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Sample records for aliphatic monocarboxylic acids

  1. Separation and conductimetric detection of C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines on unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin columns.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2004-06-11

    The application of unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin (TSKgel G3000PWXL) as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 5-methylhexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isobutylamine, butylamine, isoamylamine, amylamine, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, hexylamine, 2-heptylamine and heptylamine) was attempted with C8 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (2-propylvaleric acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid and octanoic acid) and C8 aliphatic monoamines (1,5-dimethylhexylamine, 2-ethylhexylamine, 1-methylheptylamine and octylamine) as eluents, respectively. Using 1 mM 2-methylheptanoic acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids were achieved on a TSKgel G3000PWXL column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) in 60 min. Using 2 mM octylamine at pH 11.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 amines were also achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 60 min. PMID:15250420

  2. Synthesis of higher monocarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Taikov, B.F.; Novakovskii, E.M.; Zhelkovskaya, V.P.; Shadrova, V.N.; Shcherbik, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Brown-coal and peat waxes contain higher monocarboxylic acids, alcohols and esters of them as their main components. In view of this, considerable interest is presented by the preparation of individual compounds among those mentioned above, which is particularly important in the study of the composition and development of the optimum variants of the chemical processing of the waxes. In laboratory practice, to obtain higher monocarboxylic acids use is generally made of electrosynthesis according to Kolbe which permits unbranched higher aliphatic acids with given lengths of the hydrocarbon chain to be obtained. The aim of the present work was to synthesize higher monocarboxylic acids: arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, pentacosanoic, erotic, heptacosanoic, montanic, nonacosanoic, melissic, dotriacontanoic and tetratriacontanoic, which are present in waxes. Characteristics of synthesized acids are tabulated. 20 refs.

  3. Quantification of monocarboxylic acids in the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.; Yuen, G. U.

    1979-01-01

    The abundances of some of the straight- and branched-chain isomers of the monocarboxylic acids found in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite are determined. Monocarboxylic acids extracted from a crushed sample of Murchison interior were quantified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy after a spiking solution of deuterated analogues of 11 carboxylic acids had been added. Monocarboxylic acid abundances are found to range between 1.83 and 0.01 micromole/g, which is significantly higher than Murchison amino acid concentrations, and to decrease with increasing carbon number for both branched and unbranched molecules. The results are interpreted to support the abiotic extraterrestrial synthesis of monocarboxylic acids. Possible mechanisms leading to the equal synthesis of branched and each unbranched carboxylic acid with the same carbon number are considered, noting that the Fischer-Tropsch Type mechanism by itself is incapable of accounting for the observed distributions.

  4. Isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Epstein, S.; Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra; Yuen, George U.

    1992-01-01

    The monocarboxylic acids and hydrocarbons of the Murchison meteorite (CM2) were isolated for isotropic analysis. The nonvolatile hydrocarbons were analyzed as crude methanol and benzene-methanol extracts and also after separation by silica gel chromatography into predominantly aliphatic, aromatic, and polar hydrocarbon fractions. The volatile hydrocarbons were obtained after progressive decomposition of the meteorite matrix by freeze-thaw, hot water, and acid treatment. Molecular analyses of the aromatic hydrocarbons showed them to comprise a complex suite of compounds in which pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene were the most abundant components, a result similar to earlier analyses. The polar hydrocarbons also comprise a very complex mixture in which aromatic ketones, nitrogen, and sulfur heterocycles were identified. The monocarboxylic acids, aliphatic, aromatic, and polar hydrocarbons, and the indigenous volatile hydrocarbons were found to be D-rich. The deuterium enrichment observed in these compounds is suggestive. In two separate analyses, the delta-D values of the nonvolatile hydrocarbons were observed to increase in the following order: aliphatic-aromatic-polar. This finding is consistent with an early solar system or parent body conversion of aromatic to aliphatic compounds as well as the suggestion of pyrolytic formation of aromatic from aliphatic compounds.

  5. Temporary protection of metals against atmospheric corrosion by saturated straight chain aliphatic monocarboxylates. Mechanisms of inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Kapin, C.; Steinmetz, P.; Steinmetz, J.

    1998-12-31

    This work was devoted to the investigations of the ability of saturated straight chain aliphatic monocarboxylates to inhibit corrosion of mild steel and zinc in aerated aqueous solutions. Performances of inhibitors were shown to be dependent on their chain length, their concentration and the immersion duration. Both crystallographic parameters and solubilities of iron and zinc carboxylates were determined. Then potential-pH diagrams of iron and zinc in water were built taking the presence of metallic soaps into account. According to these diagrams, the passivation of metals was attributed to the growth of films containing metallic soaps. This model confirms that previously proposed for inhibition of copper and magnesium by the same carboxylates.

  6. Molecular Distribution of Monocarboxylic Acids in Asuka Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraoka, Hiroshi; Shimoyama, Akira; Harada, Kaoru

    1999-03-01

    Molecular distribution of low-molecular-weight monocarboxylic acids was studied in three CM2 Asuka carbonaceous chondrites (A-881280, A-881334 and A-881458), which were recovered from Antarctica by the 29th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition in 1988. GC and GC/MS analyses identified more than 30 monocarboxylic acids in A-881458, including aliphatic and aromatic acids with various structural isomers. Isomeric phenolic compounds were also identified. The aliphatic carboxylic acids have straight-chain structures having 2 to 12 carbon atoms (C2 to C12), and branched-chain structures (C4 to C9). The quantities of straight-chain acids decrease logarithmically with increasing carbon number. At the same carbon number, a straight-chain isomer is always predominant compared to branched-chain isomers. All of the 14 possible C4, C5 and C6 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (not including optical isomers) have been identified, although all the isomers were not reported in Murchison and Y-791198 meteorites. Of the 17 possible isomeric C7 acids, at least 14 isomers were tentatively identified by mass spectra (EI and CI mode). At C8 or above, peaks of branched-chain isomers become obscure, probably due to the large number of isomers and small concentrations. Branched-chain monocarboxylic acids over C6 have never been reported in Murchison. Although occurrence of aliphatic acids are similar between A-881458 and Murchison at C4, C5 and C6 acids, a major difference is that A-881458 as well as Y-791198 have straight- chain predominance among isomers in contrast to Murchison being branched-chain predominant. In the case of isomeric aromatic compounds such as toluic acids and cresols, m-toluic acid and p-cresol are more abundant among their isomers, respectively. The molecular distribution may not reflect thermodynamic equilibrium but rather a kinetically controlled process for their formation mechanism. The other two CM2 chondrites (A-881280 and A-881334) were depleted in carboxylic

  7. Chirality of meteoritic free and IOM-derived monocarboxylic acids and implications for prebiotic organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; Tarozo, Rafael; Alexandre, Marcelo R.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Charnley, Steven B.; Hallmann, Christian; Summons, Roger E.; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-04-01

    The origin of homochirality and its role in the development of life on Earth are among the most intriguing questions in science. It has been suggested that carbonaceous chondrites seeded primitive Earth with the initial organic compounds necessary for the origin of life. One of the strongest pieces of evidence supporting this theory is that certain amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites display a significant L-enantiomeric excess (ee), similar to those use by terrestrial life. Analyses of ee in meteoritic molecules other than amino acids would shed more light on the origins of homochirality. In this study we investigated the stereochemistry of two groups of compounds: (1) free monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) from CM2 meteorites LON 94101 and Murchison; and (2) the aliphatic side chains present in the insoluble organic matter (IOM) and extracted in the form of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) from EET 87770 (CR2) and Orgueil (CI1). Contrary to the well-known ee observed for amino acids in meteorites, we found that meteoritic branched free and IOM-derived MCAs with 5-8 carbon atoms are essentially racemic. The racemic nature of these compounds is used to discuss the possible influence of ultraviolet circularly polarized light (UVCPL) and aqueous alterations on the parent body on chirality observed in in carbonaceous chondrites.

  8. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks. PMID:21120449

  9. On the dissolution kinetics of humic acid particles. Effect of monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Brigante, Maximiliano; Zanini, Graciela; Avena, Marcelo

    2008-05-01

    The dissolution kinetics of humic acid particles has been studied in batch experiments, and the effects of monocarboxylic (formic, acetic, and propionic) acids are reported. The dissolution rate of the particles is significantly affected by the presence of monocarboxylic acids in the pH range 4-10. At pH 7, for example, propionic acid increases 30 times this dissolution rate. The capacity of increasing the dissolution rate is in the order formic acidacidacid, and this dissolving capacity of carboxylics seems to be directly related to their affinity for HA molecules located at the surface of the solid particles. The results indicate that carboxylics and related compounds may affect markedly the mobility and transport of humic substances in the environment. PMID:18328533

  10. Oxygenases for aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenases catalyzing the insertion of oxygen into either aliphatic hydrocarbons or fatty acids have great similarity. There are two classes of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Dioxygenase inserts both atoms of molecular oxygen into a substrate, whereas monooxygenase incorporates one a...

  11. Comparative structure analysis of non-polar organic ferrofluids stabilized by saturated mono-carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Avdeev, M V; Bica, D; Vékás, L; Aksenov, V L; Feoktystov, A V; Marinica, O; Rosta, L; Garamus, V M; Willumeit, R

    2009-06-01

    The structure of ferrofluids (magnetite in decahydronaphtalene) stabilized with saturated mono-carboxylic acids of different chain lengths (lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids) is studied by means of magnetization analysis and small-angle neutron scattering. It is shown that in case of saturated acid surfactants, magnetite nanoparticles are dispersed in the carrier approximately with the same size distribution whose mean value and width are significantly less as compared to the classical stabilization with non-saturated oleic acid. The found thickness of the surfactant shell around magnetite is analyzed with respect to stabilizing properties of mono-carboxylic acids. PMID:19376524

  12. Quantification of monocarboxylic acids from a spark discharge synthesis. [in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G. U.; Lawless, J. G.; Edelson, E. H.

    1981-01-01

    A suite of sixteen monocarboxylic acids having carbon numbers 2 to 7, formed by the Miller-Urey spark discharge process, was identified and quantified by gas chromatography and mass fragmentography using a deuterium spiking technique. The molar concentration and isomeric distribution of these laboratory synthesized monocarboxylic acids are compared to those previously reported for the Murchison meteorite. They show similar trends, namely, decreasing molar concentration with increasing molecular weight, and a ratio of normal/branched isomers tending toward smaller values with increasing carbon numbers.

  13. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  2. Utilization of short chain monocarboxylic acids in an effluent of petrochemical industry by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

    SciTech Connect

    Du Preez, J.C.; Toerien, D.F.

    1985-02-01

    The aqueous effluent generated by the Fischer-Tropsch process, containing a total of 13 g/L C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ monocarboxylic acids, was investigated as a potential substrate for the production of single-cell protein (SCP). A bacterial isolate, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, could utilize all the acids in the effluent simultaneously in chemostat cultures, and no residual acids were detected in the culture below a dilution rate of 0.78 h/sup -1/. The critical dilution rate was 1.04 h/sup -1/. The maintenance energy requirement of the cells growing on the monocarboxylic acid mixture was considerably lower than that of cells growing on acetate as the sole carbon source. Enrichment of the effluent with ethanol to increase the biomass concentration was successful and still allowed the simultaneous and efficient utilization of all the carbon sources, but resulted in a decrease of the critical dilution rate by ca. 20%.

  3. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  4. Uptake of aristolochic acid I into Caco-2 cells by monocarboxylic acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kato, Yoshihisa; Endo, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The uptake mechanism of aristolochic acid I (AAI) was investigated using Caco-2 cells cultured on dishes and permeable membranes. The uptake of AAI from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells cultured on a dish was rapid, and a decrease in the pH of the incubation medium significantly increased uptake. Incubation at low temperature (4°C) and treatment with sodium azide (a metabolic inhibitor) or carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a protonophore) significantly inhibited the AAI uptake. Coincubation with L-lactic acid or benzoic acid, typical substrates for the proton-linked monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCTs), significantly decreased the AAI uptake, as did coincubation with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (an inhibitor of MCTs). Dixon plotting revealed the competitive inhibition of benzoic acid on the AAI uptake. To confirm the AAI uptake via MCTs, the apical-to-basolateral transport of AAI was investigated using the Caco-2 cells cultured on the permeable membranes. The transport of AAI at pH 6.0 was markedly higher than that at pH 7.4, and was significantly decreased by coincubation with benzoic acid. These results suggest that the uptake of AAI from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells is mediated mainly by MCTs along with benzoic acid. PMID:25177030

  5. Linear and cyclic aliphatic carboxamides of the Murchison meteorite: Hydrolyzable derivatives of amino acids and other carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, G. W.; Cronin, J. R.

    1995-03-01

    Analyses of fractionated aqueous extracts of the Murchison meteorite by gas chromatographymass spectrometry after silylation with N-methyl-N ( tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide have revealed an extensive series of linear and cyclic aliphatic amides. These include monocarboxylic acid amides, dicarboxylic acid monoamides, hydroxy acid amides, lactams, carboxy lactams, lactims, N-acetyl amino acids, and substituted hydantoins. Numerous isomers and homologues through at least C 8 were observed in all cases, except for the N-acetyl amino acids and hydantoins. Carboxy lactams, lactams, hydantoins, and N-acetyl amino acids are converted to amino acids by acid hydrolysis, thus, these compounds qualitatively account for the earlier observation of acid-labile amino acid precursors in meteoritic extracts. Laboratory studies of the spontaneous decomposition of N-carbamyl-α-amino acids and their dehydration products, the 5-substituted hydantoins, have led to the recognition of a series of aqueous phase reactions by which amino acids and cyanic acid/cyanate ion in the primitive parent body might have given rise to several of the observed classes of amides, as well as to monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and hydroxy acids. A previously undescribed reaction of 5-substituted hydantoins with cyanic acid/cyanate ion to give carboxamides of the 5-substituent groups was observed in the course of these studies. The presence of an extensive suite of amides in a CM chondrite appears to be consistent with the interstellar-parent body formation hypothesis for the organic compounds of these meteorites. The presence of carboxy lactams and lactams along with free amino acids suggests the possibility of further chemical evolution of meteorite amino acids by thermal polymerization. The cyclic amides, given their potential for hydrogen-bonded pair formation, might be considered candidate bases for a primitive sequence coding system.

  6. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  7. Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.

  8. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  9. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Palasz, Peter D.

    1986-01-01

    A process for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems comprising: adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8-9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids; oxidizing the solution to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes; removing said aldehydes as they are generated; and converting said aldehydes to peracids.

  10. Challenges in the Synthesis of a Unique Mono-Carboxylic Acid Antibiotic (+)-Zincophorin

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhenlei; Lohse, Andrew G.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    (+)-Zincophorin, also referred to as M144255 or griseochellin, is a polyoxygenated ionophoric antibiotic that was isolated from Streptomyces griseus in 1984. It possesses strong in vivo activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Clostridium coelchii. Its methyl ester was reported in a patent as having strong inhibitory properties against influenza WSN/virus with reduced toxicity for the host cell. Its ability to strongly bind with Zn2+, which is also present in its X-ray structure, is the basis for its name. Over the last two decades, (+)-zincophorin h as attracted an impressive array of synthetic efforts including Danishefsky's first total synthesis along with two recent elegant total syntheses reported by Cossy and Miyashita as well as our own formal total synthesis. This Account provides a comparison of the different synthetic efforts on this novel mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic and documents its interesting isolation, structure determination, and biological activities. PMID:19642422

  11. Noncovalent-bonded 1D-3D supramolecular architectures from 2-methylquinoline/quinoline with monocarboxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Jin, Shouwen; Jin, Li; Ye, XiangHang; Zheng, Lu; Li, JingWen; Jin, BinPeng; Wang, Daqi

    2014-10-01

    Studies concentrating on noncovalent weak interactions between the organic base of 2-methylquinoline/quinoline, and carboxylic acid derivatives have led to an increased understanding of the role 2-methylquinoline/quinoline have in binding with carboxylic acids. Here anhydrous multicomponent organic acid-base adducts of 2-methylquinoline/quinoline have been prepared with carboxylic acids that ranged from monocarboxylic acid to dicarboxylic acid such as p-nitrobenzoic acid, (4-chloro-phenoxy)-acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid, 5-bromosalicylic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, and 4-nitrophthalic acid. The seven crystalline complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, m.p., and elemental analysis. These structures adopted the hetero supramolecular synthons. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-7 suggests that there are Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯N, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between the acid and quinoline moieties in the studied compounds. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. These weak interactions combined, these compounds displayed 1D-3D framework structure.

  12. On the possibility of using short chain length mono-carboxylic acids for stabilization of magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Bica, Doina; Vékás, Ladislau; Marinica, Oana; Balasoiu, Maria; Aksenov, Victor L.; Rosta, László; Garamus, Vasil M.; Schreyer, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Short chain length mono-carboxylic acids (lauric and myristic acids) are used to coat magnetite nanoparticles in non-polar organic liquids, which results in highly stable magnetic fluids. The new fluids are compared with classical organic fluids stabilized by oleic acid (OA). Magnetic granulometry and small-angle neutron scattering (polarized mode) reveal a great difference in the particle size distribution function for the studied magnetic fluids, particularly a decrease in the characteristic particle radius of magnetite when lauric and myristic acids are used instead of OA.

  13. Unsaturated C3,5,7,9-Monocarboxylic Acids by Aqueous, One-Pot Carbon Fixation: Possible Relevance for the Origin of Life

    PubMed Central

    Scheidler, Christopher; Sobotta, Jessica; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Wächtershäuser, Günter; Huber, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    All scientific approaches to the origin of life share a common problem: a chemical path to lipids as main constituents of extant cellular enclosures. Here we show by isotope-controlled experiments that unsaturated C3,5,7,9-monocarboxylic acids form by one-pot reaction of acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in contact with nickel sulfide (NiS) in hot aqueous medium. The primary products are toto-olefinic monocarboxylic acids with CO-derived COOH groups undergoing subsequent stepwise hydrogenation with CO as reductant. In the resulting unsaturated monocarboxylic acids the double bonds are mainly centrally located with mainly trans-configuration. The reaction conditions are compatible with an origin of life in volcanic-hydrothermal sub-seafloor flow ducts. PMID:27283227

  14. Unsaturated C3,5,7,9-Monocarboxylic Acids by Aqueous, One-Pot Carbon Fixation: Possible Relevance for the Origin of Life.

    PubMed

    Scheidler, Christopher; Sobotta, Jessica; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Wächtershäuser, Günter; Huber, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    All scientific approaches to the origin of life share a common problem: a chemical path to lipids as main constituents of extant cellular enclosures. Here we show by isotope-controlled experiments that unsaturated C3,5,7,9-monocarboxylic acids form by one-pot reaction of acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in contact with nickel sulfide (NiS) in hot aqueous medium. The primary products are toto-olefinic monocarboxylic acids with CO-derived COOH groups undergoing subsequent stepwise hydrogenation with CO as reductant. In the resulting unsaturated monocarboxylic acids the double bonds are mainly centrally located with mainly trans-configuration. The reaction conditions are compatible with an origin of life in volcanic-hydrothermal sub-seafloor flow ducts. PMID:27283227

  15. Decarboxylative Fluorination of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids via Photoredox Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Ventre, Sandrine; Petronijevic, Filip R.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-01-01

    The direct conversion of aliphatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alkyl fluorides has been achieved via visible light-promoted photoredox catalysis. This operationally simple, redox-neutral fluorination method is amenable to a wide variety of carboxylic acids. Photon-induced oxidation of carboxylates leads to the formation of carboxyl radicals, which upon rapid CO2-extrusion and F• transfer from a fluorinating reagent yield the desired fluoroalkanes with high efficiency. Experimental evidence indicates that an oxidative quenching pathway is operable in this broadly applicable fluorination protocol. PMID:25881929

  16. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  19. Spatiotemporal variations of monocarboxylic acids in snow layers along a transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, eastern Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanjin; Xiao, Cunde; Shi, Guitao; Ding, Minghu; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Lulu; Hou, Shugui; Sun, Bo; Qin, Dahe; Ren, Jiawen

    2015-05-01

    The spatiotemporal distributions of formate and acetate in snow layers along a transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A are presented here. The mean concentrations of mono-carboxylic acids in summer surface snow layers were 2.93 ± 1.72 ng g- 1 and 10.07 ± 5.87 ng g- 1 for formate and acetate, respectively. In the snow pit samples, the concentrations varied between 0.47 ± 0.14 ng g- 1 and 3.12 ± 4.24 ng g- 1 for formate and between 5.31 ± 1.55 ng g- 1 and 13.29 ± 4.64 ng g- 1 for acetate. Spatially, the concentrations of both acids featured negative trends with increasing elevation and distance inland for the initial 600 km of the transect, which implies that marine sources from the coastal oceans dominate the acid supply. Different distribution styles of the acids in the interior section (600-1248 km) suggest that different source region and transporting mechanism may be responsible for the acid deposition in the interior regions. Seasonal variations in the amounts of acid in a coastal snow pit (29-A) indicate higher values in the summer and lower amounts in the winter. An enlarged source region and intensified production and transport mechanisms were primarily responsible for the higher values in summer. Longer records from the interior snow pits (29-L and 29-M) indicate elevated values in the 1970s and lower values in the 1980s and early 1990s. The increases in the mono-carboxylic acids since 1999 in snow pit 29-L and since 2005 in snow pit 29-M were temporally coincident with Chinese expedition activities in the area, suggesting that human activities were responsible for the increases in the acid load during recent decades.

  20. Polarized Raman spectra and intensities of aliphatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmler, Hans J.; Eysel, Hans H.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectra of aliphatic α- L-amino acids, glycine, alanine, and valine were re-investigated both in aqueous solution and deuterium oxide solution. The spectra were taken of the zwitterionic and of the completely deprotonated form of the amino acids. Spectra of leucine and isoleucine were studied in water at the isoelectric point. Spectra were recorded both with parallel and perpendicular polarization and the isotropic and anisotropic scattering components were isolated. The integrated intensities of CH stretch, CC stretch and carboxylate bend vibrations are discussed. Linear relations between the number of CC and CH bonds and the total scattered intensity in the appropriate spectral regions are observed. The sum over the carboxylate modes shows characteristic intensities for the first three members of the aliphatic amino acids. An increase of isotropic scattering of ϱ co 2 near 510 cm -1 with increasing chain length of the amino acid (or with increasing concentration) is interpreted as the result of micelle formation.

  1. Aqueous infrared carboxylate absorbances: Aliphatic di-acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; McVey, I.F.

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of 18 aliphatic di-carboxylic acids are reported as a function of pH. The spectra show isosbestic points and intensity changes which indicate that Beer's law is obeyed, and peak frequencies lie within previously reported ranges for aqueous carboxylates and pure carboxylic acids. Intensity sharing from the symmetric carboxylate stretch is evident in many cases, so that bands which are nominally due to alkyl groups show increased intensity at higher pH. The asymmetric stretch of the HA- species is linearly related to the microscopic acidity constant of the H2A species, with ??pK 2 intervening atoms). The results suggest that aqueous ATR-FTIR may be able to estimate 'intrinsic' pKa values of carboxylic acids, in addition to providing quantitative estimates of ionization. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction of manganese by alkyl monocarboxylic acid in a mixed extractant from a leaching solution of spent lithium-ion battery ternary cathodic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dongju; Oh, ChangHyun; Wang, Jei-Pil; Shin, Shun Myung

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the separation of manganese by an antagonistic effect from a leaching solution of ternary cathodic material of spent lithium-ion batteries that contain 11,400 mg L-1 Co, 11,700 mg L-1 Mn, 12,200 mg L-1 Ni, and 5300 mg L-1 Li using a mixture of alkyl monocarboxylic acid and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants. pH isotherm, distribution coefficient, separation factor, McCabe-Thiele diagram, selective scrubbing, and countercurrent extraction tests are carried out to prove an antagonistic effect and to recover manganese using alkyl monocarboxylic in the mixed extractant. Slope analysis is used to determine the extraction mechanism between a mixture of extractants and valuable metals. An increasing concentration of alkyl monocarboxylic acid in the mixture of extractants results in a decrease in distribution coefficient of cobalt and manganese, however, the separation factor value (β(Mn/Co)) increases at pH 4.5. This is caused by slope analysis where alkyl monocarboxylic acid disrupts the extraction mechanism between di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and cobalt. Finally, continuous countercurrent extraction in a mini-plant test demonstrate the feasibility of manganese recovery from cobalt, nickel, and lithium.

  3. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  8. Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylation of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lei; Chen, He; Liu, Chao; Li, Chaozhong

    2016-05-01

    Direct decarboxylative radical allylation of aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. With K2S2O8 as the oxidant and AgNO3 as the catalyst, the reactions of aliphatic carboxylic acids with allyl sulfones in aqueous CH3CN solution gave the corresponding alkenes in satisfactory yields under mild conditions. This site-specific allylation method is applicable to all primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl acids and exhibits wide functional group compatibility. PMID:27065060

  9. Monocarboxylate Transporter-Mediated Transport of γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wing Ki; Felmlee, Melanie A.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine mRNA expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) and to evaluate intestinal transport of the MCT substrates γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and d-lactate in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The presence of mRNA for MCT1, 2, 3, and 4 was observed in Caco-2 cells. The uptake of both GHB and d-lactate in Caco-2 cells was demonstrated to be pH- and concentration-dependent and sodium-independent. The uptake of GHB and d-lactate was best described by a Michaelis-Menten equation with passive diffusion (GHB: Km = 17.6 ± 10.5 mM, Vmax = 17.3 ± 11.7 nmol/min/mg, and P = 0.38 ± 0.15 μl/min/mg; and d-lactate: Km = 6.0 ± 2.9 mM, Vmax = 35.0 ± 18.4 nmol/min/mg, and P = 1.3 ± 0.6 μl/min/mg). The uptake of GHB and d-lactate was significantly decreased by the known MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and the MCT substrates GHB and d-lactate but not by the organic cation tetraethylammonium chloride. Directional flux studies with both GHB and d-lactate suggested the involvement of carrier-mediated transport with the permeability in the apical to basolateral direction higher than that in the basolateral to apical direction. These findings confirm the presence of MCT1–4 in Caco-2 cells and demonstrate GHB and d-lactate transport characteristics consistent with proton-dependent MCT-mediated transport. PMID:19952290

  10. Coumarin carboxylic acids as monocarboxylate transporter 1 inhibitors: In vitro and in vivo studies as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Gurrapu, Shirisha; Jonnalagadda, Sravan K; Alam, Mohammad A; Ronayne, Conor T; Nelson, Grady L; Solano, Lucas N; Lueth, Erica A; Drewes, Lester R; Mereddy, Venkatram R

    2016-07-15

    Novel N,N-dialkyl carboxy coumarins have been synthesized as potential anticancer agents via inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). These coumarin carboxylic acids have been evaluated for their in vitro MCT1 inhibition, MTT cancer cell viability, bidirectional Caco-2 cell permeability, and stability in human and liver microsomes. These results indicate that one of the lead candidate compounds 4a has good absorption, metabolic stability, and a low drug efflux ratio. Systemic toxicity studies with lead compound 4a in healthy mice demonstrate that this inhibitor is well tolerated based on zero animal mortality and normal body weight gains compared to the control group. In vivo tumor growth inhibition studies in mice show that the candidate compound 4a exhibits significant single agent activity in MCT1 expressing GL261-luc2 syngraft model but doesn't show significant activity in MCT4 expressing MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, indicating the selectivity of 4a for MCT1 expressing tumors. PMID:27241692

  11. Role of the DHH1 gene in the regulation of monocarboxylic acids transporters expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mota, Sandra; Vieira, Neide; Barbosa, Sónia; Delaveau, Thierry; Torchet, Claire; Le Saux, Agnès; Garcia, Mathilde; Pereira, Ana; Lemoine, Sophie; Coulpier, Fanny; Darzacq, Xavier; Benard, Lionel; Casal, Margarida; Devaux, Frédéric; Paiva, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Previous experiments revealed that DHH1, a RNA helicase involved in the regulation of mRNA stability and translation, complemented the phenotype of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant affected in the expression of genes coding for monocarboxylic-acids transporters, JEN1 and ADY2 (Paiva S, Althoff S, Casal M, Leao C. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1999, 170:301-306). In wild type cells, JEN1 expression had been shown to be undetectable in the presence of glucose or formic acid, and induced in the presence of lactate. In this work, we show that JEN1 mRNA accumulates in a dhh1 mutant, when formic acid was used as sole carbon source. Dhh1 interacts with the decapping activator Dcp1 and with the deadenylase complex. This led to the hypothesis that JEN1 expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by Dhh1 in formic acid. Analyses of JEN1 mRNAs decay in wild-type and dhh1 mutant strains confirmed this hypothesis. In these conditions, the stabilized JEN1 mRNA was associated to polysomes but no Jen1 protein could be detected, either by measurable lactate carrier activity, Jen1-GFP fluorescence detection or western blots. These results revealed the complexity of the expression regulation of JEN1 in S. cerevisiae and evidenced the importance of DHH1 in this process. Additionally, microarray analyses of dhh1 mutant indicated that Dhh1 plays a large role in metabolic adaptation, suggesting that carbon source changes triggers a complex interplay between transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects. PMID:25365506

  12. Role of the DHH1 Gene in the Regulation of Monocarboxylic Acids Transporters Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Sónia; Delaveau, Thierry; Torchet, Claire; Le Saux, Agnès; Garcia, Mathilde; Pereira, Ana; Lemoine, Sophie; Coulpier, Fanny; Darzacq, Xavier; Benard, Lionel; Casal, Margarida; Devaux, Frédéric; Paiva, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Previous experiments revealed that DHH1, a RNA helicase involved in the regulation of mRNA stability and translation, complemented the phenotype of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant affected in the expression of genes coding for monocarboxylic-acids transporters, JEN1 and ADY2 (Paiva S, Althoff S, Casal M, Leao C. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1999, 170∶301–306). In wild type cells, JEN1 expression had been shown to be undetectable in the presence of glucose or formic acid, and induced in the presence of lactate. In this work, we show that JEN1 mRNA accumulates in a dhh1 mutant, when formic acid was used as sole carbon source. Dhh1 interacts with the decapping activator Dcp1 and with the deadenylase complex. This led to the hypothesis that JEN1 expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by Dhh1 in formic acid. Analyses of JEN1 mRNAs decay in wild-type and dhh1 mutant strains confirmed this hypothesis. In these conditions, the stabilized JEN1 mRNA was associated to polysomes but no Jen1 protein could be detected, either by measurable lactate carrier activity, Jen1-GFP fluorescence detection or western blots. These results revealed the complexity of the expression regulation of JEN1 in S. cerevisiae and evidenced the importance of DHH1 in this process. Additionally, microarray analyses of dhh1 mutant indicated that Dhh1 plays a large role in metabolic adaptation, suggesting that carbon source changes triggers a complex interplay between transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects. PMID:25365506

  13. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. PMID:26854723

  14. The role of essential fatty acids in development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids. They are classified as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids depending upon the number of double bonds in the carbon chain. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds, monounsaturated fatty acids have 1 double bond, and polyunsat...

  15. New insight on aliphatic linkages in the macromolecular organic fraction of Orgueil and Murchison meteorites through ruthenium tetroxide oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remusat, Laurent; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2005-09-01

    Ruthenium tetroxide oxidation was used to examine the macromolecular insoluble organic matter (IOM) from the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites and especially to characterize the aliphatic linkages. Already applied to various terrestrial samples, ruthenium tetroxide is a selective oxidant which destroys aromatic units, converting them into CO 2, and yields aliphatic and aromatic acids. In our experiment on chondritic IOM, it produces mainly short aliphatic diacids and polycarboxylic aromatic acids. Some short hydroxyacids are also detected. Aliphatic diacids are interpreted as aliphatic bridges between aromatic units in the chemical structure, and polycarboxylic aromatic acids are the result of the fusion of polyaromatic units. The product distribution shows that aliphatic links are short with numerous substitutions. No indigenous monocarboxylic acid was detected, showing that free aliphatic chains must be very short (less than three carbon atoms). The hydroxyacids are related to the occurrence of ester and ether functional groups within the aliphatic bridges between the aromatic units. This technique thus allows us to characterize in detail the aliphatic linkages of the IOMs, and the derived conclusions are in agreement with spectroscopic, pyrolytic, and degradative results previously reported. Compared to terrestrial samples, the aliphatic part of chondritic IOM is shorter and highly substituted. Aromatic units are smaller and more cross-linked than in coals, as already proposed from NMR data. Orgueil and Murchison IOM exhibit some tiny differences, especially in the length of aliphatic chains.

  16. Structure of seven organic salts assembled from 2,6-diaminopyridine with monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and tetracarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Bin; Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2015-08-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent interactions between the organic base of 2,6-diaminopyridine, and carboxylic acids have led to an increased understanding of the role 2,6-diaminopyridine in binding with carboxylic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrated multi-component organic acid-base salts of 2,6-diaminopyridine have been prepared with the carboxylic acids as nicotinic acid, o-chlorobenzoic acid, 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid. The seven crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. All structures adopted the hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthons. The supramolecular architectures bear extensive Nsbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯O, and CH⋯O associations as well as other nonbonding contacts as CHsbnd N, CH2sbnd O, π-π, C-π, O-π, Cl-π, Clsbnd O, and Osbnd O interactions. The role of weak and strong hydrogen bonding in the crystal packing is ascertained.

  17. Stable vesicles composed of monocarboxylic or dicarboxylic fatty acids and trimethylammonium amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Caschera, F; Bernardino de la Serna, J; Löffler, P M G; Rasmussen, T E; Hanczyc, M M; Bagatolli, L A; Monnard, P-A

    2011-12-01

    The self-assembly of cationic and anionic amphiphile mixtures into vesicles in aqueous media was studied using two different systems: (i) decanoic acid and trimethyldecylammonium bromide and (ii) hexadecanedioic acid (a simple bola-amphiphile) and trimethyldecylammonium bromide. The resulting vesicles with varying amphiphile ratios were characterized using parameters such as the critical vesicle concentration, pH sensitivity, and encapsulation efficiency. We also produced and observed giant vesicles from these mixtures using the electroformation method and confocal microscopy. The mixed catanionic vesicles were shown to be more stable than those formed by pure fatty acids. Those containing bola-amphiphile even showed the encapsulation of a small hydrophilic solute (8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic-acid), suggesting a denser packing of the amphiphiles. Compression and kinetics analysis of monolayers composed of these amphiphiles mixtures at the air/water interface suggests that the stabilization of the structures can be attributed to two main interactions between headgroups, predominantly the formation of hydrogen bonds between protonated and deprotonated acids and the additional electrostatic interactions between ammonium and acid headgroups. PMID:21932777

  18. Monocarboxylic acids from oxidation of acyclic isoprenoid alkanes by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, R. E.; Maxwell, J. R.; Myers, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum utilizes certain stereoisomeric mixtures of individual multimethyl branched alkanes as sole carbon source, including 2,6(R), 10(S), 14(RS)-tetramethylhexadecane; 2,6(R), 10(S), 14(RS)-tetramethylheptadecane; 2,6(RS), 10(RS)-trimethyltetradecane, and 2,6(R), 10(S)-trimethylpentadecane. Products of oxidation isolated from the bacterial lipids were acids derived predominantly from oxidation of the isopropyl terminus of each alkane, except in the case of 2,6(RS), 10(RS)-trimethyltetradecane. With the latter, acids from oxidation at either terminus were detected in comparable proportions.

  19. Mass spectral analysis of C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acid derivatives.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.; Chadha, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria are obtained for the distinction of alpha, beta, gamma, and N-methyl isomers of the C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acids, using mass spectral analysis of the derivatives of these acids. The use of deuterium labeling has helped in the understanding of certain fragmentation pathways.

  20. On the microstructure of organic solutions of mono-carboxylic acids: Combined study by infrared spectroscopy, small-angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Roman A.; Kholmurodov, Kholmirzo T.; Petrenko, Viktor I.; Rosta, László; Grigoryeva, Natalia A.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    The data of infrared spectroscopy (IR), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) have been combined to conclude about the nanoscale structural organization of organic non-polar solutions of saturated mono-carboxylic acids with different alkyl chain lengths for diluted solutions of saturated myristic (C14) and stearic (C18) acids in benzene and decalin. In particular, the degree of dimerization was found from the IR spectra. The structural anisotropy of the acids and their dimers was used in the treatment of the data of MD simulations to describe the solute-solvent interface in a cylindrical approximation and show its rather strong influence on SANS. The corresponding scattering length density profiles were used to fit the experimental SANS data comprising the information about the acid molecule isomerization. The SANS data from concentrated solutions showed a partial self-assembling of the acids within the nematic transition is different for two solvents due to lyophobic peculiarities.

  1. Uptake of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells by the monocarboxylic acid transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Osamu; Tsukagoshi, Kensuke; Endo, Tetsuya

    2008-03-15

    The cellular uptake mechanism of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), a phenoxyacetic acid derivative, was investigated using Caco-2 epithelial cells. The cells were incubated with 50 {mu}M MCPA at pH 6.0 and 37 deg. C, and the uptake of MCPA from the apical membranes was measured. The uptake of MCPA was significantly decreased by incubation at low temperature (4 {sup o}C) and markedly increased by lowering the extracellular pH. Pretreatment with a protonophore, carbonylcyanide-p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (25 {mu}M), or metabolic inhibitors, 2,4-dinitrophenol (1 mM) and sodium azide (10 mM), significantly decreased the uptake of MCPA by 53%, 45% and 48%, respectively. Coincubation of MCPA with 10 mM L-lactic acid or {alpha}-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, which is a substrate or an inhibitor of the monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCTs), significantly decreased the uptake of MCPA by 31% and 20%, respectively, and coincubation with benzoic acid profoundly decreased the uptake by 68%. In contrast, coincubation with succinic acid (a dicarboxylic acid) did not affect the uptake. Kinetic analysis of initial MCPA uptake suggested that MCPA is taken up via a carrier-mediated process [K{sub m} = 1.37 {+-} 0.15 mM, V{sub max} = 115 {+-} 6 nmol (mg protein){sup -1} (3 min){sup -1}]. Lineweaver-Burk plots show that benzoic acid competitively inhibits the uptake of MCPA with a K{sub i} value of 4.68 {+-} 1.76 mM. A trans-stimulation effect on MCPA uptake was found in cells preloaded with benzoic acid. These results suggest that the uptake of MCPA from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells is mainly mediated by common MCTs along with benzoic acid but also in part by L-lactic acid.

  2. Effects of Monocarboxylic Acid Addition on Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate in a Hydrogel Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, T.; Kawashita, M.; Ohtsuki, C.

    2011-10-01

    In biomineralization, it is thought that water-soluble organic substances control crystal growth of minerals in hard tissues. The roles of organic substances are not well understood, because the biomineralization process is established by complicated parameters. Crystal growth in hydrogel matrixes can be regarded as simplified model system of biomineralization. In the present study, we investigated the effects of propionic acid (Pro) on crystalline phases and crystal morphologies of calcium phosphate formed in polymeric hydrogel matrixes as the model system of biomineralization. Crystalline phase of the precipitates was octacalcium phosphate (OCP) with spherical shape regardless of Pro concentrations. The fibrous crystals formed under the condition without addition of Pro. The crystal morphologies composing spherical crystals were changed from fibrous to plate-like shape with increasing Pro concentrations. Generally, OCP crystal has plate-like shape exposing (100) face, which calcium ions exist on. Therefore, crystal growth rate of [100] direction of OCP was decreased by Pro adsorbed on (100) face. As a result, crystal morphology composing spherulite became plate-like shape with increasing Pro concentrations.

  3. 40 CFR 721.530 - Substituted aliphatic acid halide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance substituted aliphatic acid halide (PMN P-84-491) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  4. 40 CFR 721.530 - Substituted aliphatic acid halide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance substituted aliphatic acid halide (PMN P-84-491) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  5. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of aliphatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casale, Mia T.; Richman, Aviva R.; Elrod, Matthew J.; Garland, Rebecca M.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    Field observations of atmospheric aerosols have established that organic compounds compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the physical/chemical pathway by which organic compounds are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols remains unclear. The potential role of acid-catalyzed reactions of organic compounds on acidic aerosols has been explored as a possible chemical pathway for the incorporation of organic material into aerosols. In the present study, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the kinetics of formation of the products of the acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reaction of a range of aliphatic aldehydes (C 2-C 8). The experiments were carried out at various sulfuric acid concentrations and a range of temperatures in order to estimate the rate constants of such reactions on sulfuric acid aerosols under tropospheric conditions. The rate constants were generally found to decrease as the chain length of the aliphatic aldehyde increased (except for acetaldehyde, which had an unusually small rate constant), increase as a function of sulfuric acid concentration as predicted by excess acidity theory, and showed normal Arrhenius behavior as a function of temperature. While the kinetic data are generally consistent with previous laboratory reports of aldehyde reactivity in various sulfuric acid media, the aldol condensation reactions involving aliphatic aldehydes do not appear fast enough to be responsible for significant transfer of organic material into atmospheric aerosols.

  6. Determination of aliphatic organic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Gatta, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A new ion exclusion HPLC procedure accomplished with a pulsed electrochemical detection for the determination of several common aliphatic acids is described. A triple-step waveform of the applied potentials, based on the formation/inhibition of PtOH species on the electrode surface, is successfully used for sensitive detection of several aliphatic acids in flowing systems avoiding pre- or postcolumn derivatization and/or cleanup procedures. Under optimal chromatographic conditions (i.e., 50 mM HClO(4)) the proposed method allowed detection limits between 0.5 and 7 microM for all investigated acids, and the dynamic linear range spanned generally over 1 or 2 orders of magnitude. Determination of citric, malic, tartaric, lactic, formic, and acetic acids in several foods and beverages was performed, in approximately 15 min, without the necessity of any sample pretreatment. PMID:11754537

  7. Self-assembly of short peptides composed of only aliphatic amino acids and a combination of aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Subbalakshmi, Chilukuri; Manorama, Sunkara V; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2012-05-01

    The morphology of structures formed by the self-assembly of short N-terminal t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) and C-terminal methyl ester (OMe) protected and Boc-deprotected hydrophobic peptide esters was investigated. We have observed that Boc-protected peptide esters composed of either only aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids or aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids in combination with aromatic amino acids, formed highly organized structures, when dried from methanol solutions. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic images of the peptides Boc-Ile-Ile-OMe, Boc-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ile-Ile-OMe and Boc-Trp-Ile-Ile-OMe showed nanotubular structures. Removal of the Boc group resulted in disruption of the ability to form tubular structures though spherical aggregates were formed. Both Boc-Leu-Ile-Ile-OMe and H-Leu-Ile-Ile-OMe formed only spherical nanostructures. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that aggregates of varying dimensions were present in solution suggesting that self-assembly into ordered structures is facilitated by aggregation in solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy data show that although all four of the protected peptides adopt well-defined tertiary structures, upon removal of the Boc group, only H-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ile-Ile-OMe had the ability to adopt β-structure. Our results indicate that hydrophobic interaction is a very important determinant for self-assembly and presence of charged and aromatic amino acids in a peptide is not necessary for self-assembly. PMID:22431418

  8. Low molecular weight (C1-C10) monocarboxylic acids, dissolved organic carbon and major inorganic ions in alpine snow pit sequence from a high mountain site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Matsumoto, Kohei; Tachibana, Eri; Aoki, Kazuma

    2012-12-01

    Snowpack samples were collected from a snow pit sequence (6 m in depth) at the Murodo-Daira site near the summit of Mt. Tateyama, central Japan, an outflow region of Asian dusts. The snow samples were analyzed for a homologous series of low molecular weight normal (C1-C10) and branched (iC4-iC6) monocarboxylic acids as well as aromatic (benzoic) and hydroxy (glycolic and lactic) acids, together with major inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The molecular distributions of organic acids were characterized by a predominance of acetic (range 7.8-76.4 ng g-1-snow, av. 34.8 ng g-1) or formic acid (2.6-48.1 ng g-1, 27.7 ng g-1), followed by propionic acid (0.6-5.2 ng g-1, 2.8 ng g-1). Concentrations of normal organic acids generally decreased with an increase in carbon chain length, although nonanoic acid (C9) showed a maximum in the range of C5-C10. Higher concentrations were found in the snowpack samples containing dust layer. Benzoic acid (0.18-4.1 ng g-1, 1.4 ng g-1) showed positive correlation with nitrate (r = 0.70), sulfate (0.67), Na+ (0.78), Ca2+ (0.86) and Mg+ (0.75), suggesting that this aromatic acid is involved with anthropogenic sources and Asian dusts. Higher concentrations of Ca2+ and SO42- were found in the dusty snow samples. We found a weak positive correlation (r = 0.43) between formic acid and Ca2+, suggesting that gaseous formic acid may react with Asian dusts in the atmosphere during long-range transport. However, acetic acid did not show any positive correlations with major inorganic ions. Hydroxyacids (0.03-5.7 ng g-1, 1.5 ng g-1) were more abundant in the granular and dusty snow. Total monocarboxylic acids (16-130 ng g-1, 74 ng g-1) were found to account for 1-6% of DOC (270-1500 ng g-1, 630 ng g-1) in the snow samples.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of brain distribution and blood-brain barrier efflux transport of probenecid in rats by microdialysis: possible involvement of the monocarboxylic acid transport system.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Y; Nozawa, K; Yamada, S; Yokoyama, Y; Kimura, R

    1997-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate quantitatively the brain distribution and the efflux transport across the blood-brain barrier of probenecid, using in vivo microdialysis and in situ brain perfusion techniques. The brain interstitial fluid (ISF)-to-plasma cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-plasma and brain tissue-to-plasma unbound concentration ratios of probenecid at steady state were less than unity, which suggests restricted distribution in the brain. An uphill concentration gradient from ISF to plasma and a downhill concentration gradient from CSF to ISF were observed. Kinetic analysis revealed that the efflux clearance from brain ISF to plasma (0.0373 ml/min/g brain) was significantly greater than the influx clearance from plasma to brain (0.00733 ml/min/g brain). The ratio of the ISF concentration (Cisf) to the plasma unbound concentration (Cp,f) of probenecid was increased 2- to 3-fold by salicylate (3.7 mM) and benzoate (3.6 mM), which are accepted as substrates of the monocarboxylic acid transport system, compared with the same ratio for the control. In addition, the ratio Cisf/Cp,f was increased by treatment with N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl-modifying agent, whereas p-aminohippuric acid and choline did not produce increasing effects on Cisf/Cp,f. These data suggest that the restricted distribution of probenecid in the brain may be ascribed to efficient efflux from the brain ISF, which may be regulated by the monocarboxylic acid transport system at a relatively high ISF concentration. PMID:9023263

  10. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  11. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    PubMed

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  12. Aliphatic structure of humic acids; a clue to their origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Maciel, G.E.; Dennis, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (both 1H and 13C) of humic acids from diverse depositional environments indicate the presence of aromatic chemical structures, most likely derived from lignin of vascular plants, and complex, paraffinic structures, most likely derived from algal or microbial sources. The latter components account for a major fraction of humic acid structures in both terrestrial and aquatic environments, suggesting that algae or microbes play a large role in humification of organic remains from both systems. ?? 1981.

  13. Transport of monocarboxylic acids at the blood-brain barrier: Studies with monolayers of primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Terasaki, T.; Takakuwa, S.; Moritani, S.; Tsuji, A. )

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the transport of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) were studied by using primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. Concentration-dependent uptake of acetic acid was observed, and the kinetic parameters were estimated as follows: the Michaelis constant, Kt, was 3.41 {plus minus} 1.87 mM, the maximum uptake rate, Jmax, was 144.7 {plus minus} 55.7 nmol/mg of protein/min and the nonsaturable first-order rate constant, Kd, was 6.66 {plus minus} 1.98 microliters/mg of protein/min. At medium pH below 7.0, the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid increased markedly with decreasing medium pH, whereas pH-independent uptake was observed in the presence of 10 mM acetic acid. An energy requirement for (3H)acetic acid uptake was also demonstrated, because metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol and rotenone) reduced significantly the uptake rate (P less than .05). Carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone, a protonophore, inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid at medium pH of 5.0 and 6.0, whereas 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilben-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid did not. Several MCAs inhibited significantly the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid, whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids did not. The uptake of (3H)acetic acid was competitively inhibited by salicylic acid, with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 3.60 mM, suggesting a common transport system between acetic acid and salicylic acid. Moreover, at the medium pH of 7.4, salicylic acid and valproic acid inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid, demonstrating that the transport of MCA drugs could also be ascribed to the MCA transport system at the physiologic pH.

  14. Regulation of Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter 1 Trafficking by the Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Rat Brain Endothelial Cells Requires Cross-talk with Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zejian; Sneve, Mary; Haroldson, Thomas A; Smith, Jeffrey P; Drewes, Lester R

    2016-04-01

    The transport of monocarboxylate fuels such as lactate, pyruvate, and ketone bodies across brain endothelial cells is mediated by monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1). Although the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for rodent blood-brain barrier development and for the expression of associated nutrient transporters, the role of this pathway in the regulation of brain endothelial MCT1 is unknown. Here we report expression of nine members of the frizzled receptor family by the RBE4 rat brain endothelial cell line. Furthermore, activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RBE4 cells via nuclear β-catenin signaling with LiCl does not alter brain endothelialMct1mRNA but increases the amount of MCT1 transporter protein. Plasma membrane biotinylation studies and confocal microscopic examination of mCherry-tagged MCT1 indicate that increased transporter results from reduced MCT1 trafficking from the plasma membrane via the endosomal/lysosomal pathway and is facilitated by decreased MCT1 ubiquitination following LiCl treatment. Inhibition of the Notch pathway by the γ-secretase inhibitorN-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycinet-butyl ester negated the up-regulation of MCT1 by LiCl, demonstrating a cross-talk between the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch pathways. Our results are important because they show, for the first time, the regulation of MCT1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells by the multifunctional canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways. PMID:26872974

  15. Electron ionization and dissociation of aliphatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, P.; Shchukin, P.; Kočíšek, J.; Matejčík, Š.

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental and theoretical study of electron ionization and dissociative ionization to the gas phase amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine. A crossed electron/molecular beams technique equipped with quadrupole mass analyzer has been applied to measure mass spectra and ion efficiency curves for formation of particular ions. From experimental data the ionization energies of the molecules and the appearance energies of the fragment ions were determined. Ab initio calculations (Density Functional Theory and G3MP2 methods) were performed in order to calculate the fragmentation paths and interpret the experimental data. The experimental ionization energies of parent molecules [P]+ 8.91 ± 0.05, 8.85 ± 0.05, and 8.79 ± 0.05 eV and G3MP2 ionization energies (adiabatic) of 8.89, 8.88, and 8.81 eV were determined for valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively, as well as the experimental and theoretical threshold energies for dissociative ionization channels. The comparison of experimental data with calculations resulted in identification of the ions as well as the neutral fragments formed in the dissociative reactions. Around 15 mass/charge ratio fragments were identified from the mass spectra by comparison of experimental appearance energies with calculated reaction enthalpies for particular dissociative reactions.

  16. Kinetics of Acid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions of Aliphatic Aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, M. J.; Casale, M. T.; Richman, A. R.; Beaver, M. R.; Garland, R. M.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    While it is well established that organic compounds compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass, the mechanisms through which organics are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols are not well understood. Acid-catalyzed reactions of compounds with carbonyl groups have recently been suggested as important pathways for transfer of volatile organics into acidic aerosols. In the present study, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the kinetics of formation of the products of the aldol condensation reaction of a range of aliphatic aldehydes (C2-C8) The experiments were carried out at various sulfuric acid concentrations and a range of temperatures in order to estimate the rate constants of such reactions on sulfuric acid aerosols under tropospheric conditions. The rate constants were generally found to decrease as the chain length of the aliphatic aldehyde increased (except for acetaldehyde, which had an unusually small rate constant), increase as a function of sulfuric acid concentration as predicted by excess acidity theory, and showed normal Arrhenius behavior as a function of temperature.

  17. Chiroptical study of α-aliphatic amino acid films in the vacuum ultraviolet region.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masahito; Yagi-Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Kaneko, Fusae; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2010-11-11

    A series of natural circular dichroism (CD) and absorption spectra for films of α-aliphatic amino acids--such as alanine, aminobutyric acid, norvaline, norleucine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine--in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region were observed with the absolute values of optical constants at the undulator-based CD beamline TERAS BL5. Preliminary predictions of some CD spectra were also performed, based on quantum-chemical calculations using the crystal structure. Although the absorption spectra show similar features to each other, significant differences between the CD spectra were found, especially in the 7-8 eV region. The CD spectra of aliphatic amino acids with branched alkyl groups in the side-chain--such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine--exhibit strong negative CD peaks in this energy region. In contrast, the corresponding CD peaks were weak or absent in the spectra of amino acids with straight alkyl groups. Our simple calculation, and the absorption spectra of alkanes, suggest that this difference partly originates from the contribution of the alkyl group. Clear discrepancies between the CD spectra of these amino acids in solutions and those in the solid state were also observed; this is probably caused by the different molecular structures in each state. Our results clearly indicated that CD spectra in the VUV region were very sensitive to the conformations of chiral molecules. PMID:20958008

  18. Effects of aliphatic acids, furfural, and phenolic compounds on Debaryomyces hansenii CCMI 941.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Luís C; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Neves, Inês; Gírio, Francisco M

    2005-01-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii is a polyol overproducing yeast that can have a potential use for upgrading lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Therefore, the establishment of its tolerance to metabolic inhibitors found in hydrolysates is of major interest. We studied the effects of selected aliphatic acids, phenolic compounds, and furfural. Acetic acid favored biomass production for concentrations <6.0 g/L. Formic acid was more toxic than acetic acid and induced xylitol accumulation (maximum yield of 0.21 g/g of xylose). All tested phenolics strongly decreased the specific growth rate. Increased toxicity was found for hydroquinone, syringaldehyde, and 4-methylcatechol and was correlated to the compound's hydrophobicity. Increasing the amount of furfural led to longer lag phases and had a detrimental effect on specific growth rate and biomass productivity. PMID:15917618

  19. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10188 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic)....

  20. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10188 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic)....

  1. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10188 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic)....

  2. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10188 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic)....

  3. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10188 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic)....

  4. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 is up-regulated in Caco-2 cells by the methionine precursor DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio)butanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Brufau, M Teresa; Mañas-Cano, Oriol; Mercier, Yves; Nonis, Magalie K; Ferrer, Ruth

    2014-12-01

    The methionine precursor, DL-2-hydroxy-(4-methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA), is a synthetic source of dietary methionine, which is widely used as a poultry nutritional supplement. In the intestinal epithelium, HMTBA transport across the apical membrane is mediated by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). The first step in biological utilisation of this methionine precursor is the stereospecific conversion of HMTBA to the corresponding keto acid. In the present study, the regulation of trans-epithelial HMTBA transport was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Differentiated Caco-2 cells were maintained under control conditions (apical compartment: 0.2 mmol/L L-methionine) or in a HMTBA-enriched medium (2 mmol/L HMTBA). The effect of culture on HMTBA transport was evaluated from apical and basolateral kinetic parameters. MCT1 and MCT4 immuno-localisation and gene expression were investigated by confocal microscopy and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. The results indicated that apical MCT1 was up-regulated by exposure to HMTBA (1.4-fold increase in Vmax without changes in Km). Moreover, total monolayer MCT1 immunoreactivity increased 1.8-fold in HMTBA-supplemented cultures, this effect mainly being localised at the apical membrane. Functional and immuno-localisation data suggest involvement of MCT1 and MCT4 in basolateral HMTBA transport, although, in this case, no effect was observed for HMTBA-enrichment. Molecular analysis confirmed MCT1 mRNA up-regulation (1.8-fold), with no effect on MCT4 mRNA expression. Thus, exposure to HMTBA up-regulates the trans-epithelial transport of this methionine precursor by increasing the expression and the transport capacity of apical MCT1. PMID:25447800

  5. Fragmentation and dimerization of aliphatic amino acid films induced by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masahito; Kaneko, Fusae; Koketsu, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kazumichi; Yamada, Toru

    2008-10-01

    The chemical reaction of aliphatic amino acid, such as alanine (Ala) and leucine (Leu), in the solid phase induced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography technique and mass spectroscopic method. Quantum efficiencies of dimerization of Ala in the solid phase obviously showed irradiated VUV wavelength dependence. The values of quantum efficiencies of formation of Ala dimer were determined to be 5.7×10-5, 1.3×10-3, and 2.4×10-4 for 208, 183, and 87 nm irradiation, respectively. VUV-induced fragment desorption from Ala and Leu films has also been examined by mass spectroscopic method. Observed mass spectra clearly indicated that both the deamination and decarboxylation reactions were common in both Ala and Leu films, and the dissociation of side chain occurred only in Leu film.

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF ALIPHATIC ACIDS, INCLUDING DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT OF VALPROIC ACID IN MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anticonvulsant valproic acid (VPA), or 2-propylpentanoic acid, is a short-chain aliphatic acid that is teratogenic in humans and rodents. PA and 14 related using the Chernoff/Kavlock assay Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with the test agent in corn oil once daily organogenes...

  7. Correlation between stabilities of uranyl ion complexes with various monocarboxylic acids and Hammett-Taft substituent constants

    SciTech Connect

    Poluektov, N.S.; Perfil'ev, V.A.; Meshkova, S.B.; Mishchenko, V.T.

    1987-01-01

    A correlation has been observed between the stabilities of uranyl ion complexes (1:1 composition) and the substituent inductive constants in formic and acetic acid derivatives. For substituents which are not directly involved in couples formation the parameters of the Hammett-Taft equation log K/sub 1/ = A + B have the following values: A = 1.311, B = -2.360. For substituents which form a coordination bond with the uranyl ion, A = 7.0077 and B = - 17.321. In the case of complexes formed between the uranyl ion and salicylic acid and its derivatives, there is a correlation between complex stability and sigma/sub m/ and sigma/sub p/ substituent constants for the meta- and para-positions, respectively (A = 12.72, B = -4.41).

  8. Focal Thalamic Degeneration from Ethanol and Thiamine Deficiency is Associated with Neuroimmune Gene Induction, Microglial Activation, and Lack of Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Liya; Crews, Fulton T

    2014-01-01

    Background Wernicke's encephalopathy-Korsakoff syndrome (WE-KS) is common in alcoholics, caused by thiamine deficiency (TD; vitamin B1) and associated with lesions to the thalamus (THAL). Although TD alone can cause WE, the high incidence in alcoholism suggests that TD and ethanol (EtOH) interact. Methods Mice in control, TD, or EtOH groups alone or combined were studied after 5 or 10 days of treatment. THAL and entorhinal cortex (ENT) histochemistry and mRNA were assessed. Results Combined EtOH-TD treatment for 5 days (EtOH-TD5) showed activated microglia, proinflammatory gene induction and THAL neurodegeneration that was greater than that found with TD alone (TD5), whereas 10 days resulted in marked THAL degeneration and microglial-neuroimmune activation in both groups. In contrast, 10 days of TD did not cause ENT degeneration. Interestingly, in ENT, TD10 activated microglia and astrocytes more than EtOH-TD10. In THAL, multiple astrocytic markers were lost consistent with glial cell loss. TD blocks glucose metabolism more than acetate. Acetate derived from hepatic EtOH metabolism is transported by monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT) into both neurons and astrocytes that use acetyl-CoA synthetase (AcCoAS) to generate cellular energy from acetate. MCT and AcCoAS expression in THAL is lower than ENT prompting the hypothesis that focal THAL degeneration is related to insufficient MCT and AcCoAS in THAL. To test this hypothesis, we administered glycerin triacetate (GTA) to increase blood acetate and found it protected the THAL from TD-induced degeneration. Conclusions Our findings suggest that EtOH potentiates TD-induced THAL degeneration through neuroimmune gene induction. The findings support the hypothesis that TD deficiency inhibits global glucose metabolism and that a reduced ability to process acetate for cellular energy results in THAL focal degeneration in alcoholics contributing to the high incidence of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in alcoholism. PMID

  9. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  10. Glucose-responsive insulin activity by covalent modification with aliphatic phenylboronic acid conjugates.

    PubMed

    Chou, Danny Hung-Chieh; Webber, Matthew J; Tang, Benjamin C; Lin, Amy B; Thapa, Lavanya S; Deng, David; Truong, Jonathan V; Cortinas, Abel B; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2015-02-24

    Since its discovery and isolation, exogenous insulin has dramatically changed the outlook for patients with diabetes. However, even when patients strictly follow an insulin regimen, serious complications can result as patients experience both hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic states. Several chemically or genetically modified insulins have been developed that tune the pharmacokinetics of insulin activity for personalized therapy. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for the chemical modification of insulin intended to promote both long-lasting and glucose-responsive activity through the incorporation of an aliphatic domain to facilitate hydrophobic interactions, as well as a phenylboronic acid for glucose sensing. These synthetic insulin derivatives enable rapid reversal of blood glucose in a diabetic mouse model following glucose challenge, with some derivatives responding to repeated glucose challenges over a 13-h period. The best-performing insulin derivative provides glucose control that is superior to native insulin, with responsiveness to glucose challenge improved over a clinically used long-acting insulin derivative. Moreover, continuous glucose monitoring reveals responsiveness matching that of a healthy pancreas. This synthetic approach to insulin modification could afford both long-term and glucose-mediated insulin activity, thereby reducing the number of administrations and improving the fidelity of glycemic control for insulin therapy. The described work is to our knowledge the first demonstration of a glucose-binding modified insulin molecule with glucose-responsive activity verified in vivo. PMID:25675515

  11. Glucose-responsive insulin activity by covalent modification with aliphatic phenylboronic acid conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Danny Hung-Chieh; Webber, Matthew J.; Tang, Benjamin C.; Lin, Amy B.; Thapa, Lavanya S.; Deng, David; Truong, Jonathan V.; Cortinas, Abel B.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Since its discovery and isolation, exogenous insulin has dramatically changed the outlook for patients with diabetes. However, even when patients strictly follow an insulin regimen, serious complications can result as patients experience both hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic states. Several chemically or genetically modified insulins have been developed that tune the pharmacokinetics of insulin activity for personalized therapy. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for the chemical modification of insulin intended to promote both long-lasting and glucose-responsive activity through the incorporation of an aliphatic domain to facilitate hydrophobic interactions, as well as a phenylboronic acid for glucose sensing. These synthetic insulin derivatives enable rapid reversal of blood glucose in a diabetic mouse model following glucose challenge, with some derivatives responding to repeated glucose challenges over a 13-h period. The best-performing insulin derivative provides glucose control that is superior to native insulin, with responsiveness to glucose challenge improved over a clinically used long-acting insulin derivative. Moreover, continuous glucose monitoring reveals responsiveness matching that of a healthy pancreas. This synthetic approach to insulin modification could afford both long-term and glucose-mediated insulin activity, thereby reducing the number of administrations and improving the fidelity of glycemic control for insulin therapy. The described work is to our knowledge the first demonstration of a glucose-binding modified insulin molecule with glucose-responsive activity verified in vivo. PMID:25675515

  12. Direct enantioseparation of underivatized aliphatic 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids with a quinine-based zwitterionic chiral stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Ianni, Federica; Pataj, Zoltán; Gross, Harald; Sardella, Roccaldo; Natalini, Benedetto; Lindner, Wolfgang; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2014-10-10

    While aliphatic 2-hydroxyalkanoic acids have been more or less successfully enantioseparated with various chiral stationary phases by HPLC and GC, analogous applications on underivatized aliphatic 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids are completely absent in the scientific literature. With the aim of closing this gap, the enantioseparation of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 3-hydroxydecanoic acid and 3-hydroxymyristic acid has been performed with two ion-exchange type chiral stationary phases (CSPs): one containing the anion-exchange type tert-butyl carbamoyl quinine chiral selector motif (Chiralpak QN-AX), and the other carrying the new zwitterionic variant based on trans-(S,S)-2-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid-derivatized quinine carbamate (Chiralpak ZWIX(+)) as the chiral selector and enantiodiscriminating element, respectively. The zwitterionic enantiorecognition material provided better results in terms of enantioselectivity and resolution compared to the anion-exchanger CSP at reduced retention times due to the intramolecular counterion effect imposed by the sulfonic acid moiety and its competition with the 3-hydroxyalkanoic acid analyte for ionic interaction at the quininium-anion exchanger site. It is thus recommended as the CSP of first choice for enantioseparations of the class of aliphatic 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids. With use of polar organic eluent composed of ACN/MeOH/AcOH - 95/5/0.05 (v/v/v), a good compromise in terms of analysis time and enantioresolution quality was accomplished. The major experimental variables have been investigated for optimization of the resolution and allowed to derive information on the enantiorecognition mechanism. Corresponding Chiralpak ZWIX(-), based on pseudo-enantiomeric selector derived from quinidine and trans-(R,R)-2-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid with opposite configurations provided reversed enantiomer elution orders. It has further to be stressed that these separations can be obtained with mass spectrometry compatible mobile phases. PMID

  13. Properties of Copolymers of Aspartic Acid and Aliphatic Dicarboxylic Acids Prepared by Reactive Extrusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspartic acid may be prepared chemically or by the fermentation of carbohydrates. Currently, low molecular weight polyaspartic acids are prepared commercially by heating aspartic acid at high temperatures (greater than 220 degrees C) for several hours in the solid state. In an effort to develop a ...

  14. Aliphatic acid-conjugated antimicrobial peptides--potential agents with anti-tumor, multidrug resistance-reversing activity and enhanced stability.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xin; Qiu, Qianqian; Ma, Ke; Wang, Xuekun; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-07-28

    Compared with traditional therapeutics, antimicrobial peptides as novel anti-tumor agents have prominent advantages of higher specificity and circumvention of multi-drug resistance. In a previous study, we found that B1, an antimicrobial peptide derived from Cathelicidin-BF15, presented specific anti-tumor activity against several tumor cells. Since aliphatic chain-conjugated peptides have shown ameliorative activity and stability, we conjugated aliphatic acids with different lengths to the amino terminal of B1. All the conjugated peptides exhibited improved anti-tumor activity over B1. Further investigations revealed that the peptides were capable of disrupting the cell membrane, stimulating cytochrome c release into the cytosol, which results in apoptosis. The peptides also acted against multidrug resistant cells and had multidrug resistance-reversing effects. Additionally, conjugation of aliphatic acid enhanced the peptide stability in plasma. In summary, aliphatic acid-modified peptides might be promising anti-tumor agents in the future. PMID:26083110

  15. Role of Monocarboxylate Transporters in Drug Delivery to the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Nisha; Morris, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are known to mediate the transport of short chain monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate and butyrate. Currently, fourteen members of this transporter family have been identified by sequence homology, of which only the first four members (MCT1- MCT4) have been shown to mediate the proton-linked transport of monocarboxylates. Another transporter family involved in the transport of endogenous monocarboxylates is the sodium coupled MCTs (SMCTs). These act as a symporter and are dependent on a sodium gradient for their functional activity. MCT1 is the predominant transporter among the MCT isoforms and is present in almost all tissues including kidney, intestine, liver, heart, skeletal muscle and brain. The various isoforms differ in terms of their substrate specificity and tissue localization. Due to the expression of these transporters in the kidney, intestine, and brain, they may play an important role in influencing drug disposition. Apart from endogenous short chain monocarboxylates, they also mediate the transport of exogenous drugs such as salicylic acid, valproic acid, and simvastatin acid. The influence of MCTs on drug pharmacokinetics has been extensively studied for γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) including distribution of this drug of abuse into the brain and the results will be summarized in this review. The physiological role of these transporters in the brain and their specific cellular localization within the brain will also be discussed. This review will also focus on utilization of MCTs as potential targets for drug delivery into the brain including their role in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. PMID:23789956

  16. Formation constants of ternary complexes of some heavy metal ions with N-(2-acetamido)iminodiacetic acid and aliphatic or aromatic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hamed, M.M.A.; Mahmoud, M.R. . Dept. of Chemistry); Saleh, M.B.; Ahmed, I.T. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-07-01

    N-(2-Acetamido)iminodiacetic acid (H[sub 2]ADA) is considered as one of the biologically important ligands. It is used as a complexing agent in the field of metal ion buffers working at the physiological pH range. Furthermore, it is widely used as an analytical chelating agent for the spectrophotometric determination of metal ions. Solution equilibria of the ternary systems involving La(III), Y(III), Ce(III), and UO[sub 2][sup 2+], N-(2-acetamido)iminodiacetic acid, and some aliphatic or aromatic acids have been investigated potentiometrically. The formation of 1:1:1 mixed ligand complexes is inferred from the potentiometric titration curves. Formation constants of the different binary and ternary complexes formed in such systems were determined at 25 [+-] 0.1 C and [mu] = 0.1 mol dm[sup [minus]3] (KNO[sub 3]). It is deduced that the mixed ligand complexes are more stable than the corresponding binary complexes containing the aliphatic or aromatic acidate moiety. The order of stability of the binary and ternary complexes is investigated and discussed in terms of the nature of both the metal ion and the secondary ligand (aliphatic or aromatic acid).

  17. Determination of some aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuaki; Takayama, Yohichi; Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Taoda, Hiroshi; Xu, Qun; Hu, Wenzhi; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Sato, Shinji; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-11

    The determination of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, n-butyric, isovaleric and n-valeric acids in anaerobic digestion process waters was examined using ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection. The analysis of these biologically important carboxylic acids is necessary as a measure for evaluating and controlling the process. The ion-exclusion chromatography system employed consisted of polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin columns (TSKgel OApak-A or TSKgel Super IC-A/C). weakly acidic eluent (benzoic acid), and conductimetric detection. Particle size and cation-exchange capacity were 5 microm and 0.1 meq./ml for TSKgel OApak-A and 3 microm and 0.2 meq./ml for TSKgel Super IC-A/C, respectively. A dilute eluent (1.0-2.0 mM) of benzoic acid was effective for the high resolution and highly conductimetric detection of the carboxylic acids. The good separation of isobutyric and n-butyric acids was performed using the TSKgel Super IC-A/C column (150 mm x 6.0 mm i.d. x 2). The simple and good chromatograms were obtained by the optimized ion-exclusion chromatography conditions for real samples from mesophilic anaerobic digestors, thus the aliphatic carboxylic acids were successfully determined without any interferences. PMID:15250416

  18. Ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin by elution with benzoic acid-beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masanobu; Xu, Qun; Helaleh, Murad I H; Ikedo, Mikaru; Taoda, Hiroshi; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Fritz, James S; Haddad, Paul R

    2003-05-16

    In this study, an aqueous solution consisting of benzoic acid with low background conductivity and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) of hydrophilic nature and the inclusion effect to benzoic acid were used as eluent for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids with different pKa values and hydrophobicity on a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H+ form. With increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in the eluent, the retention times of the carboxylic acids decreased due to the increased hydrophilicity of the polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resin surface from the adsorption of OH groups of beta-cyclodextrin. Moreover, the eluent background conductivity decreased with increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in 1 mM benzoic acid, which could result in higher sensitivity for conductimetric detection. The ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of carboxylic acids with high resolution and sensitivity was accomplished successfully by elution with a 1 mM benzoic acid-10 mM cyclodextrin solution without chemical suppression. PMID:12830884

  19. Ion-Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Aliphatic Organic Acids Using a Surfactant-Modified C18 Column.

    PubMed

    Fasciano, Jennifer M; Mansour, Fotouh R; Danielson, Neil D

    2016-07-01

    Ion exclusion chromatography (IELC) of short chain aliphatic carboxylic acids is normally done using a cation exchange column under standard HPLC conditions but not in the ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) mode. A novel IELC method for the separation of this class of carboxylic acids by either HPLC or UHPLC utilizing a C18 column dynamically modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate has been developed. The sample capacity is estimated to be near 10 mM for a 20 µL injection or 0.2 µmol using a 150 × 4.6 mm column. The optimum mobile phase determined for three standard mixtures of organic acids is 1.84 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.43 and a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Under optimized conditions, a HPLC separation of four aliphatic carboxylic acids such as tartaric, malonic, lactic and acetic can be achieved in under 4 min and in <2 min in the UHPLC mode at 2.1 mL/min. A variety of fruit juice and soft drink samples are analyzed. Stability of the column as measured by the retention order of maleic and fumaric acid is estimated to be ∼4,000 column volumes using HPLC and 600 by UHPLC. Reproducible chromatograms are achieved over at least a 2-month period. This study shows that the utility of a C18 column can be easily extended when needed to IELC under either standard or UHPLC conditions. PMID:27006111

  20. Synthesis of nanomagnetic fluids and their UV spectrophotometric response with aliphatic organic acids and 1st tier dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Shivani R.; Singh, Man

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of Magnetic nanoparticles were made using coprecipitation method on mixing Fe+3 and Fe+2 in 2:1 ratio with aqueous 8M NaOH which on heating at 90°C for 2 h has yielded 85% magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs), characterized by XRD, VSM, SEM, and HR-TEM. The formic acid (FA), oxalic acid (OA) and citric acid (CA), the series of aliphatic organic acids along with Trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridimethyl malonate (TTDMM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridiethyl malonate (TTDEM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridipropyl malonate (TTDPM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridibutyl malonate (TTDBM) and trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridihexyl malonate (TTDHM) 1st tier dendrimers were used separately for preparing nanomagnetic fluid. From 25 to 150 µM MNPs at an interval of 25 µM were dispersed in 150 µM of acids and dendrimers separately with DMSO. UV-VIS spectrophotometry showed a maximum MNPs dispersion with TTDMM against others and found to be most stable nanomagnetic fluid on account of capping type mechanism of acids.

  1. DeltapH-Dependent Amino Acid Transport into Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves: II. Evidence for Multiple Aliphatic, Neutral Amino Acid Symports.

    PubMed

    Li, Z C; Bush, D R

    1991-08-01

    Proton-coupled aliphatic, neutral amino acid transport was investigated in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., cv Great Western) leaves. Two neutral amino acid symport systems were resolved based on inter-amino acid transport competition and on large variations in the specific activity of each porter in different species. Competitive inhibition was observed for transport competition between alanine, methionine, glutamine, and leucine (the alanine group) and between isoleucine, valine, and threonine (the isoleucine group). The apparent K(m) and K(i) values were similar for transport competition among amino acids within the alanine group. In contrast, the kinetics of transport competition between these two groups of amino acids did not fit a simple competitive model. Furthermore, members of the isoleucine group were weak transport antagonists of the alanine group. These results are consistent with two independent neutral amino acid porters. In support of that conclusion, the ratio of the specific activity of alanine transport versus isoleucine transport varied from two- to 13-fold in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from different plant species. This ratio would be expected to remain relatively stable if these amino acids were moving through a single transport system and, indeed, the ratio of alanine to glutamine transport varied less than twofold. Analysis of the predicted structure of the aliphatic, neutral amino acids in solution shows that isoleucine, valine, and threonine contain a branched methyl or hydroxyl group at the beta-carbon position that places a dense electron cloud close to the alpha-amino group. This does not occur for the unbranched amino acids or those that branch further away, e.g. leucine. We hypothesize that this structural feature of isoleucine, valine, and threonine results in unfavorable steric interactions with the alanine transport system that limits their flux through this porter. Hydrophobicity and

  2. Use of potassium-form cation-exchange resin as a conductimetric enhancer in ion-exclusion chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Tomotaka; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2009-09-15

    In this study, a cation-exchange resin (CEX) of the K(+)-form, i.e., an enhancer resin, is used as a postcolumn conductimetric enhancer in the ion-exclusion chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids. The enhancer resin is filled in the switching valve of an ion chromatograph; this valve is usually used as a suppressor valve in ion-exchange chromatography. An aliphatic carboxylic acid (e.g., CH(3)COOH) separated by a weakly acidic CEX column of the H(+)-form converts into that of the K(+)-form (e.g., CH(3)COOK) by passing through the enhancer resin. In contrast, the background conductivity decreases because a strong acid (e.g., HNO(3)) with a higher conductimetric response in an eluent converts into a salt (e.g., KNO(3)) with a lower conductimetric response. Since the pH of the eluent containing the resin enhancer increases from 3.27 to 5.85, the enhancer accelerates the dissociations of analyte acids. Consequently, peak heights and peak areas of aliphatic carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and valeric acid) with the enhancer resin are 6.3-8.0 times higher and 7.2-9.2 times larger, respectively, than those without the enhancer resin. Calibrations of peak areas for injected analytes are linear in the concentration range of 0.01-1.0mM. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) range from 0.10 microM to 0.39 microM in this system, as opposed to those in the range of 0.24-7.1 microM in the separation column alone. The developed system is successfully applied to the determination of aliphatic carboxylic acids in a chicken droppings sample. PMID:19615503

  3. Ion-exclusion chromatographic behavior of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids on a sulfonated styrene--divinylbenzene co-polymer resin column with sulfuric acid containing various alcohols as eluent.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    2003-05-16

    The addition of C1-C7 alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, heptanol, hexanol and heptanol) to dilute sulfuric acid as eluent in ion-exclusion chromatography using a highly sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer resin (TSKgel SCX) in the H+ form as the stationary phase was carried out for the simultaneous separations of both (a) C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, 2-methylvaleric, isocaproic, caproic, 2,2-dimethyl-n-valeric, 2-methylhexanoic, 5-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and (b) benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, hemimellitic, trimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic and salicylic acids and phenol). Heptanol was the most effective modifier in ion-exclusion chromatography for the improvement of peak shapes and a reduction in retention volumes for higher aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation and relatively highly sensitive conductimetric detection for these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids were achieved on the TSKgel SCX column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 30 min using 0.5 mM sulfuric acid containing 0.025% heptanol as eluent. Excellent simultaneous separation and highly sensitive UV detection at 200 nm for these benzenecarboxylic acids were also achieved on the TSKgel SCX column in 30 min using 5 mM sulfuric acid containing 0.075% heptanol as eluent. PMID:12830881

  4. Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 Inhibitors as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Potent monocarboxylate transporter 1 inhibitors (MCT1) have been developed based on α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid template. Structure–activity relationship studies demonstrate that the introduction of p-N, N-dialkyl/diaryl, and o-methoxy groups into cyanocinnamic acid has maximal MCT1 inhibitory activity. Systemic toxicity studies in healthy ICR mice with few potent MCT1 inhibitors indicate normal body weight gains in treated animals. In vivo tumor growth inhibition studies in colorectal adenocarcinoma (WiDr cell line) in nude mice xenograft models establish that compound 27 exhibits single agent activity in inhibiting the tumor growth. PMID:26005533

  5. Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-chromatography using on-line complexation with copper(II) ion.

    PubMed

    Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to ion chromatography is proposed to improve the UV detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids separated by anion-exchange chromatography. When copper(II) ion added to the mobile phase, it forms complexes with carboxylic acids that can be detected at 240 nm. The absorbance was found to increase with increasing copper(II) ion concentration. The retention times of α-hydroxy acids were also found to depend on the copper(II) ion concentration. Addition of acetonitrile to the mobile phase improved the separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids. The detection limits of the examined carboxylic acids (formate, glycolate, acetate, lactate, propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate, n-valerate, isovalerate, n-caproate) calculated at S/N=3 ranged from 0.06 to 3 μM. The detector signal was linear over three orders of magnitude of carboxylic acid concentration. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze aliphatic carboxylic acids in rainwater and bread. PMID:25523885

  6. Phenolic and Short-Chained Aliphatic Organic Acid Constituents of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L.) Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic acids present in the seeds 3 of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the phenolic acid 4 composition and concentration of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and 5 SH430). Phe...

  7. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and Fatty Acids of Some Marine and Freshwater Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Oró, J.; Tornabene, T. G.; Nooner, D. W.; Gelpi, E.

    1967-01-01

    Gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have been used to study the fatty acids and hydrocarbons of a bacterium from the Pacific Ocean, Vibrio marinus, a freshwater blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans, and algal mat communities from the Gulf of Mexico. Both types of microorganisms (bacteria and algae) showed relatively simple hydrocarbon and fatty acid patterns, the hydrocarbons predominating in the region of C-17 and the fatty acids in the range of C-14 to C-18. The patterns of V. marinus were more comparable to those of the algal populations than to patterns reported for other bacteria. An incomplete correlation between fatty acids and hydrocarbons in both types of organisms was observed, making it difficult to accept the concept that the biosynthesis of hydrocarbons follows a simple fatty acid decarboxylation process. PMID:6025301

  8. Generation of aliphatic acid anions and carbon dioxide by hydrous pyrolysis of crude oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Lundegard, P.D.; Ambats, G.; Evans, William C.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Two crude oils with relatively high (0.60 wt%) and low (0.18 wt%) oxygen contents were heated in the presence of water in gold-plated reactors at 300??C for 2348 h. The high-oxygen oil was also heated at 200??C for 5711 h. The compositions of aqueous organic acid anions of the oils and of the headspace gases were monitored inn order to investigate the distribution of organic acids that can be generated from liquid petroleum. The oil with higher oxygen content generated about five times as much organic anions as the other oil. The dominant organic anions produced were acetate, propionate and butyrate. Small amounts of formate, succinate, methyl succinate and oxalate were also produced. The dominant oxygen-containing product was CO2, as has been observed in similar studies on the hydrous pyrolysis of kerogen. These results indicate that a significant portion (10-30%) of organic acid anions reported i be generated by thermal alteration of oils in reservoir rocks. The bulk of organic acid anions present in formation waters, however, is most likely generated by thermal alteration of kerogen in source rocks. Kerogen is more abundant than oil in sedimentary basins and the relative yields of organic acid anions reported from the hydrous pyrolysis of kerogen are much higher than the yields obtained for the two oils. ?? 1993.

  9. Glutamine deprivation enhances antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate through the stabilization of monocarboxylate transporter-1.

    PubMed

    Cardaci, Simone; Rizza, Salvatore; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Roberta; Bertocchi, Fabio; Mattei, Maurizio; Paci, Maurizio; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Anticancer drug efficacy might be leveraged by strategies to target certain biochemical adaptations of tumors. Here we show how depriving cancer cells of glutamine can enhance the anticancer properties of 3-bromopyruvate, a halogenated analog of pyruvic acid. Glutamine deprival potentiated 3-bromopyruvate chemotherapy by increasing the stability of the monocarboxylate transporter-1, an effect that sensitized cells to metabolic oxidative stress and autophagic cell death. We further elucidated mechanisms through which resistance to chemopotentiation by glutamine deprival could be circumvented. Overall, our findings offer a preclinical proof-of-concept for how to employ 3-bromopyruvate or other monocarboxylic-based drugs to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy. PMID:22773663

  10. Monocarboxylate transporters as targets and mediators in cancer therapy response.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, F; Pinheiro, C; Morais-Santos, F; Azevedo-Silva, J; Queirós, O; Preto, A; Casal, M

    2014-12-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) belong to a family of transporters, encoded by the SLC16 gene family, which is presently composed by 14 members, but only MCT1 to 4 have been biochemically characterized. They have important functions in healthy tissues, being involved in the transmembrane transport of lactic acid and other monocarboxylic acids in human cells. One of the recently recognized hallmarks of cancer is altered metabolism, with high rates of glucose consumption and consequent lactate production. To maintain this metabolic phenotype, cancer cells upregulate a series of plasma membrane proteins, including MCTs. MCT1 and MCT4, in particular, play a dual role in the maintenance of the metabolic phenotype of tumour cells. On one hand, they facilitate the efflux of lactate and, on the other hand, they contribute to the preservation of the intracellular pH, by co-transporting a proton. Thus, MCTs are attractive targets in cancer therapy, especially in cancers with a hyper-glycolytic and acid-resistant phenotype. Recent evidence demonstrates that MCTs are involved in cancer cell uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, including 3-bromopyruvate. In this way MCTs can act as "Trojan horses", as their elevated expression in cancer cells can mediate the entry of this chemotherapeutic agent into the cells and selectively kill cancer cells. As a result, MCTs will be mediators of chemotherapeutic response, and their expression can be used as a molecular marker to predict response to chemotherapy. PMID:24921258

  11. Short chain aliphatic acid anions in oil field waters and their contribution to the measured alkalinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willey, L.M.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Presser, T.S.; Rapp, J.B.; Barnes, I.

    1975-01-01

    High alkalinity values found in some formation waters from Kettleman North Dome oil field are due chiefly to acetate and propionate ions, with some contribution from higher molecular weight organic acid ions. Some of these waters contain no detectable bicarbonate alkalinity. For waters such as these, high supersaturation with respect to calcite will be incorrectly indicated by thermodynamic calculations based upon carbonate concentrations inferred from traditional alkalinity measurements. ?? 1975.

  12. Design, Synthesis, EPR-Studies and Conformational Bias of Novel Spin-Labeled DCC-Analogues for the Highly Regioselective Labeling of Aliphatic and Aromatic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Gölz, Jan Philipp; NejatyJahromy, Yaser; Bauer, Mirko; Muhammad, Ashraf; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Grimme, Stefan; Schiemann, Olav; Menche, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Novel types of spin-labeled N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimides (DCC) are reported that bear a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxyl (TEMPO) residue on one side and different aromatic and aliphatic cyclohexyl analogues on the other side of the diimide core. These readily available novel reagents add efficiently to aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids, forming two possible spin-labeled amide derivatives with different radical distances of the resulting amide. The addition of aromatic DCC analogues proceeds with excellent selectivity, giving amides where the carboxylic acid is exclusively connected to the aromatic residue, while little or no selectivity was observed for the aliphatic congeners. The usefulness of these adducts in structural studies was demonstrated by EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) measurements of biradical adducts of biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acids. These analyses also reveal high degrees of conformational bias for aromatic DCC derivatives, which further underlines the powerfulness of these novel reagents. This observation was further corroborated by quantum chemical calculations, giving a detailed understanding of the structural dynamics, while detailed information on the solid state structure of all novel reagents was obtained by X-ray structure analyses. PMID:27272435

  13. Ion-exclusion chromatographic separations of C1-C6 aliphatic carboxylic acids on a sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer resin column with 5-methylhexanoic acid as eluent.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    2003-05-16

    The application of C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (heptanoic, 2-methylhexanoic, 5-methylhexanoic and 2,2-dimethyl-n-valeric acids) as eluents in ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection for C1-C6 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic and caproic acids) was carried out using a highly sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer resin (TSKgel SCX) in the H+ form as a stationary phase. When using 0.05 mM sulfuric acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent, peak shapes of hydrophobic carboxylic acids (isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic and caproic acids) were tailed strongly. In contrast, when using 1 mM these C7 carboxylic acids at pH ca. 4 as the eluents, although system peaks (vacant peaks) corresponding to these C7 carboxylic acids appeared, peak shapes of these hydrophobic acids were improved drastically. Excellent simultaneous separation and relatively high sensitive conductimetric detection for these C1-C6 aliphatic carboxylic acids were achieved in 25 min on the TSKgel SCX column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) using 1 mM 5-methylhexanoic acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent. PMID:12830882

  14. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.J.; Adson, A.; Kezdy, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37{degrees}C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by (14C)CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the unstirred boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier.

  15. The difluoromethylene (CF2) group in aliphatic chains: Synthesis and conformational preference of palmitic acids and nonadecane containing CF2 groups.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Callejo, Ricardo; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David

    2014-01-01

    The syntheses of palmitic acids and a nonadecane are reported with CF2 groups located 1,3 or 1,4 to each other along the aliphatic chain. Specifically 8,8,10,10- and 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorohexadecanoic acids (6b and 6c) are prepared as well as the singly modified analogue 8,8-difluorohexadecanoic acid (6a). Also 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorononadecane (27) is prepared as a pure hydrocarbon containing a 1,4-di-CF2 motif. The modified palmitic acids are characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine melting points and phase behaviour relative to palmitic acid (62.5 °C). It emerges that 6c, with the CF2 groups placed 1,4- to each other, has a significantly higher melting point (89.9 °C) when compared to the other analogues and palmitic acid itself. It is a crystalline compound and the structure reveals an extended anti-zig-zag chain. Similarly 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorononadecane (27) adopts an extended anti-zig-zag structure. This is rationalized by dipolar relaxation between the two CF2 groups placed 1,4 to each other in the extended anti-zig-zag chain and suggests a design modification for long chain aliphatics which can introduce conformational stability. PMID:24454560

  16. The difluoromethylene (CF2) group in aliphatic chains: Synthesis and conformational preference of palmitic acids and nonadecane containing CF2 groups

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Callejo, Ricardo; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2014-01-01

    Summary The syntheses of palmitic acids and a nonadecane are reported with CF2 groups located 1,3 or 1,4 to each other along the aliphatic chain. Specifically 8,8,10,10- and 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorohexadecanoic acids (6b and 6c) are prepared as well as the singly modified analogue 8,8-difluorohexadecanoic acid (6a). Also 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorononadecane (27) is prepared as a pure hydrocarbon containing a 1,4-di-CF2 motif. The modified palmitic acids are characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine melting points and phase behaviour relative to palmitic acid (62.5 °C). It emerges that 6c, with the CF2 groups placed 1,4- to each other, has a significantly higher melting point (89.9 °C) when compared to the other analogues and palmitic acid itself. It is a crystalline compound and the structure reveals an extended anti-zig-zag chain. Similarly 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorononadecane (27) adopts an extended anti-zig-zag structure. This is rationalized by dipolar relaxation between the two CF2 groups placed 1,4 to each other in the extended anti-zig-zag chain and suggests a design modification for long chain aliphatics which can introduce conformational stability. PMID:24454560

  17. Directing Group in Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling: Copper-Catalyzed Site-Selective C-N Bond Formation from Nonactivated Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-Jing; Lu, Xi; Wang, Guan; Li, Lei; Jiang, Wei-Tao; Wang, Yu-Dong; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    Copper-catalyzed directed decarboxylative amination of nonactivated aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. This intramolecular C-N bond formation reaction provides efficient access to the synthesis of pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives as well as the modification of complex natural products. Moreover, this reaction presents excellent site-selectivity in the C-N bond formation step through the use of directing group. Our work can be considered as a big step toward controllable radical decarboxylative carbon-heteroatom cross-coupling. PMID:27439145

  18. Gamma-aminobutyric acid esters. 1. Synthesis, brain uptake, and pharmacological studies of aliphatic and steroid esters of gamma-aminobutyric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Shashoua, V.E.; Jacob, J.N.; Ridge, R.; Campbell, A.; Baldessarini, R.J.

    1984-05-01

    Labeled and unlabeled aliphatic and steroid esters of gamma-amino(U-/sup 14/C)butyric acid (GABA) were synthesized and tested for their capacity to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and for evidence of central neuropharmacological activity in rodents. The uptake of the labeled 9,12,15-octadecatrienyl (linolenyl), 3-cholesteryl, 1-butyl, and the 9-fluoro-11 beta,17-dihydroxy-16 alpha-methyl-3,20-dioxopregna -1,4-dien-21-yl (dexamethasone) esters of GABA into mouse brain increased 2-, 25-, 74-, and 81-fold over GABA, respectively. The cholesteryl ester of GABA depressed the general motor activity of mice and rats in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the 1-butyl, linolenyl, and dexamethasone esters were inactive by this test. Studies of the rates of hydrolysis, GABA receptor binding capacity, and octanol/water partition coefficients indicated that pharmacological activity of the esters after entry into the central nervous system (CNS) was dependent on their capacity to release GABA by enzymatic hydrolysis and their lipid solubility.

  19. Use of a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column and propionic acid as an eluent in ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Hironaga, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We developed an ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography (IEAC) method employing a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (PS-WCX) column with propionic acid as the eluent for the simultaneous determination of multivalent aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples. The PS-WCX column well resolved mono-, di-, and trivalent carboxylic acids in the acidic eluent. Propionic acid as the eluent gave a higher signal-to-noise ratio, and enabled sensitive conductimetric detection of analyte acids. We found the optimal separation condition to be the combination of a PS-WCX column and 20-mM propionic acid. Practical applicability of the developed method was confirmed by using a short precolumn with a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form connected before the separation column; this was to remove cations from food samples by converting them to hydrogen ions. Consequently, common carboxylic acids and ethanol in beer, wine, and soy sauce were successfully separated by the developed method. PMID:21558657

  20. Predicting the stability of aprotic solvents in Li-air batteries: pKa calculations of aliphatic C-H acids in dimethyl sulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2013-02-01

    Superoxide is a strong base that can induce base-catalyzed autoxidation of weakly acidic solvents. We report on the performance of several computational protocols for predicting pKa values for a wide range of aliphatic C-H acids in DMSO. Calculations at the MP2/CBS level with CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ corrections and solvent effects calculated using the SVPE model provide the best overall performance (rms deviation is 0.65 pKa). The B3LYP, M06, and M06-2X functionals can also achieve high accuracy (<1 pKa) by employing empirical corrections to fit the experimental data. Computational results provide a convenient means of screening for suitable solvents in Li-air batteries.

  1. The influence of aliphatic amines, diamines, and amino acids on the polymorph of calcium carbonate precipitated by the introduction of carbon dioxide gas into calcium hydroxide aqueous suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuajiw, Wittaya; Takatori, Kazumasa; Igarashi, Teruki; Hara, Hiroki; Fukushima, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The influence of aliphatic organic additives including amines, diamines and amino acids, on the polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitated from a calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) suspensions and carbon dioxide gas (CO2) was studied by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amorphous calcium carbonate, vaterite, aragonite and calcite were observed for the precipitated samples with organic additives. While the precipitation without organic additive, only the stable phase; calcite was obtained. The observed crystal phases were related with the alkyl chain length in the aliphatic part of additives. These results suggested that hydrophobic interactions due to the van der Waals force between organic additives and surface of inorganic precipitates could not be ignored. We concluded that covering or adsorbing of these organic additives on the precipitates surfaces retarded the successive dissolution/recrystallisation process in the aqueous systems. The results revealed that not only the polar interaction from the hydrophilic functional groups, as the former reports proposed, but also the van der Waals interactions from the hydrophobic alkyl groups played the important role in the phase transformation of CaCO3.

  2. Aquaporins with anion/monocarboxylate permeability: mechanisms, relevance for pathogen–host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rambow, Janis; Wu, Binghua; Rönfeldt, Deike; Beitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Classically, aquaporins are divided based on pore selectivity into water specific, orthodox aquaporins and solute-facilitating aquaglyceroporins, which conduct, e.g., glycerol and urea. However, more aquaporin-passing substrates have been identified over the years, such as the gasses ammonia and carbon dioxide or the water-related hydrogen peroxide. It became apparent that not all aquaporins clearly fit into one of only two subfamilies. Furthermore, certain aquaporins from both major subfamilies have been reported to conduct inorganic anions, such as chloride, or monoacids/monocarboxylates, such as lactic acid/lactate. Here, we summarize the findings on aquaporin anion transport, analyze the pore layout of such aquaporins in comparison to prototypical non-selective anion channels, monocarboxylate transporters, and formate–nitrite transporters. Finally, we discuss in which scenarios anion conducting aquaporins may be of physiological relevance. PMID:25225485

  3. Deprive to kill: glutamine closes the gate to anticancer monocarboxylic drugs.

    PubMed

    Cardaci, Simone; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-12-01

    Killing properties of antitumor drugs can be enhanced by strategies targeting biochemical adaptations of cancer cells. Recently, we reported that depriving cancer cells of glutamine is a feasible approach to enhance antitumor effects of the alkylating analog of pyruvic acid, 3-bromopyruvate, which rely on the induction of autophagic cell death by metabolic-oxidative stress. 3-bromopyruvate chemopotentiation is the result of its increased intracellular uptake mediated by the monocarboxylate transporter 1, whose expression is post-transcriptionally increased upon glutamine withdrawal. Overall, our results identified the metabolic condition able to increase the selectivity of 3-bromopyruvate targets in neoplastic tissues, thereby providing a stage for its use in clinical settings for targeting malignancies and represent a proof of principle that modulation of glutamine availability can influence the delivery of monocarboxylic drugs into tumors. PMID:22932475

  4. Mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II)-2-(2-pyridyl)-benzimidazole and aliphatic or aromatic dicarboxylic acids: Synthesis, characterization and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A.; Jeragh, Bakir J. A.

    2007-11-01

    The synthesis and structural characterization of mixed ligand complexes derived from 2-(2-pyridyl)-benzimidazole (PBI) (1ry ligand) and aliphatic or aromatic dicarboxylic acids (2ry ligand) are reported. Cu(II) complexes were characterized on the bases of their elemental analyses, IR, ESR and thermal analyses. The elemental analysis indicated the formation of mixed ligand complexes in a mole ratio 1:1:1 (Cu:L 1:L 2), L 1 = PBI and L 2 = oxalic acid, phthalic acid or malonic acid. IR spectra showed that PBI acts as a neutral bidentate coordinated to the Cu(II) via the pyridyl and imidazolyl nitrogen atoms. The dicarboxylic acids are bidentate with monodentate carboxylate groups. Thermal decomposition study of complexes was monitored by thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis in N 2 atmosphere. The decomposition course and steps were analysed and the activation parameters of the nonisothermal decomposition were calculated from the TG curves and discussed. The isolated metal chelates were screened for their antimicrobial activities and the results are reported, discussed and compared with some known antibiotics.

  5. Influence of season and salinity on the exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs) by Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere. This phenomenon occurs for several purposes, for instance, the detoxification of pollutants. Nevertheless, knowledge about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots is still scarce. This work aimed at studying: 1) the ability of marsh plants, freshly collected in estuarine marshes, to liberate ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium and 2) the influence of the physiological cycle of these plants on the exudation of those substances. In vitro experiments were carried out, in different seasons, with Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides (two marsh plants widely distributed in Europe). Root exudates were collected in freshwater to which plant specimens, in different physiological stages, were exposed. Both marsh plants were capable of liberating oxalic and citric acids into the surrounding medium. Formic acid was also released by P. australis roots and acetic acid by H. portulacoides. There was a seasonal effect on the liberation of ALMWOAs by both plant roots. Marked changes were registered in the nature and levels of the ALMWOAs liberated and such changes depended upon the season in which the specimens were collected. In growing season, a significantly higher liberation of oxalic and citric acids (and acetic acid but only in H. portulacoides case) was observed. For P. australis, formic acid was only found in the decaying stage (autumn and winter). The nature of the medium (in particular, salinity) was a feature conditioning the exudation of ALMWOAs. Both plants were shown to contribute for the presence of ALMWOAs in marsh rhizosediments (some ALMWOAs were found in pore waters extracted). The nature and extent of this contribution will be however dependent upon plants' physiological stage, in addition to plant species. Therefore, these features should be taken into consideration in the event of

  6. Synergistic effects in solvent-extraction systems based on alkylsalicylic acids. I. Extraction of trivalent rare-earth metals in the presence of aliphatic amides

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, J.S.; Preez, A.C. du

    1995-07-01

    Aliphatic carboxylic acid amides were found to cause synergistic shifts in the pH{sub 50} values for the extraction of the trivalent rare-earth metals from chloride media by solutions of alkylsalicylic acids in xylene. For the different types of amide examined, the synergistic shifts for the extraction of neodymium by 3,5-diisopropylsalicylic acid (DIPSA) generally decrease in the order: R.CO.NR{sub 2}` > R.CO.NHR` > R.CO.NH{sub 2}, where R and R` are alkyl groups. With the N,N-dialkyl amides (R.CO.NR{sub 2}`) and the N-alkyl amides (R.CO.NHR`), the extent of the synergistic effect decreases with increasing chain-branching in either of the alkyl groups R and R`. For additions to 0.25 M alkylsalicylic acid, the synergistic effect increases with concentrations of up to 0.1 M amide, and decreases with higher concentrations. The extent of the synergistic shift produced by a given amide, as well as the separation in pH{sub 50} values from lanthanum to lutetium, increases with increasing steric bulk of the alkylsalicylic acid used. The separations between adjacent lanthanides are too small to be of any practical interest, however. Measurement of the solubility of salicylic acids (HA) in xylene containing various amounts of N,N-dialkyl amide (L) indicate that essentially complete formation of the HA.L adduct takes place. Treatment of metal-distribution data by slope analysis, and measurement of the solubility of the neodymium-DIPSA complex in xylene in the presence of amide suggest that the mixed-ligand complex has the stoichiometry NdA{sub 3}L{sub 2}. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 refs.

  7. Aliphatic amines in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jungclaus, G.; Cronin, J. R.; Moore, C. B.; Yuen, G. U.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports on the determination of aliphatic amines in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite. The amines were analyzed by gas chromatography both as the free amines and as 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) derivatives. The results give evidence for the presence of all of the possible primary aliphatic monoamines (eight) with fewer than five carbon atoms. Two of the seven possible secondary or tertiary aliphatic monoamines were identified. The identified primary amines total 80 nmol per g meteorite, and seem to be chemically or physically trapped in the meteorite. Similarities between the water-extractable amines and amino acids suggest that (1) a simple carbon compound, methane, for example, is the precursor of meteorite amines and amino acids, and (2) both amines and amino acids are extracted from the meteorite both as such and in the form of acid-hydrolyzable derivative or precursor species.

  8. Modulation of fatty acid oxidation alters contact hypersensitivity to urushiols: role of aliphatic chain beta-oxidation in processing and activation of urushiols.

    PubMed

    Kalergis, A M; López, C B; Becker, M I; Díaz, M I; Sein, J; Garbarino, J A; De Ioannes, A E

    1997-01-01

    Lithraea caustica, or litre, a tree of the Anacardiaceae family that is endemic to the central region of Chile, induces a severe contact dermatitis in susceptible human beings. The allergen was previously isolated and characterized as a 3-(pentadecyl-10-enyl) catechol, a molecule belonging to the urushiol group of allergens isolated from poison ivy and poison oak plants. Because urushiols are pro-electrophilic haptens, it is believed that the reactive species are generated intracellularly by skin keratinocytes and Langerhans cells. The active species are presumed to modify self proteins which, after proteolytic processing, would generate immunogenic peptides carrying the hapten. The presence of a 15-carbon-length hydrophobic chain should impair antigen presentation of self-modified peptides by class I MHC molecules, either by steric hindrance or by limiting their sorting to the ER lumen. We have proposed that the shortening of the aliphatic chain by beta-oxidation within peroxisomes and/or mitochondria should be a requirement for the antigen presentation process. To test this hypothesis we investigated the effect of drugs that modify the fatty acid metabolism on urushiol-induced contact dermatitis in mice. Clofibrate, a peroxisomal proliferator in mice, increased the immune response to the urushiols from litre by 50%. Conversely, tetradecyl glycidic acid, an inhibitor of the uptake of fatty acids by mitochondria, decreased the hypersensitivity to the hapten. An increase in the level in glutathione by treatment of the animals with 2-oxotiazolidin-4-carboxilic acid lowered the response. Those findings strongly support a role for the fatty acid oxidative metabolism in the processing and activation of urushiols in vivo. PMID:8980288

  9. Enrichment of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic acids by oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in oil-contaminated soil from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Annett; Omirbekova, Anel; Schumann, Peter; Reinhard, Anne; Sheikhany, Halah; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2015-05-01

    Three microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (Festuca rubra, 75 %; Lolium perenne, 20 %; Poa pratensis, 10 %), and rape (Brassica napus) on the basis of their high capacity to use crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. These isolates used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as substrates (more than 80), including n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C32, monomethyl- and monoethyl-substituted alkanes (C12-C23), n-alkylcyclo alkanes with alkyl chain lengths from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, as well as substituted monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. These three strains were identified as Gordonia rubripertincta and Rhodococcus sp. SBUG 1968. During their transformation of this wide range of hydrocarbon substrates, a very large number of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids was detected, 44 of them were identified by GC/MS analyses, and 4 of them are described as metabolites for the first time. Inoculation of plant seeds with these highly potent bacteria had a beneficial effect on shoot and root development of plants which were grown on oil-contaminated sand. PMID:25592733

  10. Microbial degradation of aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Kato, Satoshi; Shintani, Noboru; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable plastics (BPs) have attracted much attention since more than a decade because they can easily be degraded by microorganisms in the environment. The development of aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability and an ideal replacement for the conventional nondegradable thermoplastics. The microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various aliphatic, aromatic, and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyester-degrading microorganisms and their enzymes have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. In this review, we have reported some new microorganisms and their enzymes which could degrade various aliphatic, aromatic, as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters like poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydoxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalterate) (PHB/PHBV), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT), poly(butylene succinate-co-terephthalate) (PBST), and poly(butylene succinate/terephthalate/isophthalate)-co-(lactate) (PBSTIL). The mechanism of degradation of aliphatic as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has also been discussed. The degradation ability of microorganisms against various polyesters might be useful for the treatment and recycling of biodegradable wastes or bioremediation of the polyester-contaminated environments. PMID:24522729

  11. Altered Expression of Brain Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 in Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Perez, Edgar L.; Melillo, Eric R.; Roh, Jung-Min; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Lee, Tih-Shih W.; Wang, Yue; Bergersen, Linda H.; Eid, Tore

    2012-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) facilitates the transport of monocarboxylate fuels (lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies) and acidic drugs, such as valproic acid, across cell membranes. We recently reported that MCT1 is deficient on microvessels in the epileptogenic hippocampal formation in patients with medication-refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). To further define the role of MCT1 in the pathophysiology of TLE, we used immunohistochemistry and stereological analysis to localize and quantify the transporter in the hippocampal formation in three novel and highly relevant rat models of TLE and in nonepileptic control animals. One model utilizes methionine sulfoximine to induce brain glutamine synthetase deficiency and recurrent limbic seizures, while two models employ an episode of perforant pathway stimulation to cause epilepsy. MCT1 was lost on microvessels and upregulated on astrocytes in the hippocampal formation in all models of TLE. Notably, the loss of MCT1 on microvessels was not due to a reduction in microvessel density. The similarities in MCT1 expression among human subjects with TLE and several animal models of the disease strongly suggest a critical role of this molecule in the pathogenesis of TLE. We hypothesize that the downregulation of MCT1 may promote seizures via impaired uptake of ketone bodies and antiepileptic drugs by the epileptogenic brain. We also propose that the overexpression of MCT1 on astrocytes may lead to increased uptake or release of monocarboxylates by these cells, with important implications for brain metabolism and excitability. These hypotheses can now be rigorously tested in several animal models that replicate key features of human TLE. PMID:21856423

  12. Isoquercitrin Esters with Mono- or Dicarboxylic Acids: Enzymatic Preparation and Properties.

    PubMed

    Vavříková, Eva; Langschwager, Fanny; Jezova-Kalachova, Lubica; Křenková, Alena; Mikulová, Barbora; Kuzma, Marek; Křen, Vladimír; Valentová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    A series of isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) esters with mono- or dicarboxylic acids was designed to modulate hydro- and lipophilicity and biological properties. Esterification of isoquercitrin was accomplished by direct chemoenzymatic reaction using Novozym 435 (lipase from Candida antarctica), which accepted C₅- to C12-dicarboxylic acids; the shorter ones, such as oxalic (C₂), malonic (C₃), succinic (C₄) and maleic (C₄) acids were not substrates of the lipase. Lipophilicity of monocarboxylic acid derivatives, measured as log P, increased with the chain length. Esters with glutaric and adipic acids exhibited hydrophilicity, and the dodecanedioic acid hemiester was more lipophilic. All derivatives were less able to reduce Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (FCR) and scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) than isoquercitrin; ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity was comparable. Dodecanoate and palmitate were the least active in FCR and ABTS scavenging; dodecanoate and hemiglutarate were the strongest DPPH scavengers. In contrast, most derivatives were much better inhibitors of microsomal lipoperoxidation than isoquercitrin; butyrate and hexanoate were the most efficient. Anti-lipoperoxidant activity of monocarboxylic derivatives, except acetates, decreased with increasing aliphatic chain. The opposite trend was noted for dicarboxylic acid hemiesters, isoquercitrin hemidodecanedioate being the most active. Overall, IQ butyrate, hexanoate and hemidodecanedioate are the most promising candidates for further studies. PMID:27338349

  13. Isoquercitrin Esters with Mono- or Dicarboxylic Acids: Enzymatic Preparation and Properties

    PubMed Central

    Vavříková, Eva; Langschwager, Fanny; Jezova-Kalachova, Lubica; Křenková, Alena; Mikulová, Barbora; Kuzma, Marek; Křen, Vladimír; Valentová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    A series of isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) esters with mono- or dicarboxylic acids was designed to modulate hydro- and lipophilicity and biological properties. Esterification of isoquercitrin was accomplished by direct chemoenzymatic reaction using Novozym 435 (lipase from Candida antarctica), which accepted C5- to C12-dicarboxylic acids; the shorter ones, such as oxalic (C2), malonic (C3), succinic (C4) and maleic (C4) acids were not substrates of the lipase. Lipophilicity of monocarboxylic acid derivatives, measured as log P, increased with the chain length. Esters with glutaric and adipic acids exhibited hydrophilicity, and the dodecanedioic acid hemiester was more lipophilic. All derivatives were less able to reduce Folin–Ciocalteau reagent (FCR) and scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) than isoquercitrin; ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity was comparable. Dodecanoate and palmitate were the least active in FCR and ABTS scavenging; dodecanoate and hemiglutarate were the strongest DPPH scavengers. In contrast, most derivatives were much better inhibitors of microsomal lipoperoxidation than isoquercitrin; butyrate and hexanoate were the most efficient. Anti-lipoperoxidant activity of monocarboxylic derivatives, except acetates, decreased with increasing aliphatic chain. The opposite trend was noted for dicarboxylic acid hemiesters, isoquercitrin hemidodecanedioate being the most active. Overall, IQ butyrate, hexanoate and hemidodecanedioate are the most promising candidates for further studies. PMID:27338349

  14. Use of iron monocarboxylates in the two-step preparation of poly(ester-urethane)s.

    PubMed

    Stolt, M; Hiltunen, K; Södergård, A

    2001-01-01

    Five different iron monocarboxylates were used as catalysts in the two-step preparation route of lactic acid based poly(ester-urethane)s (PEU). In the first step, a hydroxyl-terminated poly(lactic acid) prepolymer was prepared, which in the second step was linked with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. The resulting polymers were characterized by titration, size exclusion chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the mechanical properties were tested as well. Iron monocarboxylates proved to be efficient catalysts in the preparation of a hydroxyl-terminated prepolymer (lowest acid number obtained: 0.08). The same catalyst systems proved also to be highly efficient in the linking step yielding a high molar mass PEU. Semicrystalline PEUs could be prepared at 160 and 180 degrees C by using the iron acetate of different oxidation state. PEU prepared at 200 degrees C was amorphous, which could be related to racemization during the polycondensation. By using the fluorinated iron acetate amorphous PEUs was prepared at all reaction temperatures. The molar mass of the prepolymers and the PEUs increased as a function of the polycondensation temperature for all catalysts used. The highest weight-average molar masses (M(w)) were obtained by using the fluorinated iron acetate. PMID:11777398

  15. Controlled-release fertilizer prepared using a biodegradable aliphatic copolyester of poly(butylene succinate) and dimerized fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Lubkowski, Krzysztof; Smorowska, Aleksandra; Grzmil, Barbara; Kozłowska, Agnieszka

    2015-03-18

    The preparation and characterization of a controlled-release multicomponent (NPK) fertilizer with the coating layer consisting of a biodegradable copolymer of poly(butylene succinate) and a butylene ester of dilinoleic acid (PBS/DLA) is reported. The morphology and structure of the resulting polymer-coated materials and the thickness of the covering layers were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical properties of these materials were determined with a strength-testing machine. Nutrient release was measured in water using spectrophotometry, potentiometry, and conductivity methods. The results of the nutrient release experiments from these polymer-coated materials were compared with the requirements for controlled-release fertilizers. A conceptual model is presented describing the mechanism of nutrient release from the materials prepared in this study. This model is based on the concentrations of mineral components inside the water-penetrated fertilizer granules, the diffusion properties of the nutrients in water, and a diffusion coefficient through the polymer layer. The experimental kinetic data on nutrient release were interpreted using the sigmoidal model equation developed in this study. PMID:25715823

  16. Aliphatic polyamines in physiology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramani, D; De Bandt, J P; Cynober, L

    2014-02-01

    Aliphatic polyamines are a family of polycationic molecules derived from decarboxylation of the amino acid ornithine that classically comprise three molecules: putrescine, spermidine and spermine. In-cell polyamine homeostasis is tightly controlled at key steps of cell metabolism. Polyamines are involved in an array of cellular functions from DNA stabilization, and regulation of gene expression to ion channel function and, particularly, cell proliferation. As such, aliphatic polyamines play an essential role in rapidly dividing cells such as in the immune system and digestive tract. Because of their role in cell proliferation, polyamines are also involved in carcinogenesis, prompting intensive research into polyamine metabolism as a target in cancer therapy. More recently, another aliphatic polyamine, agmatine, the decarboxylated derivative of arginine, has been identified as a neurotransmitter in mammals, and investigations have focused on its effects in the CNS, notably as a neuroprotector in brain injury. PMID:24144912

  17. Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 is Deficient on Microvessels in the Human Epileptogenic Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; de Lanerolle, Nihal C.; Lee, Tih-Shih W.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Kim, Jung H.; Bergersen, Linda H.; Eid, Tore

    2010-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) facilitates the transport of important metabolic fuels (lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies) and possibly also acidic drugs such as valproic acid across the blood brain barrier. Because an impaired brain energy metabolism and resistance to antiepileptic drugs are common features of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we sought to study the expression of MCT1 in the brain of patients with this disease. Immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy were used to assess the distribution of MCT1 in brain specimens from patients with TLE and concomitant hippocampal sclerosis (referred to as mesial TLE or MTLE (n = 15)), patients with TLE and no hippocampal sclerosis (non-MTLE, n = 13) and neurologically normal autopsy subjects (n = 8). MCT1 was present on an extensive network of microvessels throughout the hippocampal formation in autopsy controls and to a lesser degree in non-MTLE. Patients with MTLE were markedly deficient in MCT1 on microvessels in several areas of the hippocampal formation, especially CA1, which exhibited a 37 to 48% loss of MCT1 on the plasma membrane of endothelial cells when compared with non-MTLE. These findings suggest that the uptake of blood-derived monocarboxylate fuels and possibly also acidic drugs, such as valproic acid, is perturbed in the epileptogenic hippocampus, particularly in MTLE. We hypothesize that the loss of MCT1 on brain microvessels is mechanistically involved in the pathophysiology of drug-resistant TLE, and propose that re-expression of MCT1 may represent a novel therapeutic approach for this disease. PMID:21081165

  18. Monocarboxylate transporters in the brain and in cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Van Hée, Vincent F; Sboarina, Martina; Falces, Jorge; Payen, Valéry L; Pellerin, Luc; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) constitute a family of 14 members among which MCT1-4 facilitate the passive transport of monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies together with protons across cell membranes. Their anchorage and activity at the plasma membrane requires interaction with chaperon protein such as basigin/CD147 and embigin/gp70. MCT1-4 are expressed in different tissues where they play important roles in physiological and pathological processes. This review focuses on the brain and on cancer. In the brain, MCTs control the delivery of lactate, produced by astrocytes, to neurons, where it is used as an oxidative fuel. Consequently, MCT dysfunctions are associated with pathologies of the central nervous system encompassing neurodegeneration and cognitive defects, epilepsy and metabolic disorders. In tumors, MCTs control the exchange of lactate and other monocarboxylates between glycolytic and oxidative cancer cells, between stromal and cancer cells and between glycolytic cells and endothelial cells. Lactate is not only a metabolic waste for glycolytic cells and a metabolic fuel for oxidative cells, but it also behaves as a signaling agent that promotes angiogenesis and as an immunosuppressive metabolite. Because MCTs gate the activities of lactate, drugs targeting these transporters have been developed that could constitute new anticancer treatments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou. PMID:26993058

  19. Self-assembly in solvates of 2,4-diamino-6-(4-methyl- phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine and in its molecular adducts with some aliphatic dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, Purnendu; Nayak, Amrita; Biswas, Sharmita Nandy; Pedireddi, V. R.

    2016-03-01

    Solid state structures of 2,4-diamino-6-(4-methylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 1, in the form of methanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvates, as well as supramolecular assemblies of 1 with various aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, oxalic (a), malonic (b), succinic (c), glutaric (d) and adipic (e) have been reported. Analysis of the assemblies has been carried out by single crystal X-ray diffraction and thermal methods. Triazine 1 yields anhydrous molecular adducts with acids a-d, upon co-crystallization either from CH3OH and DMSO solvents. However acid e gives anhydrous adduct from DMSO solvent, while it gives a methanol adduct from CH3OH. Structure determination reveals that molecular adducts 1a, 1d and 1e are in a 2:1 ratio of 1 and the corresponding acid. However the ratio is 1:1, in 1b, perhaps due to the involvement of one of the acid groups in the intramolecular hydrogen bonding and in adduct 1c the ratio observed is 3:2. Structural features in all these assemblies have been rationalised in terms of various recognition patterns formed between the acceptor and donor groups. A noteworthy feature is that -COOH groups in acid a establish interaction with 1 through amino groups, while such interactions are observed to be through hetero -N atoms in case of the acids b-e.

  20. Glucose affects monocarboxylate cotransporter (MCT) 1 expression during mouse preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sarah; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh; Pantaleon, Marie; Kaye, Peter L

    2006-03-01

    Cleavage-stage embryos have an absolute requirement for pyruvate and lactate, but as the morula compacts, it switches to glucose as the preferred energy source to fuel glycolysis. Substrates such as glucose, amino acids, and lactate are moved into and out of cells by facilitated diffusion. In the case of lactate and pyruvate, this occurs via H+-monocarboxylate cotransporter (MCT) proteins. To clarify the role of MCT in development, transport characteristics for DL-lactate were examined, as were mRNA expression and protein localisation for MCT1 and MCT3, using confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence in freshly collected and cultured embryos. Blastocysts demonstrated significantly higher affinity for DL-lactate than zygotes (Km 20 +/- 10 vs 87 +/- 35 mmol lactate/l; P = 0.03 by linear regression) but was similar for all stages. For embryos derived in vivo and those cultured with glucose, MCT1 mRNA was present throughout preimplantation development, protein immunoreactivity appearing diffuse throughout the cytoplasm with brightest intensity in the outer cortical region of blastomeres. In expanding blastocysts, MCT1 became more prominent in the cytoplasmic cortex of blastomeres, with brightest intensity in the polar trophectoderm. Without glucose, MCT1 mRNA was not expressed, and immunoreactivity dramatically reduced in intensity as morulae died. MCT3 mRNA and immunoreactivity were not detected in early embryos. The differential expression of MCT1 in the presence or absence of glucose demonstrates that it is important in the critical regulation of pH and monocarboxylate transport during preimplantation development, and implies a role for glucose in the control of MCT1, but not MCT3, expression. PMID:16514190

  1. Scope and limitation of ruthenium ion catalyzed oxidation of coal as an analytical tool for an aliphatic portion of coal organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, S.; Nomura, M.; U-esaka, K. I.

    1994-12-31

    We have been investigating a chemical structure of Japanese bituminous Akabira coal by Curie-point pyrolysis GC/MS coupled with CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR and proposed a unit chemical structure of the coal on the basis of these results. In that paper, we had pointed out more precise and quantitative evaluation of chemical bonds connecting aromatic rings should be clarified in order to evaluate more precise chemical structures of coal organic materials (COM). As for this, Stock et al., investigated ruthenium ion catalyzed oxidation (RICO) of coal. Ruthenium tetroxide is well known to have a property to attack selectively sp{sup 2} carbons of organic substrates: for example, in this oxidation arylalkanes and diarylalkanes could be converted to aliphatic monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, respectively. One of the most critical points of this reaction is believed to be the difficulty in attaining quantitative analyses of lower carboxylic acids because they are main products, showing high volatility. Stock et al. and Strausz et al. had applied the isotope dilution method{close_quote} and esterification with phenacyl bromide for the quantitative analysis, respectively. The former, however, needs preparation of deuterium-labeled carboxylic acids and the later has a slow rate of conversion of the carboxylic acids to their phenacyl esters. In this paper, we have examined quantitative determination of carboxylic acids resulted from RICO reaction and proposed the method to accomplish this, applying this for RICO reaction of Illinois No.6 (American subbituminous), Akabira (Japanese bituminous), and Zao Zhuang (Chinese bituminous) coals.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  3. An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Duan, F.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed an enhanced analytical procedure to measure organic acids and methyl esters in fine aerosol with much greater specificity and sensitivity than previously available. This capability is important because of these species and their low concentrations, even in highly polluted atmospheres like Beijing, China. The procedure first separates the acids and esters from the other organic compounds with anion-exchange solid- phase extraction (SPE), then, quantifies them by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids. Then the acids are separated from the esters on an aminopropyl SPE cartridge, whose weak retention isolates and enriches the acids from esters prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) suggest that FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. In all, 17 aromatic acids were identified and quantified using this procedure coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, including the five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4´-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH-acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids indicated that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were mainly secondary, the last two mainly primary.

  4. Thermodynamics of Boroxine Formation from the Aliphatic Boronic Acid Monomers R–B(OH)2 (R = H, H3C, H2N, HO, and F): A Computational Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Krishna L.; Markham, George D.; Larkin, Joseph D.; Bock, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Boroxines are the 6-membered cyclotrimeric dehydration products of organoboronic acids: 3 R– B(OH)2 → R3B3O3 + 3 H2O, and in recent years have emerged as a useful class of organoboron molecules with applications in organic synthesis both as reagents and catalysts, as structural components in boronic acid derived pharmaceutical agents, as anion acceptors and electrolyte additives for battery materials [AL Korich and PM Iovine, Dalton Trans. 39 (2010) 1423–1431]. Second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, in conjunction with the Dunning-Woon correlation-consistent cc-pVDZ, aug-cc-pVDZ, cc-pVTZ, and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets, was used to investigate the structures and relative energies of the endo-exo, anti, and syn conformers of the aliphatic boronic acids R–B(OH)2 (R = H, H3C, H2N, HO, and F), as well as the thermodynamics of their boroxine formation; single-point calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ, MP2/aug-cc-pV5Z, and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level using the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ optimized geometries were also performed in selected cases. The endo-exo conformer was generally lowest in energy in vacuo, as well as in PCM and CPCM models of aqueous and carbon tetrachloride media. The values of ΔH2980 for boroxine formation via dehydration from the endo-exo conformers of these aliphatic boronic acids ranged from −2.9 for (H2N)3B3O3 to +12.2 kcal/mol for H3B3O3 at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level in vacuo; for H3B3O3 the corresponding values in PCM:UFF implicit carbon tetrachloride and aqueous media were +11.2 and +9.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Based on our calculations, we recommend that ΔHf(298 K) for boroxine listed in the JANAF compilation needs to be revised from −290.0 kcal/mol to approximately −277.0 kcal/mol. PMID:21650154

  5. An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Duan, F. K.; He, K. B.; Ma, Y. L.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-11-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment procedure allowing organic acids to be separated from methyl esters in fine aerosol has been developed. The procedure first separates the organic acids from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and other nonacid organic compounds by aminopropyl-based SPE cartridge and then quantifies them by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The procedure prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated, and so allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids (MCAs). Results for the extraction of DCAs, MCAs, and AMAs in eluate and FAMEs in effluate by SAX and NH2 SPE cartridges exhibited that the NH2 SPE cartridge gave higher extraction efficiency than the SAX cartridge. The recoveries of analytes ranged from 67.5 to 111.3 %, and the RSD ranged from 0.7 to 10.9 %. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and FAMEs suggest that the FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. Through extraction and cleanup using this procedure, 17 aromatic acids in eluate were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, including five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH): acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4´-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids suggested that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were secondary atmospheric photochemistry products and the last two mainly primary.

  6. The proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family: structure, function and regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Halestrap, A P; Price, N T

    1999-01-01

    Monocarboxylates such as lactate and pyruvate play a central role in cellular metabolism and metabolic communication between tissues. Essential to these roles is their rapid transport across the plasma membrane, which is catalysed by a recently identified family of proton-linked monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Nine MCT-related sequences have so far been identified in mammals, each having a different tissue distribution, whereas six related proteins can be recognized in Caenorhabditis elegans and 4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Direct demonstration of proton-linked lactate and pyruvate transport has been demonstrated for mammalian MCT1-MCT4, but only for MCT1 and MCT2 have detailed analyses of substrate and inhibitor kinetics been described following heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. MCT1 is ubiquitously expressed, but is especially prominent in heart and red muscle, where it is up-regulated in response to increased work, suggesting a special role in lactic acid oxidation. By contrast, MCT4 is most evident in white muscle and other cells with a high glycolytic rate, such as tumour cells and white blood cells, suggesting it is expressed where lactic acid efflux predominates. MCT2 has a ten-fold higher affinity for substrates than MCT1 and MCT4 and is found in cells where rapid uptake at low substrate concentrations may be required, including the proximal kidney tubules, neurons and sperm tails. MCT3 is uniquely expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium. The mechanisms involved in regulating the expression of different MCT isoforms remain to be established. However, there is evidence for alternative splicing of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions and the use of alternative promoters for some isoforms. In addition, MCT1 and MCT4 have been shown to interact specifically with OX-47 (CD147), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily with a single transmembrane helix. This interaction appears to assist MCT expression at the cell surface. There is still

  7. Effective impairment of myeloma cells and their progenitors by blockade of monocarboxylate transportation

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Derek James; Nakamura, Shingen; Amachi, Ryota; Hiasa, Masahiro; Oda, Asuka; Tsuji, Daisuke; Itoh, Kohji; Harada, Takeshi; Horikawa, Kazuki; Teramachi, Jumpei; Miki, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Toshio; Abe, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells robustly expel lactate produced through enhanced glycolysis via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and maintain alkaline intracellular pH. To develop a novel therapeutic strategy against multiple myeloma (MM), which still remains incurable, we explored the impact of perturbing a metabolism via inhibiting MCTs. All MM cells tested constitutively expressed MCT1 and MCT4, and most expressed MCT2. Lactate export was substantially suppressed to induce death along with lowering intracellular pH in MM cells by blockade of all three MCT molecules with α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamate (CHC) or the MCT1 and MCT2 inhibitor AR-C155858 in combination with MCT4 knockdown, although only partially by knockdown of each MCT. CHC lowered intracellular pH and severely curtailed lactate secretion even when combined with metformin, which further lowered intracellular pH and enhanced cytotoxicity. Interestingly, an ambient acidic pH markedly enhanced CHC-mediated cytotoxicity, suggesting preferential targeting of MM cells in acidic MM bone lesions. Furthermore, treatment with CHC suppressed hexokinase II expression and ATP production to reduce side populations and colony formation. Finally, CHC caused downregulation of homing receptor CXCR4 and abrogated SDF-1-induced migration. Targeting tumor metabolism by MCT blockade therefore may become an effective therapeutic option for drug-resistant MM cells with elevated glycolysis. PMID:26384349

  8. 40 CFR 721.10199 - Substituted aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic vapor, acid gas, or substance... combination cartridges, cartridges should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10199 Substituted aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10199 - Substituted aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic vapor, acid gas, or substance... combination cartridges, cartridges should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10199 Substituted aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10199 - Substituted aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic vapor, acid gas, or substance... combination cartridges, cartridges should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10199 Substituted aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10199 - Substituted aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic vapor, acid gas, or substance... combination cartridges, cartridges should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10199 Substituted aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721... Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721... Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to reporting under...

  14. Self-assembly directed by NH⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonding: New layered molecular arrays derived from 4-tert- butylbenzoic acid and aliphatic diamines

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Robert S.; Atkinson, Ian M.; Carter, Elizabeth; Mahinay, Myrna S.; Skelton, Brian W.; Turner, Peter; Wei, Gang; White, Allan H.; Lindoy, Leonard F.

    2002-01-01

    1H and 13C NMR titrations in both CDCl3 and CD3OD demonstrate that 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid interacts with both propane-1,2-diamine and propane-1,3-diamine to yield 1:2 host–guest complexes in these solvents. Based on this observation, the isolation of new three-dimensional molecular arrays through cocrystallization of the above diamines and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid (in a 1:2 molar ratio) has been achieved. X-ray studies of these self-assembled structures show that they incorporate [propane-1,2-diamine⋅(4-tert-butylbenzoic acid)2] or [propane-1,3-diamine⋅(4-tert-butylbenzoic acid)2] hydrogen-bonded motifs. Three structural derivatives of the latter type (two monohydrate forms and one anhydrous form) have been characterized. The structures are compared with a previously described three-dimensional array based on the “parent” [ethane-1,2-diamine⋅(benzoic acid)2] motif. Similarities occur between each of the structures. In each, a two-dimensional “ionic” layer consisting of an extensive network of hydrogen bonds is sandwiched between two “less polar” aromatic ring-containing layers. In the respective ionic layers, the carboxylic acid protons have been transferred onto the amines to yield diammonium cations, with all ammonium protons being involved in hydrogen bonding. In part, the adoption of these unusual layered structures seems to reflect a tendency toward maximization of both the number and strengths of the hydrogen bond interactions in the respective ionic layers. PMID:11929968

  15. Inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter 1 suppresses the proliferation of glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tetsuya; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi

    2016-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a minor subset of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), have self-renewal and tumorigenic potential. Therefore, the characterization of CSCs is important for developing therapeutic strategies against cancer. Cancer cells rely on anaerobic glycolysis to produce ATP even under normoxic conditions, resulting in the generation of excess acidic substances. Cancer cells maintain a weakly alkaline intracellular pH to support functions. Glioblastoma is an aggressive malignancy with a poor 5-year survival rate. Based on the hypothesis that ion transport-related molecules regulate the viability and function of CSCs, we investigated the expression of ion transport-related molecules in glioblastoma CSCs (GSCs). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that monocarboxylate transporter1 (MCT1) were upregulated in GSCs, and inhibition of MCT1 decreased the viability of GSCs compared with that of non-GSCs. Our findings indicate that MCT1 is involved in the maintenance of GSCs and is a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma. PMID:26902636

  16. A novel syndrome combining thyroid and neurological abnormalities is associated with mutations in a monocarboxylate transporter gene.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Alexandra M; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Best, Thomas B; Brockmann, Knut; Refetoff, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are iodothyronines that control growth and development, as well as brain function and metabolism. Although thyroid hormone deficiency can be caused by defects of hormone synthesis and action, it has not been linked to a defect in cellular hormone transport. In fact, the physiological role of the several classes of membrane transporters remains unknown. We now report, for the first time, mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) gene, located on the X chromosome, that encodes a 613-amino acid protein with 12 predicted transmembrane domains. The propositi of two unrelated families are males with abnormal relative concentrations of three circulating iodothyronines, as well as neurological abnormalities, including global developmental delay, central hypotonia, spastic quadriplegia, dystonic movements, rotary nystagmus, and impaired gaze and hearing. Heterozygous females had a milder thyroid phenotype and no neurological defects. These findings establish the physiological importance of MCT8 as a thyroid hormone transporter. PMID:14661163

  17. Guided desaturation of unactivated aliphatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Ana-Florina; Mendoza, Abraham; Gutekunst, Will R.; Fraga, Jorge Otero; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-08-01

    The excision of hydrogen from an aliphatic carbon chain to produce an isolated olefin (desaturation) without overoxidation is one of the most impressive and powerful biosynthetic transformations for which there are no simple and mild laboratory substitutes. The versatility of olefins and the range of reactions they undergo are unsurpassed in functional group space. Thus, the conversion of a relatively inert aliphatic system into its unsaturated counterpart could open new possibilities in retrosynthesis. In this article, the invention of a directing group to achieve such a transformation under mild, operationally simple, metal-free conditions is outlined. This ‘portable desaturase’ (TzoCl) is a bench-stable, commercial entity (Aldrich, catalogue number L510092) that is facile to install on alcohol and amine functionalities to ultimately effect remote desaturation, while leaving behind a synthetically useful tosyl group.

  18. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  19. Analysis of the Binding Moiety Mediating the Interaction between Monocarboxylate Transporters and Carbonic Anhydrase II*

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Sina Ibne; Dietz, Steffen; Heidtmann, Hella; Boone, Christopher D.; McKenna, Robert; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Becker, Holger M.

    2015-01-01

    Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate the exchange of high energy metabolites like lactate between different cells and tissues. We have reported previously that carbonic anhydrase II augments transport activity of MCT1 and MCT4 by a noncatalytic mechanism, while leaving transport activity of MCT2 unaltered. In the present study, we combined electrophysiological measurements in Xenopus oocytes and pulldown experiments to analyze the direct interaction between carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4, respectively. Transport activity of MCT2-WT, which lacks a putative CAII-binding site, is not augmented by CAII. However, introduction of a CAII-binding site into the C terminus of MCT2 resulted in CAII-mediated facilitation of MCT2 transport activity. Interestingly, introduction of three glutamic acid residues alone was not sufficient to establish a direct interaction between MCT2 and CAII, but the cluster had to be arranged in a fashion that allowed access to the binding moiety in CAII. We further demonstrate that functional interaction between MCT4 and CAII requires direct binding of the enzyme to the acidic cluster 431EEE in the C terminus of MCT4 in a similar fashion as previously shown for binding of CAII to the cluster 489EEE in the C terminus of MCT1. In CAII, binding to MCT1 and MCT4 is mediated by a histidine residue at position 64. Taken together, our results suggest that facilitation of MCT transport activity by CAII requires direct binding between histidine 64 in CAII and a cluster of glutamic acid residues in the C terminus of the transporter that has to be positioned in surroundings that allow access to CAII. PMID:25561737

  20. The Relative Abundance of Oxygen Alkyl-Related Groups in Aliphatic Domains Is Involved in the Main Pharmacological-Pleiotropic Effects of Humic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Vashishta, Aruna; Fuentes, Marta; Baigorri, Roberto; Garcia-Mina, Jose M.; Yvin, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Despite the rather common presence of humic acid (HA), our full knowledge of its biological effect is still lacking. In this article, we first performed a physicochemical characterization of several HAs, and next, we evaluated their ability to affect interleukin-2 secretion, antibody secretion, wound healing (an in vitro model using HaCaT cells), cancer growth (the Lewis lung carcinoma model), and protection against hepatotoxicity. In all tested reactions, HA showed significant stimulation on immune reactions, including suppression of cancer growth and inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatotoxicity. These effects were dependent on its chemical properties. The pleiotropic effects of HA observed in this article suggest the possible role of these compounds in human nutrition. PMID:23875902

  1. Synthesis of 3,5-Isoxazolidinediones and 1H-2,3-Benzoxazine-1,4(3H)-diones from Aliphatic Oximes and Dicarboxylic Acid Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of the title compounds was carried out by reacting dicarboxylic acid chlorides with oximes in the presence of excess triethylamine. Disubstituted malonyl chlorides gave 2-alkenyl-4,4-dialkyl-3,5-isoxazolidinediones (8a–f) and 2,2′-ethylidene-bis[4,4-dialkyl-3,5-isoxazolidinedione]s (9a–f). Compounds 9 were formed from 8 and its N-unsubstituted 3,5-isoxazolidinedione decomposition product. Phthaloyl chlorides reacted with acetone oxime to yield 3-(1-methylethenyl)-1H-2,3-benzoxazine-1,4(3H)-diones (16a–e). Products 16 spontaneously decomposed to give N-unsubstituted 1H-2,3-benzoxazine-1,4(3H)-diones (17a–e) at rates that were dependent on temperature and solvent. Kinetic studies showed that two of the compounds decomposed by zero-order kinetics under neutral conditions. Butanedioyl chloride did not produce a cyclic product. PMID:24620711

  2. Rhodium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Arylation of Aliphatic Imines.

    PubMed

    Kato, Naoya; Shirai, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Yasunori

    2016-06-01

    Chiral rhodium(I)-catalyzed highly enantioselective arylation of aliphatic N-sulfonyl aldimines with arylboronic acids has been developed. This transformation is achieved by the use of a rhodium/bis(phosphoramidite) catalyst to give enantiomerically enriched α-branched amines (up to 99 % ee). In addition, this system enables efficient synthesis of (+)-NPS R-568 and Cinacalcet which are calcimimetic agents. PMID:27119262

  3. Monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4: expression and regulation by PPARα in ovine ruminal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Franziska; Dengler, Franziska; Masur, Franziska; Pfannkuche, Helga; Gäbel, Gotthold

    2014-12-15

    In the intact rumen epithelium, isoforms 1 and 4 of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1 and MCT4) are thought to play key roles in mediating transcellular and intracellular permeation of short-chain fatty acids and their metabolites and in maintaining intracellular pH. We examined whether both MCT1 and MCT4 are expressed at mRNA and protein levels in ovine ruminal epithelial cells (REC) maintained in primary culture and whether they are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα). Because both transporters have been characterized to function coupled to protons, the influence of PPARα on the recovery of intracellular pH after l-lactate exposure was evaluated by spectrofluorometry. MCT1 and MCT4 were detected using immunocytochemistry both at the cell margins and intracellularly in cultured REC. To test regulation by PPARα, cells were exposed to WY 14.643, a selective ligand of PPARα, for 48 h. The subsequent qPCR analysis resulted in a dose-dependent upregulation of MCT1 and PPARα target genes, whereas response of MCT4 was not uniform. Protein expression of MCT1 and MCT4 quantified by Western blot analysis was not altered by WY 14.643 treatment. l-Lactate-dependent proton export was blocked almost completely by pHMB, a specific inhibitor of MCT1 and MCT4. However, l-lactate-dependent, pHMB-inhibited proton export in WY 14.643-treated cells was not significantly altered compared with cells not treated with WY 14.643. These data suggest that PPARα is particularly regulating MCT1 but not MCT4 expression. Extent of lactate-coupled proton export indicates that MCT1 is already working on a high level even under unstimulated conditions. PMID:25320343

  4. Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Associated Metabolic Perturbations in Haploinsufficient Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Nadia; Carneiro, Lionel; Favrod, Céline; Preitner, Frédéric; Thorens, Bernard; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Dix, Laure; Pralong, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Pellerin, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 or SLC16A1) is a carrier of short-chain fatty acids, ketone bodies, and lactate in several tissues. Genetically modified C57BL/6J mice were produced by targeted disruption of the mct1 gene in order to understand the role of this transporter in energy homeostasis. Null mutation was embryonically lethal, but MCT1+/− mice developed normally. However, when fed high fat diet (HFD), MCT1+/− mice displayed resistance to development of diet-induced obesity (24.8% lower body weight after 16 weeks of HFD), as well as less insulin resistance and no hepatic steatosis as compared to littermate MCT1+/+ mice used as controls. Body composition analysis revealed that reduced weight gain in MCT1+/− mice was due to decreased fat accumulation (50.0% less after 9 months of HFD) notably in liver and white adipose tissue. This phenotype was associated with reduced food intake under HFD (12.3% less over 10 weeks) and decreased intestinal energy absorption (9.6% higher stool energy content). Indirect calorimetry measurements showed ∼ 15% increase in O2 consumption and CO2 production during the resting phase, without any changes in physical activity. Determination of plasma concentrations for various metabolites and hormones did not reveal significant changes in lactate and ketone bodies levels between the two genotypes, but both insulin and leptin levels, which were elevated in MCT1+/+ mice when fed HFD, were reduced in MCT1+/− mice under HFD. Interestingly, the enhancement in expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver of MCT1+/+ mice under high fat diet was prevented in the liver of MCT1+/− mice under the same diet, thus likely contributing to the observed phenotype. These findings uncover the critical role of MCT1 in the regulation of energy balance when animals are exposed to an obesogenic diet. PMID:24367518

  5. Synthesis of novel naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and esters and their anticancer evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kongkathip, Boonsong; Akkarasamiyo, Sunisa; Hasitapan, Komkrit; Sittikul, Pichamon; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Kongkathip, Ngampong

    2013-02-01

    Fourteen new naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and seventeen naphthoquinone aliphatic esters were synthesized in nine to ten steps from 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid with 9-25% overall yield for the amides, and 16-21% overall yield for the esters. The key step of the amide synthesis is a coupling reaction between amine and various aliphatic acids using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM) as a coupling agent while for the ester synthesis, DCC/DMAP or CDI was used as the coupling reagent between aliphatic acids and naphthoquinone alcohol. Both naphthoquinone amides and esters were evaluated for their anticancer activity against KB cells. It was found that naphthoquinone aliphatic amides showed stronger anticancer activity than those of the esters when the chains are longer than 7-carbon atoms. The optimum chain of amides is expected to be 16-carbon atoms. In addition, naphthoquinone aliphatic esters with α-methyl on the ester moiety possessed much stronger anticancer activity than the straight chains. Decatenation assay revealed that naphthoquinone amide with 16-carbon atoms chain at 15 μM and 20 μM can completely inhibit hTopoIIα activity while at 10 μM the enzyme activity was moderately inhibited. Molecular docking result also showed the same trend as the cytotoxicity and decatenation assay. PMID:23313636

  6. Redistribution of monocarboxylate transporter 2 on the surface of astrocytes in the human epileptogenic hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Fredrik; Heuser, Kjell; de Lanerolle, Nihal C.; Lee, Tih-Shih W.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Kim, Jung H.; Gjedde, Albert; Eid, Tore; Bergersena, Linda H.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to monocarboxylates as key players in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, MTLE). Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 2, which are abundantly present on brain endothelial cells and perivascular astrocyte endfeet, respectively, facilitate the transport of monocarboxylates and protons across cell membranes. Recently, we reported that the density of MCT1 protein is reduced on endothelial cells and increased on astrocyte plasma membranes in the hippocampal formation in patients with MTLE and in several animal models of the disorder. Because the perivascular astrocyte endfeet comprise an important part of the neurovascular unit we now assessed the distribution of the MCT2 in hippocampal formations in TLE patients with (MTLE) or without hippocampal sclerosis (non-MTLE). Light microscopic immunohistochemistry revealed significantly less perivascular MCT2 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal formation in MTLE (n=6) than in non-MTLE (n=6) patients, and to a lesser degree in non-MTLE than in non-epilepsy patients (n=4). Immunogold electron microscopy indicated that the loss of MCT2 protein occurred on perivascular astrocyte endfeet. Interestingly, the loss of MCT2 on astrocyte endfeet in MTLE (n=3) was accompanied by an upregulation of the protein on astrocyte membranes facing synapses in the neuropil, when compared with non-MTLE (n=3). We propose that the altered distribution of MCT1 and MCT2 in TLE (especially MTLE) limits the flux of monocarboxylates across the blood brain barrier and enhances the exchange of monocarboxylates within the brain parenchyma. PMID:22535546

  7. Dielectric relaxations in aliphatic polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sudeepto

    2001-07-01

    The dielectric technique was used to study the relaxation processes of five linear aliphatic polyesters. The polyesters studied were poly (ethylene succinate/adipate) or PESA, poly (trimethylene succinate/adipate) or PTSA, poly (butylene succinate/adipate) or PBSA, poly (ethylene succinate) or PES, and poly (ethylene adipate) or PEA. Three of the polyesters were copolymers (PESA, PTSA, and PBSA), and the remaining two (PES and PEA) were homopolymers. Two of the five were amorphous (PESA and PTSA), and the remaining three (PBSA, PES, and PEA) were semicrystalline. All the five polyesters were synthesized in the laboratory using a poly-condensation reaction between a series of aliphatic diols and diesters. The succinic and adipic groups in the copolymers are in equimolar amounts. The polymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and density measurements. Elemental analysis done on the polymers confirmed that their compositions matched theoretical estimates. The relaxation processes were studied dielectrically using an IMASS time domain dielectric spectrometer (TDS) and an HP 4284A LCR meter. Together they allowed a frequency range from 0.001 Hz to 1 MHz. Typically in the subglass region, good data were obtained between 0.01 Hz and 100 kHz. In the glass transition region, good data were occasionally available over the entire range. Two relaxation processes were detected in the subglass temperature region for all the polymers, and in the case of the copolymers PTSA and PBSA, they were also well resolved. Both the processes showed Arrhenius behavior with modest activation energies characteristic of subglass processes in general. They also progressively merged with increasing temperature, which implies a lower activation energy for the faster process which is consistent with the current understanding of relaxation phenomena. The glass transition region of all the polymers also showed a merging of the dominant alpha relaxation with the subglass

  8. Method for continuous production of aromatic carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, K.J.

    1988-12-20

    This patent describes a method for the continuous production of an aromatic carboxylic acid product in a pressurized oxidation reactor by liquid-phase, exothermic oxidation of an aromatic alkyl feed with an oxygen-containing gas, in the presence of an aromatic alkyl feed with an oxygen-containing gas, in the presence of an oxidation catalyst and in an aqueous monocarboxylic C/sub 2/ to C/sub 6/ aliphatic acid solvent medium, wherein the heat generated during the course of the oxidation is removed from the reactor by vaporization of a portion of the reaction medium and water, wherein the resulting vapors are condensed in part in a reflux loop externally of the oxidation reactor to produce a condensate and a gaseous phase, and wherein at least a portion of the condensate is returned to the oxidation reactor, the improvement comprising a method for controlling within desired limits the concentration of water in the oxidation reactor, which comprises: partitioning the vapors into a parallel condensate having a relatively lesser water-to-solvent weight ratio and a vapor phase having a relatively greater water-to-solvent weight ratio; returning the partial condensate directly to the oxidation reactor as a direct reflux stream; withdrawing the vapor phase from the reflux loop as a vapor stream; subjecting the withdrawn vapor stream to heat exchange while decreasing the vapor stream pressure to less than the oxidation reactor pressure to thereby produce an aqueous aliphatic acid stream having a water-to-solvent weight ratio greater than that of the direct reflux stream.

  9. O2-filled swimbladder employs monocarboxylate transporters for the generation of O2 by lactate-induced root effect hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Takahiro; Kato, Akira; Ogoshi, Maho; Ookata, Kayoko; Munakata, Keijiro; Yamamoto, Yoko; Islam, Zinia; Doi, Hiroyuki; Romero, Michael F; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2012-01-01

    The swimbladder volume is regulated by O(2) transfer between the luminal space and the blood In the swimbladder, lactic acid generation by anaerobic glycolysis in the gas gland epithelial cells and its recycling through the rete mirabile bundles of countercurrent capillaries are essential for local blood acidification and oxygen liberation from hemoglobin by the "Root effect." While O(2) generation is critical for fish flotation, the molecular mechanism of the secretion and recycling of lactic acid in this critical process is not clear. To clarify molecules that are involved in the blood acidification and visualize the route of lactic acid movement, we analyzed the expression of 17 members of the H(+)/monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family in the fugu genome and found that only MCT1b and MCT4b are highly expressed in the fugu swimbladder. Electrophysiological analyses demonstrated that MCT1b is a high-affinity lactate transporter whereas MCT4b is a low-affinity/high-conductance lactate transporter. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that (i) MCT4b expresses in gas gland cells together with the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH at high level and mediate lactic acid secretion by gas gland cells, and (ii) MCT1b expresses in arterial, but not venous, capillary endothelial cells in rete mirabile and mediates recycling of lactic acid in the rete mirabile by solute-specific transcellular transport. These results clarified the mechanism of the blood acidification in the swimbladder by spatially organized two lactic acid transporters MCT4b and MCT1b. PMID:22496829

  10. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of Pteridine Dione and Trione Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Novel substituted pteridine-derived inhibitors of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), an emerging target for cancer therapy, are reported. The activity of these compounds as inhibitors of lactate transport was confirmed using a 14C-lactate transport assay, and their potency against MCT1-expressing human tumor cells was established using MTT assays. The four most potent compounds showed substantial anticancer activity (EC50 37–150 nM) vs MCT1-expressing human Raji lymphoma cells. PMID:25068893

  11. Functionalised carboxylic acids in atmospheric particles: An annual cycle revealing seasonal trends and possible sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Carboxylic acids represent a major fraction of the water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in atmospheric particles. Among the particle phase carboxylic acids, straight-chain monocarboxylic acids (MCA) and dicarboxylic acids (DCA) with 2-10 carbon atoms have extensively been studied in the past. However, only a few studies exist dealing with functionalised carboxylic acids, i.e. having additional hydroxyl-, oxo- or nitro-groups. Regarding atmospheric chemistry, these functionalised carboxylic acids are of particular interest as they are supposed to be formed during atmospheric oxidation processes, e.g. through radical reactions. Therefore they can provide insights into the tropospheric multiphase chemistry. During this work 28 carboxylic acids (4 functionalised aliphatic MCAs, 5 aromatic MCAs, 3 nitroaromatic MCAs, 6 aliphatic DCAs, 6 functionalised aliphatic DCAs, 4 aromatic DCAs) were quantitatively determined in 256 filter samples taken at the rural research station Melpitz (Saxony, Germany) with a PM10 Digitel DHA-80 filter sampler. All samples were taken in 2010 covering a whole annual cycle. The resulting dataset was examined for a possible seasonal dependency of the acid concentrations. Furthermore the influence of the air mass origin on the acid concentrations was studied based on a simple two-sector classification (western or eastern sector) using a back trajectory analysis. Regarding the annual average, adipic acid was found to be the most abundant compound with a mean concentration of 7.8 ng m-3 followed by 4-oxopimelic acid with 6.1 ng m-3. The sum of all acid concentrations showed two maxima during the seasonal cycle; one in summer and one in winter, whereas the highest overall acid concentrations were found in summer. In general the target acids could be divided into two different groups, where one group has its maximum concentration in summer and the other group during winter. The first group contains all investigated aliphatic mono- and dicarboxylic

  12. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  13. Short-chain aliphatic ester synthesis using Thermobifida fusca cutinase.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingqia; Hong, Ruoyu; Guo, Xiaojie; Wu, Jing; Xia, Yongmei

    2016-09-01

    Short-chain aliphatic esters are commonly used as fruit flavorings in the food industry. In this study, Thermobifida fusca (T. fusca) cutinase was used for the synthesis of aliphatic esters, and the maximum yield of ethyl caproate reached 99.2% at a cutinase concentration of 50U/ml, 40°C, and water content of 0.5%, representing the highest ester yield to date. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification displayed strong tolerance for water content (up to 8%) and acid concentration (up to 0.8M). At substrate concentrations ⩽0.8M, the ester yield remained above 80%. Moreover, ester yields of more than 98% and 95% were achieved for acids of C3-C8 and alcohols of C1-C6, respectively, indicating extensive chain length selectivity of the cutinase. These results demonstrate the superior ability of T. fusca cutinase to catalyze the synthesis of short-chain esters. This study provides the basis for industrial production of short-chain esters using T. fusca cutinase. PMID:27041308

  14. The anti-tumour agent lonidamine is a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and plasma membrane monocarboxylate transporters.

    PubMed

    Nancolas, Bethany; Guo, Lili; Zhou, Rong; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S; Leeper, Dennis B; Blair, Ian A; Glickson, Jerry D; Halestrap, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    Lonidamine (LND) is an anti-tumour drug particularly effective at selectively sensitizing tumours to chemotherapy, hyperthermia and radiotherapy, although its precise mode of action remains unclear. It has been reported to perturb the bioenergetics of cells by inhibiting glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, whereas indirect evidence suggests it may also inhibitL-lactic acid efflux from cells mediated by members of the proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family and also pyruvate uptake into the mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). In the present study, we test these possibilities directly. We demonstrate that LND potently inhibits MPC activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (Ki2.5 μM) and co-operatively inhibitsL-lactate transport by MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 expressed inXenopus laevisoocytes withK0.5and Hill coefficient values of 36-40 μM and 1.65-1.85 respectively. In rat heart mitochondria LND inhibited the MPC with similar potency and uncoupled oxidation of pyruvate was inhibited more effectively (IC50∼ 7 μM) than other substrates including glutamate (IC50∼ 20 μM). In isolated DB-1 melanoma cells 1-10 μM LND increasedL-lactate output, consistent with MPC inhibition, but higher concentrations (150 μM) decreasedL-lactate output whereas increasing intracellular [L-lactate] > 5-fold, consistent with MCT inhibition. We conclude that MPC inhibition is the most sensitive anti-tumour target for LND, with additional inhibitory effects on MCT-mediatedL-lactic acid efflux and glutamine/glutamate oxidation. Together these actions can account for published data on the selective tumour effects of LND onL-lactate, intracellular pH (pHi) and ATP levels that can be partially mimicked by the established MPC and MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CHC). PMID:26831515

  15. The anti-tumour agent lonidamine is a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and plasma membrane monocarboxylate transporters

    PubMed Central

    Nancolas, Bethany; Guo, Lili; Zhou, Rong; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Blair, Ian A.; Glickson, Jerry D.; Halestrap, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Lonidamine (LND) is an anti-tumour drug particularly effective at selectively sensitising tumours to chemotherapy, hyperthermia and radiotherapy, although its precise mode of action remains unclear. It has been reported to perturb the bioenergetics of cells by inhibiting glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, while indirect evidence suggests it may also inhibit L-lactic acid efflux from cells mediated by members of the proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family and also pyruvate uptake into the mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). Here we test these possibilities directly. We demonstrate that LND potently inhibits MPC activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (Ki 2.5 μM) and cooperatively inhibits L-lactate transport by MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with K0.5 and Hill Coefficient values of 36–40 μM and 1.65–1.85. In rat heart mitochondria LND inhibited the MPC with similar potency and uncoupled oxidation of pyruvate was inhibited more effectively (IC50 ~7 μM) than other substrates including glutamate (IC50 ~20 μM). In isolated DB-1 melanoma cells 1–10 μM LND increased L-lactate output, consistent with MPC inhibition, but higher concentrations (150 μM) decreased L-lactate output while increasing intracellular [L-lactate] > five-fold, consistent with MCT inhibition. We conclude that MPC inhibition is the most sensitive anti-tumour target for LND, with additional inhibitory effects on MCT-mediated L-lactic acid efflux and glutamine/glutamate oxidation. Together these actions can account for published data on the selective tumour effects of LND on L-lactate, intracellular pH (pHi) and ATP levels that can be partially mimicked by the established MPC and MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate. PMID:26831515

  16. Enzymatic degradation of aliphatic nitriles by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2, a versatile nitrile-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shumei; An, Xuejiao; Liu, Hongyuan; Cheng, Yi; Hou, Ning; Feng, Lu; Huang, Xinning; Li, Chunyan

    2015-06-01

    Nitriles are common environmental pollutants, and their removal has attracted increasing attention. Microbial degradation is considered to be the most acceptable method for removal. In this work, we investigated the biodegradation of three aliphatic nitriles (acetonitrile, acrylonitrile and crotononitrile) by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2 and the expression of their corresponding metabolic enzymes. This organism can utilize all three aliphatic nitriles as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, resulting in the complete degradation of these compounds. The degradation kinetics were described using a first-order model. The degradation efficiency was ranked according to t1/2 as follows: acetonitrile>trans-crotononitrile>acrylonitrile>cis-crotononitrile. Only ammonia accumulated following the three nitriles degradation, while amides and carboxylic acids were transient and disappeared by the end of the assay. mRNA expression and enzyme activity indicated that the tested aliphatic nitriles were degraded via both the inducible NHase/amidase and the constitutive nitrilase pathways, with the former most likely preferred. PMID:25746475

  17. 40 CFR 721.10534 - Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10534 - Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520... Substances § 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520... Substances § 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject...

  1. Renaissance of Aliphatic Polycarbonates: New Techniques and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianwen; Feng, Ellva; Song, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic polycarbonates were discovered a long time ago, with their conventional applications mostly limited to low molecular weight oligomeric intermediates for copolymerization with other polymers. Recent developments in polymerization techniques have overcome the difficulty in preparing high molecular weight aliphatic polycarbonates. These in turn, along with new functional monomers, have enabled the preparation of a wide range of aliphatic polycarbonates with diverse chemical compositions and structures. This review summarizes the latest polymerization techniques for preparing well-defined functional aliphatic polycarbonates, as well as the new applications of those aliphatic polycarbonates, esecially in the biomedical field. PMID:24994939

  2. Efficient Activation of Pathogenic ΔPhe501 Mutation in Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 by Chemical and Pharmacological Chaperones.

    PubMed

    Braun, Doreen; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter expressed in many cell types, including neurons. Mutations that inactivate transport activity of MCT8 cause severe X-linked psychomotor retardation in male patients, a syndrome originally described as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. Treatment options currently explored the focus on finding thyroid hormone-like compounds that bypass MCT8 and enter cells through different transporters. Because MCT8 is a multipass transmembrane protein, some pathogenic mutations affect membrane trafficking while potentially retaining some transporter activity. We explore here the effects of chemical and pharmacological chaperones on the expression and transport activity of the MCT8 mutant ΔPhe501. Dimethylsulfoxide, 4-phenylbutyric acid as well as its sodium salt, and the isoflavone genistein increase T3 uptake into MDCK1 cells stably transfected with mutant MCT8-ΔPhe501. We show that ΔPhe501 represents a temperature-sensitive mutant protein that is stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. 4-Phenylbutyrate has been used to stabilize ΔPhe508 mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein and is in clinical use in patients with urea cycle defects. Genistein is enriched in soy and available as a nutritional supplement. It is effective in stabilizing MCT8-ΔPhe501 at 100 nM concentration. Expression of the L471P mutant is increased in response to phenylbutyrate, but T3 uptake activity is not induced, supporting the notion that the chaperone specifically increases membrane expression. Our findings suggest that certain pathogenic MCT8 mutants may be responsive to (co-)treatment with readily available compounds, which increase endogenous protein function. PMID:26368820

  3. Elevated Serum Triiodothyronine and Intellectual and Motor Disability with Paroxysmal Dyskinesia Caused by a Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Gene Mutation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Oliver; Pfarr, Nicole; Pohlenz, Joachim; Schmidt, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    "Monocarboxylate transporter 8" ("MCT8" or SLC16A2) is important for the neuronal uptake of triiodothyronine (T3) in its function as a specific and active transporter of thyroid hormones across the cell membrane, thus being essential for human brain development. We report on a German male with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome presenting with severe…

  4. Photolysis of aryl chlorides with aliphatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, N.J.

    1982-05-07

    Kinetic arguments show that the aliphatic amine assisted photodechlorinations of chlorides of the benzene, naphthalene, and biphenyl series take place mainly from the triplet excited state. Deuterium labeling studies have been used to determine the origin of the hydrogen atom which replaces chlorine when 4-chlorobiphenyl is photoreduced. Three pathways are inferred: hydrogen abstraction from the solvent and protonation both within the exciplex (or radical ion pair) and by external proton donors.

  5. Individual biotransformation rates in chlorinated aliphatic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.B.; Parkin, G.F.

    1996-02-01

    Anaerobic biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatics has been widely studied over the past decade, and anaerobic bioremediation is considered a promising technique for restoration of contaminated aquifers. Studies using batch cultures and continuously fed attached-growth systems investigated the effect of mixtures of chlorinated aliphatics on the anaerobic biotransformation rates of individual components of the mixture. Dichloromethane (DCM), chloroform (CF), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) were selected for study because of their frequent detection in groundwater. Biotransformation of CF and TCA occurred in all systems. When CF and TCA were fed together, transformation rates for both aliphatics were lower than when fed individually. DCM generally had minor to negligible effects on the transformation of CF and TCA, but in one case, it caused a slight but statistically significant decrease in TCA transformation (p = 0.05). DCM transformation was not observed when fed individually or in mixtures to batch resting cultures, so the effect of CF and TCA on DCM transformation could not be determined.

  6. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 have distinct functions in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sixue; Glawischnig, Erich; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Naur, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Hansen, Carsten H; Rasmussen, Hasse; Pickett, John A; Halkier, Barbara A

    2003-03-01

    Cytochromes P450 of the CYP79 family catalyze the conversion of amino acids to oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a group of natural plant products known to be involved in plant defense and as a source of flavor compounds, cancer-preventing agents and bioherbicides. We report a detailed biochemical analysis of the substrate specificity and kinetics of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, two cytochromes P450 involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using recombinant CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, we show that CYP79F1 metabolizes mono- to hexahomomethionine, resulting in both short- and long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. In contrast, CYP79F2 exclusively metabolizes long-chain elongated penta- and hexahomomethionines. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 are spatially and developmentally regulated, with different gene expression patterns. CYP79F2 is highly expressed in hypocotyl and roots, whereas CYP79F1 is strongly expressed in cotyledons, rosette leaves, stems, and siliques. A transposon-tagged CYP79F1 knockout mutant completely lacks short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, but has an increased level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, especially in leaves and seeds. The level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates in a transposon-tagged CYP79F2 knockout mutant is substantially reduced, whereas the level of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates is not affected. Biochemical characterization of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, and gene expression analysis, combined with glucosinolate profiling of knockout mutants demonstrate the functional role of these enzymes. This provides valuable insights into the metabolic network leading to the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, and into metabolic engineering of altered aliphatic glucosinolate profiles to improve nutritional value and pest resistance. PMID:12609033

  7. Mass spectrometry study of the sublimation of aliphatic dipeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badelin, V. G.; Tyunina, E. Yu.; Krasnov, A. V.; Tyunina, V. V.; Giricheva, N. I.; Girichev, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    The sublimation of glycyl-L-α-alanine (Gly-Ala), L-α-alanyl-L-α-alanine (Ala-Ala), and DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine (Ala-Val) aliphatic dipeptides is studied by electron ionization mass spectrometry in combination with Knudsen effusion. The temperature range in which substances sublime as monomer molecular forms is determined. Enthalpies of sublimation Δs H°( T) are determined for Gly-Ala, Ala-Ala, and Ala-Val. It is shown that the enthalpy of sublimation of dipeptides increases with an increase in the side hydrocarbon radical. The unknown Δs H°(298) values for 17 amino acids and nine dipeptides are estimated using the proposed "structure-property" correlation model, in which the geometry and electron characteristics of molecules are used as structural descriptors.

  8. Spreading coefficients of aliphatic hydrocarbons on water

    SciTech Connect

    Takii, Taichi; Mori, Y.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the equilibrium spreading coefficients of some aliphatic hydrocarbons (C[sub 6]C[sub 10]) on water. The thickness of a discrete lens of each hydrocarbon sample floating on a stagnant water pool was measured interferometrically and used to calculate the spreading coefficient of the hydrocarbon with the aid of Langmuir's capillarity theory. The dependences of the spreading coefficient, thus observed, on temperature (0--50 C) and on the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule are in qualitative agreement with the predictions based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces.

  9. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra

    1990-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fractions from the Murchison meteorite were prepared using benzene-methanol as the extraction solvent, fractionated on silica gel columns, and analyzed using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry and IR and NMR techniques. Results indicate that the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon components of the Murchison meteorite are C15 to C30 branched-alkyl-substituted mono-, di-, and tricyclic alkanes. It is shown that the n-alkanes, methyl alkanes, and isoprenoid alkanes that are sometimes found in extracts of the Murchison meteorite are terrestrial contaminants.

  10. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage. PMID:26702553

  11. Selective photometric method for the determination of aliphatic amines in air

    SciTech Connect

    Yarym-Agaeva, N.T.; Putilina, O.N.

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents a sensitive, selective, rapid and simple method to determine aliphatic amines in air that insures an operational analysis procedure. The authors used consecutive reactions with hypochlorite and iodide in the presence of starch, proposed for the determination of ethylamine and diethylamine in the liquid phase for the study of the kinetics of the hydrolysis of N-ethylmaleamic and N,N-diethylmaleamic acid. The method is selective in the presence of aromatic amines, isocyanates and ammonia.

  12. Multifunctional aliphatic polyester nanofibers for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jianan; Singh, Anirudha; Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Ling; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2012-01-01

    Electrospun fibers based on aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), have been widely used in regenerative medicine and drug delivery applications due to their biocompatibility, low cost and ease of fabrication. However, these aliphatic polyester fibers are hydrophobic in nature, resulting in poor wettability, and they lack functional groups for decorating the scaffold with chemical and biological cues. Current strategies employed to overcome these challenges include coating and blending the fibers with bioactive components or chemically modifying the fibers with plasma treatment and reactants. In the present study, we report on designing multifunctional electrospun nanofibers based on the inclusion complex of PCL-α-cyclodextrin (PCL-α-CD), which provides both structural support and multiple functionalities for further conjugation of bioactive components. This strategy is independent of any chemical modification of the PCL main chain, and electrospinning of PCL-α-CD is as easy as electrospinning PCL. Here, we describe synthesis of the PCL-α-CD electrospun nanofibers, elucidate composition and structure, and demonstrate the utility of functional groups on the fibers by conjugating a fluorescent small molecule and a polymeric-nanobead to the nanofibers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of PCL-α-CD nanofibers for promoting osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), which induced a higher level of expression of osteogenic markers and enhanced production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins or molecules compared with control PCL fibers. PMID:23507886

  13. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  18. NO3 and OH initiated secondary aerosol formation from aliphatic amines - salt formation and effect of water vapor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aliphatic amines enter the atmosphere from a variety of sources, and have been detected existing in gas and particle phases in the atmosphere. Similar to ammonia, amines can form inorganic salt through acid-base reactions. However, the atmospheric behavior of amines with atmospheric oxidants (e.g. n...

  19. Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Headquarters chartered the Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objective of this effort is to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Successful completion of this project will result in one or more isocyanate-free coating systems qualified for use at Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA centers participating in this study. The objective of this project is to qualify the candidates under the specifications for the standard system. This project will compare coating performance of the proposed alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  20. Polyimide nanofoams from aliphatic polyester based copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.L.; Carter, K.R.; Richter, R.; Russell, T.P.

    1996-10-01

    High temperature polymer foams were prepared using microphase separated block copolymers where the major component is thermally stable block and the minor component is thermally labile. Upon thermal treatment, the dispersed minor component undergoes thermolysis leaving pores the size and shape of which are dictated by the initial copolymer morphology. The driving force behind the survey of aliphatic polyesters as possible labile blocks stems from their quantitative degradation into low boiling, polar degradation products via a backbiting process. Block copolymers were prepared using either a monofunctional caprolactone or a valerolactone oligomer and a high T. polyimide. Microphase morphologies were observed in each case. Thermal decomposition of the polyester blocks was accomplished by a thermal treatment at 370{degrees}C for 5 h. Significant density reductions were measured, and the resulting foams showed pore sizes in the 60-70 {Angstrom} range.

  1. Stable isotope investigations of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.; Heraty, L. J.; Holt, B. D.; Huang, L.; Sturchio, N. C.

    1999-06-01

    Stable isotope ratio measurements for carbon (C) and chlorine (Cl) can be used to elucidate the processes affecting transformation and transportation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in the environment. Methods recently developed in our laboratory for isotopic analysis of CAHs have been applied to laboratory measurements of the kinetic isotope effects associated with aerobic degradation of dichloromethane (DCM) and with both anaerobic and aerobic cometabolic degradation of trichlomethene (TCE) in batch and column microbial cultures. These experimental determinations of fractionation factors are crucial for understanding the behavior of CAHs in complex natural systems, where the extent of biotransformation can be masked by dispersion and volatilization. We have also performed laboratory investigations of kinetic isotope effects accompanying evaporation of CAHs, as well as field investigations of natural attenuation and in situ remediation of CAHs in a number of contaminated shallow aquifers at sites operated by the federal government and the private sector.

  2. Expression of Monocarboxylate Transporter Isoforms in Rat Skeletal Muscle Under Hypoxic Preconditioning and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Saurabh; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju

    2016-03-01

    Previously, we have reported the regulation of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT)1 and MCT4 by physiological stimuli such as hypoxia and exercise. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of hypoxic preconditioning and training on expression of different MCT isoforms in muscles. We found the increased mRNA expression of MCT1, MCT11, and MCT12 after hypoxic preconditioning with cobalt chloride and training. However, the expression of other MCT isoforms increased marginally or even reduced after hypoxic preconditioning. Only the protein expression of MCT1 increased after hypoxia preconditioning. MCT2 protein expression increased after training only and MCT4 protein expression decreased both in preconditioning and hypoxic training. Furthermore, we found decreased plasma lactate level during hypoxia preconditioning (0.74-fold), exercise (0.78-fold), and hypoxia preconditioning along with exercise (0.67-fold), which indicates increased lactate uptake by skeletal muscle. The protein-protein interactions with hypoxia inducible factor-1 and MCT isoforms were also evaluated, but no interaction was found. In conclusion, we say that almost all MCTs are expressed in red gastrocnemius muscle at the mRNA level and their expression is regulated differently under hypoxia preconditioning and exercise condition. PMID:26716978

  3. Interaction between basigin and monocarboxylate transporter 2 in the mouse testes and spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Maekawa, Mamiko; Yamatoya, Kenji; Nozaki, Masami; Ito, Chizuru; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Toshimori, Kiyotaka

    2016-01-01

    Basigin is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and plays various important roles in biological events including spermatogenesis. To examine the basigin molecular variants during spermatogenesis and sperm maturation in the mouse, immunoprecipitated basigin samples from testis and epididymal spermatozoa were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results demonstrated that basigin molecules from the testis and spermatozoa were separable into two major bands and that the differences in the molecular sizes were possibly because of an endoproteolytic cleavage. Since basigin is known to be a chaperone for the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), the localization of basigin, MCT1 and MCT2 was examined during postnatal testicular development. Immunohistochemical studies showed different expression patterns of MCT1 and MCT2. MCT1 was localized on the surface of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. In contrast, MCT2 appeared on the principal piece of spermatozoa in the testis, where basigin was also observed. In mature epididymal spermatozoa, MCT2 was located on the midpiece, where basigin co-localized with MCT2 but not with MCT1. Furthermore, MCT2 was immunoprecipitated with basigin in mouse testes and sperm. These results suggest that basigin has a functional role as a binding partner with MCT2 in testicular and epididymal spermatozoa. PMID:26208397

  4. The monocarboxylate transporter 4 is required for glycolytic reprogramming and inflammatory response in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zheng; Xie, Na; Banerjee, Sami; Cui, Huachun; Fu, Mingui; Thannickal, Victor J; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    There has been fast growing evidence showing that glycolysis plays a critical role in the activation of immune cells. Enhanced glycolysis leads to increased formation of intracellular lactate that is exported to the extracellular environment by monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4). Although the biological activities of extracellular lactate have been well studied, it is less understood how the lactate export is regulated or whether lactate export affects glycolysis during inflammatory activation. In this study, we found that MCT4 is up-regulated by TLR2 and TLR4, but not TLR3 agonists in a variety of macrophages. The increased expression of MCT4 was mediated by MYD88 in a NF-κB-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that MCT4 is required for macrophage activation upon TLR2 and TLR4 stimulations, as evidenced by attenuated expression of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages with MCT4 knockdown. Mechanistically, we found that MCT4 knockdown leads to enhanced intracellular accumulation of lactate and decreased glycolysis in LPS-treated macrophages. We found that LPS-induced expression of key glycolytic enzymes hexokinase 2 and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 is diminished in macrophages with MCT4 knockdown. Our data suggest that MCT4 up-regulation represents a positive feedback mechanism in macrophages to maintain a high glycolytic rate that is essential to a fully activated inflammatory response. PMID:25406319

  5. Abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism in mice lacking the monocarboxylate transporter 8.

    PubMed

    Trajkovic, Marija; Visser, Theo J; Mittag, Jens; Horn, Sigrun; Lukas, Jan; Darras, Veerle M; Raivich, Genadij; Bauer, Karl; Heuer, Heike

    2007-03-01

    In humans, inactivating mutations in the gene of the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8; SLC16A2) lead to severe forms of psychomotor retardation combined with imbalanced thyroid hormone serum levels. The MCT8-null mice described here, however, developed without overt deficits but also exhibited distorted 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) serum levels, resulting in increased hepatic activity of type 1 deiodinase (D1). In the mutants' brains, entry of T4 was not affected, but uptake of T3 was diminished. Moreover, the T4 and T3 content in the brain of MCT8-null mice was decreased, the activity of D2 was increased, and D3 activity was decreased, indicating the hypothyroid state of this tissue. In the CNS, analysis of T3 target genes revealed that in the mutants, the neuronal T3 uptake was impaired in an area-specific manner, with strongly elevated thyrotropin-releasing hormone transcript levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and slightly decreased RC3 mRNA expression in striatal neurons; however, cerebellar Purkinje cells appeared unaffected, since they did not exhibit dendritic outgrowth defects and responded normally to T3 treatment in vitro. In conclusion, the circulating thyroid hormone levels of MCT8-null mice closely resemble those of humans with MCT8 mutations, yet in the mice, CNS development is only partially affected. PMID:17318265

  6. Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction coupled with miniature capillary electrophoresis for the trace analysis of four aliphatic aldehydes in water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Yi, Fan; Zheng, Yiliang; Wang, Yu; Ye, Jiannong; Chu, Qingcui

    2015-08-01

    An environmentally friendly method for the trace analysis of four aliphatic aldehydes as water disinfection byproducts has been developed based on hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction followed by miniature capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection. After derivatization with 2-thiobarbituric acid, four aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propylaldehyde, and butyraldehyde) became detectable by the amperometric detector. Under the optimum conditions, four aliphatic aldehydes can be well separated from the coexisting interferents as well as their homologs (pentanal, glyoxal, and methyl-glyoxal), and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) could reach sub-nanogram-per-milliliter level based on hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction. The proposed method has been applied for the analyses of above four aliphatic aldehydes in different water samples such as drinking water, tap water, and river water, and the average recoveries were in the range of 90-113%, providing an alternative to conventional and microchip capillary electrophoresis approaches. PMID:26046452

  7. Adsorption properties of hyperbranched aliphatic polyester grafted attapulgite towards heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Tingmei

    2007-10-01

    The AB(2) type monomer, 2,2-bis (hydroxymethyl) propionic acid (bis-MPA), was successfully grafted from the surfaces of the amino groups modified attapulgite nano-fibrillar clay (A-ATP) via a melt polycondensation method with p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA) as catalyst. The competitive adsorption properties of the hyperbranched aliphatic polyester grafted attapulgite (HAPE-ATP) towards the heavy metal ions (Cu(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II)) were investigated preliminarily. PMID:17467898

  8. Synthesis and reactivity of aliphatic sulfur pentafluorides from substituted (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes

    PubMed Central

    Vida, Norbert; Václavík, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oxidation of 3- and 4-pentafluorosulfanyl-substituted anisoles and phenols with hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid provided a mixture of SF5-substituted muconolactone, maleic, and succinic acids. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the aliphatic SF5 compounds was presented and their chemical reactivity was investigated. SF5-substituted para-benzoquinone was synthesized; its oxidation led to an improved yield of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid. The reaction of SF5-substituted maleic anhydride and para-benzoquinone with cyclopentadiene afforded the Diels–Alder adducts. Decomposition of 3-(pentafluorosulfanyl)muconolactone in acidic, neutral and basic aqueous media was investigated and the decarboxylation of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid provided 3-(pentafluorosulfanyl)acrylic acid. PMID:26877813

  9. Synthesis and reactivity of aliphatic sulfur pentafluorides from substituted (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes.

    PubMed

    Vida, Norbert; Václavík, Jiří; Beier, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of 3- and 4-pentafluorosulfanyl-substituted anisoles and phenols with hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid provided a mixture of SF5-substituted muconolactone, maleic, and succinic acids. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the aliphatic SF5 compounds was presented and their chemical reactivity was investigated. SF5-substituted para-benzoquinone was synthesized; its oxidation led to an improved yield of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid. The reaction of SF5-substituted maleic anhydride and para-benzoquinone with cyclopentadiene afforded the Diels-Alder adducts. Decomposition of 3-(pentafluorosulfanyl)muconolactone in acidic, neutral and basic aqueous media was investigated and the decarboxylation of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid provided 3-(pentafluorosulfanyl)acrylic acid. PMID:26877813

  10. Composites of vinyl polystyrylpyridine/bismaleimide-aliphatic ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbuch, Alvin H.; Rosser, Robert W.; Hsu, Ming-Ta S.

    1989-01-01

    An aliphatic ether bismaleimide was prepared and coreacted with a polyvinylstyrylpyridine (VPSP) oligomer. Studies showed that a controlled ratio of aliphatic to aromatic units in the polymer backbone improved both processibility and interlaminar shear properties for the carbon-fiber composite system. This modified resin was readily soluble in tetrahydrofuran, allowing for better fiber impregnation and thus enhancing adhesive properties and reproducibility. DSC studies have shown a lower cure temperature for the copolymer than for the neat aliphatic bismaleimide, and a glass transition temperature of 260 C, which is more than adequate for most applications. Limited measurements indicated an improvement in toughness (impact resistance).

  11. The Drug of Abuse γ-Hydroxybutyrate Is a Substrate for Sodium-Coupled Monocarboxylate Transporter (SMCT) 1 (SLC5A8): Characterization of SMCT-Mediated Uptake and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Dapeng; Morris, Marilyn E.

    2009-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a drug of abuse, is a substrate of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SMCT1; SLC5A8) is expressed in kidney, thyroid gland, neurons, and intestinal tract and exhibits substrate specificity similar to that of the proton-dependent MCT (SLC16A) family. The role of SMCT1 in GHB disposition has not been determined. In this study we characterized the driving force, transport kinetics, and inhibitors of GHB uptake, as well as expression of SMCT and MCT isoforms, in rat thyroid follicular (FRTL-5) cells. GHB, as well as the monocarboxylates butyrate and d-lactate, exhibited sodium-dependent uptake at pH 7.4, which could be described with a simple Michaelis-Menten equation plus a diffusional component [Km 0.68 ± 0.30 mM, Vmax 3.50 ± 1.58 nmol · mg–1 · min–1, and diffusional clearance (P) 0.25 ± 0.08 μl · mg–1 · min–1]. In the absence of sodium, GHB uptake was significantly increased at lower pH, suggesting proton-gradient dependent transport. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western analyses demonstrated the expression of SMCT1, MCT1, and MCT2 in FRTL-5 cells, supporting the activity results. Sodium-dependent GHB uptake in FRTL-5 cells was inhibited by MCT substrates (d-lactate, l-lactate, pyruvate, and butyrate), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen), and probenecid. IC50 values for l-lactate, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and probenecid were 101, 31.6, 64.4, and 380 μM, respectively. All four inhibitors also significantly inhibited GHB uptake in rat MCT1 gene-transfected MDA/MB231 cells, suggesting they are not specific for SMCT1. Luteolin and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnimate represent specific proton-dependent MCT inhibitors. Our findings indicate that GHB is a substrate for both sodium- and proton-dependent MCTs and identified specific inhibitors of MCTs. PMID:19389857

  12. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  13. Olfactory discrimination ability for aliphatic esters in squirrel monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Laska, M; Freyer, D

    1997-08-01

    Using a behavioral paradigm designed to simulate olfactory-guided foraging, the ability of five squirrel monkeys to distinguish iso-amyl acetate from n- and iso-forms of other acetic esters (ethyl acetate to decyl acetate) and from other esters carrying the iso-amyl group (iso-amyl propionate to iso-amyl capronate) was investigated. We found (i) that all five animals were clearly able to discriminate between all odor pairs tested; (ii) a significant negative correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length of both the aliphatic alcohol group and the aliphatic acid group of the esters; and (iii) that iso- and n-amyl acetate were perceived as qualitatively similar despite different steric conformation. Using a triple-forced choice procedure, 20 human subjects were tested on the same tasks in parallel and showed a very similar pattern of discrimination performance compared with the squirrel monkeys. Thus, the results of this study provide evidence of well-developed olfactory discrimination ability in squirrel monkeys for aliphatic esters and support the assumption that human and non-human primates may share common principles of odor quality perception. PMID:9279468

  14. Inward flux of lactate⁻ through monocarboxylate transporters contributes to regulatory volume increase in mouse muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew J; Hawke, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Mouse and rat skeletal muscles are capable of a regulatory volume increase (RVI) after they shrink (volume loss resultant from exposure to solutions of increased osmolarity) and that this RVI occurs mainly by a Na-K-Cl-Cotransporter (NKCC)-dependent mechanism. With high-intensity exercise, increased extracellular osmolarity is accompanied by large increases in extracellular [lactate⁻]. We hypothesized that large increases in [lactate⁻] and osmolarity augment the NKCC-dependent RVI response observed with a NaCl (or sucrose)-induced increase in osmolarity alone; a response that is dependent on lactate⁻ influx through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Single mouse muscle fibres were isolated and visualized under light microscopy under varying osmolar conditions. When solution osmolarity was increased by adding NaLac by 30 or 60 mM, fibres lost significantly less volume and regained volume sooner compared to when NaCl was used. Phloretin (MCT1 inhibitor) accentuated the volume loss compared to both NaLac controls, supporting a role for MCT1 in the RVI response in the presence of elevated [lactate⁻]. Inhibition of MCT4 (with pCMBS) resulted in a volume loss, intermediate to that seen with phloretin and NaLac controls. Bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor), in combination with pCMBS, reduced the magnitude of volume loss, but volume recovery was complete. While combined phloretin-bumetanide also reduced the magnitude of the volume loss, it also largely abolished the cell volume recovery. In conclusion, RVI in skeletal muscle exposed to raised tonicity and [lactate⁻] is facilitated by inward flux of solute by NKCC- and MCT1-dependent mechanisms. This work demonstrates evidence of a RVI response in skeletal muscle that is facilitated by inward flux of solute by MCT-dependent mechanisms. These findings further expand our understanding of the capacities for skeletal muscle to volume regulate, particularly in instances of raised tonicity and lactate⁻ concentrations, as

  15. Monocarboxylate Transporter 2 and Stroke Severity in a Rodent Model of Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Guo, Shang-Z; Bonen, Arend; Li, Richard C.; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Zhang, Shelley X.L.; Brittian, Kenneth R.; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is not only more prevalent but is also associated with more severe adverse functional outcomes among patients with sleep apnea. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) are important regulators of cellular bioenergetics, have been implicated in brain susceptibility to acute severe hypoxia (ASH), and could underlie the unfavorable prognosis of cerebrovascular accidents in sleep apnea patients. Rodents were exposed to either intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, a characteristic feature of sleep apnea, or to sustained hypoxia (SH), and expression of MCT1 and MCT2 was assessed. In addition, the functional recovery to MCAO in rats and hMCT2 transgenic mice and of hippocampal slices subjected to ASH was assessed, as well as the effects of MCT blocker and MCT2 antisense oligonucleotides and siRNAs. IH, but not SH, induced significant reductions in MCT2 expression over time at both the mRNA and protein levels, and in the functional recovery of hippocampal slices subjected to ASH. Similarly, MCAO-induced infarcts were significantly greater in IH-exposed rats and mice, and over-expression of hMCT2 in mice markedly attenuated the adverse effects of IH. Exogenous pyruvate treatment reduced infarct volumes in normoxic rats but not in IH-exposed rats. Administration of he MCT2 blocker 4CN, but not the MCT1 antagonist pCMBS, increased infarct size. Thus, prolonged exposures to IH mimicking sleep apnea are associated with increased CNS vulnerability to ischemia that is mediated, at least in part, by concomitant decreases in the expression and function of MCT2. Efforts to develop agonists of MCT2 should provide opportunities to ameliorate the overall outcome of stroke. PMID:21753001

  16. Exhausting exercise and tissue-specific expression of monocarboxylate transporters in rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Omlin, Teye

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane lactate movements are mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), but these proteins have never been characterized in rainbow trout. Our goals were to clone potential trout MCTs, determine tissue distribution, and quantify the effects of exhausting exercise on MCT expression. Such information could prove important to understand the mechanisms underlying the classic “lactate retention” seen in trout white muscle after intense exercise. Four isoforms were identified and partially characterized in rainbow trout: MCT1a, MCT1b, MCT2, and MCT4. MCT1b was the most abundant in heart and red muscle but poorly expressed in the gill and brain where MCT1a and MCT2 were prevalent. MCT expression was strongly stimulated by exhausting exercise in brain (MCT2: +260%) and heart (MCT1a: +90% and MCT1b: +50%), possibly to increase capacity for lactate uptake in these highly oxidative tissues. By contrast, the MCTs of gill, liver, and muscle remained unaffected by exercise. This study provides a possible functional explanation for postexercise “lactate retention” in trout white muscle. Rainbow trout may be unable to release large lactate loads rapidly during recovery because: 1) they only poorly express MCT4, the main lactate exporter found in mammalian glycolytic muscles; 2) the combined expression of all trout MCTs is much lower in white muscle than in any other tissue; and 3) exhausting exercise fails to upregulate white muscle MCT expression. In this tissue, carbohydrates act as an “energy spring” that alternates between explosive power release during intense swimming (glycogen to lactate) and recoil during protracted recovery (slow glycogen resynthesis from local lactate). PMID:23535457

  17. Mutation in the Monocarboxylate Transporter 12 Gene Affects Guanidinoacetate Excretion but Does Not Cause Glucosuria.

    PubMed

    Dhayat, Nasser; Simonin, Alexandre; Anderegg, Manuel; Pathare, Ganesh; Lüscher, Benjamin P; Deisl, Christine; Albano, Giuseppe; Mordasini, David; Hediger, Matthias A; Surbek, Daniel V; Vogt, Bruno; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara; Fuster, Daniel G

    2016-05-01

    A heterozygous mutation (c.643C>A; p.Q215X) in the monocarboxylate transporter 12-encoding gene MCT12 (also known as SLC16A12) that mediates creatine transport was recently identified as the cause of a syndrome with juvenile cataracts, microcornea, and glucosuria in a single family. Whereas the MCT12 mutation cosegregated with the eye phenotype, poor correlation with the glucosuria phenotype did not support a pathogenic role of the mutation in the kidney. Here, we examined MCT12 in the kidney and found that it resides on basolateral membranes of proximal tubules. Patients with MCT12 mutation exhibited reduced plasma levels and increased fractional excretion of guanidinoacetate, but normal creatine levels, suggesting that MCT12 may function as a guanidinoacetate transporter in vivo However, functional studies in Xenopus oocytes revealed that MCT12 transports creatine but not its precursor, guanidinoacetate. Genetic analysis revealed a separate, undescribed heterozygous mutation (c.265G>A; p.A89T) in the sodium/glucose cotransporter 2-encoding gene SGLT2 (also known as SLC5A2) in the family that segregated with the renal glucosuria phenotype. When overexpressed in HEK293 cells, the mutant SGLT2 transporter did not efficiently translocate to the plasma membrane, and displayed greatly reduced transport activity. In summary, our data indicate that MCT12 functions as a basolateral exit pathway for creatine in the proximal tubule. Heterozygous mutation of MCT12 affects systemic levels and renal handling of guanidinoacetate, possibly through an indirect mechanism. Furthermore, our data reveal a digenic syndrome in the index family, with simultaneous MCT12 and SGLT2 mutation. Thus, glucosuria is not part of the MCT12 mutation syndrome. PMID:26376857

  18. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) gene.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Charles E; May, Melanie M; Carpenter, Nancy J; Rogers, R Curtis; Martin, Judith; Bialer, Martin G; Ward, Jewell; Sanabria, Javier; Marsa, Silvana; Lewis, James A; Echeverri, Roberto; Lubs, Herbert A; Voeller, Kytja; Simensen, Richard J; Stevenson, Roger E

    2005-07-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome was among the first of the X-linked mental retardation syndromes to be described (in 1944) and among the first to be regionally mapped on the X chromosome (in 1990). Six large families with the syndrome have been identified, and linkage studies have placed the gene locus in Xq13.2. Mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8) have been found in each of the six families. One essential function of the protein encoded by this gene appears to be the transport of triiodothyronine into neurons. Abnormal transporter function is reflected in elevated free triiodothyronine and lowered free thyroxine levels in the blood. Infancy and childhood in the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome are marked by hypotonia, weakness, reduced muscle mass, and delay of developmental milestones. Facial manifestations are not distinctive, but the face tends to be elongated with bifrontal narrowing, and the ears are often simply formed or cupped. Some patients have myopathic facies. Generalized weakness is manifested by excessive drooling, forward positioning of the head and neck, failure to ambulate independently, or ataxia in those who do ambulate. Speech is dysarthric or absent altogether. Hypotonia gives way in adult life to spasticity. The hands exhibit dystonic and athetoid posturing and fisting. Cognitive development is severely impaired. No major malformations occur, intrauterine growth is not impaired, and head circumference and genital development are usually normal. Behavior tends to be passive, with little evidence of aggressive or disruptive behavior. Although clinical signs of thyroid dysfunction are usually absent in affected males, the disturbances in blood levels of thyroid hormones suggest the possibility of systematic detection through screening of high-risk populations. PMID:15889350

  19. Flavonoids modulate monocarboxylate transporter-1-mediated transport of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Morris, Marilyn E

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of flavonoids on the in vitro monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1)-mediated transport and in vivo disposition of the drug of abuse, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). The uptake of GHB in rat MCT1 gene-transfected MDA-MB231 cells was significantly decreased in the presence of the flavonoids apigenin, biochanin A, chrysin, diosemin, fisetin, genistein, hesperitin, kaempferol, luteolin, morin, narigenin, phloretin, and quercetin, but was not affected by the flavonoid glycosides phloridzin and rutin. The IC(50) values for luteolin, morin, and phloretin were 0.41 +/- 0.14, 6.41 +/- 2.01, and 2.57 +/- 0.48 microM, with the inhibition mechanism for luteolin being competitive. [(3)H]Kaempferol and [(3)H]biochanin A did not exhibit MCT1-mediated uptake, suggesting that these flavonoids are not substrates for MCT1. The combination of luteolin and phloretin inhibited the uptake of GHB in a synergistic manner; however, the combination of luteolin and morin was antagonistic. GHB 1000 mg/kg was administered to rats by i.v. bolus, with or without the concomitant administration of luteolin 10 mg/kg i.v. After luteolin treatment, the renal and total clearances of GHB were significantly increased, probably because of inhibition of the MCT1-mediated renal reabsorption of GHB, and the sleep time significantly decreased (121 +/- 5 min versus 165 +/- 10 min) compared with control rats. Overall, the results of this study indicate that flavonoids from food or herbal products may significantly alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of MCT substrates. PMID:17108059

  20. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in gliomas: expression and exploitation as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Honavar, Mrinalini; Pinheiro, Céline; Martinho, Olga; Pires, Manuel M.; Pinheiro, Célia; Cordeiro, Michelle; Bebiano, Gil; Costa, Paulo; Palmeirim, Isabel; Reis, Rui M.; Baltazar, Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Background Gliomas exhibit high glycolytic rates, and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) play a major role in the maintenance of the glycolytic metabolism through the proton-linked transmembrane transport of lactate. However, their role in gliomas is poorly studied. Thus, we aimed to characterize the expression of MCT1, MCT4, and their chaperone CD147 and to assess the therapeutic impact of MCT inhibition in gliomas. Methods MCTs and CD147 expressions were characterized by immunohistochemistry in nonneoplastic brain and glioma samples. The effect of CHC (MCT inhibitor) and MCT1 silencing was assessed in in vitro and in vivo glioblastoma models. Results MCT1, MCT4, and CD147 were overexpressed in the plasma membrane of glioblastomas, compared with diffuse astrocytomas and nonneoplastic brain. CHC decreased glycolytic metabolism, migration, and invasion and induced cell death in U251 cells (more glycolytic) but only affected proliferation in SW1088 (more oxidative). The effectiveness of CHC in glioma cells appears to be dependent on MCT membrane expression. MCT1 downregulation showed similar effects on different glioma cells, supporting CHC as an MCT1 inhibitor. There was a synergistic effect when combining CHC with temozolomide treatment in U251 cells. In the CAM in vivo model, CHC decreased the size of tumors and the number of blood vessels formed. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study reporting the expression of MCTs and CD147 in gliomas. The MCT1 inhibitor CHC exhibited anti-tumoral and anti-angiogenic activity in gliomas and, of importance, enhanced the effect of temozolomide. Thus, our results suggest that development of therapeutic approaches targeting MCT1 may be a promising strategy in glioblastoma treatment. PMID:23258846

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of synthetic aliphatic and aromatic monoacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela; Todorova, Iva; Parushev, Stoyan; Tsvetkova, Iva; Najdenski, Hristo; Ubukata, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of synthetic aliphatic and aromatic monoacylglycerols (MAGs) was studied against two human pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The active compounds inhibited selectively S. aureus. The most active compounds amongst them were those with medium size aliphatic chain and aromatic MAGs with electron withdrawing substituents at the aryl ring. The introduction of one or two-carbon spacer between the aryl ring and the carboxylic function did not influence antibacterial effectiveness. PMID:19004249

  2. Lactate Stimulates IL-4 and IL-13 Production in Activated HuT-78 T Lymphocytes Through a Process That Involves Monocarboxylate Transporters and Protein Hyperacetylation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Waldemar; Ciszewski, Wojciech; Kania, Katarzyna; Dastych, Jarosław

    2016-05-01

    Mucosal cells of the gastrointestinal and female reproductive tract are constantly exposed to l- and d-lactate of bacterial origin. These compounds not only protect the host from pathogen colonization but also modulate the activity of mucosal immune cells, thereby playing an important role in inflammatory host responses. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure of anti-CD3/CD28 or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-activated HuT-78 T lymphocyte cells to 10-20 mM d-lactate significantly increased IL-4 and IL-13 production. Interestingly, the d-lactate isomer, exclusively produced locally by gut or cervicovaginal microbiota, was found to be more potent than the l-isomer. Interestingly, neither of the strong histone deacetylase inhibitors [structurally similar butyrate and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)] was as effective in the stimulation of IL-13 production as d-lactate. Lactate transport through monocarboxylate transporters was required for lactate-enhanced IL-13 production in a manner that was not hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1-dependent. Furthermore, lactate treatment increased the acetylation of GATA-3, a critical regulator of Th1/Th2 differentiation and resulted in H3 and H4 histone hyperacetylation state, which is a characteristic feature of transcriptionally active chromatin. Both lactate isomers also enhanced IL4 and IL13 promoter-driven activity of reporter constructs in murine and human cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that a local millimolar concentration of l- or d-lactate may play an important role in the modulation of inflammation-mediated processes. PMID:27119568

  3. Aliphatic chain length by isotropic mixing (ALCHIM): determining composition of complex lipid samples by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ruiyang; Volden, Paul A.; Conzen, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the amounts and types of lipids present in mixtures is important in fields as diverse as medicine, food science, and biochemistry. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can quantify the total amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in mixtures, but identifying the length of saturated fatty acid or the position of unsaturation by NMR is a daunting challenge. We have developed an NMR technique, aliphatic chain length by isotropic mixing, to address this problem. Using a selective total correlation spectroscopy technique to excite and transfer magnetization from a resolved resonance, we demonstrate that the time dependence of this transfer to another resolved site depends linearly on the number of aliphatic carbons separating the two sites. This technique is applied to complex natural mixtures allowing the identification and quantification of the constituent fatty acids. The method has been applied to whole adipocytes demonstrating that it will be of great use in studies of whole tissues. PMID:24831341

  4. Topsoil drying combined with increased sulfur supply leads to enhanced aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica juncea leaves and roots.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yu; Gabriel-Neumann, Elke; Ngwene, Benard; Krumbein, Angelika; George, Eckhard; Platz, Stefanie; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The decrease of water availability is leading to an urgent demand to reduce the plants' water supply. This study evaluates the effect of topsoil drying, combined with varying sulfur (S) supply on glucosinolates in Brassica juncea in order to reveal whether a partial root drying may already lead to a drought-induced glucosinolate increase promoted by an enhanced S supply. Without decreasing biomass, topsoil drying initiated an increase in aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and in topsoil dried roots supported by increased S supply. Simultaneously, abscisic acid was determined, particularly in dehydrated roots, associated with an increased abscisic acid concentration in leaves under topsoil drying. This indicates that the dehydrated roots were the direct interface for the plants' stress response and that the drought-induced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates is related to abscisic acid formation. Indole and aromatic glucosinolates decreased, suggesting that these glucosinolates are less involved in the plants' response to drought. PMID:24444925

  5. SAMPLING ARTIFACT ESTIMATES FOR ALKANES, HOPANES, AND ALIPHATIC CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling artifacts for molecular markers from organic speciation of particulate matter were investigated by analyzing forty-one samples collected in Philadelphia as a part of the Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NEOPS). Samples were collected using a high volume sampler ...

  6. Synthesis of aliphatic sulfur pentafluorides by oxidation of SF₅-containing anisole, phenols, and anilines.

    PubMed

    Vida, Norbert; Pastýříková, Tereza; Klepetářová, Blanka; Beier, Petr

    2014-09-19

    4-(Pentafluorosulfanyl)catechol, 2-amino-4-(pentafluorosulfanyl)phenol, and 2-amino-5-(pentafluorosulfanyl)phenol undergo oxidation by lead tetraacetate at ambient temperature leading to dearomatization and the formation of SF5-substituted nitriles and esters of cis,cis-hexa-2,4-dienedioic (muconic) acid in good yields. 4-(Pentafluorosulfanyl)phenol and 4-(pentafluorosulfanyl)anisole are oxidized by 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide in concentrated sulfuric acid to provide 2-(5-oxo-3-(pentafluorosulfanyl)-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)acetic acid [3-(pentafluorosulfanyl)muconolactone] and small amounts of side products--SF5-containing maleic and succinic acids. The methods presented are the first examples of the practical synthesis of aliphatic SF5-containing compounds from readily available aromatic ones. PMID:25137015

  7. Redefining the Pediatric Phenotype of X-Linked Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 (MCT8) Deficiency: Implications for Diagnosis and Therapies.

    PubMed

    Matheus, Maria Gisele; Lehman, Rebecca K; Bonilha, Leonardo; Holden, Kenton R

    2015-10-01

    X-linked monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) deficiency results from a loss-of-function mutation in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene, located on chromosome Xq13.2 (Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome). Affected boys present early in life with neurodevelopment delays but have pleasant dispositions and commonly have elevated serum triiodothyronine. They also have marked axial hypotonia and quadriparesis but surprisingly little spasticity early in their disease course. They do, however, have subtle involuntary movements, most often dystonia. The combination of hypotonia and dystonia presents a neurorehabilitation challenge and explains why spasticity-directed therapies have commonly produced suboptimal responses. Our aim was to better define the spectrum of motor disability and to elucidate the neuroanatomic basis of the motor impairments seen in MCT8 deficiency using clinical observation and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a cohort of 6 affected pediatric patients. Our findings identified potential imaging biomarkers and suggest that rehabilitation efforts targeting dystonia may be more beneficial than those targeting spasticity in the prepubertal pediatric MCT8 deficiency population. PMID:25900139

  8. Iron-Catalyzed Oxyfunctionalization of Aliphatic Amines at Remote Benzylic C-H Sites.

    PubMed

    Mbofana, Curren T; Chong, Eugene; Lawniczak, James; Sanford, Melanie S

    2016-09-01

    We report the development of an iron-catalyzed method for the selective oxyfunctionalization of benzylic C(sp(3))-H bonds in aliphatic amine substrates. This transformation is selective for benzylic C-H bonds that are remote (i.e., at least three carbons) from the amine functional group. High site selectivity is achieved by in situ protonation of the amine with trifluoroacetic acid, which deactivates more traditionally reactive C-H sites that are α to nitrogen. The scope and synthetic utility of this method are demonstrated via the synthesis and derivatization of a variety of amine-containing, biologically active molecules. PMID:27529646

  9. Age-Dependent Changes of Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Availability in the Postnatal Murine Retina.

    PubMed

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Szafranski, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (TH) triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone thyroxine (T4) are crucial for retinal development and function, and increasing evidence points at TH dysregulation as a cause for retinal degenerative diseases. Thus, precise regulation of retinal TH supply is required for proper retinal function, but knowledge on these mechanisms is still fragmentary. Several transmembrane transporters have been described as key regulators of TH availability in target tissues of which the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a high affinity transporter for T4 and T3, plays an essential role in the central nervous system. Moreover, in the embryonic chicken retina, MCT8 is highly expressed, but the postnatal availability of MCT8 in the mammalian retina was not reported to date. In the present study, spatiotemporal retinal MCT8 availability was examined in mice of different age. For this purpose, we quantified expression levels of Mct8 via Real-Time Reverse-Transcriptase PCR in mouse eyecups (C57BL/6) of juvenile and adult age groups. Additionally, age-dependent MCT8 protein levels were quantified via Western blotting and localized via immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. While no difference in Mct8 expression levels could be detected between age groups, MCT8 protein levels in juvenile animals were about two times higher than in adult animals based on Western blot analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that MCT8 immunoreactivity in the eyecup was restricted to the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In juvenile mice, MCT8 was broadly observed along the apical membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium, tightly surrounding photoreceptor outer segments. Distinct immunopositive staining was also detected in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. However, in adult specimens, immunoreactivity visibly declined in all layers, which was in line with Western blot analyses. Since MCT8 was abundantly present in juvenile and about twofold lower in

  10. 3-bromopyruvate enhanced daunorubicin-induced cytotoxicity involved in monocarboxylate transporter 1 in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Sun, Yiming; Hong, Haiyu; Zhao, Surong; Zou, Xue; Ma, Renqiang; Jiang, Chenchen; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Huabin; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that the hexokinase inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) induces the cell apoptotic death by inhibiting ATP generation in human cancer cells. Interestingly, some tumor cell lines are less sensitive to 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis than others. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of 3-BrPA-trigged apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of 3-BrPA on the viability of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. We further investigated the potential roles of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in drug accumulation and efflux of breast cancer cells. Finally, we explored whether 3-BrPA enhanced daunorubicin (DNR)-induced cytotoxicity through regulation of MCT1 in breast cancer cells. MTT and colony formation assays were used to measure cell viability. Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis and fluorescent microscopy were used to determine the molecular mechanism of actions of MCT1 in different breast cancer cell lines. Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to investigate the effect of 3-BrPA in vivo. We found that 3-BrPA significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cell line, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, we observed that 3-BrPA efficiently enhanced DNR-induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells by inhibiting the activity of ATP-dependent efflux pumps. We also found that MCT1 overexpression increased the efficacy of 3-BrPA in MDA-MB-231 cells. 3-BrPA markedly suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth in combination with DNR in nude mice implanted with MCF-7 cells. Lastly, our whole-body bioluminescence imaging data indicated that 3-BrPA promoted DNR accumulation in tumors. These findings collectively suggest that 3-BrPA enhanced DNR antitumor activity in breast cancer cells involved MCT-1, suggesting that inhibition of glycolysis could be an effective therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26609475

  11. 3-bromopyruvate enhanced daunorubicin-induced cytotoxicity involved in monocarboxylate transporter 1 in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe; Sun, Yiming; Hong, Haiyu; Zhao, Surong; Zou, Xue; Ma, Renqiang; Jiang, Chenchen; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Huabin; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that the hexokinase inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) induces the cell apoptotic death by inhibiting ATP generation in human cancer cells. Interestingly, some tumor cell lines are less sensitive to 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis than others. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of 3-BrPA-trigged apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of 3-BrPA on the viability of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. We further investigated the potential roles of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in drug accumulation and efflux of breast cancer cells. Finally, we explored whether 3-BrPA enhanced daunorubicin (DNR)-induced cytotoxicity through regulation of MCT1 in breast cancer cells. MTT and colony formation assays were used to measure cell viability. Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis and fluorescent microscopy were used to determine the molecular mechanism of actions of MCT1 in different breast cancer cell lines. Whole-body bioluminescence imaging was used to investigate the effect of 3-BrPA in vivo. We found that 3-BrPA significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cell line, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, we observed that 3-BrPA efficiently enhanced DNR-induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells by inhibiting the activity of ATP-dependent efflux pumps. We also found that MCT1 overexpression increased the efficacy of 3-BrPA in MDA-MB-231 cells. 3-BrPA markedly suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth in combination with DNR in nude mice implanted with MCF-7 cells. Lastly, our whole-body bioluminescence imaging data indicated that 3-BrPA promoted DNR accumulation in tumors. These findings collectively suggest that 3-BrPA enhanced DNR antitumor activity in breast cancer cells involved MCT-1, suggesting that inhibition of glycolysis could be an effective therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26609475

  12. Age-Dependent Changes of Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Availability in the Postnatal Murine Retina

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Szafranski, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (TH) triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone thyroxine (T4) are crucial for retinal development and function, and increasing evidence points at TH dysregulation as a cause for retinal degenerative diseases. Thus, precise regulation of retinal TH supply is required for proper retinal function, but knowledge on these mechanisms is still fragmentary. Several transmembrane transporters have been described as key regulators of TH availability in target tissues of which the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a high affinity transporter for T4 and T3, plays an essential role in the central nervous system. Moreover, in the embryonic chicken retina, MCT8 is highly expressed, but the postnatal availability of MCT8 in the mammalian retina was not reported to date. In the present study, spatiotemporal retinal MCT8 availability was examined in mice of different age. For this purpose, we quantified expression levels of Mct8 via Real-Time Reverse-Transcriptase PCR in mouse eyecups (C57BL/6) of juvenile and adult age groups. Additionally, age-dependent MCT8 protein levels were quantified via Western blotting and localized via immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. While no difference in Mct8 expression levels could be detected between age groups, MCT8 protein levels in juvenile animals were about two times higher than in adult animals based on Western blot analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that MCT8 immunoreactivity in the eyecup was restricted to the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In juvenile mice, MCT8 was broadly observed along the apical membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium, tightly surrounding photoreceptor outer segments. Distinct immunopositive staining was also detected in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. However, in adult specimens, immunoreactivity visibly declined in all layers, which was in line with Western blot analyses. Since MCT8 was abundantly present in juvenile and about twofold lower in

  13. Hyperbranched Aliphatic Polyester Modified Activated Carbon Particles with Homogenized Surface Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Liuxue

    The hyperbranched aliphatic polyester grafted activated carbon (HAPE-AC), was successfully prepared by the simple "one-pot" method. The surface functional groups of commercial activated carbon particles were homogenized to hydroxyl groups by being oxidized with nitric acid and then reduced with lithium tetrahydroaluminate (LiAlH4) at first. Secondly, the surface hydroxyl groups were used as the active sites for the solution polycondensation of the AB2 monomer, 2, 2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA), with the catalysis of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The homogenization of the surface groups of the activated carbon particles and the graft polymerization of the hyperbranched aliphatic polyester were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The products were also characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The competitive adsorption properties of the products toward the heavy metal ions (Cu(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II)) also proved the translations of the surface groups.

  14. Differential effects of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates on lepidopteran herbivores.

    PubMed

    Müller, René; de Vos, Martin; Sun, Joel Y; Sønderby, Ida E; Halkier, Barbara A; Wittstock, Ute; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Glucosinolates are a diverse group of defensive secondary metabolites that is characteristic of the Brassicales. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Brassicaceae) lines with mutations that greatly reduce abundance of indole glucosinolates (cyp79B2 cyp79B3), aliphatic glucosinolates (myb28 myb29), or both (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29) make it possible to test the in vivo defensive function of these two major glucosinolate classes. In experiments with Lepidoptera that are not crucifer-feeding specialists, aliphatic and indole glucosinolates had an additive effect on Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval growth, whereas Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Manduca sexta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) were affected only by the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates. In the case of two crucifer-feeding specialists, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), there were no major changes in larval performance due to decreased aliphatic and/or indole glucosinolate content. Nevertheless, choice tests show that aliphatic and indole glucosinolates act in an additive manner to promote larval feeding of both species and P. rapae oviposition. Together, these results support the hypothesis that a diversity of glucosinolates is required to limit the growth of multiple insect herbivores. PMID:20617455

  15. Composition and sources of aliphatic lipids and sterols in sediments of a tropical island, southern South China Sea: preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Mohd Tahir, N; Pang, S Y; Abdullah, N A; Suratman, S

    2013-12-01

    Near-shore surface sediment was collected from five stations off Redang Island located on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Freeze-dried sediments were Soxhlet extracted and then fractionated using column chromatography into aliphatic and polar fractions. Determination of these fractions was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments ranged from 157 to 308 ng/g. The distribution of aliphatic fraction showed the presence of n-alkanes ranging from nC15 to nC33 with a minor odd-to-even predominance exhibiting carbon maximum, depending on station, at nC17, nC26, nC29 or nC31. Calculation of Carbon Preference Index (CPI) for CPI(15-33) gave values ranging from 1.09 to 1.46. n-Alkanol in all sediment exhibits even-to-odd carbon predominance ranging from nC16 to nC28 and maximising at nC22. n-Fatty acids distribution ranged from nC14 to nC24 with a dominant maximum at nC16 and exhibiting high values of short chain fatty acids (≤nC20) to long chain fatty acids (>nC20) ratios. Unsaturated fatty acids, particularly nC16:1 and nC18:1 is also ubiquitous in all samples. Cholesterol is the most abundant compound amongst the sterol group ranging from 42.8 to 62.6% of the total sterols. β-Sitosterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol, are also present but of relatively lower amount. These observations suggest that the aliphatic lipids and sterols in the study area originate, mainly, from biogenic sources of marine microbial with minor contribution from epiticular waxes of terrestrial plants. PMID:23856812

  16. Catalytic Asymmetric Hydroamination of Unactivated Internal Olefins to Aliphatic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Shi-Liang; Niu, Dawen; Liu, Peng; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic assembly of enantiopure aliphatic amines from abundant and readily available precursors has long been recognized as a paramount challenge in synthetic chemistry. Herein, we describe a mild and general copper-catalyzed hydroamination that effectively converts unactivated internal olefins, an important yet unexploited class of abundant feedstock chemicals, into highly enantioenriched α-branched amines (≥ 96% enantiomeric excess) featuring two minimally differentiated aliphatic substituents. This method provides a powerful means to access a broad range of advanced, highly functionalized enantioenriched amines of interest in pharmaceutical research and other areas. PMID:26138973

  17. Determination of aliphatic aldehydes by liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Contursi, Michela

    2005-01-21

    An electrochemical detection method for short-chain saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes separated by liquid chromatography in moderately acidic medium is described. A triple-step waveform of the potentials applied to the polycrystalline platinum electrode, is proposed for sensitive detection of aliphatic aldehydes in flowing streams avoiding tedious pre- or post-column derivatization and/or cleanup procedures. The influences of the perchloric acid concentration and dissolved oxygen in the mobile phase, on the amperometric and chromatographic performance were evaluated and considered in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. Under the optimised experimental conditions (i.e., deoxygenated 50mM HClO4) the proposed analytical method allowed detection limits between 0.2 microM for acrolein and 2.5 microM for valeraldehyde. Regression analysis of calibration data indicates that responses for all investigated compounds are linear over about 2 orders of magnitude above the LOD, with correlation coefficients >0.990. The method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acrolein in real matrices such as spiked water and red wines with good mean recoveries (81-97%). PMID:15700464

  18. Applicability of the theory of thermodynamic similarity to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of thermodynamic similarity is used to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes. The predicted data allow us to calculate the phase diagrams of liquid-vapor equilibrium in a binary water-aliphatic aldehyde system.

  19. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 plays a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning in transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongkweon; Ahn, Ji Yun; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Won, Moo-Ho; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Seung Min; Cho, Jun Hwi; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2015-10-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which carry monocarboxylates such as lactate across biological membranes, have been associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion process. In this study, we studied the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on MCT4 immunoreactivity after 5 minutes of transient cerebral ischemia in the gerbil. Animals were randomly designated to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia only group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia group). A serious loss of neuron was found in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1), not CA2/3, of the ischemia-only group at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC + ischemia groups, neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 were well protected. Weak MCT4 immunoreactivity was found in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 in the sham-operated group. MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale began to decrease at 2 days post-ischemia and was hardly detected at 5 days post-ischemia; at this time point, MCT4 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in astrocytes. In the IPC + sham-operated group, MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 was increased compared with the sham-operated group, and, in the IPC + ischemia group, MCT4 immunoreactivity was also increased in the stratum pyramidale compared with the ischemia only group. Briefly, present findings show that IPC apparently protected CA1 pyramidal neurons and increased or maintained MCT4 expression in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 after transient cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest that MCT4 appears to play a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC in the gerbil with transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26692857

  20. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 plays a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning in transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seongkweon; Ahn, Ji Yun; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Won, Moo-Ho; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Seung Min; Cho, Jun Hwi; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which carry monocarboxylates such as lactate across biological membranes, have been associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion process. In this study, we studied the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on MCT4 immunoreactivity after 5 minutes of transient cerebral ischemia in the gerbil. Animals were randomly designated to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia only group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia group). A serious loss of neuron was found in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1), not CA2/3, of the ischemia-only group at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC + ischemia groups, neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 were well protected. Weak MCT4 immunoreactivity was found in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 in the sham-operated group. MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale began to decrease at 2 days post-ischemia and was hardly detected at 5 days post-ischemia; at this time point, MCT4 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in astrocytes. In the IPC + sham-operated group, MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 was increased compared with the sham-operated group, and, in the IPC + ischemia group, MCT4 immunoreactivity was also increased in the stratum pyramidale compared with the ischemia only group. Briefly, present findings show that IPC apparently protected CA1 pyramidal neurons and increased or maintained MCT4 expression in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 after transient cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest that MCT4 appears to play a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC in the gerbil with transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26692857

  1. Introducing Aliphatic Substitution with a Discovery Experiment Using Competing Electrophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Timothy P.; Mostovoy, Amelia J.; Curran, Margaret E.; Berger, Clara

    2016-01-01

    A facile, discovery-based experiment is described that introduces aliphatic substitution in an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. Unlike other discovery-based experiments that examine substitution using two competing nucleophiles with a single electrophile, this experiment compares two isomeric, competing electrophiles…

  2. Selective stabilization of aliphatic organic carbon by iron oxide

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Dinesh; Yang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Stabilization of organic matter in soil is important for natural ecosystem to sequestrate carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emission. It is largely unknown what factors govern the preservation of organic carbon in soil, casting shadow on predicting the response of soil to climate change. Iron oxide was suggested as an important mineral preserving soil organic carbon. However, ferric minerals are subject to reduction, potentially releasing iron and decreasing the stability of iron-bound organic carbon. Information about the stability of iron-bound organic carbon in the redox reaction is limited. Herein, we investigated the sorptive interactions of organic matter with hematite and reductive release of hematite-bound organic matter. Impacts of organic matter composition and conformation on its sorption by hematite and release during the reduction reaction were analyzed. We found that hematite-bound aliphatic carbon was more resistant to reduction release, although hematite preferred to sorb more aromatic carbon. Resistance to reductive release represents a new mechanism that aliphatic soil organic matter was stabilized by association with iron oxide. Selective stabilization of aliphatic over aromatic carbon can greatly contribute to the widely observed accumulation of aliphatic carbon in soil, which cannot be explained by sorptive interactions between minerals and organic matter. PMID:26061259

  3. Triphosgene–Amine Base Promoted Chlorination of Unactivated Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando, Andrés; Ayala, Caitlan E.; Watson, Christopher B.; Kartika, Rendy

    2014-01-01

    Unactivated α-branched primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols have been successfully transformed into their corresponding alkyl chlorides in high yields upon treatment with a mixture of triphosgene and pyridine in dichloromethane at reflux. These mild chlorination conditions are high yielding, stereospecific, and well tolerated by numerous sensitive functionalities. Furthermore, no nuisance waste products are generated in the course of the reactions. PMID:23496045

  4. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The resulting particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate ...

  5. A thermostable transketolase evolved for aliphatic aldehyde acceptors.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong; Saravanan, Thangavelu; Devamani, Titu; Charmantray, Franck; Hecquet, Laurence; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-01-11

    Directed evolution of the thermostable transketolase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus based on a pH-based colorimetric screening of smart libraries yielded several mutants with up to 16-fold higher activity for aliphatic aldehydes and high enantioselectivity (>95% ee) in the asymmetric carboligation step. PMID:25415647

  6. Binuclear biologically active Co(II) complexes with octazamacrocycle and aliphatic dicarboxylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasković, S. B.; Vučković, G.; Antonijević-Nikolić, M.; Stanojković, T.; Gojgić-Cvijović, G.

    2012-12-01

    Four new cationic Co(II) complexes with N,N',N'',N'''-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (tpmc) and dianion of one the aliphatic dicarboxylic acids: butanedioic acid (succinic) acid = succH2, pentanedioic (glutaric) acid = gluH2, hexanedioic acid (adipic) acid = adipH2 or decanedioic acid (sebacic) acid = sebH2 of general formula [Co2(L)(tpmc)](ClO4)2ṡxY, L2- = succ, x = 1, Y = H2O; L = glu, x = 1, Y = H2O; L = adip, x = 1.5, Y = H2O; L = seb, x = 1, Y = CH3CN were isolated. The composition and charge are proposed based on elemental analyses (C, H, N) and electrical conductivity measurements. UV-Vis and FTIR spectral data and magnetic moments were in accordance with high-spin Co(II) state. It is proposed that in all complexes Co(II) is hexa-coordinated out of cyclam ring and that both carboxylic groups from dicarboxylate bridge participate in coordination. Oxygens from one group are most likely bonded to the same Co(II) ion thus forming a four-membered ring. The in vitro antibacterial/antiproliferative activities of the complexes were in some cases enhanced compared with the simple Co(II) salt and free ligands, tested as controls.

  7. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Nitric Acid, Nitrates, and Nitro Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherick, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the potential hazards associated with nitric acid, inorganic and organic nitrate salts, alkyl nitrates, acyl nitrates, aliphatic nitro compounds, aromatic nitro compounds, and nitration reactions. (CW)

  8. 40 CFR 721.10608 - Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with alkanediol and alkylglycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10608 Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10608 - Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with alkanediol and alkylglycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10608 Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with...

  10. Biodegradation of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters by Thermomonospora fusca and Other Thermophilic Compost Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kleeberg, Ilona; Hetz, Claudia; Kroppenstedt, Reiner Michael; Müller, Rolf-Joachim; Deckwer, Wolf-Dieter

    1998-01-01

    Random aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters synthesized from 1,4-butanediol, adipic acid, and terephthalic acid (BTA) have excellent thermal and mechanical properties and are biodegradable by mixed cultures (e.g., in compost). Over 20 BTA-degrading strains were isolated by using compost as a microbial source. Among these microorganisms, thermophilic actinomycetes obviously play an outstanding role and appear to dominate the initial degradation step. Two actinomycete strains exhibited about 20-fold higher BTA degradation rates than usually observed in a common compost test. These isolates were identified as Thermomonospora fusca strains. They appeared to be particularly suitable for establishment of rapid degradation tests and were used in comparative studies on the biodegradation of various polyesters. PMID:9572944

  11. Analysis of aliphatic waxes associated with root periderm or exodermis from eleven plant species.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Dylan K; Rice, Adam; Pollard, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Aliphatic waxes can be found in association with suberized tissues, including roots. Non-polar lipids were isolated by rapid solvent extraction of mature regions of intact roots from eleven angiosperms, including both monocots and dicots. The majority of roots analyzed were taproots or tuberous taproots that had undergone secondary growth and thus were covered by a suberized periderm. The exceptions therein were maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), which present a suberized exodermis. The analysis herein focused on aliphatic waxes, with particular emphasis on alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs). AHCs were widely distributed, absent from only one species, were found in both aerial and subterranean portions of tuberous taproots, and were associated with the fibrous roots of both maize and rice. Most species also contained monoacylglycerols, fatty alcohols and/or free fatty acids. Carrot (Daucus carrota L.) was the outlier, containing only free fatty acids, sterols, and polyacetylenes as identified components. Sterols were the only ubiquitous component across all roots analyzed. Monoacylglycerols of ω-hydroxy fatty acids were present in maize and rice root waxes. For species within the Brassiceae, wax compositions varied between subspecies or varieties and between aerial and subterranean portions of taproots. In addition, reduced forms of photo-oxidation products of ω-hydroxy oleate and its corresponding dicarboxylic acid (10,18-dihydroxy-octadec-8-enoate, 9,18-dihydroxy-octadec-10-enoate and 9-hydroxyoctadec-10-ene-1,18-dioate) were identified as naturally occurring suberin monomers in rutabaga (Brassica napus subsp. rapifera Metzg.) periderm tissues. PMID:26143051

  12. Aliphatic esters as targets of esterase activity in the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella).

    PubMed

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Liao, Ling-Hsiu; Jogesh, Tania; Berenbaum, May R

    2012-02-01

    As a specialist on the reproductive structures of Pastinaca sativa and species in the related genus Heracleum, the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella) routinely encounters a distinctive suite of phytochemicals in hostplant tissues. Little is known, however, about the detoxification mechanisms upon which this species relies to metabolize these compounds. In this study, larval guts containing hostplant tissues were homogenized, and metabolism was determined by incubating reactions with and without NADPH and analyzing for substrate disappearance and product appearance by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we found indications of carboxylesterase activity, in the form of appropriate alcohol metabolites for three aliphatic esters in hostplant tissues-octyl acetate, octyl butyrate, and hexyl butyrate. Involvement of webworm esterases in hostplant detoxification subsequently was confirmed with metabolism assays with pure compounds. This study is the first to implicate esterases in lepidopteran larval midgut metabolism of aliphatic esters, ubiquitous constituents of flowers and fruits. In addition, this method confirmed that webworms detoxify furanocoumarins and myristicin in their hostplants via cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism, and demonstrated that these enzymes also metabolize the coumarin osthol and the fatty acid derivative palmitolactone. PMID:22350520

  13. Competitive Oxidation and Reduction of Aliphatic Alcohols over (WO3)3 Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu K.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.; Rousseau, Roger J.

    2009-06-04

    The reactions of C1 to C4 aliphatic alcohols over (WO3)3 clusters were studied experimentally and theoretically using temperature-programmed desorption, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory. The results reveal that all C1 to C4 aliphatic alcohols readily react with (WO3)3 clusters by heterolytic cleavage of the RO-H bond to give alkoxy (RO ) bound to W(VI) centers and a proton (H+) attached to the terminal oxygen atom of a tungstyl group (W=O). Two protons adsorbed onto the cluster readily react with the doubly-bonded oxygen to from a water molecule that desorbs at 200-300 K and the alkoxy that undergoes decomposition at higher temperatures into the corresponding alkene, aldehyde, and/or ether. Our theory predicts that all three channels proceed over the W(VI) Lewis acid site with energy barriers of 30-40 kcal/mol, where dehydration is favored over the others. We also present further analysis of the yield and reaction temperature as a function of the alkyl substituents and discuss the origin of the reaction selectivity among the three reaction channels.

  14. UV study of the formation of superacids in a sulfuric acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirevska, Ilinka; Šoptrajanova, Lidija; Jankovska, Katica; Andonovski, Blagoja

    1993-03-01

    The methods of ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy were used to study the changes in the composition of the reaction systems consisting of a monocarboxylic (acrylic or methacrylic) or dicarboxylic (itaconic or glutaconic) acid, on the one hand and sulfuric acid, on the other. It was concluded that protonation of the carboxylic acids is taking place and that monoprotonated superacids are formed. The p K values for the protonation reactions were estimated numerically and graphically.

  15. Radiolytic crosslinking and chain scission in aliphatic and alkyl-aromatic polyamides—II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Bernard J.; Glover, Leon C.

    Regression analysis of the radiation parameters of nine aliphatic polyamides exposed to ionizing radiation leads to the conclusion that the decline in the ratio of chain scission to crosslinking in higher aliphatic polyamides is best related to the linear increase in the methylene content of, or the number of methylene groups in, the polyamide repeat unit. G(crosslink) [ G(X)] and G(chain scission) [ G(CS)] values, however, do not correlate well with either of these parameters. Rather it is found that the major determinant of yields [about 80-85% of the variation for G(X), 70% for G(CS)] is the number of hydrogen atoms or methylene groups in the amine residue. A minor determinant [15% of the variation for G(X) and 30% for G(CS)] is the number of hydrogen atoms or methylene groups in the acid residue of the repeat unit. Significantly, although there was little sign of a decrease in G(CS) in the higher aliphatic homologues (up to 11 methylene residues per amide group), G(CS) is found to be positively related to the number of methylene groups in the amine residue but negatively related to the number of methylene groups in the acid residue. Thus although the amine residue dominates the radiolytic response, the acid residue plays a critical if lesser role in determining chain scission yields in polyamides. Thus a polyamide with the repeat unit —(CH 2) 3 nCONH(CH 2) nNHCO— would be predicted to have a very low or zero G(CS) and, if n is 10 or more, a G(X) comparable to that of polyethylene. Although, logically, the yields of crosslinks and chain scissions in polyamides would be expected to tend to that of polyethylene as the number of methylene groups in the repeat unit increases, use of two models assuming an exponential trend to the G(X) value characteristic of polyethylene in the analysis did not provide better fits to the data than the simple linear model referred to above. Indeed, the assumption of a significant exponential trend factor led to a marked drop in

  16. Formation and Morphology of "shish-like" Fibril Crystals of Aliphatic Polyesters from the Sheared Melt

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, S.; Itoh, M; Oka, T; Kimura, K

    2010-01-01

    We found the formation of 'shish-like' fibril crystals of aliphatic polyesters such as poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), poly({var_epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(12-hydroxydodecanoic acid) (PHDA) and poly(16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid) (PHHA) from the sheared melt with shear rate {gamma} = 5 s{sup -1} observed by polarizing optical microscope (POM). The melting temperature T{sub m}s of obtained fibril crystals of PLLA and PCL were higher than those of spherulites and were close to the equilibrium melting temperature T{sub m}{sup 0}. The small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns from the bulk sample including fibril crystals, small amount of unoriented small crystals and amorphous showed no peaks arose from the existence of long periods in fibril crystals. These are the evidence that the observed fibril crystals consist of assemblies of a lot of extended chain crystals (ECCs). We observed the morphology of moderately extracted single strand of fibril crystals at the magnification of POM by means of scanning electron microscope. We found that macroscopic fibril crystals of PLLA with diameter d = 10 {micro}m consist of the bundle structure of microscopic fibril crystals with d = 2 {micro}m. From POM observation of the formation of fibril crystals of PLLA and PCL, we showed phase diagrams of molecular weight M and crystallization temperature T{sub c} for the formation of fibril crystals. From these phase diagrams, we evaluated a critical M and T{sub c} for the formation of fibril crystals. Moreover, from the sequential melting and crystallization experiments, it was implied that the entanglement and transesterification play an important role on the formation of fibril crystals of aliphatic polyesters.

  17. Determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the alga Himanthalia elongata.

    PubMed

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2004-02-01

    The algae considered new foods according to Regulation CE 258/97 need a guarantee of their healthfulness before being in the European market. In this work ten samples of the brown alga Himanthalia elongata have been analyzed with the aim of verifying the absence of aliphatic hydrocarbons, due to the ability of the macroalgae to capture lipophilic organic compounds of the marine water coming from accidental or continuous leaks of raw oil and refined products, which happen each year with the growth of the industrialization and the demand of energy. The fat of the samples were Soxhlet extracted using hexane:dichloromethane (1:1) for 7h. The organic fractions were purified using silica microcolumns. The identification and quantification of the aliphatic hydrocarbons have been carried out using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). The total hydrocarbon content was between 14.8 and 40.2 microg g(-1) dry weight. PMID:14759670

  18. Biodegradation of Trihalomethanes and Other Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    The biological dehalogenation of common water pollutants such as trichloromethane (chloroform) and other halogenated aliphatic compounds was the subject of this project. Samples from diverse water environments such as from groundwater contaminated with halogenated compounds and wastewaters from regional treatment plants were studied to identify conditions that favor certain dehalogenation reactions over others. Gene probe analyses of DNA extracted from the dichlormethane-degrading wastewater indicated the presence of the gene coding for dichloromethane dehalogenase, indicating the genetic basis for the dechlorination activity observed. These studies indicate that methanogenic bacteria are the organisms responsible for the chloroform dechlorination. Dechlorination of a common chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11) was identified in samples taken from a regional aquifer contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  19. Aliphatics hydrocarbon content in surface sediment from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YAzis, M.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbons content have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively using GC/MS method in eight coastal stations located in the Jakarta Bay, North of Jakarta, Indonesia. The total concentrations n-alkanes have ranged from 480 μg.kg-1to 1,935 μg.kg-1sediment dry weight. Several ratios (e.g. CPI24-32, NAR, TAR, Pr/Phy, n-C17/Pr, n- C18/Phyt,n-C29/n-C17, Ʃn-alkanes/n-C16LMW/HMW, Paq and TMD) were used to evaluate the possible sources of terrestrial-marine inputs of these hydrocarbons in the sediments. The various origins of aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally biogenic, including both terrigenous and marine, with an anthropogenic pyrolytic contribution (petrogenic and biogenic combustion). Two stations (G,H) were thehighest concentration and had potential risk to environment

  20. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-01-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed. PMID:26470633

  1. 40 CFR 721.4490 - Capped aliphatic isocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a capped aliphatic isocyanate (PMN P-86-1146...) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), (f), (h)(1)(ii)(G), (h)(1)(iii)(A), (h)(1)(iii)(B), (h)(1)(iii)(D), and (h)(1...(h). (iv) Disposal. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (a)(2), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c)(1),...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4490 - Capped aliphatic isocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a capped aliphatic isocyanate (PMN P-86-1146...) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), (f), (h)(1)(ii)(G), (h)(1)(iii)(A), (h)(1)(iii)(B), (h)(1)(iii)(D), and (h)(1...(h). (iv) Disposal. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (a)(2), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c)(1),...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4490 - Capped aliphatic isocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a capped aliphatic isocyanate (PMN P-86-1146...) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), (f), (h)(1)(ii)(G), (h)(1)(iii)(A), (h)(1)(iii)(B), (h)(1)(iii)(D), and (h)(1...(h). (iv) Disposal. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (a)(2), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c)(1),...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4490 - Capped aliphatic isocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a capped aliphatic isocyanate (PMN P-86-1146...) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), (f), (h)(1)(ii)(G), (h)(1)(iii)(A), (h)(1)(iii)(B), (h)(1)(iii)(D), and (h)(1...(h). (iv) Disposal. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (a)(2), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c)(1),...

  5. Mechanics of networks of aliphatic fibers in aqueous surfactant media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, Giuliano; Caggioni, Marco; Guida, Vincenzo; Trappe, Veronique

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the structural and rheological properties of aliphatic fibers dispersed in aqueous solutions of anionic surfactants, typically used in liquid detergents to provide yield stress. This system displays an onset to solid-like properties that depends on fiber concentration. In this contribution we will discuss how tuning the state of the surfactant background influences the fiber-fiber interactions and the mechanical properties of the gel.

  6. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  7. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-01-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed. PMID:26470633

  8. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-10-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed.

  9. Segregation and Alteration of Phenolic and Aliphatic Components of Root and Leaf Litter by Detritivores and Microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T. R.; Altmann, J.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Kalbitz, K.; Gamblin, D.; Nierop, K.

    2012-12-01

    The physical and microbial transformation of plant detritus in the litter layer and soil is accompanied by chemical separation of progressively soluble fractions and their movement into the rhizosphere driving subsequent soil processes. We investigated the combined action of specific detritivores, microbial decay, and leaching on the chemical separation of plant aromatic and aliphatic components from root, wood, and leaf tissue using 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis. This method enabled the simultaneous analysis of hydrolyzable tannin and lignin fragments, substituted fatty acids, and condensed tannin composition and revealed process-specific chemical transformations to plant secondary compounds. Long-term incubation and field sampling demonstrated how plant residues are progressively leached of the water soluble, oxidized fragments generated through decay. The residues appeared only slightly altered, in the case of brown rot wood, or enriched in aliphatic fragments, in the case of leaf and root tissue. Water extractable fractions were always selectively dominated by polyphenolics, either as demethylated lignin or tannins, and nearly devoid of aliphatic materials, despite high concentrations in the starting materials. Additionally, for plant materials with high tannin contents, such as pine needles, consumption and passage through some arthropod guts revealed what appeared to be microbially-mediated methylation of phenols, and a loss of tannins in leachates. These findings are indications for an in-situ phenol detoxification mechanism. This research provides important information regarding the links between biochemical decay and the chemical nature of organic matter removed and remaining in the soil profile.

  10. Biodegradation of aliphatic vs. aromatic hydrocarbons in fertilized arctic soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out to test a simple bioremediation treatment strategy in the Arctic and analyze the influence of fertilization the degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., pristine, n-tetradecane, n-pentadecane, 2-methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, and acenaphthalene. The site was a coarse sand pad that once supported fuel storage tanks. Diesel-range organics concentrations were 250-860 mg/kg soil at the beginning of the study. Replicate field plots treated with fertilizer yielded final concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg N/kg soil. Soil pH and soil-water potentials decreased due to fertilizer application. The addition of fertilizer considerably increased soil respiration potentials, but not the populations of microorganisms measured. Fertilizer addition also led to ??? 50% loss of measured aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in surface and subsurface soils. For fertilized plots, hydrocarbon loss was not associated with the quantity of fertilizer added. Losses of aliphatic hydrocarbons were ascribed to biotic processes, while losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were due to biotic and abiotic processes.

  11. New soft porous frameworks based on lambda-zirconium phosphate and aliphatic dicarboxylates: Synthesis and structural characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhendawi, Hussein; Brunet, Ernesto; Juanes, Olga; Hammouda, Huda; Idhair, Salem; Rodríguez Payán, Elena; de Victoria Rodríguez, María

    2015-11-01

    New dicarboxylate-functionalized pillared materials with a general formula of λ-ZrPO4(OH)1-x(OOC(CH2)nCOO)x/2(dmso) (n=6, 8 and 10) have been prepared by post-synthesis modification of the inorganic layers of λ-zirconium phosphate (λ-ZrP), where the superficial Chloride monovalent anionic ligands of λ-layer are partially exchanged with the divalent anionic ligands of a series of long-chain aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, namely octanedioic acid, decanedioic acid and dodecanedioic acid. The synthesized materials are characterized by X-ray diffractometry, FT-IR spectrophotometry, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the obtained solid phases are pure. Furthermore, the interlayer distance of λ-ZrP systematically increases from 1.02 to 1.59 nm as a result of the incorporation of the mentioned acids inside the interlayer gallery.

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) quantifies the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coatings. The estimates in this CBA are to be used for assessing the relative merits of the selected alternatives. The actual economic effects at any specific facility will depend on the alternative material or technology implemented, the number of actual applications converted, future workloads, and other factors . The participants initially considered eighteen (18) alternative coatings as described in the Potential Alternatives Report entitled Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB. Of those, 8 alternatives were selected for testing in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, and the Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives 10 Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both of which were prepared by ITB. A joint Test Report entitled Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB, documents the results of the laboratory and field testing, as well as any

  13. Novel aliphatic lipid-based diesters for use in lubricant formulations: Structure property investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunanan, Latchmi Cindy

    Structure-property relationships are increasingly valued for the identification of specifically engineered materials with properties optimized for targeted application(s). In this work, linear and branched diesters for use in lubricant formulations are prepared from lipid-based oleochemicals and their structure-property relationships reported. It is shown that the branched diesters possess exceptional physical property profiles, including suppression of crystallization, and are superior alternatives for use in lubricant formulations. For the linear aliphatic diesters, both high and low temperature properties were predictable functions of total chain length, and both were differently influenced by the fatty acid versus diol chain length. Symmetry did not influence either, although thermal stability decreased and thermal transition temperatures increased with increasing saturation. All of the linear diesters demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviour. Viscosity was also predictable as a function of total chain length; any microstructural features due to structural effects were superseded by mass effects.

  14. Assessing the Origins of Aliphatic Amines in the Murchison Meteorite from their Compound-Specific Carbon Isotopic Ratios and Enantiomeric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aponte, Jose; Dworkin, Jason; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2014-01-01

    The study of meteoritic organic compounds provides a unique window into the chemical inventory of the early Solar System and prebiotic chemistry that may have been important for the origin of life on Earth. Multiple families of organic compounds have been extracted from the Murchison meteorite, which is one of the most thoroughly studied carbonaceous chondrites. The amino acids extracted from Murchison have been extensively analyzed, including measurements of non-terrestrial stable isotopic ratios and discoveries of L-enantiomeric excesses for alpha-dialkyl amino acids, notably isovaline. However, although the isotopic signatures of bulk amine-containing fractions have been measured, the isotopic ratios and enantiomeric composition of individual aliphatic amines, compounds that are chemically related to amino acids, remain unknown. Here, we report a novel method for the extraction, separation, identification and quantitation of aliphatic monoamines extracted from the Murchison meteorite. Our results show a complete suite of structural isomers, with a larger concentration of methylamine and ethylamine and decreasing amine concentrations with increasing carbon number. The carbon isotopic compositions of fourteen meteoritic aliphatic monoamines were measured, with delta C-13 values ranging from +21% to +129%, showing a decrease in C-13 with increasing carbon number, a relationship that may be consistent with the chain elongation mechanism under kinetic control previously proposed for meteoritic amino acids. We also found the enantiomeric composition of sec-butylamine, a structural analog to isovaline, was racemic within error, while the isovaline extracted from the same Murchison piece showed an L-enantiomeric excess of 9.7; this result suggested that processes leading to enantiomeric excess in the amino acid did not affect the amine. We used these collective data to assess the primordial synthetic origins of these meteoritic aliphatic amines and their potential

  15. Elevated serum triiodothyronine and intellectual and motor disability with paroxysmal dyskinesia caused by a monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Oliver; Pfarr, Nicole; Pohlenz, Joachim; Schmidt, Heinrich

    2009-03-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8 or SLC16A2) is important for the neuronal uptake of triiodothyronine (T3) in its function as a specific and active transporter of thyroid hormones across the cell membrane, thus being essential for human brain development. We report on a German male with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome presenting with severe intellectual and motor disability, paroxysmal dyskinesia combined with truncal muscular hypotonia, and peripheral muscular hypertonia at his current age of 9 years. Additionally, the patient has a lesion in the left putamen region revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and elevated serum T3 levels. The male appeared to have a hemizygous mutation (R271H) in the MCT8 gene that was sequenced directly from genomic DNA and occurred de novo in the maternal germline, as both his mother and his sister were not carriers of the mutation. Ruling out a common polymorphism, 50 normal individuals of the same ethnic background did not harbour the mutation. The identified MCT8 gene mutation (R271H) is very likely to be the genetic cause for neuronal hypothyroidism despite elevated serum T3 levels. PMID:19018842

  16. Structural studies of aliphatic substituted phthalocyanine-lipid multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zarbakhsh, Ali; Campana, Mario; Mills, David; Webster, John R P

    2010-10-01

    A Langmuir-Blodgett film of aliphatic substituted phthalocyanines on a C18 silane supporting layer coupled onto a silicon substrate has been investigated using neutron reflectometry. This multilayer structure is seen as a possible candidate for phthalocyanine-lipid biosensor devices. The results show the suitability of the C18 ligands as an anchoring layer for the phthalocyanines. The scattering length density profiles demonstrate the effectiveness of a lipid monolayer in partitioning the composition of phthalocyanine layers from that of the bulk liquid. The effectiveness of this barrier is a critical factor in the efficiency of such devices. PMID:20831252

  17. Aliphatic Polyethers: Classical Polymers for the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rebecca; Wurm, Frederik R

    2015-06-01

    Polyethers-polymers with the structural element (R'-O-R)n in their backbone--are an old class of polymers which were already used at the time of the ancient Egyptians. However, still today these materials are highly important with applications in all areas of our life, reaching from the automotive and paper industry to cosmetics and biomedical applications. In this Review, different aliphatic polyethers like poly(epoxide)s, poly(oxetane)s, and poly(tetrahydrofuran) are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the history, the polymerization techniques (industrially and in academia), the properties, the applications as well as recent developments of these materials. PMID:25967116

  18. Olfactory sensitivity and odor structure-activity relationships for aliphatic ketones in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of CD-1 mice for a homologous series of aliphatic 2-ketones (2-butanone to 2-nonanone) and several of their isomeric forms was investigated. With all 11 odorants, the animals significantly discriminated concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with two odorants (2-octanone and 5-nonanone), the best-scoring animals even detected concentrations as low as 3 ppt (parts per trillion). Analysis of odor structure-activity relationships showed that the correlation between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice for the 2-ketones and carbon chain length can best be described as a U-shaped function with the lowest threshold values at 2-octanone. Similarly, the correlation between olfactory sensitivity and carbon chain length of symmetrical ketones (3-pentanone to 6-undecanone) can best be described as a U-shaped function. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice and position of the functional carbonyl group attached to a C7 backbone. A comparison between the olfactory detection thresholds obtained here with those obtained in earlier studies suggests that mice are significantly more sensitive for 2-ketones than for n-carboxylic acids of the same carbon chain length. Across-species comparisons suggest that mice are significantly more sensitive for aliphatic ketones than squirrel monkeys and pigtail macaques, whereas the ranges of human olfactory detection threshold values overlap with those of the mice with seven of the 11 ketones tested. Further comparisons suggest that odor structure-activity relationships are both substance class and species specific. PMID:24621664

  19. Aliphatic and aromatic plant biopolymer dynamics in soil particles isolated from sequential density fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, B.; Filley, T.; Sollins, P.; Lajtha, K.; Swanston, C.; Kleber, M.; Kramer, M.

    2007-12-01

    A recent multi-layer-based soil organic matter-mineral interaction mechanistic model to describe the nature of soil organic matter-mineral surface mechanism for soil organic matter stabilization predicts that proteinaceous and aliphatic materials establish the core of strong binding-interactions upon which other organic matter is layered. A key methodology providing data underpinning this hypothesis is sequential density fractionation where soil is partitioned into particles of increasing density with the assumption that a partial control on organic matter distribution through density series is the thickness of its layering. Four soils of varying mineralogy and texture were investigated for their biopolymer, isotopic, and mineralogical properties. Light fractions (<1.8 g/cm3), although dominanted by organic detritus, did not always contain the highest concentration of lignin and substituted fatty acids from cutin and suberin while heavier fractions, 1.8-2.6 g/cm3, exhibited a progressive decrease in concentration in plant derived biopolymers with density. Extractable lignin phenols exhibited a progressive oxidation state with density. The concentration of biopolymers roughly mirrored the C:N ratio of soil particles which dropped consistently with increasing particle density. Although, in all soils, both lignin phenols and SFA concentration generally decreased with increasing density the ratio SFA/lignin varied with density and depending upon the soil. All soils, except the oxisol, exhibited an increase in SFA with respect to lignin suggesting a selective stabilization of those material with respect to lignin. In the oxisol, which showed little variation in its hematite dominated mineralogy across density, SFA/lignin remained constant, potentially indicating a greater capacity to stabilize lignin in that system. Interestingly, the lignin oxidation state increased with density in the oxisol. Given the variation in soil character, the consistency in these trends it

  20. Effects of Monocarboxylate Transporter Inhibition on the Oral Toxicokinetics/Toxicodynamics of γ-Hydroxybutyrate and γ-Butyrolactone

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Bridget L.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory depression and death secondary to respiratory arrest have occurred after oral overdoses of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursor γ-butyrolactone (GBL). GHB is a substrate for monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), and increasing GHB renal clearance or decreasing GHB absorption via MCT inhibition represents a potential treatment strategy for GHB/GBL overdose. In these studies, GHB and GBL were administered in doses of 1.92, 5.77, and 14.4 mmol/kg orally with and without MCT inhibition to determine effects of this treatment strategy on the oral toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of GHB and GBL. The competitive MCT inhibitor l-lactate was administered by intravenous infusion starting 1 hour after GHB and GBL administration. Oral administration of l-lactate and the MCT inhibitor luteolin was also evaluated. Respiratory depression was measured using plethysmography. Intravenous l-lactate, but not oral treatments, significantly increased GHB renal and/or oral clearances. At the low dose of GHB and GBL, i.v. l-lactate increased GHB renal clearance. Due to the increased contribution of renal clearance to total clearance at the moderate dose, increased renal clearance translated to an increase in oral clearance. At the highest GHB dose, oral clearance was increased without a significant change in renal clearance. The lack of effect of i.v. l-lactate on renal clearance after a high oral GHB dose suggests possible effects of i.v. l-lactate on MCT-mediated absorption. The resulting increases in oral clearance improved respiratory depression. Intravenous l-lactate also reduced mortality with the high GBL dose. These data indicate i.v. l-lactate represents a potential treatment strategy in oral overdose of GHB and GBL. PMID:23392755

  1. γ-Hydroxybutyrate blood/plasma partitioning: effect of physiologic pH on transport by monocarboxylate transporters.

    PubMed

    Morse, Bridget L; Felmlee, Melanie A; Morris, Marilyn E

    2012-01-01

    The drug of abuse γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) displays nonlinear renal clearance, which has been attributed to saturable renal reabsorption by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) present in the kidney. MCT1 is also present in red blood cells (RBCs); however, the significance of this transporter on the blood/plasma partitioning of GHB is unknown. The purpose of this research was to characterize the transport of GHB across the RBC membrane and assess GHB blood/plasma partitioning in vivo in the presence and absence of a competitive MCT inhibitor, l-lactate. In vitro experiments were performed using freshly isolated rat erythrocytes at pH values of 6.5 and 7.4. Inhibition with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate were used to determine the contribution of MCT1 and band 3, respectively, on GHB uptake. For in vivo experiments, rats were administered GHB (400-1500 mg/kg) with and without l-lactate. In vitro experiments demonstrated that GHB is transported across the RBC membrane primarily by MCT1 at relevant in vivo concentrations. The K(m) for MCT1 was lower at pH 6.5 than that at pH 7.4, 2.2 versus 17.0 mM, respectively. The in vivo blood/plasma partitioning of GHB displayed linearity across all concentrations. l-Lactate coadministration increased GHB renal clearance but had no effect on the blood/plasma ratio. Unlike its MCT-mediated transport in the intestine and kidneys, GHB blood/plasma partitioning appears to be linear and is unaffected by l-lactate. These findings can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in physiologic pH at different sites of MCT-mediated transport. PMID:21976619

  2. Mechanistic modeling of monocarboxylate transporter-mediated toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic interactions between γ-hydroxybutyrate and L-lactate.

    PubMed

    Morse, Bridget L; Vijay, Nisha; Morris, Marilyn E

    2014-07-01

    Overdose of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) can result in severe respiratory depression. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibitors, including L-lactate, increase GHB clearance and represent a potential treatment for GHB intoxication. GHB can also affect L-lactate clearance, and L-lactate has been reported to affect respiration. In this research, we characterize these toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic interactions between GHB and L-lactate using mechanistic modeling. Plasma, urine, and respiration data were taken from our previous study in which GHB and sodium L-lactate were administered alone and concomitantly in rats. A model incorporating active renal reabsorption for both agents fit GHB and L-lactate toxicokinetic data. The Km for renal reabsorption of GHB (650 μg/mL) was close to its Km for the proton-dependent MCT1 and that for L-lactate (13.5 μg/mL) close to its Km for the sodium-dependent SMCT1. Inhibition of reabsorption by both agents was necessary to model concomitant drug administration. The metabolic Km for L-lactate closely resembled that for MCT-mediated hepatic uptake in vitro, and GHB inhibited this process. L-lactate significantly inhibited respiration at a high dose, and an indirect response model was used to fit these data. GHB toxicodynamics was modeled as a direct effect delayed by nonlinear transport into the brain extracellular fluid, with a Km value of 1,865 μg/mL for brain uptake which is similar to the in vitro Km value determined in rat brain endothelial cells. This model was useful for characterizing multiple MCT-mediated interactions. Incorporation of many parameters that can be determined in vitro may allow for clinical translation of these interactions. PMID:24854892

  3. Monocarboxylate Transporter Inhibition with Osmotic Diuresis Increases γ-Hydroxybutyrate Renal Elimination in Humans: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Marilyn E.; Morse, Bridget L.; Baciewicz, Gloria J.; Tessena, Matthew M.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Hutchinson, David J.; DiCenzo, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate proof-of-concept that monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibition with L-lactate combined with osmotic diuresis increases renal clearance of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human subjects. GHB is a substrate for human and rodent MCTs, which are responsible for GHB renal reabsorption, and this therapy increases GHB renal clearance in rats. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were administered GHB orally as sodium oxybate 50 mg/kg (4.5 gm maximum dose) on two different study days. On study day 1, GHB was administered alone. On study day 2, treatment of L-lactate 0.125 mmol/kg and mannitol 200 mg/kg followed by L-lactate 0.75 mmol/kg/hr was administered intravenously 30 minutes after GHB ingestion. Blood and urine were collected for 6 hours, analyzed for GHB, and pharmacokinetic and statistical analyses performed. Results L-lactate/mannitol administration significantly increased GHB renal clearance compared to GHB alone, 439 vs. 615 mL/hr (P=0.001), and increased the percentage of GHB dose excreted in the urine, 2.2 vs. 3.3% (P=0.021). Total clearance was unchanged. Conclusions MCT inhibition with L-lactate combined with osmotic diuresis increases GHB renal elimination in humans. No effect on total clearance was observed in this study due to the negligible contribution of renal clearance to total clearance at this low GHB dose. Considering the nonlinear renal elimination of GHB, further research in overdose cases is warranted to assess the efficacy of this treatment strategy for increasing renal and total clearance at high GHB doses. PMID:24772380

  4. Effects of monocarboxylate transporter inhibition on the oral toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics of γ-hydroxybutyrate and γ-butyrolactone.

    PubMed

    Morse, Bridget L; Morris, Marilyn E

    2013-04-01

    Respiratory depression and death secondary to respiratory arrest have occurred after oral overdoses of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursor γ-butyrolactone (GBL). GHB is a substrate for monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), and increasing GHB renal clearance or decreasing GHB absorption via MCT inhibition represents a potential treatment strategy for GHB/GBL overdose. In these studies, GHB and GBL were administered in doses of 1.92, 5.77, and 14.4 mmol/kg orally with and without MCT inhibition to determine effects of this treatment strategy on the oral toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of GHB and GBL. The competitive MCT inhibitor l-lactate was administered by intravenous infusion starting 1 hour after GHB and GBL administration. Oral administration of l-lactate and the MCT inhibitor luteolin was also evaluated. Respiratory depression was measured using plethysmography. Intravenous l-lactate, but not oral treatments, significantly increased GHB renal and/or oral clearances. At the low dose of GHB and GBL, i.v. l-lactate increased GHB renal clearance. Due to the increased contribution of renal clearance to total clearance at the moderate dose, increased renal clearance translated to an increase in oral clearance. At the highest GHB dose, oral clearance was increased without a significant change in renal clearance. The lack of effect of i.v. l-lactate on renal clearance after a high oral GHB dose suggests possible effects of i.v. l-lactate on MCT-mediated absorption. The resulting increases in oral clearance improved respiratory depression. Intravenous l-lactate also reduced mortality with the high GBL dose. These data indicate i.v. l-lactate represents a potential treatment strategy in oral overdose of GHB and GBL. PMID:23392755

  5. γ-Hydroxybutyrate Blood/Plasma Partitioning: Effect of Physiologic pH on Transport by Monocarboxylate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Bridget L.; Felmlee, Melanie A.

    2012-01-01

    The drug of abuse γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) displays nonlinear renal clearance, which has been attributed to saturable renal reabsorption by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) present in the kidney. MCT1 is also present in red blood cells (RBCs); however, the significance of this transporter on the blood/plasma partitioning of GHB is unknown. The purpose of this research was to characterize the transport of GHB across the RBC membrane and assess GHB blood/plasma partitioning in vivo in the presence and absence of a competitive MCT inhibitor, l-lactate. In vitro experiments were performed using freshly isolated rat erythrocytes at pH values of 6.5 and 7.4. Inhibition with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate and 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate were used to determine the contribution of MCT1 and band 3, respectively, on GHB uptake. For in vivo experiments, rats were administered GHB (400–1500 mg/kg) with and without l-lactate. In vitro experiments demonstrated that GHB is transported across the RBC membrane primarily by MCT1 at relevant in vivo concentrations. The Km for MCT1 was lower at pH 6.5 than that at pH 7.4, 2.2 versus 17.0 mM, respectively. The in vivo blood/plasma partitioning of GHB displayed linearity across all concentrations. l-Lactate coadministration increased GHB renal clearance but had no effect on the blood/plasma ratio. Unlike its MCT-mediated transport in the intestine and kidneys, GHB blood/plasma partitioning appears to be linear and is unaffected by l-lactate. These findings can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in physiologic pH at different sites of MCT-mediated transport. PMID:21976619

  6. Lack of action of exogenously administered T3 on the fetal rat brain despite expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8.

    PubMed

    Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Díez, Diego; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2011-04-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8, SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked syndrome of severe intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. Mct8 transports thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is likely caused by lack of T3 transport to neurons during critical periods of fetal brain development. To evaluate the role of Mct8 in thyroid hormone action in the fetal brain we administered T4 or T3 to thyroidectomized pregnant dams treated with methyl-mercapto-imidazol to produce maternal and fetal hypothyroidism. Gene expression was then measured in the fetal cerebral cortex. T4 increased Camk4, Sema3c, and Slc7a3 expression, but T3 was without effect. To investigate the cause for the lack of T3 action we analyzed the expression of organic anion transport polypeptide (Oatp14, Slco1c1), a T4 transporter, and Mct8 (Slc16a2), a T4 and T3 transporter, by confocal microscopy. Both proteins were present in the brain capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus forming the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. It is concluded that T4 from the maternal compartment influences gene expression in the fetal cerebral cortex, possibly after transport via organic anion transporter polypeptide and/or Mct8, and conversion to T3 in the astrocytes. On the other hand, T3 does not reach the target neurons despite the presence of Mct8. The data indicate that T4, through local deiodination, provides most T3 in the fetal rat brain. The role of Mct8 as a T3 transporter in the fetal rat brain is therefore uncertain. PMID:21303950

  7. Green tea phenolics inhibit butyrate-induced differentiation of colon cancer cells by interacting with monocarboxylate transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Tena, S.; Vizán, P.; Dudeja, P.K.; Centelles, J.J.; Cascante, M.

    2016-01-01

    Diet has a significant impact on colorectal cancer and both dietary fiber and plant-derived compounds have been independently shown to be inversely related to colon cancer risk. Butyrate (NaB), one of the principal products of dietary fiber fermentation, induces differentiation of colon cancer cell lines by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs). On the other hand, (−)-epicatechin (EC) and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), two abundant phenolic compounds of green tea, have been shown to exhibit antitumoral properties. In this study we used colon cancer cell lines to study the cellular and molecular events that take place during co-treatment with NaB, EC and EGCG. We found that (i) polyphenols EC and EGCG fail to induce differentiation of colon adenocarcinoma cell lines; (ii) polyphenols EC and EGCG reduce NaB-induced differentiation; (iii) the effect of the polyphenols is specific for NaB, since differentiation induced by other agents, such as trichostatin A (TSA), was unaltered upon EC and EGCG treatment, and (iv) is independent of the HDAC inhibitory activity of NaB. Also, (v) polyphenols partially reduce cellular NaB; and (vi) on a molecular level, reduction of cellular NaB uptake by polyphenols is achieved by impairing the capacity of NaB to relocalize its own transporter (monocarboxylate transporter 1, MCT1) in the plasma membrane. Our findings suggest that beneficial effects of NaB on colorectal cancer may be reduced by green tea phenolic supplementation. This valuable information should be of assistance in choosing a rational design for more effective diet-driven therapeutic interventions in the prevention or treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:23994611

  8. Metabolic targeting of oncogene MYC by selective activation of the proton-coupled monocarboxylate family of transporters.

    PubMed

    Gan, L; Xiu, R; Ren, P; Yue, M; Su, H; Guo, G; Xiao, D; Yu, J; Jiang, H; Liu, H; Hu, G; Qing, G

    2016-06-01

    Deregulation of the MYC oncogene produces Myc protein that regulates multiple aspects of cancer cell metabolism, contributing to the acquisition of building blocks essential for cancer cell growth and proliferation. Therefore, disabling Myc function represents an attractive therapeutic option for cancer treatment. However, pharmacological strategies capable of directly targeting Myc remain elusive. Here, we identified that 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a drug candidate that primarily inhibits glycolysis, preferentially induced massive cell death in human cancer cells overexpressing the MYC oncogene, in vitro and in vivo, without appreciable effects on those exhibiting low MYC levels. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of glutamine metabolism synergistically potentiated the synthetic lethal targeting of MYC by 3-BrPA due in part to the metabolic disturbance caused by this combination. Mechanistically, we identified that the proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and MCT2, which enable efficient 3-BrPA uptake by cancer cells, were selectively activated by Myc. Two regulatory mechanisms were involved: first, Myc directly activated MCT1 and MCT2 transcription by binding to specific recognition sites of both genes; second, Myc transcriptionally repressed miR29a and miR29c, resulting in enhanced expression of their target protein MCT1. Of note, expressions of MCT1 and MCT2 were each significantly elevated in MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas and C-MYC-overexpressing lymphomas than in tumors without MYC overexpression, correlating with poor prognosis and unfavorable patient survival. These results identify a novel mechanism by which Myc sensitizes cells to metabolic inhibitors and validate 3-BrPA as potential Myc-selective cancer therapeutics. PMID:26434591

  9. Butyrate activates the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 expression in breast cancer cells and enhances the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate.

    PubMed

    Queirós, Odília; Preto, Ana; Pacheco, António; Pinheiro, Céline; Azevedo-Silva, João; Moreira, Roxana; Pedro, Madalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Baltazar, Fátima; Casal, Margarida

    2012-02-01

    Most malignant tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, which consists in increased glycolysis rates with production of lactate, even in the presence of oxygen. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), maintain these glycolytic rates, by mediating the influx and/or efflux of lactate and are overexpressed in several cancer cell types. The lactate and pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an inhibitor of the energy metabolism, which has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. In the present study, we aimed at determining the effect of 3-BP in breast cancer cells and evaluated the putative role of MCTs on this effect. Our results showed that the three breast cancer cell lines used presented different sensitivities to 3-BP: ZR-75-1 ER (+)>MCF-7 ER (+)>SK-BR-3 ER (-). We also demonstrated that 3-BP reduced lactate production, induced cell morphological alterations and increased apoptosis. The effect of 3-BP appears to be cytotoxic rather than cytostatic, as a continued decrease in cell viability was observed after removal of 3-BP. We showed that pre-incubation with butyrate enhanced significantly 3-BP cytotoxicity, especially in the most resistant breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We observed that butyrate treatment induced localization of MCT1 in the plasma membrane as well as overexpression of MCT4 and its chaperone CD147. Our results thus indicate that butyrate pre-treatment potentiates the effect of 3-BP, most probably by increasing the rates of 3-BP transport through MCT1/4. This study supports the potential use of butyrate as adjuvant of 3-BP in the treatment of breast cancer resistant cells, namely ER (-). PMID:22350013

  10. Tailoring NO donors metallopharmaceuticals: ruthenium nitrosyl ammines and aliphatic tetraazamacrocycles.

    PubMed

    Tfouni, E; Doro, F G; Figueiredo, L E; Pereira, J C M; Metzker, G; Franco, D W

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in several physiological and pathophysiological processes launched a spectacular increase in studies in areas such as chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology. As a consequence, the development of NO donors or scavengers for regulation of its concentration and bioavailability in vivo is required. In this sense, ruthenium nitrosyl ammines and aliphatic tetraazamacrocyles have attracted a lot of attention due to their unique chemical properties. These complexes are water soluble and stable in solution, not to mention that they can deliver NO when photochemically or chemically activated by the reduction of the coordinated nitrosonium (NO+). The tuning of the energies of the charge transfer bands, the redox potential, and the specific rate constants of NO liberation, in both solution and matrices, is desirable for the achievement of selective NO delivery to biological targets, hence making the ruthenium ammines and aliphatic tetraazamacrocyles a quite versatile platform for biological application purposes. These ruthenium nitrosyls have shown to be active in firing neurons in mouse hippocampus, performing redox reactions in mitochondria, acting in blood pressure control, exhibiting cytotoxic activities against trypanosomatids (T.cruzi and L.major) and tumor cells. This tailoring approach is explored here, being heavily supported by the accumulated knowledge on the chemistry and photochemistry of ruthenium complexes, which allows NO donors/scavengers systems to be custom made designed. PMID:20846113

  11. Terrestrial ecotoxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Martí, Esther; Sierra, Jordi; Cruañas, Robert; Iglesias, Miguel; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2011-12-01

    A study of the ecotoxicity of different short aliphatic protic ionic liquids (PILs) on terrestrial organisms was conducted. Tests performed within the present study include those assessing the effects of PILs on soil microbial functions (carbon and nitrogen mineralization) and terrestrial plants. The results show that the nominal lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration (LOAEC) values were 5,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for the plant test in two species (Lolium perenne, Allium cepa), 1,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for the plant test in one species (Raphanus sativus), and 10,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for carbon and nitrogen microbial transformation tests (all concentrations are nominal). Most of the median effective concentration values (EC50) were above 1,000 mg/kg (dry soil). Based on the obtained results, these compounds can be described as nontoxic for soil microbiota and the analyzed plants, and potentially biodegradable in soils, as can be deduced from the respirometric experiment. The toxicity rises with the increase of complexity of the PILs molecule (branch and length of aliphatic chain) among the three PILs analyzed. PMID:21935980

  12. Kinetics of bacterial growth on chlorinated aliphatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wijngaard, A.J. van den; Wind, R.E.; Janssen, D.B. )

    1993-07-01

    Halogenated aliphatic compounds are frequent constituents of industrial waste gases. Because of the environmental and biological toxic effects of these compounds, there is a growing interest in technologies for their removal. Biological waste gas purification is an option if specialized bacterial strains that use halogenated aliphatics as sole carbon and energy sources can be used. Elimination efficiency of the compounds depends not only on the process technology but on the degradation properties of the bacterial strains. Important aspects of bacterial growth are the Monod half-saturation constant and the maximum growth rate. In this study the kinetic properties of the organisms (Ancylobacter aquaticus AD20 and AD25, Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10, Pseudomonas sp. strain AD1) weree measured during growth in continuous cultures and wer compared with the kinetic properties of the first catabolic enzyme involved in the degradation of the growth substrate. The results indicate that the growth of the strains examined followed Monod kinetics. Stains AD20 and GJ10 showed growth rates on DCE somewhat higher than predicted from the amount of haloalkane dehalogenase present in the cells, while strain AD25 was much lower. 33 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Two Novel Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases Involved in Biosynthesis of Aliphatic Glucosinolates

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wenwen; Li, Jing; Yu, Qingyue; Cang, Wei; Xu, Rui; Wang, Yang; Ji, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites from cruciferous plants, are derived from amino acids and have diverse biological activities, such as in biotic defense, depending on their side chain modification. The first structural modification step in the synthesis of aliphatic (methionine-derived) glucosinolates—S-oxygenation of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates—was found to be catalyzed by five flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), FMOGS-OX1-5. Here, we report two additional FMOGS-OX enzymes, FMOGS-OX6, and FMOGS-OX7, encoded by At1g12130 and At1g12160, respectively. The overexpression of both FMOGS-OX6 and FMOGS-OX7 decreased the ratio of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to the sum of methylthioalkyl and methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates, suggesting that the introduction of the two genes converted methylthioalkyl glucosinolates into methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates. Analysis of expression pattern revealed that the spatial expression of the two genes is quite similar and partially overlapped with the other FMOGS-OX genes, which are primarily expressed in vascular tissue. We further analyzed the responsive expression pattern of all the seven FMOGS-OX genes to exogenous treatment with abscisic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and low and high temperatures. Although these genes showed same tendency toward the changing stimulus, the sensitivity of each gene was quite different. The variety in spatial expression among the FMOGS-OX genes while responding to environmental stimulus indicated a complex and finely tuned regulation of glucosinolates modifications. Identification of these two novel FMOGS-OX enzymes will enhance the understanding of glucosinolates modifications and the importance of evolution of these duplicated genes. PMID:27621741

  14. Two Novel Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases Involved in Biosynthesis of Aliphatic Glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wenwen; Li, Jing; Yu, Qingyue; Cang, Wei; Xu, Rui; Wang, Yang; Ji, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites from cruciferous plants, are derived from amino acids and have diverse biological activities, such as in biotic defense, depending on their side chain modification. The first structural modification step in the synthesis of aliphatic (methionine-derived) glucosinolates-S-oxygenation of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates-was found to be catalyzed by five flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), FMOGS-OX1-5. Here, we report two additional FMOGS-OX enzymes, FMOGS-OX6, and FMOGS-OX7, encoded by At1g12130 and At1g12160, respectively. The overexpression of both FMOGS-OX6 and FMOGS-OX7 decreased the ratio of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to the sum of methylthioalkyl and methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates, suggesting that the introduction of the two genes converted methylthioalkyl glucosinolates into methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates. Analysis of expression pattern revealed that the spatial expression of the two genes is quite similar and partially overlapped with the other FMOGS-OX genes, which are primarily expressed in vascular tissue. We further analyzed the responsive expression pattern of all the seven FMOGS-OX genes to exogenous treatment with abscisic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and low and high temperatures. Although these genes showed same tendency toward the changing stimulus, the sensitivity of each gene was quite different. The variety in spatial expression among the FMOGS-OX genes while responding to environmental stimulus indicated a complex and finely tuned regulation of glucosinolates modifications. Identification of these two novel FMOGS-OX enzymes will enhance the understanding of glucosinolates modifications and the importance of evolution of these duplicated genes. PMID:27621741

  15. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721.9952 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9952 Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether... identified generically as alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721.9952 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9952 Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether... identified generically as alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  5. Preferences in removal of aliphatic and aromatic gasoline components by biofiltration under varied loading.

    PubMed

    Halecky, Martin; Paca, Jan; Kozliak, Evguenii I

    2012-01-01

    Removal of gasoline vapors from waste air was investigated in a bench-scale perlite biofilter for three aromatic-to-aliphatic mass ratios (62/38, 92/8 and 44/56) under different loads, varied by changing both the substrate inlet concentration and air flow rate. The measurement of concentration profiles along the bed height allowed for an assessment of interactions between the aromatic and aliphatic fractions of gasoline. Variations in both the inlet concentrations and empty bed residence time significantly influenced the removal of aliphatic gasoline components. Except for the lowest organic loads, the whole biofilter bed was required for achieving an acceptable removal efficiency of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The presence of large amounts of aromatics negatively impacted the removal of aliphatics. By contrast, the aromatic gasoline components were near-completely removed from any mixtures; the bulk of them were degraded in the first (out of three) biofilter section, even at high concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The observed effect was shown to be due to competitive interactions of aliphatic and aromatic components, which is consistent with the biological steps being rate limiting. Mass transfer, particularly for aliphatic components due to their high Henry's law constants, was shown to be rate-limiting under extreme scenarios, such as low loading rates and EBRT. PMID:22486669

  6. A statistical approach to the interpretation of aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions in marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Q-mode factor analysis was used to quantitate the distribution of the major aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-alkanes, pristane, phytane) systems in sediments from a variety of marine environments. The compositions of the pure end members of the systems were obtained from factor scores and the distribution of the systems within each sample was obtained from factor loadings. All the data, from the diverse environments sampled (estuarine (San Francisco Bay), fresh-water (San Francisco Peninsula), polar-marine (Antarctica) and geothermal-marine (Gorda Ridge) sediments), were reduced to three major systems: a terrestrial system (mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with odd-numbered-carbon predominance), a mature system (mostly low molecular weight aliphatics without predominance) and a system containing mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with even-numbered-carbon predominance. With this statistical approach, it is possible to assign the percentage contribution from various sources to the observed distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in each sediment sample. ?? 1991.

  7. The Impact of the Absence of Aliphatic Glucosinolates on Insect Herbivory in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Nicole M.; Bertossi, Monica; Grandi, Valentina; Mizzi, Luca; Soloviev, Mikhail; Szabados, Laszlo; Molthoff, Jos W.; Schipper, Bert; Verbocht, Hans; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Morandini, Piero; Aarts, Mark G. M.; Bovy, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Aliphatic glucosinolates are compounds which occur in high concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species. They are important for the resistance of the plant to pest insects. Previously, the biosynthesis of these compounds was shown to be regulated by transcription factors MYB28 and MYB29. We now show that MYB28 and MYB29 are partially redundant, but in the absence of both, the synthesis of all aliphatic glucosinolates is blocked. Untargeted and targeted biochemical analyses of leaf metabolites showed that differences between single and double knock-out mutants and wild type plants were restricted to glucosinolates. Biosynthesis of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates was blocked by the myb28 mutation, while short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates were reduced by about 50% in both the myb28 and the myb29 single mutants. Most remarkably, all aliphatic glucosinolates were completely absent in the double mutant. Expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes was slightly but significantly reduced by the single myb mutations, while the double mutation resulted in a drastic decrease in expression of these genes. Since the myb28myb29 double mutant is the first Arabidopsis genotype without any aliphatic glucosinolates, we used it to establish the relevance of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis to herbivory by larvae of the lepidopteran insect Mamestra brassicae. Plant damage correlated inversely to the levels of aliphatic glucosinolates observed in those plants: Larval weight gain was 2.6 fold higher on the double myb28myb29 mutant completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates and 1.8 higher on the single mutants with intermediate levels of aliphatic glucosinolates compared to wild type plants. PMID:18446225

  8. Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2003-10-01

    Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent

  9. Combined size exclusion chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the analysis of complex aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Nadine O; Willemse, Chandré M; de Villiers, André; Pasch, Harald

    2014-02-21

    Aliphatic polyesters are complex products of polycondensation that are distributed regarding the degree of polycondensation, the end group functionality and the molecular topology. To address the molecular heterogeneity of polyesters based on phthalic acid and propylene glycol, for the first time the combination of SEC, SFC and ESI-MS have been used. In a first set of experiments, samples were fractionated by SEC and the collected fractions analyzed by SFC for a tentative assignment of the degrees of polycondensation. More conclusive results were obtained by semi-preparative SFC fractionation of the bulk samples and the subsequent analysis of the collected fractions by ESI-MS. The ESI-MS spectra of the SFC fractions provided detailed information on the presence of linear and cyclic oligomers, their degrees of polycondensation and their end groups. Information on the presence of propylene oxide oligomers was also obtained and it was shown how they were inserted in the polymer structures. Compared to previous work, the present approach provides significantly more detailed information on the molecular complexity of aliphatic polyesters. This is mainly due to the fact that SFC has been used as the second chromatographic dimension which is known to have superior separation capabilities. PMID:24472839

  10. A Route to Aliphatic Poly(ester)s with Thiol Pendant Groups: From Monomer Design to Editable Porous Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Fuoco, Tiziana; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Pappalardo, Daniela

    2016-04-11

    Biodegradable aliphatic polyesters such as poly(lactide) and poly(ε-caprolactone), largely used in tissue engineering applications, lack suitable functional groups and biological cues to enable interactions with cells. Because of the ubiquity of thiol groups in the biological environment and the pliability of thiol chemistry, we aimed to design and synthesize poly(ester) chains bearing pendant thiol-protected groups. To achieve this, 3-methyl-6-(tritylthiomethyl)-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione, a lactide-type monomer possessing a pendant thiol-protected group, was synthesized. This molecule, when used as a monomer in controlled ring-opening polymerization in combination with lactide and ε-caprolactone, appeared to be a convenient "building block" for the preparation of functionalized aliphatic copolyesters, which were easily modified further. A polymeric sample bearing pyridyl disulfide groups, able to bind a cysteine-containing peptide, was efficiently obtained from a two-step modification reaction. Porous scaffolds were then prepared by blending this latter copolymer sample with poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) followed by salt leaching. A further disulfide exchange reaction performed in aqueous medium formed porous scaffolds with covalently linked arginine-glycine-aspartic acid sequences. The scaffolds were characterized by thermal and mechanical tests, and scanning electron microscopy surface images revealed a highly porous morphology. Moreover, a cytotoxicity test indicated good cell viability. PMID:26915640

  11. Structural Features of PbS Nanocube Monolayers upon Treatment with Mono- and Dicarboxylic Acids and Thiols at a Liquid-Air Interface.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Martin R; Campbell, Gavin P; Bedzyk, Michael J; Weiss, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the ordering of PbS nanocubes (NCs) within free-standing monolayers (suspended on acetonitrile), upon exchanging the native oleate ligands for a series of thiolate and carboxylate ligands at the liquid-air interface. Treatment with either carboxylic acids or thiols effectively decreases the inter-NC separation of nearest-neighbor particles without etching the NC surface. Dicarboxylic acids and dithiols bridge neighboring NCs with an interparticle separation that is consistent with fully extended, bridging ligands. Monocarboxylic acids and monothiols separate NCs by an amount governed by their length, with long-chain ligands showing significant intercalation. (1)H NMR spectroscopy shows carboxylic acids are more effective at replacing the native oleate than are thiols, which we ascribe to the lower pKa values of carboxylic acids. The fast exchange that occurs upon treatment with monocarboxylic acids kinetically traps the clusters of particles in nonclosed packed geometries, so monolayers treated with monocarboxylic acids are, on average, less ordered than those treated with monothiols. Ex situ electron microscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) analyses of deposited films on Si/SiO2 substrates show that NCs exchanged with nonbridging ligands pack more efficiently at long length scales than do NCs exchanged with bridging ligands, due primarily to the creation of defects within the NC lattice in response to the rigidity of the bridging ligand. PMID:27297625

  12. The Role of Monocarboxylate Transporters and Their Chaperone CD147 in Lactate Efflux Inhibition and the Anticancer Effects of Terminalia chebula in Neuroblastoma Cell Line N2-A

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, S. S.; Zarmouh, N. O.; Taka, E.; Gendy, S. G.; Shokry, G. R.; Kolta, M. G.; Soliman, K. F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In the presence of oxygen, most of the synthesized pyruvate during glycolysis in the cancer cell of solid tumors is released away from the mitochondria to form lactate (Warburg Effect). To maintain cell homeostasis, lactate is transported across the cell membrane by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The major aim of the current investigation is to identify novel compounds that inhibit lactate efflux that may lead to identifying effective targets for cancer treatment. Study Design In this study, 900 ethanol plant extracts were screened for their lactate efflux inhibition using neuroblastoma (N2-A) cell line. Additionally, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition for the most potent plant extract regarding monocarboxylate transporters expression, and consequences effects on viability, growth, and apoptosis. Methodology The potency of lactate efflux inhibition of ethanol plant extracts was evaluated in N2-A cells by measuring extracellular lactate levels. Caspase 3- activity and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining were performed to assess the apoptotic effect. The antiproliferative effect was measured using WST assay. Western blotting was performed to quantify protein expression of MCTs and their chaperone CD147 in treated cells lysates. Results Terminalia chebula plant extract was the most potent lactate efflux inhibitor in N2-A cells among the 900 - tested plant extracts. The results obtained show that extract of Terminalia chebula fruits (TCE) significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the expression of the MCT1, MCT3, MCT4 and the chaperone CD147. The plant extract was more potent (IC50 of 3.59 ± 0.26 μg/ml) than the MCT standard inhibitor phloretin (IC50 76.54 ± 3.19 μg/ml). The extract also showed more potency and selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells than DI-TNC1 primary cell line (IC50 7.37 ± 0.28 vs. 17.35 ± 0.19 μg/ml). Moreover, TCE Inhibited N2-A cell growth (IG50 = 5.20 ± 0.30 μg/ml) and induced apoptosis at the 7.5 μg/ml concentration

  13. Aliphatic hyperbranched polyester: A new building block in the construction of multifunctional nanoparticles and nanocomposites**

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Santimukul; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Perez, J. Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Herein we report the design and synthesis of multifunctional hyperbranched polyester-based nanoparticles and nanocomposites with properties ranging from magnetic, fluorescence, antioxidant and X-ray contrast. The fabrication of these nanostructures was achieved using a novel aliphatic and biodegradable hyperbranched polyester (HBPE) synthesized from readily available diethylmalonate. The polymer’s globular structure with functional surface carboxylic groups and hydrophobic cavities residing in the polymer’s interior allows for the formation of multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles, which are able to encapsulate a diversity of hydrophobic cargos. Via simple surface chemistry modifications, the surface carboxylic acid groups were modified to yield nanoparticles with a variety of surface functionalizations, such as amino, azide and propargyl groups, which mediated the conjugation of small molecules. This capability achieved the engineering of the HBPE nanoparticle surface for specific cell internalization studies and the formation of nanoparticle assemblies for the creation of novel nanocomposites that retained, and in some cases enhanced, the properties of the parental nanoparticle building blocks. Considering these results, the HBPE polymer, nanoparticles and composites should be ideal for biomedical, pharmaceutical, nanophotonics and material applications. PMID:19957939

  14. Structural analysis of aliphatic versus aromatic substrate specificity in a copper amine oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Klema, Valerie J; Solheid, Corinne J; Klinman, Judith P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2013-04-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are responsible for the oxidative deamination of primary amines to their corresponding aldehydes. The CAO catalytic mechanism can be divided into two half-reactions: a reductive half-reaction in which a primary amine substrate is oxidized to its corresponding aldehyde with the concomitant reduction of the organic cofactor 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ) and an oxidative half-reaction in which reduced TPQ is reoxidized with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The reductive half-reaction proceeds via Schiff base chemistry, in which the primary amine substrate first attacks the C5 carbonyl of TPQ, forming a series of covalent Schiff base intermediates. The X-ray crystal structures of copper amine oxidase-1 from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HPAO-1) in complex with ethylamine and benzylamine have been determined to resolutions of 2.18 and 2.25 Å, respectively. These structures reveal the two amine substrates bound at the back of the active site coincident with TPQ in its two-electron-reduced aminoquinol form. Rearrangements of particular amino acid side chains within the substrate channel and specific protein-substrate interactions provide insight into the substrate specificity of HPAO-1. These changes begin to account for this CAO's kinetic preference for small, aliphatic amines over the aromatic amines or whole peptides preferred by some of its homologues. PMID:23452079

  15. Divergent layer topologies in divalent metal aliphatic dicarboxylate coordination polymers containing 3-pyridylmethylnicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Charmaine L.; Torres Salgado, Maria D.; Mizzi, Jessica E.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal reaction of the requisite metal salt, an aliphatic dicarboxylic acid, and the hydrogen-bonding capable dipyridylamide ligand 3-pyridylmethylnicotinamide (3-pmna) resulted in four coordination polymers whose connectedness and layer topology depend on the metal coordination environment and dicarboxylate binding mode. These new crystalline phases were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. [Cu(ox)(3-pmna)]n (1, ox = oxalate) manifests stacked 3-connected (6,3) herringbone layer motifs. {[Cd(mal)(3-pmna)(H2O)]·3H2O}n (2, mal = malonate) shows a 4-connected (4,4) grid topology with entrained water molecule trimeric chains in the interlamellar regions. {[Cd2(suc)2(3-pmna)(H2O)2]·3H2O}n (3, suc = succinate) possesses {Cd2O2} dimer-based [Cd(suc)]n layers pillared by 3-pmna ligands into a 5-connected sandwich motif with 4862 topology. {[Cd(glu)(3-pmna)(H2O)]·3H2O}n (4, glu = glutarate) manifests a rippled (4,4) grid topology. Luminescent behavior in the cadmium complexes is ascribed to intra-ligand molecular orbital transitions. Thermal decomposition behavior is also discussed herein.

  16. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-01

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal - a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance. PMID:25296798

  17. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: Aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-07

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal – a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance.

  18. Different aliphatic dicarboxylates affected assemble of new coordination polymers constructed from flexible-rigid mixed ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xinxin; Ma Ying; Wang Enbo

    2007-11-15

    In this article, seven coordination polymers: [Cd(C{sub 5}H{sub 6}O{sub 4})(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})]{sub n} (1), [Zn(C{sub 5}H{sub 6}O{sub 4})(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})]{sub n} (2), [Cd(C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 4})(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})]{sub n} (3), {l_brace}[Mn(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}).4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (4), [Mn{sub 5}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 4}(O)]{sub n} (5), [Cd(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4})(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (6) and [Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 4})(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (7) were synthesized and characterized by single-crystallographic X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 are two-dimensional layers connected by glutarate anions and 4,4'-bpy. Unlike compounds 1 and 2, compound 3 is a two-fold interpenetration network. Compound 4 is a one-dimensional chain-like structure, which is further extended to two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure with hydrogen bond. During the synthesis of compound 4, to our surprise, we got compound 5; compound 5 is an interesting three-dimensional network composed of pentanuclear Mn(II) building units and succinate anions. Compound 6 is also a two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure composed of one-dimensional chain-like structure with hydrogen bonds and {pi}-{pi} interactions. Compound 7 is also a one-dimensional chain-like structure, which is further connected with the same kind of interaction to generate two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibit fluorescent property at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Seven complexes composed by 3D metal ions, aliphatic acid ligand and rigid bidentate nitrogen ligands: 4,4'-bpy, 2,2'-bpy and 1,10'-phen. With the change of the carbon number of the backbone of aliphatic dicarboxylate ligand, we can synthesize different complexes with various structures.

  19. Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to qualify candidate alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethane coatings under the specifications for the standard system. This project will compare coating performance of the proposed alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  20. Project Summary. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the potential of an innovative approach to aquifer restoration: enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (...

  1. ANAEROBIC TRANSFORMATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SAND AQUIFER BASED ON SPATIAL CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We estimated the distribution of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) from groundwater samples collected along three transects in a sand aquifer. richloroethylene (TCE) leaked and contaminated the aquifer probably more than a decade before we collected the measurements. he d...

  2. CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTION AND ANAEROBIC TRANSFORMATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SAND AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We estimated the distribution of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHS) from groundwater samples collected along three transects in a sand aquifer. richloroethylene (TCE) leaked and contaminated the aquifer probably more than a decade before we collected the measurements. he d...

  3. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  4. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Greene, Marvin I.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1984-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  5. Shape memory polymers based on uniform aliphatic urethane networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T S; Bearinger, J P; Herberg, J L; Marion III, J E; Wright, W J; Evans, C L; Maitland, D J

    2007-01-19

    Aliphatic urethane polymers have been synthesized and characterized, using monomers with high molecular symmetry, in order to form amorphous networks with very uniform supermolecular structures which can be used as photo-thermally actuable shape memory polymers (SMPs). The monomers used include hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trimethylhexamethylenediamine (TMHDI), N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine (HPED), triethanolamine (TEA), and 1,3-butanediol (BD). The new polymers were characterized by solvent extraction, NMR, XPS, UV/VIS, DSC, DMTA, and tensile testing. The resulting polymers were found to be single phase amorphous networks with very high gel fraction, excellent optical clarity, and extremely sharp single glass transitions in the range of 34 to 153 C. Thermomechanical testing of these materials confirms their excellent shape memory behavior, high recovery force, and low mechanical hysteresis (especially on multiple cycles), effectively behaving as ideal elastomers above T{sub g}. We believe these materials represent a new and potentially important class of SMPs, and should be especially useful in applications such as biomedical microdevices.

  6. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in Great Barrier Reef organisms and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, M.; Connell, D. W.; Bodero, J.; Miller, G. J.; Back, R.

    1986-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the chemical nature, occurrence, and possible origin of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments, water, and a suite of seven species from widely separated coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef area were analysed by gas chromatography, and by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The hydrocarbons found were substantially of biogenic origin. The major components were n-pentadecane, n-heptadecane, pristane and mono-alkenes based on heptadecane, and were believed to originate from benthic algae and phytoplankton. There was no evidence to suggest that lipid content had any influence on hydrocarbon content. Hydrocarbons from the organisms and sediments have characteristic composition patterns which would be altered by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. An unresolved complex mixture, usually considered indicative of petroleum contamination, was found in greater than trace amounts only in Holothuria (sea cucumber) and Acropora (coral) from the Capricorn Group, and in some sediment samples from the Capricorn Group and Lizard Island area.

  7. Photochemistry of (E)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethene in the presence of aliphatic amines: H-bonding and charge-transfer effects.

    PubMed

    Bortolus, Pietro; Galiazzo, Guido; Gennari, Giorgio; Monti, Sandra E

    2002-06-01

    Polysubstituted aliphatic and aromatic amines and alcohols quench the fluorescence of (E)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethene (NA). The quenching occurs without modification of the NA emission characteristics, follows a Stern-Volmer (SV) relationship and correlates with the decrease of the photoisomerization and intersystem crossing (ISC) yields. The dependence of the quenching rate constants (k(q)) on the ionization potentials suggests a charge-transfer interaction for the amines. The dependence of the k(q) values on alcohol acidity indicates the intervention of H-bonding phenomena. The interaction of primary aliphatic amines and NA in low-polarity solvents results in a broadening and a quenching of the NA emission. The quenching does not follow the SV relationship, has no effect on the E --> Z photoisomerization nor on the population of the triplet state, and increases the yield of the photobleaching reaction, especially in more polar solvents (chlorobenzene). This peculiar behaviour of primary aliphatic amines is attributed to H-bonded complexes in both the ground and the lowest excited singlet state. PMID:12856709

  8. A note on the prebiotic synthesis of organic acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Strong similarities between monocarboxylic and hydrocarboxylic acids in the Murchison meteorite suggest corresponding similarities in their origins. However, various lines of evidence apparently implicate quite different precursor compounds in the synthesis of the different acids. These seeming inconsistencies can be resolved by postulating that the apparent precursors also share a related origin. Pervasive D enrichment indicates that this origin was in a presolar molecular cloud. The organic acids themselves were probably synthesized in an aqueous environment on an asteroidal parent body, the hydroxy (and amino) acids by means of the Strecker cyanohydrin reaction.

  9. THE CARRIERS OF THE INTERSTELLAR UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES: AROMATIC OR ALIPHATIC?

    SciTech Connect

    Li Aigen; Draine, B. T. E-mail: draine@astro.princeton.edu

    2012-12-01

    The unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 {mu}m, commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, have been recently ascribed to coal- or kerogen-like organic nanoparticles with a mixed aromatic-aliphatic structure. However, we show in this Letter that this hypothesis is inconsistent with observations. We estimate the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers based on the observed intensities of the 3.4 {mu}m and 6.85 {mu}m emission features by attributing them exclusively to aliphatic C-H stretch and aliphatic C-H deformation vibrational modes, respectively. We derive the fraction of carbon atoms in aliphatic form to be <15%. We conclude that the UIE emitters are predominantly aromatic, with aliphatic material at most a minor part of the UIE carriers. The PAH model is consistent with astronomical observations and PAHs dominate the strong UIE bands.

  10. A Theoretical Study on the Vibrational Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Molecules with Aliphatic Sidegroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, SeyedAbdolreza; Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun

    2015-03-01

    The role of aliphatic side groups in the formation of astronomical unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features is investigated by applying the density functional theory to a series of molecules with mixed aliphatic-aromatic structures. The effects of introducing various aliphatic groups to a fixed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) core (ovalene) are studied. Simulated spectra for each molecule are produced by applying a Drude profile at T = 500 K while the molecule is kept at its electronic ground state. The vibrational normal modes are classified using a semi-quantitative method. This allows us to separate the aromatic and aliphatic vibrations, and therefore provides clues to what types of vibrations are responsible for the emissions bands at different wavelengths. We find that many of the UIE bands are not pure aromatic vibrational bands but may represent coupled vibrational modes. The effects of aliphatic groups on the formation of the 8 μm plateau are quantitatively determined. The vibrational motions of methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2 -) groups can cause the merging of the vibrational bands of the parent PAH and the forming of broad features. These results suggest that aliphatic structures can play an important role in the UIE phenomenon.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of d-α-amino amides from aliphatic aldehydes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00064e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schwieter, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides consisting of d-amino amides are highly represented among both biologically active natural products and non-natural small molecules used in therapeutic development. Chemical synthesis of d-amino amides most often involves approaches based on enzymatic resolution or fractional recrystallization of their diastereomeric amino acid salt precursors, techniques that produce an equal amount of the l-amino acid. Enantioselective synthesis, however, promises selective and general access to a specific α-amino amide, and may enable efficient peptide synthesis regardless of the availability of the corresponding α-amino acid. This report describes the use of a cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed aza-Henry reaction using bromonitromethane, and the integration of its product with umpolung amide synthesis. The result is a straightforward 3-step protocol beginning from aliphatic aldehydes that provides homologated peptides bearing an aliphatic side chain at the resulting d-α-amino amide. PMID:25838883

  12. Aliphatic polyester block polymers: renewable, degradable, and sustainable.

    PubMed

    Hillmyer, Marc A; Tolman, William B

    2014-08-19

    Nearly all polymers are derived from nonrenewable fossil resources, and their disposal at their end of use presents significant environmental problems. Nonetheless, polymers are ubiquitous, key components in myriad technologies and are simply indispensible for modern society. An important overarching goal in contemporary polymer research is to develop sustainable alternatives to "petro-polymers" that have competitive performance properties and price, are derived from renewable resources, and may be easily and safely recycled or degraded. Aliphatic polyesters are particularly attractive targets that may be prepared in highly controlled fashion by ring-opening polymerization of bioderived lactones. However, property profiles of polyesters derived from single monomers (homopolymers) can limit their applications, thus demanding alternative strategies. One such strategy is to link distinct polymeric segments in an A-B-A fashion, with A and B chosen to be thermodynamically incompatible so that they can self-organize on a nanometer-length scale and adopt morphologies that endow them with tunable properties. For example, such triblock copolymers can be useful as thermoplastic elastomers, in pressure sensitive adhesive formulations, and as toughening modifiers. Inspired by the tremendous utility of petroleum-derived styrenic triblock copolymers, we aimed to develop syntheses and understand the structure-property profiles of sustainable alternatives, focusing on all renewable and all readily degradable aliphatic polyester triblocks as targets. Building upon oxidation chemistry reported more than a century ago, a constituent of the peppermint plant, (-)-menthol, was converted to the ε-caprolactone derivative menthide. Using a diol initiator and controlled catalysis, menthide was polymerized to yield a low glass transition temperature telechelic polymer (PM) that was then further functionalized using the biomass-derived monomer lactide (LA) to yield fully renewable PLA

  13. Anomalous regioselective four-member multicomponent Biginelli reaction II: one-pot parallel synthesis of spiro heterobicyclic aliphatic rings.

    PubMed

    Byk, Gerardo; Kabha, Eihab

    2004-01-01

    In a previous preliminary study, we found that a cyclic five-member ring beta-keto ester (lactone) reacts with one molecule of urea and two of aldehyde to give a new family of spiro heterobicyclic aliphatic rings in good yields with no traces of the expected dihydropyrimidine (Biginelli) products. The reaction is driven by a regiospecific condensation of two molecules of aldehyde with urea and beta-keto-gamma-lactone to afford only products harboring substitutions exclusively in a syn configuration (Byk, G.; Gottlieb, H. E.; Herscovici, J.; Mirkin, F. J. Comb. Chem. 2000, 2, 732-735). In the present work ((a) Presented in part at ISCT Combitech, October 15, 2002, Israel, and Eurocombi-2, Copenhagen 2003 (oral and poster presentation). (b) Also in American Peptide Society Symposium, Boston, 2003 (poster presentation). (c) Abstract in Biopolymers 2003, 71 (3), 354-355), we report a large and exciting extension of this new reaction utilizing parallel organic synthesis arrays, as demonstrated by the use of chiral beta-keto-gamma-lactams, derived from natural amino acids, instead of tetronic acid (beta-keto-gamma-lactone) and the potential of the spirobicyclic products for generating "libraries from libraries". Interestingly, we note an unusual and important anisotropy effect induced by perpendicular interactions between rigid pi systems and different groups placed at the alpha position of the obtained spirobicyclic system. Stereo/regioselectivity of the aldehyde condensation is driven by the nature of the substitutions on the starting beta-keto-gamma-lactam. Aromatic aldehydes can be used as starting reagents with good yields; however, when aliphatic aldehydes are used, the desired products are obtained in poor yields, as observed in the classical Biginelli reaction. The possible reasons for these poor yields are addressed and clarify, to some extent, the complexity of the Biginelli multicomponent reaction mechanism and, in particular, the mechanism of the present

  14. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25340465

  15. 2-METHYLHEXANOIC ACID DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an investigation of the developmental effects and structure-activity relationships of aliphatic acids, 2-methylhexanoic acid was administered by gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats on gestation days 6-15 at doses of 0, 300, and 400 mg/kg/day. The dams were allowed to deliver...

  16. 5-METHYLHEXANOIC ACID DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an investigation of the developmental effects and structure-activity relationships of aliphatic acids, 5- methylhexanoic acid was administered by gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats on gestation days 6-15 at doses of 0, 300, and 400 mg/kg/day. The dams were allowed to delive...

  17. Purification of Pseudomonas putida acyl coenzyme A ligase active with a range of aliphatic and aromatic substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Valverde, M; Reglero, A; Martinez-Blanco, H; Luengo, J M

    1993-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) ligase (acyl-CoA synthetase [ACoAS]) from Pseudomonas putida U was purified to homogeneity (252-fold) after this bacterium was grown in a chemically defined medium containing octanoic acid as the sole carbon source. The enzyme, which has a mass of 67 kDa, showed maximal activity at 40 degrees C in 10 mM K2PO4H-NaPO4H2 buffer (pH 7.0) containing 20% (wt/vol) glycerol. Under these conditions, ACoAS showed hyperbolic behavior against acetate, CoA, and ATP; the Kms calculated for these substrates were 4.0, 0.7, and 5.2 mM, respectively. Acyl-CoA ligase recognizes several aliphatic molecules (acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, hexanoic, heptanoic, and octanoic acids) as substrates, as well as some aromatic compounds (phenylacetic and phenoxyacetic acids). The broad substrate specificity of ACoAS from P. putida was confirmed by coupling it with acyl-CoA:6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum to study the formation of several penicillins. Images PMID:8476289

  18. Uptake of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) from the apical membranes of the human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Osamu; Tsukagoshi, Kensuke; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Endo, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether the uptake of triclopyr (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) across the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells was mediated via proton-linked monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCTs). The uptake of triclopyr from the apical membranes was fast, pH-, temperature-, and concentration dependent, required metabolic energy to proceed, and was competitively inhibited by monocarboxylic acids such as benzoic acid and ferulic acid (substrates of L-lactic acid-insensitive MCTs), but not by L-lactic acid. Thus, the uptake of triclopyr in Caco-2 cells appears to be mediated mainly via L-lactic acid-insensitive MCTs. In contrast, the uptake of dicamba (a benzoic acid derivative) was slow, and it was both pH- and temperature dependent. Coincubation with ferulic acid did not decrease the uptake of dicamba, although coincubation with benzoic acid moderately decreased it. The uptake of dicamba appears to be mediated mainly via passive diffusion, which is in contrast to the uptake of benzoic acid via MCTs. We speculate that the substituted groups in dicamba may inhibit uptake via MCTs. PMID:21766207

  19. Hydroxylation versus Halogenation of Aliphatic C-H Bonds by a Dioxygen-Derived Iron-Oxygen Oxidant: Functional Mimicking of Iron Halogenases.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sayanti; Paine, Tapan Kanti

    2016-06-27

    An iron-oxygen intermediate species generated in situ in the reductive activation of dioxygen by an iron(II)-benzilate complex of a monoanionic facial N3 ligand, promoted the halogenation of aliphatic C-H bonds in the presence of a protic acid and a halide anion. An electrophilic iron(IV)-oxo oxidant with a coordinated halide is proposed as the active oxidant. The halogenation reaction with dioxygen and the iron complex mimics the activity of non-heme iron halogenases. PMID:26822989

  20. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  1. Primordial transport of sugars and amino acids via Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, William; Rau, Aruna

    1981-09-01

    Experimental support is given for a model concerning the origin of a primordial transport system. The model is based on the facilitated diffusion of amino acids stimulated by aliphatic aldehyde carriers and sugars stimulated by aliphatic amine carriers. The lipid-soluble diffusing species is the Schiff base. The possible role of this simple transport system in the origin of an early protocell is discussed.

  2. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Travaglini, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

  3. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1983-09-20

    A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

  4. Capillary Electrophoresis Profiles and Fluorophore Components of Humic Acids in Nebraska Corn and Philippine Rice Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As humic substances represent relatively high molecular mass polyelectrolytes containing aromatic, aliphatic and heterocyclic subunits, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become an attractive method for “finger-print” characterization of humic acids. In addition, fluorescence excitation-emission ma...

  5. Microbial degradation of an aliphatic polyester with a high melting point, poly(tetramethylene succinate).

    PubMed

    Pranamuda, H; Tokiwa, Y; Tanaka, H

    1995-05-01

    The biodegradability of poly(tetramethylene succinate) (PTMS), a synthetic aliphatic polyester with a high melting point, was evaluated. The ecological study showed that the distribution of PTMS-degrading microorganisms in soil environments was quite restricted compared with the distribution of microorganisms that degrade poly((epsilon)-caprolactone) (PCL), a polyester with a low melting point. However, in soil samples in which the formation of a clear zone was observed, PTMS-degrading microorganisms constituted 0.2 to 6.0% of the total number of microorganisms, which is very close to the percentage (0.8 to 8.0%) observed for PCL-degrading microorganisms. Five strains were isolated from colonies which formed distinct clear zones on agar plates with emulsified PTMS. In liquid cultures of the isolates with ground PTMS powder, strain HT-6, an actinomycete, showed the highest PTMS degrading activity. It assimilated about 60% of the ground PTMS powder after 8 days of cultivation. When a PTMS emulsion was used, a higher degradation rate was observed and more than 90% of the PTMS was assimilated in 6 days. PTMS degradation products were analyzed by gas chromatography, and it was found that 1,4-butanediol, 4-hydroxy n-butyrate, and succinic acid accumulated during cultivation. Degradation of PTMS film by the strain occurred in two steps: fragmentation and then the formation of hemispherical holes on the surface of the film. Strain HT-6 was also able to assimilate PCL and poly((beta)-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). The crude enzyme showed a wide range of substrate specificity, being able to degrade low-molecular-weight PTMS, PCL, PHB, and even high-molecular-weight PTMS. PMID:16535023

  6. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  7. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  8. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  9. Synthetic aircraft turbine oil

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhard, R.R.; Yaffe, R.

    1980-10-07

    Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprises a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester, a polyhydroxy anthraquninone, an alkylamine salt of 3-amino-triazole-dodecenylsuccinamic acid, 2-hydroxylpropyl-n, n-dibutyldithiocarbamate, and an alkyl amine salt of a methyl acid phosphate.

  10. Aliphatic peptides show similar self-assembly to amyloid core sequences, challenging the importance of aromatic interactions in amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Anupama; Cheong, Daniel W.; Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of abnormally folded proteins into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of many debilitating diseases, from Alzheimer’s and Parkinson diseases to prion-related disorders and diabetes type II. However, the fundamental mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains poorly understood. Core sequences of four to seven amino acids within natural amyloid proteins that form toxic fibrils have been used to study amyloidogenesis. We recently reported a class of systematically designed ultrasmall peptides that self-assemble in water into cross-β–type fibers. Here we compare the self-assembly of these peptides with natural core sequences. These include core segments from Alzheimer’s amyloid-β, human amylin, and calcitonin. We analyzed the self-assembly process using circular dichroism, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, rheology, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the designed aliphatic peptides exhibited a similar self-assembly mechanism to several natural sequences, with formation of α-helical intermediates being a common feature. Interestingly, the self-assembly of a second core sequence from amyloid-β, containing the diphenylalanine motif, was distinctly different from all other examined sequences. The diphenylalanine-containing sequence formed β-sheet aggregates without going through the α-helical intermediate step, giving a unique fiber-diffraction pattern and simulation structure. Based on these results, we propose a simplified aliphatic model system to study amyloidosis. Our results provide vital insight into the nature of early intermediates formed and suggest that aromatic interactions are not as important in amyloid formation as previously postulated. This information is necessary for developing therapeutic drugs that inhibit and control amyloid formation. PMID:23267112

  11. Aliphatic peptides show similar self-assembly to amyloid core sequences, challenging the importance of aromatic interactions in amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Anupama; Cheong, Daniel W; Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of abnormally folded proteins into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of many debilitating diseases, from Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases to prion-related disorders and diabetes type II. However, the fundamental mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains poorly understood. Core sequences of four to seven amino acids within natural amyloid proteins that form toxic fibrils have been used to study amyloidogenesis. We recently reported a class of systematically designed ultrasmall peptides that self-assemble in water into cross-β-type fibers. Here we compare the self-assembly of these peptides with natural core sequences. These include core segments from Alzheimer's amyloid-β, human amylin, and calcitonin. We analyzed the self-assembly process using circular dichroism, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, rheology, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the designed aliphatic peptides exhibited a similar self-assembly mechanism to several natural sequences, with formation of α-helical intermediates being a common feature. Interestingly, the self-assembly of a second core sequence from amyloid-β, containing the diphenylalanine motif, was distinctly different from all other examined sequences. The diphenylalanine-containing sequence formed β-sheet aggregates without going through the α-helical intermediate step, giving a unique fiber-diffraction pattern and simulation structure. Based on these results, we propose a simplified aliphatic model system to study amyloidosis. Our results provide vital insight into the nature of early intermediates formed and suggest that aromatic interactions are not as important in amyloid formation as previously postulated. This information is necessary for developing therapeutic drugs that inhibit and control amyloid formation. PMID:23267112

  12. Anion Effects in Oxidative Aliphatic Carbon-Carbon Bond Cleavage Reactions of Cu(II) Chlorodiketonate Complexes.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Sushma L; Miłaczewska, Anna; Borowski, Tomasz; James, Christopher D; Tierney, David L; Popova, Marina; Arif, Atta M; Berreau, Lisa M

    2016-07-18

    Aliphatic oxidative carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions involving Cu(II) catalysts and O2 as the terminal oxidant are of significant current interest. However, little is currently known regarding how the nature of the Cu(II) catalyst, including the anions present, influence the reaction with O2. In previous work, we found that exposure of the Cu(II) chlorodiketonate complex [(6-Ph2TPA)Cu(PhC(O)CClC(O)Ph)]ClO4 (1) to O2 results in oxidative aliphatic carbon-carbon bond cleavage within the diketonate unit, leading to the formation of benzoic acid, benzoic anhydride, benzil, and 1,3-diphenylpropanedione as organic products. Kinetic studies of this reaction revealed a slow induction phase followed by a rapid decay of the absorption features of 1. Notably, the induction phase is not present when the reaction is performed in the presence of a catalytic amount of chloride anion. In the studies presented herein, a combination of spectroscopic (UV-vis, EPR) and density functional theory (DFT) methods have been used to examine the chloride and benzoate ion binding properties of 1 under anaerobic conditions. These studies provide evidence that each anion coordinates in an axial position of the Cu(II) center. DFT studies reveal that the presence of the anion in the Cu(II) coordination sphere decreases the barrier for O2 activation and the formation of a Cu(II)-peroxo species. Notably, the chloride anion more effectively lowers the barrier associated with O-O bond cleavage. Thus, the nature of the anion plays an important role in determining the rate of reaction of the diketonate complex with O2. The same type of anion effects were observed in the O2 reactivity of the simple Cu(II)-bipyridine complex [(bpy)Cu(PhC(O)C(Cl)C(O)Ph)ClO4] (3). PMID:27377103

  13. Extraction of benzene and naphthalene carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts as a model study for the separation of coal oxidation products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Nagano, H.; Okuwaki, A.

    2005-07-01

    The ion-pair solvent extraction of benzene- and naphthalene-carboxylic acids has been investigated as a model study for the separation of coal oxidation products, which are formed by treatment with alkaline solutions at high temperatures. It was possible that benzene- and naphthalene-dicarboxylic acids are extracted into several types of organic solvents with quaternary ammonium ions. The extraction equilibrium constants (K{sub ex}) for benzoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1-naphthoic acid, 2-naphthoic acid, 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid into chloroform were determined at 20{sup o}C. The difference of K{sub ex} among the aromatic acids was sufficiently large for designing a separation method for these aromatic acids. It was unexpected that the extraction of dicarboxylic acids was slower than that of monocarboxylic acids, although the ion-pair formation of aromatic carboxylate ion with quaternary ammonium ion is normally considered as a diffusion control reaction in aqueous phase. Thus, this fact suggests that the phase transfer of the ion-pair from aqueous to organic phase is the rate-determining step. Liner-free-energy relationship was observed for the monocarboxylic acids using different quaternary ammonium salts while that was ambiguous for the dicarboxylic acids. This is due to the steric influence of the counter ions for the magnitude of K{sub ex}.

  14. Manganese-catalyzed late-stage aliphatic C-H azidation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiongyi; Bergsten, Tova M; Groves, John T

    2015-04-29

    We report a manganese-catalyzed aliphatic C-H azidation reaction that can efficiently convert secondary, tertiary, and benzylic C-H bonds to the corresponding azides. The method utilizes aqueous sodium azide solution as the azide source and can be performed under air. Besides its operational simplicity, the potential of this method for late-stage functionalization has been demonstrated by successful azidation of various bioactive molecules with yields up to 74%, including the important drugs pregabalin, memantine, and the antimalarial artemisinin. Azidation of celestolide with a chiral manganese salen catalyst afforded the azide product in 70% ee, representing a Mn-catalyzed enantioselective aliphatic C-H azidation reaction. Considering the versatile roles of organic azides in modern chemistry and the ubiquity of aliphatic C-H bonds in organic molecules, we envision that this Mn-azidation method will find wide application in organic synthesis, drug discovery, and chemical biology. PMID:25871027

  15. Transformations of 1- and 2-carbon halogenated aliphatic organic compounds under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Bouwer, E J; McCarty, P L

    1983-01-01

    Several 1- and 2-carbon halogenated aliphatic organic compounds present at low concentrations (less than 100 micrograms/liter) were degraded under methanogenic conditions in batch bacterial cultures and in a continuous-flow methanogenic fixed-film laboratory-scale column. Greater than 90% degradation was observed within a 2-day detention time under continuous-flow methanogenic conditions with acetate as a primary substrate. Carbon-14 measurements indicated that chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and 1,2-dichloroethane were almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide, confirming removal by biooxidation. The initial step in the transformations of tetrachloroethylene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane to nonchlorinated end products appeared to be reductive dechlorination to trichloroethylene and 1,1,2-trichloroethane, respectively. Transformations of the brominated aliphatic compounds appear to be the result of both biological and chemical processes. The data suggest that transformations of halogenated aliphatic compounds can occur under methanogenic conditions in the environment. PMID:6859849

  16. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments of Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.B.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Clifton, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor are two adjacent estuaries along the coast of Washington state. Willapa Bay is a recreational area minimally affected by industry; Grays Harbor, on the other hand, is moderately industrialized. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from these two estuaries reflect the differences in human activities. For example, the mean concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons for seven stations in Willapa Bay is 1,000 ?g/g (relative to organic carbon) while in Grays Harbor this mean concentration for six stations is 1,900 ?g/g. The difference is attributed mainly to the greater urban and industrial pollution in Grays Harbor. The gas chromatographic records of aliphatic hydrocarbons also reflect the extent of hydrocarbon pollution by the presence of a chromatographically unresolved mixture of hydrocarbons. This kind of mixture is more evident in sediments from Grays Harbor, and in both estuaries it is more concentrated in sediments collected nearest to urban centers.

  17. Seasonal distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the Vaza Barris Estuarine System, Sergipe, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, José Carlos S; Santos, Lukas G G V; Sant'Anna, Mércia V S; Souza, Michel R R; Damasceno, Flaviana C; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2016-03-15

    The seasonal assessment of anthropogenic activities in the Vaza Barris estuarine river system, located in the Sergipe state, northeastern Brazil, was performed using the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution. The aliphatic hydrocarbon and isoprenoid (Pristane and Phytane) concentrations ranged between 0.19μgg(-1) and 8.5μgg(-1) of dry weight. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, with significance level set at p<0.05, and no seasonality distribution change was observed. The Carbon Preference Index (CPI), associated with n-alkanes/n-C16, Low Molecular Weight/High Molecular Weight ratio (LMW/HMW) and Terrigenous to Aquatic Ratio (TAR) suggested biogenic input of aliphatic hydrocarbons for most samples, with significant contribution of higher plants. PMID:26837270

  18. The effect of aliphatic fuel constituents on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gamerdinger, A.P.

    1995-12-01

    In petroleum-derived waste, n-alkanes are often codeposited with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The impact of aliphatic fuel constituents on the biodegradation of the more toxic PAHs is considered. Biodegradation of naphthalene by a Coryneform bacteria was examined in biphasic, slurry systems containing and aliphatic solvent in addition to the aqueous phase. The effect of solvent hydrophobicity was evaluated by varying the solvent treatment; a homologous series of n-alkanes was used. Relative to an aqueous system (no solvent), the extent of naphthalene degradation was enhanced in the presence of decane, dodecane, and hexadecane. Biodegradation was apparent, but decreased in the presence of octane, and was completely absent in the presence of hexane. The impact of aliphatic constituents on PAH biodegradation is a function of solvent hydrophobicity. The results indicate that the presence of multiple chemical constituents in complex systems modifies bioavailability and biodegradation.

  19. Classical-Reaction-Driven Stereo- and Regioselective C(sp(3) )-H Functionalization of Aliphatic Amines.

    PubMed

    Mahato, Sujit; Jana, Chandan K

    2016-06-01

    A large variety of synthetic methods have been developed for the synthesis of functionalized aliphatic amines because of their broad spectrum of application. Metallic reagents/catalysts and/or toxic oxidants are involved in most of the cases. Direct CH functionalization of aliphatic amines via their classical condensation reactions with suitable carbonyl compounds is advantageous because this method avoids hazardous metallic reagents, toxic oxidants and pre-activation/pre-functionalization step(s). In this account, the concept of direct CH functionalization of aliphatic amines based on the classical condensation-isomerization-addition (CIA) strategy followed by recent contributions from our ongoing research in the field along with relevant examples from other groups are described. Successes in stereo- and regioselective CC and CO bond formation via direct α- as well as β-C(sp(3) )-H functionalization are discussed. PMID:27185195

  20. Friction differences between aliphatic and aromatic structures in lubrication of titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a titanium (0001) single crystal surface with various adsorbed aliphatic and aromatic compounds containing the same number of carbon atoms. An Auger emission spectroscopy analysis was used to monitor the presence of the organic lubricating compounds. Results of the investigation indicate that hexane and benzene give the same friction coefficients over a range of loads. At light loads the friction decreased with an increase in the halogen atom size where the halogens chlorine, bromine, and iodine are incorporated into the benzene molecular structure. The aliphatic compounds chlorohexane and bromohexane exhibited lower friction coefficients than the aromatic structures chlorobenzene and bromobenzene.

  1. An Iminium Salt Organocatalyst for Selective Aliphatic C-H Hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoyong; Shuler, William G; Pierce, Conor J; Hilinski, Michael K

    2016-08-01

    The first examples of catalysis of aliphatic C-H hydroxylation by an iminium salt are presented. The method allows the selective organocatalytic hydroxylation of unactivated 3° C-H bonds at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant. Hydroxylation of an unactivated 2° C-H bond is also demonstrated. Furthermore, improved functional group compatibility over other catalytic methods is reported in the form of selectivity for aliphatic C-H hydroxylation over alcohol oxidation. On the basis of initial mechanistic studies, an oxaziridinium species is proposed as the active oxidant. PMID:27391543

  2. Effects of Phellinus linteus administration on serotonin synthesis in the brain and expression of monocarboxylate transporters in the muscle during exhaustive exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jin-Hee; Sung, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Phellinus linteus (PL) on serotonin synthesis in the brain and on the expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in muscles during exhaustive exercise in rats. In this study, 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 6 groups: control; exercise; exercise and 50 mg/kg of PL treatment; exercise and 100 of mg/kg PL treatment; exercise and 200 mg/kg of PL treatment; and exercise and 100 mg/kg of caffeine treatment. Treatment with 200 mg/kg of PL led to a significant increase in the time to exhaustion in response to running on a treadmill and a significant decrease in 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of rats. MCT1 and MCT4 expression of the gastrocnemius muscles was also increased in response to treatment with 200 mg/kg of PL. The results of the present study demonstrated that the administration of PL increased endurance exercise performance through inhibition of serotonin production in the brain and increased the expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in muscles. These results suggest that PL exerts an ergogenic effect. PMID:21512297

  3. A glycolytic phenotype is associated with prostate cancer progression and aggressiveness: a role for monocarboxylate transporters as metabolic targets for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pertega-Gomes, Nelma; Felisbino, Sergio; Massie, Charlie E; Vizcaino, Jose R; Coelho, Ricardo; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Simoes-Sousa, Susana; Jurmeister, Sarah; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Asim, Mohammad; Tran, Maxine; Oliveira, Elsa; Lobo da Cunha, Alexandre; Maximo, Valdemar; Baltazar, Fatima; Neal, David E; Fryer, Lee GD

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic adaptation is considered an emerging hallmark of cancer, whereby cancer cells exhibit high rates of glucose consumption with consequent lactate production. To ensure rapid efflux of lactate, most cancer cells express high levels of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which therefore may constitute suitable therapeutic targets. The impact of MCT inhibition, along with the clinical impact of altered cellular metabolism during prostate cancer (PCa) initiation and progression, has not been described. Using a large cohort of human prostate tissues of different grades, in silico data, in vitro and ex vivo studies, we demonstrate the metabolic heterogeneity of PCa and its clinical relevance. We show an increased glycolytic phenotype in advanced stages of PCa and its correlation with poor prognosis. Finally, we present evidence supporting MCTs as suitable targets in PCa, affecting not only cancer cell proliferation and survival but also the expression of a number of hypoxia-inducible factor target genes associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we suggest that patients with highly glycolytic tumours have poorer outcome, supporting the notion of targeting glycolytic tumour cells in prostate cancer through the use of MCT inhibitors. © 2015 Authors. Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:25875424

  4. Telomerization of amino acids with butadiene, catalyzed by palladium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhemilev, U.M.; Fakhretdinov, R.N.; Telin, A.G.

    1987-01-10

    The telomerization of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, ..gamma..-, and epsilon-amino acids having various structures with butadiene under the influence of the three-component palladium catalyst Pd(acac)/sub 2/-PPh/sub 3/-AlEt/sub 3/ was investigated in DMSO-toluene solution. The ..cap alpha..- and epsilon-aliphatic and also the ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, and ..gamma..-aromatic amino acids react with butadiene, giving the products from octadienylation at the amino group exclusively. Under the conditions of telomerization aliphatic ..beta..-amino acids are cleaved with the formation of unsaturated tertiary amines. In the case of aliphatic ..gamma..-amino acids it is possible to obtain telomers alkylated at the carbonyl group.

  5. SELECTIVE ENUMERATION OF AROMATIC AND ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON DEGRADING BACTERIA BY A MOST-PROBABLE-NUMBER PROCEDURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A most-portable-number (MPN) procedure was developed to separately enumerate aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, because most of the currently available methods are unable to distinguish between these two groups. Separate 96-well microtiter plates are used to ...

  6. Decrease of aliphatic CHs from diatoms by in situ heating infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Leila; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-04-01

    In situ heating IR microspectroscopy at 260-300°C under air and N2 conditions has been conducted on diatom frustules to examine aliphatic CH losses during heating, simulating their changes with burial-diagenesis. Assuming a reaction model made up of two first-order kinetic relations, reaction rate constants k1 and k2 and activation energies (Ea) were evaluated for aliphatic CHs. The rate constants for loss of aliphatic CHs of diatom frustules under air and N2 flow are much larger, with much smaller activation energies (57-109 kJ/mol: air; 14-44 kJ/mol: N2), than those for conventional hydrocarbon generation reactions from kerogens (170-370 kJ/mol) studied at higher temperatures (350-450°C). The CH decrease rates are somewhat different from the amide I decrease (protein degradation) rates. The obtained results suggest that organic transformation reactions including degradation of aliphatic CHs inside the diatom silica frustules might be quite different from those of kerogens separated from the biological structures.

  7. Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort is to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes. Successful completion of this project will result in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project.

  8. PRECONCENTRATION OF ALIPHATIC AMINES FROM WATER DETERMINED BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS WITH INDIRECT UV DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preconcentration methodology based on adsorption chromatographies for enriching aliphatic amines (c1 to C4 substituted primary, secondary, and tertiary) and alkanolamines in water was studied by free zone capillary electrophoresis (CZE)with indirect UV detection. The solid-phase ...

  9. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  10. PATTERN RECOGNITION ANALYSIS OF A SET OF MUTAGENIC ALIPHATIC N-NITROSAMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of 21 mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines were subjected to a pattern recognition analysis using ADAPT software. Four descriptors based on molecular connectivity, geometry and sigma charge on nitrogen were capable of achieving a 100% classification using the linear learning ...

  11. Spectrofluorimetric evaluation of total aliphatic and aromatic amines in well waters and wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Djozan, D.; Faraj-Zadeh, M.A.

    1998-09-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic amines are important metabolic intermediates in decomposition processes and are distributed in wastewaters. Monitoring of these compounds in the water samples can indicate whether the environmental waters are contaminated with wastewaters. A simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method is described for the determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines on the basis of ammonia and aniline, respectively. Aromatic amines in samples were reacted at pH 5.5 with fluram immobilized on an Octadecylsilane Solid Phase Extraction (ODS-SPE) cartridge. The produced pyrrolinones were adsorbed on SPE and separated from the aliphatic amines. Analysis of these compounds was carried out by elution of SPE with 1 ml Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and determination of fluorescence intensity at excitation wavelength 400 nm and emission wavelength 475 nm. Aliphatic amines after passing from SPE were collected and reacted with fluram at pH 9.2, and extracted into dichloromethane at pH 3 and quantitated fluorimetrically. Linear dynamic ranges and detection limits (LOD) were 1-20, 0.43 mg l{sup {minus}1} and 1-200, 0.39 {micro}g l{sup {minus}1} for ammonia and aniline, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the evaluation of these compounds in local well waters and municipality wastewaters.

  12. Copper-catalyzed aliphatic C-H amination with an amidine moiety.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Sanjaya, Stephen; Wang, Yi-Feng; Chiba, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    A method for amination of aliphatic C-H bonds of N-alkylamidines is described that utilizes Cu(OAc)(2) as the catalyst in the presence of PhI(OAc)(2) and K(3)PO(4). The resulting products, dihydroimidazoles and tetrahydropyrimidines, could be converted into the corresponding diamines by hydride reduction. PMID:23252919

  13. Ruthenium/Imidazolylphosphine catalysis: hydrogenation of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles to form amines.

    PubMed

    Werkmeister, Svenja; Junge, Kathrin; Wendt, Bianca; Spannenberg, Anke; Jiao, Haijun; Bornschein, Christoph; Beller, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    A convenient and efficient catalyst system for the hydrogenation of aliphatic nitriles towards the corresponding primary amines in high to excellent yields is presented. In addition, aromatic nitriles are reduced smoothly, too. The use of low catalyst loadings and molecular hydrogen make this protocol an attractive methodology. PMID:24615766

  14. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the potential of enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (TCE), cis-and trans-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), an...

  15. [Analysis of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones in water-based adhesive by direct derivatization-ionic liquid gathering coupled with high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaohong; Wu, Mingjian; Jiang, Xinyu; Dai, Yunhui; Li, Shaoye; Gong, Shuguo

    2011-12-01

    A novel method was developed for trace analysis of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones in water-based adhesive based on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) direct derivatization-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM] PF6) preconcentration coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The dispersive water-based adhesive emulsion directly reacted with 80 mg/L DNPH solution containing 0.44 mol/L phosphoric acid at 40 degrees C for 18 min. After centrifuging, 0.5 mL [BMIM] PF6 was added to extract the derivatives at 30 degrees C. The ionic liquid (IL) phase was filtered and then analyzed by HPLC. The separation was achieved by using a Dionex Acclaim Explosive E2 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) under the gradient elution with acetonitrile and water as mobile phases at the flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The column temperature was 35 degrees C, and the detection wavelength was 365 nm. The results showed that the limits of detection (LODs) were 0.022 -0.221 mg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.073 - 0.738 mg/kg. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 3.5% - 7.3%, and the recoveries were 84.0% - 102.5% for 8 aliphatic aldehydes and ketones. Compared with solvent extraction, the established method has the advantages of lower LOD and LOQ, and is more stable and precise. This method is practical for the determination of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones in water-based adhesives. PMID:22500444

  16. Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, D B; Scheper, A; Dijkhuizen, L; Witholt, B

    1985-01-01

    A bacterium that is able to utilize a number of halogenated short-chain hydrocarbons and halogenated carboxylic acids as sole carbon source for growth was identified as a strain of Xanthobacter autotrophicus. The organism constitutively produces two different dehalogenases. One enzyme is specific for halogenated alkanes, whereas the other, which is more heat stable and has a higher pH optimum, is specific for halogenated carboxylic acids. Haloalkanes were hydrolyzed in cell extracts to produce alcohols and halide ions, and a route for the metabolism of 1,2-dichlorethane is proposed. Both dehalogenases show a broad substrate specificity, allowing the degradation of bromine- and chlorine-substituted organic compounds. The results show that X. autotrophicus may play a role in the degradation of organochlorine compounds and that hydrolytic dehalogenases may be involved in the microbial metabolism of short-chain halogenated hydrocarbons in microorganisms. Images PMID:3994371

  17. Acidic extracellular microenvironment and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acidic extracellular pH is a major feature of tumor tissue, extracellular acidification being primarily considered to be due to lactate secretion from anaerobic glycolysis. Clinicopathological evidence shows that transporters and pumps contribute to H+ secretion, such as the Na+/H+ exchanger, the H+-lactate co-transporter, monocarboxylate transporters, and the proton pump (H+-ATPase); these may also be associated with tumor metastasis. An acidic extracellular pH not only activates secreted lysosomal enzymes that have an optimal pH in the acidic range, but induces the expression of certain genes of pro-metastatic factors through an intracellular signaling cascade that is different from hypoxia. In addition to lactate, CO2 from the pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative source of acidity, showing that hypoxia and extracellular acidity are, while being independent from each other, deeply associated with the cellular microenvironment. In this article, the importance of an acidic extracellular pH as a microenvironmental factor participating in tumor progression is reviewed. PMID:24004445

  18. Dicarboxylic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.; Zeitman, B.; Pereira, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Duffield, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    A large suite of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids was found in extracts from the carbonaceous chondrite. This suite includes many of the branched and straight chained isomers with up to nine carbon atoms. The large number of compounds and the isomeric distribution suggest that the acids are the product of an abiotic synthesis. The dicarboxylic acids found have been identified by their gas chromatography retention values and by comparison of their mass spectra with those of authentic standards.

  19. Biodegradation of individual and multiple chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by methane-oxidizing cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H L; Alvarez-Cohen, L

    1996-01-01

    The microbial degradation of chlorinated and nonchlorinated methanes, ethanes, and ethanes by a mixed methane-oxidizing culture grown under chemostat and batch conditions is evaluated and compared with that by two pure methanotrophic strains: CAC1 (isolated from the mixed culture) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. With the exception of 1,1-dichloroethylene, the transformation capacity (Tc) for each chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon was generally found to be in inverse proportion to its chlorine content within each aliphatic group (i.e., methanes, ethanes, and ethenes), whereas similar trends were not observed for degradation rate constants. Tc trends were similar for all methane-oxidizing cultures tested. None of the cultures were able to degrade the fully chlorinated aliphatics such as perchloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. Of the four cultures tested, the chemostat-grown mixed culture exhibited the highest Tc for trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane, whereas the pure batch-grown OB3b culture exhibited the highest Tc for all other compounds tested. The product toxicity of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in a mixture containing multiple compounds was cumulative and predictable when using parameters measured from the degradation of individual compounds. The Tc for each chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon in a mixture (Tcmix) and the total Tc for the mixture (sigma Tcmix) are functions of the individual Tc, the initial substrate concentration (S0), and the first-order rate constant (k/Ks) of each compound in the mixture, indicating the importance of identifying the properties and compositions of all potentially degradable compounds in a contaminant mixture. PMID:8795228

  20. 40 CFR 721.530 - Substituted aliphatic acid halide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrolysis product is less than 10 ppm prior to discharge or purifying the waste stream so that the first hydrolysis product is less than 10 ppm. Those purified waste streams may be reused or sold. All of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.530 - Substituted aliphatic acid halide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the substance by chemically treating liquid wastes so that the first hydrolysis product is less than 10 ppm prior to discharge or purifying the waste stream so that the first hydrolysis product is...

  2. 40 CFR 721.530 - Substituted aliphatic acid halide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrolysis product is less than 10 ppm prior to discharge or purifying the waste stream so that the first hydrolysis product is less than 10 ppm. Those purified waste streams may be reused or sold. All of...

  3. Aliphatic β-nitroalcohols for therapeutic corneoscleral cross-linking: corneal permeability considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Quan; Trokel, Stephen L.; Paik, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Our recent tissue cross-linking studies have raised the possibility of using aliphatic β-nitro alcohols (BNAs) for pharmacologic, therapeutic corneal cross-linking. The present study was performed in order to determine the permeability of BNAs and to explore the use of permeability enhancing agents. Methods Ex vivo rabbit corneas were mounted in a typical Franz diffusion chamber. BNA permeability was determined by assaying the recipient chamber over time using a modification of the Griess nitrite colorimetric assay. The apparent permeability coefficient (Ptot) was determined for 2 mono-nitroalcohols, 2-nitroethanol (2NE) and 2-nitro-1-propanol (2NProp); a nitro-diol (2-methyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol=MNPD); and a nitro-triol (2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol=HNPD). Permeability enhancing effects using benzalkonium chloride (BAC) [0.01 and 0.02%], ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) [0.05%], and a combination of BAC 0.01% + tetracaine (TC) [0.5%] were also studied. Results The Ptot (+/−S.E.) values (cm/sec) were as follows: Ptot=4.33×10−5 (+/−9.82×10−6) for 2NE (MW=91), Ptot=9.34×10−6 (+/− 2.16×10−7) for 2NProp (MW=105), Ptot=4.37×10−6 (+/− 1.86×10−7) for MNPD (MW=135), and Ptot=8.95×10−7 (+/−1.93×10−8) for HNPD (MW=151). Using the nitrodiol, permeability increased approximately two-fold using BAC 0.01%, five-fold using BAC 0.02% and five-fold using the combination of BAC 0.01% + TC 0.5%. No effect was observed using EDTA 0.05%. Conclusions The results indicate that the corneal epithelium is permeable to BNAs with the apparent permeability corresponding to molecular weight. The findings are consistent with previous literature indicating that the small size of these compounds (<10Å) favors their passage through the corneal epithelium via the paracellular route. This information will help to guide dosing regimens for in vivo topical cross-linking studies. PMID:22868628

  4. Unique aliphatic amidase from a psychrotrophic and haloalkaliphilic nesterenkonia isolate.

    PubMed

    Nel, A J M; Tuffin, I M; Sewell, B T; Cowan, D A

    2011-06-01

    Nesterenkonia strain AN1 was isolated from a screening program for nitrile- and amide-hydrolyzing microorganisms in Antarctic desert soil samples. Strain AN1 showed significant 16S rRNA sequence identity to known members of the genus. Like known Nesterenkonia species, strain AN1 was obligately alkaliphilic (optimum environmental pH, 9 to 10) and halotolerant (optimum environmental Na(+) content, 0 to 15% [wt/vol]) but was also shown to be an obligate psychrophile with optimum growth at approximately 21°C. The partially sequenced genome of AN1 revealed an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein member of the nitrilase superfamily, referred to as NitN (264 amino acids). The protein crystallized readily as a dimer and the atomic structure of all but 10 amino acids of the protein was determined, confirming that the enzyme had an active site and a fold characteristic of the nitrilase superfamily. The protein was screened for activity against a variety of nitrile, carbamoyl, and amide substrates and was found to have only amidase activity. It had highest affinity for propionamide but demonstrated a low catalytic rate. NitN had maximal activity at 30°C and between pH 6.5 and 7.5, conditions which are outside the optimum growth range for the organism. PMID:21498772

  5. Unique Aliphatic Amidase from a Psychrotrophic and Haloalkaliphilic Nesterenkonia Isolate▿

    PubMed Central

    Nel, A. J. M.; Tuffin, I. M.; Sewell, B. T.; Cowan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Nesterenkonia strain AN1 was isolated from a screening program for nitrile- and amide-hydrolyzing microorganisms in Antarctic desert soil samples. Strain AN1 showed significant 16S rRNA sequence identity to known members of the genus. Like known Nesterenkonia species, strain AN1 was obligately alkaliphilic (optimum environmental pH, 9 to 10) and halotolerant (optimum environmental Na+ content, 0 to 15% [wt/vol]) but was also shown to be an obligate psychrophile with optimum growth at approximately 21°C. The partially sequenced genome of AN1 revealed an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein member of the nitrilase superfamily, referred to as NitN (264 amino acids). The protein crystallized readily as a dimer and the atomic structure of all but 10 amino acids of the protein was determined, confirming that the enzyme had an active site and a fold characteristic of the nitrilase superfamily. The protein was screened for activity against a variety of nitrile, carbamoyl, and amide substrates and was found to have only amidase activity. It had highest affinity for propionamide but demonstrated a low catalytic rate. NitN had maximal activity at 30°C and between pH 6.5 and 7.5, conditions which are outside the optimum growth range for the organism. PMID:21498772

  6. Inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter 2 in the retrotrapezoid nucleus in rats – a test of the astrocyte-neuron lactate-shuttle hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Erlichman, J.S.; Hewitt, Amy; Damon, Tracey L.; Hart, Michael; Kurascz, Jennifer; Li, A.; Leiter, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The astrocyte-neuronal lactate shuttle hypothesis (ANLSH) posits that lactate released from astrocytes into the extracellular space is metabolized by neurons. The lactate released should alter extracellular pH (pHe), and changes in pH in central chemosensory regions of the brainstem stimulate ventilation. Therefore, we assessed the impact of disrupting the lactate shuttle by administering 100 microM α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamate (4-CIN), a dose that blocks the neuronal monocarboxylate transporter (MCT2), but not the astrocytic MCTs (MCT1 and MCT4). Administration of 4-CIN focally in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a medullary central chemosensory nucleus, increased ventilation and decreased pHe in intact animals. In medullary brain slices, 4-CIN reduced astrocytic intracellular pH (pHi) slightly, but alkalinized neuronal pHi. Nonetheless, pHi fell significantly in both cell types when they were treated with exogenous lactate, although 100 microM 4-CIN significantly reduced the magnitude of the acidosis in neurons, but not astrocytes. Finally, 4-CIN treatment increased the uptake of a fluorescent 2-deoxy-d-glucose analogue in neurons, but did not alter the uptake rate of this 2-deoxy-d-glucose analogue in astrocytes. These data confirm the existence of an astrocyte to neuron lactate shuttle in intact animals in the RTN, and lactate derived from astrocytes forms part of the central chemosensory stimulus for ventilation in this nucleus. When the lactate shuttle was disrupted by treatment with 4-CIN, neurons increased the uptake of glucose. Thus, neurons seem to metabolize a combination of glucose and lactate (and other substances such as pyruvate) depending, in part, on the availability of each of these particular substrates. PMID:18463242

  7. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 is increased in triple negative breast cancer and correlates independently with clinical outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Doyen, J.; Trastour, C.; Ettore, F.; Peyrottes, I.; Toussant, N.; Gal, J.; Ilc, K.; Roux, D.; Parks, S.K.; Ferrero, J.M.; Pouysségur, J.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Glycolytic markers are highly expressed in triple negative breast cancers. • Lactate/H{sup +} symporter MCT4 demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. • MCT4 should serve as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancers. - Abstract: Background: {sup 18}Fluor-deoxy-glucose PET-scanning of glycolytic metabolism is being used for staging in many tumors however its impact on prognosis has never been studied in breast cancer. Methods: Glycolytic and hypoxic markers: glucose transporter (GLUT1), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), monocarboxylate transporter 1 and 4 (MCT1, 4), MCT accessory protein basigin and lactate-dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in two cohorts of breast cancer comprising 643 node-negative and 127 triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) respectively. Results: In the 643 node-negative breast tumor cohort with a median follow-up of 124 months, TNBC were the most glycolytic (≈70%), followed by Her-2 (≈50%) and RH-positive cancers (≈30%). Tumoral MCT4 staining (without stromal staining) was a strong independent prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival (HR = 0.47, P = 0.02) and overall-survival (HR = 0.38, P = 0.002). These results were confirmed in the independent cohort of 127 cancer patients. Conclusion: Glycolytic markers are expressed in all breast tumors with highest expression occurring in TNBC. MCT4, the hypoxia-inducible lactate/H{sup +} symporter demonstrated the strongest deleterious impact on survival. We propose that MCT4 serves as a new prognostic factor in node-negative breast cancer and can perhaps act soon as a theranostic factor considering the current pharmacological development of MCT4 inhibitors.

  8. Thyroid hormone-regulated mouse cerebral cortex genes are differentially dependent on the source of the hormone: a study in monocarboxylate transporter-8- and deiodinase-2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Morte, Beatriz; Ceballos, Ainhoa; Diez, Diego; Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M; Di Cosmo, Caterina; Galton, Valerie Anne; Refetoff, Samuel; Bernal, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Thyroid hormones influence brain development through the control of gene expression. The concentration of the active hormone T(3) in the brain depends on T(3) transport through the blood-brain barrier, mediated in part by the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8/MCT8) and the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2) generating T(3) from T(4). The relative roles of each of these pathways in the regulation of brain gene expression is not known. To shed light on this question, we analyzed thyroid hormone-dependent gene expression in the cerebral cortex of mice with inactivated Mct8 (Slc16a2) and Dio2 genes, alone or in combination. We used 34 target genes identified to be controlled by thyroid hormone in microarray comparisons of cerebral cortex from wild-type control and hypothyroid mice on postnatal d 21. Inactivation of the Mct8 gene (Mct8KO) was without effect on the expression of 31 of these genes. Normal gene expression in the absence of the transporter was mostly due to D2 activity because the combined disruption of Mct8 and Dio2 led to similar effects as hypothyroidism on the expression of 24 genes. Dio2 disruption alone did not affect the expression of positively regulated genes, but, as in hypothyroidism, it increased that of negatively regulated genes. We conclude that gene expression in the Mct8KO cerebral cortex is compensated in part by D2-dependent mechanisms. Intriguingly, positive or negative regulation of genes by thyroid hormone is sensitive to the source of T(3) because Dio2 inactivation selectively affects the expression of negatively regulated genes. PMID:20211971

  9. The long N-terminus of the human monocarboxylate transporter 8 is a target of ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation which regulates protein expression and oligomerization capacity.

    PubMed

    Zwanziger, Denise; Schmidt, Mathias; Fischer, Jana; Kleinau, Gunnar; Braun, Doreen; Schweizer, Ulrich; Moeller, Lars Christian; Biebermann, Heike; Fuehrer, Dagmar

    2016-10-15

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) equilibrates thyroid hormones between the extra- and the intracellular sides. MCT8 exists either with a short or a long N-terminus, but potential functional differences between both variants are yet not known. We, therefore, generated MCT8 constructs which are different in N-terminal length: MCT8(1-613), MCT8(25-613), MCT8(49-613) and MCT8(75-613). The M75G substitution prevents translation of MCT8(75-613) and ensures expression of full-length MCT8 protein. The K56G substitution was made to prevent ubiquitinylation. Cell-surface expression, localization and proteasomal degradation were investigated using C-terminally GFP-tagged MCT8 constructs (HEK293 and MDCK1 cells) and oligomerization capacity was determined using N-terminally HA- and C-terminally FLAG-tagged MCT8 constructs (COS7 cells). MCT8(1-613)-GFP showed a lower protein expression than the shorter MCT8(75-613)-GFP protein. The proteasome inhibitor lactacystin increased MCT8(1-613)-GFP protein amount, suggesting proteasomal degradation of MCT8 with the long N-terminus. Ubiquitin conjugation of MCT8(1-613)-GFP was found by immuno-precipitation. A diminished ubiquitin conjugation caused by K56G substitution resulted in increased MCT8(1-613)-GFP protein expression. Sandwich ELISA was performed to investigate if the bands at higher molecular weight observed in Western blot analysis are due to MCT8 oligomerization, which was indeed shown. Our data imply a role of the long N-terminus of MCT8 as target of ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation affecting MCT8 amount and subsequently oligomerization capacity. PMID:27222294

  10. Aliphatic components of coal. Quarterly report, March-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Deno, N.C.; Cannon, C.; Curry, K.; Jones, A.D.; Potter, T.C.; Rakitsky, W.G.; Wagner, K.; Yevak, R.

    1980-06-01

    Liquefaction of coal involves thermolysis of benzyl-oxygen and/or benzyl-benzyl bonds as the first step in the depolymerization. This view derives from NMR studies, studies with model compounds, and oxidative degradations with Na/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and CF/sub 3/CO/sub 3/H/sub 2/. The best method for determining the amount of arylmethyl groups in coals is from the yield of acetic acid formed in oxidative degradation with CF/sub 3/CO/sub 3/H-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The following observations and interpretations are made: a sharp increase in arylmethyl accompanies liquefaction in all five coals and in two coals studied earlier. This increase is the result of thermal cleavage to benzyl radicals and abstraction of hydrogen atoms by the benzyl radicals to form arylmethyl. All five coals give about the same percentage increase in arylmethyl after 90 mins of solvent refining, but not after 3 mins. This indicates that benzyl radicals form from more than one type of structure. Based on studies of model compounds, it is attractive to ascribe arylmethyl formation in 3 mins to cleavage of benzyl ethers and slower cleavage to bibenzyl structures. It might have been expected that the more arylmethyl, the more cleavage, and the more SRC. In fact the opposite is found. The conflict would be resolved if coal liquefaction depended more on certain critical cleavages and the conversion of a 3-dimensional polymer to a 1-dimensional polymer than on the total amount of cleavage and the extent of depolymerization. The amount of arylmethyl in the residue (3 min) is about the same as in the original coal. This indicates that arylmethyls do not play any role in liquefaction as expected. No higher homologs of acetic acid were observed indicating the absence of arylalkyls above methyl.

  11. NEW ALIPHATIC ESTER, β-SITOSTEROL DIGLUCOSIDE AND VESICARIA BIFLAVONES FROM THE SEEDS OF RUMEX VESICARIUS L.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Abdul Wadood; Ali, Mohammed; Naquvi, Kamran J; Husain, Shahnaz S

    2015-01-01

    Rumex vesicalius L. (Polygonaceae) is an annual, monoecious, glabrous, pale green herb cultivated as a leafy vegetable in south western Asia and northern Africa. Its seeds are prescribed as a refrigerant, laxa- tive, antidote for scorpion venom and to cure dysentery and liver diseases. Phytochemical investigation of a methanolic extract of the seeds of R. vesicarius resulted in the isolation of a new aliphatic ester n-heptacosanyl n-hexanoate (2), a steroidal diglucoside stigmasta-5-en-3-ol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosido-(4--->1")-O-β-D-glu- copyranoside (3) and two bioflavonoids characterized as (2a,3a-trans)-3a(β),5a,7a,3'a,4'a-pentahydroxyfla- vanolyl-(8a-2')-5,7,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-n-but-3"-enyl-flavanone (4) and 5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxy- 8-(cis-1" α,2"β-dihydroxyhept-4"-enyl-7"-oic acid)-flavanoyl-(2'--8a)-5a,7a,3'a,5'a-tetrahydroxy-4'a- methoxyflavanone (5) together with stigmasterol (1). The structures of all the isolated phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. PMID:26665404

  12. Structural Analysis of Aliphatic vs. Aromatic Substrate Specificity in a Copper Amine Oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Klema, Valerie J.; Solheid, Corinne J.; Klinman, Judith P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2013-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are responsible for the oxidative deamination of primary amines to their corresponding aldehydes. The CAO catalytic mechanism can be divided into two half-reactions: a reductive half-reaction, in which a primary amine substrate is oxidized to its corresponding aldehyde with the concomitant reduction of the organic cofactor 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ), and an oxidative half-reaction, in which reduced TPQ is re-oxidized with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The reductive half-reaction proceeds via Schiff base chemistry, in which the primary amine substrate first attacks the C5 carbonyl of TPQ, forming a series of covalent Schiff base intermediates. The X-ray crystal structures of copper amine oxidase-1 from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HPAO-1) in complex with ethylamine and benzylamine have been solved to resolutions of 2.18 and 2.25 Å, respectively. These structures reveal the two amine substrates bound at the back of the active site coincident with TPQ in its two-electron reduced aminoquinol form. Rearrangements of particular amino acid side chains within the substrate channel and specific protein-substrate interactions provide insight into substrate specificity in HPAO-1. These changes begin to account for this CAO’s kinetic preference for small, aliphatic amines over the aromatic amines or whole peptides preferred by some of its homologs. PMID:23452079

  13. Controlled oxidation of aliphatic CH bonds in metallo-monooxygenases: mechanistic insights derived from studies on deuterated and fluorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Sheng; Luo, Wen-I; Yang, Chung-Ling; Tu, Yi-Jung; Chang, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Chi-Yao; Chan, Sunney I; Yu, Steve S-F

    2014-05-01

    The control over the regio- and/or stereo-selective aliphatic CH oxidation by metalloenzymes is of great interest to scientists. Typically, these enzymes invoke host-guest chemistry to sequester the substrates within the protein pockets, exploiting sizes, shapes and specific interactions such as hydrogen-bonding, electrostatic forces and/or van der Waals interactions to control the substrate specificity, regio-specificity and stereo-selectivity. Over the years, we have developed a series of deuterated and fluorinated variants of these hydrocarbon substrates as probes to gain insights into the controlled CH oxidations of hydrocarbons facilitated by these enzymes. In this review, we illustrate the application of these designed probes in the study of three monooxygenases: (i) the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), which oxidizes straight-chain C1-C5 alkanes and alkenes to form their corresponding 2-alcohols and epoxides, respectively; (ii) the recombinant alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) from Pseudomonas putida GPo1, which oxidizes the primary CH bonds of C5-C12 linear alkanes; and (iii) the recombinant cytochrome P450 from Bacillus megaterium, which oxidizes C12-C20 fatty acids at the ω-1, ω-2 or ω-3 CH positions. PMID:24629413

  14. Colorless triphenylamine-based aliphatic thermoset epoxy for multicolored and near-infrared electrochromic applications.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yen, Hung-Ju; Wu, Jia-Hao; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2014-03-12

    In this study, two novel colorless thermoset epoxy resins with anodically electrochromism were prepared from the thermal curing of two triphenylamine-based diamine monomers, 4,4'-diamino-4″-methoxytriphenylamine (1) and N,N'-bis(4-aminophenyl)-N,N'-di(4-methoxylphenyl)-1,4-phenylenediamine (2) with aliphatic epoxy triglycidyl isocyanurate, respectively. The resulting thermoset epoxy resins showed excellent softening temperature (Ts, 270 and 280 °C) due to the rigid structure and highly crosslinking density. In addition, novel colorless epoxy resin films revealed good reversible electrochemical oxidation and interesting multi-electrochromic behavior with high contrast ratio both in visible and near-infrared regions. The aliphatic thermoset epoxy resins also exhibited high transparency in visible region as colorless and great potential for practical electrochromic applications. PMID:24456516

  15. Synthesis and Bioactivity of 5-Substituted-2-furoyl Diacylhydazide Derivatives with Aliphatic Chain

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zining; Li, Xinghai; Tian, Fang; Yan, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    A series of 5-substituted-2-furoyl diacylhydazide derivatives with aliphatic chain were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The anti-tumor bioassay revealed that some title compounds exhibited promising activity against the selected cancer cell lines, especially against the human promyelocytic leukemic cells (HL-60). Their fungicidal tests indicated that most of the title compounds showed significant anti-fungal activity. The preliminary structure-activity relationship showed that the aliphatic chain length and differences in the R2 group had obvious effects on the anti-tumor and anti-fungal activities. The bioassay results demonstrated that the title compounds hold great promise as novel lead compounds for further drug discovery. PMID:24853128

  16. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Shannon D.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

  17. Friction of iron lubricated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of oxygen and various organic molecules on the reduction of the friction of an iron (011) single crystal surface was investigated. A comparison was made between aliphatic and aromatic structures, all of which contained six carbon atoms, and among various halogen atoms. Results of the investigation indicate that hexane and benzene give similar friction coefficients over a range of loads except at very light loads. At light loads, the friction decreased with an increase in the load where the halogens fluorine and chlorine are incorporated into the benzene molecular structure; however, over the same load range when bromine and iodine were present, the friction was relatively unchanged. The aliphatic compound chlorohexane exhibited lower friction coefficients than the aromatic structure chlorobenzene at very light loads. With the brominated benzene structures, however, friction was essentially the same. Oxygen was more effective in reducing friction than were the simple hydrocarbons.

  18. Source apportionment of urban particulate aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, I G; Koutrakis, P; Tsapakis, M; Lagoudaki, E; Stephanou, E G; Von Baer, D; Oyola, P

    2001-06-01

    Samples of organic aerosol were collected in Santiago de Chile. An activated-charcoal diffusion denuder was used to strip out organic vapors prior to particle collection. Both polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Organic particle sources were resolved using both concentration diagnostic ratios and multivariate methods such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA). Four factors were identified based on the loadings of PAHs and n-alkanes and were attributed to the following sources: (1) high-temperature combustion of fuels; (2) fugitive emissions from oil residues; (3) biogenic sources; and (4) unburned fuels. Multilinear regression (MLR) analysis was used to determine emission profiles and contributions of the sources. The reconstructed concentrations of particle phase aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were in good agreement (R2 > 0.70) with those measured in Santiago de Chile. PMID:11414034

  19. Genetic adaptation of bacteria to halogenated aliphatic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, D B; van der Ploeg, J R; Pries, F

    1995-01-01

    The bacterial degradation and detoxification of chlorinated xenobiotic compounds requires the production of enzymes that are capable of recognizing and converting compounds which do not occur at significant concentrations in nature. We have studied the catabolic route of 1,2-dichloroethane as an example of a pathway for the conversion of such a synthetic compound. In strains of Xanthobacter and Ancylobacter that have been isolated on 1,2-dichloroethane, the first catabolic step is catalyzed by a hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenase. The enzyme converts 1,2-dichloroethane to 2-chloroethanol but is also active with many other environmentally important haloalkanes such as methylchloride, methylbromide, 1,2-dibromoethane, epichlorohydrin, and 1,3-dichloropropene. Further degradation of 2-chloroethanol proceeds by oxidation to the carboxylic acid and dehalogenation to glycolate. The aldehyde dehydrogenase prevents toxicity of the reactive chloroacetaldehyde that is formed as an intermediate and is necessary for establishing a functional 2-chloroethanol degradative pathway in a strain that is not capable of growth on this compound. PMID:8565904

  20. Genetic adaptation of bacteria to halogenated aliphatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, D.B.; Ploeg, J.R. van der; Pries, F.

    1995-06-01

    The bacterial degradation and detoxification of chlorinated xenobiotic compounds requires the production of enzymes that are capable of recognizing and converting compounds which do not occur at significant concentrations in nature. We have studied the catabolic route of 1,2-dichloroethane as an example of a pathway for the conversion of such a synthetic compound. In strains of Xanthobacter and Ancylobacter that have been isolated on 1,2-dichloroethane, the first catabolic step is catalyzed by a hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenase. The enzyme converts 1,2-dichloroethane to 2-chloroethanol but is also active with many other environmentally important haloalkanes such as methylchloride, methylbromide, 1,2-dibromoethane, epichlorohydrin, and 1,3-dichloropropene. Further degradation of 2-chloroethanol proceeds by oxidation to the carboxylic acid and dehalogenation to glycolate. The aldehyde dehydrogenase prevents toxicity of the reactive chloroacetaldehyde that is formed as an intermediate and is necessary for establishing a functional 2-chloroethanol degradative pathway in a strain that is not capable of growth on this compound. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Genetic adaptation of bacteria to halogenated aliphatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Janssen, D B; van der Ploeg, J R; Pries, F

    1995-06-01

    The bacterial degradation and detoxification of chlorinated xenobiotic compounds requires the production of enzymes that are capable of recognizing and converting compounds which do not occur at significant concentrations in nature. We have studied the catabolic route of 1,2-dichloroethane as an example of a pathway for the conversion of such a synthetic compound. In strains of Xanthobacter and Ancylobacter that have been isolated on 1,2-dichloroethane, the first catabolic step is catalyzed by a hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenase. The enzyme converts 1,2-dichloroethane to 2-chloroethanol but is also active with many other environmentally important haloalkanes such as methylchloride, methylbromide, 1,2-dibromoethane, epichlorohydrin, and 1,3-dichloropropene. Further degradation of 2-chloroethanol proceeds by oxidation to the carboxylic acid and dehalogenation to glycolate. The aldehyde dehydrogenase prevents toxicity of the reactive chloroacetaldehyde that is formed as an intermediate and is necessary for establishing a functional 2-chloroethanol degradative pathway in a strain that is not capable of growth on this compound. PMID:8565904

  2. TRANSFORMATIONS OF HALOGENATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS: OXIDATION, REDUCTION, SUBSTITUTION, AND DEHYDROHALOGENATION REACTIONS OCCUR ABIOTICALLY OR IN MICROBIAL AND MAMMALIAN SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current understanding of abiotic and biotic chemistry of halogenated aliphatic compounds is systematized and summarized. Knowledge of abiotic transformations can provide a conceptual framework for understanding biologically mediated transformations. Most abiotic transformatio...

  3. Unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly porous metal-organic framework made of extended aliphatic ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunhao; Lee, Jeongyong; Olson, David H; Emge, Thomas J; Bi, Wenhua; Eibling, Matthew J; Li, Jing

    2008-12-14

    High and unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly stable guest-free microporous metal-organic framework constructed on rigid aliphatic ligands, H(2)bodc and ted, is reported in this work. PMID:19082093

  4. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF MIXTURES OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS BY AN ACETATE-GROWN METHANOGENIC ENRICHMENT CULTURE. (R825549C053)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions has received considerable attention due to the prevalence of these compounds as groundwater contaminants. However, information concerning the impact of mixtures of chlorinated compounds on their...

  5. DETERMINATION OF ALIPHATIC AMINES IN WATER USING DERIVATIZATION WITH FLUORESCEIN ISOTHIOCYANATE AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE DETECTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection-oriented derivatization of aliphatic amines and amine functional groups in coumpounds of environmental interest was studied using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with separation/determination by capillary electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence. Determinative level...

  6. SPITZER'S VIEW ON AROMATIC AND ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN HERBIG Ae STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Acke, B.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Bouwman, J.; Juhasz, A.; Henning, Th.; Van den Ancker, M. E.; Meeus, G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2010-07-20

    The chemistry of astronomical hydrocarbons, responsible for the well-known infrared emission features detected in a wide variety of targets, remains enigmatic. Here we focus on the group of young intermediate-mass Herbig Ae stars. We have analyzed the aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in the infrared spectra of a sample of 53 Herbig Ae stars, obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We confirm that the PAH-to-stellar luminosity ratio is higher in targets with a flared dust disk. However, a few sources with a flattened dust disk still show relatively strong PAH emission. Since PAH molecules trace the gas disk, this indicates that gas disks may still be flared, while the dust disk has settled due to grain growth. There are indications that the strength of the 11.3 {mu}m feature also depends on dust disk structure, with flattened disks being less bright in this feature. We confirm that the CC bond features at 6.2 and 7.8 {mu}m shift to redder wavelengths with decreasing stellar effective temperature. Moreover, we show that this redshift is accompanied by a relative increase of aliphatic CH emission and a decrease of the aromatic 8.6 {mu}m CH feature strength. Cool stars in our sample are surrounded by hydrocarbons with a high aliphatic/aromatic CH ratio and a low aromatic CH/CC ratio, and vice versa for the hot stars. We conclude that, while the overall hydrocarbon emission strength depends on the dust disk's geometry, the relative differences seen in the IR emission features in disks around Herbig Ae stars are mainly due to chemical differences of the hydrocarbon molecules induced by the stellar UV field. Strong UV flux reduces the aliphatic component and emphasizes the spectral signature of the aromatic molecules in the IR spectra.

  7. Gas phase heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of alkanes to aliphatic ketones and/or other oxygenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Manhua; Wang, Xiang; Yeom, Younghoon

    2015-03-17

    A catalyst, its method of preparation and its use for producing aliphatic ketones by subjecting alkanes C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 to a gas phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen, and, optionally, steam and/or one or more diluting gases. The catalyst comprises a catalytically active mixed metal oxide phase and a suitable support material onto and/or into which the active catalytic phase id dispersed.

  8. Gas phase heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of alkanes to aliphatic ketones and/or other oxygenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Manhua; Wang, Xiang; Yeom, Younghoon

    2015-09-29

    A catalyst, its method of preparation and its use for producing aliphatic ketones by subjecting alkanes C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 to a gas phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen, and, optionally, steam and/or one or more diluting gases. The catalyst comprises a catalytically active mixed metal oxide phase and a suitable support material onto and/or into which the active catalytic phase is dispersed.

  9. Diverse Asymmetric Hydrofunctionalization of Aliphatic Internal Alkenes through Catalytic Regioselective Hydroboration.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yumeng; Hartwig, John F

    2016-06-01

    We report a two-step strategy for diverse hydrofunctionalizations of aliphatic internal alkenes with high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity. This process comprises a copper-catalyzed asymmetric hydroboration and subsequent stereospecific derivatizations of the secondary boronates. By this strategy, a range of compounds, such as amides, alkyl fluorides and bromides, alcohols, aldehydes, arenes, and heteroarenes, were synthesized from an internal alkene with high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity. Computational studies provide insight into the origins of these selectivities. PMID:27167490

  10. Coefficients of caffeine distribution in aliphatic alcohol-ammonium sulfate-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-11-01

    The extraction of caffeine with aliphatic alcohols C3-C9 from aqueous solutions in the presence of a salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate) is studied. Quantitative characteristics of extraction are calculated: the distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of recovery ( R, %). Relations are found between log D of caffeine and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the alcohol molecule, along with certain physicochemical properties of the extragents.

  11. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 96. Amines with Water Part 3. Non-Aliphatic Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góral, Marian; Shaw, David G.; Mański, Andrzej; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Oracz, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria of 36 binary systems of non-aliphatic amines with water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2010 are compiled. For 13 systems, sufficient data are available to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units.

  12. Ambient temperature catalyst-free light-induced preparation of macrocyclic aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Josse, Thomas; Altintas, Ozcan; Oehlenschlaeger, Kim K; Dubois, Philippe; Gerbaux, Pascal; Coulembier, Olivier; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2014-02-25

    The light induced, catalyst-free ambient temperature preparation of macrocyclic aliphatic polyesters is pioneered. Based on the photo-induced Diels-Alder reaction of orthoquinodimethane and acrylate moieties, cyclic polyesters of high purity are readily synthesized. Considering the high tolerance to functional groups and the orthogonality of the ligation, the reported protocol can be easily transferred to a large range of polymers, complex topologies (tadpole, sun-shaped, jellyfish, etc.) and applications. PMID:24413149

  13. Triphosgene-Pyridine Mediated Stereoselective Chlorination of Acyclic Aliphatic 1,3-Diols†

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando, Andrés; Saputra, Mirza A.; Tugwell, Thomas H.; Kartika, Rendy

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy to chlorinate stereocomplementary acyclic aliphatic 1,3-diols using a mixture of triphosgene and pyridine. While 1,3-anti diols readily led to 1,3-anti dichlorides, 1,3-syn diols must be converted to 1,3-syn diol monosilylethers to access the corresponding 1,3-syn dichlorides. These dichlorination protocols were operationally simple, very mild, and readily tolerated by advanced synthetic intermediates. PMID:26323232

  14. Chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic VOC decomposition in air mixture by using electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Sun, Yong-Xia; Bułka, S.; Zimek, Z.

    2004-09-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, which are emitted from coal power station and waste incinerators, are very harmful to the environment and human health. Recent studies show that chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are suspected to be the precursors of dioxin's formation. Dioxin's emission into atmosphere will cause severe environmental problems by ecology contamination. l,4-dichlorobenzene(l,4-DCB) and cis-dichloroethylene( cis-DCE) were chosen as representative chlorinated aromatic and aliphatic compounds, respectively. Their decomposition was investigated by electron beam irradiation. The experiments were carried out "in batch" system. It is found that over 97% cis-DCE is decomposed having an initial concentration of 661 ppm. G-values of cis-DCE decomposition vary from 10 to 28 (molecules/100 eV) for initial concentration of 270-1530 ppm cis-DCE. The decomposition is mainly caused by secondary electron attachment and Cl addition reactions. Comparing with cis-DCE, 1,4-DCB decomposition needs higher absorbed dose. G-value of 1,4-DCB is below 4 molecules/100 eV.

  15. The influence of chemical composition of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters on their properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtczak, Malgorzata; Galeski, Andrzej; Piorkowska, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Slawomir

    2014-05-15

    The chain microstructure and properties of a series of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters in a range of compositions from 10 to 100% of aromatic components were studied by examining melting and crystallization behaviors, dynamic mechanical response, morphology, wide- (WAXS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and tensile deformation. Chain microstructure was analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR. The results indicate that most of copolyesters used in this study have essentially random distribution of comonomers. Copolyesters with more than 30 mol% of aromatic part crystallize with a crystal structure characteristic for homopolymer poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). However, some of the reflections from crystal planes are shifted towards lower diffraction angles as compared to butylene terephthalate homoplymer. The phase transition temperatures decrease with increasing aliphatic content. By means of polarized light microscopy (PLM), small-angle light scattering (SALS) and SAXS, crystallization behavior of a selected aliphatic-aromatic copolyester was further explored. Selected copolyester crystallizes in the form of thin fibrous crystals, few nanometers thick, which is the main factor influencing the depression of its melting temperature.

  16. New synthetic aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts as anticancer chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Doona; Yang, Jee Sun; Oh, Changmok; Cui, Shuolin; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Won, Misun; Lee, Jang-ik; Kim, Hwan Mook; Han, Gyoonhee

    2013-11-01

    RhoB is expressed during tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. In malignant progression, the expression levels of RhoB are commonly attenuated. RhoB is known to be linked to the regulation of the PI3K/Akt survival pathways. Based on aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts that induce apoptosis via up-regulation of RhoB, we synthesized novel aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts. These new synthetic compounds were evaluated for their biological activities using an in vitro RhoB promoter assay in HeLa cells, and in a growth inhibition assay using human cancer cell lines including PC-3, NUGC-3, MDA-MB-231, ACHN, HCT-15, and NCI-H23. Compound 5b (ethyl-dimethyl-{3-[methyl-(tetradecane-1-sulfonyl)-amino]-propyl}-ammonium; iodide) was the most promising anticancer agent in the series, based upon the potency of growth inhibition and RhoB promotion. These new aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts could be a valuable series for development of new anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24095759

  17. Exploring mild enzymatic sustainable routes for the synthesis of bio-degradable aromatic-aliphatic oligoesters.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Alessandro; Guarneri, Alice; Brandauer, Martin; Acero, Enrique Herrero; Peerlings, Henricus; Gardossi, Lucia; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-05-01

    The application of Candida antarctica lipase B in enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of aromatic-aliphatic oligoesters is here reported. The aim of the present study is to systematically investigate the most favorable conditions for the enzyme catalyzed synthesis of aromatic-aliphatic oligomers using commercially available monomers. Reaction conditions and enzyme selectivity for polymerization of various commercially available monomers were considered using different inactivated/activated aromatic monomers combined with linear polyols ranging from C2 to C12 . The effect of various reaction solvents in enzymatic polymerization was assessed and toluene allowed to achieve the highest conversions for the reaction of dimethyl isophthalate with 1,4-butanediol and with 1,10-decanediol (88 and 87% monomer conversion respectively). Mw as high as 1512 Da was obtained from the reaction of dimethyl isophthalate with 1,10-decanediol. The obtained oligomers have potential applications as raw materials in personal and home care formulations, for the production of aliphatic-aromatic block co-polymers or can be further functionalized with various moieties for a subsequent photo- or radical polymerization. PMID:26762794

  18. Self-assembled aliphatic chain extended polyurethane nanobiohybrids: emerging hemocompatible biomaterials for sustained drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhinay; Singh, Sunil K; Dash, Debabrata; Aswal, Vinod K; Maiti, Biswajit; Misra, Manjusri; Maiti, Pralay

    2014-05-01

    Novel polyurethanes (PUs) have been synthesized using an aliphatic diisocyanate and aliphatic chain extenders with varying chain length. Nanocomposites of PUs have been prepared by dispersing 2-D nanoclay in poly-ol followed by prepolymerization and subsequent chain extension using various chain extenders. Systematic improvement in toughness and adequate enhancement in stiffness in the presence of nanoclay has been observed for PUs with longer chain extenders, and these new classes of nanocomposites exhibit no toughness-stiffness trade-off. Bottom-up self-assembly starting from the molecular level to micron-scale crystallite has been revealed through electronic structure calculation, X-ray diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering, atomic force microscopy and optical images. The role of hydrogen bonding has been revealed for this type of supramolecular assembly, and in the presence of organically modified nanoclay hydrogen bonding contributes to the formation of bigger clusters of nanocomposites. Controlled biodegradation of PU and its nanocomposites has been investigated in enzymatic media. Biocompatibility of these novel nanocomposites has been extensively verified through platelet adhesion, aggregation and hemolysis assay. Sustained drug delivery by biocompatible pristine PU and its nanocomposites has been demonstrated either by controlling the crystallite size of the polyurethane through alteration of the aliphatic chain length of the extender or by incorporating disc-like nanoclay, creating a tortuous path that results in delayed diffusion. Hence, the developed nanohybrids are potential biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery. PMID:24374322

  19. Mechanisms and modeling of halogenated aliphatic contaminant adsorption by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Apul, Onur Guven; Zhou, Yang; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-09-15

    This paper examines the adsorption of environmentally relevant halogenated aliphatic compounds using single-walled (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), and the development of linear solvation-energy relationships (LSER) to examine those adsorption mechanisms. The poly-parameter LSER model was also compared to those previously generated for the adsorption of aromatic compounds by CNTs. The adsorption affinity of aliphatic compounds was greater on the SWCNT than MWCNT with similar oxygen contents. This was attributed to the pore-filling mechanism that was enhanced by higher micropore volume of the SWCNT bundles over the MWCNT bundles. LSER models showed that, at higher concentrations, B (the hydrogen bond accepting ability) was the most influential descriptor for both SWCNT and MWCNT. Other important descriptors were V followed by P, both of which exhibited a positive correlation with adsorption, indicating that their size and polarizability favors adsorption. The contribution of these descriptors to overall adsorption was 2-3 times less than the B. In comparison, V was the most important descriptor in the aromatic compound LSER models. This difference indicates that adsorbate hydrophobicity greatly affects the adsorption of aromatic compounds by CNTs, whereas, aliphatic compounds are affected by both the hydrophobic driving force and other interactions. PMID:25897695

  20. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided. PMID:26874310

  1. Identification of diamino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    PubMed Central

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo M.; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Thiemann, Wolfram H.-P.

    2004-01-01

    Amino acids identified in the Murchison chondritic meteorite by molecular and isotopic analysis are thought to have been delivered to the early Earth by asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust particles where they may have triggered the appearance of life by assisting in the synthesis of proteins via prebiotic polycondensation reactions [Oró, J. (1961) Nature 190, 389–390; Chyba, C. F. & Sagan, C. (1992) Nature 355, 125–132]. We report the identification of diamino acids in the Murchison meteorite by new enantioselective GC-MS analyses. dl-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid, dl-2,4-diaminobutanoic acid, 4,4′-diaminoisopentanoic acid, 3,3′-diaminoisobutanoic acid, and 2,3-diaminobutanoic acid were detected in the parts per billion range after chemical transformation into N,N-diethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives. The chiral diamino acids show a racemic ratio. Laboratory data indicate that diamino acids support the formation of polypeptide structures under primitive Earth conditions [Brack, A. & Orgel, L. E. (1975) Nature 256, 383–387] and suggest polycondensation reactions of diamino acids into early peptide nucleic acid material as one feasible pathway for the prebiotic evolution of DNA and RNA genomes [Joyce, G. F. (2002) Nature 418, 214–221]. The results obtained in this study favor the assumption that not only amino acids (as the required monomers of proteins) form in interstellar/circumstellar environments, but also the family of diamino monocarboxylic acids, which might have been relevant in prebiotic chemistry. PMID:15194825

  2. Identification of diamino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo M.; Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Thiemann, Wolfram H.-P.

    Amino acids identified in the Murchison chondritic meteorite by molecular and isotopic analysis are thought to have been delivered to the early Earth by asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust particles where they may have triggered the appearance of life by assisting in the synthesis of proteins via prebiotic polycondensation reactions [Oró, J. (1961) Nature 190, 389-390; Chyba, C. F. & Sagan, C. (1992) Nature 355, 125-132]. We report the identification of diamino acids in the Murchison meteorite by new enantioselective GC-MS analyses. DL-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid, DL-2,4-diaminobutanoic acid, 4,4'-diaminoisopentanoic acid, 3,3'-diaminoisobutanoic acid, and 2,3-diaminobutanoic acid were detected in the parts per billion range after chemical transformation into N,N-diethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives. The chiral diamino acids show a racemic ratio. Laboratory data indicate that diamino acids support the formation of polypeptide structures under primitive Earth conditions [Brack, A. & Orgel, L. E. (1975) Nature 256, 383-387] and suggest polycondensation reactions of diamino acids into early peptide nucleic acid material as one feasible pathway for the prebiotic evolution of DNA and RNA genomes [Joyce, G. F. (2002) Nature 418, 214-221]. The results obtained in this study favor the assumption that not only amino acids (as the required monomers of proteins) form in interstellar/circumstellar environments, but also the family of diamino monocarboxylic acids, which might have been relevant in prebiotic chemistry.

  3. In vitro studies of degradation and bioactivity of aliphatic polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouzouri, Georgia

    In spite of numerous publications on the potential use of combinations of aliphatic polyester composites containing bioactive fillers for bone regeneration, little information exists on the combined in vitro mechanisms involving simultaneously diffusion for polymer degradation and bioactivity through nucleation and growth of apatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. The objective of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the fundamentals in designing non-porous, solid materials for bone regeneration, from experimental data along with their engineering interpretation. Bioactivity, in terms of apatite growth, was assessed through several experimental methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray-diffraction (XRD) and changes in ion concentration. In the case of the six neat fillers evaluated, the filler shape, form and chemical structure showed significant differences in bioactivity response. Bioglass and calcium silicate fillers showed faster nucleation and growth rates in the screening experiments. Composites at 30% by weight filler were prepared by solution and/or melt mixing. Polycaprolactone (PCL) composites containing five different fillers were evaluated. Solution processed PCL/calcium silicate (CS) samples showed faster bioactivity, as determined by apatite growth, compared to melt mixed samples. The onset time for bioactivity was different for all PCL composites. The limited bioactivity in the PCL composites over longer periods of time could be attributed to the PCL hydrophobicity leading to a slow polymer degradation rate, and also to the lack of SBF replenishment. For both polylactic acid (PLA) composites containing CS and bioglass, significant growth was observed after one week and in the case of CS was still evident after four weeks immersion. However, at prolonged time periods no further bioactivity was observed, although ion release results indicated a faster release rate that would

  4. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  5. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  6. Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, pattie

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and selecting alternative materials and technologies that have the potential to reduce the identified HazMats and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), while incorporating sound corrosion prevention and control technologies, is a complicated task due to the fast pace at which new technologies emerge and rules change. The alternatives are identified through literature searches, electronic database and Internet searches, surveys, and/or personal and professional contacts. Available test data was then compiled on the proposed alternatives to determine if the materials meet the test objectives or if further)laboratory or field-testing will be required. After reviewing technical information documented in the PAR, government representatives, technical representatives from the affected facilities, and other stakeholders involved in the process will select the list of viable alternative coatings for consideration and testing under the project's Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes and Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both prepared by ITB. Test results will be reported in a Joint Test Report upon completion oftesting. The selection rationale and conclusions are documented in this PAR. A cost benefit analysis will be prepared to quantify the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coating processes, however, some initial cost data has been included in this PAR. For this coatings project, isocyanates, as found in aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes, were identified as the target HazMat to be eliminated. Table 1-1 lists the target HazMats, the related process and application, current specifications, and affected programs.

  7. Methyl oleate deoxygenation for production of diesel fuel aliphatic hydrocarbons over Pd/SBA-15 catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Catalytic deoxygenation is a prominent process for production of renewable fuels from vegetable oil. In this work, deoxygenation of technical grade methyl oleate to diesel fuel aliphatic hydrocarbons (C15 – C18) is evaluated with several parameters including temperature, hydrogen pressure and reaction time in a stirred batch reactor over Pd/SBA-15 catalysts. Results Two different SBA-15 morphologies i.e. spherelike and necklacelike structures have been synthesize as supports for Pd active metal. It is found that Pd dispersion on necklacelike SBA-15 is higher than that of spherelike SBA-15. Notably, higher Pd dispersion on necklacelike SBA-15 provides significant deoxygenation efficiency as compared to Pd/SBA-15-spherelike. Results show that H2 pressures greatly determine the total ester conversion and selectivity to C15 – C18 aliphatic hydrocarbons. Total ester conversions with 55< selectivity to n-heptadecane are achieved using Pd/SBA-15-necklacelike at 270°C and 60 bar H2 pressure within 6 h reaction time. Gas phase study reveals that formation of C17 is generated via indirect decarbonylation when the reaction time is prolonged. Conclusions Pd/SBA-15-necklacelike catalyst exhibits good catalytic performance with high selectivity to diesellike aliphatic hydrocarbons (C15 – C18). The physicochemical properties of the Pd supported on different SBA-15 morphologies influence the deoxygenation activity of the catalysts. Furthermore, the reaction pathways are governed by the H2 pressure as well as reaction duration. PMID:24011181

  8. The galactic distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    1995-01-01

    The infrared absorption feature near 2950(exp -1) (3.4 micron), characteristic of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), is attributed to C-H stretching vibrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons. We show here that the strength of the band does not scale linearly with visual extinction everywhere, but instead increases more rapidly for objects near the center of the Galaxy, a behavior that parallels that of the Si-O stretching band due to silicate materials in the diffuse ISM. This implies that the grains responsible for the diffuse medium aliphatic C-H and silicate Si-O stretching bands are different from those responsible for much of the observed visual extinction. It also suggests that the distribution of the carbonaceous component of the diffuse ISM is not uniform throughout the Galaxy, but instead may increase in density toward the center of the Galaxy. The similar behavior of the C-H and Si-O stretching bands suggests that these two components may be coupled, perhaps in the form of silicate-core, organic-mantle grains. Several possible models of the distribution of this material are presented and it is demonstrated that the inner parts of the Galaxy has a carrier density that is 5 to 35 times higher than in the local ISM. Depending on the model used, the density of aliphatic material in the local ISM is found to be about 1 to 2 -CH3 groups m(exp -3) and about 2 to 5 -CH2- groups m(exp -3). These densities are consistent with the strengths of the 2955 and 2925 cm(exp -1) (3.4 micron) band being described by the relations A(sub nu)/tau(sub 2955 cm(exp -1)) = 270 +/- 40 and A(sub nu)/tau(sub 2925 cm(exp -1)) = 250 +/- 40 in the local diffuse ISM.

  9. The Galactic Distribution of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    1995-01-01

    The infrared absorption feature near 2950/ cm (3.4 microns), characteristic of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), is attributed to C-H stretching vibrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons. We show here that the strength of the band does not scale linearly with visual extinction everywhere, but instead increases more rapidly for objects near the center of the Galaxy, a behavior that parallels that of the Si-O stretching band due to silicate materials in the diffuse ISM. This implies that the grains responsible for the diffuse medium aliphatic C-H and silicate Si-O stretching bands are different from those responsible for much of the observed visual extinction. It also suggests that the distribution of the carbonaceous component of the diffuse ISM is not uniform throughout the Galaxy, but instead may increase in density toward the center of the Galaxy. The similar behavior of the C-H and Si-O stretching bands suggests that these two components may be coupled, perhaps in the form of silicate-core, organic-mantle grains. Several possible models of the distribution of this material are presented and it is demonstrated that the inner parts of the Galaxy has a carrier density that is 5 to 35 times higher than in the local ISM. Depending on the model used, the density of aliphatic material in the local ISM is found to be about 1 to 2 -CH3 groups /cc and about 2 to 5 -CH2- groups/cc. These densities are consistent with the strengths of the 2955 and 2925/ cm (3.38 and 3.42 microns) subfeatures (due to -CH3 and -CH2- groups, respectively) within the overall 2950/ cm (3.4 microns) band being described by the relations A(sub upsilon)/tau(sub 2925/cm) = 270 +/- 40 and A(sub upsilon)/tau(sub 2925/cm) = 250 +/- 40 in the local diffuse ISM.

  10. Palladium-catalysed C-H activation of aliphatic amines to give strained nitrogen heterocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Andrew; Haffemayer, Benjamin; Collins, Beatrice S. L.; Gaunt, Matthew J.

    2014-06-01

    The development of new chemical transformations based on catalytic functionalization of unactivated C-H bonds has the potential to simplify the synthesis of complex molecules dramatically. Transition metal catalysis has emerged as a powerful tool with which to convert these unreactive bonds into carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds, but the selective transformation of aliphatic C-H bonds is still a challenge. The most successful approaches involve a `directing group', which positions the metal catalyst near a particular C-H bond, so that the C-H functionalization step occurs via cyclometallation. Most directed aliphatic C-H activation processes proceed through a five-membered-ring cyclometallated intermediate. Considering the number of new reactions that have arisen from such intermediates, it seems likely that identification of distinct cyclometallation pathways would lead to the development of other useful chemical transformations. Here we report a palladium-catalysed C-H bond activation mode that proceeds through a four-membered-ring cyclopalladation pathway. The chemistry described here leads to the selective transformation of a methyl group that is adjacent to an unprotected secondary amine into a synthetically versatile nitrogen heterocycle. The scope of this previously unknown bond disconnection is highlighted through the development of C-H amination and carbonylation processes, leading to the synthesis of aziridines and β-lactams (respectively), and is suggestive of a generic C-H functionalization platform that could simplify the synthesis of aliphatic secondary amines, a class of small molecules that are particularly important features of many pharmaceutical agents.

  11. Use of aliphatic hydrocarbons in feed to decrease body burdens of lipophilic toxicants in livestock

    SciTech Connect

    Rozman, K.; Rozman, T.; Griem, H.; Nieman, I.J.; Smith, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Sheep were contaminated with hexachlorobenzene and then fed a conventional diet with or without 5% mineral oil or hexadecane. Similar to nonruminant species, both treatments enhanced fecal excretion of hexachlorobenzene about 3-fold and reduced levels of hexachlorobenzene stored in adipose tissue. Normal digestive functions of the animals, including fiber digestion by rumen microbes, were not affected by the administration of the aliphatic hydrocarbons. Dietary administration of mineral oil could be an inexpensive way to save livestock contaminated with toxic lipophilic compounds, such as many pesticides and industrial chemicals.

  12. The fumigant and repellent activity of aliphatic lactones against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Zerba, Eduardo; Faillaci, Silvina; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-02-01

    New alternative insecticides are necessary for the chemical control of head lice. In this study the fumigant knockdown time 50% (KT50) and repellency index (RI) of three aliphatic lactones was compared with two essential oils and DDVP, against permethrin-resistance Pediculus humanus capitis from Argentina. In the fumigant assay, none of the lactones were effective compared to the highest activity of eucalyptus (KT50 15.53 m). In the repellency test, the three lactones were equally or more effective (RI ranging from 60.50 to 76.68) than the positive control (piperonal). These lactones are promising as head lice repellents. PMID:16699710

  13. Aliphatic side chains of proteins as potential geomarkers of NOM liberated from the melting permafrost and discharged to the Arctic Ocean by the Kolyma River run off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinenkov, I. V.; Perminova, I.; Kononikhin, A.; Nikolaev, E.; Hertkorn, N.; Bulygina, E. B.; Holmes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic ecosystem is highly sensitive to climate change. Global warming might have considerable effects on regional carbon cycling due to permafrost melting. Permafrost in the Arctic region represents an extremely large organic carbon reservoir mostly stored in the permafrost. Mobilization of just a small portion of carbon stored in Arctic soils will have considerable impacts on the flux of organic carbon from land to the Arctic Ocean, which can affect the Arctic environment. The Kolyma River watershed is one of the Arctic Ocean's largest. It is dominated by continuous permafrost which is underlain with rich organic soils susceptible to increased fluvial transport. The goal of the work was to analyze the structure of isolated natural organic matter from different fresh water environments of the Kolyma river basin. NOM was isolated from the Kolyma River main stream, its tributaries, a thermokarst lake, a floodplain stream and the permafrost. Solid phase extraction technique was used with Bond Elute PPL cartridges. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectroscopy (FTICRMS) was used for structural studies because of unsurpassed molecular level structural information provided by these high resolution magnetic resonance techniques. The NOM samples from the Kolyma River showed high contents of non-substituted aliphatic structures with a low content of aromatics and carbohydrates. Aliphatic nature may indicate a microbial source of NOM in the form of degraded terpenoids and hopanols. It was shown that almost all NOM samples from the rivers had similar molecular composition enriched with aliphatic units. The samples from permafrost mud streams were significantly different and contained sharp peptide signatures. In general, permafrost NOM contained much less degraded peptide residuest as compared to riverine samples. Identification of these residues showed the presence of branched amino acids (valine, alanine

  14. Identification and Synthesis of (Z,Z)-8,11-Heptadecadienyl Formate and (Z)-8-Heptadecenyl Formate: Unsaturated Aliphatic Formates Found in the Unidentified Astigmatid Mite, Sancassania sp. Sasagawa (Acari: Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Sakata, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Honami; Shimura, Yasuhiro; Kuwahara, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    We identified two aliphatic formates, (Z,Z)-8,11-heptadecadienyl formate and (Z)-8-heptadecenyl formate in the opisthonotal gland secretions of an unidentified acarid species, namely Sancassania sp. Sasagawa. Both compounds were isolated using silica gel column chromatography and the structures were elucidated by ¹H-NMR and GC/FT-IR. Further information on the double bond positions was obtained by GC-MS analysis of the corresponding dimethyl disulfide derivatives. Based on the estimated structures of the two formates and using linoleic and oleic acids as the respective starting materials, a simple four-step synthesis was achieved via Barton decarboxylation as the key step. The aliphatic formates identified in acarids thus far are neryl formate ((Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl formate) and lardolure (1,3,5,7-tetramethyldecyl formate), and both have been reported to have pheromone functions. The biological function of the two formates isolated in this study is currently being investigated. Although we can speculate that the two compounds were biosynthesized from linoleic and oleic acid, there is a possibility that the synthetic processes featured a novel chain shortening and formic acid esterification mechanism. PMID:27187322

  15. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Slovenian coastal area (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic).

    PubMed

    Bajt, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    The distribution and sources of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in sediments at seven sites around the Slovenian coastal area. The potential toxicological significance was also assessed using biological thresholds. The results of the analyses showed higher concentrations of hydrocarbons in the Port of Koper and in the Marina of Portoroz. The influence of pollution was also evident in rather higher concentrations of hydrocarbons in the surrounding area in the Bays of Koper and Piran. Concentrations of hydrocarbons decrease toward the central part of the Gulf of Trieste. The major component of the aliphatic fraction was the unresolved complex mixture. Concentrations of the total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons were in a range from 689 to 3,164 ng g(-1). Concentrations of the total PAHs were between 330 and 1,173 ng g(-1). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily of pyrolytic origin with some smaller contributions of the petrogenic, while the aliphatic are mostly of petrogenic origin with significant amounts of biogenic derived compounds of terrestrial and marine origin. Strong evidence of the diagenetic origin of perylene in the investigated area was also found. Quite a good linear relationship between PAH concentration and TOC and between aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations and TOC was observed. The principal component analysis showed differences between the nearshore and offshore sites. In general, the investigated area is moderately contaminated by hydrocarbons. Concentrations of PAHs, hydrocarbons of high concern, are below the levels (effects range low and the effects range median) associated with adverse biological effects. PMID:22270593

  16. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  17. Tuning reactivity and selectivity in hydrogen atom transfer from aliphatic C-H bonds to alkoxyl radicals: role of structural and medium effects.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; Bietti, Massimo

    2015-11-17

    magnitude. Medium effects on HAT from aliphatic C-H bonds to CumO(•) have been also investigated. With basic substrates, from large to very large decreases in kH have been measured with increasing solvent hydrogen bond donor (HBD) ability or after addition of protic acids or alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, with kinetic effects that exceed 2 orders of magnitude in the reactions of tertiary alkylamines and alkanamides. Solvent hydrogen bonding, protonation, and metal ion binding increase the electron deficiency and the strength of the C-H bonds of these substrates deactivating these bonds toward HAT, with the extent of this deactivation being modulated by varying the nature of the substrate, solvent, protic acid, and metal ion. These results indicate that through these interactions careful control over the HAT reactivity of basic substrates toward CumO(•) and other electrophilic radicals can be achieved, suggesting moreover that these effects can be exploited in an orthogonal fashion for selective C-H bond functionalization of substrates bearing different basic functionalities. PMID:26545103

  18. Bio-olefins from unsaturated fatty acids via tandem catalysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new catalytic route to bio-olefins from unsaturated fatty acids will be described. At the heart of the process, the catalyst apparently functions in a tandem mode by both dynamically isomerizing the positions of double bonds in an aliphatic chain and, subsequently, decarboxylating specific isomers...

  19. Quantitative separation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons using silver ion--silica solid-phase extraction

    PubMed

    Bennett; Larter

    2000-03-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method employing silver nitrate impregnated silica has been developed and evaluated for the separation of defined aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from crude oils. The versatility of the SPE method is demonstrated using a light crude oil from the North Sea and a heavy crude oil from Orcutt field (Monterey, California, U.S.A.). The coefficients of variation for a number of geochemical parameters measured on both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were excellent. The separation efficiency of SPE is demonstrated using quantification of monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons which are notoriously difficult to efficiently sequester into the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction using traditional liquid chromatographic procedure. The selectivity and efficiency of the SPE technique is comparable with that of silica gel TLC. However, losses of volatile compounds such as naphthalene are limited during SPE since the sample remains in solvent. We conclude that solid-phase extraction affords rapid sample turnover suitable for processing large sample numbers with high reproducibility. PMID:10739209

  20. Two new aliphatic lactones from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present paper describes the isolation and characterization of two new aliphatic δ-lactones along with three glycerides and n-nonadecanyl cetoleate from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae). The structures of all the isolated phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Results Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of C. sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits resulted in the isolation of two new aliphatic δ-lactones characterized as 2α-n-heptatriacont-(Z)-3-en-1,5-olide (1) (coriander lactone) and 2α-n-tetracont-(Z,Z)-3,26-dien-18α-ol-1,5-olide (2) (hydroxy coriander lactone) together with glyceryl-1,2-dioctadec-9,12-dienoate-3-octadec-9-enoate (3); glyceryl-1,2,3-trioctadecanoate (4); n-nonadecanyl-n-docos-11-enoate (5) and oleiyl glucoside (6). Conclusions Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of C. sativum gave coriander lactone and hydroxy coriander lactone as the new phytoconstituents. PMID:22800677

  1. Halides with Fifteen Aliphatic C-H···Anion Interaction Sites.

    PubMed

    Shi, Genggongwo; Aliakbar Tehrani, Zahra; Kim, Dongwook; Cho, Woo Jong; Youn, Il-Seung; Lee, Han Myoung; Yousuf, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nisar; Shirinfar, Bahareh; Teator, Aaron J; Lastovickova, Dominika N; Rasheed, Lubna; Lah, Myoung Soo; Bielawski, Christopher W; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-01-01

    Since the aliphatic C-H···anion interaction is relatively weak, anion binding using hydrophobic aliphatic C-H (Cali-H) groups has generally been considered not possible without the presence of additional binding sites that contain stronger interactions to the anion. Herein, we report X-ray structures of organic crystals that feature a chloride anion bound exclusively by hydrophobic Cali-H groups. An X-ray structure of imidazolium-based scaffolds using Cali-H···A(-) interactions (A(-) = anion) shows that a halide anion is directly interacting with fifteen Cali-H groups (involving eleven hydrogen bonds, two bidentate hydrogen-bond-type binding interactions and two weakly hydrogen-bonding-like binding interactions). Additional supporting interactions and/or other binding sites are not observed. We note that such types of complexes may not be rare since such high numbers of binding sites for an anion are also found in analogous tetraalkylammonium complexes. The Cali-H···A(-) interactions are driven by the formation of a near-spherical dipole layer shell structure around the anion. The alternating layers of electrostatic charge around the anion arise because the repulsions between weakly positively charged H atoms are reduced by the presence of the weakly negatively charged C atoms connected to H atoms. PMID:27444513

  2. Exploring 3D structural influences of aliphatic and aromatic chemicals on α-cyclodextrin binding.

    PubMed

    Linden, Lukas; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2016-04-15

    Binding of solutes to macromolecules is often influenced by steric effects caused by the 3D structures of both binding partners. In this study, the 1:1 α-cyclodextrin (αCD) binding constants (Ka1) for 70 organic chemicals were determined to explore the solute-structural effects on the αCD binding. Ka1 was measured using a three-part partitioning system with either a headspace or a passive sampler serving as the reference phase. The Ka1 values ranged from 1.08 to 4.97 log units. The results show that longer linear aliphatic chemicals form more stable complexes than shorter ones, and that the position of the functional group has a strong influence on Ka1, even stronger than the type of the functional group. Comparison of linear and variously branched aliphatic chemicals indicates that having a sterically unhindered alkyl chain is favorable for binding. These results suggest that only one alkyl chain can enter the binding cavity. Relatively small aromatic chemicals such as 1,3-dichlorobenzene bind to αCD well, while larger ones like tetrachlorobenzene and 3-ring aromatic chemicals show only a weak interaction with αCD, which can be explained by cavity exclusion. The findings of this study help interpret cyclodextrin binding data and facilitate the understanding of binding processes to macromolecules. PMID:26826354

  3. New aliphatic glycerophosphoryl-containing polyurethanes: synthesis, platelet adhesion and elution cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Acetti, Daniela; D'Arrigo, Paola; Giordano, Carmen; Macchi, Piero; Servi, Stefano; Tessaro, Davide

    2009-04-01

    in this study new poly(ether)urethanes (PeUs) based on aliphatic diisocyanates were synthesized with phospholipid-like residues as chain extenders. The primary objective was to prepare new polyurethanes from diisocyanates that are less toxic than the aromatic ones widely used in medical-grade polyurethanes, in order to investigate the effect of the different aromatic or aliphatic hard segment content on the final properties of the materials. Some glycerophospho residues were simultaneously introduced to enhance the hemocompatibility of these materials. Polymers were prepared by a conventional two-step solution polymerization procedure using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDi) and dodecametilendiisocyanate (DDi) and poly(1,4-butanediol) with molecular weight 1000 to form prepolymers, which were subsequently polymerized with 1-glycerophosphorylcholine (1-GPC) or glycerophosphorylserine (GPS) to act as chain extenders. The reference polymers bearing 1,4-butandiol (BD) were also synthesized. The polymers obtained were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (fT-iR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H nmR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The hemocompatibility of synthesized segmented polyurethanes was preliminarily investigated by platelet-rich plasma contact studies and related scanning electron microscopy (Sem) photographs as well as by cell viability assay after cell exposure to material elutions to assess the effect of any toxic leachables coming out from the samples. Two of the polymers gave interesting results, suggesting the desirability of further investigation into their possible use in biomedical devices. PMID:19569028

  4. Computation of Bond Dissociation Energies for Removal of Nitrogen Dioxide Groups in Certain Aliphatic Nitro Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Ju-Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Xiang, Shi-Kai

    2006-04-01

    Bond dissociation energies for removal of nitrogen dioxide groups in 10 aliphatic nitro compounds, including nitromethane, nitroethylene, nitroethane, dinitromethane, 1-nitropropane, 2-nitropropane, 1-nitrobutane, 2-methyl-2-nitropropane, nitropentane, and nitrohexane, are calculated using the highly accurate complete basis set (CBS-Q) and the three hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods B3LYP, B3PW91 and B3P86 with 6-31G** basis set. By comparing the computed bond dissociation energies and experimental results, we find that the B3LYP/6-31G** and B3PW91/6-31G** methods are incapable of predicting the satisfactory bond dissociation energy (BDE). However, B3P86/6-31G** and CBS-Q computations are capable of giving the calculated BDEs, which are in extraordinary agreement with the experimental data. Nevertheless, since CBS-Q computational demands increase rapidly with the number of containing atoms in molecules, larger molecules soon become prohibitively expensive. Therefore, we suggest to take the B3P86/6-31G** method as a reliable method of computing the BDEs for removal of the NO2 groups in the aliphatic nitro compounds.

  5. Halides with Fifteen Aliphatic C–H···Anion Interaction Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Genggongwo; Aliakbar Tehrani, Zahra; Kim, Dongwook; Cho, Woo Jong; Youn, Il-Seung; Lee, Han Myoung; Yousuf, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nisar; Shirinfar, Bahareh; Teator, Aaron J.; Lastovickova, Dominika N.; Rasheed, Lubna; Lah, Myoung Soo; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2016-07-01

    Since the aliphatic C–H···anion interaction is relatively weak, anion binding using hydrophobic aliphatic C–H (Cali–H) groups has generally been considered not possible without the presence of additional binding sites that contain stronger interactions to the anion. Herein, we report X-ray structures of organic crystals that feature a chloride anion bound exclusively by hydrophobic Cali–H groups. An X-ray structure of imidazolium-based scaffolds using Cali–H···A‑ interactions (A‑ = anion) shows that a halide anion is directly interacting with fifteen Cali–H groups (involving eleven hydrogen bonds, two bidentate hydrogen-bond-type binding interactions and two weakly hydrogen-bonding-like binding interactions). Additional supporting interactions and/or other binding sites are not observed. We note that such types of complexes may not be rare since such high numbers of binding sites for an anion are also found in analogous tetraalkylammonium complexes. The Cali–H···A‑ interactions are driven by the formation of a near-spherical dipole layer shell structure around the anion. The alternating layers of electrostatic charge around the anion arise because the repulsions between weakly positively charged H atoms are reduced by the presence of the weakly negatively charged C atoms connected to H atoms.

  6. Direct nitration and azidation of aliphatic carbons by an iron-dependent halogenase

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-chen; Layne, Andrew P; Miles, Linde A; Krebs, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Iron-dependent halogenases employ cis-halo-Fe(IV)-oxo (haloferryl) complexes to functionalize unactivated aliphatic carbon centers, a capability elusive to synthetic chemists. Halogenation requires (1) coordination of a halide anion (Cl− or Br−) to the enzyme's Fe(II) cofactor; (2) coupled activation of O2 and decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate to generate the haloferryl intermediate; (3) abstraction of hydrogen (H•) from the substrate by the ferryl oxo group; and (4) transfer of the cis halogen as Cl• or Br• to the substrate radical. This enzymatic solution to an unsolved chemical challenge is potentially generalizable to installation of other functional groups, provided that the corresponding anions can support the four requisite steps. We show here that the wild-type halogenase SyrB2 can indeed direct aliphatic nitration and azidation reactions by the same chemical logic. The discovery and enhancement by mutagenesis of these previously unknown reaction types suggests unrecognized or untapped versatility in ferryl-mediated enzymatic C–H-bond activation. PMID:24463698

  7. Anaerobic biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons: Ugly duckling to beautiful swan

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, G.F.

    1999-10-01

    For many years anaerobic biological processes were reputed to be more sensitive than aerobic processes to toxic substances such as chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) and thus a poor choice for treating water containing these compounds. This was especially true for water containing perchloroethylene (PCE) or trichloroethylene (TCE) because vinyl chloride, a human carcinogen, is produced when these two compounds are degraded anaerobically. Aerobic treatment with organisms containing oxygenase enzyme systems, which could fortuitously degrade a wide variety of chlorinated aliphatics (but not PCE), was favored. Recently, however, several enrichments and organisms have been isolated that will convert PCE and TCE into ethene and ethane, as shown by field data. Because of this evidence, anaerobic processes are now considered a significant alternative treatment for CAH contamination. Recent work at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, has focused on the effect of mixtures of CAHs on biotransformation of individual organic compounds and the potential for a combined methanogen-iron (Fe(0)) system to improve CAH bioremediation. At the concentration ranges tested, the presence of a mixture of CAHs seems to decrease rate of transformation of individual organics. However, there are important exceptions; in some cases a mixture of CAHs seems to facilitate transformation of an individual organic compound. Combination of an active methanogenic population with Fe(0) increases the rate and extent of transformation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. Results with PCE and 1,1,1-trichloroethane are less clear.

  8. Mixed aromatic-aliphatic organic nanoparticles as carriers of unidentified infrared emission features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sun; Zhang, Yong

    2011-11-01

    Unidentified infrared emission bands at wavelengths of 3-20 micrometres are widely observed in a range of environments in our Galaxy and in others. Some features have been identified as the stretching and bending modes of aromatic compounds, and are commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. The central argument supporting this attribution is that single-photon excitation of the molecule can account for the unidentified infrared emission features observed in `cirrus' clouds in the diffuse interstellar medium. Of the more than 160 molecules identified in the circumstellar and interstellar environments, however, not one is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule. The detections of discrete and broad aliphatic spectral features suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission features cannot be a pure aromatic compound. Here we report an analysis of archival spectroscopic observations and demonstrate that the data are most consistent with the carriers being amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic-aliphatic structure. This structure is similar to that of the organic materials found in meteorites, as would be expected if the Solar System had inherited these organic materials from interstellar sources.

  9. Mixed aromatic-aliphatic organic nanoparticles as carriers of unidentified infrared emission features.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sun; Zhang, Yong

    2011-11-01

    Unidentified infrared emission bands at wavelengths of 3-20 micrometres are widely observed in a range of environments in our Galaxy and in others. Some features have been identified as the stretching and bending modes of aromatic compounds, and are commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. The central argument supporting this attribution is that single-photon excitation of the molecule can account for the unidentified infrared emission features observed in 'cirrus' clouds in the diffuse interstellar medium. Of the more than 160 molecules identified in the circumstellar and interstellar environments, however, not one is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule. The detections of discrete and broad aliphatic spectral features suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission features cannot be a pure aromatic compound. Here we report an analysis of archival spectroscopic observations and demonstrate that the data are most consistent with the carriers being amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic-aliphatic structure. This structure is similar to that of the organic materials found in meteorites, as would be expected if the Solar System had inherited these organic materials from interstellar sources. PMID:22031328

  10. Halides with Fifteen Aliphatic C–H···Anion Interaction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Genggongwo; Aliakbar Tehrani, Zahra; Kim, Dongwook; Cho, Woo Jong; Youn, Il-Seung; Lee, Han Myoung; Yousuf, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nisar; Shirinfar, Bahareh; Teator, Aaron J.; Lastovickova, Dominika N.; Rasheed, Lubna; Lah, Myoung Soo; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2016-01-01

    Since the aliphatic C–H···anion interaction is relatively weak, anion binding using hydrophobic aliphatic C–H (Cali–H) groups has generally been considered not possible without the presence of additional binding sites that contain stronger interactions to the anion. Herein, we report X-ray structures of organic crystals that feature a chloride anion bound exclusively by hydrophobic Cali–H groups. An X-ray structure of imidazolium-based scaffolds using Cali–H···A− interactions (A− = anion) shows that a halide anion is directly interacting with fifteen Cali–H groups (involving eleven hydrogen bonds, two bidentate hydrogen-bond-type binding interactions and two weakly hydrogen-bonding-like binding interactions). Additional supporting interactions and/or other binding sites are not observed. We note that such types of complexes may not be rare since such high numbers of binding sites for an anion are also found in analogous tetraalkylammonium complexes. The Cali–H···A− interactions are driven by the formation of a near-spherical dipole layer shell structure around the anion. The alternating layers of electrostatic charge around the anion arise because the repulsions between weakly positively charged H atoms are reduced by the presence of the weakly negatively charged C atoms connected to H atoms. PMID:27444513

  11. The Lewis-acid-catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched poly(glycerol-diacid)s in toluene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first examples of monomeric glycerol-derived hyperbranched polyesters produced in a non-polar solvent system are reported here. The polymers were made by the Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IV)oxide)-catalyzed polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length)=2), glutari...

  12. Direct β-C(sp(3))-H Functionalization of Aliphatic Amines to α,β-Unsaturated Imines, Aldehydes, and Chromenes.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sumana; Mahato, Sujit; Jana, Chandan K

    2015-08-01

    A metal-free method for direct β-C(sp(3))-H functionalization of aliphatic amine was developed. The method is based on a reaction that yields enamine directly from the corresponding aliphatic amine, which otherwise requires the aid of metallic reagent and/or external oxidant. The reaction is operationally simple, general, and highly efficient in functionalizing both cyclic and acyclic amines. Structurally diverse unsaturated imines were obtained from N-heterocycles, while acyclic amines provided 2-alkyl cinnamaldehyde and benzopyran derivatives with excellent E/Z-selectivity. PMID:26204435

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts for anticancer chemotherapy: part II.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jee Sun; Song, Doona; Ko, Won Jin; Kim, Bunyea; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Park, Song-Kyu; Won, Misun; Lee, Kiho; Lee, Kyeong; Kim, Hwan Mook; Han, Gyoonhee

    2013-05-01

    A series of novel aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer effects involving induction of RhoB. Most of these compounds, featuring open-ring forms of aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts, exhibited potent anti-proliferative activities in human cancer cell lines, including PC-3, NUGC-3, MDA-MB-231, ACHN, HCT-15, and NCI-H23. In further evaluation, the representative compound N,N-diethyl-N-(2-(N-methyltetradecanamido)ethyl)prop-2-en-1-aminium bromide (3b) exhibited potent pro-apoptotic activity, through RhoB activation, in HeLa cells. PMID:23567950

  14. Complete genome of Zhongshania aliphaticivorans SM-2(T), an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Jia, Baolei; Jeong, Hye Im; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-05-20

    Zhongshania aliphaticivorans SM-2(T), a degrader of aliphatic hydrocarbons, is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, flagellated, facultatively aerobic bacterium. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain SM-2(T), which has a size of 4,204,359bp with 44 tRNAs, 9 rRNAs, and 3664 protein-coding genes. In addition, several genes encoding aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders (alkane 1-monooxygenase, haloalkane dehalogenase, and cytochrome P450) were detected in the genome shedding light on the function of pollutants degradation. PMID:27034022

  15. Strong-acid, carboxyl-group structures in fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia. 1. Minor structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Wershaw, R. L.; Reddy, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the strong-acid characteristics (pKa 3.0 or less) of fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia, was conducted. Quantitative determinations were made for amino acid and sulfur-containing acid structures, oxalate half-ester structures, malonic acid structures, keto acid structures, and aromatic carboxyl-group structures. These determinations were made by using a variety of spectrometric (13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and ultraviolet spectrometry) and titrimetric characterizations on fulvic acid or fulvic acid samples that were chemically derivatized to indicate certain functional groups. Only keto acid and aromatic carboxyl-group structures contributed significantly to the strong-acid characteristics of the fulvic acid; these structures accounted for 43% of the strong-acid acidity. The remaining 57% of the strong acids are aliphatic carboxyl groups in unusual and/or complex configurations for which limited model compound data are available.

  16. Gas phase C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} organic acids concentrations in the Los Angeles atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Nolte, C.G.; Fraser, M.P.; Cass, G.R.

    1999-02-15

    The atmospheric concentrations of gas-phase C{sub 2}--C{sub 10} monocarboxylic and benzoic acids are reported in samples collected during a severe Los Angeles area photochemical smog episode. Average urban concentrations are 10--50 {times} greater than concentrations observed at a remote background location, indicating an anthropogenic origin for these compounds. Average urban concentrations during the episode were 16.1 {micro}g m{sup {minus}3} (6.6 ppb) for acetic acid and 1.67 {micro}g m{sup {minus}3} (0.55 ppb) for propionic acid, with progressively lesser amounts as the carbon chain length of the acids is increased. Spatial and diurnal variations in atmospheric organic acids concentrations point to the importance of both direct emissions from primary sources and formation by photochemical reaction of precursor compounds.

  17. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons characterisation of Coimbra and Oporto PM2.5 urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. C.; Mirante, F.; Gonçalves, C.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C.; Evtyugina, M.; Kowacz, M.; Pio, C.; Rocha, C.; Vasconcelos, T.

    2009-04-01

    The concentration of organic pollutants in urban areas is mostly due to incomplete combustion from vehicles, industries and domestic heating. Some of these compounds, principally the aliphatic (ALIPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) promote harmful effects in human health. The determination of the ALIPH and PAHs concentration levels and their possible emission sources are useful for air quality management and source apportionment studies. In order to estimate and compare the ambient concentrations and establish the main sources of these compounds, the fine fraction of the atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected simultaneously in Oporto and Coimbra during summer and winter seasons using a high volume sampler. The organic compounds were extracted from the particulate matter, under reflux with dichloromethane and the total organic extract (TOE) was fractionated by flash chromatography using five different eluents with increasing polarity. The hydrocarbon fractions were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Here we present and discuss the qualitative and quantitative composition of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions present in PM2.5 samples from both cities. The homologous series of C14 to C34 n-alkanes, isoprenoid hydrocarbons (pristane and phytane), PAHs and some petroleum markers have been identified and quantified. With the purpose of identifying the possible sources, various molecular diagnostic ratios were calculated. The global carbon preference index (CPI) closer to the unity, the large concentration of the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and the presence of PAHs indicate that motor vehicle exhaust was the main emission source of the aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of Oporto and Coimbra aerosol, especially in the first city. Also, the remarkable presence of petroleum biomarkers such, as hopanes, confirms the previous results. Concentration ratios between PAHs were calculated and used to assign emission

  18. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediments from the Ushuaia Bay (Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Commendatore, Marta G; Nievas, Marina L; Amin, Oscar; Esteves, José L

    2012-03-01

    The environmental quality of Ushuaia Bay, located at the southernmost tip of South America, is affected by the anthropogenic pressure of Ushuaia city. In this study, levels and sources of hydrocarbons in coastal sediments were assessed. Aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions ranged between 5.5 and 1185.3 μg/g dry weight and PAHs from not detected to 360 ng/g. Aliphatic diagnostic indices, the nalkanes homologous series occurrence, Aliphatic Unresolved Complex Mixtures (AliUCMs), and pristane and phytane isoprenoids indicated a petrogenic input. Some sites showed biogenic features masked by the anthropogenic signature. Particularly in port areas biodegradation processes were evident. PAH ratios showed a mixture of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Aliphatic and aromatic UCMs were strongly correlated, reflecting chronic pollution. Three areas were distinguished inside the bay: (1) east, with low hydrocarbons impact; (2) central, where hydrocarbons accumulation was related to source proximity and sediment characteristics; (3) south-west, where sediment characteristics and current circulation favour hydrocarbons accumulation. PMID:22189069

  19. Amperometric detection and electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines and ammonia on silver-lead oxide thin-film electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jisheng

    1996-01-08

    This thesis comprises three parts: Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: aliphatic amines at mixed Ag-Pb oxide thin-film electrodes; oxidation of ammonia at anodized Ag-Pb eutectic alloy electrodes; and temperature effects on oxidation of ethylamine, alanine, and aquated ammonia.

  20. COMPLETE DETOXIFICATION OF SHORT CHAIN CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS: ISOLATION OF HALORESPIRING ORGANISMS AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE DEHALOGENATING ENZYME SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anaerobic treatment of short chain chlorinated aliphatics is a promising approach forremediating contaminated sites. The dehalogenation of 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) under anaerobic conditions has not yet been explored and the sequential reductive dechlorination of tetra ...

  1. Proposed chemical mechanisms leading to secondary organic aerosol in the reactions of aliphatic amines with hydroxyl and nitrate radicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence and importance of amines in the atmosphere continues to gain more attention including aliphatic amines commonly associated with agricultural facilities. The atmospheric reaction mechanisms of these amines with key atmospheric radicals are important to predict both daytime and nighttime...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10190 Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10190 Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10190 Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10190 Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10190 Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone...

  11. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on water transport under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ballesta, Mcarmen; Moreno-Fernández, Diego A.; Castejón, Diego; Ochando, Cristina; Morandini, Piero A.; Carvajal, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates. Exposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT) and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered glucosinolates biosynthesis in a similar way in WT and the single mutant and differently in the double mutant. The results indicate that short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates may contribute to water saving under salt stress. PMID:26236322

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of bicyclic dihydropyrans via organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reactions of enolizable aliphatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Long; Yang, Kai-Chuan; Li, Yi; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Hong-Ping; Han, Bo; Peng, Cheng; Zhi, Yong-Gang; Gou, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-23

    A highly enantioselective organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reaction involving aqueous acetaldehyde has been discovered. The reaction, in which cyclic enones serve as dienes in the presence of readily available secondary amine catalysts, allows facile construction of optically active bicyclic dihydropyrans. Other typical enolizable aliphatic aldehydes can also serve as competent dienophiles in the reaction. PMID:27436351

  13. Organic pollutants in the coastal environment off San Diego, California. 2: Petrogenic and biogenic sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, K.; Yu, C.C.; Zeng, E.Y.

    1997-02-01

    The results from the measurements of aliphatic hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons in the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant (PLWTP) effluents are mainly petroleum derived; those in the Tijuana River runoff have largely originated from terrestrial plants with visible petroleum contamination; and those in the sea surface microlayer, sediment traps, and sediments at various coastal locations off San Diego have mostly resulted from biogenic contributions with enhanced microbial products in the summer season. Rainfall in the winter season appeared to amplify the inputs from terrestrial higher plants to the coastal areas. The PLWTP discharged approximately 3.85 metric tons of n-alkanes (C{sub 10}-C{sub 35}) in 1994, well below the level (136 metric tons) estimated in 1979. The input of aliphatic hydrocarbons from the Tijuana River was about 0.101 metric tons in 1994. Diffusion, solubilization, evaporation, and microbial degradation seemed partially responsible for the difference in the concentrations and compositions of aliphatic hydrocarbons in different sample media, although the relative importance of each mechanism cannot be readily discerned from the available data. The results from analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbon compositional indices are generally consistent with those of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  14. Investigating the structure-property relationship of aromatic-aliphatic polyamide/layered silicate hybrid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfiqar, Sonia; Sarwar, Muhammad Ilyas

    2009-07-01

    Surface treated montmorillonite was used to prepare nanocomposites with aromatic-aliphatic polyamide by solution intercalation technique. The polyamide chains were produced through polycondensation of 4-aminophenyl sulfone with sebacoyl chloride in dimethyl acetamide. Compatibility between the polymer and organoclay was achieved through carbonyl chloride end-capped amide chains prepared by adding extra sebacoyl chloride near the end of polymerization reaction. The nanocomposites morphology and clay dispersion were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Delaminated and intercalated morphologies were observed for different loading of organoclay. Tensile strength and modulus improved for nanocomposites with optimum organoclay content (10-wt.%). Thermal stability and glass transition temperature of nanocomposites increased relative to pristine polyamide with augmenting organoclay content. Water uptake of these materials decreased as compared to the neat polyamide indicating reduced permeability.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Aromatic-Aliphatic Polyamide Nanocomposite Films Incorporating a Thermally Stable Organoclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfiqar, Sonia; Sarwar, Muhammad Ilyas

    2009-05-01

    Nanocomposites were synthesized from reactive thermally stable montmorillonite and aromatic-aliphatic polyamide obtained from 4-aminophenyl sulfone and sebacoyl chloride. Carbonyl chloride terminal chain ends were generated using 1% extra sebacoyl chloride that could interact chemically with the organoclay. The distribution of clay in the nanocomposites was investigated by XRD, SEM, and TEM. Mechanical and thermal properties of these materials were monitored using tensile testing, TGA, and DSC. The results revealed delaminated and intercalated nanostructures leading to improved tensile strength and modulus up to 6 wt% addition of organoclay. The elongation at break and toughness of the nanocomposites decreased with increasing clay contents. The nanocomposites were thermally stable in the range 400-450 °C. The glass transition temperature increased relative to the neat polyamide due to the interfacial interactions between the two phases. Water uptake of the hybrids decreased upon the addition of organoclay depicting reduced permeability.

  16. Complexes of ruthenium and rhodium with aliphatic amines in the catalysis of hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Turisbekova, K.K.; Shuikina, L.P.; Parenago, O.P.; Frolov, V.F.

    1989-02-01

    The authors synthesized new catalysts highly active in the hydrogenations of unsaturated hydrocarbons, based on complexes of ruthenium and rhodium with higher aliphatic amines, which are soluble in aromatic solvents. The complexes acquired catalytic activity in hydrogenation as a result of their treatment with diisobutyl aluminum hydride. Olefins (1-hexene, cyclopentene, cyclohexene) or dienes (isoprene) were used as the unsaturated compounds. For the ruthenium based catalysts, the highest activity was observed during the hydrogenation of 1-hexene. For the rhodium-based catalysts, the activity in the hydrogenation of olefins and dienes was approximately the same. In the case of the rhodium complex catalysts, the hydrogenation of 1-hexene was accompanied by a side-reaction consisting in isomerization into olefins with inner double bonds.

  17. Chemically responsive nanoporous pigments: colorimetric sensor arrays and the identification of aliphatic amines.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jin Ho; Lim, Sung H; Park, Erwin; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2008-11-18

    A general method has been developed for the preparation of microspheres of nanoporous pigments, their formulation into chemically responsive pigment inks, and the printing of these inks as colorimetric sensor arrays. Using an ultrasonic-spray aerosol-gel synthesis from chemically responsive dyes and common silica precursors, 16 different nanoporous pigment microspheres have been prepared and characterized. New colorimetric sensor arrays have been created by printing inks of these chemically responsive pigments as primary sensor elements; these arrays have been successfully tested for the detection, identification, and quantitation of toxic aliphatic amines. Among 11 structurally similar amines, complete identification of each analyte without confusion was achieved using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Furthermore, visual identification of ammonia gas was easily made at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health), PEL (permissible exposure limits), and 0.1 PEL concentrations with high reproducibility. PMID:18950204

  18. Low-temperature microchip nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis of aliphatic primary amines: applications to Titan chemistry.

    PubMed

    Cable, Morgan L; Stockton, Amanda M; Mora, Maria F; Willis, Peter A

    2013-01-15

    We demonstrate microchip nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (μNACE) analysis of primary aliphatic amines (C1-C18) in ethanol down to -20 °C as a first step in adapting microfluidic protocols for in situ analysis on Titan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a nonaqueous separation at -20 °C on-chip. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 1.0 nM to 2.6 nM, and we identified several primary amines ranging in length from C2 to C16 in Titan aerosol analogue (tholin) samples; new amines were also detected in a tholin sample exposed to oxygen and liquid water. This preliminary work validates the sensitivity and efficacy of microfluidic chemical analysis of complex organics with relevance to Titan aerosols and surface deposits. PMID:23214444

  19. Catalytic activity of carbon nanotubes in the conversion of aliphatic alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitnev, Yu. N.; Tveritinova, E. A.; Chernyak, S. A.; Savilov, S. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained via the catalytic pyrolysis of hexane at 750°C were studied as the catalysts in conversion of C2-C4 alcohols. The efficiency of CNTs as catalysts in dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol was studied by means of pulse microcatalysis. The surface and structural characteristics of CNTs are investigated via SEM, TEM, DTA, BET, and XPS. CNTs are shown to be effective catalysts in the conversion of alcohols and do not require additional oxidative treatment. The regularities of the conversion of aliphatic alcohols, related to the properties of the CNTs surface and the structure of the alcohols are identified.

  20. Vapor-liquid critical properties of elements and compounds. 6: Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Tsonopoulos, C.; Ambrose, D.

    1996-07-01

    This is part 6 of a series of contributions by the critical properties group of the IUPAC Commission I.2 on Thermodynamics, Subcommittee on Thermodynamic Data. It presents all known experimental data for the critical constants of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, which have been divided into five families: linear alk-1-enes (10 compounds, C{sub 2} to C{sub 12}); other alkenes (8 compounds, C{sub 4} to C{sub 6}); alkadienes (3 compounds, C{sub 3} to C{sub 6}); terpenes (3 C{sub 10} compounds); and alkynes (3 compounds, C{sub 2} to C{sub 4}). Recommendations are given together with uncertainties. Critical temperatures have been converted to ITS-90.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Aromatic–Aliphatic Polyamide Nanocomposite Films Incorporating a Thermally Stable Organoclay

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Nanocomposites were synthesized from reactive thermally stable montmorillonite and aromatic–aliphatic polyamide obtained from 4-aminophenyl sulfone and sebacoyl chloride. Carbonyl chloride terminal chain ends were generated using 1% extra sebacoyl chloride that could interact chemically with the organoclay. The distribution of clay in the nanocomposites was investigated by XRD, SEM, and TEM. Mechanical and thermal properties of these materials were monitored using tensile testing, TGA, and DSC. The results revealed delaminated and intercalated nanostructures leading to improved tensile strength and modulus up to 6 wt% addition of organoclay. The elongation at break and toughness of the nanocomposites decreased with increasing clay contents. The nanocomposites were thermally stable in the range 400–450 °C. The glass transition temperature increased relative to the neat polyamide due to the interfacial interactions between the two phases. Water uptake of the hybrids decreased upon the addition of organoclay depicting reduced permeability. PMID:20596518

  2. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants. 3. Unsaturated aliphatics: Acrolein, acrylonitrile, maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the unsaturated aliphatic contaminants acrolein, acrylonitrile, and maleic anhydride. In-situ formation of small amounts of acrolein and maleic anhydride may involve the reaction of OH (and O{sub 3}) with 1,3-dienes and the reaction of OH with aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. There is no known pathway for in-situ formation of acrylonitrile. Rapid removal of acrolein (half-life = less than one day) and of maleic anhydride (half-life = several hours) is expected from their rapid reactions with OH (major), O{sub 3}, and NO{sub 3}. These reactions lead to formaldehyde and glyoxal from acrolein and to dicarbonyls from maleic anhydride. Acrylonitrile is removed at a slower rate (half-life = 2-7 days) by reaction with OH, leading to formaldehyde and formyl cyanide.

  3. Difluorocarbene-Derived Trifluoromethylthiolation and [(18)F]Trifluoromethylthiolation of Aliphatic Electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Lu; Lin, Jin-Hong; Xiao, Ji-Chang; Liang, Steven H

    2015-11-01

    The first trifluoromethylthiolation and [(18)F]trifluoromethylthiolation of alkyl electrophiles with in situ generated difluorocarbene in the presence of elemental sulfur and external (radioactive) fluoride ion is described. This transition-metal-free approach is high yielding, compatible with a variety of functional groups, and operated under mild reaction conditions. The conceptual advantage of this exogenous-fluoride-mediated transformation enables unprecedented syntheses of [(18)F]CF3S-labeled molecules from most commonly used [(18)F]fluoride ions. The rapid radiochemical reaction time (≤1 min) and high functional-group tolerance allow access to a variety of aliphatic [(18)F]CF3S compounds in high yields. PMID:26387796

  4. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants 4. Saturated halogenated aliphatics: Methyl bromide, epichlorhydrin, phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms are outlined for the reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the saturated halogenated aliphatic contaminants methyl bromide, epichlorhydrin, and phosgene. In-situ formation is important only for phosgene and involves the reaction of OH with chloroethenes and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. A ranking of these phosgene precursors is given using data for precursor ambient concentrations and chemical reactivity. The three toxic compounds studied are long-lived in the atmosphere, where removal of phosgene and methyl bromide by chemical reactions is negligibly slow. Epichlorhydrin is removed slowly by reaction with OH, leading to formaldehyde, chloroacetaldehyde, and the chlorinated peroxyacyl nitrate CH{sub 2}ClC(O)OONO{sub 2}.

  5. Investigation of Aromatic/Aliphatic Polyimides as Dispersants for Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delozier, Donavon M.; Watson, Kent A.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Clancy, Thomas C.; Connell, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Novel aromatic/aliphatic polyimides were prepared from 2,7-diamino-9,9'- dioctylfluorene (AFDA) and aromatic dianhydrides. Upon investigating the effectiveness of these polyimides for dispersing single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in solution, three were discovered to disperse SWNTs in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc). Two of these polyimides, one from 3,3',4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) and one from symmetric 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (s-BPDA), were used to prepare nanocomposites. Homogeneous polyimide/SWNT suspensions from both polymers were used in the preparation of films and fibers containing up to 1 wt% SWNTs. The samples were thermally treated to remove residual solvent and the films were characterized for SWNT dispersion by optical and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). Electrical and mechanical properties of the films were also determined. Electrospun fibers were examined by HRSEM to characterize SWNT alignment and orientation.

  6. Highly efficient photochemically induced thiyl radical-mediated racemization of aliphatic amines at 30 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Routaboul, Lucie; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Gastaldi, Stéphane; Gil, Gérard; Bertrand, Michèle

    2008-01-18

    UV irradiation in the presence of thiol enables the performance of highly efficient aliphatic amines racemization, under mild conditions at 30 degrees C. The reaction proceeds via the reversible generation of prochiral alpha-aminoalkyl radicals. The latter may result either from a redox process between the thiyl radical and the amine or from direct hydrogen atom abstraction by thiyl radical. As hydrogen atom donor, the thiol plays a crucial role. While the racemization of both primary and secondary amines were fast processes, the racemization of tertiary amines was sluggish. A tentative rationale is based on the photostimulated amine-catalyzed oxidation of the thiol into the corresponding disulfide, which makes the hydrogen atom donor concentration in the reaction medium drop up to trace amount at a rate that depends on the nature of the amine. PMID:18076189

  7. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the southern basin of Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Doskey, P.V.; Andren, A.W.

    1991-10-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the southern basin of Lake Michigan have planktonic, terrigenous, and petroleum residue origins. Surficial sediments collected near the eastern shore in 60-80 m of water contained more petroleum residue and planktonic hydrocarbons and exhibited less terrigenous character than sediments collected from the deepest location in the basin. Petroleum residue inputs have increased since 1900 as evidenced by a change in the flux of an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons from 6 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr to a flux of approximately 100 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr in 1980. Sediment profiles of the UCM exhibited subsurface concentration maxima that may be due to reduced inputs of combustion products or feeding by oligochaetes. Profiles of n-C{sub l7} and pristane indicated that planktonic n-alkanes undergo degradation in the aerobic, mixed zone of the sediments.

  8. Determination of alkylamine permeation through protective gloves using aliphatic amine pads.

    PubMed

    Vo, E; Berardinelli, S P

    1999-12-01

    A quantitative study of alkylamine permeation through a glove material using Permea-Tec aliphatic amine pads, used for the detection of chemical breakthrough of protective clothing, was performed for triethylamine following a microwave-extraction process and gas chromatographic analysis. Triethylamine exhibited > 99% adsorption on the pads at a spiking level of 729 ng (1.0 ml). Triethylamine showed recoveries from 63 to 90% (RSD < or = 5%) over the range 0.2-1.0 ml (146-729 ng) applied to pads. The ASTM F739 standard and direct permeability testing procedures were used to determine breakthrough times for five protective glove materials using triethylamine as a challenge chemical. Breakthrough times for six protective gloves were determined ranging from 40 s to > 4 h. The quantitative concentration of triethylamine on the pads following permeation through the gloves was also determined, ranging from 101 to 103 ng cm-2 (382-386 ng per pad). PMID:11529186

  9. Branched aliphatic alkanes with quaternary substituted carbon atoms in modern and ancient geologic samples

    PubMed Central

    Kenig, Fabien; Simons, Dirk-Jan H.; Crich, David; Cowen, James P.; Ventura, Gregory T.; Rehbein-Khalily, Tatiana; Brown, Todd C.; Anderson, Ken B.

    2003-01-01

    A pseudohomologous series of branched aliphatic alkanes with a quaternary substituted carbon atom (BAQCs, specifically 2,2-dimethylalkanes and 3,3- and 5,5-diethylalkanes) were identified in warm (65°C) deep-sea hydrothermal waters and Late Cretaceous black shales. 5,5-Diethylalkanes were also observed in modern and Holocene marine shelf sediments and in shales spanning the last 800 million years of the geological record. The carbon number distribution of BAQCs indicates a biological origin. These compounds were observed but not identified in previous studies of 2.0 billion- to 2.2 billion-year-old metasediments and were commonly misidentified in other sediment samples, indicating that BAQCs are widespread in the geological record. The source organisms of BAQCs are unknown, but their paleobiogeographic distribution suggests that they have an affinity for sulfides and might be nonphotosynthetic sulfide oxidizers. PMID:14551322

  10. Amination of ω-Functionalized Aliphatic Primary Alcohols by a Biocatalytic Oxidation–Transamination Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Pickl, Mathias; Fuchs, Michael; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Amination of non-activated aliphatic fatty alcohols to the corresponding primary amines was achieved through a five-enzyme cascade reaction by coupling a long-chain alcohol oxidase from Aspergillus fumigatus (LCAO_Af) with a ω-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum (ω-TA_Cv). The alcohol was oxidized at the expense of molecular oxygen to yield the corresponding aldehyde, which was subsequently aminated by the PLP-dependent ω-TA to yield the final primary amine product. The overall cascade was optimized with respect to pH, O2 pressure, substrate concentration, decomposition of H2O2 (derived from alcohol oxidation), NADH regeneration, and biocatalyst ratio. The substrate scope of this concept was investigated under optimized conditions by using terminally functionalized C4–C11 fatty primary alcohols bearing halogen, alkyne, amino, hydroxy, thiol, and nitrile groups. PMID:26583050

  11. Pattern recognition analysis of a set of mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines.

    PubMed Central

    Nesnow, S; Langenbach, R; Mass, M J

    1985-01-01

    A set of 21 mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines were subjected to a pattern recognition analysis using ADAPT software. Four descriptors based on molecular connectivity, geometry and sigma charge on nitrogen were capable of achieving a 100% classification using the linear learning machine or iterative least squares algorithms. Three descriptors were capable of a 90.5% and two descriptors of a 85.7% overall correct classification. Three of the four descriptors were each capable of classifying 15 of the 16 active chemicals while it required three of the four descriptors to classify correctly two of the five inactive chemicals. These results are in concert with previous observations that molecular connectivity, geometry, and sigma charge on nitrogen are powerful descriptors for separating active from inactive mutagenic and carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. PMID:4065072

  12. Inhibition of jet fuel aliphatic hydrocarbon induced toxicity in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Inman, A O; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Riviere, J E

    2008-05-01

    Jet propellant (JP)-8, the primary jet fuel used by the U.S. military, consists of hydrocarbon-rich kerosene base commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) plus additives DC1-4A, Stadis 450 and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) were exposed to JP-8, aliphatic hydrocarbon (HC) fuel S-8 and aliphatic HC pentadecane (penta), tetradecane (tetra), tridecane (tri) and undecane (un) for 5 min. Additional studies were conducted with signal transduction pathway blockers parthenolide (P; 3.0 microm), isohelenin (I; 3.0 microm), SB 203580 (SB; 13.3 microm), substance P (SP; 3.0 microm) and recombinant human IL-10 (rHIL-10; 10 ng ml(-1)). In the absence of inhibitors, JP-8 and to a lesser extent un and S-8, had the greatest toxic effect on cell viability and inflammation suggesting, as least in vitro, that synthetic S-8 fuel is less irritating than the currently used JP-8. Each inhibitor significantly (P < 0.05) decreased HEK viability. DMSO, the vehicle for P, I and SB, had a minimal effect on viability. Overall, IL-8 production was suppressed at least 30% after treatment with each inhibitor. Normalizing data relative to control indicate which inhibitors suppress HC-mediated IL-8 to control levels. P was the most effective inhibitor of IL-8 release; IL-8 was significantly decreased after exposure to un, tri, tetra and penta but significantly increased after JP-8 exposure compared with controls. Inhibitors were not effective in suppressing IL-8 release in JP-8 exposures to control levels. This study shows that inhibiting NF-kappa B, which appears to play a role in cytokine production in HC-exposed HEK in vitro, may reduce the inflammatory effect of HC in vivo. PMID:17966119

  13. Photoorganocatalytic One-Pot Synthesis of Hydroxamic Acids from Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Giorgos N; Kokotos, Christoforos G

    2016-05-10

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of hydroxamic acids from aldehydes and hydroxylamine is described. A fast, visible-light-mediated metal-free hydroacylation of dialkyl azodicarboxylates was used to develop the subsequent addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride. A range of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes were employed in this reaction to give hydroxamic acids in high to excellent yields. Application of the current methodology was demonstrated in the synthesis of the anticancer medicine vorinostat. PMID:27038037

  14. Bioconversion of wastes from the olive oil and confectionary industries: spectroscopic study of humic acids.

    PubMed

    Sellami, F; Hachicha, S; Chtourou, M; Medhioub, K; Ammar, E

    2007-11-01

    Structural changes in humic acids extracted from composted mixtures of sesame bark with the paste of olive mill wastewater or exhausted olive cake, were investigated using FTIR spectroscopy and solid state 13C CP/MAS techniques. The C/N ratio and organic matter degradation decreased significantly after 6 months of composting. The FTIR spectra of humic acids content showed an increase in the aromatic compounds content and a degradation of aliphatic chains. During composting, nuclear magnetic resonance 13C spectral analyses confirmed that aromatic groups exhibited a slight increase while the aliphatic groups decreased and disappeared at the end of the composting process. These results showed that during composting, aliphatic chains were preferentially oxidized, while aromatic macromolecules were bio converted into highly functionalized compounds. PMID:18290538

  15. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  16. Analysis of the interactions of sulfur-containing amino acids in membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Tamayo, José C; Cordomí, Arnau; Olivella, Mireia; Mayol, Eduardo; Fourmy, Daniel; Pardo, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    The interactions of Met and Cys with other amino acid side chains have received little attention, in contrast to aromatic-aromatic, aromatic-aliphatic or/and aliphatic-aliphatic interactions. Precisely, these are the only amino acids that contain a sulfur atom, which is highly polarizable and, thus, likely to participate in strong Van der Waals interactions. Analysis of the interactions present in membrane protein crystal structures, together with the characterization of their strength in small-molecule model systems at the ab-initio level, predicts that Met-Met interactions are stronger than Met-Cys ≈ Met-Phe ≈ Cys-Phe interactions, stronger than Phe-Phe ≈ Phe-Leu interactions, stronger than the Met-Leu interaction, and stronger than Leu-Leu ≈ Cys-Leu interactions. These results show that sulfur-containing amino acids form stronger interactions than aromatic or aliphatic amino acids. Thus, these amino acids may provide additional driving forces for maintaining the 3D structure of membrane proteins and may provide functional specificity. PMID:27240306

  17. Recycled fatty acid crude petroleum recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, G. L.; Herter, C.

    1984-11-06

    A method of recovering crude oil for subsequent processing. The method contemplates the step of exposing the source of crude oil such as a subterranean petroleum reservoir or a vessel or container of tar sands, kerogen or the like to aliphatic or carboxylic acid, preferably oleic acid, to produce a solvated crude oil mixture of reduced viscosity. This mixture is saponifyed by reacting it with a nucleophilic base, preferably a hydroxide of potassium or sodium, under pressure whereby to separate the solvated mixture into petroleum crude and an acid soap which migrates to an aqueous phase. The petroleum crude is separated from the aqueous soap through conventional techniques. Afterwards, a desaponification step contemplates recovery of the aliphatic or carboxylic acid for subsequent recycling in the previously mentioned exposing step. Reuse is facilitated by desaponifying aqueous soap within a high pressure containment vessel reacted with an acid suitable for donating a hydrated proton to the aqueous phase of the soap. This reconstituted acid is recycled for injection into the inputting step. Preferably carbonic acid is generated for the desaponifying step by injecting high pressure carbon dioxide within the containment vessel. By-products of the chemical reaction are separated and/or filtered as necessary to effectuate necessary purification sub-steps.

  18. Low-molecular-weight organic acids and hormone-like activity of dissolved organic matter in two forest soils in N Italy.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Serenella; Pizzeghello, Diego; Bragazza, Luca; Gerdol, Renato

    2003-07-01

    Concentrations of aliphatic acids, phenolic acid, and inorganic nutrients, as well as hormone-like activity, were determined in soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) from two forest sites in N Italy showing differing degrees of silver fir regeneration. In the site where silver fir recruitment was abundant, humification processes prevailed, and the soil DOM had a high content in aliphatic and phenolic acids. This enhanced the hormone-like activity in the soil, which could in turn promote growth of silver fir seedlings. In the site with poor fir recruitment, the soil DOM underwent rapid mineralization and was richer in inorganic nutrients, but had lower concentrations of aliphatic and phenolic acids, and lower hormone-like activity. PMID:12921435

  19. Complexation of carboxylate anions with the arginine gas-phase amino acid: Effects of chain length on the geometry of extended ion binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxford, Thomas F. M.; Milner, Edward M.; Yoshikawa, Naruo; Bullivant, Chad; Dessent, Caroline E. H.

    2013-07-01

    Complexation of deprotonated carboxylic acids with arginine was investigated using collision-induced dissociation to probe the nature of isolated carboxylate-amino acid interactions as a function of anion size. Monocarboxylic CH3(CH2)nCOO-·Arg (n = 3-7, 9, 10) and dicarboxylic acid COOH(CH2)nCOO-·Arg (n = 3-5, 7-10) complexes were investigated. For the dicarboxylic acid clusters, chain length has a significant effect on the %fragmentation energies with the n = 9, 10 systems fragmenting at significantly lower energies than the corresponding shorter chain systems. Molecular mechanics calculations suggest that this fragmentation energy shift is associated with the longer-chain dicarboxylic acid-Arg clusters switching to ring structures.

  20. Studies of the physical, yield and failure behavior of aliphatic polyketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karttunen, Nicole Renee

    This thesis describes an investigation into the multiaxial yield and failure behavior of an aliphatic polyketone terpolymer. The behavior is studied as a function of: stress state, strain rate, temperature, and sample processing conditions. Results of this work include: elucidation of the behavior of a recently commercialized polymer, increased understanding of the effects listed above, insight into the effects of processing conditions on the morphology of the polyketone, and a description of yield strength of this material as a function of stress state, temperature, and strain rate. The first portion of work focuses on the behavior of a set of samples that are extruded under "common" processing conditions. Following this reference set of tests, the effect of testing this material at different temperatures is studied. A total of four different temperatures are examined. In addition, the effect of altering strain rate is examined. Testing is performed under pseudo-strain rate control at constant nominal octahedral shear strain rate for each failure envelope. A total of three different rates are studied. An extension of the first portion of work involves modeling the yield envelope. This is done by combining two approaches: continuum level and molecular level. The use of both methods allows the description of the yield envelope as a function of stress state, strain rate and temperature. The second portion of work involves the effects of processing conditions. For this work, additional samples are extruded with different shear and thermal histories than the "standard" material. One set of samples is processed with shear rates higher and lower than the standard. A second set is processed at higher and lower cooling rates than the standard. In order to understand the structural cause for changes in behavior with processing conditions, morphological characterization is performed on these samples. In particular, the effect on spherulitic structure is important. Residual