomeric composition was characteristic of suberin: hexadecanoic acid 12%, octadecenol 6%, octadecenoic acid 23%, ω-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid 17%, hexadecanedioc acid 8%, ω-hydroxyoctadecenoic acid 8%, and octadecenedioic acid 12%. This endodermal polymer is thought to be the suberin component of the Casparian band. PMID:16660742

  1. Aliiglaciecola aliphaticivorans sp. nov., an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, isolated from a sea-tidal flat and emended description of the genus Aliiglaciecola Jean et al. 2013.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeong, Hye Im; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-05-01

    A Gram-stain-negative heterotrophic bacterium, designated GSD6(T), capable of growth on aliphatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from sea-tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea, South Korea. Cells were facultatively aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rods with a single polar flagellum. Growth of strain GSD6(T) was observed at 4-37 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum pH 6.5-7.5) and in the presence of 1-9% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2%). Strain GSD6(T) contained ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) as the sole isoprenoid quinone and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c, C17  : 0 10-methyl and C17 : 1ω8c as the major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were identified as the major polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GSD6(T) formed a phylogenetic lineage with members of the genus Aliiglaciecola . Strain GSD6(T) was most closely related to Aliiglaciecola lipolytica E3(T) with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.4%, but their DNA-DNA hybridization value was 39.1 ± 7.1%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, strain GSD6(T) represents a novel species of the genus Aliiglaciecola , for which the name Aliiglaciecola aliphaticivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GSD6(T) ( =KACC 18129(T) =JCM 30133(T)). An emended description of the genus Aliiglaciecola is also proposed. PMID:25713045

  2. Exploring petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater by double solid phase extraction coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Pindado Jiménez, Oscar; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Escolano Segovia, Olga; del Reino Querencia, Susana

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes an analytical procedure for measuring aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons fractions present in groundwater. In this method, hydrocarbons are solid phase extracted (SPE) twice from the groundwater and the resulting fractions are analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The first SPE disposes the hydrocarbons present in groundwater in organic solvents and the second SPE divides them into aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The validation study is carried out and its uncertainties are discussed. Identifying the main sources of uncertainty is evaluated through applying the bottom-up approach. Limits of detection for hydrocarbons ranges are below 5 µg L(-1), precision is not above of 30%, and acceptable recoveries are reached for aliphatic and aromatic fractions studied. The uncertainty due to volume of the sample, factor of calibration and recovery are the highest contributions. The expanded uncertainty range from 13% to 26% for the aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges and from 14% to 23% for the aromatic hydrocarbons ranges. As application, the proposed method is satisfactorily applied to a set of groundwater samples collected in a polluted area where there is evidence to present a high degree of hydrocarbons. The results have shown the range of aliphatic hydrocarbons >C21-C35 is the most abundant, with values ranging from 215 µg L(-1) to 354 µg L(-1), which it is associated to a contamination due to diesel.

  3. Background Mole Fractions of Hydrocarbons in North America Determined from NOAA Global Reference Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) maintains a global reference network for over 50 trace gas species and analyzes discrete air samples collected by this network throughout the world at the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. In particular, flask samples are analyzed for a number of hydrocarbons with policy and health relevance such as ozone precursors, greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutants. Because this global network's sites are remote and therefore minimally influenced by local anthropogenic emissions, these data yield information about background ambient mole fractions and can provide a context for observations collected in intensive field campaigns, such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, and the DISCOVER-AQ deployments. Information about background mole fractions during field campaigns is critical for calculating hydrocarbon enhancements in the region of study and for assessing the extent to which a particular region's local emissions sources contribute to these enhancements. Understanding the geographic variability of the background and its contribution to regional ambient mole fractions is also crucial for the development of realistic regulations. We present background hydrocarbon mole fractions and their ratios in North America using data from air samples collected in the planetary boundary layer at tall towers and aboard aircraft from 2008 to 2014. We discuss the spatial and seasonal variability in these data. We present trends over the time period of measurements and propose possible explanations for these trends.

  4. Study of the branched hydrocarbon fraction of intramuscular lipids from Iberian fresh ham.

    PubMed

    Tejeda, J F; Antequera, T; Martín, L; Ventanas, J; García, C

    2001-06-01

    Branched hydrocarbons from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction of the Biceps femoris muscle of Iberian pigs were analyzed. Fifty-five Iberian pigs were distributed to seven groups according to management system (short Montanera and long Montanera, i.e. fed on acorn and pasture for 55 and 75 days prior to slaughter, respectively, and Pienso, fed on a concentrate diet), and genetic type. A branched hydrocarbon, neophytadiene, was identified only in samples from the pigs fed on the extensive system, with higher levels being found in pigs from the long Montanera group, than in those from the short Montanera group; this compound was not found in the Pienso group. Genotype did not affect the level of branched hydrocarbons found.

  5. THE CARRIERS OF THE INTERSTELLAR UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES: AROMATIC OR ALIPHATIC?

    SciTech Connect

    Li Aigen; Draine, B. T. E-mail: draine@astro.princeton.edu

    2012-12-01

    The unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 {mu}m, commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, have been recently ascribed to coal- or kerogen-like organic nanoparticles with a mixed aromatic-aliphatic structure. However, we show in this Letter that this hypothesis is inconsistent with observations. We estimate the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers based on the observed intensities of the 3.4 {mu}m and 6.85 {mu}m emission features by attributing them exclusively to aliphatic C-H stretch and aliphatic C-H deformation vibrational modes, respectively. We derive the fraction of carbon atoms in aliphatic form to be <15%. We conclude that the UIE emitters are predominantly aromatic, with aliphatic material at most a minor part of the UIE carriers. The PAH model is consistent with astronomical observations and PAHs dominate the strong UIE bands.

  6. Distribution and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids in surface sediments of a tropical estuary south west coast of India (Cochin estuary).

    PubMed

    Gireeshkumar, T R; Deepulal, P M; Chandramohanakumar, N

    2015-03-01

    Surface sediments samples from the Cochin estuary were measured for elemental, stable isotopic and molecular biomarkers (aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids) to study the sources and distribution of sedimentary organic matter. Concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and stable isotopic ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) ranged from 0.62 to 2.74 %, 0.09 to 0.25 % and -27.5 to 21.7 ‰, respectively. Sedimentary n-alkanes ranged from 6.03 to 43.23 μg g(-1) with an average of 16.79 μg g(-1), while total fatty acids varied from 22.55 to 440.69 μg g(-1). The TOC/TN ratios and δ(13)C suggest a mixture of marine- and terrestrial-derived organic matter in the surface sediments with increasing contributions from marine-derived organic matter towards the seaward side. Long-chain n-alkanes derived from higher plants predominated the inner part of the estuary, while short-chain n-alkanes derived from planktonic sources predominated the bar mouth region. The even carbon preference of the C12-C22 n-alkanes may refer to the direct biogenic contribution from bacteria, fungi and yeast species and to the potential direct petroleum inputs. The presence of odd mid-chain n-alkanes in the sediments indicates the organic matter inputs from submerged and floating macrophytes (water hyacinth). Various molecular indices such as carbon preference index, terrestrial to aquatic ratio, average chain length and the ratios of mid-chain n-alkanes support the aforementioned inferences. The high contribution of odd and branched chain fatty acids along with very low contribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids, suggest the effective utilisation of algae-derived organic matter by bacteria and the effective recycling of labile organic matter in whole settling and deposition processes. The distributional variability of n-alkanes and fatty acids reveals the preferential utilisation of marine-derived organic matter and the selective preservation of terrestrial

  7. Microbial in situ degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer monitored by carbon isotope fractionation.

    PubMed

    Richnow, Hans H; Annweiler, Eva; Michaelis, Walter; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2003-08-01

    We present an approach for characterizing in situ microbial degradation using the 13C/12C isotope fractionation of contaminants as an indicator of biodegradation. The 13C/12C isotope fractionation of aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in anoxic laboratory soil percolation columns with toluene or o-xylene as the sole carbon and electron source, and sulfate as electron acceptor. After approximately 2 months' of incubation, the soil microbial community degraded 32 mg toluene l(-1) and 44 mg o-xylene l(-1) to less than 0.05 mg l(-1), generating a stable concentration gradient in the column. The 13C/12C isotope ratio in the residual non-degraded fraction of toluene and o-xylene increased significantly, corresponding to isotope fractionation factors (alphaC) of 1.0015 and 1.0011, respectively. When the extent of biodegradation in the soil column was calculated based on the measured isotope ratios (R(t)) and an isotope fractionation factor (alphaC=1.0017) obtained from a sulfate-reducing batch culture the theoretical residual substrate concentrations (C(t)) matched the measured toluene concentrations in the column. This indicated that a calculation of biodegradation based on isotope fractionation could work in systems like soil columns. In a field study, a polluted, anoxic aquifer was analyzed for BTEX and PAH contaminants. These compounds were found to exhibit a significant concentration gradient along an 800-m groundwater flow path downstream of the source of contamination. A distinct increase in the carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) was observed for the residual non-degraded toluene (7.2 per thousand ), o-xylene (8.1 per thousand ) and naphthalene fractions (1.2 per thousand ). Based on the isotope values and the laboratory-derived isotope fractionation factors for toluene and o-xylene, the extent to which the residual substrate fraction in the monitoring wells had been degraded by microorganisms was calculated. The results revealed significant biodegradation along the

  8. Isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Epstein, S.; Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra; Yuen, George U.

    1992-01-01

    The monocarboxylic acids and hydrocarbons of the Murchison meteorite (CM2) were isolated for isotropic analysis. The nonvolatile hydrocarbons were analyzed as crude methanol and benzene-methanol extracts and also after separation by silica gel chromatography into predominantly aliphatic, aromatic, and polar hydrocarbon fractions. The volatile hydrocarbons were obtained after progressive decomposition of the meteorite matrix by freeze-thaw, hot water, and acid treatment. Molecular analyses of the aromatic hydrocarbons showed them to comprise a complex suite of compounds in which pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene were the most abundant components, a result similar to earlier analyses. The polar hydrocarbons also comprise a very complex mixture in which aromatic ketones, nitrogen, and sulfur heterocycles were identified. The monocarboxylic acids, aliphatic, aromatic, and polar hydrocarbons, and the indigenous volatile hydrocarbons were found to be D-rich. The deuterium enrichment observed in these compounds is suggestive. In two separate analyses, the delta-D values of the nonvolatile hydrocarbons were observed to increase in the following order: aliphatic-aromatic-polar. This finding is consistent with an early solar system or parent body conversion of aromatic to aliphatic compounds as well as the suggestion of pyrolytic formation of aromatic from aliphatic compounds.

  9. Pyrostegia venusta heptane extract containing saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis on B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Carlos R.; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Pereira, Felipe V.; Rabaça, Aline N.; Farias, Camyla F.; Girola, Nátalia; Massaoka, Mariana H.; Azevedo, Ricardo A.; Scutti, Jorge A.B.; Arruda, Denise C.; Silva, Luciana P.; Rodrigues, Elaine G.; Lago, João Henrique G.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Silva, Regildo M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pyrostegia venusta (Ker. Gawl.) Miers (Bignoniacea) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Cerrado used to treat leucoderma and common diseases of the respiratory system. Objective: To investigate the antitumor activity of P.venusta extracts against melanoma. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity and tumor induced cell death of heptane extract (HE) from P. venusta flowers was evaluated against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and in a syngeneic model in vivo. Results: We found that HE induced apoptosis in melanoma cells by disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of reactive oxygen species and late apoptosis evidenced by plasma membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface and activation of caspase-2,-3,-8,-9. HE was also protective against singeneyc subcutaneous melanoma HE compounds were also able to induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phases on tumor cells. On fractionation of HE in silica gel we isolated a cytotoxic fraction that contained a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons identified by 1H NMR and GC-MS analyses. Predominant species were octacosane (C28H58-36%) and triacontane (C30H62-13%), which individually showed significant cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and a very promising antitumor protection against subcutaneous melanoma in vivo. Conclusion: The results suggest that the components of the heptane extract, mainly octasane and triacontane, which showed antitumor properties in experimental melanoma upon regional administration, might also be therapeutic in human cancer, such as in the mostly epidermal and slowly invasive melanomas, such as acral lentiginous melanoma, as an adjuvant treatment to surgical excision. PMID:24991116

  10. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  11. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kate A; Yunker, Mark B; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S

    2011-10-01

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills.

  12. Occurrence of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mytillus galloprovincialis from the traditional market in Marseille, France, by Gas Chromatography triplequadropole tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-QQQ/MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azis, M. Y.; Yelmiza; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Bucharil, B.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Mediterranean mussel, Mytillusgalloprovincialis collected from the traditional market in Marseille, France,have been analysed using GC-QQQ/MS for their hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) extentwith two different solvent extraction, such as heptane:dichloromethane (HEP:DCM;1:1) and heptane:acetone (HEP:ACE; 1:1). The results showed hydrocarbons yielded from heptane:acetone extractionwere 28335 μg.kg- 1mussels dw (Ʃ n-alkanes C15-34) and 202 μg.kg-1mussels dw(ƩPAHs) while the yield from heptane:DCM extract was lower ca. 27026 μg.kg-1musselsdw and 133 μg.kg-1 mussels dw respectively from the Ʃn-alkanesC15-34and ƩPAHs. High hydrocarbon levels can be affected by the presence of lipids or other metabolites in mussels that have the same polarity with hydrocarbon compounds which has interferred the measurement. Several ratio parameter of n- alcanes and PAHs source in the mussels were evaluated to asses the origins of their hydrocarbons in mussels from which we suggested origins of hydrocarbons were pyrolytic and biogenic rather than petrogenic.

  13. Equilibrium 2H/1H fractionation in organic molecules: III. Cyclic ketones and hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Sessions, Alex L.; Nielsen, Robert J.; Goddard, William A.

    2013-04-01

    estimated to be -75‰ to -95‰ for steroids, -90‰ to -105‰ for hopanoids, and -65‰ to -100‰ for typical cycloparaffins between 0 and 100 °C relative to water. These are distinct from the typical biosynthetic fractionations of -150‰ to -300‰, but are similar to equilibrium fractionations for linear hydrocarbons (Wang et al., 2009b). Thus post-burial H exchange will generally remove the ˜50-100‰ biosynthetic fractionations between cyclic isoprenoid and n-alkyl lipid molecules, which can be used to evaluate the extent of H exchange in sedimentary organic matter and oils.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  15. On the aliphatic versus aromatic content of the carriers of the `unidentified' infrared emission features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. J.; Glaser, R.; Li, Aigen; Zhong, J. X.

    2016-10-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm are characteristic of the stretching and bending vibrations of aromatic hydrocarbon materials, the exact nature of their carriers remains unknown: whether they are free-flying, predominantly aromatic gas-phase molecules, or amorphous solids with a mixed aromatic/aliphatic composition are being debated. Recently, the 3.3 and 3.4 μm features which are commonly respectively attributed to aromatic and aliphatic C-H stretches have been used to place an upper limit of ˜2 per cent on the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers (i.e. the number of C atoms in aliphatic chains to that in aromatic rings). Here we further explore the aliphatic versus aromatic content of the UIE carriers by examining the ratio of the observed intensity of the 6.2 μm aromatic C-C feature (I6.2) to that of the 6.85 μm aliphatic C-H deformation feature (I6.85). To derive the intrinsic oscillator strengths of the 6.2 μm stretch (A6.2) and the 6.85 μm deformation (A6.85), we employ density functional theory to compute the vibrational spectra of seven methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and their cations. By comparing I6.85/I6.2 with A6.85/A6.2, we derive the fraction of C atoms in methyl(ene) aliphatic form to be at most ˜10 per cent, confirming the earlier finding that the UIE emitters are predominantly aromatic. We have also computed the intrinsic strength of the 7.25 μm feature (A7.25), another aliphatic C-H deformation band. We find that A6.85 appreciably exceeds A7.25. This explains why the 6.85 μm feature is more frequently detected in space than the 7.25 μm feature.

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Petroleum Solvent Groups a 4 Table 4 to Subpart PPPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... Hydrocarbon, Aliphatic Naphtha, Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha,...

  17. Hydrocarbons preserved in a ~2.7 Ga outcrop sample from the Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Y; Flannery, D T; Walter, M R; George, S C

    2015-03-01

    The hydrocarbons preserved in an Archean rock were extracted, and their composition and distribution in consecutive slices from the outside to the inside of the rock were examined. The 2.7 Ga rock was collected from the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and bitumen II (solvent-extracted hydrochloric acid-treated rock) fractions have different hydrocarbon compositions. Bitumen I contains only trace amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and virtually no aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, bitumen II contains abundant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference seems to reflect the weathering history and preservational environment of the investigated rock. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I are considered to be mainly from later hydrocarbon inputs, after initial deposition and burial, and are therefore not indigenous. The lack of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I suggests a severe weathering environment since uplift and exposure of the rock at the Earth's surface in the Cenozoic. On the other hand, the high abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen II suggests that bitumen II hydrocarbons have been physically isolated from removal by their encapsulation within carbonate minerals. The richness of aromatic hydrocarbons and the relative scarcity of aliphatic hydrocarbons may reflect the original compositions of organic materials biosynthesised in ancient organisms in the Archean era, or the high thermal maturity of the rock. Cyanobacterial biomarkers were observed in the surficial slices of the rock, which may indicate that endolithic cyanobacteria inhabited the surface outcrop. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons implies a high thermal maturity, which is consistent with the lack of any specific biomarkers, such as hopanes and steranes, and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphic grade.

  18. Hydrocarbons preserved in a ~2.7 Ga outcrop sample from the Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Y; Flannery, D T; Walter, M R; George, S C

    2015-03-01

    The hydrocarbons preserved in an Archean rock were extracted, and their composition and distribution in consecutive slices from the outside to the inside of the rock were examined. The 2.7 Ga rock was collected from the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and bitumen II (solvent-extracted hydrochloric acid-treated rock) fractions have different hydrocarbon compositions. Bitumen I contains only trace amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and virtually no aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, bitumen II contains abundant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference seems to reflect the weathering history and preservational environment of the investigated rock. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I are considered to be mainly from later hydrocarbon inputs, after initial deposition and burial, and are therefore not indigenous. The lack of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I suggests a severe weathering environment since uplift and exposure of the rock at the Earth's surface in the Cenozoic. On the other hand, the high abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen II suggests that bitumen II hydrocarbons have been physically isolated from removal by their encapsulation within carbonate minerals. The richness of aromatic hydrocarbons and the relative scarcity of aliphatic hydrocarbons may reflect the original compositions of organic materials biosynthesised in ancient organisms in the Archean era, or the high thermal maturity of the rock. Cyanobacterial biomarkers were observed in the surficial slices of the rock, which may indicate that endolithic cyanobacteria inhabited the surface outcrop. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons implies a high thermal maturity, which is consistent with the lack of any specific biomarkers, such as hopanes and steranes, and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphic grade. PMID:25393450

  19. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements as indicators of contamination status near oil and gas platforms in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenço, Rafael A.; Araujo Júnior, Marcus A. G.; Meireles Júnior, Ruy O.; Macena, Leandro F.; de A. Lima, Eleine Francioni; Carneiro, Maria Eulalia R.

    2013-12-01

    Oil and gas platforms from Sergipe-Alagoas Basin located in the northeastern region of Brazil do not discharge produced water. However, those platforms can be a potential source of contaminants to the marine environment due to their producing activities. In this study, sediment samples were collected in the vicinity of two offshore oil and gas platforms located in Sergipe-Alagoas Basin (PCM-9 and PGA-1) to evaluate the source and levels of hydrocarbons and trace elements (As, Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Ba, V, Cr and Hg). Also, the potential impact of those platforms on the sediment quality was investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons diagnostic ratios observed in the sediment samples indicated hydrocarbons from pyrogenic source, specifically from biomass combustion. Trace elements As, Cd and Ba recorded concentrations higher than Threshold Effect Levels (TEL) in the sediment nearby the platforms. Also, there was evidence of some samples enriched by barium. Although As, Cd and Ba concentrations were higher than TEL, they most likely corresponded to background levels. The obtained results indicated that activities of the PCM-9 and PGA-1 platforms may not be affecting the quality of nearby sediment.

  20. Nitrogen incorporation in saturated aliphatic C6-C8 hydrocarbons and ethanol in low-pressure nitrogen plasma generated by a hollow cathode discharge ion source.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek T; Chen, Lee Chuin; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi; Yamabe, Shinichi

    2016-06-01

    Ion/molecule reactions of saturated hydrocarbons (n-hexane, cyclohexane, n-heptane, n-octane and isooctane) in 28-Torr N2 plasma generated by a hollow cathode discharge ion source were investigated using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. It was found that the ions with [M+14](+) were observed as the major ions (M: sample molecule). The exact mass analysis revealed that the ions are nitrogenated molecules, [M+N](+) formed by the reactions of N3 (+) with M. The reaction, N3 (+) + M → [M+N](+) + N2 , were examined by the density functional theory calculations. It was found that N3 (+) abstracts the H atom from hydrocarbon molecules leading to the formation of protonated imines in the forms of R'R″CNH2 (+) (i.e. C-H bond nitrogenation). This result is in accord with the fact that elimination of NH3 is the major channel for MS/MS of [M+N](+) . That is, nitrogen is incorporated in the C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons. No nitrogenation was observed for benzene and acetone, which was ascribed to the formation of stable charge-transfer complexes benzene⋅⋅⋅⋅N3 (+) and acetone⋅⋅⋅⋅N3 (+) revealed by density functional theory calculations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27270868

  1. Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots of plants growing in a soil highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belong to phylum Glomeromycota, an early divergent fungal lineage forming symbiosis with plant roots. Many reports have documented that bacteria are intimately associated with AMF mycelia in the soil. However, the role of these bacteria remains unclear and their diversity within intraradical AMF structures has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the bacterial communities associated within intraradical propagules (vesicles and intraradical spores) harvested from roots of plant growing in the sediments of an extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted basin. Solidago rugosa roots were sampled, surface-sterilized, and microdissected. Eleven propagules were randomly collected and individually subjected to whole-genome amplification, followed by PCRs, cloning, and sequencing targeting fungal and bacterial rDNA. Ribotyping of the 11 propagules showed that at least five different AMF OTUs could be present in S. rugosa roots, while 16S rRNA ribotyping of six of the 11 different propagules showed a surprisingly high bacterial richness associated with the AMF within plant roots. Most dominant bacterial OTUs belonged to Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Massilia sp., and Methylobacterium sp. This study provides the first evidence of the bacterial diversity associated with AMF propagules within the roots of plants growing in extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted conditions.

  2. Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots of plants growing in a soil highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belong to phylum Glomeromycota, an early divergent fungal lineage forming symbiosis with plant roots. Many reports have documented that bacteria are intimately associated with AMF mycelia in the soil. However, the role of these bacteria remains unclear and their diversity within intraradical AMF structures has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the bacterial communities associated within intraradical propagules (vesicles and intraradical spores) harvested from roots of plant growing in the sediments of an extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted basin. Solidago rugosa roots were sampled, surface-sterilized, and microdissected. Eleven propagules were randomly collected and individually subjected to whole-genome amplification, followed by PCRs, cloning, and sequencing targeting fungal and bacterial rDNA. Ribotyping of the 11 propagules showed that at least five different AMF OTUs could be present in S. rugosa roots, while 16S rRNA ribotyping of six of the 11 different propagules showed a surprisingly high bacterial richness associated with the AMF within plant roots. Most dominant bacterial OTUs belonged to Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Massilia sp., and Methylobacterium sp. This study provides the first evidence of the bacterial diversity associated with AMF propagules within the roots of plants growing in extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted conditions. PMID:25039790

  3. Distributions and sources of persistent organic pollutants (aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, PCBs and pesticides) in surface sediments of an industrialized urban river (Huveaune), France.

    PubMed

    Kanzari, F; Syakti, A D; Asia, L; Malleret, L; Piram, A; Mille, G; Doumenq, P

    2014-04-15

    Surface sediments from the Huveaune River were analyzed for n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides (OCs and OPs) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Concentrations of total alkanes ranged from 184 to 26,780 μg·kg(-1) sediment dry weight (dw) with a mean concentration of 6,126 ± 8,006 μg·kg(-1)dw, concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 572 to 4,235 μg·kg(-1)dw with a mean concentration of 1966 ± 1,104 μg·kg(-1) dw, concentrations of total PCB ranged from 2.8 to 435 μg·kg(-1)dw with a mean concentration of 148 ± 164 μg·kg(-1)dw and concentrations of total pesticides ranged from 0.07 to 1.25 μg·kg(-1)dw with a mean concentration of 1.23 ± 1.29 μg·kg(-1)dw. The spatial distribution of POPs reveals that pollutant concentration is relatively higher at the mouth of the river. The molecular indices of specific n-alkanes (CPI, NAR and TAR) and molecular indices of PAHs (Ant/(Ant+Phe), Fl/(Fl+Pyr), BaA/(BaA+Chry), IPyr/(Ipyr+BghiP)) were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of hydrocarbons. These molecular indices suggest mainly pyrolytic inputs which are markedly biogenic. All contaminant levels were also compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (SQG) showing that the contamination levels in all stations were most of the time lower than their respective SQG. While, for PCBs, five stations (H5, H6, H7, H8 and H9) were higher than their effect range median (ERM) values which may indicate high potential toxicity of the sediment with probable adverse effects to the living biota.

  4. Hydrocarbon biological markers in Carboniferous coals of different maturities from the Ruhr area (northwest Germany)

    SciTech Connect

    ten Haven, H.L.; Littke, R.; Rullkoetter, J. , Juelich )

    1989-03-01

    A great variety of biological markers has been found in Carboniferous coal samples. Changes in the paleo-depositional environment are reflected by the distribution of bacterial derived hydrocarbons. These biological markers contribute to a significant extent to the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction of low-maturity coal samples; their absolute contribution to total organic matter has yet not been estimated. Biological markers for gymnosperm were observed, which is in accordance with the phylogenetic evolution of the plant kingdom during the Carboniferous.

  5. Carbon and chlorine isotopologue fractionation of chlorinated hydrocarbons during diffusion in water and low permeability sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, Philipp; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    To identify reactive processes in diffusion dominated water-saturated systems using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), the effect of the diffusive transport process on isotope ratios needs to be known. This study aims to quantify the magnitude of carbon and chlorine isotopologue fractionation of two chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA)) during diffusion in the aqueous phase and to relate for the first time laboratory with field results. Diffusion coefficient ratios in the aqueous phase were experimentally quantified with a modified Stokes diffusion cell. The experiment revealed a significant shift of carbon and chlorine isotopologue ratios of TCE and 1,2-DCA during diffusion. For both TCE and 1,2-DCA, the magnitude of the shift of chlorine isotopologue ratios was larger (TCE: D132/D130 = 0.99963 ± 0.00003; 1,2-DCA: D102/D100 = 0.99939 ± 0.00003) in comparison to carbon isotopologue ratios (TCE: D131/D130 = 0.99978 ± 0.00006; 1,2-DCA: D101/D100 = 0.99977 ± 0.00004), which is consistent with the larger mass difference between stable chlorine compared to carbon isotopes. Determined diffusion coefficients for carbon and chlorine isotopologues of TCE and 1,2-DCA follow an inverse power law form (D ∝m-β) with β < 0.5 revealing that the magnitude of isotopologue fractionation of TCE and 1,2-DCA is lower than in the previously postulated kinetic theory (D ∝m-0.5). To relate laboratory with field results, a water-saturated clay core from a VOC contaminated site was retrieved and subsampled as a function of depth to assess possible shifts in isotopologue ratios during downward diffusion of VOCs into the low permeable clay. Observed small shifts of TCE carbon and chlorine isotopologue ratio profiles were consistent with laboratory determined diffusion coefficient ratios, demonstrated by a 1D-diffusion model. Further 1D-simulations for shorter diffusion periods (5-10 years) than observed in the retrieved clay core

  6. Investigation of the toxicokinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    The Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils regulate petroleum hydrocarbons based on four distillate ranges: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (>C10-C16), F3 (>C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). Previous toxicity tests with earthworms and F2, as well as two subfractions of F3, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3a (>C23-C34), indicate that test durations might not be sufficiently long to reach threshold effect concentrations, likely because of the differing toxicokinetics for each distillate. A study was conducted to determine the toxicokinetics of both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of F2, F3a, and F3b with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Peak accumulation curves were observed for F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics, likely as a result of changes in exposure concentration over the test duration via loss or a decrease in the bioavailable fraction. Biota-soil accumulation factors were >1 for total F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics as well as for several individual polyaromatic hydrocarbons for each distillate. Aromatics were disproportionately accumulated over aliphatics and were the main contributors to toxicity; therefore, aromatics and aliphatics should be regulated separately. The toxicokinetics were used to interpret previous toxicity data. Higher molecular weight distillates need longer-than-standard test durations to determine toxicity, so toxicity test results from fixed, standard-duration tests are not strictly comparable for these petroleum distillates.

  7. BjuB.CYP79F1 Regulates Synthesis of Propyl Fraction of Aliphatic Glucosinolates in Oilseed Mustard Brassica juncea: Functional Validation through Genetic and Transgenic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Gupta, Vibha; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K

    2016-01-01

    Among the different types of methionine-derived aliphatic glucosinolates (GS), sinigrin (2-propenyl), the final product in 3C GS biosynthetic pathway is considered very important as it has many pharmacological and therapeutic properties. In Brassica species, the candidate gene regulating synthesis of 3C GS remains ambiguous. Earlier reports of GSL-PRO, an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g18500 as a probable candidate gene responsible for 3C GS biosynthesis in B. napus and B. oleracea could not be validated in B. juncea through genetic analysis. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of the gene CYP79F1, an ortholog of A. thaliana gene At1g16410 that is involved in the first step of core GS biosynthesis. The gene CYP79F1 in B. juncea showed presence-absence polymorphism between lines Varuna that synthesizes sinigrin and Heera virtually free from sinigrin. Using this presence-absence polymorphism, CYP79F1 was mapped to the previously mapped 3C GS QTL region (J16Gsl4) in the LG B4 of B. juncea. In Heera, the gene was observed to be truncated due to an insertion of a ~4.7 kb TE like element leading to the loss of function of the gene. Functional validation of the gene was carried out through both genetic and transgenic approaches. An F2 population segregating only for the gene CYP79F1 and the sinigrin phenotype showed perfect co-segregation. Finally, genetic transformation of a B. juncea line (QTL-NIL J16Gsl4) having high seed GS but lacking sinigrin with the wild type CYP79F1 showed the synthesis of sinigrin validating the role of CYP79F1 in regulating the synthesis of 3C GS in B. juncea. PMID:26919200

  8. BjuB.CYP79F1 Regulates Synthesis of Propyl Fraction of Aliphatic Glucosinolates in Oilseed Mustard Brassica juncea: Functional Validation through Genetic and Transgenic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Gupta, Vibha; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K.

    2016-01-01

    Among the different types of methionine-derived aliphatic glucosinolates (GS), sinigrin (2-propenyl), the final product in 3C GS biosynthetic pathway is considered very important as it has many pharmacological and therapeutic properties. In Brassica species, the candidate gene regulating synthesis of 3C GS remains ambiguous. Earlier reports of GSL-PRO, an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g18500 as a probable candidate gene responsible for 3C GS biosynthesis in B. napus and B. oleracea could not be validated in B. juncea through genetic analysis. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of the gene CYP79F1, an ortholog of A. thaliana gene At1g16410 that is involved in the first step of core GS biosynthesis. The gene CYP79F1 in B. juncea showed presence-absence polymorphism between lines Varuna that synthesizes sinigrin and Heera virtually free from sinigrin. Using this presence-absence polymorphism, CYP79F1 was mapped to the previously mapped 3C GS QTL region (J16Gsl4) in the LG B4 of B. juncea. In Heera, the gene was observed to be truncated due to an insertion of a ~4.7 kb TE like element leading to the loss of function of the gene. Functional validation of the gene was carried out through both genetic and transgenic approaches. An F2 population segregating only for the gene CYP79F1 and the sinigrin phenotype showed perfect co-segregation. Finally, genetic transformation of a B. juncea line (QTL-NIL J16Gsl4) having high seed GS but lacking sinigrin with the wild type CYP79F1 showed the synthesis of sinigrin validating the role of CYP79F1 in regulating the synthesis of 3C GS in B. juncea. PMID:26919200

  9. Sources of polycyclic hydrocarbons and pesticides in soluble fraction of deposition samples in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Binici, Burcu; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil; Bilsel, Mine; Durmaz-Hilmioğlu, Nilüfer

    2014-02-01

    A wet-dry deposition sampler was located at The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey-National Metrology Institute (TUBITAK-UME) station, and a bulk deposition sampler was placed at the Kadıllı village to determine the atmospheric deposition flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides (organochlorine and organophosphorus) in soluble fraction of samples in Kocaeli, Turkey. The 28 samples for each wet, dry, and total deposition were collected weekly from March 2006 to March 2007. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the samples which were prepared by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. The sum of volume weighted mean of deposition fluxes was obtained as 7.43 μg m(-2) day(-1) for wet deposition, 0.28 μg m(-2) day(-1) for dry deposition and 0.54 μg m(-2) day(-1) for bulk deposition samples for PAHs and 9.88 μg m(-2) day(-1) for wet deposition, 4.49 μg m(-2) day(-1) for dry deposition, and 3.29 μg m(-2) day(-1) for bulk deposition samples for pesticides. While benzo(a)anthracene had the highest fluxes among PAH compounds for all types of depositions, guthion and phosphamidon had the highest deposition flux compared with the other pesticides. Benzo(ghi)perylene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, and acenaphthene were not detected in any of the samples. Beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endrin aldehyde were the only compounds among 18 organochlorine pesticides to be detected in all deposition samples. The main sources of pesticides were the high number of greenhouses around the sampling stations. However, all of the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all deposition samples. The pollution sources were identified as coal and natural gas combustion, petrogenic sources, and traffic for TUBITAK-UME station whereas coal and natural gas combustion and traffic were the main sources for Kadıllı station by considering the results of factor analysis, ratios, and wind

  10. Toxicity of binary mixtures of oil fractions to sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Vázquez, José A; Menduiña, Araceli; García, Ana M; González, M Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Murado, Miguel A

    2013-12-15

    The assumption of additive toxicity for oil compounds is related to a narcotic mode of action. However, the joint toxicity of oil fractions has not been fully investigated. A fractionation of Maya crude oil into aliphatics, aromatics and polars was performed, fractions were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subsequently toxicity of single fractions and binary mixtures was assessed using the sea urchin embryo test. The descriptive ability of Concentration Addition (CA), Independent Action (IA) and modifications of both models for describing the joint toxicity of mixtures has also been evaluated. The hydrocarbon content extractable with dichloromethane of the fractions dissolved in DMSO was: 12.0 ± 1.8 mg mL(-1), 39.0 ± 0.5 mg mL(-1) and 20.5 ± 2.5 mg mL(-1) for aliphatics, aromatics and polars, respectively. The toxicity of the extracts in DMSO of the fractions as EC50 (μLL(-1)) was: aliphatics (165.8-242.3)aliphatics-aromatics, aromatics-polars) greater than the IA (aliphatics-polars) according to the Akaike Information Criterion, so CA was considered a better option than IA to explain the joint toxicity of oil fractions. In addition, synergistic or antagonistic effects were not observed.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a bioassay-fractionated extract of PM 10 collected in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martinis, Bruno S.; Okamoto, Robert A.; Kado, Norman Y.; Gundel, Lara A.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in airborne particles (PM 10) collected in an urban site of São Paulo City, Brazil. Samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially with dichloromethane and acetone, followed by solid phase fractionation. Increasing polar fractions (A-K) of dichloromethane and acetone extracts were obtained. Fractionated extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Salmonella microsuspension bioassay. Sixteen PAH compounds were quantified in dichloromethane B and C fractions, nevertheless the D and E fractions presented higher mutagenic activities. Concentrations of the individual PAHs ranged from 0.8 ng m -3 (perylene) to 12.8 ng m -3 (benzofluranthene), reaching a total concentration of 95.5 ng m -3. BaP/BgP and Pyr/BaP ratios indicated the presence of vehicular emissions and BghiP/Ind and Chr/BeP ratios suggested a contribution of wood combustion emissions. Further investigation is still necessary for a better understanding of the PAH sources in the urban atmosphere of São Paulo City.

  12. In situ biodegradation determined by carbon isotope fractionation of aromatic hydrocarbons in an anaerobic landfill leachate plume (Vejen, Denmark).

    PubMed

    Richnow, Hans H; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Reitzel, Lotte Ask; Baun, Anders; Ledin, Anna; Christensen, Thomas H

    2003-06-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions (13C/12C) of aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in eight samples obtained from the strongly anoxic part of the leachate plume downgradient from the Vejen Landfill (Denmark), where methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and iron-reducing conditions were observed. Despite the heterogeneous distribution of the compounds in the plume, the isotope fractionation proved that ethylbenzene and m/p-xylene were subject to significant biodegradation within the strongly anoxic plume. The isotope fractionation factors (alphaC) for the degradation of the m/p-xylene (1.0015) and ethylbenzene (1.0021) obtained from the field observations were similar to factors previously determined for the anaerobic degradation of toluene and o-xylene in laboratory experiments, and suggest that in situ biodegradation is one major process controlling the fate of these contaminants in this aquifer. The isotope fractionation determined for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 2-ethyltoluene suggested in situ biodegradation; however, the isotopic composition did not correlate well with the respective concentration as expressed by the Rayleigh equation. Some other compounds (1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, o-xylene, naphthalene and fenchone) did not show significant enrichments in delta13C values along the flow path. The compound concentrations were too low for accurate isotope analyses of benzene, toluene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, while interferences in the chromatography made it impossible to evaluate the isotopic composition for 4-ethyltoluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and camphor. In addition to demonstrating the potential of assessing isotopic fractionation as a means for documenting the in situ biodegradation of complex mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons in leachate plumes, this study also illustrates the difficulties for data interpretation in complex plumes and high analytical uncertainties for isotope analysis of organic compounds in low concentration ranges.

  13. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:26053848

  14. A simple methodological validation of the gas/particle fractionation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air requires the tedious experimental steps of both sampling and pretreatment (e.g., extraction or clean-up). To replace pre-existing conventional methods, a simple, rapid, and novel technique was developed to measure gas-particle fractionation of PAH in ambient air based on ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ST-TD-GC-MS)’. The separate collection and analysis of ambient PAHs were achieved independently by two serially connected STs. The basic quality assurance confirmed good linearity, precision, and high sensitivity to eliminate the need for complicated pretreatment procedures with the detection limit (16 PAHs: 13.1 ± 7.04 pg). The analysis of real ambient PAH samples showed a clear fractionation between gas (two-three ringed PAHs) and particulate phases (five-six ringed PAHs). In contrast, for intermediate (four ringed) PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene), a highly systematic/gradual fractionation was established. It thus suggests a promising role of ST-TD-GC-MS as measurement system in acquiring a reliable database of airborne PAH.

  15. A simple methodological validation of the gas/particle fractionation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air requires the tedious experimental steps of both sampling and pretreatment (e.g., extraction or clean-up). To replace pre-existing conventional methods, a simple, rapid, and novel technique was developed to measure gas-particle fractionation of PAH in ambient air based on ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ST-TD-GC-MS)’. The separate collection and analysis of ambient PAHs were achieved independently by two serially connected STs. The basic quality assurance confirmed good linearity, precision, and high sensitivity to eliminate the need for complicated pretreatment procedures with the detection limit (16 PAHs: 13.1 ± 7.04 pg). The analysis of real ambient PAH samples showed a clear fractionation between gas (two-three ringed PAHs) and particulate phases (five-six ringed PAHs). In contrast, for intermediate (four ringed) PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene), a highly systematic/gradual fractionation was established. It thus suggests a promising role of ST-TD-GC-MS as measurement system in acquiring a reliable database of airborne PAH. PMID:26126962

  16. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR HYDROCARBON GRAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Adamson, A. J. E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca@1.nasa.gov E-mail: aadamson@gemini.edu

    2013-06-10

    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 {mu}m) and aliphatic (3.4 {mu}m) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp {sup 2} bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 {mu}m CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 {mu}m aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp {sup 3} bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp {sup 3} content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  17. Composition and sources of aliphatic lipids and sterols in sediments of a tropical island, southern South China Sea: preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Mohd Tahir, N; Pang, S Y; Abdullah, N A; Suratman, S

    2013-12-01

    Near-shore surface sediment was collected from five stations off Redang Island located on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Freeze-dried sediments were Soxhlet extracted and then fractionated using column chromatography into aliphatic and polar fractions. Determination of these fractions was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments ranged from 157 to 308 ng/g. The distribution of aliphatic fraction showed the presence of n-alkanes ranging from nC15 to nC33 with a minor odd-to-even predominance exhibiting carbon maximum, depending on station, at nC17, nC26, nC29 or nC31. Calculation of Carbon Preference Index (CPI) for CPI(15-33) gave values ranging from 1.09 to 1.46. n-Alkanol in all sediment exhibits even-to-odd carbon predominance ranging from nC16 to nC28 and maximising at nC22. n-Fatty acids distribution ranged from nC14 to nC24 with a dominant maximum at nC16 and exhibiting high values of short chain fatty acids (≤nC20) to long chain fatty acids (>nC20) ratios. Unsaturated fatty acids, particularly nC16:1 and nC18:1 is also ubiquitous in all samples. Cholesterol is the most abundant compound amongst the sterol group ranging from 42.8 to 62.6% of the total sterols. β-Sitosterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol, are also present but of relatively lower amount. These observations suggest that the aliphatic lipids and sterols in the study area originate, mainly, from biogenic sources of marine microbial with minor contribution from epiticular waxes of terrestrial plants.

  18. Composition and sources of aliphatic lipids and sterols in sediments of a tropical island, southern South China Sea: preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Mohd Tahir, N; Pang, S Y; Abdullah, N A; Suratman, S

    2013-12-01

    Near-shore surface sediment was collected from five stations off Redang Island located on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Freeze-dried sediments were Soxhlet extracted and then fractionated using column chromatography into aliphatic and polar fractions. Determination of these fractions was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments ranged from 157 to 308 ng/g. The distribution of aliphatic fraction showed the presence of n-alkanes ranging from nC15 to nC33 with a minor odd-to-even predominance exhibiting carbon maximum, depending on station, at nC17, nC26, nC29 or nC31. Calculation of Carbon Preference Index (CPI) for CPI(15-33) gave values ranging from 1.09 to 1.46. n-Alkanol in all sediment exhibits even-to-odd carbon predominance ranging from nC16 to nC28 and maximising at nC22. n-Fatty acids distribution ranged from nC14 to nC24 with a dominant maximum at nC16 and exhibiting high values of short chain fatty acids (≤nC20) to long chain fatty acids (>nC20) ratios. Unsaturated fatty acids, particularly nC16:1 and nC18:1 is also ubiquitous in all samples. Cholesterol is the most abundant compound amongst the sterol group ranging from 42.8 to 62.6% of the total sterols. β-Sitosterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol, are also present but of relatively lower amount. These observations suggest that the aliphatic lipids and sterols in the study area originate, mainly, from biogenic sources of marine microbial with minor contribution from epiticular waxes of terrestrial plants. PMID:23856812

  19. Evaluation of genotoxic responses of Chaetoceros tenuissimus and Skeletonema costatum to water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons as biomarker of exposure.

    PubMed

    Desai, S R; Deasi, S R; Verlecar, X N; Ansari, Z A; Jagtap, T G; Sarkar, A; Vashistha, Deepti; Dalal, S G

    2010-04-01

    Genotoxic responses towards chronic exposure of Chaetoceros tenuissimus and Skeletonema costatum to water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons (WAF-P) were evaluated as biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons pollution. The DNA damage caused by water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons was assessed in terms of the DNA integrity measured by alkaline unwinding assay. The comparative study of the growth pattern of C. tenuissimus with respect to DNA integrity and the DNA strand breaks in different concentrations of WAF-P showed sufficient tolerance. However, its toxicity increased proportionately with exposure to elevated levels of WAF-P. Although DNA damage in S. costatum was similar to C. tenuissimus, its tolerance level to WAF-P was at least 5 times lower than that of C. tenuissimus indicating its high sensitivity to petroleum hydrocarbons. Active growth was exhibited by C. tenuissimus between 10 and 20% WAF-P (ranging from 0.59 to 1.18mg/L petroleum hydrocarbons) which can be related to the polluted regions only, suggesting the tolerant nature of this organism. Considering the degree of sensitivity to petroleum products and good growth under laboratory conditions, these two diatoms could be recommended as model species for evaluating ecogenotoxic effects of wide range of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants using alkaline unwinding assays. PMID:20096916

  20. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust and its implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Feng, Yujie; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Xing, Baoshan; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-03-01

    This preliminary study measured Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the resuspendable fraction of settled dust on 39 bus lines, to evaluate the impact of engine type (gasoline and compressed natural gas) on exposure for commuters and drivers. Benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF) was the predominant PAH in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust. The concentration of total PAHs was 92.90 ± 116.00 μg/g (range: 0.57-410) in gasoline buses and 3.97 ± 1.81 (range: 2.01-9.47) in compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Based on Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations for the sum of 16 PAHs, the average daily dose (ADD) via dust ingestion and dermal contact was calculated. The ADD of PAHs was higher for commuters and drivers in gasoline-powered buses than in buses using CNG buses. For both short and long duration journeys, young commuters were exposed to higher levels of PAHs via dust ingestion and dermal contact than adult commuters. PMID:25549861

  1. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust and its implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Feng, Yujie; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Xing, Baoshan; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-03-01

    This preliminary study measured Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the resuspendable fraction of settled dust on 39 bus lines, to evaluate the impact of engine type (gasoline and compressed natural gas) on exposure for commuters and drivers. Benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF) was the predominant PAH in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust. The concentration of total PAHs was 92.90 ± 116.00 μg/g (range: 0.57-410) in gasoline buses and 3.97 ± 1.81 (range: 2.01-9.47) in compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Based on Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations for the sum of 16 PAHs, the average daily dose (ADD) via dust ingestion and dermal contact was calculated. The ADD of PAHs was higher for commuters and drivers in gasoline-powered buses than in buses using CNG buses. For both short and long duration journeys, young commuters were exposed to higher levels of PAHs via dust ingestion and dermal contact than adult commuters.

  2. Interaction of DNA with aromatic hydrocarbons fraction in atmospheric particulates of Xigu District of Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Ma, Min-quan; Zhou, Lei; Jia, Run-ping; Chen, Xing-guo; Hu, Zhi-de

    2007-01-01

    Voluminously epidemiological studies show that the relationships exist between the air pollution and human health and cancer. Aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) in air form a large class of organic pollutants, which are widely in environment and many of them are known to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic and contribute to ambient air pollution. In the past decades, bioassays mainly have been used to evaluate the toxicity of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates or aqueous environment. However, it is well known that the covalent complexes formed by carcinogens with DNA may be exert negative results in bioassay. So the main aim of this paper is to develop an evaluation method of toxicity effects of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates from chemical standpoint. In this study, the in vitro interaction of the AHs with DNA was investigated by absorption, fluorescence and resonance light scattering (RLS) spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that the AHs in the atmospheric particulates could combine with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and herring sperm DNA (hsDNA) without being activated or metabolized by organism, respectively. Intercalation may be present in the mechanism of interaction. The binding constants of the AHs with ctDNA and hsDNA were 2.5 x 10(2) and 2.0 x 10(3), respectively, which indicated that the interaction of the AHs with hsDNA is stronger than that with ctDNA. In addition, the relationships of dose-effect between the total mole concentration of chemical components and the ability of binding ctDNA and hsDNA were confirmed. This research made it possible to study the toxicity effects of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates by chemical method. It is believed that the composition and contents of unknown AHs and the interaction of DNA with AHs in atmospheric particulates of Xigu District of Lanzhou City, China are first reported in the past twenty years.

  3. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  4. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Palasz, Peter D.

    1986-01-01

    A process for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems comprising: adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8-9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids; oxidizing the solution to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes; removing said aldehydes as they are generated; and converting said aldehydes to peracids.

  5. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGES

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  6. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  7. Combinations of Aromatic and Aliphatic Radiolysis.

    PubMed

    LaVerne, Jay A; Dowling-Medley, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of H(2) in the radiolysis of benzene, methylbenzene (toluene), ethylbenzene, butylbenzene, and hexylbenzene with γ-rays, 2-10 MeV protons, 5-20 MeV helium ions, and 10-30 MeV carbon ions is used as a probe of the overall radiation sensitivity and to determine the relative contributions of aromatic and aliphatic entities in mixed hydrocarbons. The addition of an aliphatic side chain with progressively from one to six carbon lengths to benzene increases the H(2) yield with γ-rays, but the yield seems to reach a plateau far below that found from a simple aliphatic such as cyclohexane. There is a large increase in H(2) with LET (linear energy transfer) for all of the substituted benzenes, which indicates that the main process for H(2) formation is a second-order process and dominated by the aromatic entity. The addition of a small amount of benzene to cyclohexane can lower the H(2) yield from the value expected from a simple mixture law. A 50:50% volume mixture of benzene-cyclohexane has essentially the same H(2) yield as cyclohexylbenzene at a wide variation in LET, suggesting that intermolecular energy transfer is as efficient as intramolecular energy transfer.

  8. Calculation of Free-Atom Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Satyajit

    2006-01-01

    Free atom fractions (Beta) of nine elements are calculated in the exhaust plume of CH4- oxygen and RP-1-oxygen fueled rocket engines using free energy minimization method. The Chemical Equilibrium and Applications (CEA) computer program developed by the Glenn Research Center, NASA is used for this purpose. Data on variation of Beta in both fuels as a function of temperature (1600 K - 3100 K) and oxygen to fuel ratios (1.75 to 2.25 by weight) is presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Recommendation is made for the Beta value for a tenth element, Palladium. The CEA computer code was also run to compare with experimentally determined Beta values reported in literature for some of these elements. A reasonable agreement, within a factor of three, between the calculated and reported values is observed. Values reported in this work will be used as a first approximation for pilot rocket engine testing studies at the Stennis Space Center for at least six elements Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni - until experimental values are generated. The current estimates will be improved when more complete thermodynamic data on the remaining four elements Ag, Co, Mn and Pd are added to the database. A critique of the CEA code is also included.

  9. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  10. Gaseous aliphatic aldehydes in Chinese incense smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.M.; Wang, L.H. )

    1994-09-01

    Aliphatic aldehydes were found during the combustion of materials. Tobacco smoke contains aldehydes. Fire fighters were exposed to aldehydes when they conducted firefighting. Aldehydes in ambient air come mainly from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons and from photochemical reaction. Most aldehydes in ambient air are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde were found in the atmosphere in Los Angeles. Burning Chinese incense for worshipping deities is a Chinese daily routine. It was suspected to be a factor causing nasopharynegeal cancer. Epidemiological studies correlated it with the high risk of childhood brain tumor and the high risk of childhood leukemia. Ames test identified the mutagenic effect of the smoke from burning Chinese incense. The smoke had bee proved to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic aldehydes. Suspicion about formaldehyde and other alphatic aldehydes was evoked, when a survey of indoor air pollution was conducted in Taipei city. This study determined the presence of aliphatic aldehydes in the smoke from burning Chinese incense under a controlled atmosphere. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Insights into the biodegradation of weathered hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by bioaugmentation and nutrient stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Brassington, Kirsty J; Prpich, George; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Pollard, Simon J T; Coulon, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, respectively. This is likely due to the disruption to the indigenous microbial community in the soil caused by grinding. Further, ecotoxicological responses (mustard seed germination and Microtox assays) showed that a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was not directly correlable to reduction in toxicity; thus monitoring TPH alone is not sufficient for assessing the environmental risk of a contaminated site after remediation. PMID:27441989

  12. Insights into the biodegradation of weathered hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by bioaugmentation and nutrient stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Brassington, Kirsty J; Prpich, George; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Pollard, Simon J T; Coulon, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, respectively. This is likely due to the disruption to the indigenous microbial community in the soil caused by grinding. Further, ecotoxicological responses (mustard seed germination and Microtox assays) showed that a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was not directly correlable to reduction in toxicity; thus monitoring TPH alone is not sufficient for assessing the environmental risk of a contaminated site after remediation.

  13. [Biodegradability of the components of natural hydrocarbon mixtures previously submitted to landfarming].

    PubMed

    Pucci, G N; Pucci, O H

    2003-01-01

    The complex composition of the crude oil and the hydrocarbons that integrate the waste of the different stages of the oil industry turn this product a mixture that presents different difficulties for its elimination by biological methods. The objective of this paper was to study the biodegradation potential of autochthonous bacterial communities on hydrocarbons obtained from four polluted places and subjected to landfarming biorremediation system during a decade. The results showed a marked difference in biodegradability of the three main fractions of crude oil, aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions, obtained by column chromatography. All fractions were used as carbon source and energy. There were variations in the production of biomass among the different fractions as well as in the kinetics of biodegradation, according to the composition of each fraction.

  14. Ether and hydrocarbon production

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-03-19

    This patent describes a continuous process for converting lower aliphatic alkanol and olefinic hydrocarbon to alkyl tertiary-alkyl ethers and C{sub 5} + gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons. It comprises contacting alkanol and a light olefinic hydrocarbon stream rich in isobutylene and other C{sub 4} isomeric hydrocarbons under iso-olefin etherification conditions in an etherification reaction zone containing acid etherification catalyst; separating etherification effluent to recover a light stream comprising unreacted alkanol and light olefinic hydrocarbon and a liquid product stream containing alkyl tertiary-butyl ether; and contacting the light stream with acidic, medium pore metallosilicate catalyst under alkanol and hydrocarbon conversion conditions whereby C{sub 5} + gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons are produced.

  15. Determination of oxygen and nitrogen derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions of asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-12-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formed in asphalt fractions. Two different methods have been developed for the determination of five oxygenated and seven nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings and present mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds. The detection limits of the methods ranged from 0.1 to 57.3 μg/L for nitrated and from 0.1 to 6.6 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The limits of quantification were in the range of 4.6-191 μg/L for nitrated and 0.3-8.9 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The methods were validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations (two nitrated derivatives) agreed with the certified values. The methods were applied in the analysis of asphalt samples after their fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes, according to American Society for Testing and Material D4124, where the maltenic fraction was further separated into its basic, acidic, and neutral parts following the method of Green. Only two nitrated derivatives were found in the asphalt sample, quinoline and 2-nitrofluorene, with concentrations of 9.26 and 2146 mg/kg, respectively, whereas no oxygenated derivatives were detected. PMID:26446274

  16. Determination of oxygen and nitrogen derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions of asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-12-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formed in asphalt fractions. Two different methods have been developed for the determination of five oxygenated and seven nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings and present mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds. The detection limits of the methods ranged from 0.1 to 57.3 μg/L for nitrated and from 0.1 to 6.6 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The limits of quantification were in the range of 4.6-191 μg/L for nitrated and 0.3-8.9 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The methods were validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations (two nitrated derivatives) agreed with the certified values. The methods were applied in the analysis of asphalt samples after their fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes, according to American Society for Testing and Material D4124, where the maltenic fraction was further separated into its basic, acidic, and neutral parts following the method of Green. Only two nitrated derivatives were found in the asphalt sample, quinoline and 2-nitrofluorene, with concentrations of 9.26 and 2146 mg/kg, respectively, whereas no oxygenated derivatives were detected.

  17. Inhomogeneous distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different size and density fractions of contaminated sediment from Auckland Harbour, New Zealand: an opportunity for mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Michael J; Depree, Craig V

    2004-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment from Auckland Harbour (New Zealand) are not distributed evenly throughout bulk sediment, but highly concentrated in coarser, low-density fractions. Concentrations of 24 PAHs, measured in sediment that was separated into six size fractions that were furthermore separated into two density sub-fractions by flotation in sodium-polytungstate solution (rho = 2.15 g cm(-3)), varied between 4-103 microg g(-1)dw among grain size fractions and 2-998 microg g(-1)dw for density sub-fractions. Highest PAH concentrations were measured in the low density, 125-250 microm fraction. All sediment fractions had a similar relative PAH composition, dominated by >3-ring PAHs, suggesting a common pyrogenic origin. Low density material had 10-200 times higher PAH concentrations and 10-100 times higher organic carbon (OC) content, yet differences in OC content only partially accounted for variations in PAH concentration. Low density particles contributed more than 75% of the Sigma PAH, while comprising only 3% of bulk sediment dry weight. This may have significant utility for contaminant mitigation efforts in Auckland Harbour. PMID:14972587

  18. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The resulting particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate ...

  19. Endothermic hydrocarbon upgrading process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a process for upgrading aliphatic hydrocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbons. It comprises burning a hydrogen-deficient fuel under oxygen-deficient conditions to evolve a hot flue gas containing essentially no oxygen; providing an aromatization reaction zone containing a zeolite catalyst; directly transferring a quantity of thermal energy from the hot flue gas to the aromatization reaction zone by flowing hot flue gas through the aromatization reaction zone, the quantity of thermal energy being sufficient to supply the endothermic heat of reaction to aromatize at least a portion of the aliphatic feedstream; contacting an aliphatic hydrocarbon feedstream with the zeolite catalyst under primary conversion conditions in the aromatization reaction zone to evolve an aromatization reaction zone effluent stream containing aromatics; withdrawing the aromatization reaction zone effluent stream from the aromatization reaction zone; separating the aromatization reaction zone effluent stream into a product stream, a secondary conversion feedstream comprising CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} and a stream containing C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} aliphatics; and charging the secondary conversion feedstream.

  20. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5–nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12–nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12–nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

  1. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different size fractions of soil from a coke oven plant and its relationship to organic carbon content.

    PubMed

    Li, Helian; Chen, Jiajun; Wu, Wei; Piao, Xuesong

    2010-04-15

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in US EPA priority list were analyzed in the bulk and six particle size fractions of soil samples from a coke oven plant. The relationships of PAHs concentrations with total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon (BC) and other forms of organic carbon (OC) contents have been investigated. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 6.27 to 40.18 mg kg(-1) dry weight. The highest total PAH concentration occurred in the 250-500 microm size fraction. The maximum individual PAH concentration was in the 250-500 microm or 500-2000 microm size fraction. The size fractions of 125-500 microm and <50 microm have higher percentages and contributed 24.62% and 23.33% of the total PAH mass, respectively. The relative abundance of individual PAH compounds and PAH molecular indices present typical characteristic pyrogenic origin. The maximal TOC and BC contents were found in the 125-250 microm size fraction. Strong positive linear relationship between total PAH concentration and TOC or BC has been demonstrated, with a linear regression coefficient value of 0.7277 and 0.9245, respectively. The linear relationship between total PAH concentration versus OC (OC = TOC - BC) is weaker than that versus TOC or BC, with a correlation coefficient of 0.4117. It indicates that partitioned in organic matter, especially in black carbon is the dominant form of PAHs in the soil. PMID:20031305

  2. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions in asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt fractions has been developed. The 14 compounds determined, characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings, are expected to be present in asphalt and are considered carcinogenic and mutagenic. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all of the compounds. The limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 346.5 μg/L and the limits of quantification ranged from 1.7 to 1550 μg/L. The method was validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (NIST SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations agreed with the certified values. The method was applied to asphalt samples after its fractionation according to ASTM D4124 and the method of Green. The concentrations of the seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified in the sample ranged from 0.86 mg/kg for benzo[ghi]perylene to 98.32 mg/kg for fluorene. PMID:25885756

  3. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions in asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt fractions has been developed. The 14 compounds determined, characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings, are expected to be present in asphalt and are considered carcinogenic and mutagenic. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all of the compounds. The limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 346.5 μg/L and the limits of quantification ranged from 1.7 to 1550 μg/L. The method was validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (NIST SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations agreed with the certified values. The method was applied to asphalt samples after its fractionation according to ASTM D4124 and the method of Green. The concentrations of the seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified in the sample ranged from 0.86 mg/kg for benzo[ghi]perylene to 98.32 mg/kg for fluorene.

  4. Multimedia fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil: oil matrix of constructed biopiles.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Whelan, Michael J; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Villa, Raffaella; Pollard, Simon J T

    2010-12-01

    A dynamic multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the partitioning and fate of petroleum hydrocarbon fractions and aromatic indicator compounds within the soil: oil matrix of three biopiles. Each biopile was characterised by four compartments: air, water, soil solids and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). Equilibrium partitioning in biopile A and B suggested that most fractions resided in the NAPL, with the exception of the aromatic fraction with an equivalent carbon number from 5 to 7 (EC(5-7)). In Biopile C, which had the highest soil organic carbon content (13%), the soil solids were the most important compartment for both light aliphatic fractions (EC(5-6) and EC(6-8)) and aromatic fractions, excluding the EC(16-21) and EC(21-35). Our starting hypothesis was that hydrocarbons do not degrade within the NAPL. This was supported by the agreement between predicted and measured hydrocarbon concentrations in Biopile B when the degradation rate constant in NAPL was set to zero. In all scenarios, biodegradation in soil was predicted as the dominant removal process for all fractions, except for the aliphatic EC(5-6) which was predominantly lost via volatilization. The absence of an explicit NAPL phase in the model yielded a similar prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) behaviour; however the predicted concentrations in the air and water phases were significantly increased with consequent changes in potential mobility. Further comparisons between predictions and measured data, particularly concentrations in the soil mobile phases, are required to ascertain the true value of including an explicit NAPL in models of this kind.

  5. The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives and the proinflammatory potential of fractionated extracts of diesel exhaust and wood smoke particles.

    PubMed

    Totlandsdal, Annike I; Øvrevik, Johan; Cochran, Richard E; Herseth, Jan-Inge; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Låg, Marit; Schwarze, Per; Lilleaas, Edel; Holme, Jørn A; Kubátová, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to combustion emissions, including diesel engine exhaust and wood smoke particles (DEPs and WSPs), has been associated with inflammatory responses. To investigate the possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-derivatives, the DEPs and WSPs methanol extracts were fractionated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and the fractions were analyzed for more than ∼120 compounds. The pro-inflammatory effects of the fractionated extracts were characterized by exposure of bronchial epithelial lung cells (BEAS-2B). Both native DEPs and WSPs caused a concentration-dependent increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release and cytotoxicity. This is consistent with the finding of a rather similar total content of PAHs and PAH-derivatives. Yet, the samples differed in specific components, suggesting that different species contribute to the toxicological response in these two types of particles. The majority of the IL-6 release and cytotoxicity was induced upon exposure to the most polar (methanol) SPE fraction of extracts from both samples. In these fractions hydroxy-PAHs, carboxy-PAHs were observed along with nitro-amino-PAHs in DEP. However, the biological effects induced by the polar fractions could not be attributed only to the occurrence of PAH-derivatives. The present findings indicate a need for further characterization of organic extracts, beyond an extensive analysis of commonly suspected PAH and PAH-derivatives. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the supplemental file. PMID:24345236

  6. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721... Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721... Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to reporting under...

  8. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kevin A; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation.

  9. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, W.; Zamora, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO[sub 2] evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans.

  10. Hydrocarbons on Saturns Satellites: Relationship to Interstellar Dust and the Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and the basic components that led to life on Earth, we study interstellar and planetary spectroscopic signatures. The possible relationship of organic material detected in carbonaceous meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), comets and the interstellar medium have been the source of speculation over the years as the composition and processes that governed the early solar nebula have been explored to understand the extent to which primitive material survived or became processed. The Cassini VIMS has provided new data relevant to this problem. Three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion, are found to have aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons on their surfaces. The aromatic hydrocarbon signature (C-H stretching mode at 3.28 micrometers) is proportionally significantly stronger (relative to the aliphatic bands) than that seen in other Solar System bodies (e.g., comets) and materials (Stardust samples, IDPs, meteorites) and the distinctive sub-features of the 3.4 micrometer aliphatic band (CH2 and CH3 groups) are reminiscent of those widely detected throughout the diffuse ISM. Phoebe may be a captured object that originated in the region beyond the present orbit of Neptune, where the solar nebula contained a large fraction of original interstellar ice and dust that was less processed than material closer to the Sun. Debris from Phoebe now resident on Iapetus and Hyperion, as well as o Phoebe itself, thus presents a unique blend of hydrocarbons, amenable to comparisons with interstellar hydrocarbons and other Solar System materials. The dust ring surrounding Saturn, in which Phoebe is embedded, probably originated from a collision with Phoebe. Dust ring particles are the likely source of the organic-bearing materials, and perhaps the recently identified small particles of Fe detected on Saturn's satellites. Lab measurements of the absolute band strengths of representative aliphatic and

  11. Evaluation of humic fractions potential to produce bio-oil through catalytic hydroliquefaction.

    PubMed

    Lemée, L; Pinard, L; Beauchet, R; Kpogbemabou, D

    2013-12-01

    Humic substances were extracted from biodegraded lignocellulosic biomass (LCBb) and submitted to catalytic hydroliquefaction. The resulting bio-oils were compared with those of the initial biomass. Compared to fulvic and humic acids, humin presented a high conversion rate (74 wt.%) and the highest amount of liquid fraction (66 wt.%). Moreover it represented 78% of LCBb. Humin produced 43 wt.% of crude oil and 33 wt.% of hexane soluble fraction containing hydrocarbons which is a higher yield than those from other humic substances as well as from the initial biomass. Hydrocarbons were mainly aromatics, but humin produces the highest amount of aliphatics. Considering the quantity, the quality and the molecular composition of the humic fractions, a classification of the potential of the latter to produce fuel using hydroliquefaction process can be assess: Hu>AF>AH. The higher heating value (HHV) and oxygen content of HSF from humin were fully compatible with biofuel characteristics. PMID:24140851

  12. Endothermic hydrocarbon upgrading process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a process for upgrading aliphatic hydrocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbons. It comprises: burning a hydrogen-deficient fuel under oxygen-deficient conditions to evolve a hot gas containing essentially no oxygen; providing an aromatization reaction zone containing a zeolite catalyst; directly transferring a quantity of thermal energy from the hot flue gas to the aromatization reaction zone by flowing hot flue gas through the aromatization reaction zone; contacting an aliphatic hydrocarbon feedstream with the zeolite catalyst under primary conversion conditions in the aromatization reaction zone to evolve an aromatization reaction zone effluent stream containing aromatics; withdrawing the aromatization reaction zone effluent stream from the aromatization zone; separating the aromatization reaction zone effluent stream into a product stream, a secondary conversion feedstream comprising CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub i} and a stream containing C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} aliphatics; and charging the secondary conversion feedstream to a methanol synthesis reaction zone to convert at least a portion of the secondary conversion feedstream to methanol.

  13. Guided desaturation of unactivated aliphatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Ana-Florina; Mendoza, Abraham; Gutekunst, Will R.; Fraga, Jorge Otero; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-08-01

    The excision of hydrogen from an aliphatic carbon chain to produce an isolated olefin (desaturation) without overoxidation is one of the most impressive and powerful biosynthetic transformations for which there are no simple and mild laboratory substitutes. The versatility of olefins and the range of reactions they undergo are unsurpassed in functional group space. Thus, the conversion of a relatively inert aliphatic system into its unsaturated counterpart could open new possibilities in retrosynthesis. In this article, the invention of a directing group to achieve such a transformation under mild, operationally simple, metal-free conditions is outlined. This ‘portable desaturase’ (TzoCl) is a bench-stable, commercial entity (Aldrich, catalogue number L510092) that is facile to install on alcohol and amine functionalities to ultimately effect remote desaturation, while leaving behind a synthetically useful tosyl group.

  14. Guided Desaturation of Unactivated Aliphatics

    PubMed Central

    Voica, Ana-Florina; Mendoza, Abraham; Gutekunst, Will R.; Fraga, Jorge Otero; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-01-01

    The excision of hydrogen from an aliphatic carbon chain to produce an isolated olefin (desaturation) without over-oxidation is one of the most impressive and powerful biosynthetic transformations for which there are no simple and mild laboratory substitutes. The versatility of olefins and the range of reactions they undergo is unsurpassed in functional group space. Thus, the conversion of a relatively inert aliphatic system to its unsaturated counterpart can open new possibilities in retrosynthesis. In this article, the invention of a directing group to achieve such a transformation under mild, operationally simple, metal-free conditions is outlined. This “portable desaturase” (TzoCl) is a bench-stable, commercial entity (Aldrich, cat # L510092) that is facile to install on alcohol and amine functionalities to ultimately effect remote desaturation, while leaving behind a synthetically useful tosyl group. PMID:22824894

  15. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and genotoxic effects of fractionated extract of standard reference diesel exhaust particle material in pulmonary, liver and prostate cells.

    PubMed

    Pálková, Lenka; Vondráček, Jan; Trilecová, Lenka; Ciganek, Miroslav; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Neča, Jiří; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Machala, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and the associated complex mixtures of organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or their derivatives, have been suggested to exert deleterious effects on human health. We used a set of defined cellular models representing liver, lung and prostate tissues, in order to compare non-genotoxic and genotoxic effects of crude and fractionated extract of a standard reference DEP material - SRM 1650b. We focused on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity, modulation of cell proliferation, formation of DNA adducts, oxidative DNA damage, and induction of DNA damage responses, including evaluation of apoptosis, and phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor and checkpoint kinases (Chk). Both PAHs and the polar aromatic compounds contributed to the AhR-mediated activity of DEP-associated organic pollutants. The principal identified AhR agonists included benzo[k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, chrysene and several non-priority PAHs, including benzochrysenes and methylated PAHs. In contrast to PAHs, polar compounds contributed more significantly to overall formation of DNA adducts associated with phosphorylation of p53, Chk1 or Chk2, and partly with apoptosis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to identification of DEP-associated polar organic compounds, contributing to the AhR activation and cytotoxic/genotoxic effects of complex airborne mixtures of organic contaminants produced by diesel engines.

  16. In Vitro Transformation of Chlorinated Parabens by the Liver S9 Fraction: Kinetics, Metabolite Identification, and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonist Activity.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Masanori; Wada, Takeshi; Nagashima, Satoshi; Makino, Masakazu; Yasukawa, Hiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the kinetics of in vitro transformation of a dichlorinated propyl paraben (2-propyl 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate; Cl2PP) by the rat liver S9 fraction and assessed the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity of the metabolite products identified in HPLC and GC/MS analysis and by metabolite syntheses. The results indicated that the chlorination of Cl2PP reduced its degradation rate by approximately 40-fold. Two hydroxylated metabolite products showed AhR agonist activity of up to 39% of that of the parent Cl2PP when assessed in a yeast (YCM3) reporter gene assay. The determination of the metabolic properties of paraben bioaccumulation presented here provides further information on the value of risk assessments of chlorinated parabens as a means to ensure human health and environmental safety. PMID:27250800

  17. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  18. Sample preparation and characterization for a study of environmentally acceptable endpoints for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitinger, J.P.; Finn, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, the interdisciplinary research effort required to investigate the acceptable cleanup endpoints for hydrocarbon-impacted soils has been limited by the lack of standardized soils for testing. To support the efforts of the various researchers participating in the EAE research initiative, soil samples were collected from ten sites representing hydrocarbon-impacted soils typical of exploration/production, refinery, and bulk storage terminal operations. The hydrocarbons in the standard soils include crude oil, mixed refinery products, diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Physical characterization included analysis of soil texture, water retention, particle density, nanoporosity, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, buffer capacity, organic carbon, sodium adsorption ratio, and clay mineralogy. Chemical characterization included analysis of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons, total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and metals, and TCLP for metals and organics. An analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions was performed on each soil to support the use of various models for assessing soil toxicity. Screening-level toxicity tests were conducted using Microtox{trademark}, plant seed germination and growth, and earthworm mortality and growth. Biodegradability screening tests were performed in slurry shake flasks to estimate the availability of hydrocarbon fractions to soil microorganisms.

  19. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in engineered biopiles in polar regions.

    PubMed

    Whelan, M J; Coulon, F; Hince, G; Rayner, J; McWatters, R; Spedding, T; Snape, I

    2015-07-01

    A dynamic multi-media model that includes temperature-dependency for partitioning and degradation was developed to predict the behaviour of petroleum hydrocarbons during biopiling at low temperature. The activation energy (Ea) for degradation was derived by fitting the Arrhenius equation to hydrocarbon concentrations from temperature-controlled soil mesocosms contaminated with crude oil and diesel. The model was then applied to field-scale biopiles containing soil contaminated with diesel and kerosene at Casey Station, Antarctica. Temporal changes of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentrations were very well described and predictions for individual hydrocarbon fractions were generally acceptable (disparity between measured and predicted concentrations was less than a factor two for most fractions). Biodegradation was predicted to be the dominant loss mechanism for all but the lightest aliphatic fractions, for which volatilisation was most important. Summertime losses were significant, resulting in TPH concentrations which were about 25% of initial concentrations just 1 year after the start of treatment. This contrasts with the slow rates often reported for hydrocarbons in situ and suggests that relatively simple remediation techniques can be effective even in Antarctica.

  20. High performance liquid chromatographic hydrocarbon group-type analyses of mid-distillates employing fuel-derived fractions as standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.

  1. Comprehensive analytical methodology to determine hydrocarbons in marine waters using extraction disks coupled to glass fiber filters and compound-specific isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Ternon, Eva; Tolosa, Imma

    2015-07-24

    Solid-phase extraction of both aliphatic (AHs) and aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from seawater samples was evaluated using a GFF filter stacked upon an octadecyl bonded silica (C18) disk. Stable-isotope measurements were developed on hydrocarbons extracted from both GFF and C18-disks in order to characterize the source of hydrocarbons. A clear partition of hydrocarbon compounds between the dissolved and the particulate phase was highlighted. PAHs showed a higher affinity with the dissolved phase (recoveries efficiency of 48-71%) whereas AHs presented strong affinity with the particulate phase (up to 76% of extraction efficiency). Medium volumes of seawater samples were tested and no breakthrough was observed for a 5L sample. Isotopic fractionation was investigated within all analytical steps but none was evidenced. This method has been applied to harbor seawater samples and very low AH and PAH concentrations were achieved. Due to the low concentration levels of hydrocarbons in the samples, the source of hydrocarbons was determined by molecular indices rather than isotopic measurements and a pyrolytic origin was evidenced. The aliphatic profile also revealed the presence of long-chain linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). The methodology presented here would better fit to polluted coastal environments affected by recent oil spills.

  2. Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation during Bacterial Acetylene Fermentation: Potential for Life Detection in Hydrocarbon-Rich Volatiles of Icy Planet(oid)s

    PubMed Central

    Baesman, Shaun M.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report the first study of stable carbon isotope fractionation during microbial fermentation of acetylene (C2H2) in sediments, sediment enrichments, and bacterial cultures. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) averaged 3.7 ± 0.5‰ for slurries prepared with sediment collected at an intertidal mudflat in San Francisco Bay and 2.7 ± 0.2‰ for a pure culture of Pelobacter sp. isolated from these sediments. A similar KIE of 1.8 ± 0.7‰ was obtained for methanogenic enrichments derived from sediment collected at freshwater Searsville Lake, California. However, C2H2 uptake by a highly enriched mixed culture (strain SV7) obtained from Searsville Lake sediments resulted in a larger KIE of 9.0 ± 0.7‰. These are modest KIEs when compared with fractionation observed during oxidation of C1 compounds such as methane and methyl halides but are comparable to results obtained with other C2 compounds. These observations may be useful in distinguishing biologically active processes operating at distant locales in the Solar System where C2H2 is present. These locales include the surface of Saturn's largest moon Titan and the vaporous water- and hydrocarbon-rich jets emanating from Enceladus. Key Words: Acetylene—Fermentation—Isotope fractionation—Enceladus—Life detection. Astrobiology 15, 977–986. PMID:26539733

  3. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during bacterial acetylene fermentation: Potential for life detection in hydrocarbon-rich volatiles of icy planet(oid)s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Laurence; Baesman, Shaun; Oremland, Ron

    2015-01-01

    We report the first study of stable carbon isotope fractionation during microbial fermentation of acetylene (C2H2) in sediments, sediment enrichments, and bacterial cultures. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) averaged 3.7 ± 0.5‰ for slurries prepared with sediment collected at an intertidal mudflat in San Francisco Bay and 2.7 ± 0.2‰ for a pure culture of Pelobacter sp. isolated from these sediments. A similar KIE of 1.8 ± 0.7‰ was obtained for methanogenic enrichments derived from sediment collected at freshwater Searsville Lake, California. However, C2H2 uptake by a highly enriched mixed culture (strain SV7) obtained from Searsville Lake sediments resulted in a larger KIE of 9.0 ± 0.7‰. These are modest KIEs when compared with fractionation observed during oxidation of C1 compounds such as methane and methyl halides but are comparable to results obtained with other C2compounds. These observations may be useful in distinguishing biologically active processes operating at distant locales in the Solar System where C2H2 is present. These locales include the surface of Saturn's largest moon Titan and the vaporous water- and hydrocarbon-rich jets emanating from Enceladus.

  4. Hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon-soluble magnesium dialkoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kamienski, C.W.

    1988-05-31

    This patent describes a process for the preparation of hydrocarbon or chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent solutions of magnesium dialkoxides, which comprises reacting a suspension of magnesium metal or magnesium amide, or a solution of a dialkyimagnesium compound, in a volatile hydrocarbon or chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent with an alcohol selected from the group of (a) aliphatic, cycloaliphatic and acyclic C/sub 5/-C/sub 18/ beta- and gamma-alkyl-substituted secondary and tertiary monohydric alcohols; or (b) mixtures of the (a) alcohols with C/sub 3/-C/sub 18/ aliphatic or cycloaliphatic beta- and gamma-alkyl-unsubstituted secondary or tertiary alcohols; or (c) mixtures of the (a) alcohols with C/sub 1/-C/sub 18/ aliphatic primary unsubstituted and 2-alkyl-substituted alcohols; the mole ratios of the (a) to the (b), and the (a) to the (c), alcohols being 1 of the (a) alcohols to 0.1 to 2 of the (b) and/or the (c) alcohols.

  5. Contaminated soil phytoremediation by Cyperus laxus Lam. cytochrome p450 EROD-activity induced by hydrocarbons in roots.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, S; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Pérez-Flores, L J; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments with Cyperus laxus Lam were conducted to determine the rate and extent of phytoremediation and the effect of hydrocarbons on the cytochrome P450 EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) enzymatic activity in roots. Plants were cultivated on hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (HCS) and spiked perlite. Phytoremediation was evaluated using 6.5 kg HCS (173 +/- 15 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] g(-1) of dry soil) pots at different moisture contents; the average removal rate was 3.46-0.25 mg TPH g(-1) dry soil month(-1) and 48% was removed when moisture was kept at 60%. The aromatic hydrocarbon fraction was the mostly removed, 60%; aliphatic, 51%; and polar 24% after 24-month experiments. In unplanted pots, TPH concentration did not exhibit significant differences with respect to the initial concentration. We confirmed that the presence of hydrocarbons induced ERODactivity up to 6.5-fold. Moreover, short-term experiments (up to 13 d) with spiked perlite demonstrated that two EROD activities in roots contributed to the total detected; 60% was found in the cytosolic and 40% in the microsomal fraction. To our knowledge, this is the first work that tries to build links between the hydrocarbon-inducible character of ERODactivity in roots and the phytoremediation ability of C. laxus in highly contaminated soils. PMID:19260214

  6. Bacterial isolates degrading aliphatic polycarbonates.

    PubMed

    Suyama, T; Hosoya, H; Tokiwa, Y

    1998-04-15

    Bacteria that degrade an aliphatic polycarbonate, poly(hexamethylene carbonate), were isolated from river water in Ibaraki. Prefecture, Japan, after enrichment in liquid medium containing poly(hexamethylene carbonate) suspensions as carbon source, and dilution to single cells. Four of the strains, 35L, WFF52, 61A and 61B2, degraded poly(hexamethylene carbonate) on agar plate containing suspended poly(hexamethylene carbonate). Degradation of poly(hexamethylene carbonate) was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography. Besides poly(hexamethylene carbonate), the strains were found to degrade poly(tetramethylene carbonate). The strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Strains 35L and WFF52 were tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Variovorax sp., respectively, while strains 61A and 61B2 constitute an unidentified branch within the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria.

  7. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10. PMID:11541663

  8. Mantle hydrocarbons: Abiotic or biotic?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugisaki, Ryuichi; Mimura, Koichi

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) and peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro and granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from field contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here {open_quotes}mantle hydrocarbons.{close_quotes} The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) {delta}{sup 13}C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about {minus}27{per_thousand}). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were inorganically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH{sub 4} at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C{sub 4}H{sub 10}. 76 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10.

  10. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    positively correlated with the carbohydrate fraction and negatively correlated with the aliphatic fraction of the soil C, while carbohydrate-C and alkyl-C increased and decreased with distance from the road, respectively. It is proposed that petroleum hydrocarbons supress soil biological activity at concentrations above 1500 mg kg-1, and that soil organic matter priming primarily affects the carbohydrate fraction of soil organic matter. It can be concluded that the abundance of solid carbohydrates (O-alkyl C) is of paramount importance for the hydrocarbon mineralization under natural conditions, compared to more recalcitrant SOM fractions (mainly aromatic and alkyl C). References Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2013) Distribution and fractional composition of petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, vol. 2013, Article ID 938703, 6 pages, DOI 10.1155/2013/938703 Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2014) Deposition of petroleum hydrocarbons with sediment trapped in snow in roadside areas. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 22(3):237-244, DOI 10.3846/16486897.2014.889698 Nelson P.N. and Baldock J.A. (2005) Estimating the molecular composition of a diverse range of natural organic materials from solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses, 2005, Biogeochemistry (2005) 72: 1-34, DOI 10.1007/s10533-004-0076-3 Zyakun, A., Nii-Annang, S., Franke, G., Fischer, T., Buegger, F., Dilly, O. (2011) Microbial Actvity and 13C/12C Ratio as Evidence of N-Hexadecane and N-Hexadecanoic Acid Biodegradation in Agricultural and Forest Soils. Geomicrobiology Journal 28:632-647, DOI 10.1080/01490451.2010.489922

  11. Extraction of hydrocarbons from high-maturity Marcellus Shale using supercritical carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarboe, Palma B.; Philip A. Candela,; Wenlu Zhu,; Alan J. Kaufman,

    2015-01-01

    Shale is now commonly exploited as a hydrocarbon resource. Due to the high degree of geochemical and petrophysical heterogeneity both between shale reservoirs and within a single reservoir, there is a growing need to find more efficient methods of extracting petroleum compounds (crude oil, natural gas, bitumen) from potential source rocks. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) was used to extract n-aliphatic hydrocarbons from ground samples of Marcellus shale. Samples were collected from vertically drilled wells in central and western Pennsylvania, USA, with total organic carbon (TOC) content ranging from 1.5 to 6.2 wt %. Extraction temperature and pressure conditions (80 °C and 21.7 MPa, respectively) were chosen to represent approximate in situ reservoir conditions at sample depth (1920−2280 m). Hydrocarbon yield was evaluated as a function of sample matrix particle size (sieve size) over the following size ranges: 1000−500 μm, 250−125 μm, and 63−25 μm. Several methods of shale characterization including Rock-Eval II pyrolysis, organic petrography, Brunauer−Emmett−Teller surface area, and X-ray diffraction analyses were also performed to better understand potential controls on extraction yields. Despite high sample thermal maturity, results show that supercritical CO2 can liberate diesel-range (n-C11 through n-C21) n-aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total quantity of extracted, resolvable n-aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges from approximately 0.3 to 12 mg of hydrocarbon per gram of TOC. Sieve size does have an effect on extraction yield, with highest recovery from the 250−125 μm size fraction. However, the significance of this effect is limited, likely due to the low size ranges of the extracted shale particles. Additional trends in hydrocarbon yield are observed among all samples, regardless of sieve size: 1) yield increases as a function of specific surface area (r2 = 0.78); and 2) both yield and surface area increase with increasing

  12. Potential of fungal co-culturing for accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Tachibana, Sanro

    2014-08-15

    The potential of fungal co-culture of the filamentous Pestalotiopsis sp. NG007 with four different basidiomycetes--Trametes versicolor U97, Pleurotus ostreatus PL1, Cerena sp. F0607, and Polyporus sp. S133--for accelerating biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was studied using three different physicochemical characteristic PHCs in soil. All the combinations showed a mutual intermingling mycelial interaction on the agar plates. However, only NG007/S133 (50/50) exhibited an optimum growth rate and enzymatic activities that supported the degradation of asphalt in soil. The co-culture also degraded all fractions at even higher concentrations of the different PHCs. In addition, asphaltene, which is a difficult fraction for a single microorganism to degrade, was markedly degraded by the co-culture, which indicated that the simultaneous biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions had occurred in the co-culture. An examination of in-vitro degradation by the crude enzymes and the retrieval fungal culture from the soil after the experiment confirmed the accelerated biodegradation due to enhanced enzyme activities in the co-culture. The addition of piperonyl butoxide or AgNO3 inhibited biodegradation by 81-99%, which demonstrated the important role of P450 monooxygenases and/or dioxygenases in the initial degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions in PHCs.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  15. Coefficients of caffeine distribution in aliphatic alcohol-ammonium sulfate-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-11-01

    The extraction of caffeine with aliphatic alcohols C3-C9 from aqueous solutions in the presence of a salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate) is studied. Quantitative characteristics of extraction are calculated: the distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of recovery ( R, %). Relations are found between log D of caffeine and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the alcohol molecule, along with certain physicochemical properties of the extragents.

  16. DNA damage caused by organic extracts of contaminated sediment, crude, and weathered oil and their fractions recovered up to 5 years after the 2007 Hebei Spirit oil spill off Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lee, Hyo Jin; Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Gi Beum

    2015-06-15

    We examined the degree of DNA damage caused by three fractions (F1, aliphatic hydrocarbons; F2, aromatic hydrocarbons; and F3, polar compounds) of the organic extract of sediments taken from Taean, Korea, following the Hebei Spirit oil spill. DNA damage was measured using the comet assay with blood cells of the striped beakfish (Oplegnathus fasciatus). DNA damage was also examined for fractions of crude oil (Iranian Heavy Crude Oil, IHC), weathered oil and six subfractions (F2.1-F2.6). The greatest DNA damage was found from the Sinduri dune region and DNA damage decreased to 40% weathered oil in F2 fraction compared with crude oil. The DNA damage of the sum of fractions was found higher than the organic extracts of sediments, suggesting antagonistic interactions between the genotoxic compounds. This study confirmed the persistence of potential genotoxicity in sediments of the severely affected regions as long as 5 years after the oil spill.

  17. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  18. Mass spectrometry study of the sublimation of aliphatic dipeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badelin, V. G.; Tyunina, E. Yu.; Krasnov, A. V.; Tyunina, V. V.; Giricheva, N. I.; Girichev, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    The sublimation of glycyl-L-α-alanine (Gly-Ala), L-α-alanyl-L-α-alanine (Ala-Ala), and DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine (Ala-Val) aliphatic dipeptides is studied by electron ionization mass spectrometry in combination with Knudsen effusion. The temperature range in which substances sublime as monomer molecular forms is determined. Enthalpies of sublimation Δs H°( T) are determined for Gly-Ala, Ala-Ala, and Ala-Val. It is shown that the enthalpy of sublimation of dipeptides increases with an increase in the side hydrocarbon radical. The unknown Δs H°(298) values for 17 amino acids and nine dipeptides are estimated using the proposed "structure-property" correlation model, in which the geometry and electron characteristics of molecules are used as structural descriptors.

  19. Measurement of hydrocarbon transport in bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the hydrophobic, volatility, and relatively low aqueous solubility of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, transport of these chemicals by bacteria has not been extensively studied. These issues make transport assays difficult to carry out, and as a result, strong evidence for the active tran...

  20. APPLICATION OF TOXICITY-BASED FRACTIONATION TECHNIQUES AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP MODELS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF PHOTOTOXIC POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENT PORE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies conducted in our laboratory show that sediments contaminated with complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can exhibit enhanced toxicity (lethality) to a variety of aquatic species when the samples are tested under ultarviolet (UV) light designed to mim...

  1. A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography method for analyzing extractable petroleum hydrocarbons in water and soil.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Stacy K; Bandurski, Steven V; Brown, Robert G; McCurry, James D; Seeley, John V

    2007-01-01

    A flow-switching two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) apparatus has been constructed that can operate at temperatures as high as 340 degrees C. This system is employed to analyze complex hydrocarbon mixtures such as diesel fuel, gas-oil, motor oil, and petroleum contaminated environmental samples. The GCxGC system generates two-dimensional chromatograms with minimal overlap between the aliphatic and aromatic regions This allows these compound classes to be independently quantitated without prior fractionation. The GCxGC system is used to analyze extracts of spiked water samples, wastewater, and soil. The accuracy of the method is compared to that of the Massachusetts Extractable Petroleum Hydrocarbons (MA EPH) method. The GCxGC system generates a quantitative accuracy similar to the MA EPH method for the analysis of spiked water samples. The GCxGC method and the MA EPH method generate comparable levels of total hydrocarbons when wastewater is analyzed, but the GCxGC method detects a significantly higher aromatic content and lower aliphatic content. Both the GCxGC method and MA EPH method measure comparable levels of aromatics in the soil samples. PMID:18078573

  2. DESTRUCTION OF HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS WITH SOLVATED ELECTRONS IN THE PRESENCE OF WATER. (R826180)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model halogenated aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and halogenated phenols were dehalogenated in seconds by solvated electrons generated from sodium in both anhydrous liquid ammonia and ammonia/water solutions. The minimum sodium required to completely dehalogenate these mo...

  3. Effect of glutathione on in vitro metabolism of unsaturated aliphatic nitriles to cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Farooqui, M.Y.H.; Massa, E. )

    1991-03-01

    Aliphatic nitriles are widely used as important solvents and intermediates in polymer, plastic, synthetic fibers, resins, dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals and vitamin industries. Occupational exposure to these chemicals is principally through inhalation and dermal routes. Human and animal toxicity studies have suggested that the toxicity of aliphatic nitriles is due to their cyanide (CN{sup {minus}}) liberating capacity under biological conditions. Despite the common property of CN{sup {minus}} liberation, their are marked differences among nitriles, in the amounts of CN{sup {minus}} released to cause poisoning, in the duration of exposure and toxicity signs. The extent of metabolism of unsaturated aliphatic nitrile is influenced by the structural properties of the molecule. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of functional groups, the type of unsaturated moiety and availability of sulfhydryls especially glutathione (GSH) on the in vitro rat liver postmitochondrial fraction (microsomes + cytosol) is used to provide cytosolic GHS transferase, an essential enzyme of GSH metabolism.

  4. Microbial degradation of aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Kato, Satoshi; Shintani, Noboru; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable plastics (BPs) have attracted much attention since more than a decade because they can easily be degraded by microorganisms in the environment. The development of aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability and an ideal replacement for the conventional nondegradable thermoplastics. The microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various aliphatic, aromatic, and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyester-degrading microorganisms and their enzymes have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. In this review, we have reported some new microorganisms and their enzymes which could degrade various aliphatic, aromatic, as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters like poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydoxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalterate) (PHB/PHBV), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT), poly(butylene succinate-co-terephthalate) (PBST), and poly(butylene succinate/terephthalate/isophthalate)-co-(lactate) (PBSTIL). The mechanism of degradation of aliphatic as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has also been discussed. The degradation ability of microorganisms against various polyesters might be useful for the treatment and recycling of biodegradable wastes or bioremediation of the polyester-contaminated environments.

  5. Carbon isotope systematics of individual hydrocarbons in hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba Trough, Northeastern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Schoell, M.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    We submitted individual aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba trough to compound specific isotope analysis to trace their origins. The carbon isotope compositions of the alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (means -27.5 and -24.7%, respectively) reflect a primarily terrestrial organic matter source.We submitted individual aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba Trough to compound specific isotope analysis to trace their origins. The carbon isotope compositions of the alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (means -27.5 and -24.7 per mill, respectively) reflect a primarily terrestrial organic matter source.

  6. Hepatic clearance of 6 polyaromatic aromatic hydrocarbons by isolated trout livers: Prediction from in vitro clearance by liver S9 fractions

    EPA Science Inventory

    An isolated perfused trout liver preparation was used to evaluate in vitro-to-in vivo metabolism extrapolation procedures for fish. Hepatic clearance (CLH) studies were conducted with six polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) using an experimental design wherein each liver acted as it...

  7. Hydrocarbon components in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Y. V.

    2003-05-01

    Currently, the presence of free n-alkanes and isoprenoid alkanes in carbonaceous meteorites is usually explained either by microbial contamination during the period between the meteorite fall and collection or by contamination from the environment of analytical laboratories and museums. The goal of this research was to repeat analysis of hydrocarbon components in meteorites and to investigate possible meteorite contamination routes discussed in the literature. Experimental analysis of free organic constituents in five carbonaceous meteorites by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and gas chromatographic (GC) methods confirmed the presence of extractable aliphatic components, n-alkanes in the C 15H 32-C 27H 56 range and isoprenoid alkanes (phytane, pristane, and norpristane), in some of these meteorites. The contents of these compounds vary depending on the source. Insoluble organic components of two meteorites (meteorite kerogens) were isolated, and their composition was analyzed by IR and cracking/GC methods. Comparison with the data on several terrestrial contamination sources proposed in the literature shows that the presence of free saturated hydrocarbons in meteorites and the composition of the meteorite kerogen could not be explained either by microbial contamination or by contamination from the laboratory environment. The types of the hydrocarbons in meteorites resemble those typical of ancient terrestrial deposits of organic-rich sediments, except for the absence of lighter hydrocarbons, which apparently slowly evaporated in space, and multi-ring naphthenic compounds of the biologic origin, steranes, terpanes, etc. The prevailing current explanation for the presence of free linear saturated hydrocarbons in carbonaceous meteorites, apart from contamination, is the abiotic route from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. However, the data on the structure of meteorite kerogens require a search for different routes that initially produce complex polymeric structures containing

  8. 40 CFR 721.10534 - Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10534 - Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520... Substances § 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520... Substances § 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  1. In-situ micro-FTIR Study of Thermal Changes of Organics in Tagish Lake Meteorite: Behavior of Aliphatic Oxygenated Functions and Effects of Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Nakashima, Satoru; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Systematic in-situ FTIR heating experiments of Tagish Lake meteorite grains have been performed in order to study thermal stability of chondritic organics. Some aliphatic model organic substances have also been used to elucidate effects of hydrous phyllosilicate minerals on the thermal stability of organics. The experimental results indicated that organic matter in the Tagish Lake meteorite might contain oxygenated aliphatic hydrocarbons which are thermally stable carbonyls such as ester and/or C=O in ring compounds. The presence of hydrous phyllosilicate minerals has a pronounced effect on the increase of the thermal stability of aliphatic and oxygenated functions. These oxygenated aliphatic organics in Tagish Lake can be formed during the aqueous alteration in the parent body and the formation temperature condition might be less than 200 C, based especially on the thermal stability of C-O components. The hydrous phyllosilicates might provide sites for organic globule formation and protected some organic decomposition

  2. Renaissance of Aliphatic Polycarbonates: New Techniques and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianwen; Feng, Ellva; Song, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic polycarbonates were discovered a long time ago, with their conventional applications mostly limited to low molecular weight oligomeric intermediates for copolymerization with other polymers. Recent developments in polymerization techniques have overcome the difficulty in preparing high molecular weight aliphatic polycarbonates. These in turn, along with new functional monomers, have enabled the preparation of a wide range of aliphatic polycarbonates with diverse chemical compositions and structures. This review summarizes the latest polymerization techniques for preparing well-defined functional aliphatic polycarbonates, as well as the new applications of those aliphatic polycarbonates, esecially in the biomedical field. PMID:24994939

  3. Effects of ryegrass on biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Günther, T; Dornberger, U; Fritsche, W

    1996-07-01

    The effects of growing ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) on the biodegradation of hydrocarbons was studied in laboratory scale soil columns. Degradation of hydrocarbons as well as bacterial numbers, soil respiration rates and soil dehydrogenase activities were determined. In the rhizosphere soil system, aliphatic hydrocarbons disappeared faster than in unvegetated columns. Abiotic loss by evaporation was of minor significance. Elimination of pollutants was accompanied by an increase in microbial numbers and activities. The microbial plate counts and soil respiration rates were substantially higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. The results indicate that biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere is stimulated by plant roots.

  4. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  5. A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, D.F.

    1993-07-01

    Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

  6. A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

  7. PRODUCTION OF FLUORINE-CONTAINING HYDROCARBON

    DOEpatents

    Sarsfield, N.F.

    1949-08-01

    This patent relates to improvements in the production of fluorine- containing hydrocarbon derivatives. The process for increasing the degree of fluorination of a fluorochlorohydrocarbon comprises subjecting a highly fluorinated fluorochlorohydrocarbon to the action of a dehydrochlorinating agent, and treating the resulting unsaturated body with fluorine, cobalt trifluoride, or silver difluoride. A number of reagents are known as dehydrochlorinaling agents, including, for example, the caustic alkalies, either in an anhydrous condition or dissolved in water or a lower aliphatic alcohol.

  8. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, M J; Furman, J; Ryan, C; Durrant, J; Kern, E

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  9. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, M.J.; Furman, J.; Ryan, C.; Durrant, J.; Kern, E.

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  10. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; MoreauDalleOre, Cristina; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Clark, Roger Nelson

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iaperus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-by's of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at approximately 3.28 micrometers (approximately 3050 per centimeter), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range approximately 3.36-3.52 micrometers (approximately 2980- 2840 per centimeter) bably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signarure among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph approximately 24; for Hyperion the value is approximately 12, while laperus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 approximately 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on laperus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  11. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Clark, R. N.

    2012-12-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-bys of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at ~3.28 μm (~3050 cm-1), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range ~3.36-3.52 μm (~2980-2840 cm-1). In these data, the aromatic band, probably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signature among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph ~24; for Hyperion the value is ~12, while Iapetus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 ~2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on Iapetus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  12. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the stable electrophoretic fractions of soil humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubetskoi, O. A.; Trubetskaya, O. E.

    2015-02-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been used for the hydrophobicity analysis of soil humic acids and their stable electrophoretic fractions A, B, and C + D preliminarily prepared by the combination of gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In two humic acid preparations of different genesis, the electrophoretic fraction A of the larger molecular size was the most hydrophobic (60-73% of the fraction was irreversibly adsorbed on a hydrophobic reversed-phase (RF) column C18), and the fraction C + D of the smallest molecular size was the most hydrophilic. The fraction B of medium size occupied an intermediate position (33-47% of the fraction was irreversibly adsorbed on the column). The use of RP-HPLC allowed for the first time detecting the hydrophobic electrophoretic fraction A of the largest molecular size mainly composed of aliphatic long-chained hydrocarbon, protein, and carbohydrate fragments in soil humic acids. Data on the degree of hydrophobicity and the earlier obtained physicochemical characteristics of stable electrophoretic fractions are discussed in terms of the supramolecular and macromolecular structure of soil humic acids.

  13. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  14. Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    PubMed Central

    YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

  15. Mixed aromatic-aliphatic organic nanoparticles as carriers of unidentified infrared emission features.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sun; Zhang, Yong

    2011-11-01

    Unidentified infrared emission bands at wavelengths of 3-20 micrometres are widely observed in a range of environments in our Galaxy and in others. Some features have been identified as the stretching and bending modes of aromatic compounds, and are commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. The central argument supporting this attribution is that single-photon excitation of the molecule can account for the unidentified infrared emission features observed in 'cirrus' clouds in the diffuse interstellar medium. Of the more than 160 molecules identified in the circumstellar and interstellar environments, however, not one is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule. The detections of discrete and broad aliphatic spectral features suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission features cannot be a pure aromatic compound. Here we report an analysis of archival spectroscopic observations and demonstrate that the data are most consistent with the carriers being amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic-aliphatic structure. This structure is similar to that of the organic materials found in meteorites, as would be expected if the Solar System had inherited these organic materials from interstellar sources.

  16. Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic polycarbonates.

    PubMed

    Artham, Trishul; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Polycarbonate is one of the most widely used engineering plastics because of its superior physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Understanding the biodegradation of this polymer is of great importance to answer the increasing problems in waste management of this polymer. Aliphatic polycarbonates are known to biodegrade either through the action of pure enzymes or by bacterial whole cells. Very little information is available that deals with the biodegradation of aromatic polycarbonates. Biodegradation is governed by different factors that include polymer characteristics, type of organism, and nature of pretreatment. The polymer characteristics such as its mobility, tacticity, crystallinity, molecular weight, the type of functional groups and substituents present in its structure, and plasticizers or additives added to the polymer all play an important role in its degradation. The carbonate bond in aliphatic polycarbonates is facile and hence this polymer is easily biodegradable. On the other hand, bisphenol A polycarbonate contains benzene rings and quaternary carbon atoms which form bulky and stiff chains that enhance rigidity. Even though this polycarbonate is amorphous in nature because of considerable free volume, it is non-biodegradable since the carbonate bond is inaccessible to enzymes because of the presence of bulky phenyl groups on either side. In order to facilitate the biodegradation of polymers few pretreatment techniques which include photo-oxidation, gamma-irradiation, or use of chemicals have been tested. Addition of biosurfactants to improve the interaction between the polymer and the microorganisms, and blending with natural or synthetic polymers that degrade easily, can also enhance the biodegradation.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in size-fractionated particles emitted in an urban road tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, C. A.; Vicente, A. M. P.; Gomes, J.; Nunes, T.; Duarte, M.; Bandowe, B. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    A sampling campaign of size segregated particulate matter (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5 and PM2.5-10) was carried out at two sites, one in a road tunnel (Braga, Portugal) and another at an urban background location in the neighbourhood. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds were extracted with organic solvents and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty six parent and alkyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), 15 nitrated and 15 oxygenated derivatives (NPAHs and OPAHs) were analysed. On average, submicron particles (PM1) in the tunnel comprised 93, 91, 96 and 71% of the total PAHs, OPAHs, NPAHs and AZAs mass in PM10, respectively. Tunnel to outdoor PAH concentration ratios between 10 and 14 reveal the strong contribution of fresh exhaust emissions to the PM loads. The dominant PAHs in the tunnel were pyrene, retene and benzo[ghi]perylene, accounting for 20, 17 and 8% of the total PAH levels in PM10, respectively. Isomer ratios indicated the importance of unburnt fuel as a significant PAH source. The only NPAH consistently present in all samples was 5-nitroacenaphthene. Indanone and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for 25 and 17% of the total concentrations of this organic class, respectively. Other abundant OPAHs were 1,4-naphthoquinone, 9-fluorenone, 1,2-acenaphthylenequinone and 7H-benz[de]anthracene-7-one. Individual emission factors (μg veh- 1 km- 1) were estimated and compared with those obtained in other tunnel studies.

  18. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  19. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  20. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-02-01

    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 µg L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples.

  1. Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions and asphaltenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, Arturo

    2013-03-01

    The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e. aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified infrared emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g. coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely `distillate aromatic extract', `Residual Aromatic Extract', heavy aromatic fraction (BQ-1) and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.66 μm) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.66-200 μm), and the infrared bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-aliphatic C-H stretching bands of certain PPNe, a result which is not achieved neither by the coal model nor by the other petroleum fractions considered here. This study shows that a new interesting molecular model of the emission features of PPNe is asphaltene molecules which are composed by an aromatic core containing three to four condensed aromatic rings surrounded by cycloaliphatic (naphtenic) and aliphatic alkyl chains. Instead, the weakness of the model involving a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for modelling the aromatic infrared emission bands (AIBs) is shown. The laboratory spectra of these complex organic compounds represent a unique data set of high value for the astronomical community, e.g. they may be compared with the Herschel Space Observatory spectra (˜51-220 μm) of several astrophysical environments such as (proto-) planetary nebulae, H

  2. Crosslinked structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids as stationary phases for the analysis of hydrocarbons in kerosene and diesel fuels by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Park, Rodney A; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-04-01

    Structurally-tuned ionic liquids (ILs) have been previously applied as the second dimension column in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and have demonstrated high selectivity in the separation of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons from other aliphatic hydrocarbons. However, the maximum operating temperatures of these stationary phases limit the separation of analytes with high boiling points. In order to address this issue, a series of polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based stationary phases were prepared in this study using imidazolium-based IL monomers via in-column free radical polymerization. The IL monomers were functionalized with long alkyl chain substituents to provide the needed selectivity for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Columns were prepared with different film thicknesses to identify the best performing stationary phase for the separation of kerosene. The bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([NTf2](-))-based PIL stationary phase with larger film thickness (0.28μm) exhibited higher selectivity for aliphatic hydrocarbons and showed a maximum allowable operating temperature of 300°C. PIL-based stationary phases containing varied amount of IL-based crosslinker were prepared to study the effect of the crosslinker on the selectivity and thermal stability of the resulting stationary phase. The optimal resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was achieved when 50% (w/w) of crosslinker was incorporated into the PIL-based stationary phase. The resulting stationary phase exhibited good selectivity for different groups of aliphatic hydrocarbons even after being conditioned at 325°C. Finally, the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase was compared with SUPELCOWAX 10 and DB-17 columns for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuel. Better resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was obtained when employing the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase as the second dimension column. PMID:26916595

  3. Crosslinked structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids as stationary phases for the analysis of hydrocarbons in kerosene and diesel fuels by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Park, Rodney A; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-04-01

    Structurally-tuned ionic liquids (ILs) have been previously applied as the second dimension column in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and have demonstrated high selectivity in the separation of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons from other aliphatic hydrocarbons. However, the maximum operating temperatures of these stationary phases limit the separation of analytes with high boiling points. In order to address this issue, a series of polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based stationary phases were prepared in this study using imidazolium-based IL monomers via in-column free radical polymerization. The IL monomers were functionalized with long alkyl chain substituents to provide the needed selectivity for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Columns were prepared with different film thicknesses to identify the best performing stationary phase for the separation of kerosene. The bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([NTf2](-))-based PIL stationary phase with larger film thickness (0.28μm) exhibited higher selectivity for aliphatic hydrocarbons and showed a maximum allowable operating temperature of 300°C. PIL-based stationary phases containing varied amount of IL-based crosslinker were prepared to study the effect of the crosslinker on the selectivity and thermal stability of the resulting stationary phase. The optimal resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was achieved when 50% (w/w) of crosslinker was incorporated into the PIL-based stationary phase. The resulting stationary phase exhibited good selectivity for different groups of aliphatic hydrocarbons even after being conditioned at 325°C. Finally, the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase was compared with SUPELCOWAX 10 and DB-17 columns for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuel. Better resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was obtained when employing the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase as the second dimension column.

  4. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  5. Metalloradical-catalyzed aliphatic carbon-carbon activation of cyclooctane.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yun Wai; Chan, Kin Shing

    2010-05-26

    The aliphatic carbon-carbon activation of c-octane was achieved via the addition of Rh(ttp)H to give Rh(ttp)(n-octyl) in good yield under mild reaction conditions. The aliphatic carbon-carbon activation was Rh(II)(ttp)-catalyzed and was very sensitive to porphyrin sterics.

  6. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  7. Aryl isomerization during aliphatic CH bond activation

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, L.R.; Rothwell, I.P.

    1983-03-23

    The transition-metal-stablized benzyne or o-phenylene (n/sup 2/-C/sub 6/H/sub 4/) ligand has been shown to be both an interesting and reactive group. The ligand is normally generated in mononuclear systems by ..beta..- (ortho-) hydrogen abstraction from an aryl group, and this synthetic approach has allowed a stable example to be isolated and structurally characterized. Here the conclusive identification of a benzyne intermediate during the isomerization of a tantalum-aryl compound is reported. The reaction is interesting in that the ortho hydrogen is transferred to the carbon atom of a cyclometalated chelate, the reverse (isomerization) step thus involving the activation of an aliphatic CH bond by the intermediate benzyne.

  8. Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Headquarters chartered the Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objective of this effort is to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Successful completion of this project will result in one or more isocyanate-free coating systems qualified for use at Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA centers participating in this study. The objective of this project is to qualify the candidates under the specifications for the standard system. This project will compare coating performance of the proposed alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  9. Development of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Gautam, Santosh; Liu, Li; Dey, Jagannath; Chen, Wei; Mason, Ralph P.; Serrano, Carlos A.; Schug, Kevin A.; Tang, Liping

    2009-01-01

    None of the current biodegradable polymers can function as both implant materials and fluorescent imaging probes. The objective of this study was to develop aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers (BPLPs) and their associated cross-linked variants (CBPLPs) for biomedical applications. BPLPs are degradable oligomers synthesized from biocompatible monomers including citric acid, aliphatic diols, and various amino acids via a convenient and cost-effective polycondensation reaction. BPLPs can be further cross-linked into elastomeric cross-linked polymers, CBPLPs. We have shown representatively that BPLP-cysteine (BPLP-Cys) and BPLP-serine (BPLP-Ser) offer advantages over the traditional fluorescent organic dyes and quantum dots because of their preliminarily demonstrated cytocompatibility in vitro, minimal chronic inflammatory responses in vivo, controlled degradability and high quantum yields (up to 62.33%), tunable fluorescence emission (up to 725 nm), and photostability. The tensile strength of CBPLP-Cys film ranged from 3.25 ± 0.13 MPa to 6.5 ± 0.8 MPa and the initial Modulus was in a range of 3.34 ± 0.15 MPa to 7.02 ± 1.40 MPa. Elastic CBPLP-Cys could be elongated up to 240 ± 36%. The compressive modulus of BPLP-Cys (0.6) (1:1:0.6 OD:CA:Cys) porous scaffold was 39.60 ± 5.90 KPa confirming the soft nature of the scaffolds. BPLPs also possess great processability for micro/nano-fabrication. We demonstrate the feasibility of using BPLP-Ser nanoparticles (“biodegradable quantum dots”) for in vitro cellular labeling and noninvasive in vivo imaging of tissue engineering scaffolds. The development of BPLPs and CBPLPs represents a new direction in developing fluorescent biomaterials and could impact tissue engineering, drug delivery, bioimaging. PMID:19506254

  10. Shape memory polymers based on uniform aliphatic urethane networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T S; Bearinger, J P; Herberg, J L; Marion III, J E; Wright, W J; Evans, C L; Maitland, D J

    2007-01-19

    Aliphatic urethane polymers have been synthesized and characterized, using monomers with high molecular symmetry, in order to form amorphous networks with very uniform supermolecular structures which can be used as photo-thermally actuable shape memory polymers (SMPs). The monomers used include hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trimethylhexamethylenediamine (TMHDI), N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine (HPED), triethanolamine (TEA), and 1,3-butanediol (BD). The new polymers were characterized by solvent extraction, NMR, XPS, UV/VIS, DSC, DMTA, and tensile testing. The resulting polymers were found to be single phase amorphous networks with very high gel fraction, excellent optical clarity, and extremely sharp single glass transitions in the range of 34 to 153 C. Thermomechanical testing of these materials confirms their excellent shape memory behavior, high recovery force, and low mechanical hysteresis (especially on multiple cycles), effectively behaving as ideal elastomers above T{sub g}. We believe these materials represent a new and potentially important class of SMPs, and should be especially useful in applications such as biomedical microdevices.

  11. Isotopic analyses of nitrogenous compounds from the Murchison meteorite: ammonia, amines, amino acids, and polar hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzarello, S.; Feng, X.; Epstein, S.; Cronin, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The combined volatile bases (ammonia, aliphatic amines, and possibly other bases), ammonia, amino acids, and polar hydrocarbons were prepared from the Murchison meteorite for isotopic analyses. The volatile bases were obtained by cryogenic transfer after acid-hydrolysis of a hot-water extract and analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of pentafluoropropionyl derivatives. The aliphatic amines present in this preparation comprise a mixture that includes both primary and secondary isomers through C5 at a total concentration of > or = 100 nmoles g-1. As commonly observed for meteoritic organic compounds, almost all isomers through C5 are present, and the concentrations within homologous series decrease with increasing chain length. Ammonia was chromatographically separated from the other volatile bases and found at a concentration of 1.1-1.3 micromoles g-1 meteorite. The ammonia analyzed includes contributions from ammonium salts and the hydrolysis of extractable organic compounds, e.g., carboxamides. Stable isotope analyses showed the volatile bases to be substantially enriched in the heavier isotopes, relative to comparable terrestrial compounds delta D < or = +1221%; delta 13C = +22%; delta 15N = +93%). Ammonia, per se, was found to have a somewhat lower delta 15N value (+69%) than the total volatile bases; consequently, a higher delta 15N (>93%) can be inferred for the other bases, which include the amines. Solvent-extractable polar hydrocarbons obtained separately were found to be enriched in 15N (delta 15N = +104%). Total amino acids, prepared from a hydrolyzed hot-water extract by cation exchange chromatography, gave a delta 15N of +94%, a value in good agreement with that obtained previously. Nitrogen isotopic data are also given for amino acid fractions separated chromatographically. The delta 15N values of the Murchison soluble organic compounds analyzed to date fall within a rather narrow range (delta 15N = +94 +/- 8%), an observation

  12. Accumulation trends of petroleum hydrocarbons in commercial shellfish from the Galician coast (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Viñas, L; Franco, M A; Soriano, J A; González, J J; Ortiz, L; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

    2009-04-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in three species of commercial shellfish, namely razor shells (Ensis arcuatus and Ensis siliqua), goose barnacle (Pollicipes cornucopia) and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), living in different habitats and exhibiting different feeding behaviors. The samples were collected monthly, from January 2003 to October 2004, in three stations of the Galicia coast (NW Spain), following the Prestige oil spill, with the aim of assessing their response to the spill and, therefore, their suitability for monitoring purposes. The aliphatic fractions were mostly dominated by biogenic hydrocarbons, reflecting the diet composition of the organisms and their low metabolic capacity. The presence of oil was assessed by the determination of chemical markers. The analysis of the aromatic fractions revealed the occurrence of 3-6 ring parent and alkylated PAHs, consistent with a mixed petrogenic-pyrolytic origin, with the common feature of the predominance of chrysene in all samples collected after the spill. However, the distributions exhibited both temporal and interspecies variations. The PAH concentrations (Sigma13) increased significantly after the spill and decreased 6-7 months later close to background levels for the region. One year after the accident, the median values were: 58 microg/kg for razor shells, 26 microg/kg for barnacles, and 25 microg/kg for sea urchins. The temporal evolution of the PAH concentrations along the survey period was used to estimate loss rates for bioavailable PAHs in barnacles and sea urchins after the spill. Half-life values were in the order of 30 and 60 d, respectively. The results of the study demonstrate that barnacles can be suitable species for oil spill monitoring.

  13. Adsorption of halogenated aliphatic contaminants by graphene nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Apul, Onur Guven; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-08-01

    In this study, adsorption of ten environmentally halogenated aliphatic synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) by a pristine graphene nanosheet (GNS) and a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was examined, and their adsorption behaviors were compared with those of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and a granular activated carbon (GAC). In addition, the impacts of background water components (i.e., natural organic matter (NOM), ionic strength (IS) and pH) on the SOC adsorption behavior were investigated. The results indicated HD3000 and SWCNT with higher microporous volumes exhibited higher adsorption capacities for the selected aliphatic SOCs than graphenes, demonstrating microporosity of carbonaceous adsorbents played an important role in the adsorption. Analysis of adsorption isotherms demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions were the dominant contributor to the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs by graphenes. However, π-π electron donor-acceptor and van der Waals interactions are likely the additional mechanisms contributing to the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs on graphenes. Among the three background solution components examined, NOM showed the most influential effect on adsorption of the selected aliphatic SOCs, while pH and ionic strength had a negligible effects. The NOM competition on aliphatic adsorption was less pronounced on graphenes than SWCNT. Overall, in terms of adsorption capacities, graphenes tested in this study did not exhibit a major advantage over SWCNT and GAC for the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs.

  14. Occurrence, sources and transport pathways of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parinos, C.; Gogou, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; Pedrosa-Pàmies, R.; Hatzianestis, I.; Sànchez-Vidal, A.; Rousakis, G.; Velaoras, D.; Krokos, G.; Lykousis, V.

    2012-12-01

    Surface sediments collected from deep basins (22 stations, 1018-4087 m depth) of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) were analyzed for aliphatic, triterpenoid and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as tracers of natural and anthropogenic inputs. Concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAHC), n-alkanes (NA) and the Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM) of aliphatic hydrocarbons ranged from 1.34 to 49.2 µg g-1, 145 to 4810 ng g-1 and 0.73 to 36.7 µg g-1, respectively, while total PAHs (TPAH25) concentrations ranged from 11.6 to 223 ng g-1. Molecular profiles of aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs reflect the contribution of both natural (epicuticular plant waxes) and anthropogenic (degraded petroleum products, unburned fossil fuels and combustion of petroleum, grass, wood and coal) compounds in deep EMS sediments, with hydrocarbon mixtures displaying significant regional variability. Hydrocarbon concentrations correlated significantly with the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content of sediments, indicating that organic carbon exerts an important control on their transport and fate in the study area, while strong sub-basin and mesoscale variability of water masses also impact their regional characteristics. Major findings of this study support that deep basins/canyons of the EMS could act as traps of both natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons.

  15. QSARS for predicting biotic and abiotic reductive transformation rate constants of halogenated hydrocarbons in anoxic sediment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; 't Hart, M.J.; den Hollander, H.A.; van de Meent, D.; Verboom, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are developed relating biotic and abiotic pseudo-first-order disappearance rate constants of halogenated hydrocarbons in anoxic sediments to a number of readily available molecular descriptors. Based upon knowledge of the underlying reaction mechanisms, four descriptors were selected: carbon halogen bond strength, the summation of the Hammett (aromatics) and Taft (aliphatics) sigma constants and the inductive constants (aromatics) of the additional substituents, carbon-carbon bond dissociation energy (aliphatics), and steric factors of the additional substituents. Comparison of the abiotic and biotic QSARs clearly showed the close similarities between both processes. By correlating the rate constants for reduction of a number of halocarbons obtained in a number of distinct sediment samples to the organic carbon content of the samples, the QSARs were made operative for predicting rates of reduction of given halocarbons in given sediment-water systems. The correlations were enhanced by taking into account the fraction of the compounds sorbed to the solid phase. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

  16. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  17. Phenylethanoid and aliphatic alcohol glycosides from Acanthus ilicifolius.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Zhang, Si; Xiao, Qiang; Li, Qingxin; Huang, Jianshe; Long, Lijuan; Huang, Liangmin

    2003-06-01

    A phenylethanoid glycoside (ilicifolioside A) and an aliphatic alcohol glycoside (ilicifolioside B), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Acanthus ilicifolius, together with eight known compounds. Their structures were determined from spectroscopic analyses.

  18. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of synthetic aliphatic and aromatic monoacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela; Todorova, Iva; Parushev, Stoyan; Tsvetkova, Iva; Najdenski, Hristo; Ubukata, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of synthetic aliphatic and aromatic monoacylglycerols (MAGs) was studied against two human pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The active compounds inhibited selectively S. aureus. The most active compounds amongst them were those with medium size aliphatic chain and aromatic MAGs with electron withdrawing substituents at the aryl ring. The introduction of one or two-carbon spacer between the aryl ring and the carboxylic function did not influence antibacterial effectiveness. PMID:19004249

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants 4. Saturated halogenated aliphatics: Methyl bromide, epichlorhydrin, phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms are outlined for the reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the saturated halogenated aliphatic contaminants methyl bromide, epichlorhydrin, and phosgene. In-situ formation is important only for phosgene and involves the reaction of OH with chloroethenes and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. A ranking of these phosgene precursors is given using data for precursor ambient concentrations and chemical reactivity. The three toxic compounds studied are long-lived in the atmosphere, where removal of phosgene and methyl bromide by chemical reactions is negligibly slow. Epichlorhydrin is removed slowly by reaction with OH, leading to formaldehyde, chloroacetaldehyde, and the chlorinated peroxyacyl nitrate CH{sub 2}ClC(O)OONO{sub 2}.

  20. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants. 3. Unsaturated aliphatics: Acrolein, acrylonitrile, maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the unsaturated aliphatic contaminants acrolein, acrylonitrile, and maleic anhydride. In-situ formation of small amounts of acrolein and maleic anhydride may involve the reaction of OH (and O{sub 3}) with 1,3-dienes and the reaction of OH with aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. There is no known pathway for in-situ formation of acrylonitrile. Rapid removal of acrolein (half-life = less than one day) and of maleic anhydride (half-life = several hours) is expected from their rapid reactions with OH (major), O{sub 3}, and NO{sub 3}. These reactions lead to formaldehyde and glyoxal from acrolein and to dicarbonyls from maleic anhydride. Acrylonitrile is removed at a slower rate (half-life = 2-7 days) by reaction with OH, leading to formaldehyde and formyl cyanide.

  1. Occurrence, sources and transport pathways of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parinos, C.; Gogou, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; Pedrosa-Pàmies, R.; Hatzianestis, I.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Rousakis, G.; Velaoras, D.; Krokos, G.; Lykousis, V.

    2013-09-01

    Surface sediments collected from deep basins (1018-4087 m depth) of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea, southern Aegean Sea and northwestern Levantine Sea) were analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as tracers of natural and anthropogenic inputs. Concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of aliphatic hydrocarbons varied significantly, ranging from 1.34 to 49.2 μg g-1, 145 to 4810 ng g-1 and 0.73 to 36.7 μg g-1, respectively, while concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged between 11.6 and 223 ng g-1. Molecular profiles of determined hydrocarbons reflect a mixed contribution from both natural and anthropogenic sources in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, i.e., terrestrial plant waxes, degraded petroleum products, unburned fossil fuels and combustion of grass, wood and coal. Hydrocarbon mixtures display significant variability amongst sub-regions, reflecting differences in the relative importance of inputs from various sources and phase associations/transport pathways of individual hydrocarbons that impact on their overall distribution and fate. Hydrocarbon concentrations correlated significantly with the organic carbon content of sediments, indicating that the latter exerts an important control on their transport and ultimate accumulation in deep basins. Additionally, water masses' circulation characteristics also seem to influence the regional features and distribution patterns of hydrocarbons. Our findings highlight the role of deep basins/canyons as repositories of both natural and anthropogenic chemical species.

  2. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D. N.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g., hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The ratio of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ, ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3) contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. As relative humidity (RH) increases, inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. The humid BA + N2O5 aerosol products were found to be very sensitive to the temperature at which the measurements were made within the streamwise continuous-flow thermal gradient CCN counter; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The variance of the measured aerosol κ values indicates that simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems' κ ranges within 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that aerosols formed via nighttime reactions with amines are likely to produce hygroscopic and volatile aerosol, whereas photochemical reactions with OH produce secondary organic aerosol of lower CCN activity. The contributions of semivolatile secondary organic and inorganic material from aliphatic amines must be considered for accurate hygroscopicity and CCN predictions from aliphatic amine systems.

  3. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of cold seeps in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Orange, D.L.; Martin, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Samples from four geographically and tectonically discrete cold seeps named Clam Flat, Clamfield, Horseshoe Scarp South, and Tubeworm City, within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary were analyzed for their hydrocarbon content. The sediment contains gaseous hydrocarbons and CO2, as well as high molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with various combinations of thermogenic and biogenic contributions from petroleum, marine, and terrigenous sources. Of particular interest is the cold seep site at Clamfield which is characterized by the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons including oil that can likely be correlated with oil-saturated strata at Majors Creek near Davenport, CA, USA. At Clam Flat, the evidence for thermogenic hydrocarbons is equivocal. At Horseshoe Scarp South and Tubeworm City, hydrocarbon gases, mainly methane, are likely microbial in origin. These varied sources of hydrocarbon gases highlight the diverse chemical systems that appear at cold seep communities. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  5. Carbon-rich dust past the asymptotic giant branch: Aliphatics, aromatics, and fullerenes in the Magellanic Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, G. C.; Lagadec, E.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Kraemer, K. E.; Weis, A. P.; Matsuura, M.; Volk, K.; Peeters, E.; Cami, J.; Duley, W. W.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Kemper, F.

    2014-08-10

    Infrared spectra of carbon-rich objects that have evolved off the asymptotic giant branch reveal a range of dust properties, including fullerenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons, and several unidentified features, including the 21 μm emission feature. To test for the presence of fullerenes, we used the position and width of the feature at 18.7-18.9 μm and examined other features at 17.4 and 6-9 μm. This method adds three new fullerene sources to the known sample, but it also calls into question three previous identifications. We confirm that the strong 11 μm features seen in some sources arise primarily from SiC, which may exist as a coating around carbonaceous cores and result from photo-processing. Spectra showing the 21 μm feature usually show the newly defined Class D PAH profile at 7-9 μm. These spectra exhibit unusual PAH profiles at 11-14 μm, with weak contributions at 12.7 μm, which we define as Class D1, or show features shifted to ∼11.4, 12.4, and 13.2 μm, which we define as Class D2. Alkyne hydrocarbons match the 15.8 μm feature associated with 21 μm emission. Sources showing fullerene emission but no PAHs have blue colors in the optical, suggesting a clear line of sight to the central source. Spectra with 21 μm features and Class D2 PAH emission also show photometric evidence for a relatively clear line of sight to the central source. The multiple associations of the 21 μm feature with aliphatic hydrocarbons suggest that the carrier is related to this material in some way.

  6. Aliphatic alcohols in spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.

  7. Compounds in airborne particulates - Salts and hydrocarbons. [at Cleveland, OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Antoine, A. C.; Fordyce, J. S.; Neustadter, H. E.; Leibecki, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the aliphatics as a group, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, acidity, and carbon in the airborne particulate matter were measured at 16 sites in Cleveland, OH over a 1-year period during 1971 and 1972. Analytical methods used included gas chromatography, colorimetry, and combustion techniques. Uncertainties in the concentrations associated with the sampling procedures, and the analytical methods are evaluated. The data are discussed relative to other studies and source origins. High concentrations downwind of coke ovens for 3,4 benzopyrene are discussed. Hydrocarbon correlation studies indicated no significant relations among compounds studied.

  8. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  9. Segregation and Alteration of Phenolic and Aliphatic Components of Root and Leaf Litter by Detritivores and Microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T. R.; Altmann, J.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Kalbitz, K.; Gamblin, D.; Nierop, K.

    2012-12-01

    The physical and microbial transformation of plant detritus in the litter layer and soil is accompanied by chemical separation of progressively soluble fractions and their movement into the rhizosphere driving subsequent soil processes. We investigated the combined action of specific detritivores, microbial decay, and leaching on the chemical separation of plant aromatic and aliphatic components from root, wood, and leaf tissue using 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis. This method enabled the simultaneous analysis of hydrolyzable tannin and lignin fragments, substituted fatty acids, and condensed tannin composition and revealed process-specific chemical transformations to plant secondary compounds. Long-term incubation and field sampling demonstrated how plant residues are progressively leached of the water soluble, oxidized fragments generated through decay. The residues appeared only slightly altered, in the case of brown rot wood, or enriched in aliphatic fragments, in the case of leaf and root tissue. Water extractable fractions were always selectively dominated by polyphenolics, either as demethylated lignin or tannins, and nearly devoid of aliphatic materials, despite high concentrations in the starting materials. Additionally, for plant materials with high tannin contents, such as pine needles, consumption and passage through some arthropod guts revealed what appeared to be microbially-mediated methylation of phenols, and a loss of tannins in leachates. These findings are indications for an in-situ phenol detoxification mechanism. This research provides important information regarding the links between biochemical decay and the chemical nature of organic matter removed and remaining in the soil profile.

  10. Hydrocarbons in the ISM: Their Evolution and the Grain-to-Molecule Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anthony P.

    The evolution of hydrocarbon grains in the ISM is determined, principally, by the effects of photo-processing (annealing) which lead to a progressive loss of hydrogen from the structure and an associated 'graphitisation' of the material. Eventually this 'graphitisation' results in a low-density, highly aromatic material that can disaggregate into its aromatic-rich molecular components. These changes are followed through the use of an extended random covalent network (RCN) model for the hydrocarbon structure. This type of 'top down' process could be a significant source of the large molecular infrared band carriers in photon dominated regions. On the basis of this simple model there should thus be a relationship between the small grain and large molecule infrared emission bands across, and within, astrophysical boundaries such as photo-dissociation regions. 1. Introduction Carbon is the most abundant dust-forming element in the ISM and a large fraction of this carbon is in the form of grains comprised, principally, of hydrocarbon materials, including those where the hydrogen content is minimal. Interstellar hydrocarbon grains include: graphite, hydrogenated amorphous aliphatic and/or aromatic hydrocarbons (a-C, a-C:H) and (nano)diamond. These hydrocarbon dusts play a pivotal role in determining, amongst other things, the interstellar extinction, the dust thermal emission and the photo-electric heating of the gas in the ISM. 2. Hydrocarbon grains in the ISM Hydrocarbon grains are formed in the circumstellar shells around C-rich evolved stars, in supernova ejecta and also in the ISM itself via accretion and solid-state chemistry. The physical and chemical properties of hydrocarbon grains are indeed complex and vary in response to the ambient conditions (density, temperature, radiation field, ...). For example they can undergo both chemical and physical processing (growth and changes in chemical composition through accretion and reaction, erosion via inertial or chemi

  11. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Puget Sound region - II. Sedimentary diterpenoid, steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrick, Robert C.; Hedges, John I.

    1981-03-01

    Cyclic components of the 'aliphatic' hydrocarbon mixtures extracted from Puget Sound sediment cores include a suite of C 19 and C 20 diterpenoid hydrocarbons of which fichtelite. sandaracopimaradiene, and isopimaradiene have been identified. Although apparently also derived from vascular plants, these diterpenoid hydrocarbons have relative abundances distinctly different from the co-existing plant wax n-alkane suite. Five C 27, C 28 and C 29 diasteranes and four C 29, C 30 and C 31 17α(H), 21β(H) hopanes occur in relatively constant proportion as components of a highly weathered fossil hydrocarbon assemblage. These chromatographically resolved cycloalkanes. along with the strongly covarying unresolved complex mixture, have been introduced to Puget Sound sediments from adjacent urban centres at increasing levels over the last 100 yr in the absence of any major oil spill. Naturally-occurring triterpenoid hydrocarbons, including hop-22(29)-ene (diploptene), are also present. A new group of C 30 polyenes has been detected which contains compounds apparently structurally related to a co-existing bicyclic C 25 diene and to C 20 and C 25 acyclic multibranched hydrocarbons described in a previous paper ( BARRICK et al., 1980).

  12. Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: residual crude-derived hydrocarbons and potential AhR-mediated activities in coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jinsoon; Song, Sung Joon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Choi, Kyungho; Ji, Kyunghee; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Lee, Woojin; Choi, Yeyong; Lee, Kyu Tae; Kim, Chan-Kook; Shim, Won Joon; Naile, Jonathan E; Giesy, John P

    2012-02-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred in December 2007 approximately 10 km off the coast of Taean, South Korea, on the Yellow Sea. However, the exposure and potential effects remain largely unknown. A total of 50 surface and subsurface sediment samples were collected from 22 sampling locations at the spill site in order to determine the concentration, distribution, composition of residual crudes, and to evaluate the potential ecological risk after two years of oil exposure. Samples were extracted and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 alkyl-PAHs, 15 aliphatic hydrocarbons, and total petroleum hydrocarbons using GC-MSD. AhR-mediated activity associated with organic sediment extracts was screened using the H4IIE-luc cell bioassay. The response of the benthic invertebrate community was assessed by mapping the macrobenthic fauna. Elevated concentrations of residual crudes from the oil spill were primarily found in muddy bottoms, particularly in subsurface layers. In general, the bioassay results were consistent with the chemistry data in a dose-dependent manner, although the mass-balance was incomplete. More weathered samples containing greater fractions of alkylated PAHs exhibited greater AhR activity, due to the occurrence of recalcitrant AhR agonists present in residual oils. The macrobenthic population distribution exhibits signs of species-specific tolerances and/or recolonization of certain species such as Batillaria during weathering periods. Although the Hebei Spirit oil spill was a severe oil exposure, it appears the site is recovering two years later.

  13. Effects of nitrosation on the chemical composition and epidermal carcinogenicity of the nitrogen-rich fraction of a high-boiling coal liquid.

    PubMed

    Wright, C W; Chess, E K; Renne, R A; Buschbom, R L

    1988-04-01

    An 800-850 degrees F solvent-refined coal-II liquid was fractionated into chemical classes to obtain the aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (NPAC), and hydroxy-substituted PAH (hydroxy-PAH). The isolated NPAC fraction was refractionated by chemical class both before and after undergoing a nitrosation reaction. The nitrosated and non-nitrosated refractionated NPAC fractions were further subfractionated into secondary amine (pyrroles), primary amine-enriched (amino-PAH), and tertiary amine (azaarene) classes. The PAH and hydroxy-PAH composition of the NPAC fraction increased upon nitrosation, whereas the amino-PAH fraction composition decreased upon nitrosation. Nitrosation of standards indicated the amino-PAH compounds reacted to form parent PAH, chloro-substituted PAH, and methoxy-substituted PAH when analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS). Some easily oxidized PAH compounds reacted to form ketones and quinones. All other standard reference compounds, chosen to be representative of the major chemical classes of compounds present in coal liquefaction materials, were unchanged by the nitrosation reaction. The amino-PAH of the nitrosated NPAC fraction reacted to form parent and some chloro-substituted PAH when analyzed by low-voltage direct-probe MS in addition to the methods given above. Epidermal carcinogenesis studies with the PAH, NPAC, nitrosated NPAC, and hydroxy-PAH fractions isolated from the 800-850 degrees F coal liquid indicated the PAH and NPAC were the most important determiners of skin carcinogenesis, with the PAH giving a higher response than the NPAC. The tumorigenicity of the NPAC was drastically reduced by nitrosation, probably due to the destruction of the amino-PAH upon nitrosation.

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the.... Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the.... Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03...

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1 You May Use the Mass Fraction Values in the...: Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic percent HAP, by mass Aliphatic 2 0.03...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the... Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the... Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03...

  19. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1 You May Use the Mass Fraction Values in the...: Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic percent HAP, by mass Aliphatic 2 0.03...

  20. Molecular tracers of saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Beizhan Yan; Teofilo A. Abrajano; Richard F. Bopp; Damon A. Chaky; Lucille A. Benedict; Steven N. Chillrud

    2005-09-15

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on {sup 210}Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by {sup 137}Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R (the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction) and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP (1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP), retene to retene plus chrysene (Ret/(Ret + Chy)), and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene (Fl/(Fl + Py))) provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Catalytic Asymmetric Hydroamination of Unactivated Internal Olefins to Aliphatic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Shi-Liang; Niu, Dawen; Liu, Peng; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic assembly of enantiopure aliphatic amines from abundant and readily available precursors has long been recognized as a paramount challenge in synthetic chemistry. Herein, we describe a mild and general copper-catalyzed hydroamination that effectively converts unactivated internal olefins, an important yet unexploited class of abundant feedstock chemicals, into highly enantioenriched α-branched amines (≥ 96% enantiomeric excess) featuring two minimally differentiated aliphatic substituents. This method provides a powerful means to access a broad range of advanced, highly functionalized enantioenriched amines of interest in pharmaceutical research and other areas. PMID:26138973

  2. Optimized conditions for hydrocarbon group type analysis of base oils by thin-layer chromatography-flame ionisation detection.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Marian; Gudebska, Joanna; Górecki, Tadeusz; Kartanowicz, Rafał

    2003-04-01

    The results of research on the optimization of the thin-layer chromatography-flame ionisation detection for the determination of group composition of natural base oils, including separation of the aromatics into subgroups, are presented. Neutral base oils obtained in several steps of refining from vacuum distillation petroleum fractions are the most difficult to analyze by hydrocarbon group type analysis (HGTA) because of the high content of aliphatic fragments in their molecules. Factors affecting the accuracy and precision of the results were identified. The paper presents the analytical procedure, including two different calibration methods, as well as the results of studies on the reproducibility of HGTA of typical base oils of different viscosity classes under the optimized conditions. The same conditions were found suitable for HGTA of other high-boiling petroleum fractions by TLC with flame ionisation detection. The paper also introduces a new procedure for reproducible determination of polar fractions in base oils utilizing solid-phase extraction columns, and presents a corrected procedure for the determination of saturated compounds and aromatics (mono-, bi- and polycyclic) in base oils by column liquid chromatography.

  3. Partial oxidation of heavy refinery fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, R.M.; Rhodes, H.A.; Wallon, S.B.

    1984-07-31

    This is a partial oxidation process in which heavy hydrocarbonaceous fractions from a petroleum refinery and light liquid paraffinic hydrocarbon extractants are used in the production of synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas i.e., gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/ and CO. In the process, substantially all of the particulate carbon and soot that are simultaneously produced are recovered and recycled to the reaction zone. A dispersion of carbon-soot-light paraffinic hydrocarbon extractant from the decanting zone is combined with a heavy refinery fraction in admixture with a liquid aromatic-rich hydrocarbon to produce a pumpable single liquid phase mixture which is introduced into a fractionation zone where the following streams are separated from each other: (a) a stream of light paraffinic hydrocarbon extractant which is recycled to the decanting zone, (b) a stream comprising at least a portion of the aromatic-rich hydrocarbon which is recycled for mixing with the heavy refinery fraction, and (c) a stream of pumpable dispersion of carbon-soot heavy refinery fraction and any remaining aromatic-rich hydrocarbon which may be used as fuel in the system or exported. Troublesome asphaltene precipitation that causes operational problems and increased viscosity is avoided by the subject process. Comparatively low cost heavy refinery fractions which ordinarily are difficult to handle may be now used along with light liquid paraffinic hydrocarbon extractants.

  4. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemistry is ultimately the study of sources, movement, and fate of chemicals in the geosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. Environmental organic geochemistry focuses such studies on organic compounds of toxicological and ecological concern (e.g., Schwarzenbach et al., 1993, 1998; Eganhouse, 1997). This field emphasizes not only those compounds with potential toxicological properties, but also the geological systems accessible to the biological receptors of those hazards. Hence, the examples presented in this chapter focus on hydrocarbons with known health and ecological concern in accessible shallow, primarily aquatic, environments.Modern society depends on oil for energy and a variety of other daily needs, with present mineral oil consumption throughout the 1990s exceeding 3×109 t yr-1 (NRC, 2002). In the USA, e.g., ˜40% of energy consumed and 97% of transportation fuels are derived from oil. In the process of extraction, refinement, transport, use, and waste production, a small but environmentally significant fraction of raw oil materials, processed products, and waste are released inadvertently or purposefully into the environment. Because their presence and concentration in the shallow environments are often the result of human activities, these organic materials are generally referred to as "environmental contaminants." Although such reference connotes some form of toxicological or ecological hazard, specific health or ecological effects of many organic "environmental contaminants" remain to be demonstrated. Some are, in fact, likely innocuous at the levels that they are found in many systems, and simply adds to the milieu of biogenic organic compounds that naturally cycle through the shallow environment. Indeed, virtually all compounds in crude oil and processed petroleum products have been introduced naturally to the shallow environments as oil and gas seepage for millions of years ( NRC, 2002). Even high molecular weight (HMW) polyaromatic

  5. Applicability of the theory of thermodynamic similarity to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of thermodynamic similarity is used to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes. The predicted data allow us to calculate the phase diagrams of liquid-vapor equilibrium in a binary water-aliphatic aldehyde system.

  6. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, Gregory A.; Thomas, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  7. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  8. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  9. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, Gregory A.; Thomas, Charles P.

    1996-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  10. Selective stabilization of aliphatic organic carbon by iron oxide

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Dinesh; Yang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Stabilization of organic matter in soil is important for natural ecosystem to sequestrate carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emission. It is largely unknown what factors govern the preservation of organic carbon in soil, casting shadow on predicting the response of soil to climate change. Iron oxide was suggested as an important mineral preserving soil organic carbon. However, ferric minerals are subject to reduction, potentially releasing iron and decreasing the stability of iron-bound organic carbon. Information about the stability of iron-bound organic carbon in the redox reaction is limited. Herein, we investigated the sorptive interactions of organic matter with hematite and reductive release of hematite-bound organic matter. Impacts of organic matter composition and conformation on its sorption by hematite and release during the reduction reaction were analyzed. We found that hematite-bound aliphatic carbon was more resistant to reduction release, although hematite preferred to sorb more aromatic carbon. Resistance to reductive release represents a new mechanism that aliphatic soil organic matter was stabilized by association with iron oxide. Selective stabilization of aliphatic over aromatic carbon can greatly contribute to the widely observed accumulation of aliphatic carbon in soil, which cannot be explained by sorptive interactions between minerals and organic matter. PMID:26061259

  11. Triphosgene–Amine Base Promoted Chlorination of Unactivated Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando, Andrés; Ayala, Caitlan E.; Watson, Christopher B.; Kartika, Rendy

    2014-01-01

    Unactivated α-branched primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols have been successfully transformed into their corresponding alkyl chlorides in high yields upon treatment with a mixture of triphosgene and pyridine in dichloromethane at reflux. These mild chlorination conditions are high yielding, stereospecific, and well tolerated by numerous sensitive functionalities. Furthermore, no nuisance waste products are generated in the course of the reactions. PMID:23496045

  12. Selective stabilization of aliphatic organic carbon by iron oxide.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Dinesh; Yang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Stabilization of organic matter in soil is important for natural ecosystem to sequestrate carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emission. It is largely unknown what factors govern the preservation of organic carbon in soil, casting shadow on predicting the response of soil to climate change. Iron oxide was suggested as an important mineral preserving soil organic carbon. However, ferric minerals are subject to reduction, potentially releasing iron and decreasing the stability of iron-bound organic carbon. Information about the stability of iron-bound organic carbon in the redox reaction is limited. Herein, we investigated the sorptive interactions of organic matter with hematite and reductive release of hematite-bound organic matter. Impacts of organic matter composition and conformation on its sorption by hematite and release during the reduction reaction were analyzed. We found that hematite-bound aliphatic carbon was more resistant to reduction release, although hematite preferred to sorb more aromatic carbon. Resistance to reductive release represents a new mechanism that aliphatic soil organic matter was stabilized by association with iron oxide. Selective stabilization of aliphatic over aromatic carbon can greatly contribute to the widely observed accumulation of aliphatic carbon in soil, which cannot be explained by sorptive interactions between minerals and organic matter. PMID:26061259

  13. Introducing Aliphatic Substitution with a Discovery Experiment Using Competing Electrophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Timothy P.; Mostovoy, Amelia J.; Curran, Margaret E.; Berger, Clara

    2016-01-01

    A facile, discovery-based experiment is described that introduces aliphatic substitution in an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. Unlike other discovery-based experiments that examine substitution using two competing nucleophiles with a single electrophile, this experiment compares two isomeric, competing electrophiles…

  14. A thermostable transketolase evolved for aliphatic aldehyde acceptors.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong; Saravanan, Thangavelu; Devamani, Titu; Charmantray, Franck; Hecquet, Laurence; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-01-11

    Directed evolution of the thermostable transketolase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus based on a pH-based colorimetric screening of smart libraries yielded several mutants with up to 16-fold higher activity for aliphatic aldehydes and high enantioselectivity (>95% ee) in the asymmetric carboligation step. PMID:25415647

  15. Aqueous solubility and octan-1-ol to water partition coefficients of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, M.; Connell, D.W.; Barron, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    The aqueous solubility (S) and octanol-water partition coefficients (P) of homologous series of n-, 2-methyl-, and 3-methylalkanes, as well as 1-alkenes, have been determined by extrapolation of known results, direct measurement, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HP-LC). Long-term equilibration experiments, used to reduce aggregate formation, indicated that n-dodecane and n-tetradecane have S values in agreement with those obtained by extrapolation of the data on lower members. HPLC data from reverse-phase columns further validated the use of extrapolation. By use of published values for P and S for lower n-alkanes, the relationships between log P, log S, and N/sub c/ were obtained. Cochromatography of n-alkanes with members of the other series then allowed these relationships to be determined for the 2- and 3-methylalkanes and the 1-alkenes. The derived S values were in reasonable agreement with values from previous work and those obtained by extrapolation. The log P values have not been previously determined for these compounds.

  16. ANAEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS: UGLY DUCKLING TO BEAUTIFUL SWAN. (R825549C053)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. ANAEROBIC BIOTRANSFORRNATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS: UGLY DUCKLING TO BEAUTIFUL SWAN. (R825549C044)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Use of aliphatic hydrocarbons to infer terrestrial organic matter in coastal marine sediments off China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Guan, Yu-Feng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    Sediment samples from the marine systems along the coast of China, covering Yellow Sea, inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) and the South China Sea (SCS), were analyzed for n-alkanes and organic carbon. The concentrations of Σn-C(15-35) were 120-1680 ng g(-1) dry weight with an average of 560 ng g(-1). Short-chain n-alkanes (C(21)) were mainly derived from terrestrial higher plants. Organic carbon deposited into Yellow Sea and Southeast Hainan within the SCS was mainly of terrestrial (13-110%; mean: 58%) and marine (48-110%; mean: 86%) sources, respectively. On the other hand, organic carbon accumulated in the SCS adjacent to the Pearl River Estuary was derived from both terrestrial and marine sources.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10608 - Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with alkanediol and alkylglycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10608 Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10608 - Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with alkanediol and alkylglycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10608 Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  2. Investigation of thermodynamic properties of hyperbranched aliphatic polyesters by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dritsas, G S; Karatasos, K; Panayiotou, C

    2009-12-18

    Thermodynamic properties of a series of commercial hyperbranched aliphatic polyesters (Boltorn H20, H30 and H40) were examined for the first time by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) using 13 different solvents at infinite dilution as probes. Retention data of probes were utilized for an extensive characterization of polymers, which includes the determination of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, the weight fraction activity coefficient as well as the total and partial solubility parameters. Analysis of the results indicated that the total and partial solubility parameters decrease with increase of temperature. Furthermore, upon increase of the molecular weight, while the hydrogen bonding component decreases, no influence on the total solubility parameter is noticed within the experimental error margins. Results from the present study while providing new insight to the thermodynamic characteristics of the examined systems, they are also expected to reflect more general aspects of the behavior of hyperbranched polymers bearing similar end-groups.

  3. Aerobic degradation of a hydrocarbon mixture in natural uncontaminated potting soil by indigenous microorganisms at 20 degrees C and 6 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, M; Dalhammar, G; Borg-Karlson, A K

    1999-04-01

    A hydrocarbon mixture containing p-xylene, naphthalene, Br-naphthalene and straight aliphatic hydrocarbons (C14 to C17) was aerobically degraded without lag phase by a natural uncontaminated potting soil at 20 degrees C and 6 degrees C. Starting concentrations were approximately 46 ppm for the aromatic and 13 ppm for the aliphatic compounds. All aliphatic hydrocarbons were degraded within 5 days at 20 degrees C, to levels below detection (ppb levels) but only down to 10% of initial concentration at 6 degrees C. Naphthalene was degraded within 12 days at 20 degrees C and unaffected at 6 degrees C. At 20 degrees C p-xylene was degraded within 20 days, but no degradation occurred at 6 degrees C. Br-naphthalene was only removed down to 30% of initial concentration at 20 degrees C, with no significant effect at 6 degrees C. The biodegradation was monitored with head space solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  4. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, C.; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.

    2008-01-01

    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  6. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  7. A biotechnological approach to the synthesis of epoxides: bioconversion of hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas oleovorans during growth in a multiphase system

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    This communication examines the oxidation of alkanes and alkenes by Pseudomonas oleovorans. A variety of substrates were tested in order to extend the practical use of P. oleovorans for the synthesis of chiral epoxides. Concludes that hydrocarbon fermentations of P. oleovorans might be an important tool not only in the production of epoxides but also in the production of aliphatic polyesters and biosurfactants.

  8. Lipstick dermatitis due to C18 aliphatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Suzuki, M; Arima, Y; Ohkido, Y

    1987-04-01

    An 18-year-old girl developed cheilitis. She had a past history of lip cream dermatitis, but the cause was not found. Patch tests with 2 lipsticks were strongly positive. Tests with the ingredients were positive to 2 aliphatic compounds, glyceryl diisostearate and diisostearyl malate. Impurities in the materials were suspected as the cause. Analysis by gas chromatography detected 3 chemicals in glyceryl diisostearate and 1 in diisostearyl malate as impurities. Patch testing with the impurities and glyceryl monoisostearate 0.01% pet in glyceryl diisostearate and isostearyl alcohol 0.25% pet in diisostearyl malate were strongly positive. The characteristics common to the 2 chemicals were liquidity at room temperature, branched C18 aliphatic compound and primary alcohol. Chemicals lacking any of the above 3 features did not react.

  9. Biodegradation of Trihalomethanes and Other Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    The biological dehalogenation of common water pollutants such as trichloromethane (chloroform) and other halogenated aliphatic compounds was the subject of this project. Samples from diverse water environments such as from groundwater contaminated with halogenated compounds and wastewaters from regional treatment plants were studied to identify conditions that favor certain dehalogenation reactions over others. Gene probe analyses of DNA extracted from the dichlormethane-degrading wastewater indicated the presence of the gene coding for dichloromethane dehalogenase, indicating the genetic basis for the dechlorination activity observed. These studies indicate that methanogenic bacteria are the organisms responsible for the chloroform dechlorination. Dechlorination of a common chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11) was identified in samples taken from a regional aquifer contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  10. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-01-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed. PMID:26470633

  11. Room Temperature, Metal-Free Arylation of Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Raju; Lindstedt, Erik; Jalalian, Nazli; Olofsson, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Diaryliodonium salts are demonstrated as efficient arylating agents of aliphatic alcohols under metal-free conditions. The reaction proceeds at room temperature within 90 min to give alkyl aryl ethers in good to excellent yields. Aryl groups with electron-withdrawing substituents are transferred most efficiently, and unsymmetric iodonium salts give chemoselective arylations. The methodology has been applied to the formal synthesis of butoxycaine. PMID:24808991

  12. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-01-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed. PMID:26470633

  13. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-10-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed.

  14. Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev

    2009-04-15

    Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.

  15. Dissolved organic matter: Fractional composition and sorbability by the soil solid phase (Review of literature)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavanova, E. I.

    2013-08-01

    The behavior of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils under varying environmental conditions represents a poorly studied aspect of the problem of organic matter loss from soils. The equilibrium and sustainable development of ecosystems in the northern latitudes are largely determined by the balance between the formation of DOM, its accumulation in the lower soil horizons, and its input with runoff into surface waters. The residence time, retention strength in the soil, and thermodynamic and biochemical stabilities depend on the localization of DOM in the pore space and its chemical structure. Amphiphilic properties represent a valuable diagnostic parameter, which can be used to predict the behavior of DOM in the soil. Acidic components of hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature constitute the major portion of DOM in forest soils of the temperate zone. The hydrophilic fraction includes short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and amino acids and is poorly sorbed by the solid phase. However, the existence of this fraction in soil solution is also limited both in space (in the finest pores) and time because of higher accessibility to microbial degradation. The hydrophilic fraction composes the major portion of labile DOM in soils. The hydrophobic fraction consists of soluble degradation products of lignin; it is enriched in structural ortho-hydroxybenzene fragments, which ensure its selective sorption and strong retention in soils. Sorption is favored by low pH values (3.5-5), the high ionic strength of solution, the heavy texture and fine porous structure of soil, the high contents of oxalate- and dithionite-soluble iron (and aluminum) compounds, and hydrological conditions characterized by slow water movement. The adsorbed DOM is chemically and biochemically recalcitrant and significantly contributes to the humus reserves in the low mineral horizons of soils.

  16. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) quantifies the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coatings. The estimates in this CBA are to be used for assessing the relative merits of the selected alternatives. The actual economic effects at any specific facility will depend on the alternative material or technology implemented, the number of actual applications converted, future workloads, and other factors . The participants initially considered eighteen (18) alternative coatings as described in the Potential Alternatives Report entitled Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB. Of those, 8 alternatives were selected for testing in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, and the Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives 10 Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both of which were prepared by ITB. A joint Test Report entitled Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB, documents the results of the laboratory and field testing, as well as any

  18. Fractional randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.

  19. Road tunnel, roadside, and urban background measurements of aliphatic compounds in size-segregated particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Célia A.; Oliveira, César; Martins, Natércia; Mirante, Fátima; Caseiro, Alexandre; Pio, Casimiro; Matos, Manuel; Silva, Hugo F.; Oliveira, Cristina; Camões, Filomena

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter samples were collected in a road tunnel in Lisbon (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5, and PM2.5-10) and at two urban locations representing roadside and background stations (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10). Samples were analysed for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), n-alkanes, n-alkenes, hopanes, some isoprenoid compounds, and steranes. Particulate matter concentrations in the tunnel were 17-31 times higher than at roadside in the vicinity, evidencing an aerosol origin almost exclusively in fresh vehicle emissions. PM0.5 in the tunnel comprised more than 60% and 80% of the total OC and EC mass in PM10, respectively. Concentrations of the different aliphatic groups of compounds in the tunnel were up to 89 times higher than at roadside and 143 times higher than at urban background. Based on the application of hopane-to-OC or hopanes-to-EC ratios obtained in the tunnel, it was found that vehicle emissions are the dominant contributor to carbonaceous particles in the city but do not represent the only source of these triterpenic compounds. Contrary to what has been observed in other studies, the Σhopane-to-EC ratios were higher in summer than in winter, suggesting that other factors (e.g. biomass burning, dust resuspension, and different fuels/engine technologies) prevail in relation to the photochemical decay of triterpenoid hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust.

  20. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in recycled paper processing operations.

    PubMed

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino; Lykoudis, Spyros; Kavouras, Ilias G

    2006-09-21

    The aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of dust collected in the vicinity of recycled paper processing operations were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total measured dust concentration (up to 8.73+/-2.02 mg/m3) fluctuated substantially in the different steps of paper manufacture. This was attributed to the type of the operation such as, the release of fibers and particles during paper cutting and the use of reactive chemicals and excessive water under high temperature and pressure during the bleaching and the water rinsing/drying step. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (from fluorene to benzo[ghi]perylene with mean concentrations from 3.8+/-0.5 to 41.4+/-0.4 ng/m3) and the unresolved mixture of branched, cyclic and unsaturated hydrocarbons (UCM) were measured in all samples while, n-alkanes from n-C20 to n-C27, were only observed in cutting and packaging areas (from 180.6+/-18.9 to 4297.9+/-794.9 ng/m3). The profile of occupational PAHs in bleaching and treatment of contaminated recycled raw paper was comparable to that observed for anthropogenic activities. The values of molecular diagnostic ratios indicated the contribution of oil residues and emissions from worklifts and other equipment used for pulp and paper handling. Total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaP) concentrations of particulate PAHs (varied from 323 up to 1104 pg/m3), provided evidence that workers were exposed to high quantities of PAHs as compared with exposures to urban air and other indoor settings, posing long-term threat to their health. PMID:16704897

  1. Isotope and geochemical parameters of hydrocarbon gases in bottom sediments of the shelf of the East Siberian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresov, A. I.; Shakhova, N. E.; Sergiyenko, V. I.; Yatsuk, A. V.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    The research results on gas geochemistry of hydrocarbon gases in bottom sediments of the East Siberian Sea are presented. The key isotope and geochemical parameters of syn- and epigenetic hydrocarbon gases are determined. The correlations between the molecular masses of hydrocarbon fractions and the carbon isotope composition on hydrocarbon gases of various origin are revealed.

  2. The occurrence of monounsaturated n-C{sub 21} and polyunsaturated C{sub 25} sedimentary hydrocarbons in the liplids of Antractic marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cripps, G.C.

    1995-04-01

    Antarctic zooplankton have been found to be a potential source of sedimentary hydrocarbons. Monounsaturated C{sub 21} n-alkenes and highly branched polyunsaturated C{sub 25} n-alkenes were analysed in the aliphatic fraction of the lipids of Antarctic pelagic and inshore marine organisms. Cluster analysis of the species-based data set produced four main groups: phytoplankton, epipelagic herbivores, epipelagic carnivores and mesopelagic omnivores. The detailed pattern of alkenes exhibited differences within the groups and also with tissue type (krill, Euphausia superba). The origin of alkenes in Antarctic biota appeared to be either synthesis de nove or due to the condensation of smaller molecules. Formation of alkenes by the decarboxylation of fatty acids was not consistent with the hydrocarbon and fatty acid composition of Antarctic zooplankton. There was no evidence for direct assimilation of C{sub 21} and C{sub 25} alkenes by zooplankton or higher predators from their diet. Zooplankton C{sub 25} alkenes are probably transported unaltered directly to the sediment as detritus or via predators in faecal material. Sedimentary C{sub 25} alkenes are proposed as biomarkers of recent zooplankton activity in the water column. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Variations on a theme - the evolution of hydrocarbon solids. I. Compositional and spectral modelling - the eRCN and DG models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The compositional properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbons are known to evolve in response to the local conditions. Aims: We present a model for low-temperature, amorphous hydrocarbon solids, based on the microphysical properties of random and defected networks of carbon and hydrogen atoms, that can be used to study and predict the evolution of their properties in the interstellar medium. Methods: We adopt an adaptable and prescriptive approach to model these materials, which is based on a random covalent network (RCN) model, extended here to a full compositional derivation (the eRCN model), and a defective graphite (DG) model for the hydrogen poorer materials where the eRCN model is no longer valid. Results: We provide simple expressions that enable the determination of the structural, infrared and spectral properties of amorphous hydrocarbon grains as a function of the hydrogen atomic fraction, XH. Structural annealing, resulting from hydrogen atom loss, results in a transition from H-rich, aliphatic-rich to H-poor, aromatic-rich materials. Conclusions: The model predicts changes in the optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon dust in response to the likely UV photon-driven and/or thermal annealing processes resulting, principally, from the radiation field in the environment. We show how this dust component will evolve, compositionally and structurally in the interstellar medium in response to the local conditions. Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Hydrocarbons on the Icy Satellites of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    The Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Cassini Spacecraft has obtained spectral reflectance maps of the satellites of Saturn in the wavelength region 0.4-5.1 micrometers since its insertion into Saturn orbit in late 2004. We have detected the spectral signature of the C-H stretching molecular mode of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the low albedo material covering parts of several of Saturn's satellites, notably Iapetus and Phoebe (Cruikshank et al. 2008). The distribution of this material is complex, and in the case of Iapetus we are seeking to determine if it is related to the native grey-colored materials left as lag deposits upon evaporation of the ices, or represents in-fall from an external source, notably the newly discovered large dust ring originating at Phoebe. This report covers our latest exploration of the nature and source of this organic material.

  5. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  6. Production of liquid hydrocarbon and ether mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1989-05-16

    An integrated process is described for the production of ether-rich liquid fuels, comprising: (a) etherifying a mixture of excess lower alkyl alcohol and aliphatic hydrocarbon feedstock rich in C/sub 4/+isoalkenes in the presence of acid etherification catalyst whereby lower alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers are produced; (b) separating etherification effluent from step(a) to provide a gasoline stream rich in C/sub 5/+ ethers and a stream comprising unreacted alcohol and alkenes; (c) contacting the unreacted alcohol and alkenes with an acidic metallosilicate zeolite conversion catalyst under olefinic and oxygenates conversion conditions at a temperature of at least 200/sup 0/C (392/sup 0/F) whereby a conversion effluent stream rich in C/sub 4/+ isoalkenes is produced; (d) recycling at least a portion of the conversion effluent stream to step (a) for etherification.

  7. A multi-dimensional high performance liquid chromatographic method for fingerprinting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their alkyl-homologs in the heavy gas oil fraction of Alaskan North Slope crude.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Helferty, Anjali; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

    2007-07-13

    We report an offline multi-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique for the group separation and analysis of PAHs in a heavy gas oil fraction (boiling range 287-481 degrees C). Waxes present in the heavy gas oil fraction were precipitated using cold acetone at -20 degrees C. Recovery studies showed that the extract contained 93% (+/-1%; n=3) of the PAHs that were originally present while the wax residue contained only 6% (+/-0.5%; n=3). PAHs present in the extract were fractionated, based on number of rings, into five fractions using a semi-preparative silica column (normal-phase HPLC). These fractions were analyzed using reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). The method separated alkyl and un-substituted PAHs on two reverse-phase columns in series using an acetonitrile/water mobile phase. UV spectra of the chromatographic peaks were used to differentiate among PAH groups. Further characterization of PAHs within a given group to determine the substituent alkyl carbon number used retention time matching with a suite of alkyl-PAH standards. Naphthalene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene and fluorene and their C1-C4 alkyl isomers were quantified. The concentrations of these compounds obtained using the current method were compared with that of a GC-MS analysis obtained from an independent oil chemistry laboratory. PMID:17482627

  8. Aliphatic polyesters: great degradable polymers that cannot do everything.

    PubMed

    Vert, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays the open and the patent literatures propose a large number of polymers whose main chains can be degraded usefully. Among these degradable polymers, aliphatic polyester-based polymeric structures are receiving special attention because they are all more or less sensitive to hydrolytic degradation, a feature of interest when compared with the fact that living systems function in aqueous media. Only some of these aliphatic polyesters are enzymatically degradable. A smaller number is biodegradable, and an even more limited number is biorecyclable. To be of practical interest, a degradable polymer must fulfill many requirements that depend very much on the targeted application, on the considered living system, and on living conditions. It is shown that aliphatic polyester structures made of repeating units that can generate metabolites upon degradation or biodegradation like poly(beta-hydroxy alkanoate)s and poly(alpha-hydroxy alkanoate)s are of special interest. Their main characteristics are confronted to the specifications required by various potential sectors of applications, namely, surgery, pharmacology, and the environment. It is shown that degradation, bioresorption, and biorecycling that are targets when one wants to respect living systems are also drastic limiting factors when one wants to achieve a device of practical interest. Finding a universal polymer that would be the source of all the polymeric biomaterials needed to work in contact with living organisms of the various life kingdoms and respect them remains a dream. On the other hand, finding one polymeric structure than can fulfill the requirements of one niche application remains a big issue.

  9. Decarboxylative Fluorination of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids via Photoredox Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Ventre, Sandrine; Petronijevic, Filip R.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-01-01

    The direct conversion of aliphatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alkyl fluorides has been achieved via visible light-promoted photoredox catalysis. This operationally simple, redox-neutral fluorination method is amenable to a wide variety of carboxylic acids. Photon-induced oxidation of carboxylates leads to the formation of carboxyl radicals, which upon rapid CO2-extrusion and F• transfer from a fluorinating reagent yield the desired fluoroalkanes with high efficiency. Experimental evidence indicates that an oxidative quenching pathway is operable in this broadly applicable fluorination protocol. PMID:25881929

  10. Aliphatic Polyethers: Classical Polymers for the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rebecca; Wurm, Frederik R

    2015-06-01

    Polyethers-polymers with the structural element (R'-O-R)n in their backbone--are an old class of polymers which were already used at the time of the ancient Egyptians. However, still today these materials are highly important with applications in all areas of our life, reaching from the automotive and paper industry to cosmetics and biomedical applications. In this Review, different aliphatic polyethers like poly(epoxide)s, poly(oxetane)s, and poly(tetrahydrofuran) are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the history, the polymerization techniques (industrially and in academia), the properties, the applications as well as recent developments of these materials.

  11. Aromatic and aliphatic organic materials on Iapetus: Analysis of Cassini VIMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Clark, Roger N.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2014-05-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon and other organic molecular inventory as a component of the low-albedo material of Saturn’s satellite Iapetus, based on a revision of the calibration of the Cassini VIMS instrument. Our study uses hyperspectral data from a mosaic of Iapetus’ surface (Pinilla-Alonso, N., Roush, T.L., Marzo, G.A., Cruikshank, D.P., Dalle Ore, C.M. [2011]. Icarus 215, 75-82) constructed from VIMS data on a close fly-by of the satellite. We extracted 2235 individual spectra of the low-albedo regions, and with a clustering analysis tool (Dalle Ore, C.M., Cruikshank, D.P., Clark, R.N. [2012]. Icarus 221, 735-743), separated them into two spectrally distinct groups, one concentrated on the leading hemisphere of Iapetus, and the other group on the trailing. This distribution is broadly consistent with that found from Cassini ISS data analyzed by Denk et al. (Denk, T. et al. [2010]. Science 327, 435-439). We modeled the average spectra of the two geographic regions using the materials and techniques described by Clark et al. (Clark, R.N., Cruikshank, D.P., Jaumann, R., Brown, R.H., Stephan, K., Dalle Ore, C.M., Livio, K.E., Pearson, N., Curchin, J.M., Hoefen, T.M., Buratti, B.J., Filacchione, G., Baines, K.H., Nicholson, P.D. [2012]. Icarus 218, 831-860), and after dividing the Iapetus spectrum by the model for each case, we extracted the resulting spectra in the interval 2.7-4.0 μm for analysis of the organic molecular bands. The spectra reveal the Csbnd H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at ∼3.28 μm (∼3050 cm-1), plus four blended bands of aliphatic sbnd CH2sbnd and sbnd CH3 in the range ∼3.36-3.52 μm (∼2980-2840 cm-1). In these data, the aromatic band, probably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, as was found for Hyperion (Dalton, J.B., Cruikshank, D.P., Clark, R.N. [2012]. Icarus 220, 752-776; Dalle Ore, C.M., Cruikshank

  12. Hydrocarbon product stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.; Siuta, M.T.

    1989-04-18

    A method is described for stripping light gasiform components from the liquid effluent of a catalytic hydrodesulfurization process, which comprises separating the liquid effluent containing relatively low boiling hydrocarbon components, relatively high boiling hydrocarbon components, hydrogen, and hydrogen sulfide.

  13. Anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons in soils and vegetation from the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Cabrerizo, Ana; Tejedo, Pablo; Dachs, Jordi; Benayas, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Two Antarctic expeditions (in 2009 and 2011) were carried out to assess the local and remote anthropogenic sources of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as potential biogenic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, biomarkers such as phytane (Ph) and pristane (Pr), and the aliphatic unresolved complex mixture (UCM), were analysed in soil and vegetation samples collected at Deception, Livingston, Barrientos and Penguin Islands (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Overall, the patterns of n-alkanes in lichens, mosses and grass were dominated by odd-over-even carbon number alkanes. Mosses and vascular plants showed high abundances of n-C21 to n-C35, while lichens also showed high abundances of n-C17 and n-C19. The lipid content was an important factor controlling the concentrations of n-alkanes in Antarctic vegetation (r(2)=0.28-0.53, p-level<0.05). n-C12 to n-C35 n-alkanes were analysed in soils with a predominance of odd C number n-alkanes (n-C25, n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), especially in the background soils not influenced by anthropogenic sources. The large values for the carbon predominance index (CPI) and the correlations between odd alkanes and some PAHs suggest the potential biogenic sources of these hydrocarbons in Antarctica. Unresolved complex mixture and CPI values ~1 detected at soils collected at intertidal areas and within the perimeter of Juan Carlos research station, further supported the evidence that even a small settlement (20 persons during the austral summer) can affect the loading of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearby soils. Nevertheless, the assessment of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18 ratios showed that hydrocarbon degradation is occurring in these soils.

  14. Anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons in soils and vegetation from the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Cabrerizo, Ana; Tejedo, Pablo; Dachs, Jordi; Benayas, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Two Antarctic expeditions (in 2009 and 2011) were carried out to assess the local and remote anthropogenic sources of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as potential biogenic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, biomarkers such as phytane (Ph) and pristane (Pr), and the aliphatic unresolved complex mixture (UCM), were analysed in soil and vegetation samples collected at Deception, Livingston, Barrientos and Penguin Islands (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Overall, the patterns of n-alkanes in lichens, mosses and grass were dominated by odd-over-even carbon number alkanes. Mosses and vascular plants showed high abundances of n-C21 to n-C35, while lichens also showed high abundances of n-C17 and n-C19. The lipid content was an important factor controlling the concentrations of n-alkanes in Antarctic vegetation (r(2)=0.28-0.53, p-level<0.05). n-C12 to n-C35 n-alkanes were analysed in soils with a predominance of odd C number n-alkanes (n-C25, n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), especially in the background soils not influenced by anthropogenic sources. The large values for the carbon predominance index (CPI) and the correlations between odd alkanes and some PAHs suggest the potential biogenic sources of these hydrocarbons in Antarctica. Unresolved complex mixture and CPI values ~1 detected at soils collected at intertidal areas and within the perimeter of Juan Carlos research station, further supported the evidence that even a small settlement (20 persons during the austral summer) can affect the loading of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearby soils. Nevertheless, the assessment of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18 ratios showed that hydrocarbon degradation is occurring in these soils. PMID:27450242

  15. Polarized Raman spectra and intensities of aliphatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmler, Hans J.; Eysel, Hans H.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectra of aliphatic α- L-amino acids, glycine, alanine, and valine were re-investigated both in aqueous solution and deuterium oxide solution. The spectra were taken of the zwitterionic and of the completely deprotonated form of the amino acids. Spectra of leucine and isoleucine were studied in water at the isoelectric point. Spectra were recorded both with parallel and perpendicular polarization and the isotropic and anisotropic scattering components were isolated. The integrated intensities of CH stretch, CC stretch and carboxylate bend vibrations are discussed. Linear relations between the number of CC and CH bonds and the total scattered intensity in the appropriate spectral regions are observed. The sum over the carboxylate modes shows characteristic intensities for the first three members of the aliphatic amino acids. An increase of isotropic scattering of ϱ co 2 near 510 cm -1 with increasing chain length of the amino acid (or with increasing concentration) is interpreted as the result of micelle formation.

  16. Terrestrial ecotoxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Martí, Esther; Sierra, Jordi; Cruañas, Robert; Iglesias, Miguel; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2011-12-01

    A study of the ecotoxicity of different short aliphatic protic ionic liquids (PILs) on terrestrial organisms was conducted. Tests performed within the present study include those assessing the effects of PILs on soil microbial functions (carbon and nitrogen mineralization) and terrestrial plants. The results show that the nominal lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration (LOAEC) values were 5,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for the plant test in two species (Lolium perenne, Allium cepa), 1,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for the plant test in one species (Raphanus sativus), and 10,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for carbon and nitrogen microbial transformation tests (all concentrations are nominal). Most of the median effective concentration values (EC50) were above 1,000 mg/kg (dry soil). Based on the obtained results, these compounds can be described as nontoxic for soil microbiota and the analyzed plants, and potentially biodegradable in soils, as can be deduced from the respirometric experiment. The toxicity rises with the increase of complexity of the PILs molecule (branch and length of aliphatic chain) among the three PILs analyzed. PMID:21935980

  17. Irresolvable complex mixture of hydrocarbons in soybean oil deodorizer distillate.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yi-Hsu; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Gunawan, Setiyo; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Kasim, Novy S

    2012-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs) can be used as a fingerprint of a given seed oil. Only by characterization of aliphatic HCs could contamination by mineral oil in that seed oil be confirmed. During the isolation of squalene from soybean oil deodorizer distillate, a significant amount of unknown HCs, ca. 44 wt%, was obtained. These seemingly-easy-to-identify HCs turned out to be much more difficult to elucidate due to the presence of an irresolvable complex mixture (ICM). The objective of this study was to purify and identify the unknown ICM of aliphatic HCs from soybean oil deodorizer distillate. Purification of the ICM was successfully achieved by using modified Soxhlet extraction, followed by modified preparative column chromatography, and finally by classical preparative column chromatography. FT-IR, TLC, elemental analysis, GC/FID, NMR and GC-MS analyses were then performed on the purified HCs. The GC chromatogram detected the presence of ICM peaks comprising two major peaks and a number of minor peaks. Validation methods such as IR and NMR justified that the unknowns are saturated HCs. This work succeeded in tentatively identifying the two major peaks in the ICM as cycloalkane derivatives. PMID:22162261

  18. Radiation induced dechlorination of some chlorinated hydrocarbons in aqueous suspensions of various solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Múčka, V.; Buňata, M.; Čuba, V.; Silber, R.; Juha, L.

    2015-07-01

    Radiation induced dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in aqueous solutions containing the active carbon (AC) or cupric oxide (CuO) as the modifiers was studied. The obtained results were compared to the previously studied dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Both modifiers were found to decrease the efficiency of dechlorination. The AC modifier acts mainly via adsorption of the aliphatic (unlike the aromatic) hydrocarbons and the CuO oxide mainly inhibits the mineralization of the perchloroethylene. The results presented in this paper will be also helpful for the studies of the impact of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the membrane permeability of living cells.

  19. Insights into the Reaction Mechanism of Ethanol Conversion into Hydrocarbons on H-ZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Van der Borght, Kristof; Batchu, Rakesh; Galvita, Vladimir V; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Thybaut, Joris W; Marin, Guy B

    2016-10-01

    Ethanol dehydration to ethene is mechanistically decoupled from the production of higher hydrocarbons due to complete surface coverage by adsorbed ethanol and diethyl ether (DEE). The production of C3+ hydrocarbons was found to be unaffected by water present in the reaction mixture. Three routes for the production of C3+ hydrocarbons are identified: the dimerization of ethene to butene and two routes involving two different types of surface species categorized as aliphatic and aromatic. Evidence for the different types of species involved in the production of higher hydrocarbons is obtained via isotopic labeling, continuous flow and transient experiments complemented by UV/Vis characterization of the catalyst and ab initio microkinetic modeling.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721.9952 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9952 Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether... identified generically as alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721.9952 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9952 Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether... identified generically as alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  13. A safe, efficient and cost effective process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from a highly heterogeneous and relatively inaccessible shoreline.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2015-10-01

    A rocky, intractable and highly heterogeneous, intertidal zone, was contaminated from a diesel fuel spill that occurred during refuelling of a grader used in road construction, on an operational mine's shiploading facility. A practical, cost-effective, and safer (to personnel by avoiding drilling and earthworks), and non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling would be required. Enhanced biostimulation with surfactant, available N & P (which were highly constrained), and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate from no discernable change for 2 years post-spill, to 170 mg/kg/day; the maximum degradation rate after intervention. While natural attenuation was ineffective in this application, the low-cost, biostimulation intervention proved successful, allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic fraction) decreased from ∼20,000 mg/kg to <200 mg/kg at the completion of 180 weeks of treatment.

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Furniture Pt. 63, Subpt. RRRR, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart RRRR of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass... Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic percent HAP, by mass Aliphatic 2 0.03 1% Xylene,...

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Wood Building Products Pt. 63, Subpt. QQQQ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart QQQQ of Part 63—Default Organic... type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03 1%...

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Large Appliances Pt. 63, Subpt. NNNN, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart NNNN of Part 63—Default Organic HAP... type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03 1%...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Large Appliances Pt. 63, Subpt. NNNN, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart NNNN of Part 63—Default Organic HAP... type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03 1%...

  18. Surface Characterization of Aliphatic Polyester -g- Phosphorylcholine Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiongfei; Emrick, Todd; Hsu, Shaw L.

    2007-03-01

    In order to control biodegradation behavior of a class of polyesters, hydrophilic functional groups were grafted onto the main chains. Phosphorylcholine (PC) molecules with azide attached at the end were synthesized. Due to their excellent biocompatibility and hydrophilicity, they have been covalently coupled to biodegradable aliphatic polyesters via a ``click'' cycloaddition reaction to produce amphiphilic graft copolymers. A series of copolymers were prepared by varying the molar incorporation of PC groups. Surface properties of the copolymers were examined to further explore their applications in drug delivery systems. Grazing angle reflection infrared spectroscopy was employed to determine segmental orientation at the film surface. XPS was used to verify surface composition. A water adsorption experiment was carried out to determine the water permeation rate. The improvement in hydrophilicity was confirmed by a water contact experiment. Results indicate that the graft copolymers were promising in drug delivery systems.

  19. A Bio-Catalytic Approach to Aliphatic Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Mingyong; Deng, Jin; Woodruff, Adam P.; Zhu, Minshan; Zhou, Jun; Park, Sun Wook; Li, Hui; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Kechun

    2012-01-01

    Depleting oil reserves and growing environmental concerns have necessitated the development of sustainable processes to fuels and chemicals. Here we have developed a general metabolic platform in E. coli to biosynthesize carboxylic acids. By engineering selectivity of 2-ketoacid decarboxylases and screening for promiscuous aldehyde dehydrogenases, synthetic pathways were constructed to produce both C5 and C6 acids. In particular, the production of isovaleric acid reached 32 g/L (0.22 g/g glucose yield), which is 58% of the theoretical yield. Furthermore, we have developed solid base catalysts to efficiently ketonize the bio-derived carboxylic acids such as isovaleric acid and isocaproic acid into high volume industrial ketones: methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, yield 84%), diisobutyl ketone (DIBK, yield 66%) and methyl isoamyl ketone (MIAK, yield 81%). This hybrid “Bio-Catalytic conversion” approach provides a general strategy to manufacture aliphatic ketones, and represents an alternate route to expanding the repertoire of renewable chemicals. PMID:22416247

  20. Aqueous infrared carboxylate absorbances: Aliphatic di-acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; McVey, I.F.

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of 18 aliphatic di-carboxylic acids are reported as a function of pH. The spectra show isosbestic points and intensity changes which indicate that Beer's law is obeyed, and peak frequencies lie within previously reported ranges for aqueous carboxylates and pure carboxylic acids. Intensity sharing from the symmetric carboxylate stretch is evident in many cases, so that bands which are nominally due to alkyl groups show increased intensity at higher pH. The asymmetric stretch of the HA- species is linearly related to the microscopic acidity constant of the H2A species, with ??pK 2 intervening atoms). The results suggest that aqueous ATR-FTIR may be able to estimate 'intrinsic' pKa values of carboxylic acids, in addition to providing quantitative estimates of ionization. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Aliphatic long-chain C20 polyesters from olefin metathesis.

    PubMed

    Trzaskowski, Justyna; Quinzler, Dorothee; Bährle, Christian; Mecking, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Self-metathesis of undecenoic acid with [(PCy3)2Cl2Ru=CHPh] (2), followed by exhaustive hydrogenation yielded pure 1,20-eicosanedioic acid (5) (>99%) free of side-products from isomerization. Polycondensation with eicosane-1,20-diol (6), formed by reduction of the diol, yielded polyester 20,20 (Tm = 108 °C). By comparison, the known ADMET polymerization of undec-10-enyl undec-10-enoate (7), and subsequent exhaustive polymer-analogous hydrogenation yielded a polyester (poly-8) with irregular structure of the ester groups in the polymer chain (-O(C=O)- vs. -C(=O)O-) (Tm = 103 °C). Hydrogenation of secondary dispersions of poly-7 yielded aqueous dispersions of the long-chain aliphatic polyester poly-8.

  2. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage.

  3. The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids from various hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, D.; Miller, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids using an atmosphere of CH4+N2+H2O+NH3 has been investigated with variable pNH3. The amino acids produced using higher hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, butane, and isobutane) instead of CH4 were also investigated. There was considerable range in the absolute yields of amino acids, but the yields relative to glycine (or alpha-amino-n-butyric acid) were more uniform. The relative yields of the C3 to C6 aliphatic alpha-amino acids are nearly the same (with a few exceptions) with all the hydrocarbons. The glycine yields are more variable. The precursors to the C3-C6 aliphatic amino acids seem to be produced in the same process, which is separate from the synthesis of glycine precursors. It may be possible to use these relative yields as a signature for a spark discharge synthesis provided corrections can be made for subsequent decomposition events (e.g. in the Murchison meteorite).

  4. Prediction of flame velocities of hydrocarbon flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugger, Gordon L; Simon, Dorothy M

    1954-01-01

    The laminar-flame-velocity data previously reported by the Lewis Laboratory are surveyed with respect to the correspondence between experimental flame velocities and values predicted by semitheoretical and empirical methods. The combustible mixture variables covered are hydrocarbon structure (56 hydrocarbons), equivalence ratio of fuel-air mixture, mole fraction of oxygen in the primary oxygen-nitrogen mixture (0.17 to 0.50), and initial mixture temperature (200 degrees to 615 degrees k). The semitheoretical method of prediction considered are based on three approximate theoretical equations for flame velocity: the Semenov equation, the Tanford-Pease equation, and the Manson equation.

  5. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs to sediments of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Castelao, Renato Menezes; Del Rosso, Clarissa; Fillmann, Gilberto; Zamboni, Ademilson Josemar

    2005-01-01

    The Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, is an area of environmental interest not only because of tourism, but also because of the presence of the second major port of Brazil, with the related industrial and shipping activities. Thus, potential hydrocarbon pollution was examined in this study. Sediment samples were collected at 10 sites in the estuary, extracted, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS for composition and concentration of the following organic geochemical markers: normal and isoprenoid alkanes, petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 1.1 to 129.6 microg g(-1) for aliphatic hydrocarbons, from 17.8 to 4510.6 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 3.2 to 1601.9 ng g(-1) for LABs, and from 37.7 to 11,779.9 ng g(-1) for PAHs. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from planktonic inputs due to a usual development of blooms in the estuary. Terrestrial plant wax compounds prevailed at sites located far from Rio Grande City and subject to stronger currents. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons are related to combustion/pyrolysis processes of fossil fuel, release of unburned oil products and domestic/industrial waste outfalls. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs were more apparent at sites associated with industrial discharges (petroleum distributor and refinery), shipping activities (dry docking), and sewage outfalls (sewage). The overall concentrations of anthropogenic hydrocarbons revealed moderate to high hydrocarbon pollution in the study area. PMID:15607781

  6. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A.; Ding, Haiming

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). {yields} Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). {yields} Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. {yields} The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. {yields} Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not

  7. Fractionation and utilization of gossypol resin

    SciTech Connect

    Tursunov, A.K.; Dzhailov, A.T.; Fatkhullaev, E.; Sadykov, A.A.

    1985-10-01

    Gossypol resin is formed as a secondary waste product during distillation of fatty acides isolated from cottonseed oil soap stocks; it is insoluble in water but soluble in products of petroleum distillation. For fractionation, gossypol resin was saponified with caustic soda or caustic potash. Using this method, the resin was separated into unsaponifiable (21-24%) and saponifiable (76-79%) parts. Details of the individual fractions of gossypol resin are presented. The unsaponifiable fraction contains hydrocarbons, alcohols, beta-sito-sterol, beta-amyrin, and vitamin E. The fatty acid fraction of the resin is a mixture of fatty acids and lactones.

  8. Assessing the Origins of Aliphatic Amines in the Murchison Meteorite from their Compound-Specific Carbon Isotopic Ratios and Enantiomeric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aponte, Jose; Dworkin, Jason; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2014-01-01

    The study of meteoritic organic compounds provides a unique window into the chemical inventory of the early Solar System and prebiotic chemistry that may have been important for the origin of life on Earth. Multiple families of organic compounds have been extracted from the Murchison meteorite, which is one of the most thoroughly studied carbonaceous chondrites. The amino acids extracted from Murchison have been extensively analyzed, including measurements of non-terrestrial stable isotopic ratios and discoveries of L-enantiomeric excesses for alpha-dialkyl amino acids, notably isovaline. However, although the isotopic signatures of bulk amine-containing fractions have been measured, the isotopic ratios and enantiomeric composition of individual aliphatic amines, compounds that are chemically related to amino acids, remain unknown. Here, we report a novel method for the extraction, separation, identification and quantitation of aliphatic monoamines extracted from the Murchison meteorite. Our results show a complete suite of structural isomers, with a larger concentration of methylamine and ethylamine and decreasing amine concentrations with increasing carbon number. The carbon isotopic compositions of fourteen meteoritic aliphatic monoamines were measured, with delta C-13 values ranging from +21% to +129%, showing a decrease in C-13 with increasing carbon number, a relationship that may be consistent with the chain elongation mechanism under kinetic control previously proposed for meteoritic amino acids. We also found the enantiomeric composition of sec-butylamine, a structural analog to isovaline, was racemic within error, while the isovaline extracted from the same Murchison piece showed an L-enantiomeric excess of 9.7; this result suggested that processes leading to enantiomeric excess in the amino acid did not affect the amine. We used these collective data to assess the primordial synthetic origins of these meteoritic aliphatic amines and their potential

  9. Assessing the origins of aliphatic amines in the Murchison meteorite from their compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios and enantiomeric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2014-09-01

    The study of meteoritic organic compounds provides a unique window into the chemical inventory of the early Solar System and prebiotic chemistry that may have been important for the origin of life on Earth. Multiple families of organic compounds have been extracted from the Murchison meteorite, which is one of the most thoroughly studied carbonaceous chondrites. The amino acids extracted from Murchison have been extensively analyzed, including measurements of non-terrestrial stable isotopic ratios and discoveries of L-enantiomeric excesses for α-dialkyl amino acids, notably isovaline. However, although the isotopic signatures of bulk amine-containing fractions have been measured, the isotopic ratios and enantiomeric composition of individual aliphatic amines, compounds that are structurally related to amino acids, remain unknown. Here, we report a novel method for the extraction, separation, identification and quantitation of aliphatic monoamines extracted from the Murchison meteorite. Our results show a complete suite of structural isomers, with a larger concentration of methylamine and ethylamine and decreasing amine concentrations with increasing carbon number. The carbon isotopic compositions of fourteen meteoritic aliphatic monoamines were measured, with δ13C values ranging from +21‰ to +129‰, showing a decrease in 13C with increasing carbon number, a relationship that may be consistent with the chain elongation mechanism under kinetic control previously proposed for meteoritic amino acids. We also found the enantiomeric composition of sec-butylamine, a structural analog to isovaline, was racemic within error, while the isovaline extracted from the same Murchison piece showed an L-enantiomeric excess of 9.7%; this result suggested that processes leading to enantiomeric excess in the amino acid did not affect the amine. We used these collective data to assess the primordial synthetic origins of these meteoritic aliphatic amines and their potential linkage

  10. Appraisal of heavy hydrocarbons in coal seam gas reservoirs. Annual report, September 1991-August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Vorkink, W.P.; Lee, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    Five wax samples from coal-bed methane sites within the San Juan Basin were analyzed using adsorption chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry. The largest of the chemical classes was the aliphatic with the n-alkanes as the predominant aliphatic series. Branched and cyclic alkanes, alkyl substituted cyclohexane series, and several biomarker compounds were also found in aliphatic fractions of the waxes. Aromatic and polar compounds were present in the waxes, but at much lower concentrations than the aliphatics. The extracts of wax, shale, and coal samples from two of the coal-bed methane sites (Hamilton No. 3 and SUT H-1) were analyzed, and some interesting observations were made. The most striking finding was that the coal extracts of both wax-producing sites were completely devoid of n-alkanes. The wax and shale aliphatic, aromatic, and polar gas chromatograms were quite similar for samples from both sites. Extracts of coal samples obtained from a nearby non-wax-producing coal-bed methane site contained similar n-alkane distributions as observed in the five wax and two shale samples examined. The above data support the hypothesis that the waxes are coal derived.

  11. Profiling refined hydrocarbon fuels using polar components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Hostettler, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Identification of a fuel released into the environment can be difficult due to biodegradation or weathering. Negative electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry was used to screen for unique polar components in a wide variety of commercial hydrocarbon products and mixtures. These fuels produced unique and relatively simple spectra. When applied to hydrocarbon samples from a large, long-term fuel spill in a relatively cool climate in which the alkane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane portions had begun to biodegrade or weather, the polar components in these samples had changed little over time. This technique provided rapid fuel identification on hydrocarbons released into the environment, without sample preparation, fractionation, or chromatography. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in the NW Mediterranean deep-sea fish Mora moro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Montserrat; Porte, Cinta; Albaigés, Joan

    2001-02-01

    Data on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in the deep-sea fish Mora moro are reported in relation to the animal's weight/size and tissues (muscle, liver, digestive tube and gills). Fish samples were collected in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) at an approximate depth of 1000 m. The concentrations of these organic pollutants followed the trend muscleHydrocarbons, and particularly PAHs, were strongly depleted in all tissues with respect to organochlorinated compounds if compared with the amounts present in bottom waters and sediment. Smaller specimens displayed for most pollutants qualitatively different patterns than larger fish, which could be attributed to their particular habitat/diet. The aliphatic hydrocarbon profiles suggested that Mora moro was exposed to a more predominant intake of biogenic rather than petrogenic hydrocarbons. The entrance and storage organs exhibited characteristic PAH and PCB distributions, reflecting different bioaccumulation and metabolic pathways. Compared with the profiles currently found in surface fish species, a relatively higher contribution of heavier components, namely hepta- and octochlorinated PCBs, and 4-6-ringed PAHs, was found in the deep-sea fish.

  13. Analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater metagenomes as revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Abbai, Nathlee S; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2013-07-01

    The tendency for chlorinated aliphatics and aromatic hydrocarbons to accumulate in environments such as groundwater and sediments poses a serious environmental threat. In this study, the metabolic capacity of hydrocarbon (aromatics and chlorinated aliphatics)-contaminated groundwater in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa has been elucidated for the first time by analysis of pyrosequencing data. The taxonomic data revealed that the metagenomes were dominated by the phylum Proteobacteria (mainly Betaproteobacteria). In addition, Flavobacteriales, Sphingobacteria, Burkholderiales, and Rhodocyclales were the predominant orders present in the individual metagenomes. These orders included microorganisms (Flavobacteria, Dechloromonas aromatica RCB, and Azoarcus) involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and various other hydrocarbons that were present in the groundwater. Although the metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome represented composite cell networks, the information obtained was sufficient to address questions regarding the metabolic potential of the microbial communities and to correlate the data to the contamination profile of the groundwater. Genes involved in the degradation of benzene and benzoate, heavy metal-resistance mechanisms appeared to provide a survival strategy used by the microbial communities. Analysis of the pyrosequencing-derived data revealed that the metagenomes represent complex microbial communities that have adapted to the geochemical conditions of the groundwater as evidenced by the presence of key enzymes/genes conferring resistance to specific contaminants. Thus, pyrosequencing analysis of the metagenomes provided insights into the microbial activities in hydrocarbon-contaminated habitats.

  14. Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, D B; Scheper, A; Dijkhuizen, L; Witholt, B

    1985-01-01

    A bacterium that is able to utilize a number of halogenated short-chain hydrocarbons and halogenated carboxylic acids as sole carbon source for growth was identified as a strain of Xanthobacter autotrophicus. The organism constitutively produces two different dehalogenases. One enzyme is specific for halogenated alkanes, whereas the other, which is more heat stable and has a higher pH optimum, is specific for halogenated carboxylic acids. Haloalkanes were hydrolyzed in cell extracts to produce alcohols and halide ions, and a route for the metabolism of 1,2-dichlorethane is proposed. Both dehalogenases show a broad substrate specificity, allowing the degradation of bromine- and chlorine-substituted organic compounds. The results show that X. autotrophicus may play a role in the degradation of organochlorine compounds and that hydrolytic dehalogenases may be involved in the microbial metabolism of short-chain halogenated hydrocarbons in microorganisms. Images PMID:3994371

  15. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  16. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOEpatents

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  17. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  18. Characterization of the relationship between microbial degradation processes at a hydrocarbon contaminated site using isotopic methods.

    PubMed

    Feisthauer, Stefan; Seidel, Martin; Bombach, Petra; Traube, Sebastian; Knöller, Kay; Wange, Martin; Fachmann, Stefan; Richnow, Hans H

    2012-05-15

    Decisions to employ monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy at contaminated field sites require a comprehensive characterization of the site-specific biodegradation processes. In the present study, compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSIA) was used to investigate intrinsic biodegradation of benzene and ethylbenzene in an aquifer with high levels of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon contamination. Hydrochemical data and isotope fractionation analysis of sulfate and methane was used complementarily to elucidate microbial degradation processes over the course of a three year period, consisting of six sampling campaigns, in the industrial area of Weißandt-Gölzau (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany). Enrichment of (13)C and (2)H isotopes in the residual benzene and ethylbenzene pool downgradient from the pollution sources provided evidence of biodegradation of BTEX compounds at this site, targeting both compounds as the key contaminants of concern. The enrichment of heavy sulfur isotopes accompanied by decreasing sulfate concentrations and the accumulation of isotopically light methane suggested that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic processes are the major contributors to overall biodegradation in this aquifer. Along the contaminant plume, the oxidation of methane with δ(13)C(CH4) values of up to +17.5‰ was detected. This demonstrates that methane formed in the contaminant source can be transported along groundwater flow paths and be oxidized in areas with higher redox potentials, thereby competing directly with the pollutants for electron acceptors. Hydrochemical and isotope data was summarized in a conceptual model to assess whether MNA can be used as viable remediation strategy in Weißandt-Gölzau. The presented results demonstrate the benefits of combining different isotopic methods and hydrochemical approaches to evaluate the fate of organic pollutants in contaminated aquifers.

  19. Enhanced crystallization of poly (lactic acid) through reactive aliphatic bisamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanthananon, P.; Seadan, M.; Pivsa-Art, S.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The poor crystallization rate of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a major drawback in terms of controlling the properties of final products. To overcome this, a nucleating agent is normally applied. In this work, the aliphatic bisamide, N, N'-(1,3-propylene) bis(10-undecenamide) (PBU), having reactive functional groups is used as a crystallization promoter for PLA by adding PBU in various concentration (0.1-0.7 wt%) into PLA together with peroxide via reactive melt blending. The conventional ethylene bis-stearamide(EBS) is used for a comparison. The extruded samples are characterized for gel content and FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystallization behaviour and rate, and spherulites morphology are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), respectively. It is found that the addition of PBU into PLA results in the dramatic increase in crystallinity and crystallization rate of PLA compared with neat PLA and PLA added EBS. The crystallinity increases to 24.9-28.3% higher than neat PLA under even cooling rate of 7°C/min. The addition of 0.7 wt% PBU shows the fastest crystallization rate with t1/2 value isothermally crystallized at 130°C of only 6 min. POM images indicate the increase in the nucleation density and very fine spherulitesof PLA added PBU, promoting the fast crystallization.

  20. [A novel nano-hydroxyapatite/aliphatic polyesteramide composite].

    PubMed

    Deng, Xia; Chen, Zhiqing; Qian, Zhiyong; Liu, Caibing; Li, Hong

    2008-04-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) varying in weight from 10% to 30% was used as filler to make nanocomposites with novel aliphatic polyesteramide (PEA) in our laboratory. The structure and properties of PEA and its n-HA composites were investigated through transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractioin, scanning electron microscopy and energy spectrometry. The shape and size of the n-HA crystals are similar to those of the apatite crystals in natural bone. Molecule interactions are present between the n-HA and PEA in the composite, which allows the uniform dispersion of n-HA in PEA matrix. This contributes enhanced mechanical property and bioactivity to the composite. The cytocompatibility of the composites has been investigated by culturing osteoblasts on the membranes. Good cell attachment and proliferation manner were observed on the membranes after 1 week. These results suggest that the PEA/n-HA composites prepared in this study may serve as potential candidate scaffold for tissue engineering.

  1. Liquid-crystalline aromatic-aliphatic copolyester bioresorbable polymers.

    PubMed

    de Oca, Horacio Montes; Wilson, Joanne E; Penrose, Andrew; Langton, David M; Dagger, Anthony C; Anderson, Melissa; Farrar, David F; Lovell, Christopher S; Ries, Michael E; Ward, Ian M; Wilson, Andrew D; Cowling, Stephen J; Saez, Isabel M; Goodby, John W

    2010-10-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of a series of liquid-crystalline aromatic-aliphatic copolyesters are presented. Differential scanning calorimetry showed these polymers have a glass transition temperature in the range 72 degrees C-116 degrees C. Polarised optical microscopy showed each polymer exhibits a nematic mesophase on heating to the molten state at temperatures below 165 degrees C. Melt processing is demonstrated by the production of injection moulded and compression moulded specimens with Young's modulus of 5.7 +/- 0.3 GPa and 2.3 +/- 0.3 GPa, respectively. Wide-angle X-ray scattering data showed molecular orientation is responsible for the increase of mechanical properties along the injection direction. Degradation studies in the temperature range 37 degrees C-80 degrees C are presented for one polymer of this series and a kinetic constant of 0.002 days(-1) is obtained at 37 degrees C assuming a first order reaction. The activation energy (83.4 kJ mol(-1)) is obtained following the Arrhenius analysis of degradation, showing degradation of this material is less temperature sensitive compared with other commercially available biodegradable polyesters. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility data are presented and it is shown the unique combination of degradative, mechanical and biological properties of these polymers may represent in the future an alternative for medical device manufacturers.

  2. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices.

  3. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  4. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Greene, Marvin I.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1984-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  5. Electrospun aliphatic polycarbonates as tailored tissue scaffold materials.

    PubMed

    Welle, Alexander; Kröger, Mario; Döring, Manfred; Niederer, Kerstin; Pindel, Elvira; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2007-04-01

    Two different aliphatic polycarbonates were synthesised from CO(2) and the respective epoxides. Poly(propyl carbonate) (PPC) was prepared by heterogeneous catalysis with zinc glutarate. Poly(cyclohexyl carbonate) (PCHC) was prepared via living copolymerisation homogeneously catalysed by a 3-amino-2-cyanoimidoacrylate zinc acetate complex and subjected to electrospinning. The obtained nanofibres had a well-defined morphology free of beads along the fibres and with slightly porous structures on their surface. Subsequently, low-power deep UV irradiations, previously applied for photochemical surface modifications of two-dimensional and three-dimensional scaffolds from biostable polymers, were performed. Here, an effect on surface and bulk properties of PPC nanofibres was observed. Surface modifications of both polymers affected plasma protein adsorption. Photochemical bulk modifications observed for the first time on PPC nanofibres are indicating the possibility of spatial control of biodegradation rates, hence allow for control of the progression of host/implant interactions in vivo. In particular PPC was used for cell culture of L929 fibroblasts and primary rat hepatocytes. Even delicate primary cells showed good adhesion to the scaffolds and high viability.

  6. Enrichment of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic acids by oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in oil-contaminated soil from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Annett; Omirbekova, Anel; Schumann, Peter; Reinhard, Anne; Sheikhany, Halah; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2015-05-01

    Three microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (Festuca rubra, 75 %; Lolium perenne, 20 %; Poa pratensis, 10 %), and rape (Brassica napus) on the basis of their high capacity to use crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. These isolates used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as substrates (more than 80), including n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C32, monomethyl- and monoethyl-substituted alkanes (C12-C23), n-alkylcyclo alkanes with alkyl chain lengths from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, as well as substituted monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. These three strains were identified as Gordonia rubripertincta and Rhodococcus sp. SBUG 1968. During their transformation of this wide range of hydrocarbon substrates, a very large number of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids was detected, 44 of them were identified by GC/MS analyses, and 4 of them are described as metabolites for the first time. Inoculation of plant seeds with these highly potent bacteria had a beneficial effect on shoot and root development of plants which were grown on oil-contaminated sand. PMID:25592733

  7. Enrichment of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic acids by oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in oil-contaminated soil from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Annett; Omirbekova, Anel; Schumann, Peter; Reinhard, Anne; Sheikhany, Halah; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2015-05-01

    Three microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (Festuca rubra, 75 %; Lolium perenne, 20 %; Poa pratensis, 10 %), and rape (Brassica napus) on the basis of their high capacity to use crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. These isolates used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as substrates (more than 80), including n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C32, monomethyl- and monoethyl-substituted alkanes (C12-C23), n-alkylcyclo alkanes with alkyl chain lengths from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, as well as substituted monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. These three strains were identified as Gordonia rubripertincta and Rhodococcus sp. SBUG 1968. During their transformation of this wide range of hydrocarbon substrates, a very large number of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids was detected, 44 of them were identified by GC/MS analyses, and 4 of them are described as metabolites for the first time. Inoculation of plant seeds with these highly potent bacteria had a beneficial effect on shoot and root development of plants which were grown on oil-contaminated sand.

  8. Cuticular Hydrocarbons as Potential Close Range Recognition Cues in Orchid Bees.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Tamara; Ramírez, Santiago R; Weber, Marjorie Gail; Eltz, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Male Neotropical orchid bees collect volatile chemicals from their environment and compose species-specific volatile signals, which are subsequently exposed during courtship display. These perfumes are hypothesized to serve as attractants and may play a role in female mate choice. Here, we investigated the potential of cuticular hydrocarbons as additional recognition cues. The cuticular hydrocarbons of males of 35 species belonging to four of the five extant euglossine bee genera consisted of aliphatic hydrocarbons ranging in chain lengths between 21 and 37 C-atoms in distinct compositions, especially between sympatric species of similar coloring and size, for all but one case. Cleptoparasitic Exaerete spp. had divergent profiles, with major compounds predominantly constituted by longer hydrocarbon chains (>30 C-atoms), which may represent an adaptation to the parasitic life history ("chemical insignificance"). Phylogenetic comparative analyses imply that the chemical profiles exhibited by Exaerete spp. are evolutionarily divergent from the rest of the group. Female hydrocarbon profiles were not identical to male profiles in the investigated species, with either partial or complete separation between sexes in multivariate analyses. Sexually dimorphic hydrocarbon profiles are assumed to be the basis for sex recognition in a number of insects, and thus may supplement the acquired perfume phenotypes in chemical information transfer. Overall, cuticular hydrocarbons meet the requirements to function as intraspecific and intersexual close range recognition signals; behavioral experiments are needed to determine their potential involvement in mate recognition.

  9. Cuticular Hydrocarbons as Potential Close Range Recognition Cues in Orchid Bees.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Tamara; Ramírez, Santiago R; Weber, Marjorie Gail; Eltz, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Male Neotropical orchid bees collect volatile chemicals from their environment and compose species-specific volatile signals, which are subsequently exposed during courtship display. These perfumes are hypothesized to serve as attractants and may play a role in female mate choice. Here, we investigated the potential of cuticular hydrocarbons as additional recognition cues. The cuticular hydrocarbons of males of 35 species belonging to four of the five extant euglossine bee genera consisted of aliphatic hydrocarbons ranging in chain lengths between 21 and 37 C-atoms in distinct compositions, especially between sympatric species of similar coloring and size, for all but one case. Cleptoparasitic Exaerete spp. had divergent profiles, with major compounds predominantly constituted by longer hydrocarbon chains (>30 C-atoms), which may represent an adaptation to the parasitic life history ("chemical insignificance"). Phylogenetic comparative analyses imply that the chemical profiles exhibited by Exaerete spp. are evolutionarily divergent from the rest of the group. Female hydrocarbon profiles were not identical to male profiles in the investigated species, with either partial or complete separation between sexes in multivariate analyses. Sexually dimorphic hydrocarbon profiles are assumed to be the basis for sex recognition in a number of insects, and thus may supplement the acquired perfume phenotypes in chemical information transfer. Overall, cuticular hydrocarbons meet the requirements to function as intraspecific and intersexual close range recognition signals; behavioral experiments are needed to determine their potential involvement in mate recognition. PMID:26573208

  10. Project Summary. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the potential of an innovative approach to aquifer restoration: enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (...

  11. Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to qualify candidate alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethane coatings under the specifications for the standard system. This project will compare coating performance of the proposed alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  12. Hydrocarbons in hair, livers and intestines of sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) found dead along the path of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballachey, B.E.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1997-05-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in hair, liver and intestinal samples taken from dead sea otters (Enhydra lutris) collected in spring and summer 1989 from Prince William Sound, the Kenai Peninsula and Kodiak Island, along the path of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Hair showed significant differences in hydrocarbon concentrations among the three locations, but few significant differences were noted for liver or intestine samples. The highest concentrations of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in hair samples from Prince William Sound. Hydrocarbon concentrations in intestine and liver samples from the three locations were generally similar and low, suggesting that uptake into the tissues was limited, or that hydrocarbons within the tissues had been metabolized by the time samples were collected.

  13. Radiation induced effects in segmented poly(siloxaneurethaneureas) based on aliphatic and aromatic diisocyanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybytniak, Grażyna; Kornacka, Ewa; Kozakiewicz, Janusz; Przybylski, Jarosław

    2007-12-01

    Poly(siloxaneurethaneureas) (PSURURs) prepared from aromatic and aliphatic isocyanates were investigated upon exposure to ionising radiation. Radicals are formed both in siloxane and urethane segments. In comparison with aliphatic analogues it was found that in aromatic PSURURs: (1) concentration of all radicals is lower, (2) relative concentration of methylene radicals formed in siloxane units is higher, (3) the radiation yield of H 2 is more than three times smaller and (4) it seems that efficiency of cross-linking is less significant.

  14. Recent Advances in the Functionalization of Aliphatic Polyesters by Ring-Opening Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, Philippe; Jerome, Christine

    Two main strategies aiming at synthesizing aliphatic polyesters bearing pendant functional groups will be reported. The first one is based on the synthesis and the polymerization of lactones substituted by various functional groups. The direct grafting of functional groups onto aliphatic polyesters is the second strategy. Last but not least, the association of these two strategies is very promising in order to overcome their respective limitations.

  15. Interaction of metal cations with functionalised hydrocarbons in the gas phase: further experimental evidence for solvation of metal ions by the hydrocarbon chain.

    PubMed

    van Huizen, Nick A; Luider, Theo M; Jobst, Karl J; Terlouw, Johan K; Holmes, John L; Burgers, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Relative affinity measurements of monovalent metal ions (= Li(+), Cu(+) and Ag(+)) towards aliphatic amines, alcohols and methyl alkanoates (P) have been performed using the kinetic method on the dissociation of metal bound dimer ions of the type P(1)-M(+)-P(2). It was found that the cations' affinity towards long chain (≥C(4) chain length) n- and s-alkylamines, n-alkanols and methyl n- alkanoates was unexpectedly enhanced. This is attributed to a bidentate interaction of the metal ion with the amine, alcohol or ester functional group and the aliphatic chain, paralleling earlier observations on metal bound nitriles. Methyl substitution at the functional group (s-alkylamines compared with n-alkylamines) serves to strengthen only the N•••M(+) bond, and this can be rationalized by the larger proton affinities of s-alkylamines compared to n-alkylamines. This substitution, however, has no effect on the metal ion-hydrocarbon bond. In contrast, methyl substitution remote from the functional group, as in iso-pentylamine, does lead to strengthening of the metal ion-hydrocarbon bond. The cuprous ion affinity of hexadecylamine, C(16)H(33)NH(2) was found to be as large as that for ethylenediamine (352 kJ mol(-1)), known to be a strong copper binding agent. It is argued that such a metal ion-hydrocarbon interaction does not occur in the metal bound dimers. PMID:27419899

  16. Interaction of metal cations with functionalised hydrocarbons in the gas phase: further experimental evidence for solvation of metal ions by the hydrocarbon chain.

    PubMed

    van Huizen, Nick A; Luider, Theo M; Jobst, Karl J; Terlouw, Johan K; Holmes, John L; Burgers, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Relative affinity measurements of monovalent metal ions (= Li(+), Cu(+) and Ag(+)) towards aliphatic amines, alcohols and methyl alkanoates (P) have been performed using the kinetic method on the dissociation of metal bound dimer ions of the type P(1)-M(+)-P(2). It was found that the cations' affinity towards long chain (≥C(4) chain length) n- and s-alkylamines, n-alkanols and methyl n- alkanoates was unexpectedly enhanced. This is attributed to a bidentate interaction of the metal ion with the amine, alcohol or ester functional group and the aliphatic chain, paralleling earlier observations on metal bound nitriles. Methyl substitution at the functional group (s-alkylamines compared with n-alkylamines) serves to strengthen only the N•••M(+) bond, and this can be rationalized by the larger proton affinities of s-alkylamines compared to n-alkylamines. This substitution, however, has no effect on the metal ion-hydrocarbon bond. In contrast, methyl substitution remote from the functional group, as in iso-pentylamine, does lead to strengthening of the metal ion-hydrocarbon bond. The cuprous ion affinity of hexadecylamine, C(16)H(33)NH(2) was found to be as large as that for ethylenediamine (352 kJ mol(-1)), known to be a strong copper binding agent. It is argued that such a metal ion-hydrocarbon interaction does not occur in the metal bound dimers.

  17. Biodegradation and metabolic pathway of β-chlorinated aliphatic acid in Bacillus sp. CGMCC no. 4196.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunjiao; Yang, Lirong; Xu, Gang; Wu, Jianping

    2011-04-01

    In this study, a bacterial Bacillus sp. CGMCC no. 4196 was isolated from mud. This strain exhibited the ability to degrade high concentration of 3-chloropropionate (3-CPA, 120 mM) or 3-chlorobutyrate (30 mM), but not chloroacetate or 2-chloropropionate (2-CPA). The growing cells, resting cells, and cell-free extracts from this bacterium had the capability of 3-CPA degradation. The results indicated that the optimum biocatalyst for 3-CPA biodegradation was the resting cells. The 3-CPA biodegradation pathway was further studied through the metabolites and critical enzymes analysis by HPLC, LC-MS, and colorimetric method. The results demonstrated that the metabolites of 3-CPA were 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) and malonic acid semialdehyde, and the critical enzymes were 3-CPA dehalogenase and 3-HP dehydroxygenase. Thus, the mechanism of the dehalogenase-catalyzed reaction was inferred as hydrolytic dehalogenation which was coenzyme A-independent and oxygen-independent. Finally, the pathway of β-chlorinated aliphatic acid biodegradation could be concluded as follows: the β-chlorinated acid is first hydrolytically dehalogenated to the β-hydroxyl aliphatic acid, and the hydroxyl aliphatic acid is oxidized to β-carbonyl aliphatic acid by β-hydroxy aliphatic acid dehydroxygenase. It is the first report that 3-HP was produced from 3-CPA by β-chlorinated aliphatic acid dehalogenase.

  18. Reduction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Zero-Valent Iron and Palladium Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Hun; Shin, Won Sik; Ko, Seok-Oh; Kim, Myung-Chul

    2004-03-31

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is an alternative technology for soil and groundwater remediation. Zero valent iron, which is the most popular PRB material, is only applicable to halogenated aliphatic organics and some heavy metals. The objective of this study was to investigate reductive dechlorination of halogenated compounds and reduction of non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons using zero valent metals (ZVMs) and catalysts as reactive materials for PRBs. A group of small aromatic hydrocarbons such as monochlorophenols, phenol and benzene were readily reduced with palladium catalyst and zero valent iron. Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also tested with the catalysts and zero valent metal combinations. The aromatic rings were reduced and partly reduced PAHs were found as the daughter compounds. The current study demonstrates reduction of aromatic compounds by ZVMs and modified catalysts and implicates that PRB is applicable not only for halogenated organic compounds but nonhalogenated aromatic compounds such as PAHs.

  19. Transport and Degradation of Semivolatile Hydrocarbons in a Petroleum-Contaminated Aquifer, Bemidji, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, E.T.; Koleis, J.C.; Aiken, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were used as probes to identify the processes controlling the transport and fate of aqueous semivolatile hydrocarbons (SVHCs) in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota. PAH and other SVHCs were isolated from ground water by field solid-phase extraction and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Close to the oil body, aqueous aliphatic hydrocarbon compositions are substantially different from the parent oil, suggesting microbial alteration prior to or during dissolution. Aqueous PAH concentrations are elevated above oil-water equilibrium concentrations directly beneath the oil and decrease dramatically at distances ranging from the 25 to 65 m downgradient from the leading edge of the oil body. Variations in downgradient distributions of naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene, coupled with their biodegradation, partitioning and volatility characteristics, suggest that the PAH are useful probes for distinguishing between the biogeochemical processes affecting SVHC transport and persistence in ground water.

  20. Isotopic signatures of CH 4 and higher hydrocarbon gases from Precambrian Shield sites: A model for abiogenic polymerization of hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Voglesonger, K.; Onstott, T. C.; Pratt, L. M.; Slater, G. F.

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies of methane and higher hydrocarbon gases in Precambrian Shield rocks in Canada and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa identified two major gas types. Paleometeoric waters were dominated by hydrocarbon gases with compositional and isotopic characteristics consistent with production by methanogens utilizing the CO 2 reduction pathway. In contrast the deepest, most saline fracture waters contained gases that did not resemble the products of microbial methanogenesis and were dominated by both high concentrations of H 2 gas, and CH 4 and higher hydrocarbon gases with isotopic signatures attributed to abiogenic processes of water-rock reaction in these high rock/water ratio, hydrogeologically-isolated fracture waters. Based on new data obtained for the higher hydrocarbon gases in particular, a model is proposed to account for carbon isotope variation between CH 4 and the higher hydrocarbon gases (specifically ethane, propane, butane, and pentane) consistent with abiogenic polymerization. Values of δ 13C for CH 4 and the higher hydrocarbon gases predicted by the model are shown to match proposed abiogenic hydrocarbon gas end-members identified at five field sites (two in Canada and three in South Africa) suggesting that the carbon isotope patterns between the hydrocarbon homologs reflect the reaction mechanism. In addition, the δ 2H isotope data for these gases are shown to be out of isotopic equilibrium, suggesting the consistent apparent fractionation observed between the hydrocarbon homologs may also reflect reaction mechanisms involved in the formation of the gases. Recent experimental and field studies of proposed abiogenic hydrocarbons such as those found at mid-ocean spreading centers and off-axis hydrothermal fields such as Lost City have begun to focus not only on the origin of CH 4, but on the compositional and isotopic information contained in the higher hydrocarbon gases. The model explored in this paper suggests that while the extent of

  1. Aliphatic polyester block polymers: renewable, degradable, and sustainable.

    PubMed

    Hillmyer, Marc A; Tolman, William B

    2014-08-19

    Nearly all polymers are derived from nonrenewable fossil resources, and their disposal at their end of use presents significant environmental problems. Nonetheless, polymers are ubiquitous, key components in myriad technologies and are simply indispensible for modern society. An important overarching goal in contemporary polymer research is to develop sustainable alternatives to "petro-polymers" that have competitive performance properties and price, are derived from renewable resources, and may be easily and safely recycled or degraded. Aliphatic polyesters are particularly attractive targets that may be prepared in highly controlled fashion by ring-opening polymerization of bioderived lactones. However, property profiles of polyesters derived from single monomers (homopolymers) can limit their applications, thus demanding alternative strategies. One such strategy is to link distinct polymeric segments in an A-B-A fashion, with A and B chosen to be thermodynamically incompatible so that they can self-organize on a nanometer-length scale and adopt morphologies that endow them with tunable properties. For example, such triblock copolymers can be useful as thermoplastic elastomers, in pressure sensitive adhesive formulations, and as toughening modifiers. Inspired by the tremendous utility of petroleum-derived styrenic triblock copolymers, we aimed to develop syntheses and understand the structure-property profiles of sustainable alternatives, focusing on all renewable and all readily degradable aliphatic polyester triblocks as targets. Building upon oxidation chemistry reported more than a century ago, a constituent of the peppermint plant, (-)-menthol, was converted to the ε-caprolactone derivative menthide. Using a diol initiator and controlled catalysis, menthide was polymerized to yield a low glass transition temperature telechelic polymer (PM) that was then further functionalized using the biomass-derived monomer lactide (LA) to yield fully renewable PLA

  2. Aliphatic polyester block polymers: renewable, degradable, and sustainable.

    PubMed

    Hillmyer, Marc A; Tolman, William B

    2014-08-19

    Nearly all polymers are derived from nonrenewable fossil resources, and their disposal at their end of use presents significant environmental problems. Nonetheless, polymers are ubiquitous, key components in myriad technologies and are simply indispensible for modern society. An important overarching goal in contemporary polymer research is to develop sustainable alternatives to "petro-polymers" that have competitive performance properties and price, are derived from renewable resources, and may be easily and safely recycled or degraded. Aliphatic polyesters are particularly attractive targets that may be prepared in highly controlled fashion by ring-opening polymerization of bioderived lactones. However, property profiles of polyesters derived from single monomers (homopolymers) can limit their applications, thus demanding alternative strategies. One such strategy is to link distinct polymeric segments in an A-B-A fashion, with A and B chosen to be thermodynamically incompatible so that they can self-organize on a nanometer-length scale and adopt morphologies that endow them with tunable properties. For example, such triblock copolymers can be useful as thermoplastic elastomers, in pressure sensitive adhesive formulations, and as toughening modifiers. Inspired by the tremendous utility of petroleum-derived styrenic triblock copolymers, we aimed to develop syntheses and understand the structure-property profiles of sustainable alternatives, focusing on all renewable and all readily degradable aliphatic polyester triblocks as targets. Building upon oxidation chemistry reported more than a century ago, a constituent of the peppermint plant, (-)-menthol, was converted to the ε-caprolactone derivative menthide. Using a diol initiator and controlled catalysis, menthide was polymerized to yield a low glass transition temperature telechelic polymer (PM) that was then further functionalized using the biomass-derived monomer lactide (LA) to yield fully renewable PLA

  3. Coupling spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for evaluation of the depositional history of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Doumer, Marta E; Gallice, Wellington C; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Cardoso, Fernanda D; Dolci, Natiely N; Camargo, Luana M; Ferreira, Paulo A L; Figueira, Rubens C L; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2015-10-01

    Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques can be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments such as the Paranaguá estuarine system (PES), located in the SW Atlantic, Brazil. Historical inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using two sediment cores from the PES. The AHs were related to the presence of biogenic organic matter and degraded oil residues. The PAHs were associated with mixed sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations were related to oil spills, while relatively low levels could be attributed to the decrease in oil usage during the global oil crisis. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance were in agreement with the absolute AHs and PAHs concentrations measured by chromatographic techniques, while near-infrared spectroscopy results were consistent with unresolved complex mixture (UCM)/total n-alkanes ratios. These findings suggest that the use of a combination of techniques can increase the accuracy of assessment of contamination in sediments.

  4. Coupling spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for evaluation of the depositional history of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Martins, César C; Doumer, Marta E; Gallice, Wellington C; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Cardoso, Fernanda D; Dolci, Natiely N; Camargo, Luana M; Ferreira, Paulo A L; Figueira, Rubens C L; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2015-10-01

    Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques can be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments such as the Paranaguá estuarine system (PES), located in the SW Atlantic, Brazil. Historical inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using two sediment cores from the PES. The AHs were related to the presence of biogenic organic matter and degraded oil residues. The PAHs were associated with mixed sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations were related to oil spills, while relatively low levels could be attributed to the decrease in oil usage during the global oil crisis. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance were in agreement with the absolute AHs and PAHs concentrations measured by chromatographic techniques, while near-infrared spectroscopy results were consistent with unresolved complex mixture (UCM)/total n-alkanes ratios. These findings suggest that the use of a combination of techniques can increase the accuracy of assessment of contamination in sediments. PMID:26210796

  5. Influence of in situ steam formation by radio frequency heating on thermodesorption of hydrocarbons from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Roland, Ulf; Bergmann, Sabine; Holzer, Frank; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter

    2010-12-15

    Thermal desorption of a wide spectrum of organic contaminants, initiated by radio frequency (RF) heating, was studied at laboratory and pilot-plant scales for an artificially contaminated soil and for an originally contaminated soil from an industrial site. Up to 100 °C, moderate desorption rates were observed for light aromatics such as toluene, chlorobenzene, and ethylbenzene. Desorption of the less volatile contaminants was greatly enhanced above 100 °C, when fast evaporation of soil-water produced steam for hydrocarbon stripping (steam-distillation, desorption rates increased by more than 1 order of magnitude). For hydrocarbons with low water solubility (e.g., aliphatic hydrocarbons), the temperature increase above 100 °C after desiccation of soil again led to a significant increase of the removal rates, thus showing the impact of hydrocarbon partial pressure. RF heating was shown to be an appropriate option for thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, leading to efficient cleaning of contaminated soils.

  6. Interaction of gaseous aromatic and aliphatic compounds in thermophilic biofilters.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing-yuan; Wang, Can

    2015-12-30

    Two thermophilic biofilters were applied in treating a mixture of gaseous aromatic (benzene) and aliphatic compounds (hexane) to evaluate the interaction of the compounds. The performance of the biofilters was investigated in terms of removal efficiencies, elimination capacity, kinetic analysis, interaction indices, and microbial metabolic characteristics. Results showed that the removal performance of benzene was unaffected by the addition of hexane. The removal efficiencies of benzene were maintained at approximately 80% and the biodegradation rate constant was maintained at 120 h(-1). However, the removal efficiencies of hexane decreased significantly from 60% to 20% and the biodegradation rate constant exhibited a distinct decrease from 93.59 h(-1) to 56.32 h(-1). The interaction index of benzene with the addition of hexane was -0.029, which indicated that hexane had little effect on the degradation of benzene. By contrast, the interaction index of hexane by benzene was -0.557, which showed that benzene inhibited the degradation of hexane significantly. Similar conclusions were obtained about the substrate utilization. Moreover, the utilization degree of carbon sources and the microbial metabolic activities in the biofilter treating hexane were significantly improved with the addition of benzene, whereas the addition of hexane had a slight effect on the microbial communities in the biofilter treating benzene. Conclusions could be obtained that when mixtures of benzene and hexane were treated using biofilters, the degradation of benzene, which was more easily degradable, was dominant and unaffected; whereas the degradation of hexane, which was less easily degradable, was inhibited because of the changing of microbes.

  7. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25340465

  8. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  9. Solvent dewaxing waxy hydrocarbon oils using dewaxing aid

    SciTech Connect

    Achia, B.U.

    1983-03-22

    An improved dewaxing aid for solvent dewaxing processes comprising a mixture of (A) lithium isostearate and (B) a polymer of an ester of at least one aliphatic alcohol with methacrylic acid or acrylic acid having an average molecular weight ranging from between about 300,000 to 2,000,000. The lithium isostearate, when combined with the acrylic polymer, synergistically improves the efficiency of wax separation. This has been found to be especially useful for dewaxing heavy petroleum oil fractions, such as bright stocks.

  10. Isolation and characterization of different bacterial strains for bioremediation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Guermouche M'rassi, A; Bensalah, F; Gury, J; Duran, R

    2015-10-01

    Crude oil is a common environmental pollutant composed of a large number of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Biodegradation is carried out by microbial communities that are important in determining the fate of pollutants in the environment. The intrinsic biodegradability of the hydrocarbons and the distribution in the environment of competent degrading microorganisms are crucial information for the implementation of bioremediation processes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of various bacteria toward aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from contaminated soil of a refinery in Arzew, Algeria. A collection of 150 bacterial strains was obtained; the bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and their ability to degrade hydrocarbon compounds characterized. The isolated strains were mainly affiliated to the Gamma-Proteobacteria class. Among them, Pseudomonas spp. had the ability to metabolize high molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds such as pristane (C19) at 35.11 % by strain LGM22 and benzo[a] pyrene (C20) at 33.93 % by strain LGM11. Some strains were able to grow on all the hydrocarbons tested including octadecane, squalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Some strains were specialized degrading only few substrates. In contrast, the strain LGM2 designated as Pseudomonas sp. was found able to degrade both linear and branched alkanes as well as low and high poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The alkB gene involved in alkane degradation was detected in LGM2 and other Pseudomonas-related isolates. The capabilities of the isolated bacterial strains to degrade alkanes and PAHs should be of great practical significance in bioremediation of oil-contaminated environments.

  11. Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) are less sensitive to the odor of aliphatic ketones than to the odor of other classes of aliphatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Moa; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Laska, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Aliphatic ketones are widely present in body-borne and food odors of primates. Therefore, we used an operant conditioning paradigm and determined olfactory detection thresholds in four spider monkeys for a homologous series of aliphatic 2-ketones (2-butanone to 2-nonanone) and two of their isomers (3- and 4-heptanone). We found that, with the exception of the two shortest-chained ketones, all animals detected concentrations <1 ppm (parts per million), and with five odorants individual animals even reached threshold values <0.1 ppm. Further, we found a significant correlation between olfactory sensitivity of the spider monkeys and carbon chain length of the 2-ketones which can best be described as a U-shaped function. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between olfactory sensitivity and position of the functional carbonyl group. Across-odorant and across-species comparisons revealed the following: spider monkeys are significantly less sensitive to the odors of aliphatic ketones than to the odor of other classes of aliphatic compounds (1-alcohols, n-aldehydes, n-acetic esters, and n-carboxylic acids) sharing the same carbon length. Spider monkeys do not differ significantly in their olfactory sensitivity for aliphatic ketones from squirrel monkeys and pigtail macaques, but are significantly less sensitive to these odorants compared to human subjects and mice. These findings support the notion that neuroanatomical and genetic properties do not allow for reliable predictions with regard to a species' olfactory sensitivity. Further, we conclude that the frequency of occurrence of a class of odorants in a species' chemical environment does not allow for reliable predictions of the species' olfactory sensitivity. PMID:26055441

  12. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Funk, Edward W.; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  13. Hydrocarbon geoscience research strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This document outlines a strategy for oil and gas related research focused on optimizing the economic producibility of the Nation's resources. The Hydrocarbon Geoscience Strategy was developed by the Hydrocarbon Geoscience Research Coordinating Committee of the Department of Energy (DOE). This strategy forms the basis for the development of DOE Fossil Energy's Oil Research Program Implementation Plan and Natural Gas Program Implementation Plan. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Hydrocarbons Encapsulated in Diamonds From China and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, I.; Tsao, C.; Taj-Eddin, I.

    2005-05-01

    We examined a large number of diamonds from a kimberlite pipe located in Fuxian, China, and alluvial diamonds from Panna, India. We selected 6-10 diamonds from each locality based on certain characteristics: they are white, brilliant, mostly devoid of mineral inclusions, fracture-free, many contain microscopic bubbles, some display etched circular patterns. These diamonds were examined under ultraviolet (UV) light using a fluorescence microscope, then, investigated using a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR spectrometer. Several diamonds emit blue fluorescence when excited with UV light, while others appear dim because they are not fluorescent. It is the latter that render the included bubbles clearly visible, glowing as yellow and blue spherules within the dim diamond host. These fluorescent bubbles are probably filled with hydrocarbon fluids of variable compositions. FT-IR spectra of diamond typically show absorption due to intrinsic diamond lattice vibrations. We found in most of our diamonds used in this study an additional, outstanding group of absorption bands located just below the wavenumber 3000. Peak positions in this region correlate well with symmetric and asymmetric stretching of methylene and methyl groups, attributable to H bonded to C atoms. Comparing them with standard spectral shapes, we found a good match with an alkane molecule composed of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Our observations provide evidence that hydrocarbons might be important components in the deep mantle, but, to transport them up to Earth's surface would require strong capsules which, perhaps, only diamond could provide.

  15. Conversion of Biomass-Derived Furans into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Johnson, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most studied chemical transformations of carbohydrates is their thermocatalytic dehydration to form furans. Cellulose-derived glucose is thereby converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (5-HMF), while the hemicellulose-derived pentoses (e.g., xylose, arabinose) form furfuraldehyde. Our objective is to identify new pathways to convert furfuryl alcohol into a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons that can be used as drop-in fuels for diesel (C10-20) and jet fuel (C9-16) blends. Furfuryl alcohol is produced commercially through hydrogenation of furfuraldehyde that is derived from hemicellulose-derived pentoses via acid-catalyzed dehydration. The steps that we are currently pursuing to convert furfuryl alcohol into hydrocarbons are 1) oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol to form dimers (C10) and trimers (C15), and 2) hydrotreatment of the dimers and trimers to produce a mixture of linear hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths in the range of diesel and jet fuels. This presentation will discuss our progress in the development of this pathway.

  16. Hydrocarbons emissions from Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Karina; Navarro-González, Rafael; de la Rosa, José; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Imaz, Mireya

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important environmental issues related to the use of geothermal fluids to generate electricity is the emission of non-condensable gases to the atmosphere. Mexico has one of the largest geothermal plants in the world. The facility is located at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, roughly 30 km south of Mexicali and the international boundary between Mexico and United States. The Cerro Prieto power plant has 13 units grouped on four individual powerhouses. Gas samples from 9 units of the four powerhouses were collected during 4 campaigns conducted in May-July, 2010, February, 2012, December, 2012, and May, 2013. Gas samples from the stacks were collected in 1000 ml Pyrex round flasks with Teflon stopcocks, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methane was the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon, with a concentration that ranged from less than 1% up to 3.5% of the total gas mixture. Normal alkanes represented the second most abundant species, and displayed a decreasing abundance with increasing carbon number in the homologous series. Isoalkanes were also present as isobutane and isopentane. Cycloalkanes occurring as cyclopentane and cyclohexane, were detected only at trace level. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes) were not detected. Benzene was detected at levels ranging from less than 1% up to 3.4% of the total gas mixture. Other aromatic hydrocarbons detected were toluene, and xylenes, and were present at lower concentrations (

  17. A model of particulate and species formation applied to laminar, nonpremixed flames for three aliphatic-hydrocarbon fuels

    SciTech Connect

    D'Anna, A.; Kent, J.H.

    2008-03-15

    A detailed kinetic mechanism is developed that includes aromatic growth and particulate formation. The model includes reaction pathways leading to the formation of nanosized particles and their coagulation and growth to larger soot particles using a sectional approach for the particle phase. It is tested against literature data of species concentrations and particulate measurements in nonpremixed laminar flames of methane, ethylene, and butene. Reasonably good predictions of gas and particle-phase concentrations and particle sizes are obtained without any change to the kinetic scheme for the different fuels. The model predicts the low concentration of particulates in the methane flame (about 0.5 ppm) and the higher concentration of soot in the ethylene and butene flames (near 10 ppm). Model predictions show that in the methane flame small precursor particles dominate the particulate loading, whereas soot is the major component in ethylene and butene flames, in accordance with the experimental data. The driving factors in the model responsible for the quite different soot predictions in the ethylene and butene flames compared with the methane flame are benzene and acetylene concentrations, which are higher in the ethylene and butene flames. Soot loadings in the ethylene flame are sensitive to the acetylene soot growth reaction, whereas particle inception rates are linked to benzene in the model. A coagulation model is used to obtain collision efficiencies for some of the particle reactions, and tests show that the modeled results are not particularly sensitive to coagulation at the rates used in our model. Soot oxidation rates are not high enough to correctly predict burnout, and this aspect of the model needs further attention. (author)

  18. Characterization of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and Environmental Variables in a Shallow Groundwater in Shanghai Using Kriging Interpolation and Multifactorial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiang; Luo, Qi Shi; Li, Hui; Liu, Yong Di; Gu, Ji Dong; Fei Lin, Kuang

    2015-01-01

    CAHs, as a cleaning solvent, widely contaminated shallow groundwater with the development of manufacturing in China's Yangtze River Delta. This study focused on the distribution of CAHs, and correlations between CAHs and environmental variables in a shallow groundwater in Shanghai, using kriging interpolation and multifactorial analysis. The results showed that the overall CAHs plume area (above DIV) was approximately 9,000 m2 and located in the 2–4 m underground, DNAPL was accumulated at an area of approximately 1,400 m2 and located in the 6-8m sandy silt layer on the top of the muddy silty clay. Heatmap of PPC for CAHs and environmental variables showed that the correlation between “Fe2+” and most CAHs such as “1,1,1-TCA”, “1,1-DCA”, “1,1-DCE” and “%TCA” were significantly positive (p<0.001), but “%CA” and/or “%VC” was not, and “Cl-” was significantly positive correlated with “1,1-DCA” and “1,1-DCE” (p<0.001). The PCA demonstrated that the relative proportions of CAHs in groundwater were mostly controlled by the sources and the natural attenuation. In conclusion, the combination of geographical and chemometrics was helpful to establishing an aerial perspective of CAHs and identifying reasons for the accumulation of toxic dechlorination intermediates, and could become a useful tool for characterizing contaminated sites in general. PMID:26565796

  19. Evaluation of solid polymeric organic materials for use in bioreactive sediment capping to stimulate the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Atashgahi, Siavash; Maphosa, Farai; De Vrieze, Jo; Haest, Pieter Jan; Boon, Nico; Smidt, Hauke; Springael, Dirk; Dejonghe, Winnie

    2014-03-01

    In situ bioreactive capping is a promising technology for mitigation of surface water contamination by discharging polluted groundwater. Organohalide respiration (OHR) of chlorinated ethenes in bioreactive caps can be stimulated through incorporation of solid polymeric organic materials (SPOMs) that provide a sustainable electron source for organohalide respiring bacteria. In this study, wood chips, hay, straw, tree bark and shrimp waste, were assessed for their long term applicability as an electron donor for OHR of cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) in sediment microcosms. The initial release of fermentation products, such as acetate, propionate and butyrate led to the onset of extensive methane production especially in microcosms amended with shrimp waste, straw and hay, while no considerable stimulation of VC dechlorination was obtained in any of the SPOM amended microcosms. However, in the longer term, short chain fatty acids accumulation decreased as well as methanogenesis, whereas high dechlorination rates of VC and cDCE were established with concomitant increase of Dehalococcoides mccartyi and vcrA and bvcA gene numbers both in the sediment and on the SPOMs. A numeric simulation indicated that a capping layer of 40 cm with hay, straw, tree bark or shrimp waste is suffice to reduce the groundwater VC concentration below the threshold level of 5 μg/l before discharging into the Zenne River, Belgium. Of all SPOMs, the persistent colonization of tree bark by D. mccartyi combined with the lowest stimulation of methanogenesis singled out tree bark as a long-term electron donor for OHR of cDCE/VC in bioreactive caps.

  20. Characterization of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and Environmental Variables in a Shallow Groundwater in Shanghai Using Kriging Interpolation and Multifactorial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Luo, Qi Shi; Li, Hui; Liu, Yong Di; Gu, Ji Dong; Lin, Kuang Fei; Fei Lin, Kuang

    2015-01-01

    CAHs, as a cleaning solvent, widely contaminated shallow groundwater with the development of manufacturing in China's Yangtze River Delta. This study focused on the distribution of CAHs, and correlations between CAHs and environmental variables in a shallow groundwater in Shanghai, using kriging interpolation and multifactorial analysis. The results showed that the overall CAHs plume area (above DIV) was approximately 9,000 m(2) and located in the 2-4 m underground, DNAPL was accumulated at an area of approximately 1,400 m(2) and located in the 6-8m sandy silt layer on the top of the muddy silty clay. Heatmap of PPC for CAHs and environmental variables showed that the correlation between "Fe(2+)" and most CAHs such as "1,1,1-TCA", "1,1-DCA", "1,1-DCE" and "%TCA" were significantly positive (p<0.001), but "%CA" and/or "%VC" was not, and "Cl-" was significantly positive correlated with "1,1-DCA" and "1,1-DCE" (p<0.001). The PCA demonstrated that the relative proportions of CAHs in groundwater were mostly controlled by the sources and the natural attenuation. In conclusion, the combination of geographical and chemometrics was helpful to establishing an aerial perspective of CAHs and identifying reasons for the accumulation of toxic dechlorination intermediates, and could become a useful tool for characterizing contaminated sites in general. PMID:26565796

  1. Characterization of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and Environmental Variables in a Shallow Groundwater in Shanghai Using Kriging Interpolation and Multifactorial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Luo, Qi Shi; Li, Hui; Liu, Yong Di; Gu, Ji Dong; Lin, Kuang Fei; Fei Lin, Kuang

    2015-01-01

    CAHs, as a cleaning solvent, widely contaminated shallow groundwater with the development of manufacturing in China's Yangtze River Delta. This study focused on the distribution of CAHs, and correlations between CAHs and environmental variables in a shallow groundwater in Shanghai, using kriging interpolation and multifactorial analysis. The results showed that the overall CAHs plume area (above DIV) was approximately 9,000 m(2) and located in the 2-4 m underground, DNAPL was accumulated at an area of approximately 1,400 m(2) and located in the 6-8m sandy silt layer on the top of the muddy silty clay. Heatmap of PPC for CAHs and environmental variables showed that the correlation between "Fe(2+)" and most CAHs such as "1,1,1-TCA", "1,1-DCA", "1,1-DCE" and "%TCA" were significantly positive (p<0.001), but "%CA" and/or "%VC" was not, and "Cl-" was significantly positive correlated with "1,1-DCA" and "1,1-DCE" (p<0.001). The PCA demonstrated that the relative proportions of CAHs in groundwater were mostly controlled by the sources and the natural attenuation. In conclusion, the combination of geographical and chemometrics was helpful to establishing an aerial perspective of CAHs and identifying reasons for the accumulation of toxic dechlorination intermediates, and could become a useful tool for characterizing contaminated sites in general.

  2. Air pollution effect of SO2 and/or aliphatic hydrocarbons on marble statues in Archaeological Museums.

    PubMed

    Agelakopoulou, T; Metaxa, E; Karagianni, Ch-S; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F

    2009-09-30

    This study allowed the identification of the main physicochemical characteristics of deterioration of the materials used in the construction of Greek ancient statues in order to plan a correct methodology of restoration. The method of Reversed-Flow Inverse Gas Chromatography is appropriate to investigate the influence of air pollutants on authentic pieces from the Greek Archaeological Museum of Kavala, near Salonica. Six local physicochemical quantities which refer to the influence of one or two pollutants (synergistic effect) were determined for each system. These quantities answer the question "when, why and how materials of cultural heritage are attacked".

  3. Mixed aliphatic and aromatic composition of evaporating very small grains in NGC 7023 revealed by the 3.4/3.3 μm ratio

    PubMed Central

    Pilleri, P.; Joblin, C.; Boulanger, F.; Onaka, T.

    2015-01-01

    Context A chemical scenario was proposed for photon-dominated regions (PDRs) according to which UV photons from nearby stars lead to the evaporation of very small grains (VSGs) and the production of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aims Our goal is to achieve better insight into the composition and evolution of evaporating very small grains (eVSGs) and PAHs through analyzing the infrared (IR) aliphatic and aromatic emission bands. Methods We combined spectro-imagery in the near- and mid-IR to study the spatial evolution of the emission bands in the prototypical PDR NGC 7023. We used near-IR spectra obtained with the IRC instrument onboard AKARI to trace the evolution of the 3.3 μm and 3.4 μm bands, which are associated with aromatic and aliphatic C–H bonds on PAHs. The spectral fitting involved an additional broad feature centered at 3.45 μm that is often referred to as the plateau. Mid-IR observations obtained with the IRS instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope were used to distinguish the signatures of eVSGs and neutral and cationic PAHs. We correlated the spatial evolution of all these bands with the intensity of the UV field given in units of the Habing field G0 to explore how their carriers are processed. Results The intensity of the 3.45 μm plateau shows an excellent correlation with that of the 3.3 μm aromatic band (correlation coefficient R = 0.95) and a relatively poor correlation with the aliphatic 3.4 μm band (R=0.77). This indicates that the 3.45 μm feature is dominated by the emission from aromatic bonds. We show that the ratio of the 3.4 μm and 3.3 μm band intensity (I3.4/I3.3) decreases by a factor of 4 at the PDR interface from the more UV-shielded layers (G0 ~ 150, I3.4/I3.3 = 0.13) to the more exposed layers (G0 > 1 × 104, I3.4/I3.3 = 0.03). The intensity of the 3.3 μm band relative to the total neutral PAH intensity shows an overall increase with G0, associated with an increase of both the hardness of the UV

  4. Indigenous aliphatic amines in the aqueously altered Orgueil meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2015-10-01

    The CI1 Orgueil meteorite is a highly aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrite. It has been extensively studied, and despite its extensive degree of aqueous alteration and some documented instances of contamination, several indigenous organic compounds including amino acids, carboxylic acids, and nucleobases have been detected in its carbon-rich matrix. We recently developed a novel gas chromatographic method for the enantiomeric and compound-specific isotopic analyses of meteoritic aliphatic monoamines in extracts and have now applied this method to investigate the monoamine content in Orgueil. We detected 12 amines in Orgueil, with concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 332 nmol g-1 of meteorite and compared this amine content in Orgueil with that of the CM2 Murchison meteorite, which experienced less parent-body aqueous alteration. Methylamine is four times more abundant in Orgueil than in Murchison. As with other species, the amine content in Orgueil extracts shows less structural diversity than that in Murchison extracts. We measured the compound-specific stable carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C) for 5 of the 12 monoamines detected in Orgueil and found a range of δ13C values from -20 to +59‰. These δ13C values fall into the range of other meteoritic organic compounds, although they are 13C-depleted relative to their counterparts extracted from the Murchison meteorite. In addition, we measured the enantiomeric composition for the chiral monoamines (R)- and (S)-sec-butylamine in Orgueil, and found it was racemic within experimental error, in contrast with the L-enantiomeric excess found for its amino acid structural analog isovaline. The racemic nature of sec-butylamine in Orgueil was comparable to that previously observed in Murchison, and to other CM2 and CR2 carbonaceous chondrites measured in this work (ALH 83100 [CM1/2], LON 94101 [CM2], LEW 90500 [CM2], LAP 02342 [CR2], and GRA 95229 [CR2]). These results allow us to place some constraints on the effects of

  5. Acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of spent lubricating oil on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ogali, Regina E; Osuji, Leo C; Ayodele, Olufemi

    2007-12-01

    Static tests were employed to assess the acute toxicity of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of spent automotive lubricating oil (of mixed SAE grades) on Clarias gariepinus, a freshwater fish commonly cultured in Nigeria. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the WSF were found to decrease as a function of exposure time from 690+/-21 (after 24 h) to 513+/-58 mg/l (after 96 h). The characteristics of the WSF such as mean acidity (pH 6.6), turbidity (40 NTU), total dissolved solids (TDS; 40 mg/l) and significantly reduced (P<0.05) dissolved-oxygen (DO) values (1.44 mg/l) were not compliant with existing standards set for discharged effluents. The solubility of the detected straight-chain aliphatics ranked as C14>C16>C32>C18>C28; that of the simple aromatics was ortho-xylene>para-xylene; and that of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was acenaphthylene>9H-fluorene>naphthalene>anthracene>phenanthrene>chrysene>benzo[k]fluoranthene>benzo[a]pyrene>benzo[b]fluoranthene, most of which being serious carcinogens. These oil constituents and the overall physico-chemical properties of the WSF are expected to act synergistically on the test organism (C. gariepinus), eliciting the quantal responses observed. The toxicity of the WSF points to the base constituent, oxidative degradation, and mechano-chemical reactions associated with aged crankcase oils. These oils, therefore, should definitely no longer be disposed into water streams or landscape, not even at sub-lethal concentrations, because of the inherent toxicity of their soluble fractions and the associated danger of bioaccumulation. PMID:18081085

  6. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Travaglini, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

  7. CZE study on adsorption processes of aliphatic and aromatic amines on PMMA chip.

    PubMed

    Masár, Marián; Kruk, Pavol; Luc, Milan; Bodor, Róbert; Danč, Ladislav; Troška, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Adsorption processes on a PMMA chip linked with CZE separations of a group of 13 aliphatic and aromatic mono- and di-amines were studied. Due to the lack of chromophores within aliphatic amines, contact conductivity detection implemented directly onto the chip was used for monitoring of cationic CZE separations. To prevent an adsorption of studied amines to the chip channels, the surface of PMMA chip was modified by dynamic coating. Different surface modifiers, such as aliphatic oligoamines (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine), were added to the BGE solutions filling the chip channels. The effect of various concentrations of surface modifiers on peak profiles and separation parameters of amines was monitored. Of these, mainly, aliphatic di-amines and aromatic mono-amines adversely affected the CZE resolution of a whole group of analytes by their strong adsorption to the chip channels. A propionate BGE with pH 3.2 containing 100 μM triethylenetetramine and 25 mM 18-crown-6-ether was found suitable for CZE resolution of 12 from a total of 13 amines studied. Simple dynamic modification of the surface of PMMA chip enabled fast (analysis time lasted 9 min), sensitive (sub-μM LODs reached) and reproducible (1-3% RSD of the peak areas) CZE analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic amines.

  8. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1983-09-20

    A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

  9. Volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates: Chapter 12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. This chapter presents a summary of the sources, transport, fate, and remediation of volatile fuel hydrocarbons and fuel additives in the environment. Much research has focused on the transport and transformation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes and methyl tert‐butyl ether, in groundwater following release from underground storage tanks. Natural attenuation from biodegradation limits the movement of these contaminants and has received considerable attention as an environmental restoration option. This chapter summarizes approaches to environmental restoration, including those that rely on natural attenuation, and also engineered or enhanced remediation. Researchers are increasingly combining several microbial and molecular-based methods to give a complete picture of biodegradation potential and occurrence at contaminated field sites. New insights into the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel additives have been gained by recent advances in analytical tools and approaches, including stable isotope fractionation, analysis of metabolic intermediates, and direct microbial evidence. However, development of long-term detailed monitoring programs is required to further develop conceptual models of natural attenuation and increase our understanding of the behavior of contaminant mixtures in the subsurface.

  10. Aliphatic structure of humic acids; a clue to their origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Maciel, G.E.; Dennis, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (both 1H and 13C) of humic acids from diverse depositional environments indicate the presence of aromatic chemical structures, most likely derived from lignin of vascular plants, and complex, paraffinic structures, most likely derived from algal or microbial sources. The latter components account for a major fraction of humic acid structures in both terrestrial and aquatic environments, suggesting that algae or microbes play a large role in humification of organic remains from both systems. ?? 1981.

  11. Distribution and occurrence of aliphatic acid anions in deep subsurface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.B.

    1987-09-01

    This study reports 144 new analyses of short-chain aliphatic acid anions (acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate) in formation waters from eight localities: Eastern Venezuelan Basin, Denver Basin, Eastern Green River Basin, San Juan Basin, Piceance Basin, Raton Basin, Gulf Coast Basin, and the Western Overthrust. Reservoir temperature does not predict total or relative abundance of aliphatic acid anions, but does predict maximum total concentrations of these species. Maximum concentrations increase to approx. 90/sup 0/C. Above approx. 90/sup 0/C, maximum concentrations decrease. Above approx. 250/sup 0/C, maximum concentrations should not exceed approx. 1 mg/l. The general order of dominance is acetate >> propionate > butyrate > valerate, but for coal-associated waters is propionate greater than or equal to acetate > butyrate > valerate. Lack of longer-chain aliphatic acid anion dominance over acetate at low reservoir temperatures may suggest hydrologic communication with deeper reservoirs.

  12. Enzymatic degradation of aliphatic nitriles by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2, a versatile nitrile-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shumei; An, Xuejiao; Liu, Hongyuan; Cheng, Yi; Hou, Ning; Feng, Lu; Huang, Xinning; Li, Chunyan

    2015-06-01

    Nitriles are common environmental pollutants, and their removal has attracted increasing attention. Microbial degradation is considered to be the most acceptable method for removal. In this work, we investigated the biodegradation of three aliphatic nitriles (acetonitrile, acrylonitrile and crotononitrile) by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2 and the expression of their corresponding metabolic enzymes. This organism can utilize all three aliphatic nitriles as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, resulting in the complete degradation of these compounds. The degradation kinetics were described using a first-order model. The degradation efficiency was ranked according to t1/2 as follows: acetonitrile>trans-crotononitrile>acrylonitrile>cis-crotononitrile. Only ammonia accumulated following the three nitriles degradation, while amides and carboxylic acids were transient and disappeared by the end of the assay. mRNA expression and enzyme activity indicated that the tested aliphatic nitriles were degraded via both the inducible NHase/amidase and the constitutive nitrilase pathways, with the former most likely preferred.

  13. Classical-Reaction-Driven Stereo- and Regioselective C(sp(3) )-H Functionalization of Aliphatic Amines.

    PubMed

    Mahato, Sujit; Jana, Chandan K

    2016-06-01

    A large variety of synthetic methods have been developed for the synthesis of functionalized aliphatic amines because of their broad spectrum of application. Metallic reagents/catalysts and/or toxic oxidants are involved in most of the cases. Direct CH functionalization of aliphatic amines via their classical condensation reactions with suitable carbonyl compounds is advantageous because this method avoids hazardous metallic reagents, toxic oxidants and pre-activation/pre-functionalization step(s). In this account, the concept of direct CH functionalization of aliphatic amines based on the classical condensation-isomerization-addition (CIA) strategy followed by recent contributions from our ongoing research in the field along with relevant examples from other groups are described. Successes in stereo- and regioselective CC and CO bond formation via direct α- as well as β-C(sp(3) )-H functionalization are discussed. PMID:27185195

  14. Unravelling the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the fumarate addition mechanism--a gas-phase ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Vyas, Shubham; Villano, Stephanie M; Maupin, C Mark; Dean, Anthony M

    2015-02-14

    The fumarate addition reaction mechanism is central to the anaerobic biodegradation pathway of various hydrocarbons, both aromatic (e.g., toluene, ethyl benzene) and aliphatic (e.g., n-hexane, dodecane). Succinate synthase enzymes, which belong to the glycyl radical enzyme family, are the main facilitators of these biochemical reactions. The overall catalytic mechanism that converts hydrocarbons to a succinate molecule involves three steps: (1) initial H-abstraction from the hydrocarbon by the radical enzyme, (2) addition of the resulting hydrocarbon radical to fumarate, and (3) hydrogen abstraction by the addition product to regenerate the radical enzyme. Since the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels via the fumarate addition mechanism is linked to bio-corrosion, an improved understanding of this reaction is imperative to our efforts of predicting the susceptibility of proposed alternative fuels to biodegradation. An improved understanding of the fuel biodegradation process also has the potential to benefit bioremediation. In this study, we consider model aromatic (toluene) and aliphatic (butane) compounds to evaluate the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the energetics and kinetics of the fumarate addition mechanism by means of high level ab initio gas-phase calculations. We predict that the rate of toluene degradation is ∼100 times faster than butane at 298 K, and that the first abstraction step is kinetically significant for both hydrocarbons, which is consistent with deuterium isotope effect studies on toluene degradation. The detailed computations also show that the predicted stereo-chemical preference of the succinate products for both toluene and butane are due to the differences in the radical addition rate constants for the various isomers. The computational and kinetic modeling work presented here demonstrates the importance of considering pre-reaction and product complexes in order to accurately treat gas phase systems that involve intra and inter

  15. Metal and hydrocarbon behavior in sediments from Brazilian shallow waters drilling activities using nonaqueous drilling fluids (NAFs).

    PubMed

    do Carmo R Peralba, Maria; Pozebon, Dirce; dos Santos, João H Z; Maia, Sandra M; Pizzolato, Tânia M; Cioccari, Giovani; Barrionuevo, Simone

    2010-08-01

    The impact of drilling oil activities in the Brazilian Bonito Field/Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro) shell drilling (300 m) using nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) was investigated with respect to Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Co, Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, V, and aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the sediment. Sampling took place in three different times during approximately 33 months. For the metals Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, V, and Zn, no significant variation was observed after drilling activities in most of the stations. However, an increase was found in Ba concentration--due to the drilling activity--without return to the levels found 22 months after drilling. High Ba contents was already detected prior to well drilling, probably due to drilling activities in other wells nearby. Hydrocarbon contents also suggest previous anthropogenic activities. Aliphatic hydrocarbon contents were in the range usually reported in other drilling sites. The same behavior was observed in the case of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Nevertheless, the n-alkane concentration increased sharply after drilling, returning almost to predrilling levels 22 months after drilling activities.

  16. Viscosity of pure hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Knapstad, B.; Skjolsvik, P.A.; Oye, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate viscosity measurements have been performed on eight pure hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range 20-150/sup 0/C, or up to approximately 20/sup 0/C below the boiling point of the hydrocarbon, by use of an absolute oscillating viscometer. The hydrocarbons are cyclohexane and benzene and the n-alkanes of hexane, heptane, octane, decane, dodecane, and tetradecane. The viscosities are described with a modified Arrhenius equation, and the deviation in fit is 0.12% or less. The accuracy is estimated to be 0.33-0.56%. The lowest viscosities are assumed to have the highest deviation. Literature data reported by Dymond and Young normally fit our viscosities within our estimated accuracy. Other literature viscosities tend to be higher than our results, especially for the n-alkanes.

  17. Dependence of the extractability of aromatic hydrocarbons on their structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yanbukhtina, R.A.; Semenov, L.V.; Gaile, A.A.; Li, I.F.

    1988-08-10

    Liquid extraction is widely used in industry for extracting aromatic hydrocarbons from reforming catalyzates and hydrorefined pyrocondensates, and for purification of components which worsen the operating properties of fuels and oils from kerosene-gas oil and oil fractions of petroleum. The maximum distribution coefficients of arenes of different structure were determined in extraction from mixtures with n-tetradecane by acetonitrile (AN), previously proposed for purification of aromatic impurities from liquid paraffins, for a more complete study of the effect of the structure of aromatic hydrocarbons on their extractability. The conditions and results of one-stage extraction are reported. The concentration of arenes in the equilibrium phases was determined spectrophotometrically. The results obtained on the relative extractability of hydrocarbons can be used in selecting the key components in processes of extraction separation of different types of hydrocarbon raw material.

  18. Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Radical Azidation of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Xiaoqing; Li, Zhaodong; Cui, Lei; Li, Chaozhong

    2015-08-12

    We report herein an efficient and general method for the decarboxylative azidation of aliphatic carboxylic acids. Thus, with AgNO3 as the catalyst and K2S2O8 as the oxidant, the reactions of various aliphatic carboxylic acids with tosyl azide or pyridine-3-sulfonyl azide in aqueous CH3CN solution afforded the corresponding alkyl azides under mild conditions. A broad substrate scope and wide functional group compatibility were observed. A radical mechanism is proposed for this site-specific azidation.

  19. Friction differences between aliphatic and aromatic structures in lubrication of titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a titanium (0001) single crystal surface with various adsorbed aliphatic and aromatic compounds containing the same number of carbon atoms. An Auger emission spectroscopy analysis was used to monitor the presence of the organic lubricating compounds. Results of the investigation indicate that hexane and benzene give the same friction coefficients over a range of loads. At light loads the friction decreased with an increase in the halogen atom size where the halogens chlorine, bromine, and iodine are incorporated into the benzene molecular structure. The aliphatic compounds chlorohexane and bromohexane exhibited lower friction coefficients than the aromatic structures chlorobenzene and bromobenzene.

  20. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Catalytic asymmetric hydroamination of unactivated internal olefins to aliphatic amines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Shi-Liang; Niu, Dawen; Liu, Peng; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2015-07-01

    Catalytic assembly of enantiopure aliphatic amines from abundant and readily available precursors has long been recognized as a paramount challenge in synthetic chemistry. Here, we describe a mild and general copper-catalyzed hydroamination that effectively converts unactivated internal olefins—an important yet unexploited class of abundant feedstock chemicals—into highly enantioenriched α-branched amines (≥96% enantiomeric excess) featuring two minimally differentiated aliphatic substituents. This method provides a powerful means to access a broad range of advanced, highly functionalized enantioenriched amines of interest in pharmaceutical research and other areas.

  1. Hydrocarbon fuel detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.R.; Lyons, W.R.

    1990-01-23

    This patent describes a hydrocarbon fuel composition comprising: a hydrocarbon fuel; and a detergent amount of a detergent comprising an alkenylsuccinimide prepared by reacting an alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride with a mixture of amines, wherein at least 90 weight percent of the alkenyl substituent is derived from an olefin having a carbon chain of from 10 to 30 carbons or mixtures thereof, and wherein the alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride is reacted with the mixture of amines at a mole ratio of 0.8 to 1.5 moles of the amines per mole of the alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride.

  2. Light-Hydrocarbon Bearing Solids on Planetesimal 5145 Pholus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Object 5145 Pholus (=1992 AD) is a planetesimal in an orbit that crosses those of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (period 92.7 years). It is particularly notable because of its extreme red color, corroborated by several observing teams. A spectrum of Pholus obtained in 1992 shows a strong absorption band with a characteristic shape at 2.27 micron, plus a weaker band at 1.7 microns. A better spectrum of the 2.0-2.5 micron region in 1993 confirms the position and shape of the 2.27 micron band. The color and spectral bands are identified with the aliphatic-rich and high H/C organic solid called asphaltite, which in a terrestrial setting originates from thermal processing of products of biological activity. In Pholus, this material is attributed to formation from radiation processing of ices on grains in the interstellar medium. Laboratory spectra of asphaltite and related materials have been published by Moroz et al., while Cloutis showed similar bands in comparable materials and identified them as the overtone and combination bands of C-H stretching and bending modes in CH2 and CH3 groups. Asphaltites, kerites, and anthraxolites are solid non-graphite members of a sequence ranging from oil to graphite; diffuse reflectance spectra of suites of these intermediate materials show color characteristics similar to those of the low-albedo asteroids (C,P,D), although specific identifications have not been made because of the lack of distinct absorption bands in the spectra of most low-albedo solar system bodies. In the case of Pholus, however, the primary band is strong; its wavelength and its shape, plus the match of the extremely red color, leads us to the identification of aliphatic-rich, asphaltite-like organic solid. The C, P, and D-type asteroids vary in degree of 'redness', but are all less red than Pholus. Pholus and the C-type asteroids are the end members of a sequence that represents the radiation processing of hydrocarbons, with Pholus being the least processed

  3. Light-Hydrocarbon Bearing Solids on Planetesimal 5145 Pholus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Object 5145 Pholus (=1992 AD) is a planetesimal in an orbit that crosses those of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (period 92.7 years). It is particularly notable because of its extreme red color, corroborated by several observing teams. A spectrum of Pholus obtained in 1992 shows a strong absorption band with a characteristic shape at 2.27 micrometers, plus a weaker band at 1.7 micrometers. A better spectrum of the 2.0-2.5 micrometer region in 1993 confirms the position and shape of the 2.27-micrometer band. The color and spectral bands are identified with the aliphatic-rich and high H/C organic solid called asphaltite, which in a terrestrial setting originates from thermal processing of products of biological activity. In Pholus, this material is attributed to formation from radiation processing of ices on grains in the interstellar medium. Laboratory spectra of asphaltite and related materials have been published by Moroz et al., while Cloutis showed similar bands in comparable materials and identified them as the overtone and combination bands of C-H stretching and bending modes in CH2 and CH3 groups. Asphaltites, kerites, and anthraxolites are solid non-graphite members of a sequence ranging from oil to graphite; diffuse reflectance spectra of suites of these intermediate materials show color characteristics similar to those of the low-albedo asteroids (C,P,D), although specific identifications have not been made because of the lack of distinct absorption bands in the spectra of most low-albedo solar system bodies. In the case of Pholus, however, the primary band is strong; its wavelength and its shape, plus the match of the extremely red color, leads us to the identification of aliphatic-rich, asphaltite-like organic solid. The C, P, and D-type asteroids vary in degree of "redness", but are all less red than Pholus. Pholus and the Ctype asteroids are the end members of a sequence that represents the radiation processing of hydrocarbons, with Pholus being the least

  4. Characteristics of amorphous kerogens fractionated from terrigenous sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Noriyuki

    1984-02-01

    A preliminary attempt to fractionate amorphous kerogens from terrigenous bulk kerogen by a benzene-water two phase partition method under acidic condition was made. Microscopic observation revealed that amorphous kerogens and structured kerogens were fractionated effectively by this method. Characteristics of the amorphous and structured kerogens fractionated by this method were examined by some chemical analyses and compared with those of the bulk kerogen and humic acid isolated from the same rock sample (Haizume Formation, Pleistocene, Japan). The elemental and infrared (IR) analyses showed that the amorphous kerogen fraction had the highest atomic H/C ratio and the lowest atomic N/C ratio and was the richest in aliphatic structures and carbonyl and carboxyl functional groups. Quantities of fatty acids from the saponification products of each geopolymer were in agreement with the results of elemental and IR analyses. Distribution of the fatty acids was suggestive that more animal lipids participate in the formation of amorphous kerogens because of the abundance of relatively lower molecular weight fatty acids (such as C 16 and C 18 acids) in saponification products of amorphous kerogens. On the other hand, although the amorphous kerogen fraction tends to be rich in aliphatic structures compared with bulk kerogen of the same rock samples, van Krevelen plots of elemental compositions of kerogens from the core samples (Nishiyama Oil Field, Tertiary, Japan) reveal that the amorphous kerogen fraction is not necessarily characterized by markedly high atomic H/C ratio. This was attributed to the oxic environment of deposition and the abundance of biodegraded terrestrial amorphous organic matter in the amorphous kerogen fraction used in this work.

  5. THE ABUNDANCES OF HYDROCARBON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INFERRED FROM LABORATORY SPECTRA OF HYDROGENATED AND METHYLATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Steglich, M.; Jäger, C.; Huisken, F.; Friedrich, M.; Plass, W.; Räder, H.-J.; Müllen, K.; Henning, Th.

    2013-10-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing methyl (-CH{sub 3}), methylene (CH{sub 2}), or diamond-like CH groups and IR spectra of mixtures of methylated and hydrogenated PAHs prepared by gas-phase condensation were measured at room temperature (as grains in pellets) and at low temperature (isolated in Ne matrices). In addition, the PAH blends were subjected to an in-depth molecular structure analysis by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Supported by calculations at the density functional theory level, the laboratory results were applied to analyze in detail the aliphatic absorption complex of the diffuse interstellar medium at 3.4 μm and to determine the abundances of hydrocarbon functional groups. Assuming that the PAHs are mainly locked in grains, aliphatic CH {sub x} groups (x = 1, 2, 3) would contribute approximately in equal quantities to the 3.4 μm feature (N {sub CHx}/N {sub H} ≈ 10{sup –5}-2 × 10{sup –5}). The abundances, however, may be two to four times lower if a major contribution to the 3.4 μm feature comes from molecules in the gas phase. Aromatic ≅CH groups seem to be almost absent from some lines of sight, but can be nearly as abundant as each of the aliphatic components in other directions (N{sub ≅CH}/N {sub H} ∼< 2 × 10{sup –5}; upper value for grains). Due to comparatively low binding energies, astronomical IR emission sources do not display such heavy excess hydrogenation. At best, especially in protoplanetary nebulae, CH{sub 2} groups bound to aromatic molecules, i.e., excess hydrogens on the molecular periphery only, can survive the presence of a nearby star.

  6. Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

  7. Hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Kostecki, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater. Topics covered include: Perspectives on hydrocarbon contamination; regulations; environmental fate and modeling; sampling and site assessment; remediation assessment and design; and remediation case studies.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  18. Recent studies in microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    PubMed Central

    Fathepure, Babu Z.

    2014-01-01

    Many hypersaline environments are often contaminated with petroleum compounds. Among these, oil and natural gas production sites all over the world and hundreds of kilometers of coastlines in the more arid regions of Gulf countries are of major concern due to the extent and magnitude of contamination. Because conventional microbiological processes do not function well at elevated salinities, bioremediation of hypersaline environments can only be accomplished using high salt-tolerant microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum compounds. In the last two decades, there have been many reports on the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in moderate to high salinity environments. Numerous microorganisms belonging to the domain Bacteria and Archaea have been isolated and their phylogeny and metabolic capacity to degrade a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in varying salinities have been demonstrated. This article focuses on our growing understanding of bacteria and archaea responsible for the degradation of hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions in moderate to high salinity conditions. Even though organisms belonging to various genera have been shown to degrade hydrocarbons, members of the genera Halomonas Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Haloferax, Haloarcula, and Halobacterium dominate the published literature. Despite rapid advances in understanding microbial taxa that degrade hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions, not much is known about organisms that carry out similar processes in anaerobic conditions. Also, information on molecular mechanisms and pathways of hydrocarbon degradation in high salinity is scarce and only recently there have been a few reports describing genes, enzymes and breakdown steps for some hydrocarbons. These limited studies have clearly revealed that degradation of oxygenated and non-oxygenated hydrocarbons by halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms occur by pathways similar to those found in non-halophiles. PMID:24795705

  19. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1987-05-19

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 6 figs.

  20. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  1. Zeroing in on hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, I.P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1997-05-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost-reducing techniques in soil investigation and cleanup techniques. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using ground penetrating radar in combination with in house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. This article discusses the new technology. 2 figs.

  2. Excited states in hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsky, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this brief review we first summarize some pertinent features of the photophysical properties of excited states of hydrocarbons and the mechanisms by which they transfer energy to solutes and then review their yields and their behavior under fast-electron irradiation conditions. 33 refs.

  3. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1988-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  4. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  5. Acetoxylation of unsaturated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Vekki, A.V. de

    1994-06-10

    Acetoxylation is a method for one-step introduction of ester groups into molecules of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Subsequent processing of esters formed may allow an easy preparation of alkanediols and dicarboxylic and polyfunctional carboxylic acids with the required number of carbon atoms.

  6. Hydrocarbon options emerge

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, P.

    1995-11-01

    Europe stole the scene at last week`s International Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and Halon Alternatives Conference in Washington as attendees learned more about an accelerating shift to low-cost hydrocarbon refrigerants by European equipment manufacturers. Udo Wenning, representing German refrigerator market leader Bosch-Siemens, told the conference that hydrocarbons-isobutane as refrigerant and cyclopentane to blow the insulating foam-are now used in 90% of German production. Wenning says that in all performance parameters, hydrocarbons match the hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) replacements favored in the U.S. and Japan and that, unlike HCFCs and HFCs they have low global warming potential. Their Achille`s heel is flammability, Wenning says. American equipment manufacturers aiming to sell a new generation of equipment designed for the new HFC refrigerants sought to amplify concern over flammability at the conference. {open_quotes}In a society as litigious as ours, we do not see a future for flammable refrigerants,{close_quotes} says a representative of air conditioner manufacturer Carrier. Hydrocarbon supporters such as Greenpeace say the risks are mananageable.

  7. Venus clouds: test for hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Plummer, W T

    1969-03-14

    Infrared reflection spectra of hydrocarbon clouds and frosts now give a critical test of Velikovsky's prediction that Venus is surrounded by a dense envelope of hydrocarbon clouds and dusts. Venus does not exhibit an absorption feature near 2.4 microns, although such a feature is prominent in every hydrocarbon spectrum observed.

  8. The evolution of hydrocarbons past the asymptotic giant branch: the case of MSX SMC 029

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, Tyler; Sloan, Gregory C.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Goes, Christopher; Barry, Donald

    2015-01-01

    We present an optimally extracted high-resolution spectrum of MSX SMC 029 obtained by the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. MSX SMC 029 is a carbon-rich object in the Small Magellanic Cloud that has evolved past the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The spectrum reveals a cool carbon-rich dust continuum with emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and absorption from simpler hydrocarbons, both aliphatic and aromatic, including acetylene and benzene. The spectrum shows many similarities to the carbon-rich post-AGB objects SMP LMC 011 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and AFGL 618 in the Galaxy. Both of these objects also show infrared absorption features from simple hydrocarbons. All three spectra lack strong atomic emission lines in the infrared, indicating that we are observing the evolution of carbon-rich dust and free hydrocarbons in objects between the AGB and planetary nebulae. These three objects give us a unique view of the elusive phase when hydrocarbons exist both as relatively simple molecules and the much more complex and ubiquitous PAHs. We may be witnessing the assembly of amorphous carbon into PAHs.

  9. Urban rivers as conveyors of hydrocarbons to sediments of estuarine areas: source characterization, flow rates and mass accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mauad, Cristiane R; Wagener, Angela de L R; Massone, Carlos G; Aniceto, Mayara da S; Lazzari, Letícia; Carreira, Renato S; Farias, Cássia de O

    2015-02-15

    Aliphatic (n-C12-n-C40, unresolved complex mixture, resolved peaks) and aromatic hydrocarbons (46 PAH) were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampled over eleven months in six of the major rivers and two channels of the Guanabara Bay Basin. PAH flow rates of the most contaminated rivers, the contribution to the PAH sediment load of the receiving bay, and the main sources of hydrocarbons were determined. PAH (38) ranged from 28 ng L(-1) to 11,514 ng L(-1). Hydrocarbon typology and statistical evaluation demonstrated contribution of distinct sources in different regions and allowed quantification of these contributions. Total flow rate for the five major rivers amounts to 3 t year(-1) and responds for 30% of the total PAH annual input into the northern area of the Guanabara Bay. For the first time PAH mass deposited in the bay sediments has been estimated and shall serve as base for decision making and source abatement.

  10. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New...

  14. Mass spectral analysis of C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acid derivatives.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.; Chadha, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria are obtained for the distinction of alpha, beta, gamma, and N-methyl isomers of the C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acids, using mass spectral analysis of the derivatives of these acids. The use of deuterium labeling has helped in the understanding of certain fragmentation pathways.

  15. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the potential of enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (TCE), cis-and trans-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), an...

  16. Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort is to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes. Successful completion of this project will result in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project.

  17. PRECONCENTRATION OF ALIPHATIC AMINES FROM WATER DETERMINED BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS WITH INDIRECT UV DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preconcentration methodology based on adsorption chromatographies for enriching aliphatic amines (c1 to C4 substituted primary, secondary, and tertiary) and alkanolamines in water was studied by free zone capillary electrophoresis (CZE)with indirect UV detection. The solid-phase ...

  18. Spectrofluorimetric evaluation of total aliphatic and aromatic amines in well waters and wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Djozan, D.; Faraj-Zadeh, M.A.

    1998-09-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic amines are important metabolic intermediates in decomposition processes and are distributed in wastewaters. Monitoring of these compounds in the water samples can indicate whether the environmental waters are contaminated with wastewaters. A simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method is described for the determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines on the basis of ammonia and aniline, respectively. Aromatic amines in samples were reacted at pH 5.5 with fluram immobilized on an Octadecylsilane Solid Phase Extraction (ODS-SPE) cartridge. The produced pyrrolinones were adsorbed on SPE and separated from the aliphatic amines. Analysis of these compounds was carried out by elution of SPE with 1 ml Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and determination of fluorescence intensity at excitation wavelength 400 nm and emission wavelength 475 nm. Aliphatic amines after passing from SPE were collected and reacted with fluram at pH 9.2, and extracted into dichloromethane at pH 3 and quantitated fluorimetrically. Linear dynamic ranges and detection limits (LOD) were 1-20, 0.43 mg l{sup {minus}1} and 1-200, 0.39 {micro}g l{sup {minus}1} for ammonia and aniline, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the evaluation of these compounds in local well waters and municipality wastewaters.

  19. Copper-catalyzed aliphatic C-H amination with an amidine moiety.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Sanjaya, Stephen; Wang, Yi-Feng; Chiba, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    A method for amination of aliphatic C-H bonds of N-alkylamidines is described that utilizes Cu(OAc)(2) as the catalyst in the presence of PhI(OAc)(2) and K(3)PO(4). The resulting products, dihydroimidazoles and tetrahydropyrimidines, could be converted into the corresponding diamines by hydride reduction. PMID:23252919

  20. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.