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Sample records for aliphatic organic compounds

  1. Estimating the octanol/water partition coefficient for aliphatic organic compounds using semi-empirical electrotopological index.

    PubMed

    Souza, Erica Silva; Zaramello, Laize; Kuhnen, Carlos Alberto; Junkes, Berenice da Silva; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Heinzen, Vilma Edite Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    A new possibility for estimating the octanol/water coefficient (log P) was investigated using only one descriptor, the semi-empirical electrotopological index (I(SET)). The predictability of four octanol/water partition coefficient (log P) calculation models was compared using a set of 131 aliphatic organic compounds from five different classes. Log P values were calculated employing atomic-contribution methods, as in the Ghose/Crippen approach and its later refinement, AlogP; using fragmental methods through the ClogP method; and employing an approach considering the whole molecule using topological indices with the MlogP method. The efficiency and the applicability of the I(SET) in terms of calculating log P were demonstrated through good statistical quality (r > 0.99; s < 0.18), high internal stability and good predictive ability for an external group of compounds in the same order as the widely used models based on the fragmental method, ClogP, and the atomic contribution method, AlogP, which are among the most used methods of predicting log P.

  2. Biodegradation of Trihalomethanes and Other Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    The biological dehalogenation of common water pollutants such as trichloromethane (chloroform) and other halogenated aliphatic compounds was the subject of this project. Samples from diverse water environments such as from groundwater contaminated with halogenated compounds and wastewaters from regional treatment plants were studied to identify conditions that favor certain dehalogenation reactions over others. Gene probe analyses of DNA extracted from the dichlormethane-degrading wastewater indicated the presence of the gene coding for dichloromethane dehalogenase, indicating the genetic basis for the dechlorination activity observed. These studies indicate that methanogenic bacteria are the organisms responsible for the chloroform dechlorination. Dechlorination of a common chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11) was identified in samples taken from a regional aquifer contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  3. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  4. Localized aliphatic organic material on the surface of Ceres.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, M C; Ammannito, E; McSween, H Y; Raponi, A; Marchi, S; Capaccioni, F; Capria, M T; Carrozzo, F G; Ciarniello, M; Fonte, S; Formisano, M; Frigeri, A; Giardino, M; Longobardo, A; Magni, G; McFadden, L A; Palomba, E; Pieters, C M; Tosi, F; Zambon, F; Raymond, C A; Russell, C T

    2017-02-17

    Organic compounds occur in some chondritic meteorites, and their signatures on solar system bodies have been sought for decades. Spectral signatures of organics have not been unambiguously identified on the surfaces of asteroids, whereas they have been detected on cometary nuclei. Data returned by the Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer on board the Dawn spacecraft show a clear detection of an organic absorption feature at 3.4 micrometers on dwarf planet Ceres. This signature is characteristic of aliphatic organic matter and is mainly localized on a broad region of ~1000 square kilometers close to the ~50-kilometer Ernutet crater. The combined presence on Ceres of ammonia-bearing hydrated minerals, water ice, carbonates, salts, and organic material indicates a very complex chemical environment, suggesting favorable environments to prebiotic chemistry.

  5. Localized aliphatic organic material on the surface of Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; McSween, H. Y.; Raponi, A.; Marchi, S.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Fonte, S.; Formisano, M.; Frigeri, A.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; McFadden, L. A.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-02-01

    Organic compounds occur in some chondritic meteorites, and their signatures on solar system bodies have been sought for decades. Spectral signatures of organics have not been unambiguously identified on the surfaces of asteroids, whereas they have been detected on cometary nuclei. Data returned by the Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer on board the Dawn spacecraft show a clear detection of an organic absorption feature at 3.4 micrometers on dwarf planet Ceres. This signature is characteristic of aliphatic organic matter and is mainly localized on a broad region of ~1000 square kilometers close to the ~50-kilometer Ernutet crater. The combined presence on Ceres of ammonia-bearing hydrated minerals, water ice, carbonates, salts, and organic material indicates a very complex chemical environment, suggesting favorable environments to prebiotic chemistry.

  6. Lipstick dermatitis due to C18 aliphatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Suzuki, M; Arima, Y; Ohkido, Y

    1987-04-01

    An 18-year-old girl developed cheilitis. She had a past history of lip cream dermatitis, but the cause was not found. Patch tests with 2 lipsticks were strongly positive. Tests with the ingredients were positive to 2 aliphatic compounds, glyceryl diisostearate and diisostearyl malate. Impurities in the materials were suspected as the cause. Analysis by gas chromatography detected 3 chemicals in glyceryl diisostearate and 1 in diisostearyl malate as impurities. Patch testing with the impurities and glyceryl monoisostearate 0.01% pet in glyceryl diisostearate and isostearyl alcohol 0.25% pet in diisostearyl malate were strongly positive. The characteristics common to the 2 chemicals were liquidity at room temperature, branched C18 aliphatic compound and primary alcohol. Chemicals lacking any of the above 3 features did not react.

  7. Biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds by mixed nitrifying cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Wilber, G.G.; Chakkamadathil, S.V.

    1995-12-31

    The ability of pure cultures of nitrifying bacteria, such as Nitrosomonas europaea, to oxidize chlorinated aliphatic compounds has been demonstrated previously in laboratory experiments. In the current study, mixed nitrifying cultures originating from a municipal wastewater plant were also tested for the ability to biotransform chlorinated aliphatic compounds, including trichloroethene (TCE). A number of variables were tested, including the effects of two different concentrations of TCE, the effect of culture density, and the influence of the primary substrate, ammonia, on the initial rate of TCE biotransformation. The primary conclusions of the research include the following. The mixed nitrifying cultures did exhibit the ability to transform TCE, and the initial rate of transformation (before oxygen limitations became significant) was directly proportional to the culture density. In general, the transformation rate of TCE was slightly faster at an initial concentration of 0.1 mg/L than at 1 mg/L. Lastly, high initial ammonia concentrations (300 mg/L) resulted in faster initial rates of TCE transformation than in cultures which started with lower ammonia concentrations.

  8. Haloacetic acid and trihalomethane formation from the chlorination and bromination of aliphatic beta-dicarbonyl acid model compounds.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, Eric R V; Summers, R Scott; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Gallard, Hervé

    2008-05-01

    While it is known that resorcinol- and phenol-type aromatic structures within natural organic matter (NOM) react during drinking water chlorination to form trihalomethanes (THMs), limited studies have examined aliphatic-type structures as THM and haloacetic acid (HAA) precursors. A suite of aliphatic acid model compounds were chlorinated and brominated separately in controlled laboratory-scale batch experiments. Four and two beta-dicarbonyl acid compounds were found to be important precursors for the formation of THMs (chloroform and bromoform (71-91% mol/mol)), and dihaloacetic acids (DXAAs) (dichloroacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid (5-68% mol/mol)), respectively, after 24 h at pH 8. Based upon adsorbable organic halide formation, THMs and DXAAs, and to a lesser extent mono and trihaloacetic acids, were the majority (> 80%) of the byproducts produced for most of the aliphatic beta-dicarbonyl acid compounds. Aliphatic beta-diketone-acid-type and beta-keto-acid-type structures could be possible fast- and slow-reacting THM precursors, respectively, and aliphatic beta-keto-acid-type structures are possible slow-reacting DXAA precursors. Aliphatic beta-dicarbonyl acid moieties in natural organic matter, particularly in the hydrophilic fraction, could contribute to the significant formation of THMs and DXAAs observed after chlorination of natural waters.

  9. Anaerobic and aerobic treatment of chlorinated, aliphatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.L.; Stensel, H.D.; Ferguson, J.F.; Strand, S.E.; Ongerth, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). The anaerobic culture degraded seven of the feed CACs. The specialized aerobic cultures degraded all but three of the highly chlorinated CACs. The sequential system outperformed either of the other systems alone by degrading 10 of the feed CACs: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, plus the anaerobic metabolites: dichloromethane and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene.

  10. Complete Detoxification of Short Chain Chlorinated Aliphatic Compounds: Isolation of Halorespiring Organisms and Biochemical Studies of the Dehalogenating Enzyme Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedje, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Work focused on the isolation and characterization of halorespiring populations, and the initial investigation of the dechlorinating enzyme systems. In addition, tools to evaluate the presence/activity to halorespiring populations in the environment were developed. The tools developed in this work (measurements of hydrogen consumption thresholds, molecular probes) are relevant for regulatory agencies in order to facilitate decisions on which bioremediation technology (biostimulation or bioaugmentation) is most promising at a particular site. In addition, a better understanding of the physiology of the halorespiring organisms as well as the biochemistry of the dehalogenating enzyme systems enhances our knowledge of how these organisms can successfully be employed in the bioremediation of contaminated sites.

  11. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  12. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    PubMed

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-11-10

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  13. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1983-09-20

    A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

  14. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Travaglini, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

  15. In-situ micro-FTIR Study of Thermal Changes of Organics in Tagish Lake Meteorite: Behavior of Aliphatic Oxygenated Functions and Effects of Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Nakashima, Satoru; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Systematic in-situ FTIR heating experiments of Tagish Lake meteorite grains have been performed in order to study thermal stability of chondritic organics. Some aliphatic model organic substances have also been used to elucidate effects of hydrous phyllosilicate minerals on the thermal stability of organics. The experimental results indicated that organic matter in the Tagish Lake meteorite might contain oxygenated aliphatic hydrocarbons which are thermally stable carbonyls such as ester and/or C=O in ring compounds. The presence of hydrous phyllosilicate minerals has a pronounced effect on the increase of the thermal stability of aliphatic and oxygenated functions. These oxygenated aliphatic organics in Tagish Lake can be formed during the aqueous alteration in the parent body and the formation temperature condition might be less than 200 C, based especially on the thermal stability of C-O components. The hydrous phyllosilicates might provide sites for organic globule formation and protected some organic decomposition

  16. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, Robert A.; Laugal, James A.; Rappa, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  17. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  18. Organochlorine compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons in Pacific walrus blubber.

    PubMed

    Seagars, D J; Garlich-Miller, J

    2001-01-01

    Blubber samples were collected from 8 male and 19 female Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) taken during a 1991 joint USA/USSR cruise traveling widely through the Bering Sea. Dieldrin was found at a level similar to that reported 10 years earlier; oxychlordane was found at a slightly higher concentration than reported previously (Taylor et aL, 1989). Heptachlor epoxide was detected for the first time and found at a low concentration. An initial testing for alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH detected concentrations similar to those in other Bering Sea pinnipeds. Mean summation of PCB was 0.45 microg g(-1) wet weight in males and 0.16 microg g(-1) in females; only one sample was > 1 microg g(-1). Traces of aliphatic hydrocarbons were detected in all sampled animals, only pristane (x = 0.48 microg g(-1)) was found in concentrations > 1 microg g(-1). Small sample sizes, a lack of samples from immature animals, and uniformly low concentrations of contaminants precluded meaningful analysis of age-related effects and regional differences.

  19. Road tunnel, roadside, and urban background measurements of aliphatic compounds in size-segregated particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Célia A.; Oliveira, César; Martins, Natércia; Mirante, Fátima; Caseiro, Alexandre; Pio, Casimiro; Matos, Manuel; Silva, Hugo F.; Oliveira, Cristina; Camões, Filomena

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter samples were collected in a road tunnel in Lisbon (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5, and PM2.5-10) and at two urban locations representing roadside and background stations (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10). Samples were analysed for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), n-alkanes, n-alkenes, hopanes, some isoprenoid compounds, and steranes. Particulate matter concentrations in the tunnel were 17-31 times higher than at roadside in the vicinity, evidencing an aerosol origin almost exclusively in fresh vehicle emissions. PM0.5 in the tunnel comprised more than 60% and 80% of the total OC and EC mass in PM10, respectively. Concentrations of the different aliphatic groups of compounds in the tunnel were up to 89 times higher than at roadside and 143 times higher than at urban background. Based on the application of hopane-to-OC or hopanes-to-EC ratios obtained in the tunnel, it was found that vehicle emissions are the dominant contributor to carbonaceous particles in the city but do not represent the only source of these triterpenic compounds. Contrary to what has been observed in other studies, the Σhopane-to-EC ratios were higher in summer than in winter, suggesting that other factors (e.g. biomass burning, dust resuspension, and different fuels/engine technologies) prevail in relation to the photochemical decay of triterpenoid hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust.

  20. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  1. Genetic adaptation of bacteria to halogenated aliphatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, D.B.; Ploeg, J.R. van der; Pries, F.

    1995-06-01

    The bacterial degradation and detoxification of chlorinated xenobiotic compounds requires the production of enzymes that are capable of recognizing and converting compounds which do not occur at significant concentrations in nature. We have studied the catabolic route of 1,2-dichloroethane as an example of a pathway for the conversion of such a synthetic compound. In strains of Xanthobacter and Ancylobacter that have been isolated on 1,2-dichloroethane, the first catabolic step is catalyzed by a hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenase. The enzyme converts 1,2-dichloroethane to 2-chloroethanol but is also active with many other environmentally important haloalkanes such as methylchloride, methylbromide, 1,2-dibromoethane, epichlorohydrin, and 1,3-dichloropropene. Further degradation of 2-chloroethanol proceeds by oxidation to the carboxylic acid and dehalogenation to glycolate. The aldehyde dehydrogenase prevents toxicity of the reactive chloroacetaldehyde that is formed as an intermediate and is necessary for establishing a functional 2-chloroethanol degradative pathway in a strain that is not capable of growth on this compound. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in Great Barrier Reef organisms and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, M.; Connell, D. W.; Bodero, J.; Miller, G. J.; Back, R.

    1986-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the chemical nature, occurrence, and possible origin of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments, water, and a suite of seven species from widely separated coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef area were analysed by gas chromatography, and by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The hydrocarbons found were substantially of biogenic origin. The major components were n-pentadecane, n-heptadecane, pristane and mono-alkenes based on heptadecane, and were believed to originate from benthic algae and phytoplankton. There was no evidence to suggest that lipid content had any influence on hydrocarbon content. Hydrocarbons from the organisms and sediments have characteristic composition patterns which would be altered by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. An unresolved complex mixture, usually considered indicative of petroleum contamination, was found in greater than trace amounts only in Holothuria (sea cucumber) and Acropora (coral) from the Capricorn Group, and in some sediment samples from the Capricorn Group and Lizard Island area.

  3. Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium nitrosomonas europaea

    SciTech Connect

    Vannelli, T.; Logan, M.; Arciero, D.M.; Hooper, A.B. )

    1990-04-01

    Suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea catalyzed the ammonia-stimulated aerobic transformation of the halogenated aliphatic compounds dichloromethane, dibromomethane, trichloromethane (chloroform), bromoethane, 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide), 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, monochloroethylene (vinyl chloride), gem-dichloroethylene, cis- and trans-dichloroethylene, cis-dibromoethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride), tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene), and trans-dibromoethylene were not degraded.

  4. Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea

    SciTech Connect

    Vannelli, T.; Logan, M.; Arciero, D.M.; Hooper, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea catalyzed the ammonia-stimulated aerobic transformation of the halogenated aliphatic compounds dichloromethane, dibromomethane, trichloromethane (chloroform), bromoethane, 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide), 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, monochloroethylene (vinyl chloride), gem-dichloroethylene, cis- and trans-dichloroethylene, cis-dibromoethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride), tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene), and trans-dibromoethylene were not degraded.

  5. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  6. Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) are less sensitive to the odor of aliphatic ketones than to the odor of other classes of aliphatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Moa; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Laska, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Aliphatic ketones are widely present in body-borne and food odors of primates. Therefore, we used an operant conditioning paradigm and determined olfactory detection thresholds in four spider monkeys for a homologous series of aliphatic 2-ketones (2-butanone to 2-nonanone) and two of their isomers (3- and 4-heptanone). We found that, with the exception of the two shortest-chained ketones, all animals detected concentrations <1 ppm (parts per million), and with five odorants individual animals even reached threshold values <0.1 ppm. Further, we found a significant correlation between olfactory sensitivity of the spider monkeys and carbon chain length of the 2-ketones which can best be described as a U-shaped function. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between olfactory sensitivity and position of the functional carbonyl group. Across-odorant and across-species comparisons revealed the following: spider monkeys are significantly less sensitive to the odors of aliphatic ketones than to the odor of other classes of aliphatic compounds (1-alcohols, n-aldehydes, n-acetic esters, and n-carboxylic acids) sharing the same carbon length. Spider monkeys do not differ significantly in their olfactory sensitivity for aliphatic ketones from squirrel monkeys and pigtail macaques, but are significantly less sensitive to these odorants compared to human subjects and mice. These findings support the notion that neuroanatomical and genetic properties do not allow for reliable predictions with regard to a species' olfactory sensitivity. Further, we conclude that the frequency of occurrence of a class of odorants in a species' chemical environment does not allow for reliable predictions of the species' olfactory sensitivity.

  7. A cometabolic biotransformation model for halogenated aliphatic compounds exhibiting product toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Cohen, L. ); McCarty, P.L. )

    1991-08-01

    A model is proposed to describe the rate and extent of cometabolic transformation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by resting microbial cells. The finite transformation capacity ({Tc}) of resting cells, which appears to be associated with cometabolic oxidation of many halogenated aliphatic compounds, is used to incorporate the effects of product toxicity and reductant supply into a modified expression of Monod kinetics. Applicability of the model of trichloroethylene transformation by resting cells from a mixed methanotrophic culture is evaluated by comparison with experimental data from batch transformation studies conducted over a range of conditions. A visually good and statistically reasonable fit was obtained between the experimental data and model predictions both with cells alone and with formate added as an exogenous reductant source. A comparison of parameter estimates (k and K{sub s}) derived by use of the cometabolic transformation model and those derived by use of conventional linearized Monod techniques (Lineweaver-Burk and concentration-normalized equations) indicates that, for reactions involving a finite transformation capacity, the linearized Monod equations yield artificially elevated parameters estimates.

  8. Effects of halogenated aromatics/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics on estimating the persistence of future pharmaceutical compounds using a modified QSAR model.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung Joo; Fox, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The effects of halogenated aromatics/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics on estimating the persistence of future pharmaceutical compounds were investigated using a modified half life equation. The potential future pharmaceutical compounds investigated were approximately 2000 pharmaceutical drugs currently undergoing the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) testing. EPI Suite (BIOWIN) model estimates the fates of compounds based on the biodegradability under aerobic conditions. While BIOWIN considered the biodegradability of a compound only, the half life equation used in this study was modified by biodegradability, sorption and cometabolic oxidation. It was possible that the potential future pharmaceutical compounds were more accurately estimated using the modified half life equation. The modified half life equation considered sorption and cometabolic oxidation of halogenated aromatic/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics in the sub-surface, while EPI Suite (BIOWIN) did not. Halogenated aliphatics in chemicals were more persistent than halogenated aromatics in the sub-surface. In addition, in the sub-surface environment, the fates of organic chemicals were much more affected by halogenation in chemicals than by nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics.

  9. Boiling points of halogenated aliphatic compounds: a quantitative structure-property relationship for prediction and validation.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    Halogenated aliphatic compounds have many technical uses, but substances within this group are also ubiquitous environmental pollutants that can affect the ozone layer and contribute to global warming. The establishment of quantitative structure-property relationships is of interest not only to fill in gaps in the available database but also to validate experimental data already acquired. The three-dimensional structures of 240 compounds were modeled with molecular mechanics prior to the generation of empirical descriptors. Two bilinear projection methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial-least-squares regression (PLSR), were used to identify outliers. PLSR was subsequently used to build a multivariate calibration model by extracting the latent variables that describe most of the covariation between the molecular structure and the boiling point. Boiling points were also estimated with an extension of the group contribution method of Stein and Brown.

  10. Oxyfunctionalization of aliphatic compounds by a recombinant peroxygenase from Coprinopsis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Babot, Esteban D; del Río, José C; Kalum, Lisbeth; Martínez, Angel T; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study is the selective oxyfunctionalization of aliphatic compounds under mild and environmentally friendly conditions using a low-cost enzymatic biocatalyst. This could be possible taking advantage from a new peroxidase type that catalyzes monooxygenase reactions with H2 O2 as the only cosubstrate (peroxygenase). With this purpose, recombinant peroxygenase, from gene mining in the sequenced genome of Coprinopsis cinerea and heterologous expression using an industrial fungal host, is tested for the first time on aliphatic substrates. The reaction on free and esterified fatty acids and alcohols, and long-chain alkanes was followed by gas chromatography, and the different reaction products were identified by mass spectrometry. Regioselective hydroxylation of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids was observed at the ω-1 and ω-2 positions (only at the ω-2 position in myristoleic acid). Alkyl esters of fatty acids and monoglycerides were also ω-1 or ω-2 hydroxylated, but di- and tri-glycerides were not modified. Fatty alcohols yielded hydroxy derivatives at the ω-1 or ω-2 positions (diols) but also fatty acids and their hydroxy derivatives. Interestingly, the peroxygenase was able to oxyfunctionalize alkanes giving, in addition to alcohols at positions 2 or 3, dihydroxylated derivatives at both sides of the molecule. The predominance of mono- or di-hydroxylated derivatives seems related to the higher or lower proportion of acetone, respectively, in the reaction medium. The recombinant C. cinerea peroxygenase appears as a promising biocatalyst for alkane activation and production of aliphatic oxygenated derivatives, with better properties than the previously reported peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita, and advantages related to its recombinant nature for enzyme engineering and industrial production.

  11. Hybrid membranes of metal-organic molecule nanocages for aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbon separation by pervaporation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cui; Wang, Naixin; Wang, Lin; Huang, Hongliang; Zhang, Rong; Yang, Fan; Xie, Yabo; Ji, Shulan; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-11-21

    Hybrid membranes composed of porous metal-organic molecule nanocages as fillers embedded in a hyperbranched polymer (Boltorn W3000) were fabricated, which exhibit excellent pervaporation separation performances towards aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbons. The unique nature of the molecule-based fillers and their good dispersion and compatibility in/with the polymer are responsible for the good membrane properties.

  12. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels ...

  13. Thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Laurent; Gaona, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    A critical evaluation has been made of the thermodynamic properties reported in the literature for 43 organic iodine compounds in the solid, liquid, or ideal gas state. These compounds include aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic iodides, iodophenols, iodocarboxylic acids, and acetyl and benzoyl iodides. The evaluation has been made on the basis of carbon number systematics and group additivity relations, which also allowed to provide estimates of the thermodynamic properties of those compounds for which no experimental data were available. Standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 °C and 1 bar and heat capacity coefficients are reported for 13 crystalline, 29 liquid, and 39 ideal gas organic iodine compounds, which can be used to calculate the corresponding properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Values derived for the standard molal Gibbs energy of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of these crystalline, liquid, and ideal gas organic iodine compounds have subsequently been combined with either solubility measurements or gas/water partition coefficients to obtain values for the standard partial molal Gibbs energies of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of 32 aqueous organic iodine compounds. The thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds calculated in the present study can be used together with those for aqueous inorganic iodine species to predict the organic/inorganic speciation of iodine in marine sediments and petroleum systems, or in the near- and far-field of nuclear waste repositories.

  14. Kinetics of oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic thiols by myeloperoxidase compounds I and II.

    PubMed

    Burner, U; Jantschko, W; Obinger, C

    1999-01-29

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the most abundant protein in neutrophils and plays a central role in microbial killing and inflammatory tissue damage. Because most of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other drugs contain a thiol group, it is necessary to understand how these substrates are oxidized by MPO. We have performed transient kinetic measurements to study the oxidation of 14 aliphatic and aromatic mono- and dithiols by the MPO intermediates, Compound I (k3) and Compound II (k4), using sequential mixing stopped-flow techniques. The one-electron reduction of Compound I by aromatic thiols (e.g. methimidazole, 2-mercaptopurine and 6-mercaptopurine) varied by less than a factor of seven (between 1.39 +/- 0.12 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 9.16 +/- 1.63 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), whereas reduction by aliphatic thiols was demonstrated to depend on their overall net charge and hydrophobic character and not on the percentage of thiol deprotonation or redox potential. Cysteamine, cysteine methyl ester, cysteine ethyl ester and alpha-lipoic acid showed k3 values comparable to aromatic thiols, whereas a free carboxy group (e.g. cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione) diminished k3 dramatically. The one-electron reduction of Compound II was far more constrained by the nature of the substrate. Reduction by methimidazole, 2-mercaptopurine and 6-mercaptopurine showed second-order rate constants (k4) of 1.33 +/- 0.08 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), 5.25 +/- 0.07 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 3.03 +/- 0.07 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1). Even at high concentrations cysteine, penicillamine and glutathione could not reduce Compound II, whereas cysteamine (4.27 +/- 0.05 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), cysteine methyl ester (8.14 +/- 0.08 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), cysteine ethyl ester (3.76 +/- 0.17 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) and alpha-lipoic acid (4.78 +/- 0.07 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) were demonstrated to reduce Compound II and thus could be expected to be oxidized by MPO without co-substrates.

  15. Assessing the Origins of Aliphatic Amines in the Murchison Meteorite from their Compound-Specific Carbon Isotopic Ratios and Enantiomeric Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aponte, Jose; Dworkin, Jason; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2014-01-01

    The study of meteoritic organic compounds provides a unique window into the chemical inventory of the early Solar System and prebiotic chemistry that may have been important for the origin of life on Earth. Multiple families of organic compounds have been extracted from the Murchison meteorite, which is one of the most thoroughly studied carbonaceous chondrites. The amino acids extracted from Murchison have been extensively analyzed, including measurements of non-terrestrial stable isotopic ratios and discoveries of L-enantiomeric excesses for alpha-dialkyl amino acids, notably isovaline. However, although the isotopic signatures of bulk amine-containing fractions have been measured, the isotopic ratios and enantiomeric composition of individual aliphatic amines, compounds that are chemically related to amino acids, remain unknown. Here, we report a novel method for the extraction, separation, identification and quantitation of aliphatic monoamines extracted from the Murchison meteorite. Our results show a complete suite of structural isomers, with a larger concentration of methylamine and ethylamine and decreasing amine concentrations with increasing carbon number. The carbon isotopic compositions of fourteen meteoritic aliphatic monoamines were measured, with delta C-13 values ranging from +21% to +129%, showing a decrease in C-13 with increasing carbon number, a relationship that may be consistent with the chain elongation mechanism under kinetic control previously proposed for meteoritic amino acids. We also found the enantiomeric composition of sec-butylamine, a structural analog to isovaline, was racemic within error, while the isovaline extracted from the same Murchison piece showed an L-enantiomeric excess of 9.7; this result suggested that processes leading to enantiomeric excess in the amino acid did not affect the amine. We used these collective data to assess the primordial synthetic origins of these meteoritic aliphatic amines and their potential

  16. Synthesis of organic phenothiazine-based molecular glasses and effect of racemic/homochiral aliphatic chain on near-infrared photorefractive property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingliang; Fujimura, Ryushi; Ishida, Kazuki; Oya, Nobuhiro; Yoshie, Naoko; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2012-09-01

    Organic near-infrared photorefractive molecular glasses with a phenothiazine moiety are designed and synthesized through the introduction of linear, racemic/homochiral asymmetrically branched aliphatic chains into photorefractive chromophore as an auxiliary group. The compounds are characterized with 1H-NMR, IR, FAB-MS, UV-vis, TG, DSC, etc. The effect of different aliphatic chains on the absorption and thermal properties is investigated in detail. The molar absorption coefficiency at the absorption maximum wavelength showed that the homochiral asymmetrically branched aliphatic chain has a strong hypochromic effect in the dilute solution when it is introduced into photorefractive chromophore. The DSC measurement indicated that the introduction of asymmetrically branched aliphatic chain is the key issue to design organic molecular glasses whether it is racemic or homochiral. The effect of racemic/homochiral asymmetrically branched aliphatic groups on photorefractive property is investigated carefully with poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as a photoconductor and with (2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenylidene) malononitrile (TNFM) as a photosensitizer. The results suggested that the racemic group is more beneficial to the improvement of photorefractive performance than the homochiral when the homochiral cannot induce rigid photorefractive chromophore to be much more ordered.

  17. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Q. G. J.; Qi, Li; Warren, B.; Cocker, D. R., III; Erupe, M. E.; Silva, P. J.

    2008-07-01

    Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds found to be emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with NO3 has been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large yields of aerosol mass loadings (~44% for butylamine) are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (<17% for all amines tested) as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities and lead to elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels on NO3 exist.

  18. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Q. G. J.; Qi, Li; Warren, B.; Cocker, D. R., III; Erupe, M. E.; Silva, P. J.

    2009-03-01

    Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large aerosol mass yields (~44% for butylamine) are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (<1% for all amines tested) as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities with elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels of NO3 exist.

  19. Fluoroalkylation of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, D. Yu; Budnikova, Yu H.

    2013-09-01

    Data on fluoroalkylation and perfluoroalkylation methods in organic synthesis are analyzed, summarized and described systematically. The most practically important properties of compounds with fluoroalkyl substituents are illustrated. The key trends and the potential of this field of organic chemistry are considered. Electrochemical syntheses of perfluoroalkyl derivatives that are inaccessible or experimentally difficult to prepare by regular chemical techniques are presented. Particular attention is paid to processes involving organometallic compounds as well as to prospects for the development of this field of research. The bibliography includes 226 references.

  20. Effect of low molecular weight aliphatic alcohols and related compounds on platelet factor 4 subunit association.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Barker, S; Chen, M J; Mayo, K H

    1993-05-05

    Titration of platelet factor 4 (PF4) with increasing concentrations of various low molecular weight aliphatic alcohols disrupts dimer and tetramer quaternary structure while preserving tertiary structural integrity. Normally observed slow subunit exchange (1H NMR time scale) is shifted into the fast chemical exchange regime. The order of effectiveness is butanol > 2-propanol > propanol > ethanol > methanol. Fluorination of ethanol (trifluoroethanol) and 2-propanol (hexafluoro-2-propanol) increases effectiveness by approximately 2 orders of magnitude. Oxidation to 2-propanone or trifluoro-2-propanone produces a less effective compound, suggesting a mechanistic role for the hydroxyl group. Increasing the number of hydroxyls to three, as in glycerol, however, is relatively ineffective in disrupting aggregate states or modifying subunit exchange rates. While 19F NMR studies indicate that these alcohols specifically interact with PF4, binding alone can not explain their mechanism of action. Dimethyl sulfoxide, structurally similar to 2-propanol, disrupts PF4 aggregation by direct binding, but does not shift subunit exchange kinetics into the NMR fast-exchange regime. Although not fully understood, the effectiveness of these compounds appears to be related to the colligative properties of the solution.

  1. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of whether organic compounds originated in meteorites as a primary condensate from a solar gas or whether they were introduced as a secondary product into the meteorite during its residence in a parent body is examined by initially attempting to reconstruct the physical conditions during condensation (temperature, pressure, time) from clues in the inorganic matrix of the meteorite. The condensation behavior of carbon under these conditions is then analyzed on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, and compounds synthesized in model experiments on the condensation of carbon are compared with those actually found in meteorites. Organic compounds in meteorites seem to have formed by catalytic reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and ammonia in the solar nebula at 360 to 400 K temperature and about 3 to 7.6 microtorr pressure. The onset of these reactions was triggered by the formation of suitable catalysts (magnetite, hydrated silicates) at these temperatures.

  2. Aromatic and aliphatic organic materials on Iapetus: Analysis of Cassini VIMS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Clark, Roger N.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2014-05-01

    , D.P., Clark, R.N. [2012], op. cit.) and Phoebe (Dalle Ore, C.M., Cruikshank, D.P., Clark, R.N. [2012], op. cit.). Our Gaussian decomposition of the organic band region suggests the presence of molecular bands in addition to those noted above, specifically bands attributable to cycloalkanes, olefinic compounds, CH3OH, and N-substituted PAHs, as well as possible Hn-PAHs (PAHs with excess peripheral H atoms). In a minimalist interpretation of the Gaussian band fitting, we find the ratio of aromatic CH to aliphatic CH2 + CH3 functional groups for both the leading and trailing hemispheres of Iapetus is ∼10, with no clear difference between them. In the aliphatic component of the surface material, the ratio CH2/CH3 is 4.0 on the leading hemisphere and 3.0 on the trailing; both values are higher than those found in interstellar dust and other Solar System materials and the difference between the two hemispheres may be statistically significant. The superficial layer of low-albedo material on Iapetus originated in the interior of Phoebe and is being transported to and deposited on Iapetus (and Hyperion) in the current epoch via the Phoebe dust ring (Tosi, F., Turrini, D., Coradini, A., Filacchione, G., and the VIMS Team [2010]. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 403, 1113-1130; Tamayo, D., Burns, J.A., Hamilton, D.P., Hedman, M.M. [2011]. Icarus 215, 260-278). The PAHs on Iapetus exist in a H2O-rich environment, and consequently are subject to UV destruction by hydrogenation on short time-scales. The occurrence of this material is therefore consistent with the assertion that the deposition of the PAH-bearing dust is occurring at the present time. If the organic inventory we observe represents the interior composition of Phoebe, we may be sampling the original material from a region of the solar nebula beyond Neptune where Phoebe formed prior to its capture by Saturn (Johnson, T.V., Lunine, J.I. [2005]. Nature 435, 69-71).

  3. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chroust, Karel; Pavlová, Martina; Prokop, Zbynek; Mendel, Jan; Bozková, Katerina; Kubát, Zdenek; Zajícková, Veronika; Damborský, Jiri

    2007-02-01

    Halogenated aliphatic compounds were evaluated for toxic and genotoxic effects in the somatic mutation and recombination test employing Drosophila melanogaster. The tested chemicals included chlorinated, brominated and iodinated; mono-, di- and tri-substituted; saturated and unsaturated alkanes: 1,2-dibromoethane, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-iodopropane, 2,3-dichloropropene, 3-bromo-1-propene, epibromohydrin, 2-iodobutane, 3-chloro-2-methylpropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-chloroethymethylether, 1-bromo-2-methylpropane and 1-chloropentane. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea served as the positive and distilled water as the negative control. The set of chemicals for the toxicological testing was selected by the use of statistical experiment design. Group of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally more toxic than saturated analogues. The genotoxic effect was observed with 14 compounds in the wing spot test, while 3 substances did not show any genotoxicity by using the wing spot test at 50% lethal concentration. The highest number of wing spots was observed in genotoxicity assay with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1-iodopropane. Nucleophilic superdelocalizability calculated by quantum mechanics appears to be a good parameter for prediction of both toxicity and genotoxicity effects of halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  4. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies of carbonaceous chondrites provide evidence that certain organic compounds are indigenous and the result of an abiotic, chemical synthesis. The results of several investigators have established the presence of amino acids and precursors, mono- and dicarboxylic acids, N-heterocycles, and hydrocarbons as well as other compounds. For example, studies of the Murchison and Murray meteorites have revealed the presence of at least 40 amino acids with nearly equal abundances of D and L isomers. The population consists of both protein and nonprotein amino acids including a wide variety of linear, cyclic, and polyfunctional types. Results show a trend of decreasing concentration with increasing carbon number, with the most abundant being glycine (41 n Moles/g). These and other results to be reviewed provide persuasive support for the theory of chemical evolution and provide the only natural evidence for the protobiological subset of molecules from which life on earth may have arisen.

  5. Delivery of complex organic compounds from evolved stars to the solar system.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sun

    2011-12-01

    Stars in the late stages of evolution are able to synthesize complex organic compounds with aromatic and aliphatic structures over very short time scales. These compounds are ejected into the interstellar medium and distributed throughout the Galaxy. The structures of these compounds are similar to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. In this paper, we discuss to what extent stellar organics has enriched the primordial Solar System and possibly the early Earth.

  6. Content of carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, and volatile compounds in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Ikram Bou; Tlili, Nizar; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Rubio, Ana Gracia Pérez; Perez-Camino, Maria Carmen; Albouchi, Ali; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the content of tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, carotenoids, and volatile compounds in the kernel oils from six walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties. The levels of β-carotene ranged between 0.22 and 0.62 mg/kg, followed by lutein (0.01-0.06 mg/kg). The total content of tocopherol ranged from 186.5 to 436.2 mg/kg of the extracted oil and the major isoform in all samples was γ-tocopherol. The most abundant phytosterol was β-sitosterol (974-1494 mg/kg) followed by campesterol then Δ-5-avenasterol. The major triterpenic alcohol was cycloartenol (226.4-532.1 mg/kg). Hexacosanol (9.71-28.15 mg/kg) was the major aliphatic alcohol. The detected volatile compounds were pentanal, hexanal, nonanal, 2-decenal and hexanol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between varieties, which are probably due to genetic factors.

  7. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

    1991-01-01

    In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

  8. Recommended Correlations for the Surface Tension of Aliphatic, Carboxylic, and Polyfunctional Organic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulero, A.; Cachadiña, I.; Sanjuán, E. L.

    2016-09-01

    In previous papers, we have proposed specific correlations to reproduce the surface tension values for several sets of fluids and for wide ranges of temperatures. In this paper, we focus our attention on organic fatty (aliphatic, carboxylic, and polyfunctional) acids. We have taken into account the available data and values in the DIPPR and DETHERM databases and also Wohlfarth and Wohlfarth's (1997) book. In some cases we have also considered new data published elsewhere. All the data and values have been carefully filtered and subsequently fitted with the use of the model currently implemented in NIST's REFPROP program, calculating two or four adjustable coefficients for each fluid. As a result, we propose recommended correlations for 99 acids, providing mean absolute percentage deviations below 1.6% in all cases.

  9. Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Grorge

    2001-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

  10. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  11. Organic Compounds in Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Clemett. Simon J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Hoerz, Fredrich

    2011-01-01

    The successful return of the STARDUST spacecraft provides a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and distribution of organic matter in cometary dust particles collected from Comet 81P/Wild-2. Analysis of individual cometary impact tracks in silica aerogel using the technique of two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) demonstrates the presence of complex aromatic organic matter. While concerns remain as to the organic purity of the aerogel collection medium and the thermal effects associated with hypervelocity capture, the majority of the observed organic species appear indigenous to the impacting particles and are hence of cometary origin. While the aromatic fraction of the total organic matter present is believed to be small, it is notable in that it appears to be N-rich. Spectral analysis in combination with instrumental detection sensitivities suggest that N is incorporated predominantly in the form of aromatic nitriles (R-C N). While organic species in the STARDUST samples do share some similarities with those present in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites, the closest match is found with stratospherically collected interplanetary dust particles. These findings are consistent with the notion that a fraction of interplanetary dust is of cometary origin. The presence of complex organic N-containing species in comets has astrobiological implications since comets are likely to have contributed to the prebiotic chemical inventory of both the Earth and Mars.

  12. Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.; Muedas, Cesar A.; Ferguson, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    At least one of selectivity and reaction rate of photosensitized vapor phase dimerizations, including dehydrodimerizations, hydrodimerizations and cross-dimerizations of saturated and unsaturated organic compounds is improved by conducting the dimerization in the presence of hydrogen or nitrous oxide.

  13. Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

  14. Photoprotective compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Singh, Shailendra P; Häder, Donat-P

    2010-06-01

    The substantial loss in the stratospheric ozone layer and consequent increase in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface have augmented the interest in searching for natural photoprotective compounds in organisms of marine as well as freshwater ecosystems. A number of photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), scytonemin, carotenoids and several other UV-absorbing substances of unknown chemical structure have been identified from different organisms. MAAs form the most common class of UV-absorbing compounds known to occur widely in various marine organisms; however, several compounds having UV-screening properties still need to be identified. The synthesis of scytonemin, a predominant UV-A-photoprotective pigment, is exclusively reported in cyanobacteria. Carotenoids are important components of the photosynthetic apparatus that serve both light-harvesting and photoprotective functions, either by direct quenching of the singlet oxygen or other toxic reactive oxygen species or by dissipating the excess energy in the photosynthetic apparatus. The production of photoprotective compounds is affected by several environmental factors such as different wavelengths of UVR, desiccation, nutrients, salt concentration, light as well as dark period, and still there is controversy about the biosynthesis of various photoprotective compounds. Recent studies have focused on marine organisms as a source of natural bioactive molecules having a photoprotective role, their biosynthesis and commercial application. However, there is a need for extensive work to explore the photoprotective role of various UV-absorbing compounds from marine habitats so that a range of biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications can be found.

  15. Syntheses of two new hybrid metal-organic polymers using flexible aliphatic dicarboxylates and pyrazine: Crystal structures and magnetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang-Zheng; Mao, Hong-Yan; Wang, Yan-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yun; Tao, Jing-Cao

    2007-02-01

    The reaction of metal ions, flexible aliphatic dicarboxylates and pyrazine in aqueous solution afford two new metal-organic coordination polymers, {[Cu2(μ2-η2-O2C(CH2)2CO2-η2-μ2)2(H2O)2]·2H2O}n (1) and [Eu2(μ2-η2-O2CCH2CO2-η1-μ1)2(μ2-η2-O2CCH2CO2-η2-μ2)(H2O)6]n (2). Polymer 1 contains the paddle-wheel cage dicopper(II) units, forming a one-dimensional (1D) double-stranded chain structure along the a-axis, in which the copper(II) atoms are bridged by the carboxylate groups of four succinates. The intradimer Cu Cu distance is 2.613(2) Å; the interdimer Cu⋯Cu distance is 6.473 Å. To our knowledge, compound 1 represents the first example of a double-stranded chain structure containing dinuclear paddle-wheel type cage. In the three-dimensional (3D) compound 2, each central Eu(III) ion have a distorted monocapped square antiprism coordination geometry. The structure is built up from two types of polymeric chains with [EuO6(H2O)3]n units as tethers, resulting in microporous framework. The magnetic behavior of 1 shows that the occurrence of a strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the copper(II) ions through the short bridges via the carboxyl groups can be obtained; the best fittings to the experimental magnetic susceptibilities gave -2J=314 cm-1.

  16. Selective redox degradation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds by Fenton reaction in pyrite suspension.

    PubMed

    Che, Hyeongsu; Lee, Woojin

    2011-02-01

    Selective redox degradation of chlorinated aliphatics by Fenton reaction in pyrite suspension was investigated in a closed system. Carbon tetrachloride (CT) was used as a representative target of perchlorinated alkanes and trichloroethylene (TCE) was used as one of highly chlorinated alkenes. Degradation of CT in Fenton reaction was significantly enhanced by pyrite used as an iron source instead of soluble Fe. Pyrite Fenton showed 93% of CT removal in 140 min, while Fenton reaction with soluble Fe(II) showed 52% and that with Fe(III) 15%. Addition of 2-propanol to the pyrite Fenton system significantly inhibited degradation of TCE (99% to 44% of TCE removal), while degradation of CT was slightly improved by the 2-propanol addition (80-91% of CT removal). The result suggests that, unlike oxidative degradation of TCE by hydroxyl radical in pyrite Fenton system, an oxidation by the hydroxyl radical is not a main degradation mechanism for the degradation of CT in pyrite Fenton system but a reductive dechlorination by superoxide can rather be the one for the CT degradation. The degradation kinetics of CT in the pyrite Fenton system was decelerated (0.13-0.03 min(-1)), as initial suspension pH decreased from 3 to 2. The formation of superoxide during the CT degradation in the pyrite Fenton system was observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The formation at initial pH 3 was greater than that at initial pH 2, which supported that superoxide was a main reductant for degradation of CT in the pyrite Fenton system.

  17. The synthesis of organic and inorganic compounds in evolved stars.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sun

    2004-08-26

    Recent isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust has identified solid-state materials of pre-solar origin. We can now trace the origin of these inorganic grains to the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. Moreover, organic (aromatic and aliphatic) compounds have been detected in proto-planetary nebulae and planetary nebulae, which are the descendants of carbon stars. This implies that molecular synthesis is actively happening in the circumstellar environment on timescales as short as several hundred years. The detection of stellar grains in the Solar System suggests that they can survive their journey through the interstellar medium and that they are a major contributor of interstellar grains.

  18. The Thermal Decomposition of Some Organic Lead Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-11-01

    5» Results 4 6. Discussion of Results 5 6.1 The Lead Salts of Aliphatic Aoids 5 6.2 The Lead Compounds of Aromatic Acids 7 6.3 Thermal...aliphatic carboxylic acids decompose to lead oxide in one stage which, in air, is largely oxidative in character. The compounds of the aromatic hydroxy... acids , however, first yield intermediate basio compounds of varying stability and these ultimately decompose to lead oxide at high temperatures

  19. Aliphatic C(17)-polyacetylenes of the falcarinol type as potential health promoting compounds in food plants of the Apiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Lars P

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have provided evidence that a high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk for the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Fruits and vegetables are known to contain health promoting components such as vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and dietary fibers, however, it is unclear which of these are responsible for the health promoting properties of fruits and vegetables. Aliphatic C(17)-polyacetylenes of the falcarinol type, which occur in common food plants of the Apiaceae family such as carrot, celeriac, parsnip and parsley, have demonstrated interesting bioactivities including antibacterial, antimycobacterial, and antifungal activity as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet-aggregatory, neuritogenic and serotonergic effects. In addition, the cytotoxicity of falcarinol type polyacetylenes towards human cancer cells, bioavailability, and their potential anticancer effect in vivo indicates that these compounds may contribute to the health effects of certain vegetables and hence could be important nutraceuticals. The bioactivity of falcarinol type polyacetylenes occurring in food plants of the Apiaceae family, their possible mode of action and possible health promoting effects are discussed in this review as well as the effect of storage, processing and other factors that can influence the content of these compounds in particular root vegetables and products. Moreover, recent patents on bioactivity of falcarinol type polyacetylenes and inventions making use of this knowledge are presented and discussed.

  20. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  1. Estimating the physicochemical properties of polyhalogenated aromatic and aliphatic compounds using UPPER: part 1. Boiling point and melting point.

    PubMed

    Admire, Brittany; Lian, Bo; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    The UPPER (Unified Physicochemical Property Estimation Relationships) model uses enthalpic and entropic parameters to estimate 20 biologically relevant properties of organic compounds. The model has been validated by Lian and Yalkowsky on a data set of 700 hydrocarbons. The aim of this work is to expand the UPPER model to estimate the boiling and melting points of polyhalogenated compounds. In this work, 19 new group descriptors are defined and used to predict the transition temperatures of an additional 1288 compounds. The boiling points of 808 and the melting points of 742 polyhalogenated compounds are predicted with average absolute errors of 13.56 K and 25.85 K, respectively.

  2. Soil Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, G.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is presented of some of the organic compounds and reactions that occur in soil. Included are nitrogenous compounds, compounds of phosphorus and sulfur, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and aliphatic acids. (BB)

  3. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Nitric Acid, Nitrates, and Nitro Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherick, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the potential hazards associated with nitric acid, inorganic and organic nitrate salts, alkyl nitrates, acyl nitrates, aliphatic nitro compounds, aromatic nitro compounds, and nitration reactions. (CW)

  4. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  5. Limiting activity coefficients of some aromatic and aliphatic nitro compounds in water

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, M.; Dohnal, V.

    1999-09-01

    Limiting activity coefficients of nine nitroaromatic compounds and four nitroalkanes in water were determined in the range of environmentally related temperatures by measuring suitable phase equilibria. For liquid and solid nitroaromatics (nitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene, 3-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene, and 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene) the aqueous solubilities were measured by a conventional batch contacting method with UV spectrophotometric analysis, while for nitroalkanes (nitromethane, nitroethane, 1-nitropropane, and 2-nitropropane) the air-water partitioning (Henry`s law constant H{sub 12} or air-water partition coefficient K{sub aw}) was determined by the inert gas stripping method employing gas chromatography. Whenever possible, results were compared to literature values. Calculation of H{sub 12} or K{sub aw} for nitroaromatics from the measured solubilities is hindered by the lack of reliable vapor pressure data. On the basis of the temperature dependences of the solubilities measured, the enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution for the nitroaromatics in water were evaluated.

  6. Molybdenum compounds in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusnutdinov, R. I.; Oshnyakova, T. M.; Dzhemilev, U. M.

    2017-02-01

    The review presents the first analysis and systematic discussion of data published in the last 35–40 years on the use of molybdenum compounds and complexes in organic synthesis and catalysis of various ion coordination and radical reactions. Detailed account is given of the key trends in the use of molybdenum complexes as catalysts of alkene epoxidation and oxyketonation, oxidation of sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, hydrosilylation of 1,3-dienes, ketones and aldehydes, hydrostannylation of acetylenes and hydrogermylation of norbornadienes. Considerable attention is paid to the description of new reactions and in situ generation of highly reactive hypohalites, ROX and HOX, induced by molybdenum complexes and the use of hypohalites in oxidative transformations. Data on the application of molybdenum complexes in well-known reactions are discussed, including Kharasch and Pauson–Khand reactions, allylic alkylation of C-nucleophiles, aminocarbonylation of halo derivatives and oligomerization of cyclic dienes, trienes, alkynes and 1,3-dienes. The last Section of the review considers 'unusual' organic reactions involving molybdenum compounds and complexes. The bibliography includes 257 references.

  7. Adsorption of halogenated aliphatic contaminants by graphene nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Apul, Onur Guven; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-08-01

    In this study, adsorption of ten environmentally halogenated aliphatic synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) by a pristine graphene nanosheet (GNS) and a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was examined, and their adsorption behaviors were compared with those of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and a granular activated carbon (GAC). In addition, the impacts of background water components (i.e., natural organic matter (NOM), ionic strength (IS) and pH) on the SOC adsorption behavior were investigated. The results indicated HD3000 and SWCNT with higher microporous volumes exhibited higher adsorption capacities for the selected aliphatic SOCs than graphenes, demonstrating microporosity of carbonaceous adsorbents played an important role in the adsorption. Analysis of adsorption isotherms demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions were the dominant contributor to the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs by graphenes. However, π-π electron donor-acceptor and van der Waals interactions are likely the additional mechanisms contributing to the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs on graphenes. Among the three background solution components examined, NOM showed the most influential effect on adsorption of the selected aliphatic SOCs, while pH and ionic strength had a negligible effects. The NOM competition on aliphatic adsorption was less pronounced on graphenes than SWCNT. Overall, in terms of adsorption capacities, graphenes tested in this study did not exhibit a major advantage over SWCNT and GAC for the adsorption of aliphatic SOCs.

  8. Reactions of organoaluminum compounds with acetylene as a method for the synthesis of aliphatic derivatives with a z-disubstituted double bond

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, N.I.; Kuchin, A.V.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1985-11-01

    This paper develops a method for the synthesis of aliphatic compounds with a Z-disubstituted double bond, which are important synthons for the preparation of such natural products as insect pheromones, aromatic principles, etc. In the carbalumination reaction of acetylene Z-alkenyldialkylaluminums are formed selectively. A-Alkenyldialkylaluminums are highly reactive and can readily be converted into Z-allyl alcohols and their ethers, and into Z-iodovinyl derivatives. By the reactions of vinyl organoaluminum compounds with the complex CH/sub 3/COClhaAlCl/sub 3/ E-conjugated ketones were obtained.

  9. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  10. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  11. Organic Compounds in Circumstellar and Interstellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has discovered that complex organic matter is prevalent throughout the Universe. In the Solar System, it is found in meteorites, comets, interplanetary dust particles, and planetary satellites. Spectroscopic signatures of organics with aromatic/aliphatic structures are also found in stellar ejecta, diffuse interstellar medium, and external galaxies. From space infrared spectroscopic observations, we have found that complex organics can be synthesized in the late stages of stellar evolution. Shortly after the nuclear synthesis of the element carbon, organic gas-phase molecules are formed in the stellar winds, which later condense into solid organic particles. This organic synthesis occurs over very short time scales of about a thousand years. In order to determine the chemical structures of these stellar organics, comparisons are made with particles produced in the laboratory. Using the technique of chemical vapor deposition, artificial organic particles have been created by injecting energy into gas-phase hydrocarbon molecules. These comparisons led us to believe that the stellar organics are best described as amorphous carbonaceous nanoparticles with mixed aromatic and aliphatic components. The chemical structures of the stellar organics show strong similarity to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. Isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust collected in the upper atmospheres have revealed the presence of pre-solar grains similar to those formed in old stars. This provides a direct link between star dust and the Solar System and raises the possibility that the early Solar System was chemically enriched by stellar ejecta with the potential of influencing the origin of life on Earth.

  12. Organic compounds in circumstellar and interstellar environments.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has discovered that complex organic matter is prevalent throughout the Universe. In the Solar System, it is found in meteorites, comets, interplanetary dust particles, and planetary satellites. Spectroscopic signatures of organics with aromatic/aliphatic structures are also found in stellar ejecta, diffuse interstellar medium, and external galaxies. From space infrared spectroscopic observations, we have found that complex organics can be synthesized in the late stages of stellar evolution. Shortly after the nuclear synthesis of the element carbon, organic gas-phase molecules are formed in the stellar winds, which later condense into solid organic particles. This organic synthesis occurs over very short time scales of about a thousand years. In order to determine the chemical structures of these stellar organics, comparisons are made with particles produced in the laboratory. Using the technique of chemical vapor deposition, artificial organic particles have been created by injecting energy into gas-phase hydrocarbon molecules. These comparisons led us to believe that the stellar organics are best described as amorphous carbonaceous nanoparticles with mixed aromatic and aliphatic components. The chemical structures of the stellar organics show strong similarity to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. Isotopic analysis of meteorites and interplanetary dust collected in the upper atmospheres have revealed the presence of pre-solar grains similar to those formed in old stars. This provides a direct link between star dust and the Solar System and raises the possibility that the early Solar System was chemically enriched by stellar ejecta with the potential of influencing the origin of life on Earth.

  13. Natural organic compounds as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Simoneit, B.R.T. |; Abas, M.R. bin |; Cass, G.R. |; Rogge, W.F. |; Mazurek, M.A.; Standley, L.J.; Hildemann, L.M.

    1995-08-01

    Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Although various molecular markers have already been proposed for this process, additional specific organic tracers need to be characterized. The injection of natural product organic tracers to smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. The degree of alteration increases as the burn temperature rises and the moisture content of the fuel decreases. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. The homologous compound series and biomarkers present in smoke particles are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers, wax, gum and resin. The complexity of the organic components of smoke aerosol is illustrated with examples from controlled burns of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Burning of biomass from temperate regions (i.e., conifers) yields characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species, which are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke particles from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. The precursor-to-product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

  14. Identification of nonmethane organic compound emissions from grassland vegetation.

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; Doskey, P. V.; Environmental Research; NASA Ames Research Center

    2000-01-01

    Emissions of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) from grassland vegetation were collected in Summa(reg.sign) passivated stainless-steel canisters with a static enclosure technique and were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization and ion trap mass spectrometric detectors. Approximately 40 NMOCs with 6-10 carbon atoms were observed in samples analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with the flame ionization detector. Nineteen NMOCs in this molecular weight range (6 aliphatic oxygenates; 1 aromatic hydrocarbon; and 4 acyclic, 5 monocyclic, and 3 bicyclic monoterpenoids) were identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry was particularly useful for identifying myrcene and cis-3-hexenylacetate, which coeluted on a fused-silica capillary column coated with a 1-{mu}m-thick film of polydimethylsiloxane. An evaluation of the reactivity of the grassland emissions revealed that the aliphatic oxygenates have lifetimes of a few hours with respect to oxidation by OH and O{sub 3} in the atmosphere. This value is similar to the lifetimes of the bicyclic monoterpenoids. The expected lifetimes of the monoterpenoids with respect to oxidation by NO{sub 3} are only several minutes.

  15. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Gregory D.; Moore, Glenn A.; Stone, Mark L.; Reagen, William K.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

  16. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

    1995-08-29

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

  17. Organic composition of atmospheric urban aerosol: Variations and sources of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazquiarán, Miguel A. Barrero; Cantón Ortiz de Pinedo, Lourdes

    2007-09-01

    The non-polar organic composition of airborne particulate matter was analysed over a two year period in an urban area under oceanic climate conditions (Errenteria, Basque Country, Spain). In addition, the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) among different aerosol particle sizes was determined. Clues as to the origin of various particle types were gained by using scanning electron microscopy to view the morphology of the particulates in each size fraction. Samples were collected on glass fibre filters and analysed by means of soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography (either with a flame ionization detector or coupled to a mass spectrometry). In general, total PAH levels were moderate (0.96-50 ng m - 3 ) as compared to other studies conducted in Europe, and showed clear seasonal variation with maxima in winter and minima in summer. Vehicular traffic was identified as a major source of PAHs in the study area. Regarding particle size, a bimodal distribution was observed. The large sized particles exhibited an apparent seasonal variation with higher concentrations in winter than in summer. The dependences between particle size, PAH distribution and meteorological variables were studied with multivariate statistics. Three main sources of organic compounds were identified: combustion, vegetation, and atmospheric oxidation.

  18. Clickable degradable aliphatic polyesters via copolymerization with alkyne epoxy esters: synthesis and postfunctionalization with organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Teske, Nele S; Voigt, Julia; Shastri, V Prasad

    2014-07-23

    Degradable aliphatic polyesters are the cornerstones of nanoparticle (NP)-based therapeutics. In this paradigm, covalent modification of the NP with cell-targeting motifs and dyes can aid in guiding the NP to its destination and gaining visual confirmation. Therefore, strategies to impart chemistries along the polymer backbone that are amenable to easy modification, such as 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azide to an alkyne (the "click reaction"), could be significant. Here we present a simple and efficient way to introduce alkyne groups at high density in aliphatic polyesters without compromising their crystallinity via the copolymerization of cyclic lactones with propargyl 3-methylpentenoate oxide (PMPO). Copolymers of lactic acid and ε-caprolactone with PMPO were synthesized with up to 9 mol % alkyne content, and accessibility of the alkyne groups to the click reaction was demonstrated using several dyes commonly employed in fluorescence microscopy and imaging (Cy3, ATTO-740, and coumarin 343). In order to establish the suitability of these copolymers as nanocarriers, copolymers were formulated into NPs, and cytocompatibility, cellular uptake, and visualization studies undertaken in HeLa cells. Dye-modified NPs exhibited no quenching, remained stable in solution for at least 10 days, showed no cytotoxicity, and were readily taken up by HeLa cells. Furthermore, in addition to enabling the incorporation of multiple fluorophores within the same NP through blending of individual dye-modified copolymers, dye-modified polyesters offer advantages over physical entrapment of dye, including improved signal to noise ratio and localization of the fluorescence signal within cells, and possess the necessary prerequisites for drug delivery and imaging.

  19. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  20. Palladium-catalyzed addition of potassium aryltrifluoroborates to aliphatic nitriles: synthesis of alkyl aryl ketones, diketone compounds, and 2-arylbenzo[b]furans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingyong; Liu, Miaochang; Xu, Long; Wang, Qingzong; Chen, Jiuxi; Ding, Jinchang; Wu, Huayue

    2013-06-07

    A palladium-catalyzed addition of potassium aryltrifluoroborates to aliphatic nitriles has been developed, leading to a wide range of alkyl aryl ketones with moderate to excellent yields. Moreover, several dinitriles (e.g., malononitrile, glutaronitrile, and adiponitrile) were applicable to this process for the construction of 1,3-, 1,5-, or 1,6-dicarbonyl compounds. The scope of the developed approach is successfully explored toward the one-step synthesis of 2-arylbenzo[b]furans via sequential addition and intramolecular annulation reactions. The methodology accepted a wide range of substrates and is applicable to library synthesis.

  1. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D. N.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g., hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The ratio of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ, ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3) contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. As relative humidity (RH) increases, inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. The humid BA + N2O5 aerosol products were found to be very sensitive to the temperature at which the measurements were made within the streamwise continuous-flow thermal gradient CCN counter; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The variance of the measured aerosol κ values indicates that simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems' κ ranges within 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that aerosols formed via nighttime reactions with amines are likely to produce hygroscopic and volatile aerosol, whereas photochemical reactions with OH produce secondary organic aerosol of lower CCN activity. The contributions of semivolatile secondary organic and inorganic material from aliphatic amines must be considered for accurate hygroscopicity and CCN predictions from aliphatic amine systems.

  2. Special applications of fluorinated organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Grzegorz; Meissner, Egbert; Milchert, Eugeniusz

    2006-08-25

    The applications of fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) as finishing agent for fabrics, components of extinguishing agents, electroplating bathes, lubricating oils, oxygen carriers in blood substitutes have been discussed. Recent achievements in methods of the fluorination and general principles of the synthesis of useful perfluorinated organic compounds are given as well.

  3. Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States; a review of current understanding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James A.; Witkowski, P.J.; Fusillo, Thomas V.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews the occurrence and distribution of manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States. On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves among water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be adsorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rates commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: 1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides, 2. Carbamate and organophosphorus insecticides, 3. Herbicides, 4. Phenols, 5. Halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6. Phthalate esters, 7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and 8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Processes that influence the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate processes are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison with concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where data are sufficient, regional and temporal contamination trends in the United States are discussed.

  4. Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States: a review of current understanding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James A.; Witkowski, Patrick J.; Fusillo, Thomas V.

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews the occurrence and distribution of manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States. On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves between water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be absorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rate commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: 1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides, 2. Carbamate and organophosphorus insecticides, 3. Herbicides, 4. Phenols, 5. Halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6. Phthalate esters, 7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and 8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Processes that influence that the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate processes are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison to concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where sufficient data exist, regional and temporal contamination trends in the United States are discussed.

  5. Methods of making organic compounds by metathesis

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Timothy W.; Kaido, Hiroki; Lee, Choon Woo; Pederson, Richard L.; Schrodi, Yann; Tupy, Michael John

    2015-09-01

    Described are methods of making organic compounds by metathesis chemistry. The methods of the invention are particularly useful for making industrially-important organic compounds beginning with starting compositions derived from renewable feedstocks, such as natural oils. The methods make use of a cross-metathesis step with an olefin compound to produce functionalized alkene intermediates having a pre-determined double bond position. Once isolated, the functionalized alkene intermediate can be self-metathesized or cross-metathesized (e.g., with a second functionalized alkene) to produce the desired organic compound or a precursor thereto. The method may be used to make bifunctional organic compounds, such as diacids, diesters, dicarboxylate salts, acid/esters, acid/amines, acid/alcohols, acid/aldehydes, acid/ketones, acid/halides, acid/nitriles, ester/amines, ester/alcohols, ester/aldehydes, ester/ketones, ester/halides, ester/nitriles, and the like.

  6. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  7. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  8. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  9. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  10. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  11. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  12. Synthesis of nanomagnetic fluids and their UV spectrophotometric response with aliphatic organic acids and 1st tier dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Shivani R.; Singh, Man

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of Magnetic nanoparticles were made using coprecipitation method on mixing Fe+3 and Fe+2 in 2:1 ratio with aqueous 8M NaOH which on heating at 90°C for 2 h has yielded 85% magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs), characterized by XRD, VSM, SEM, and HR-TEM. The formic acid (FA), oxalic acid (OA) and citric acid (CA), the series of aliphatic organic acids along with Trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridimethyl malonate (TTDMM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridiethyl malonate (TTDEM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridipropyl malonate (TTDPM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridibutyl malonate (TTDBM) and trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridihexyl malonate (TTDHM) 1st tier dendrimers were used separately for preparing nanomagnetic fluid. From 25 to 150 µM MNPs at an interval of 25 µM were dispersed in 150 µM of acids and dendrimers separately with DMSO. UV-VIS spectrophotometry showed a maximum MNPs dispersion with TTDMM against others and found to be most stable nanomagnetic fluid on account of capping type mechanism of acids.

  13. Synthesis of α-MoO{sub 3} nanoplates using organic aliphatic acids and investigation of sunlight enhanced photodegradation of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V. Vinod; Gayathri, K.; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Thermodynamically stable α-MoO{sub 3} nanoplates and nanorods were synthesized using organic structure controlling agents and demonstrated sun light enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine blue (Rh-B) dyes in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • α-MoO{sub 3} hexagonal nanoplates using organic structure controlling agents. • Tunable optical band gap of MoO{sub 3}. • Demonstrated strong sun light mediated enhanced photodegradation of methylene blue and rhodamine blue. • Photodegradation did not use any other external oxidizing agents. - Abstract: Thermodynamically stable α-MoO{sub 3} nanoplates were synthesized using organic aliphatic acids as structure controlling agents and investigated photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine blue (Rh-B) in presence of sun light. Three different organic aliphatic acids, citric acid (CA), tartaric acid (TA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), were employed to control morphologies. CA and TA predominantly produced extended hexagonal plates where EDTA gave nanorods as well as nanoplates. PXRD studies confirmed the formation of α-MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles. HR-TEM and FE-SEM reveal the formation of plate morphologies with 20–40 nm thickness, 50–100 nm diameter and 600 nm lengths. The different morphologies of α-MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles lead to the tunable optical band gap between 2.80 and 2.98 eV which was obtained from diffused reflectance spectra (DRS). Interestingly, the synthesized α-MoO{sub 3} nanoplates exhibited strong photocatalytic degradation of MB and Rh-B up to 99% in presence of sun light without using any oxidizing agents.

  14. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-10-23

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  15. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2013-03-19

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  16. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  17. Microwave spectra of some volatile organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-controlled microwave (MRR) spectrometer was used to catalog reference spectra for chemical analysis. Tables of absorption frequency, peak absorption intensity, and integrated intensity are included for 26 volatile organic compounds, all but one of which contain oxygen.

  18. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS EXPOSURE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined...

  19. PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  20. (CHINA) PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide range of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) has been used in a variety of industrial processes and consumer products. The most commonly studied PFCs include perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but there are many more compounds in this c...

  1. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  2. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) CHAPTER 31.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The term "volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) was originally coined to refer, as a class, to carbon-containing chemicals that participate in photochemical reactions in the ambient (outdoor) are. The regulatory definition of VOCs used by the U.S. EPA is: Any compound of carbon, ex...

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  5. Evaluation of control strategies for volatile organic compounds in indoor air (journal article)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.; Debler, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses research which evaluates the application of adsorption techniques to the control of indoor organic vapors. The adsorption on activated carbon of three compounds representing three classes of organic species was studied at 30 C in the concentration range zero to 200 ppb using a microbalance. The three were benzene (aromatic), acetaldehyde (oxygenated aliphatic), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (halogenated aliphatic). Three sorbents (a wood base carbon, a coal base carbon, and a coconut shell base carbon) were examined. Uptakes for all the compounds on all the carbons were low (on the order of 10 to the minus 7th power gmol/g carbon). Simulation of a packed bed of carbon indicated that carbon adsorption may not be practical for continuous removal, but may be applicable to sudden releases (e.g., spills). Potential alternatives to activated carbon adsorption are discussed. Potentially toxic organic vapors are emitted from a wide variety of building materials, consumer products, and human activities. Control of indoor organic vapors generally involves removing the source and/or increasing the ventilation rate. The ubiquitous nature of sources of organic vapors generally makes source removal impractical. Increased ventilation causes increased energy usage with its resultant economic penalties. Therefore, practical removal methods are needed.

  6. Assessment of the intrinsic bioremediation capacity of an eutrophic river sediment polluted by discharging chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons: a compound-specific isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas K; Hamonts, Kelly; Dijk, John A; Kalka, Harald; Stichler, Willibald; Springael, Dirk; Dejonghe, Winnie; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2009-07-15

    At a field site in the industrial area of Vilvoorde, Belgium, we investigated the capacity of the indigenous microbial community of a eutrophic river sediment to biodegrade chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) originating from discharging, polluted groundwater using a compound-specific isotope approach. We specifically targeted the site's major pollutants cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Analysis of Rayleigh correlation plots enabled us to assess the extent to which microbial and abiotic natural attenuation processes contributed to the mitigation of a pollution of the surface water due to discharging CAH-contaminated groundwater. Our results provide evidence for (i) the occurrence of biodegradation of cis-DCE and VC by reductive dechlorination in parts of the aquifer and at several positions in the river sediment (ii) the presence of river sediment zones exhibiting attenuation of chloroethenes by a combination of biodegradation and dilution through unpolluted water, (iii) the existence of zones in the river sediment lacking significant biodegradation, and thus (iv) a pronounced spatial heterogeneity in the occurrence and extent of biodegradation in the aquifer and river sediment. We conclude that at many investigated positions in the river sediment the indigenous microbial community failed to facilitate complete biodegradation of the groundwater-sourced chloroethenes. The overall intrinsic bioremediation capacity of the river sediment was thus not high enough to completely prevent the release of these pollutants into the surface water. These findings and conclusions are thus in agreement with those of our companion paper (1), which investigated the river sediments at the Vilvoorde study site by a combination of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of water and the detection of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) and their dechlorination products.

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry of Micrometeoritic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kress, M. E.; Belle, C. L.; Pevyhouse, A. R.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Micrometeorites approx.100 m in diameter deliver most of the Earth s annual accumulation of extraterrestrial material. These small particles are so strongly heated upon atmospheric entry that most of their volatile content is vaporized. Here we present preliminary results from two sets of experiments to investigate the fate of the organic fraction of micrometeorites. In the first set of experiments, 300 m particles of a CM carbonaceous chondrite were subject to flash pyrolysis, simulating atmospheric entry. In addition to CO and CO2, many organic compounds were released, including functionalized benzenes, hydrocarbons, and small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the second set of experiments, we subjected two of these compounds to conditions that simulate the heterogeneous chemistry of Earth s upper atmosphere. We find evidence that meteor-derived compounds can follow reaction pathways leading to the formation of more complex organic compounds.

  8. Individual organic compounds in water extracts from podzolic soils of the Komi Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamrikova, E. V.; Punegov, V. V.; Gruzdev, I. V.; Vanchikova, E. V.; Vetoshkina, A. A.

    2012-10-01

    The contents of organic compounds in water extracts from organic horizons of loamy soils with different water contents from the medium taiga zone of the Komi Republic were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mass concentration of organic carbon in the extracts was in the range of 290-330 mg/dm3; the mass fraction of the carbon from the identified compounds was 0.5-1.9%. Hydrocarbons made up about 60% of the total identified compounds; acids and their derivatives composed less than 40%. Most of the acids (40-70%) were aliphatic hydroxy acids. The tendencies in the formation of different classes of organic compounds were revealed depending on the degree of the soil hydromorphism. The acid properties of the water-soluble compounds were studied by pK spectroscopy. Five groups of compounds containing acid groups with similar pKa values were revealed. The compounds containing groups with pKa < 4.0 were predominant. The increase in the surface wetting favored the formation of compounds with pKa 3.2-4.0 and 7.4-8.4.

  9. Possible complex organic compounds on Mars.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Sato, T; Kajishima, S; Kaneko, T; Ishikawa, Y; Saito, T

    1997-01-01

    It is suggested that primitive Mars had somehow similar environments as primitive Earth. If life was born on the primitive earth using organic compounds which were produced from the early Earth environment, the same types of organic compounds were also formed on primitive Mars. Such organic compounds might have been preserved on Mars still now. We are studying possible organic formation on primitive and present Mars. A gaseous mixture of CO2, CO, N2 and H2O with various mixing ratios were irradiated with high energy protons (major components of cosmic rays). Hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde were detected among volatile products, and yellow-brown-colored water-soluble non-volatile substances were produced, which gave amino acids after acid-hydrolysis. Major part of "amino acid precursors" were not simple molecules like aminonitriles, but complex compounds which eluted earlier than free amino acids in cation-exchange HPLC. These organic compounds should be major targets in the future Mars mission. Strategy for the detection of the complex organics on Mars will be discussed.

  10. Development of a surface acoustic wave sensor for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds.

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Wright, Jerome L.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Rawlinson, Kim Scott; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that is designed to be operated continuously and in situ to detect volatile organic compounds. A ruggedized stainless-steel package that encases the SAW device and integrated circuit board allows the sensor to be deployed in a variety of media including air, soil, and even water. Polymers were optimized and chosen based on their response to chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene), which are common groundwater contaminants. Initial testing indicates that a running-average data-logging algorithm can reduce the noise and increase the sensitivity of the in-situ sensor.

  11. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, S. F. S.; Pang, K. D.; Cutts, J. A.; Ajello, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Ultraviolet-stimulated catalytic oxidation is proposed as a mechanism for the destruction of organic compounds on Mars. The process involves the presence of gaseous oxygen, UV radiation, and a catalyst (titanium dioxide), and all three of these have been found to be present in the Martian environment. Therefore it seems plausible that UV-stimulated oxidation of organics is responsible for degrading organic molecules into inorganic end products.

  12. Organic compounds in produced waters from shale gas wells.

    PubMed

    Maguire-Boyle, Samuel J; Barron, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    A detailed analysis is reported of the organic composition of produced water samples from typical shale gas wells in the Marcellus (PA), Eagle Ford (TX), and Barnett (NM) formations. The quality of shale gas produced (and frac flowback) waters is a current environmental concern and disposal problem for producers. Re-use of produced water for hydraulic fracturing is being encouraged; however, knowledge of the organic impurities is important in determining the method of treatment. The metal content was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Mineral elements are expected depending on the reservoir geology and salts used in hydraulic fracturing; however, significant levels of other transition metals and heavier main group elements are observed. The presence of scaling elements (Ca and Ba) is related to the pH of the water rather than total dissolved solids (TDS). Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the chloroform extracts of the produced water samples, a plethora of organic compounds were identified. In each water sample, the majority of organics are saturated (aliphatic), and only a small fraction comes under aromatic, resin, and asphaltene categories. Unlike coalbed methane produced water it appears that shale oil/gas produced water does not contain significant quantities of polyaromatic hydrocarbons reducing the potential health hazard. Marcellus and Barnett produced waters contain predominantly C6-C16 hydrocarbons, while the Eagle Ford produced water shows the highest concentration in the C17-C30 range. The structures of the saturated hydrocarbons identified generally follows the trend of linear > branched > cyclic. Heterocyclic compounds are identified with the largest fraction being fatty alcohols, esters, and ethers. However, the presence of various fatty acid phthalate esters in the Barnett and Marcellus produced waters can be related to their use in drilling fluids and breaker additives

  13. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  14. Chemical characterization of dissolved organic compounds from coastal sea surface microlayers (Baltic Sea, Germany).

    PubMed

    van Pinxteren, Manuela; Müller, Conny; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Stolle, Christian; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2012-10-02

    The physicochemical properties of the sea surface microlayer (SML), i.e. the boundary layer between the air and the sea, and its impact on air-sea exchange processes have been investigated for decades. However, a detailed description about these processes remains incomplete. In order to obtain a better chemical characterization of the SML, in a case study three pairs of SML and corresponding bulk water samples were taken in the southern Baltic Sea. The samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon and dissolved total nitrogen, as well as for several organic nitrogen containing compounds and carbohydrates, namely aliphatic amines, dissolved free amino acids, dissolved free monosaccharides, sugar alcohols, and monosaccharide anhydrates. Therefore, reasonable analytical procedures with respect to desalting and enrichment were established. All aliphatic amines and the majority of the investigated amino acids (11 out of 18) were found in the samples with average concentrations between 53 ng L(-1) and 1574 ng L(-1). The concentrations of carbohydrates were slightly higher, averaging 2900 ng L(-1). Calculation of the enrichment factor (EF) between the sea surface microlayer and the bulk water showed that dissolved total nitrogen was more enriched (EF: 1.1 and 1.2) in the SML than dissolved organic carbon (EF: 1.0 and 1.1). The nitrogen containing organic compounds were generally found to be enriched in the SML (EF: 1.9-9.2), whereas dissolved carbohydrates were not enriched or even depleted (EF: 0.7-1.2). Although the investigated compounds contributed on average only 0.3% to the dissolved organic carbon and 0.4% to the total dissolved nitrogen fraction, these results underline the importance of single compound analysis to determine SML structure, function, and its potential for a transfer of compounds into the atmosphere.

  15. Origin of organic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, J. R.

    Carbonaceous chondrites, a class of primitive meteorite, have long been known to contain their complement of carbon largely in the form of organic, i.e., hydrocarbon-related, matter. Both discrete organic compounds and an insoluble, macromolecular material are present. Several characteristics of these materials provide evidence for their abiotic origin. The principal formation hypothesis have invoked chemistry occurring either in the solar nebula or on the parent body. However, recent stable isotope analyses of the meteorite carboxylic acids and amino acids indicate that they may be related to interstellar cloud compounds. These results suggest a formation scheme in which interstellar compounds were incorporated into the parent body and subsequently converted to the present suite of meteorite organics by the hydrothermal process believed to have formed the clay minerals of the meteorite matrix.

  16. Analyzing method on biogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J. H.; Wang, M. X.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. P.; Guenther, A. B.

    2002-02-01

    In order to analyze biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, an automated gas chromatography is developed and employed at the laboratory of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) during January to July, 2000. A small refrigerator was used so as to remove water in the air sample from gas line, and get accurate concentrations of volatile organic compounds. At 5degreesC, good water removing efficiency can be obtained at controlled flow rate. Air samples were collected around the building of Mesa Lab. of NCAR and analyzed by this gas chromatography system. This paper reports this gas chromatography system and results of air samples. The experimental results show that this gas chromatography system has a good reproducibility and stability, and main interesting volatile organic compounds such as isoprene, monoterpenes have an evident diurnal variation.

  17. Catalyst for Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Schyryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing volatile organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water with the minimal addition of energy. A mixture of the volatile organic compound and an oxidizing agent (e.g. ambient air containing the volatile organic compound) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  18. Examination of organic compounds from insoluble organic matter isolated from some Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites by heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Harada, K.

    1993-02-01

    Insoluble organic matter isolated from five Antarctic CM2 chondrites was heated in a thermal analyzer from room temperature to 800 C under helium atmosphere. Organic compounds from the thermal decomposition of the Yamato-791198 sample were studied by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The number of compounds identified was over 120, belonging mainly to the two following groups: (1) benzene and naphthalene, and their alkyl derivatives; and (2) sulfur-containing heterocycles and their alkyl derivatives. Small amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and nitriles were also detected. Relative amounts of compounds released from the five chondrite samples were monitored by the MS with increasing temperature. Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 showed organic compounds mainly over the temperature range of 300-600 C, while the other three (Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904) did not show any, except small amounts of benzene. These results indicate that the insoluble organics in Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 possess a thermally labile organic fraction, whereas those in Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904 do not and are graphitic. The difference between the insoluble organic fractions may be related to aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the parent bodies.

  19. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and organic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. Peat samples originated from two wildlife reserves located near the coast of North Carolina, U.S. Gas and particulate organics were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by high pressure liquid chromatography. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) accounted for a large fraction (~60 %) of the speciated VOC emissions from peat burning, including large contributions of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and chloromethane. Speciated organic PM2.5 mass was dominated by the following compound classes: organic acids, levoglucosan, n-alkanes, and n-alkenes. Emission factors for PM2.5 organic acids including n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanedioic acids, and aromatic acids were reported for the first time for peat burning, representing the largest fraction of organic carbon (OC) mass (11-12 %) of all speciated compound classes measured in this work. Levoglucosan contributed 2-3 % of the OC mass, while methoxyphenols represented 0.2-0.3 % of the OC mass on a carbon mass basis. Retene was the most abundant particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Total HAP VOC and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a 2008 peat wildfire in North Carolina were estimated, suggesting that peat fires can contribute a large fraction of state-wide HAP emissions. This p

  20. Chlorinated organic compounds in urban river sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Soma, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Inaba, K.

    1995-12-31

    Among anthropogenic chemicals, many chlorinated organic compounds have been used as insecticides and detected frequently as contaminants in urban river sediments so far. However, the number and total amount of chemicals produced commercially and used are increasing year by year, though each amount of chemicals is not so high. New types of contaminants in the environment may be detected by the use of newly developed chemicals. Chlorinated organic compounds in the urban river sediments around Tokyo and Kyoto, large cities in Japan, were surveyed and recent trends of contaminants were studied. Contaminants of the river sediments in industrial areas had a variety, but PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) was detected in common in industrial areas. Concentration of PCB related well to the number of factories on both sides of rivers, although the use of PCB was stopped 20 years ago. In domestic areas, Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) and Triclocarban (3,4,4{prime}-trichlorocarbanilide)(both are contained in soap or shampoo for fungicides), p-dichlorobenzene (insecticides for wears) and TCEP(tris-chloroethyl phosphate) were detected. EOX(extracted organic halogen) in the sediments was 5 to 10 times of chlorinated organic compounds detected by GC/MS. Major part of organic halogen was suggested to be included in chlorinated organics formed by bleaching or sterilization.

  1. Volatile organic compounds from leaves litter.

    PubMed

    Isidorov, Valery; Jdanova, Maria

    2002-09-01

    Qualitative composition of volatile emissions of litter of five species of deciduous trees was investigated by GC-MS. The list of identified substances contains more than 70 organic compounds of various classes. It was established that the composition of components emitted by the litter into the gas phase greatly differs from that of essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from turned leaves collected from trees during fall. It is suggested that most compounds found in litter emissions are products of vital activity of microorganisms decomposing it. The reported data indicate that after the vegetative period is over the decomposition processes of litter are important seasonal sources of reactive organic compounds under the forest canopy.

  2. Catalytic Destruction Of Toxic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed process disposes of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil or carbon beds safely and efficiently. Oxidizes toxic materials without producing such other contaminants as nitrogen oxides. Using air, fuel, catalysts, and steam, system consumes less fuel and energy than decontamination processes currently in use. Similar process regenerates carbon beds used in water-treatment plants.

  3. Azodicarboxylates: synthesis and functionalization of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirov, A. M.; Aksenov, A. V.

    2014-06-01

    The data on transformations of dialkyl azodicarboxylates and their analogues involving various substrates are generalized. Nucleophilic addition and oxidation, pericyclic reactions and reactions occurring under the Mitsunobu reaction conditions are considered. Ample opportunities for application of these compounds in fine organic synthesis are shown. The bibliography includes 245 references. Dedicated to Academician B A Trofimov on the occasion of his 75th birthday.

  4. Photocatalytic transformations of organic sulfur compounds and H2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    Modern views on the products, pathways and kinetic features of liquid- and gas-phase photocatalytic reactions of sulfur compounds in the presence of heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysts are generalised. Attention is focussed on the aliphatic and aromatic reduced sulfur compounds and pesticides. The reaction rate in the liquid and gas phases are analysed as function of solution pH, temperature, catalyst content, substrate concentration, solvent type, air moisture and added oxidants. Photocatalyst deactivation and the ways for recovery of its activity are considered.

  5. Organic compounds in aerosols from selected European sites - Biogenic versus anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Célia; Vicente, Ana; Pio, Casimiro; Kiss, Gyula; Hoffer, Andras; Decesari, Stefano; Prevôt, André S. H.; Minguillón, María Cruz; Querol, Xavier; Hillamo, Risto; Spindler, Gerald; Swietlicki, Erik

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples from a boreal forest (Hyytiälä, April 2007), a rural site in Hungary (K-puszta, summer 2008), a polluted rural area in Italy (San Pietro Capofiume, Po Valley, April 2008), a moderately polluted rural site in Germany located on a meadow (Melpitz, May 2008), a natural park in Spain (Montseny, March 2009) and two urban background locations (Zurich, December 2008, and Barcelona, February/March 2009) were collected. Aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls, sterols, n-alkanols, acids, phenolic compounds and anhydrosugars in aerosols were chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, along with source attribution based on the carbon preference index (CPI), the ratios between the unresolved and the chromatographically resolved aliphatics, the contribution of wax n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids from plants, diagnostic ratios of individual target compounds and source-specific markers to organic carbon ratios. In spite of transboundary pollution episodes, Hyytiälä registered the lowest levels among all locations. CPI values close to 1 for the aliphatic fraction of the Montseny aerosol suggest that the anthropogenic input may be associated with the transport of aged air masses from the surrounding industrial/urban areas, which superimpose the locally originated hydrocarbons with biogenic origin. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from San Pietro Capofiume reveal that fossil fuel combustion is a major source influencing the diel pattern of concentrations. This source contributed to 25-45% of the ambient organic carbon (OC) at the Po Valley site. Aerosols from the German meadow presented variable contributions from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The highest levels of vegetation wax components and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products were observed at K-puszta, while anthropogenic SOA compounds predominated in Barcelona. The primary vehicular emissions in the Spanish

  6. Nonvolatile organic compounds in treated waters.

    PubMed Central

    Watts, C D; Crathorne, B; Fielding, M; Killops, S D

    1982-01-01

    Over the past decade much information has been published on the analysis of organics extracted from treated water. Certain of these organics have been shown to be by-products of the chlorination disinfection process and to possess harmful effects at high concentrations. This has resulted in increased interest in alternative disinfection processes, particularly ozonation. The data on organics had been largely obtained by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is only capable of analyzing, at best, 20% of the organics present in treated water. Research in key areas such as mutagenicity testing of water and characterization of chlorination and ozonation by-products has emphasized the need for techniques suitable for analysis of the remaining nonvolatile organics. Several methods for the isolation of nonvolatile organics have been evaluated and, of these, freeze-drying followed by methanol extraction appears the most suitable. Reverse-phase HPLC was used for separation of the methanol extract, but increased resolution for separation of the complex mixtures present is desirable. In this context, high resolution size exclusion chromatography shows promise. Characterization of separated nonvolatiles is possible by the application of state-of-the-art mass spectrometric techniques. Results obtained by these techniques have shown that the nonvolatile organic fraction of chlorinated drinking water consists of many discrete compounds. Among these, some of the chlorinated compounds are almost certainly by-products of disinfection. Studies of the by-products of ozonation of fulvic and humic acids isolated from river waters have indicated a similar proportion of nonvolatile organics. Further, ozonation can result in the release of compounds that are trapped in the macromolecules. PMID:6759110

  7. Organic photosensitive devices using subphthalocyanine compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, Barry; Forrest, Stephen R.; Mutolo, Kristin L.; Mayo, Elizabeth; Thompson, Mark E.

    2011-07-05

    An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having a donor-acceptor heterojunction of a donor-like material and an acceptor-like material and methods of making such devices is provided. At least one of the donor-like material and the acceptor-like material includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound; and/or the device optionally has at least one of a blocking layer or a charge transport layer, where the blocking layer and/or the charge transport layer includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound.

  8. Climate impacts of biogenic organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Kamalika; Gordon, Hamish; Almeida, Joao; Rap, Alex; Scott, Catherine; Pringle, Kirsty; Carslaw, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Currently the most uncertain driver of climate change, impact of anthropogenic aerosols on earth's radiative balance depends significantly on estimates of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), representation of the pre-industrial atmosphere among others. Nearly 90% of aerosols in the tropics are organic in nature of which a major part comes from biogenic sources. About 45% of the CCN in the atmosphere are formed in-situ via nucleation. Understanding the role of biogenic organic compounds in particle formation and their subsequent growth is hence imperative in order to quantify the climate impact of aerosols. The CLOUD experiment at CERN, which measures particle formation and growth rates in a uniquely clean chamber under atmospherically relevant conditions, found evidence of a nucleation mechanism involving only biogenic organic compounds. This mechanism significantly changes our pre-industrial estimates. The experimental results have been parameterized and included in a global aerosol microphysics model, GLOMAP, to quantify the impact of pure biogenic nucleation on CCN formation and their climatic impact. Further the treatment of secondary organic compounds in GLOMAP has been improved and the sensitivity of our estimates of radiative forcing to the same has been evaluated.

  9. Predicting the octanol solubility of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Admire, Brittany; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2013-07-01

    The molar octanol solubility of an organic nonelectrolytes can be reasonably predicted solely from its melting point provided that its liquid (or a hypothetical super-cooled liquid) form is miscible with octanol. The aim of this work is to develop criteria to determine if the real or hypothetical liquid form of a given compound will be miscible with octanol based on its molar volume and solubility parameter. Fortunately, most organic compounds (including most drugs) conform to the criteria for complete liquid miscibility, and therefore have solubilities that are proportional to their melting points. The results show that more than 95% of the octanol solubilities studied are predicted with an error of less than 1 logarithmic unit.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic properties of dinuclear copper(II) compounds with NNO tridentate Schiff base ligands and bridging aliphatic diamine and aromatic diimine linkers.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Luca; Forni, Alessandra; Pievo, Roberta; Reedijk, Jan; Pasini, Alessandro

    2011-04-07

    The synthesis and the characterization of new dinuclear copper(II) compounds of general formula [(L(a-d))(2)Cu(2)(μ-N-N)](ClO(4))(2) (1-6) with either neutral aliphatic diamine (N-N = piperazine, pip) or aromatic diimine (N-N = 4,4'-bipyridine, 4,4'-bipy) linker are reported. The copper ligands L(-) (L(a-) = (E)-2-((2-aminoethylimino)methyl)phenolate, L(b-) = (E)-2-((2-aminopropylimino)methyl)-phenolate, L(c-) = (E)-2-((2-aminoethylimino)methyl)4-nitrophenolate, L(d-) = (E)-2-((2-aminoethylimino)methyl)4-methoxyphenolate) are NNO tridentate Schiff bases derived from the monocondensation of a substituted salicylaldehyde 5-G-salH (G = NO(2), H, OMe) with ethylenediamine, en, or 1,3-propylenediamine, tn. The crystal structures of compounds [(L(a))(2)Cu(2)(MeOH)(2)(μ-4,4'-bipy)](ClO(4))(2) (1·2MeOH), [(L(b))(2)Cu(2)(MeOH)(2)(μ-4,4'-bipy)](ClO(4))(2) (2·2MeOH), [(L(d))(2)Cu(2)(μ-4,4'-bipy)](ClO(4))(2) (4), [(L(a))(2)Cu(2)(μ-pip)](ClO(4))(2) (5) and [(L(b))(2)Cu(2)(μ-pip)](ClO(4))(2) (6) have been determined, revealing the preferred (e-e)-chair conformation of the bridging piperazine in compounds 5 and 6. The presence of hydrogen-bond-mediated intermolecular interactions, that involve the methanol molecules, yields dimers of dinuclear units for 1·2MeOH, and infinite zig-zag chains for 2·2MeOH. The temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibilities χ(M)(T) for all compounds were measured, indicating the presence of antiferromagnetic Cu-Cu exchange. For the compounds 2-4 with 4,4'-bipy, the coupling constants J are around -1 cm(-1), while in compound 1 no interaction could be detected. The compounds 5 and 6 with piperazine display higher Cu-Cu magnetic interactions through the σ-bonding backbone of the bridging molecule, with J around -8 cm(-1), and the coupling is favoured by the (e-e)-chair conformation of the diamine ring. The non-aromatic, but shorter, linker piperazine gives rise to stronger Cu-Cu antiferromagnetic couplings than the aromatic, but

  11. Organic Compounds in Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochina, O.; Wiebe, D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of complex dust composition on the general chemical evolution of a prestellar core and the content of complex organic compounds is studied. It is shown that various component groups respond differently to the presence of a small dust population. At early stages the difference is determined primarily by changes in the balance of photo processes due to effective absorption of ultraviolet photons by small dust grains of the second population and collisional reactions with dust particles. At later stages differences are also caused by the growing dominance of additional reaction channels related to surface organic synthesis.

  12. Organic compounds in star forming regions.

    PubMed

    Kochina, O; Wiebe, D

    2014-09-01

    The influence of complex dust composition on the general chemical evolution of a prestellar core and the content of complex organic compounds is studied. It is shown that various component groups respond differently to the presence of a small dust population. At early stages the difference is determined primarily by changes in the balance of photo processes due to effective absorption of ultraviolet photons by small dust grains of the second population and collisional reactions with dust particles. At later stages differences are also caused by the growing dominance of additional reaction channels related to surface organic synthesis.

  13. Metabolic Reactions among Organic Sulfur Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, M.; Rogers, K.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur is central to the metabolisms of many organisms that inhabit extreme environments. Numerous authors have addressed the energy available from a variety of inorganic sulfur redox pairs. Less attention has been paid, however, to the energy required or gained from metabolic reactions among organic sulfur compounds. Work in this area has focused on the oxidation of alkyl sulfide or disulfide to thiol and formaldehyde, e.g. (CH3)2S + H2O yields CH3SH + HCHO + H2, eventually resulting in the formation of CO2 and SO4(-2). It is also found that reactions among thiols and disulfides may help control redox disequilibria between the cytoplasm and the periplasm. Building on our earlier efforts for thiols, we have compiled and estimated thermodynamic properties for alkyl sulfides. We are investigating metabolic reactions among various sulfur compounds in a variety of extreme environments, ranging from sea floor hydrothermal systems to organic-rich sludge. Using thermodynamic data and the revised HKF equation of state, along with constraints imposed by the geochemical environments sulfur-metabolizing organisms inhabit, we are able to calculate the amount of energy available to these organisms.

  14. Compositional space boundaries for organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Marshall, Alan G; Hsu, Chang Samuel

    2012-04-03

    An upper elemental compositional boundary for fossil hydrocarbons has previously been established as double-bond equivalents (i.e., DBE = rings plus double bonds) not exceeding 90% of the number of carbons. For heteroatom-containing fossil compounds, the 90% rule still applies if each N atom is counted as a C atom. The 90% rule eliminates more than 10% of the possible elemental compositions at a given mass for fossil database molecules. However, some synthetic compounds can fall outside the upper boundary defined for naturally occurring compounds. Their inclusion defines an "absolute" upper boundary as DBE (rings plus double bonds to carbon) equal to carbon number plus one, and applies to all organic compounds including fullerenes and other molecules containing no hydrogen. Finally, the DBE definition can fail for molecules with particular atomic valences. Therefore, we also present a generalized DBE definition that includes atomic valence to enable calculation of the correct total number of rings, double bonds, and triple bonds for heteroatom-containing compounds.

  15. Sorption interactions of organic compounds with soils affected by agricultural olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2015-11-01

    The organic compound-soil interactions may be strongly influenced by changes in soil organic matter (OM) which affects the environmental fate of multiple organic pollutants. The soil OM changes may be caused by land disposal of various OM-containing wastes. One unique type of OM-rich waste is olive mill-related wastewater (OMW) characterized by high levels of OM, the presence of fatty aliphatics and polyphenolic aromatics. The systematic data on effects of the land-applied OMW on organic compound-soil interactions is lacking. Therefore, aqueous sorption of simazine and diuron, two herbicides, was examined in batch experiments onto three soils, including untreated and OMW-affected samples. Typically, the organic compound-soil interactions increased following the prior land application of OMW. This increase is associated with the changes in sorption mechanisms and cannot be attributed solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content. A novel observation is that the OMW application changes the soil-sorbent matrix in such a way that the solute uptake may become cooperative or the existing ability of a soil sorbent to cooperatively sorb organic molecules from water may become characterized by a larger affinity. The remarkable finding of this study was that in some cases a cooperative uptake of organic molecules by soils makes itself evident in distinct sigmoidal sorption isotherms rarely observed in soil sorption of non-ionized organic compounds; the cooperative herbicide-soil interactions may be characterized by the Hill model coefficients. However, no single trend was found for the effect of applied OMW on the mechanisms of organic compound-soil interactions.

  16. Application of ultrasound to enhance the zero-valent iron-initiated abiotic degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Nancy Elaine

    Permeable iron barriers, while effective as a near-passive in situ remediation technology for halogenated organic solvents, are susceptible to the loss of reactivity over time, most probably due to a build up of corrosion products or other precipitates on the iron surface. If such material can be removed, a barrier's lifetime can be significantly extended. This proof-of-concept project employed ultrasonic energy to rejuvenate an iron surface. Through batch studies, iron's capacity to degrade dissolved chlorinated solvents under various conditions before and after sonication was examined. The impact of iron pretreatment, groundwater quality, and sonication and the nature of the deposits formed on iron during solvent degradation were determined in order to evaluate the physical mechanism of ultrasonic enhancement of iron and to develop guidelines for barrier design and an ultrasound delivery system for a future field study. Iron (coarse filings, 100-mesh powder, or foamed pellets) placed in deoxygenated natural groundwater was exposed to 330 W-hr of ultrasonic energy prior to the introduction of trichloroethylene (TCE). The iron was also subjected to various pretreatments to create surface conditions with differing rates of activity for chlorinated solvent degradation. Aqueous concentrations of TCE and any degradation products were monitored over time. Geochemical modeling indicated that an iron barrier in this water would be subject to heavy precipitation of carbonates and hydroxides. Sonication positively impacted iron's degradation of chlorinated solvents, probably most directly linked to an increase in active specific surface area, achieved by removing deposits and/or etching the surface, as suggested by scanning electron micrographs. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that sonication also changes the chemical composition of the outermost 40 Angstroms of an iron surface. For some degraded irons, activity was restored to near initial rates

  17. Formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molteni, Ugo; Baltensperger, Urs; Bianchi, Federico; Dommen, Josef; El Haddad, Imad; Frege, Carla; Klein, Felix; Rossi, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) from biogenic volatile organic compounds are important for new particle formation and early particle growth (e.g., Ehn et al., 2014). The formation mechanism has extensively been studied for biogenic precursors like alpha-pinene and was shown to proceed through an initial reaction with either OH radicals or ozone followed by radical propagation in a mechanism that involves O2 attack and hydrogen abstraction (Crounse et al., 2013). While the same processes can be expected for anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOC), few studies have investigated these so far. Here we present the formation of HOMs from a variety of aromatic compounds after reaction with OH. All the compounds analyzed show HOM formation. AVOC could therefore play an important role in new particle formation events that have been detected in urban areas. References Crounse, J.D. et al., Autoxidation of organic compounds in the atmosphere. J. Phys.Chem. Lett. 4, 3513-3520 (2013). Ehn, M., et al. A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol, Nature 506, 476-479 (2014).

  18. The Atmospheric Fate of Organic Nitrogen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borduas, Nadine

    Organic nitrogen compounds are present in our atmosphere from biogenic and anthropogenic sources and have impacts on air quality and climate. Due to recent advances in instrumentation, these compounds are being detected in the gas and particle phases, raising questions as to their source, processing and sinks in the environment. With their recently identified role as contributors to aerosol formation and growth, their novel large scale use as solvents in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and their emissions from cigarette smoke, it is now important to address the gaps in our understanding of the fate of organic nitrogen. Experimentally and theoretically, I studied the chemical atmospheric fate of specific organic nitrogen compounds in the amine, amide and isocyanate families, yielding information that can be used in chemical transport models to assess the fate of this emerging class of atmospheric molecules. I performed kinetic laboratory studies in a smog chamber to measure the room temperature rate coefficient for reaction with the hydroxyl radical of monoethanolamine, nicotine, and five different amides. I employed online-mass spectrometry techniques to quantify the oxidation products. I found that amines react quickly with OH radicals with lifetimes of a few hours under sunlit conditions, producing amides as oxidation products. My studies on amides revealed that they have much longer lifetimes in the atmosphere, ranging from a few hours to a week. Photo-oxidation of amides produces isocyanates and I investigated these mechanisms in detail using ab initio calculations. Furthermore, I experimentally measured isocyanic acid's Henry's Law constant as well as its hydrolysis rate constants to better understand its sinks in the atmosphere. Finally, I re-examined the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of organic nitrogen molecules for improved model parameterizations.

  19. Self assembly properties of primitive organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    A central event in the origin of life was the self-assembly of amphiphilic, lipid-like compounds into closed microenvironments. If a primitive macromolecular replicating system could be encapsulated within a vesicular membrane, the components of the system would share the same microenvironment, and the result would be a step toward true cellular function. The goal of our research has been to determine what amphiphilic molecules might plausibly have been available on the early Earth to participate in the formation of such boundary structures. To this end, we have investigated primitive organic mixtures present in carbonaceous meteorites such as the Murchison meteorite, which contains 1-2 percent of its mass in the form of organic carbon compounds. It is likely that such compounds contributed to the inventory of organic carbon on the prebiotic earth, and were available to participate in chemical evolution leading to the emergence of the first cellular life forms. We found that Murchison components extracted into non-polar solvent systems are surface active, a clear indication of amphiphilic character. One acidic fraction self-assembles into vesicular membranes that provide permeability barriers to polar solutes. Other evidence indicates that the membranes are bimolecular layers similar to those formed by contemporary membrane lipids. We conclude that bilayer membrane formation by primitive amphiphiles on the early Earth is feasible. However, only a minor fraction of acidic amphiphiles assembles into bilayers, and the resulting membranes require narrowly defined conditions of pH and ionic composition to be stable. It seems unlikely, therefore, that meteoritic infall was a direct source of membrane amphiphiles. Instead, the hydrocarbon components and their derivatives more probably would provide an organic stock available for chemical evolution. Our current research is directed at possible reactions which would generate substantial quantities of membranogenic

  20. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  1. Volatile organic compound identification and characterization by PCA and mapping at a high-technology science park.

    PubMed

    Lan, Cheng-Hang; Huang, Yu-Li; Ho, Sheng-Huei; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2014-10-01

    High-technology industries have grown continuously in Taiwan and elsewhere in the world. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise the highest percentage of emissions in these industries. The objectives of this study were to identify VOC sources and to apportion their contributions by using a three-step approach. These included estimating concentration distributions, performing principal component analysis (PCA), and mapping concentration contours. The results showed that the dominant compound groups were aromatic and aliphatic compounds. The PCA resolved four emission sources: vehicular traffic, industrial solvents, waste water plants, and cleaning/degreasing agents. Spatial distributions showed that concentrations of vehicular traffic-related compounds (benzene and isooctane) were highest at the entrances to the science park, and strongly related to traffic volume, and that the emissions of industry-related compounds (xylene and ethylbenzene) were closest to the associated sources. This study provided an accurate, practical and efficient method of characterizing emission sources in an industrial complex.

  2. Peculiarities in the formation of complex organic compounds in a nitrogen-methane atmosphere during hypervelocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, M. A.; Gerasimov, M. V.; Safonova, E. N.; Vasiljeva, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Results of the experiments on model impact vaporization of peridotite, a mineral analogue of stony asteroids, in a nitrogen-methane atmosphere are presented. Nd-glass laser (γ = 1.06 µm) was used for simulation. Pulse energy was ~600-700 J, pulse duration ~10-3 s, vaporization tempereature ~4000-5000 K. The gaseous medium (96% vol. of N2 and 4% vol. of CH4, P = 1 atm) was a possible analogue of early atmospheres of terrestrial planets and corresponded to the present-day atmosphere composition of Titan, a satellite of Saturn. By means of pyrolytic gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, it is shown that solid condensates obtained in laser experiments contain relatively complex lowand high-molecular weight (kerogen-like) organic compounds. The main products of condensate pyrolysis were benzene and alkyl benzenes (including long-chain ones), unbranched aliphatic hydrocarbons, and various nitrogen-containing compounds (aliphatic and aromatic nitriles and pyrrol). It is shown that the nitrogen-methane atmosphere favors the formation of complex organic compounds upon hypervelocity impacts with the participation of stony bodies even with a small methane content in it. In this process, falling bodies may not contain carbon, hydrogen, and other chemical elements necessary for the formation of the organic matter. In such conditions, a noticeable contribution to the impact-induced synthesis of complex organic substances is probably made by heterogeneous catalytic reactions, in particular, Fischer-Tropsch type reactions.

  3. Comparison of various organic compounds destruction on rare earths doped Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yu-Hong; Feng, Yu-Jie; Liu, Junfeng; Ren, Nanqi

    2012-11-15

    Ti/Sb-SnO2 and three kinds of rare earths (REs), namely Ce, Gd, and Eu doped Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrodes were prepared and tested for their capacity on electrocatalytic degradation of three kinds of basal aromatic compounds (benzoquinone, hydroquinone and catechol) and six kinds of aliphatic acids (maleic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and acetic acid). The elimination of selected organics as well as their TOC removal with different doped Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrodes was described by first-order kinetics. Compared with Ti/Sb-SnO2, the Gd and Eu doped electrodes show better performance on the degradation of most of the selected organics, while Ce doped electrode shows either closely or lower efficiency on the degradation of these selected organics. Besides electrode material, the molecular structure of organic compound has obvious effect on its degradation in the electrocatalytic process. Catechol is more resistant to the electrophilic attack by hydroxyl radicals than benzoquinone and hydroquinone. The compound with more complicate molecular structure or longer carbon chain is more difficult to be mineralized. The aliphatic acid with higher oxygen content or more double bonds is more readily to be oxidized in the electrocatalytic process.

  4. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to <2m above ground level. Emissions at leaf scale are well documented and widely presented, and are not discussed here. Instead we describe some details of recent research on rhizosphere bVOCs, and bVOCs associated with pollination of flowers. Although bVOC emissions from soil surfaces are small, bVOCs are exuded by roots of some plant species, and can be extracted from decaying litter. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the rhizosphere provide a specialised carbon source for micro-organisms, helping to define the micro-organism community structure, and impacting on nutrient cycles which are partly controlled by microorganisms. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the soil system could also affect the aboveground structure of ecosystems because of their role in plant defence strategies and as mediating chemicals in allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation by Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    Hydrocarbons are relatively recalcitrant compounds and are classified as high-priority pollutants. However, these compounds are slowly degraded by a large variety of microorganisms. Bacteria are able to degrade aliphatic saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons via both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Branched hydrocarbons and cyclic hydrocarbons are also degraded by bacteria. The aerobic bacteria use different types of oxygenases, including monooxygenase, cytochrome-dependent oxygenase and dioxygenase, to insert one or two atoms of oxygen into their targets. Anaerobic bacteria, on the other hand, employ a variety of simple organic and inorganic molecules, including sulphate, nitrate, carbonate and metals, for hydrocarbon oxidation.

  6. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Richland, WA; Hart,; Todd, R [Kennewick, WA; Neuenschwander, Gary G [Burbank, WA

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  7. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hu, Jianli; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  8. A method of isolating organic compounds present in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calder, G. V.; Fritz, J.; Junk, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Water sample is passed through a column containing macroreticular resin, which absorbs only nonionic organic compounds. These compounds are selectively separated using aqueous eluents of varying pH, or completely exuded with small amount of an organic eluent.

  9. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Humans Indoors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaochen; Misztal, Pawel K; Nazaroff, William W; Goldstein, Allen H

    2016-12-06

    Research on the sources of indoor airborne chemicals has traditionally focused on outdoor air, building materials, furnishings, and activities such as smoking, cooking, and cleaning. Relatively little research has examined the direct role of occupant emissions, even though this source clearly contributes to indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and influences indoor chemistry. In this work, we quantify occupant-related gaseous VOC emissions in a university classroom using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Time-resolved concentrations of VOCs in room air and supply air were measured continuously during occupied and unoccupied periods. The emission factor for each human-emitted VOC was determined by dividing the occupant-associated source rate by the corresponding occupancy. Among the most abundant species detected were compounds associated with personal care products. Also prominent were human metabolic emissions, such as isoprene, methanol, acetone, and acetic acid. Additional sources included human skin oil oxidation by ozone, producing compounds such as 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (6-MHO). By mass, human-emitted VOCs were the dominant source (57%) during occupied periods in a well-ventilated classroom, with ventilation supply air the second most important (35%), and indoor nonoccupant emissions the least (8%). The total occupant-associated VOC emission factor was 6.3 mg h(-1) per person.

  10. Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćapraz, Ö.; Deniz, A.; Öztürk, A.; Incecik, S.; Toros, H.; Coşkun, M.

    2012-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul Ö. Çapraz1, A. Deniz1,3, A. Ozturk2, S. Incecik1, H. Toros1 and, M. Coskun1 (1) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Meteorology, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (2) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical, Chemical Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (3) Marmara Clean Air Center, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Nişantaşı, 34365, İstanbul, Turkey. One of the major problems of megacities is air pollution. Therefore, investigations of air quality are increasing and supported by many institutions in recent years. Air pollution in Istanbul contains many components that originate from a wide range of industrial, heating, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources. VOC, originating mainly from automobile exhaust, secondhand smoke and building materials, are one of these compounds containing some thousands of chemicals. In spite of the risks to human health, relatively little is known about the levels of VOC in Istanbul. In this study, ambient air quality measurements of 32 VOCs including hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbonyls were conducted in Kağıthane (Golden Horn) region in Istanbul during the winter season of 2011 in order to develop the necessary scientific framework for the subsequent developments. Kağıthane creek valley is the source part of the Golden Horn and one of the most polluted locations in Istanbul due to its topographical form and pollutant sources in the region. In this valley, horizontal and vertical atmospheric motions are very weak. The target compounds most commonly found were benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons ranged between 1.0 and 10.0 parts per billion, by volume (ppbv). Ambient air levels of halogenated hydrocarbons appeared to exhibit unique spatial variations and no single factor seemed to explain trends for this group of

  11. User’s guide to the collection and analysis of tree cores to assess the distribution of subsurface volatile organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the volatile organic compound content of tree cores is an inexpensive, rapid, simple approach to examining the distribution of subsurface volatile organic compound contaminants. The method has been shown to detect several volatile petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated aliphatic compounds associated with vapor intrusion and ground-water contamination. Tree cores, which are approximately 3 inches long, are obtained by using an increment borer. The cores are placed in vials and sealed. After a period of equilibration, the cores can be analyzed by headspace analysis gas chromatography. Because the roots are exposed to volatile organic compound contamination in the unsaturated zone or shallow ground water, the volatile organic compound concentrations in the tree cores are an indication of the presence of subsurface volatile organic compound contamination. Thus, tree coring can be used to detect and map subsurface volatile organic compound contamination. For comparison of tree-core data at a particular site, it is important to maintain consistent methods for all aspects of tree-core collection, handling, and analysis. Factors affecting the volatile organic compound concentrations in tree cores include the type of volatile organic compound, the tree species, the rooting depth, ground-water chemistry, the depth to the contaminated horizon, concentration differences around the trunk related to variations in the distribution of subsurface volatile organic compounds, concentration differences with depth of coring related to volatilization loss through the bark and possibly other unknown factors, dilution by rain, seasonal influences, sorption, vapor-exchange rates, and within-tree volatile organic compound degradation.

  12. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame retardants. This paper critically examines equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs among indoor compartments. It proceeds to evaluate kinetic constraints on sorptive partitioning to organic matter on fixed surfaces and airborne particles. Analyses indicate that equilibrium partitioning is achieved faster for particles than for typical indoor surfaces; indeed, for a strongly sorbing SVOC and a thick sorptive reservoir, equilibrium partitioning is never achieved. Mass-balance considerations are used to develop physical-science-based models that connect source- and sink-rates to airborne concentrations for commonly encountered situations, such as the application of a pesticide or the emission of a plasticizer or flame retardant from its host material. Calculations suggest that many SVOCs have long indoor persistence, even after the primary source is removed. If the only removal mechanism is ventilation, moderately sorbing compounds ( Koa > 10 10) may persist indoors for hundreds to thousands of hours, while strongly sorbing compounds ( Koa > 10 12) may persist for years. The paper concludes by applying the newly developed framework to explore exposure pathways of building occupants to indoor SVOCs. Accumulation of SVOCs as a consequence of direct air-to-human transport is shown to be potentially large, with a maximum indoor-air processing rate of 10-20 m 3/h for SVOC uptake by human skin, hair and clothing. Levels on human skin calculated with a simple model of direct air-to-skin transfer agree remarkably well with levels measured in dermal hand wipes for SVOCs possessing a wide range of octanol-air partition coefficients.

  13. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, Yoshimichi; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Urban ambient air concentrations of 39 aromatic (including benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in Yokohama city, Japan. Yokohama city was selected as a case study to assess the amount of VOC released from Industrial area to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to VOC as well as to know the impact of petrochemical storage facilities on local air quality. For this purpose, ambient air samples were collected (from June 2007 to November 2008) at six selected locations which are designated as industrial, residential, or commercial areas. To find out the diurnal variations of VOC, hourly nighttime sampling was carried out for three nights at one of the industrial locations (Shiohama). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatographic system (GC-FID). Results show strong variation between day and nighttime concentrations and among the seasons. Aliphatic fractions were most abundant, suggesting petrochemical storage facilities as the major source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. High concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) were observed at industrial locations. BTEX showed strong diurnal variation which is attributed to change in meteorology. During our campaign, low ambient VOC concentrations were observed at the residential site. PMID:20495606

  14. Release of trace organic compounds during the decomposition of municipal solid waste components.

    PubMed

    Staley, Bryan F; Xu, Fangxiang; Cowie, Steven J; Barlaz, Morton A; Hater, Gary R

    2006-10-01

    Landfill gas contains numerous speciated organic compounds (SOCs) including alkanes, aromatics, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, chlorofluoro compounds, and siloxanes. The source, rate and extent of release of these compounds are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the release of SOCs and the regulated parameter, non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) during the decomposition of residential refuse and its major biodegradable components [paper (P), yard waste (YW), food waste (FW)]. Work was conducted under anaerobic conditions in 8-L reactors operated to maximize decomposition. Refuse and YW were also tested under aerobic conditions. NMOC release during anaerobic decomposition of refuse, P, YW, and FW was 0.151, 0.016, 0.038, and 0.221 mg-C dry g(-1), respectively, while release during aerobic decomposition of refuse and YW was 0.282 and 0.236 mg-C dry g(-1), respectively. The highest NMOC release was measured under abiotic conditions (3.01 mg-C dry g(-1)), suggesting the importance of gas stripping. NMOC release was faster than CH4 production in all treatments. Terpenes and ketones accounted for 32-96% of SOC release in each treatment, while volatile fatty acids were not a significant contributor. Release in aerobic systems points to the potential importance of composting plants as an emissions source.

  15. An Assessment of the Stability and the Potential for In-Situ Synthesis of Regulated Organic Compounds in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.; Babad, H.; Hallen, R.T.; Jackson, L.P.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1999-01-04

    The stability assessment examined 269 non-detected regulated compounds, first seeking literature references of the stability of the compounds, then evaluating each compound based upon the presence of functional groups using professional judgment. Compounds that could potentially survive for significant periods in the tanks (>1 year) were designated as stable. Most of the functional groups associated with the regulated organic compounds were considered unstable under tank waste conditions. The general exceptions with respect to functional group stability are some simple substituted aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds that resist oxidation and the multiple substituted aliphatic and aromatic halides that hydrolyze or dehydrohalogenate slowly under tank waste conditions. One-hundred and eighty-one (181) regulated, organic compounds were determined as likely unstable in the tank waste environment.

  16. IRRADIATION METHOD OF CONVERTING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Allen, A.O.; Caffrey, J.M. Jr.

    1960-10-11

    A method is given for changing the distribution of organic compounds from that produced by the irradiation of bulk alkane hydrocarbons. This method consists of depositing an alkane hydrocarbon on the surface of a substrate material and irradiating with gamma radiation at a dose rate of more than 100,000 rads. The substrate material may be a metal, metal salts, metal oxides, or carbons having a surface area in excess of 1 m/sup 2//g. The hydrocarbons are deposited in layers of from 0.1 to 10 monolayers on the surfaces of these substrates and irradiated. The product yields are found to vary from those which result from the irradiation of bulk hydrocarbons in that there is an increase in the quantity of branched hydrocarbons.

  17. Volatilization of organic compounds from streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathburn, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Mass-transfer coefficients for the volatilization of ethylene and propane were correlated with the hydraulic and geometric properties of seven streams, and predictive equations were developed. The equations were evaluated using a normalized root-mean-square error as the criterion of comparison. The two best equations were a two-variable equation containing the energy dissipated per unit mass per unit time and the average depth of flow and a three-variable equation containing the average velocity, the average depth of flow, and the slope of the stream. Procedures for adjusting the ethylene and propane coefficients for other organic compounds were evaluated. These procedures are based on molecular diffusivity, molecular diameter, or molecular weight. Because of limited data, none of these procedures have been extensively verified. Therefore, until additional data become available, it is suggested that the mass-transfer coefficient be assumed to be inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular weight.

  18. Extraction of organic compounds from solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.

    1986-04-01

    Pyridine, benzene, cyclohexane, methylene chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and n-methylpyrrolidone have been compared for the extraction of polycyclic organic materials (POMs) from urban air, diesel, and stack particulate samples. Both sonic and Soxhlet techniques have been examined for both natural environmental particulates and particulates spiked with selected POMs. The extraction results vary for different polycyclic compounds adsorbed on different solid matrices, so no single solvent or extraction technique could be unambiguously recommended. However, comparative average results for 14 compounds spiked onto fly ash at 0.1, 0.25, and 1.0 ..mu..g/g showed pyridine to have 1.5 times more extraction efficiency than benzene. These and other reported results suggest that pyridine deserves more attention as an extractant for particulate samples. In separate tests, recoveries of POMs from fly ash were not improved by deactivation with aqueous solutions of ammonium hydroxide, thiocyanate and carbonate, and sodium nitrite prior to the extraction. 39 references, 5 tables.

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of organic compounds derived from amino alcohols against onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Caneschi, César Augusto; Almeida, Angelina Maria de; Martins, Francislene Juliana; Hyaric, Mireille Le; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Macedo, Gilson Costa; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Raposo, Nádia Rezende Barbosa

    2017-02-09

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail caused by high densities of filamentous fungi and yeasts. Treatment for this illness is long-term, and recurrences are frequently detected. This study evaluated in vitro antifungal activities of 12 organic compounds derived from amino alcohols against standard fungal strains, such as Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507 URM 1666, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antifungal compounds were synthesized from p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4a-4f) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (9a-9f). Minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols M38-A2, M27-A3, and M27-S4. The amine series 4b-4e, mainly 4c and 4e compounds, were effective against filamentous fungi and yeast (MIC from 7.8 to 312μg/mL). On the other hand, the amide series (9a-9f) did not present inhibitory effect against fungi, except amide 9c, which demonstrated activity only against C. albicans. This allowed us to infer that the presence of amine group and intermediate carbon number (8C-11C) in its aliphatic side chain seems to be important for antifungal activity. Although these compounds present cytotoxic activity on macrophages J774, our results suggest that these aromatic compounds might constitute potential as leader molecules in the development of more effective and less toxic analogs that could have considerable implications for future therapies of onychomycosis.

  20. Particulate organic compounds emitted from experimental wildland fires in a Mediterranean ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, C. A.; Gonçalves, C.; Evtyugina, M.; Pio, C. A.; Mirante, F.; Puxbaum, H.

    2010-07-01

    Fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) smoke particles from controlled biomass burnings of a shrub-dominated forest in Lousã Mountain, Portugal, enabled the quantification by chromatographic techniques of several molecular tracers for the combustion of Mediterranean forest ecosystems, which could be conducive to source apportionment studies. The major organic components in the smoke samples were pyrolysates of vegetation cuticles, mainly comprising steradienes and sterol derivatives, carbohydrates from the breakdown of cellulose, aliphatic lipids from vegetation waxes and methoxyphenols from the lignin thermal degradation. Most of these compounds are chiefly found in fine particles. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were also present as minor constituents. Anhydrosugar and PAH molecular diagnostic ratios were applied as source assignment tools. Some biomarkers are reported for the first time in biomass burning smoke.

  1. Tropospheric volatile organic compounds in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Ling, Z H; Cheng, H R; Simpson, I J; Lyu, X P; Wang, X M; Shao, M; Lu, H X; Ayoko, G; Zhang, Y L; Saunders, S M; Lam, S H M; Wang, J L; Blake, D R

    2017-01-01

    Photochemical smog, characterized by high concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particles (PM2.5) in the atmosphere, has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), one of the key precursors of O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (an important component of PM2.5), have a critical influence on atmospheric chemistry and subsequently affect regional and global climate. Thus, VOCs have been extensively studied in many cities and regions in China, especially in the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta regions where photochemical smog pollution has become increasingly worse over recent decades. This paper reviews the main studies conducted in China on the characteristics and sources of VOCs, their relationship with O3 and SOA, and their removal technology. This paper also provides an integrated literature review on the formulation and implementation of effective control strategies of VOCs and photochemical smog, as well as suggestions for future directions of VOCs study in China.

  2. Organic compounds in meteorites and their origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayatsu, R.; Anders, E.

    1981-01-01

    The current investigation represents an extensively updated version of a review conducted by Anders et al. (1973). The investigation takes into account the literature through mid-1980. It is pointed out that Type 1 carbonaceous chondrites (C1) contain 6% of their cosmic complement of carbon, mainly in the form of organic matter. Most authors now agree that this material represents primitive prebiotic matter. The principal questions remaining are what abiotic processes formed the organic matter, and to what extent these processes took place in locales other than the solar nebula, such as interstellar clouds or meteorite parent bodes. The problem is approached in three stages. It is attempted to reconstruct the physical conditions during condensation from the clues contained in the inorganic matrix of the meteorite. The condensation behavior of carbon under these conditions is determined on the basis of thermodynamic calculations. Model experiments on the condensation of carbon are performed, and the synthesized compounds are compared with those actually found in meteorites.

  3. Study of 106 organic and inorganic compounds in the Salmonella/microsome test.

    PubMed

    De Flora, S

    1981-01-01

    One hundred and six compounds, subdivided into 12 chemical classes (5 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 7 epoxides and N-oxides, 5 nitro aromatics and heterocycles, 12 aromatic and heterocyclic amines, 2 azo compounds, 17 hydrazine derivatives, 16 miscellaneous aliphatics, 5 miscellaneous heterocycles, 11 miscellaneous organics, 11 hexavalent and 7 trivalent chromium compounds, 8 miscellaneous inorganics), were studied in the Salmonella/microsome test. Fifty-eight of them (54.7%) were found to be mutagenic and 4 additional compounds (3.8%) yielded a positive response following nitrosation in human gastric juice. The results are presented in a tabulated form, providing the following information for each test compound: (a) mutagenic response in 5 S. typhimurium his- strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, TA100); (b) range of activity for positive compounds or maximum dose tested for negative compounds (in nmol/plate); (c) mutagenic potency (in revertants/nmol compound), varying over a 6.5 x 10(6)-fold range; (d) effect of S-9 mix containing rat (Aroclor)liver S-9 fractions on the mutagenic response (activation, increase, no change or decrease); (e) remarks concerning the influence of other metabolic systems (up to 10 different rat tissue S-9 fractions, mouse S-9 fractions, human S-9 fractions, cell preparations or biological fluids), the interaction between different compounds, the stability and the formation of mutagenic derivatives in human gastric juice and other experimental details. Overlapping of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data was not evaluated, since the experimental protocol intentionally included a number of non-carcinogenic mutagens and of non-mutagenic carcinogens, with the aim of explaining in some cases the conflicting nature of in vivo and in vitro conclusions.

  4. Generation of standard gas mixtures of halogenated, aliphatic, and aromatic compounds and prediction of the individual output rates based on molecular formula and boiling point.

    PubMed

    Thorenz, Ute R; Kundel, Michael; Müller, Lars; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we describe a simple diffusion capillary device for the generation of various organic test gases. Using a set of basic equations the output rate of the test gas devices can easily be predicted only based on the molecular formula and the boiling point of the compounds of interest. Since these parameters are easily accessible for a large number of potential analytes, even for those compounds which are typically not listed in physico-chemical handbooks or internet databases, the adjustment of the test gas source to the concentration range required for the individual analytical application is straightforward. The agreement of the predicted and measured values is shown to be valid for different groups of chemicals, such as halocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic compounds and for different dimensions of the diffusion capillaries. The limits of the predictability of the output rates are explored and observed to result in an underprediction of the output rates when very thin capillaries are used. It is demonstrated that pressure variations are responsible for the observed deviation of the output rates. To overcome the influence of pressure variations and at the same time to establish a suitable test gas source for highly volatile compounds, also the usability of permeation sources is explored, for example for the generation of molecular bromine test gases.

  5. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    DOEpatents

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  6. Microbial production of aliphatic (S)-epoxyalkanes by using Rhodococcus sp. strain ST-10 styrene monooxygenase expressed in organic-solvent-tolerant Kocuria rhizophila DC2201.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroshi; Ohuchi, Takuya; Imae, Ryouta; Itoh, Nobuya

    2015-03-01

    We describe the development of biocatalysis for producing optically pure straight-chain (S)-epoxyalkanes using styrene monooxygenase of Rhodococcus sp. strain ST-10 (RhSMO). RhSMO was expressed in the organic solvent-tolerant microorganism Kocuria rhizophila DC2201, and the bioconversion reaction was performed in an organic solvent-water biphasic reaction system. The biocatalytic process enantioselectively converted linear terminal alkenes to their corresponding (S)-epoxyalkanes using glucose and molecular oxygen. When 1-heptene and 6-chloro-1-hexene were used as substrates (400 mM) under optimized conditions, 88.3 mM (S)-1,2-epoxyheptane and 246.5 mM (S)-1,2-epoxy-6-chlorohexane, respectively, accumulated in the organic phase with good enantiomeric excess (ee; 84.2 and 95.5%). The biocatalysis showed broad substrate specificity toward various aliphatic alkenes, including functionalized and unfunctionalized alkenes, with good to excellent ee. Here, we demonstrate that this biocatalytic system is environmentally friendly and useful for producing various enantiopure (S)-epoxyalkanes.

  7. Microbial Production of Aliphatic (S)-Epoxyalkanes by Using Rhodococcus sp. Strain ST-10 Styrene Monooxygenase Expressed in Organic-Solvent-Tolerant Kocuria rhizophila DC2201

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Hiroshi; Ohuchi, Takuya; Imae, Ryouta

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of biocatalysis for producing optically pure straight-chain (S)-epoxyalkanes using styrene monooxygenase of Rhodococcus sp. strain ST-10 (RhSMO). RhSMO was expressed in the organic solvent-tolerant microorganism Kocuria rhizophila DC2201, and the bioconversion reaction was performed in an organic solvent-water biphasic reaction system. The biocatalytic process enantioselectively converted linear terminal alkenes to their corresponding (S)-epoxyalkanes using glucose and molecular oxygen. When 1-heptene and 6-chloro-1-hexene were used as substrates (400 mM) under optimized conditions, 88.3 mM (S)-1,2-epoxyheptane and 246.5 mM (S)-1,2-epoxy-6-chlorohexane, respectively, accumulated in the organic phase with good enantiomeric excess (ee; 84.2 and 95.5%). The biocatalysis showed broad substrate specificity toward various aliphatic alkenes, including functionalized and unfunctionalized alkenes, with good to excellent ee. Here, we demonstrate that this biocatalytic system is environmentally friendly and useful for producing various enantiopure (S)-epoxyalkanes. PMID:25556188

  8. Estimating the physicochemical properties of polyhalogenated aromatic and aliphatic compounds using UPPER: part 2. Aqueous solubility, octanol solubility and octanol-water partition coefficient.

    PubMed

    Admire, Brittany; Lian, Bo; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    The UPPER (Unified Physicochemical Property Estimation Relationships) model uses additive and non-additive parameters to estimate 20 biologically relevant properties of organic compounds. The model has been validated by Lian and Yalkowsky (2014) on a data set of 700 hydrocarbons. Recently, Admire et al. (2014) expanded the model to predict the boiling and melting points of 1288 polyhalogenated benzenes, biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, diphenyl ethers, anisoles and alkanes. In this work, 19 new group descriptors are determined and used to predict the aqueous solubilities, octanol solubilities and the octanol-water coefficients.

  9. BASIC CHEMICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BENZENE, *CYANIDES, *HYDROXIDES, *ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, ACETYLENES, ALKYL RADICALS, AMIDES, ANILINES , BENZALDEHYDES, CHEMICAL REACTIONS , CONDENSATION... REACTIONS , ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, MATERIALS, MEASUREMENT, MONOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS, PHENOLS, PHENYL RADICALS, QUINONES, SOLID STATE PHYSICS, SYNTHESIS.

  10. Breath measurements as volatile organic compound biomarkers.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L; Buckley, T; Pellizzari, E; Gordon, S

    1996-01-01

    A brief review of the uses of breath analysis in studies of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's large-scale Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Studies have measured concentrations of 32 target VOCs in the exhaled breath of about 800 residents of various U.S. cities. Since the previous 12-hr integrated personal air exposures to the same chemicals were also measured, the relation between exposure and body burden is illuminated. Another major use of the breath measurements has been to detect unmeasured pathways of exposure; the major impact of active smoking on exposure to benzene and styrene was detected in this way. Following the earlier field studies, a series of chamber studies have provided estimates of several important physiological parameters. Among these are the fraction, f, of the inhaled chemical that is exhaled under steady-state conditions and the residence times. tau i in several body compartments, which may be associated with the blood (or liver), organs, muscle, and fat. Most of the targeted VOCs appear to have similar residence times of a few minutes, 30 min, several hours, and several days in the respective tissue groups. Knowledge of these parameters can be helpful in estimating body burden from exposure or vice versa and in planning environmental studies, particularly in setting times to monitor breath in studies of the variation with time of body burden. Improvements in breath methods have made it possible to study short-term peak exposure situations such as filling a gas tank or taking a shower in contaminated water. PMID:8933027

  11. Breath measurements as volatile organic compound biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L; Buckley, T; Pellizzari, E; Gordon, S

    1996-10-01

    A brief review of the uses of breath analysis in studies of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's large-scale Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Studies have measured concentrations of 32 target VOCs in the exhaled breath of about 800 residents of various U.S. cities. Since the previous 12-hr integrated personal air exposures to the same chemicals were also measured, the relation between exposure and body burden is illuminated. Another major use of the breath measurements has been to detect unmeasured pathways of exposure; the major impact of active smoking on exposure to benzene and styrene was detected in this way. Following the earlier field studies, a series of chamber studies have provided estimates of several important physiological parameters. Among these are the fraction, f, of the inhaled chemical that is exhaled under steady-state conditions and the residence times. tau i in several body compartments, which may be associated with the blood (or liver), organs, muscle, and fat. Most of the targeted VOCs appear to have similar residence times of a few minutes, 30 min, several hours, and several days in the respective tissue groups. Knowledge of these parameters can be helpful in estimating body burden from exposure or vice versa and in planning environmental studies, particularly in setting times to monitor breath in studies of the variation with time of body burden. Improvements in breath methods have made it possible to study short-term peak exposure situations such as filling a gas tank or taking a shower in contaminated water.

  12. Volatile organic compound remedial action project

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) reviews a proposed project that is planned to reduce the levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants present in the Mound domestic water supply. The potable and industrial process water supply for Mound is presently obtained from a shallow aquifer via on-site production wells. The present levels of VOCs in the water supply drawn from the on-site wells are below the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) permissible for drinking water under Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA; 40 CFR 141); however, Mound has determined that remedial measures should be taken to further reduce the VOC levels. The proposed project action is the reduction of the VOC levels in the water supply using packed tower aeration (PTA). This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and associated Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508) as implemented through U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5440.1D and supporting DOE NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662), as amended (54 FR 12474; 55 FR 37174), and as modified by the Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) 15-90 and associated guidance. As required, this EA provides sufficient information on the probable environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives to support a DOE decision either to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  13. Organic compounds in concrete from demolition works.

    PubMed

    Van Praagh, M; Modin, H; Trygg, J

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to verify the effect of physically removing the outer surface of contaminated concrete on total contents and on potential mobility of pollutants by means of leaching tests. Reclaimed concrete from 3 industrial sites in Sweden were included: A tar impregnated military storage, a military tar track-depot, as well as concrete constructions used for disposing of pesticide production surplus and residues. Solid materials and leachates from batch and column leaching tests were analysed for metals, Cl, F, SO4, DOC and contents of suspected organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH, and pesticides/substances for pesticide production such as phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and chlorocresols, respectively). In case of PAH contaminated concrete, results indicate that removing 1 or 5 mm of the surface lead to total concentrations below the Swedish guidelines for recycling of aggregates and soil in groundwork constructions. 3 out of 4 concrete samples contaminated with pesticides fulfilled Swedish guidelines for contaminated soil. Results from batch and column leaching tests indicated, however, that concentrations above environmental quality standards for certain PAH and phenoxy acids, respectively, might occur at site when the crushed concrete is recycled in groundwork constructions. As leaching tests engaged in the study deviated from leaching test standards with a limited number of samples, the potential impact of the leaching tests' equipment on measured PAH and pesticide leachate concentrations has to be evaluated in future work.

  14. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions by Agricultural Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormeno, E.; Farres, S.; Gentner, D.; Park, J.; McKay, M.; Karlik, J.; Goldstein, A.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) participate in ozone and aerosol formation, and comprise a substantial fraction of reactive VOC emission inventories. In the agriculturally intensive Central Valley of California, emissions from crops may substantially influence regional air quality, but emission potentials have not been extensively studied with advanced instrumentation for many important crops. Because crop emissions may vary according to the species, and California emission inventories are constructed via a bottom-up approach, a better knowledge of the emission rate at the species-specific level is critical for reducing uncertainties in emission inventories and evaluating emission model performance. In the present study we identified and quantified the BVOCs released by dominant agricultural crops in California. A screening study to investigate both volatile and semivolatile BVOC fractions (oxygenated VOCs, isoprene, monoterepenes, sesquiterpenes, etc.) was performed for 25 crop species (at least 3 replicates plants each), including branch enclosures of woody species (e.g. peach, mandarin, grape, pistachio) and whole plant enclosures for herbaceous species (e.g. onion, alfalfa, carrot), through a dynamic cuvette system with detection by PTRMS, in-situ GCMS/FID, and collection on carbon-based adsorbents followed by extraction and GCMS analysis. Emission data obtained in this study will allow inclusion of these crops in BVOC emission inventories and air quality simulations.

  15. Soil amino compound and carbohydrate contents influenced by organic amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino compounds (i. e. amino acids and sugars), and carbohydrates are labile organic components and contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and quality. Animal manure and other organic soil amendments are rich in both amino compounds and carbohydrates, hence organic soil amendments might af...

  16. Method and reaction pathway for selectively oxidizing organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    A method of selectively oxidizing an organic compound in a single vessel comprises: a) combining an organic compound, an acid solution in which the organic compound is soluble, a compound containing two oxygen atoms bonded to one another, and a metal ion reducing agent capable of reducing one of such oxygen atoms, and thereby forming a mixture; b) reducing the compound containing the two oxygen atoms by reducing one of such oxygen atoms with the metal ion reducing agent to, 1) oxidize the metal ion reducing agent to a higher valence state, and 2) produce an oxygen containing intermediate capable of oxidizing the organic compound; c) reacting the oxygen containing intermediate with the organic compound to oxidize the organic compound into an oxidized organic intermediate, the oxidized organic intermediate having an oxidized carbon atom; d) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the acid counter ion and higher valence state metal ion to bond the acid counter ion to the oxidized carbon atom and thereby produce a quantity of an ester incorporating the organic intermediate and acid counter ion; and e) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the higher valence state metal ion and water to produce a quantity of alcohol which is less than the quantity of ester, the acid counter ion incorporated in the ester rendering the carbon atom bonded to the counter ion less reactive with the oxygen containing intermediate in the mixture than is the alcohol with the oxygen containing intermediate.

  17. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  18. Complex Organic and Inorganic Compounds in Shells of Lithium-rich K Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Reza, Ramiro; Drake, Natalia A.; Oliveira, Isa; Rengaswamy, Sridharan

    2015-06-01

    Hydrocarbon organic material, as found in the interstellar medium, exists in complex mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic forms. It is considered to originate from carbon-enriched giant stars during their final stages of evolution, when very strong mass loss occurs in a few thousand years on their way to becoming planetary nebulae. We show here that the same organic compounds appear to be formed in previous stages of the evolution of giant stars, more specifically, during the first-ascending giant branch K-type stars. According to our model, this happens only when these stars are being abruptly enriched with lithium, together with the formation of a circumstellar shell with a strong mass loss during just a few thousand years. This sudden mass loss is, on average, a thousand times larger than that of normal Li-poor K giant stars. This shell would later be detached, especially when the star stops its Li enrichment and a rapid photospheric Li depletion occurs. In order to gain extra carbon-based material to form the organic hydrocarbons, as well as to explain the presence of complex inorganic compounds in these stars, we propose an interaction of these strong winds with the remaining asteroidal/cometary disks that already existed around these stars since they were dwarf A-type stars. The mechanism of interaction presented here is successful in explaining the presence of inorganic compounds however, it is unable to produce new carbon-free atoms to form the organic hydrocarbon compounds. Finally, we discuss some suggestions and speculations that can eventually help solve the long-standing puzzle of Li-rich giants.

  19. COMPLEX ORGANIC AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SHELLS OF LITHIUM-RICH K GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Reza, Ramiro de la; Drake, Natalia A.; Oliveira, Isa

    2015-06-10

    Hydrocarbon organic material, as found in the interstellar medium, exists in complex mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic forms. It is considered to originate from carbon-enriched giant stars during their final stages of evolution, when very strong mass loss occurs in a few thousand years on their way to becoming planetary nebulae. We show here that the same organic compounds appear to be formed in previous stages of the evolution of giant stars, more specifically, during the first-ascending giant branch K-type stars. According to our model, this happens only when these stars are being abruptly enriched with lithium, together with the formation of a circumstellar shell with a strong mass loss during just a few thousand years. This sudden mass loss is, on average, a thousand times larger than that of normal Li-poor K giant stars. This shell would later be detached, especially when the star stops its Li enrichment and a rapid photospheric Li depletion occurs. In order to gain extra carbon-based material to form the organic hydrocarbons, as well as to explain the presence of complex inorganic compounds in these stars, we propose an interaction of these strong winds with the remaining asteroidal/cometary disks that already existed around these stars since they were dwarf A-type stars. The mechanism of interaction presented here is successful in explaining the presence of inorganic compounds; however, it is unable to produce new carbon-free atoms to form the organic hydrocarbon compounds. Finally, we discuss some suggestions and speculations that can eventually help solve the long-standing puzzle of Li-rich giants.

  20. Nitrated Secondary Organic Tracer Compounds in Biomass Burning Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Y.; Böge, O.; Gräfe, R.; Herrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Natural and human-initiated biomass burning releases large amounts of gases and particles into the atmosphere, impacting climate, environment and affecting public health. Several hundreds of compounds are emitted from biomass burning and these compounds largely originate from the pyrolysis of biopolymers such as lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Some of compounds are known to be specific to biomass burning and widely recognized as tracer compounds that can be used to identify the presence of biomass burning PM. Detailed chemical analysis of biomass burning influenced PM samples often reveals the presence compounds that correlated well with levoglucosan, a known biomass burning tracer compound. In particular, nitrated aromatic compounds correlated very well with levoglucosan, indicating that biomass burning as a source for this class of compounds. In the present study, we present evidence for the presence of biomass burning originating secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) compounds in biomass burning influenced ambient PM. These BSOA compounds are typically nitrated aromatic compounds that are produced in the oxidation of precursor compounds in the presence of NOx. The precursor identification was performed from a series of aerosol chamber experiments. m-Cresol, which is emitted from biomass burning at significant levels, is found to be a major precursor compounds for nitrated BSOA compounds found in the ambient PM. We estimate that the total concentrations of these compounds in the ambient PM are comparable to biogenic SOA compounds in winter months, indicating the BSOA contributes important amounts to the regional organic aerosol loading.

  1. [Organisms producing hypolipidemic compounds with antioxidant activity].

    PubMed

    Puzhevskaia, T O; Grammatikova, N E; Bibikova, M V; Katlinskiĭ, A V

    2009-01-01

    Complex compounds produced by fungal cultures of Lecanicilium and Beauveria with both high hypolipidemic and antioxydant activities were screened. Two fractions of the hypolipipidemic compounds with antioxidant activity of 95 and 75% in a dose of 25 mcg/ml were isolated.

  2. Relative Stabilities of Organic Compounds Using Benson's Additivity Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Dale E.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the structure-energy principle can be presented in organic chemistry (without having to resort to quantum mechanics) by use of Benson's Additive Rules. Examples of the application to several major classes of organic compounds are given.

  3. Electrophysical behavior of ion-conductive organic-inorganic polymer system based on aliphatic epoxy resin and salt of lithium perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkovska, Liubov; Iurzhenko, Maksym; Mamunya, Yevgen; Matkovska, Olga; Demchenko, Valeriy; Lebedev, Eugene; Boiteux, Gisele; Serghei, Anatoli

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, ion-conductive hybrid organic-inorganic polymers based on epoxy oligomer of diglycide aliphatic ester of polyethylene glycol (DEG) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) were synthesized. The effect of LiClO4 content on the electrophysical properties of epoxy polymers has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS). The effect of LiClO4 content on the structure has been studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). It was found that LiClO4 impacts on the structure of the synthesized hybrid epoxy polymers, probably, by formation of coordinative complexes {ether oxygen-lithium cations-ether oxygen} as evidenced from a significant increase in their glass transition temperatures with increasing LiClO4 concentration and WAXS studies. The presence of ether oxygen in DEG macromolecules provides a transfer mechanism of the lithium cations with the ether oxygen similar to polyethylene oxide (PEO). Thus, the obtained hybrid polymers have high values of ionic conductivity σ' (approximately 10-3 S/cm) and permittivity ɛ' (6 × 105) at elevated temperatures (200°C). On the other hand, DEG has higher heat resistance compared to PEO that makes these systems perspective as solid polymer electrolytes able to operate at high temperature.

  4. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward

  5. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

  6. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  7. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

  9. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

  10. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  11. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

  12. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or...

  13. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected...

  14. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or...

  15. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  17. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  18. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds....

  19. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected...

  1. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected...

  2. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or...

  3. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or...

  4. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 60.462 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.462 Section 60.462 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Coil Surface Coating § 60.462 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

  7. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  8. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected...

  9. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or...

  10. 40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected...

  11. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  13. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds....

  14. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  15. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60.602 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

  17. 40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Flexible Vinyl and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds....

  19. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  1. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds....

  2. 40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after...

  3. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.722 Section 60.722 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator of any affected facility which is subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Industrial Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or...

  8. 40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.712 Section 60.712 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile organic compounds. Each owner or...

  9. 40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Polymeric Coating of Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds....

  10. A Systematic Presentation of Organic Phosphorus and Sulfur Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, James B.

    1985-01-01

    Because the names, interrelations, and oxidation levels of the organic compounds of phosphorus and sulfur tend to confuse students, a simple way to organize these compounds has been developed. The system consists of grouping them by oxidation state and extent of carbon substitution. (JN)

  11. Environmentally friendly organic synthesis using bismuth(III) compounds.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, Scott W; Mohan, Ram S

    2012-01-01

    With increasing environmental concerns, the need for environmentally friendly organic synthesis has gained increased importance. In this regard, bismuth(III) compounds are especially attractive as "green" reagents and catalysts for organic synthesis. Bismuth(III) compounds are remarkably nontoxic, relatively air and moisture stable, and easy to handle. The contributions from our laboratory in the last 5 years in the field of applications of bismuth(III) compounds as catalysts are presented.

  12. Aliphatic amines in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jungclaus, G.; Cronin, J. R.; Moore, C. B.; Yuen, G. U.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports on the determination of aliphatic amines in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite. The amines were analyzed by gas chromatography both as the free amines and as 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) derivatives. The results give evidence for the presence of all of the possible primary aliphatic monoamines (eight) with fewer than five carbon atoms. Two of the seven possible secondary or tertiary aliphatic monoamines were identified. The identified primary amines total 80 nmol per g meteorite, and seem to be chemically or physically trapped in the meteorite. Similarities between the water-extractable amines and amino acids suggest that (1) a simple carbon compound, methane, for example, is the precursor of meteorite amines and amino acids, and (2) both amines and amino acids are extracted from the meteorite both as such and in the form of acid-hydrolyzable derivative or precursor species.

  13. 2nd dimensional GC-MS analysis of sweat volatile organic compounds prepared by solid phase micro-extraction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of an individual's odor from sweat, breath and skin provide important information for criminal tracking in field of forensic science. Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) was used to determine human sweat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles. The mass spectrometric analysis (with electron impact mode) followed by 2nd dimensional separation with two different GC columns (one polar and one relatively nonpolar) connected in parallel were used to identify the 574 compounds from sweat samples. The components included alcohols, aldehydes, aliphatics/aromatics, carboxylic acids, esters, ketones, and other organic compounds (amides/amines, thio/thioesters, oxide, sulfides, nitro compounds). Of these compounds, 1-tridecanol, 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethyl ethyl)-benzene, 4,4'-(1-methylethylidene) bis-phenol and 7-acetyl-6-ethyl-1,1,4,4,-tetramethyl-tetraline were common components in all donor's sweat volatile samples. Age-related specific compounds were also detected. The results suggest that characteristic volatile profiles of human sweat emanations could provide the valuable information to forensic scientists.

  14. Specific interaction between negative atmospheric ions and organic compounds in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Sakai, Mami; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between negative atmospheric ions and various types of organic compounds were investigated using atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. Atmospheric negative ions such as O(2)(-), HCO(3)(-), COO(-)(COOH), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), and NO(3)(-)(HNO(3)) having different proton affinities served as the reactant ions for analyte ionization in APCDI in negative-ion mode. The individual atmospheric ions specifically ionized aliphatic and aromatic compounds with various functional groups as atmospheric ion adducts and deprotonated analytes. The formation of the atmospheric ion adducts under certain discharge conditions is most likely attributable to the affinity between the analyte and atmospheric ion and the concentration of the atmospheric ion produced under these conditions. The deprotonated analytes, in contrast, were generated from the adducts of the atmospheric ions with higher proton affinity attributable to efficient proton abstraction from the analyte by the atmospheric ion.

  15. Preliminary classification of characteristic organic gunshot residue compounds.

    PubMed

    Goudsmits, Ellen; Sharples, George P; Birkett, Jason W

    2016-12-01

    For the first time, a classification system for organic gunshot residue (OGSR) compounds with respect to the confirmation of OGSR materials is presented. There are 136 compounds considered to be associated with OGSR that have been highlighted in the literature. Many of these compounds could be classified as being ubiquitous in the environment and thus their detection as characteristic components of OGSR could cause issues with the interpretation of chemical ballistic evidence. The proposed system aims to address this problem by classifying OGSR compounds based on their forensic relevance with respect to the confirmation of GSR materials. To increase the forensic relevance of such a system, the large number of OGSR compounds reported in the literature has been decreased to 20 OGSR compounds based on the organic chemical composition of over 200 propellant powders. Occupational and environmental materials also associated with OGSR compounds have been considered.

  16. Phosphatase hydrolysis of organic phosphorus compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphatases are diverse groups of enzymes that deserve special attention because of the significant roles they play in mineralizing organic phosphorus (P) into inorganic available form. For getting more insight on the enzymatically hydrolysis of organic P, in this work, we compared the catalytic pa...

  17. Extended structures and physicochemical properties of uranyl-organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2011-07-19

    The ability of uranium to undergo nuclear fission has been exploited primarily to manufacture nuclear weapons and to generate nuclear power. Outside of its nuclear physics, uranium also exhibits rich chemistry, and it forms various compounds with other elements. Among the uranium-bearing compounds, those with a uranium oxidation state of +6 are most common and a particular structural unit, uranyl UO(2)(2+) is usually involved in these hexavalent uranium compounds. Apart from forming solids with inorganic ions, the uranyl unit also bonds to organic molecules to generate uranyl-organic coordination materials. If appropriate reaction conditions are employed, uranyl-organic extended structures (1-D chains, 2-D layers, and 3-D frameworks) can be obtained. Research on uranyl-organic compounds with extended structures allows for the exploration of their rich structural chemistry, and such studies also point to potential applications such as in materials that could facilitate nuclear waste disposal. In this Account, we describe the structural features of uranyl-organic compounds and efforts to synthesize uranyl-organic compounds with desired structures. We address strategies to construct 3-D uranyl-organic frameworks through rational selection of organic ligands and the incorporation of heteroatoms. The UO(2)(2+) species with inactive U═O double bonds usually form bipyramidal polyhedral structures with ligands coordinated at the equatorial positions, and these polyhedra act as primary building units (PBUs) for the construction of uranyl-organic compounds. The geometry of the uranyl ions and the steric arrangements and functionalities of organic ligands can be exploited in the the design of uranyl--organic extended structures, We also focus on the investigation of the promising physicochemical properties of uranyl-organic compounds. Uranyl-organic materials with an extended structure may exhibit attractive properties, such as photoluminescence, photocatalysis

  18. Fingerprinting aliphatic hydrocarbon pollutants over agricultural lands surrounding Tehran oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Javad; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein; Khoshbakht, Korros; Deihimfard, Reza

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are composed of n-alkanes as well as branched and cyclic alkanes, can be used to distinguish between the sources of hydrocarbon contamination. In this study, the concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons, soil pH, and organic matter in agricultural soils located south of Tehran were monitored. Eighty-three soil samples were taken from two depth ranges of 0-30 and 30-60 cm. The results showed that aliphatic compounds ranged from 0.22-68.11 mg kg(-1) at the top to 0.33-53.18 mg kg(-1) at subsoil. The amount of hydrocarbons increases from the northern parts toward the south, and hydrocarbon pollutants originated from both petroleum and non-petroleum sources. Higher concentrations of aliphatic compounds in the southern parts indicated that, aside from the practice of irrigating with untreated wastewater, leakage from oil refinery storage tanks possibly contributed to soil pollution. The results also showed that several sources have polluted the agricultural soils. It is necessary to develop a new local pollution criterion as a diagnostic index that includes not only hydrocarbons but also other parameters such as heavy metal content in both soil and untreated wastewater, surface runoff, and other irrigation water resources to determine the exact origin of pollution.

  19. Volatile organic compounds and some very volatile organic compounds in new and recently renovated buildings in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothweiler, Heinz; Wäger, Patrick A.; Schlatter, Christian

    Indoor air in new of recently renovated buildings was analysed by using different sorbents and analytical methods. Increased values of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were found on Tenax TA (1.6-31.7 mg m -3). Compared to older buildings, the amount of oxygen-containing compounds (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols) especially was elevated. High hexanal concentrations were measured in a significant amount of the houses. Differences of compound patterns were found from building to building. Complaints about discomfort and negative health effects are expected due to volatile organic compounds (VOC) and very volatile organic compounds (VVOC), as well as from low natural ventilation rates in some newly occupied buildings. Odorous compounds (naphthalene, higher aldehydes and alcohols, capronic acid, etc.) were found mainly, but some irritants and suspected sensitizing agents were also found. At the present state of our investigation chemicals causing other known toxic effects do not seem to increase the toxic risk substantially.

  20. 40 CFR 60.542 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic... Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after...) For each green tire spraying operation where both water-based and organic solvent-based sprays...

  1. 40 CFR 60.542 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic... Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after...) For each green tire spraying operation where both water-based and organic solvent-based sprays...

  2. 40 CFR 60.542 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic... Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after...) For each green tire spraying operation where both water-based and organic solvent-based sprays...

  3. 40 CFR 60.542 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic... Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after...) For each green tire spraying operation where both water-based and organic solvent-based sprays...

  4. 40 CFR 60.542 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic... Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after...) For each green tire spraying operation where both water-based and organic solvent-based sprays...

  5. Influence of season and salinity on the exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs) by Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere. This phenomenon occurs for several purposes, for instance, the detoxification of pollutants. Nevertheless, knowledge about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots is still scarce. This work aimed at studying: 1) the ability of marsh plants, freshly collected in estuarine marshes, to liberate ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium and 2) the influence of the physiological cycle of these plants on the exudation of those substances. In vitro experiments were carried out, in different seasons, with Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides (two marsh plants widely distributed in Europe). Root exudates were collected in freshwater to which plant specimens, in different physiological stages, were exposed. Both marsh plants were capable of liberating oxalic and citric acids into the surrounding medium. Formic acid was also released by P. australis roots and acetic acid by H. portulacoides. There was a seasonal effect on the liberation of ALMWOAs by both plant roots. Marked changes were registered in the nature and levels of the ALMWOAs liberated and such changes depended upon the season in which the specimens were collected. In growing season, a significantly higher liberation of oxalic and citric acids (and acetic acid but only in H. portulacoides case) was observed. For P. australis, formic acid was only found in the decaying stage (autumn and winter). The nature of the medium (in particular, salinity) was a feature conditioning the exudation of ALMWOAs. Both plants were shown to contribute for the presence of ALMWOAs in marsh rhizosediments (some ALMWOAs were found in pore waters extracted). The nature and extent of this contribution will be however dependent upon plants' physiological stage, in addition to plant species. Therefore, these features should be taken into consideration in the event of

  6. Enantiomeric and Isotopic Analysis of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. The Murchison and Murray meteorites contain numerous compounds of interest in the study of early solar system organic chemistry and organic compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. These include: amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, and polyols. This talk will focus on the enantiomeric and isotopic analysis of individual meteoritic compounds - primarily polyol acids. The analyses will determine if, in addition to certain amino acids from Murchison, another potentially important class of prebiotic compounds also contains enantiomeric excesses, i.e., excesses that could have contributed to the current homochirality of life. Preliminary enantiomeric and isotopic (C- 13) measurements of Murchison glyceric acid show that it is indeed extraterrestrial. C-13 and D isotope analysis of meteoritic sugar alcohols (glycerol, threitol, ribitol, etc.) has shown that they are also indigenous to the meteorite.

  7. SYNTHESIZING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TIO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-value organic compounds have been synthesized successfully from linear and cyclic hydrocarbons, by photocatalytic oxidation using a semiconductor material, titanium dioxide (TiO2). Various hydrocarbons were partially oxgenated in both liquid and gaseous phase reactors usi...

  8. ESTIMATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The computer program SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) has been under development for several years to estimate physical properties and chemical reactivity parameters of organic compounds strictly from molecular structure. SPARC uses computational algorithms...

  9. SEPARATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation is gradually becoming an accepted and practical method for the recovery of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous process and waste streams. As the technolog has matured, new applications for pervaporation have emerged. One such application is the separati...

  10. Synthesis of fluorinated organic compounds using oxygen difluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Oxygen difluoride synthesis is a much simpler, higher-yield procedure than reactions originally followed to synthesize various fluorinated organic compounds. Extreme care is taken in working with oxygen difluoride as its reactions present severe explosion hazard.

  11. Uptake of organic sulfur and nitrogen compounds by aerosols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts have been undertaken to monitor and model the uptake of medium-sized organic compounds found above agricultural waste. Field effects performed by our collaborators monitor both the gas phase compounds present in a chicken house in Kentucky; using PILS-IC sampling, the contents of PM2.5 parti...

  12. INDOOR AIR QUALITY DATA BASE FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the compilation of a data base for concentrations of organic compounds measured indoors. ased on a review of the literature from 1979 through 1990, the data base contains information on over 220 compounds ranging in molecular weight from 30 to 446. he ...

  13. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MEASURED IN DEARS PASSIVE SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A suite of 27 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored in personal exposures, indoors and outdoors of participant's residences, and at a central community site during the DEARS summer 2004 monitoring season. The list of VOCs focused on compounds typically associated with ...

  14. Speciation of volatile organic compounds from poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The air consent agreement between EPA and large animal feeding operations (AFO) is designed to determine at what level compounds are being emitted from these facilities. However, the methodology used for quantifying total non-methane hydrocarbons and speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) n...

  15. Predicting the emission of volatile organic compounds from silage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major VOC emission source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols wit...

  16. Molecular and Enantiomeric Analysis of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George

    2003-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in carbon. Much of this carbon is in the form of soluble organic compounds. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorites with respect to organic chemistry. Their content of organic compounds has led to an initial understanding of early solar system organic chemistry as well as what compounds may have played a role in the origin of life (Cronin and Chang, 1993). Reported compounds include: amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, and polyols. This talk will focus on the molecular and enantiomeric analysis of individual meteoritic compounds: polyol acids; and a newly identified class of meteorite compounds, keto acids, i.e., acetoacetic acid, levulinic acid, etc. Keto acids (including pyruvic) are critically important in all contemporary organisms. They are key intermediates in metabolism and processes such as the citric acid cycle. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry we identified individual meteoritic keto acids after derivatization to one or more of the following forms: isopropyl ester (ISP), trimethyIsiIy1 (TMS), tert-butyldimethylsilyl (BDMS). Ongoing analyses will determine if, in addition to certain amino acids from Murchison (Cronin and Pizzarello, 1997), other potentially important prebiotic compounds also contain enantiomeric excesses, i.e., excesses that could have contributed to the current homochirality of life.

  17. Shock Modifications of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.

    1998-01-01

    Impacts among asteroidal objects would have altered or destroyed pre-existing organic matter in both targets and projectiles to a greater or lesser degree depending upon impact velocities. To begin filling a knowledge gap on the shock metamorphism of organic compounds, we are studying the effects of shock impacts on selected classes of organic compounds utilizing laboratory shock facilities. Our approach is to subject mixtures of organic compounds, embedded in the matrix of the Murchison meteorite, to simulated hypervelocity impacts by firing them into targets at various pressures. The mixtures are then analyzed to determine the amount of each compound that survives as well as to determine if new compounds are being synthesized. The initial compounds added to the matrix (with the exception of thiosulfate). The sulfonic acids were chosen in part because they are relatively abundant in Murchison, relatively stable, and because they and the phosphonic acids are the first well-characterized homologous series of organic sulfur and phosphorus compounds identified in an extraterrestrial material. Experimental procedures were more fully described in the original proposal. A 20 mm gun, with its barrel extending into a vacuum chamber (10(exp -2) torr), was used to launch the projectile containing the sample at approx. 1.6 km/sec (3,600 mi/hr) into the target material. Maximum pressure of impact depend on target/projectile materials. The target was sufficiently thin to assure minimum pressure decay over the total sample thickness.

  18. The Venus flytrap attracts insects by the release of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Scheerer, Ursel; Kruse, Jörg; Burzlaff, Tim; Honsel, Anne; Alfarraj, Saleh; Georgiev, Plamen; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Ghirardo, Andrea; Kreuzer, Ines; Hedrich, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-02-01

    Does Dionaea muscipula, the Venus flytrap, use a particular mechanism to attract animal prey? This question was raised by Charles Darwin 140 years ago, but it remains unanswered. This study tested the hypothesis that Dionaea releases volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to allure prey insects. For this purpose, olfactory choice bioassays were performed to elucidate if Dionaea attracts Drosophila melanogaster. The VOCs emitted by the plant were further analysed by GC-MS and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The bioassays documented that Drosophila was strongly attracted by the carnivorous plant. Over 60 VOCs, including terpenes, benzenoids, and aliphatics, were emitted by Dionaea, predominantly in the light. This work further tested whether attraction of animal prey is affected by the nutritional status of the plant. For this purpose, Dionaea plants were fed with insect biomass to improve plant N status. However, although such feeding altered the VOC emission pattern by reducing terpene release, the attraction of Drosophila was not affected. From these results it is concluded that Dionaea attracts insects on the basis of food smell mimicry because the scent released has strong similarity to the bouquet of fruits and plant flowers. Such a volatile blend is emitted to attract insects searching for food to visit the deadly capture organ of the Venus flytrap.

  19. The Venus flytrap attracts insects by the release of volatile organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Honsel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Does Dionaea muscipula, the Venus flytrap, use a particular mechanism to attract animal prey? This question was raised by Charles Darwin 140 years ago, but it remains unanswered. This study tested the hypothesis that Dionaea releases volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to allure prey insects. For this purpose, olfactory choice bioassays were performed to elucidate if Dionaea attracts Drosophila melanogaster. The VOCs emitted by the plant were further analysed by GC-MS and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The bioassays documented that Drosophila was strongly attracted by the carnivorous plant. Over 60 VOCs, including terpenes, benzenoids, and aliphatics, were emitted by Dionaea, predominantly in the light. This work further tested whether attraction of animal prey is affected by the nutritional status of the plant. For this purpose, Dionaea plants were fed with insect biomass to improve plant N status. However, although such feeding altered the VOC emission pattern by reducing terpene release, the attraction of Drosophila was not affected. From these results it is concluded that Dionaea attracts insects on the basis of food smell mimicry because the scent released has strong similarity to the bouquet of fruits and plant flowers. Such a volatile blend is emitted to attract insects searching for food to visit the deadly capture organ of the Venus flytrap. PMID:24420576

  20. Transport, behavior, and fate of volatile organic compounds in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compounds with chemical and physical properties that allow the compounds to move freely between the water and air phases of the environment. VOCs are widespread in the environment because of this mobility. Many VOCs have properties making them suspected or known hazards to the health of humans and aquatic organisms. Consequently, understanding the processes affecting the concentration and distribution VOCs in the environment is necessary. The U.S. Geological Survey selected 55 VOCs for study. This report reviews the characteristics of the various process that could affect the transport, behavior, and fate of these VOCs in streams.

  1. Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

    1994-07-01

    Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

  2. Rejection of trace organic compounds by high-pressure membranes.

    PubMed

    Kim, T U; Amy, G; Drewes, J E

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure membranes, encompassing reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), and low-pressure RO, may provide an effective treatment barrier for trace organic compounds including disinfection by-products (DBPs), pesticides, solvents, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs). The objective is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the rejection of trace organic compounds by high-pressure membranes, based on an integrated framework of compound properties, membrane properties, and operational conditions. Eight trace organic compounds, four DBPs and four chlorinated (halogenated) solvents, are being emphasized during an initial study, based on considerations of compound properties, occurrence, and health effects (regulations). Four polyamide FilmTec membranes; three reverse osmosis/RO (BW-400, LE-440, XLE-440) and one nanofiltration/NF (NF-90); are being characterized according to pure water permeability (PWP), molecular weight cutoff (MWCO), hydrophobicity (contact angle), and surface charge (zeta potential). It is noteworthy that rejections of compounds of intermediate hydrophobicity by the candidate membranes were observed to be less than salt rejections reported for these membranes, suggesting that transport of these solutes through these membranes is facilitated by solute-membrane interactions. We are continuing with diffusion cell measurements to describe solute-membrane interactions by estimation of diffusion coefficients through membranes pores, either hindered or facilitated.

  3. Recent advances in trifluoromethylation of organic compounds using Umemoto's reagents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai

    2014-09-14

    The incorporation of fluorine-containing moieties into organic compounds is of great importance in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and materials science. Within these organofluorides, the trifluoromethyl group is one of the most important motifs. In recent years, the trifluoromethyl group has attracted more and more attention, and many trifluoromethylated compounds have been found to possess special activities. However, until now, only a few methods have been developed to achieve this efficiently using Umemoto's reagents. This review highlights recent developments in the direct introduction of a trifluoromethyl group into organic compounds with Umemoto's reagents. Seven approaches to the trifluoromethylation of organic compounds are summarized: (i) trifluoromethylation of arenes, (ii) trifluoromethylation of alkenes, (iii) trifluoromethylation of terminal alkynes, (iv) deoxygenative trifluoromethylation of benzylic xanthates, (v) trifluoromethylation of ketoesters, (vi) trifluoromethylation of aryl boronic acids and aromatic amines (synthesis of ArCF3) and (vii) trifluoromethylation of biphenyl isocyanide derivatives.

  4. Characterizations of organic compounds in diesel exhaust particulates.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jaehyun; Lim, Cheolsoo; Kim, Sangkyun; Hong, Jihyung

    2015-08-01

    To characterize how the speed and load of a medium-duty diesel engine affected the organic compounds in diesel particle matter (PM) below 1 μm, four driving conditions were examined. At all four driving conditions, concentration of identifiable organic compounds in PM ultrafine (34-94 nm) and accumulation (94-1000 nm) modes ranged from 2.9 to 5.7 μg/m(3) and 9.5 to 16.4 μg/m(3), respectively. As a function of driving conditions, the non-oxygen-containing organics exhibited a reversed concentration trend to the oxygen-containing organics. The identified organic compounds were classified into eleven classes: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, esters, ketones, alcohols, ethers, nitrogen-containing compounds, and sulfur-containing compounds. At all driving conditions, alkane class consistently showed the highest concentration (8.3 to 18.0 μg/m(3)) followed by carboxylic acid, esters, ketones and alcohols. Twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified with a total concentration ranging from 37.9 to 174.8 ng/m(3). In addition, nine nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (NPACs) were identified with a total concentration ranging from 7.0 to 10.3 ng/m(3). The most abundant PAH (phenanthrene) and NPACs (7,8-benzoquinoline and 3-nitrophenanthrene) comprise a similar molecular (3 aromatic-ring) structure under the highest engine speed and engine load.

  5. Predicting crystal structures of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah L

    2014-04-07

    Currently, organic crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods are based on searching for the most thermodynamically stable crystal structure, making various approximations in evaluating the crystal energy. The most stable (global minimum) structure provides a prediction of an experimental crystal structure. However, depending on the specific molecule, there may be other structures which are very close in energy. In this case, the other structures on the crystal energy landscape may be polymorphs, components of static or dynamic disorder in observed structures, or there may be no route to nucleating and growing these structures. A major reason for performing CSP studies is as a complement to solid form screening to see which alternative packings to the known polymorphs are thermodynamically feasible.

  6. Scaffold of Asymmetric Organic Compounds - Magnetite Plaquettes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Martinez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth shows preference towards the set of organics with particular spatial configurations, this 'selectivity' is a crucial criterion for life. With only rare exceptions, life prefers the left- (L-) form over the right- (D-) form of amino acids, resulting in an L-enantiomeric excess (L-ee). Recent studies have shown Lee for alpha-methyl amino acids in some chondrites. Since these amino acids have limited terrestrial occurrence, the origin of their stereoselectivity is nonbiological, and it seems appropriate to conclude that chiral asymmetry, the molecular characteristic that is common to all terrestrial life form, has an abiotic origin. A possible abiotic mechanism that can produce chiral asymmetry in meteoritic amino acids is their formation with the presence of asymmetric catalysts, as mineral crystallization can produce spatially asymmetric structures. Magnetite is shown to be an effective catalyst for the formation of amino acids that are commonly found in chondrites. Magnetite 'plaquettes' (or 'platelets'), first described by Jedwab, show an interesting morphology of barrel-shaped stacks of magnetite disks with an apparent dislocation-induced spiral growth that seem to be connected at the center. A recent study by Singh et al. has shown that magnetites can self-assemble into helical superstructures. Such molecular asymmetry could be inherited by adsorbed organic molecules. In order to understand the distribution of 'spiral' magnetites in different meteorite classes, as well as to investigate their apparent spiral configurations and possible correlation to molecular asymmetry, we observed polished sections of carbonaceous chondrites (CC) using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. The sections were also studied by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in order to reconstruct the crystal orientation along the stack of magnetite disks.

  7. BIOCONCENTRATION FACTORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of air and leaves were taken at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas campus and analyzed for volatile organic compounds using vacuum distillation coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The data were used to estimate the bioconcentration of volatile organic compo...

  8. LOSS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN SOIL: PURE COMPOUND TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comprehensive screening data on the treatability of 32 organic chemicals in soil were developed. Of the evaluated chemicals, 22 were phenolic compounds. Aerobic batch laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted using two soils: an acidic clay soil with <1% organic matter and ...

  9. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND CYCLODEXTRIN-CLAY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational and experimental techniques are combined in order to better understand interactions involving organic compounds and cyclodextrin (CD)-clay systems. CD-clay systems may have great potential in the containment of organic contaminants in the environment. This study w...

  10. Students' Understanding of Molecular Structure and Properties of Organic Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    The purpose of this study was to investigate senior high school students' difficulties predicting the existence of hydrogen bridge bonds between organic molecules, investigate students' difficulties predicting the relative boiling points of simple organic compounds, and develop test questions that enable teachers to quickly get information about…

  11. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  12. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  13. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  14. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic...

  15. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  16. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic...

  17. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic...

  18. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic...

  19. 40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Graphic Arts Industry: Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic...

  20. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  1. Leveraging the beneficial compounds of organic and pasture milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much discussion has arisen over the possible benefits of organic food, including milk. Organic milk comes from cows that are on pasture during the growing season, and would be expected to contain some compounds that are not found in animals receiving conventional feed, or at higher concentrations. ...

  2. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and organic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. Peat samples originated from two wildlife reserves located near the coast of North Carolina, U.S. Gas and particula...

  3. Can volatile organic compounds be markers of sea salt?

    PubMed

    Silva, Isabel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Barros, António S; Marriott, Philip J; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2015-02-15

    Sea salt is a handmade food product that is obtained by evaporation of seawater in saltpans. During the crystallisation process, organic compounds from surroundings can be incorporated into sea salt crystals. The aim of this study is to search for potential volatile markers of sea salt. Thus, sea salts from seven north-east Atlantic Ocean locations (France, Portugal, Continental Spain, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde) were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 165 compounds were detected, ranging from 32 to 71 compounds per salt. The volatile composition revealed the variability and individuality of each salt, and a set of ten compounds were detected in all samples. From these, seven are carotenoid-derived compounds that can be associated with the typical natural surroundings of ocean hypersaline environment. These ten compounds are proposed as potential volatile markers of sea salt.

  4. Fungal succession in relation to volatile organic compounds emissions from Scots pine and Norway spruce leaf litter-decomposing fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidorov, Valery; Tyszkiewicz, Zofia; Pirożnikow, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Leaf litter fungi are partly responsible for decomposition of dead material, nutrient mobilization and gas fluxes in forest ecosystems. It can be assumed that microbial destruction of dead plant materials is an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into the atmosphere from terrestrial ecosystems. However, little information is available on both the composition of fungal VOCs and their producers whose community can be changed at different stages of litter decomposition. The fungal community succession was investigated in a litter bag experiment with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle litter. The succession process can be divided into a several stages controlled mostly by changes in litter quality. At the very first stages of decomposition the needle litter was colonized by ascomycetes which can use readily available carbohydrates. At the later stages, the predominance of Trichoderma sp., the known producers of cellulolytic enzymes, was documented. To investigate the fungi-derived VOCs, eight fungi species were isolated. As a result of gas chromatographic analyses, as many as 75C2sbnd C15 fungal volatile compounds were identified. Most components detected in emissions were very reactive substances: the principal groups of VOCs were formed by monoterpenes, carbonyl compounds and aliphatic alcohols. It was found that production of VOCs by fungi is species specific: only 10 metabolites were emitted into the gas phase by all eight species. The reported data confirm that the leave litter decomposition is important source of reactive organic compounds under the forest canopy.

  5. The anthropogenic contribution to the organic load of the Lippe River (Germany). Part I: Qualitative characterisation of low-molecular weight organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Kronimus, Alexander; Littke, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    GC/MS-screening analyses of water samples from the Lippe River, Germany, revealed the presence of a wide spectrum of low-molecular weight organic compounds ranging from non-polar constituents like aliphatic hydrocarbons to polar constituents like n-carboxylic acids and phenols. Most of the identified compounds could be attributed to anthropogenic input and are used as plasticizers, flame retardants, pharmaceutical drugs or fragrances. Some of them had rarely been noticed as organic pollutants of aquatic environments before. These are, among others, 9-methylacridine, the plasticizer 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentandioldiisobutyrate (TXIB), the surfactant 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD), triphenylphosphinoxide and the flame retardant tris(chloropropyl)phosphate. On the other hand, most of the identified trialkyl phosphates, pharmaceutical drugs and synthetic fragrances have been reported in surface waters by several authors so far. Input pathways of the detected compounds were traced back by sampling various input sources of organic matter such as discharges of wastewater and Lippe River tributaries. Several contaminants were ubiquitous in Lippe River water and also occurred in sewage effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant and in samples from the tributaries. This observation suggests that they are typical sewage derived contaminants and have the potential to be used as anthropogenic molecular markers.

  6. ACE: Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds from Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.; Allen, Nicholas D. C.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections for ethane, propane (both in the 3 μm region) and acetone (in the 3 μm and 5-8 μm regions) have been determined from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125/HR). Data are presented for mixtures with dry synthetic air at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD using the Bruker definition of resolution), at a number of temperatures and pressures appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. Methane measurements are currently being performed in the 3 μm region in order to retrieve line mixing parameters, which will be used in an improved ACE forward model to minimize CH4 residuals in the retrievals of organic species. Preliminary retrievals of acetone from ACE spectra using a microwindow from 1364.7 to 1367.1 cm-1 have been performed.

  7. Syntheses, Spectral Characterization, and Antimicrobial Studies on the Coordination Compounds of Metal Ions with Schiff Base Containing Both Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrazide Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chadda, Silky; Sharma, Jyoti; Surain, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    An EtOH solution of 3-ketobutanehydrazide and salicylhydrazide on refluxing in equimolar ratio forms the corresponding Schiff base, LH3 (1). The latter reacts with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Zr(OH)2(IV), MoO2(VI), and UO2(VI) ions in equimolar ratio and forms the corresponding coordination compounds, [M(LH)(MeOH)3] (2, M = Mn, Co, Ni), [Cu(LH)]2 (3), [M′(LH)(MeOH)] (4, M′ = Zn, Cd), [Zr(OH)2(LH)(MeOH)2] (5), [MoO2(LH)(MeOH)] (6), and [UO2(LH)(MeOH)] (7). The coordination compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductance, spectral (IR, reflectance, 1H NMR, ESR) studies, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. They are nonelectrolytes in DMSO. The coordination compounds, except 3, are monomers in diphenyl. They are active against gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, B. subtilis), gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa), and yeast (S. cerevisiae, C. albicans). 1 acts as a dibasic tridentate ONO donor ligand in 2–7 coordinating through its both enolic O and azomethine N atoms. The coordination compounds 2 and 3 are paramagnetic, while rest of the compounds are diamagnetic. A square-planar structure to 3, a tetrahedral structure to 4, an octahedral structure to 2, 6, and 7, and a pentagonal bipyramidal structure to 5 are proposed. PMID:24198736

  8. Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds. I. Direct measurements in breathing-zone air, drinking water, food, and exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A.; Pellizzari, E.; Hartwell, T.; Rosenzweig, M.; Erickson, M.; Sparacino, C.; Zelon, H.

    1984-10-01

    A pilot study to test methods of estimating personal exposures to toxic substances and corresponding body burdens was carried out between July and December 1980. Individual exposures to about a dozen volatile organic compounds in air and drinking water were measured for volunteers in New Jersey and North Carolina. Breath samples were also collected from all subjects. About 230 personal air samples, 170 drinking water samples, 66 breath samples, and 4 food samples (16 composites) were analyzed for the target chemicals. Ten compounds were present in air and eight were transmitted mainly through that medium. Chloroform and bromodichloromethane were predominantly transmitted through water and beverages. Food appeared to be a miner route of exposure, except possibly for trichloroethylene in margarine. Seven compounds were present in more than half of the breath samples. Diurnal and seasonal variations were noted in air and water concentrations of some compounds. Some, but not all, of the potentially occupationally exposed individuals had significantly higher workplace exposures to several chemicals. Distributions of air exposures were closer to log normal than normal for most chemicals. Several chemicals were highly correlated with each other in personal air samples, indicating possible common sources of exposures. Compounds detected included benzene, chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogens and vinyl chloride.

  9. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  10. Use of Bromine and Bromo-Organic Compounds in Organic Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Indranirekha; Borah, Arun Jyoti; Phukan, Prodeep

    2016-06-22

    Bromination is one of the most important transformations in organic synthesis and can be carried out using bromine and many other bromo compounds. Use of molecular bromine in organic synthesis is well-known. However, due to the hazardous nature of bromine, enormous growth has been witnessed in the past several decades for the development of solid bromine carriers. This review outlines the use of bromine and different bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis. The applications of bromine, a total of 107 bromo-organic compounds, 11 other brominating agents, and a few natural bromine sources were incorporated. The scope of these reagents for various organic transformations such as bromination, cohalogenation, oxidation, cyclization, ring-opening reactions, substitution, rearrangement, hydrolysis, catalysis, etc. has been described briefly to highlight important aspects of the bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis.

  11. Composition and major sources of organic compounds of aerosol particulate matter sampled during the ACE-Asia campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Kobayashi, Minoru; Mochida, Michihiro; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Meehye; Lim, Ho-Jin; Turpin, Barbara J.; Komazaki, Yuichi

    2004-10-01

    The organic compound tracers of atmospheric particulate matter, as well as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), have been characterized for samples acquired during the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) from Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, from Sapporo, Japan, and from Chichi-jima Island in the western North Pacific, as well as on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration R/V Ronald H. Brown. Total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine both polar and aliphatic compounds. Total particles, organic matter, and lipid and saccharide compounds were high during the Asian dust episode (early April 2001) compared to levels at other times. The organic matter can be apportioned to seven emission sources and to significant oxidation-producing secondary products during long-range transport. Terrestrial natural background compounds are vascular plant wax lipids derived from direct emission and as part of desert sand dust. Fossil fuel utilization is obvious and derives from petroleum product and coal combustion emissions. Saccharides are a major polar (water-soluble) carbonaceous fraction derived from soil resuspension (agricultural activities). Biomass-burning smoke is evident in all samples and seasons. It contributes up to 13% of the total compound mass as water-soluble constituents. Burning of refuse is another source of organic particles. Varying levels of marine-derived lipids are superimposed during aerosol transport over the ocean. Secondary oxidation products increase with increasing transport distance and time. The ACE-Asia aerosols are composed not only of desert dust but also of soil dust, smoke from biomass and refuse burning, and emissions from fossil fuel use in urban areas.

  12. Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Everaert, K; Baeyens, J

    2004-06-18

    Despite the success of adsorption and thermal incineration of (C)VOC emissions, there is still a need for research on techniques which are both economically more favorable and actually destroy the pollutants rather than merely remove them for recycling elsewhere in the biosphere. The catalytic destruction of (C)VOC to CO2, H2O and HCl/Cl2 appears very promising in this context and is the subject of the present paper. The experiments mainly investigate the catalytic combustion of eight target compounds, all of which are commonly encountered in (C)VOC emissions and/or act as precursors for the formation of PCDD/F. Available literature on the different catalysts active in the oxidation of (C)VOC is reviewed and the transition metal oxide complex V2O5-WO3/TiO2 appears most suitable for the current application. Different reactor geometries (e.g. fixed pellet beds, honeycombs, etc.) are also described. In this research a novel catalyst type is introduced, consisting of a V2O5-WO3/TiO2 coated metal fiber fleece. The conversion of (C)VOC by thermo-catalytic reactions is governed by both reaction kinetics and reaction equilibrium. Full conversion of all investigated VOC to CO2, Cl2, HCl and H2O is thermodynamically feasible within the range of experimental conditions used in this work (260-340 degrees C, feed concentrations 30-60 ppm). A first-order rate equation is proposed for the (C)VOC oxidation reactions. The apparent rate constant is a combination of reaction kinetics and mass transfer effects. The oxidation efficiencies were measured with various (C)VOC in the temperature range of 260-340 degrees C. Literature data for oxidation reactions in fixed beds and honeycomb reactors are included in the assessment. Mass transfer resistances are calculated and are generally negligible for fleece reactors and fixed pellet beds, but can be of importance for honeycomb monoliths. The experimental investigations demonstrate: (i) that the conversion of the hydrocarbons is

  13. Composition and major sources of organic compounds in urban aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xinhui; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Sheng, Guoying; Ma, Shexia; Fu, Jiamo

    Total suspended particles (TSP), collected during June 2002 to July 2003 in Guangzhou, a typical economically developed city in South China, were analyzed for the organic compound compositions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Over 140 organic compounds were detected in the aerosols and grouped into different classes including n-alkanes, hopanoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanols, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids excluding oxalic acid, polyols/polyacids, lignin products, phytosterols, phthalates and water-soluble sugars. The total amounts of the identified organic compounds including unresolved complex mixture (UCM) ranged from 3112 ng/m 3 in spring to 5116 ng/m 3 in winter, comprising on seasonal average 2.8% of TSP. Primary organic compounds peaked in winter although there are no heating systems burning fuels in Guangzhou. The highest saccharide levels occurred in fall due to agricultural activities. This study demonstrated that utilization of fossil fuels, biomass burning, soil resuspension and plastic/refuse burning are the major contributors to the identified organic compounds in the urban atmosphere of South China.

  14. Topological research on diamagnetic susceptibilities of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Mu, Lailong; Feng, Changjun; He, Hongmei

    2008-02-01

    A novel molecular connectivity index, (m)chi('), based on the adjacency matrix of molecular graphs and novel atomic valence connectivities, delta(i)(') for predicting the molar diamagnetic susceptibilities of organic compounds is proposed. The delta(i)(') is defined as: delta(i)(') = delta(i)(nu) x Ei=12:625, where delta(i)(nu) and E(i) are the atomic valence connectivity and the valence orbital energy of atom i, respectively. A good QSPR model for molar diamagnetic susceptibilities can be constructed from (0)chi('), (1)chi('), (2)chi(') and (4)chi(p)(') using multivariate linear regression (MLR). The correlation coefficient r, standard error, and average absolute deviation of the MLR model are 0.9918, 5.56 cgs, and 4.26 cgs, respectively, for the 721 organic compounds tested (training set). Cross-validation using the leave-one-out method demonstrates that the MLR model is highly reliable statistically. Using the MLR model, the average absolute deviations of the predicted values of molar diamagnetic susceptibility of another 360 organic compounds (test set) is 4.34 cgs. The results show that the current method is more effective than literature methods for estimating the molar diamagnetic susceptibility of an organic compound. The MLR method thus provides an acceptable model for the prediction of molar diamagnetic susceptibilities of organic compounds.

  15. Well-purging criteria for sampling purgeable organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    The results indicate that 1) purgeable organic compound concentrations stabilized when three casing volume were purged in only 55% of the cases evaluated in this study, 2) purgeable organic compounds concentrations did not consistently follow the temporal variation of, nor stabilize at the same time as, the measure field characteristics, and 3) purging to achieve hydraulic equilibrium between casing and aquifer water consistently underestimated the time and casing volumes needed to achieve stable values of water-quality measurements in highly transmissive aquifers. The conclusion from these data is that none of the previously recommended criteria for purging a well can be applied reliably to collecting a "representative' sample of purgeable organic compounds. These results indicate that the criteria for purging a well prior to sampling for purgeable organic compounds must take into account other factors, such as the unique hydrogeologic characteristics of a site, the nature and extent of purgeable organic compounds present, and areal extent of the contamination, the well construction, and the sampling objectives of the investigation. -from Authors

  16. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  17. Volatile organic compounds in Gulf of Mexico sediments

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC), concentrations and compositions were documented for estuarine, coastal, shelf, slope, and deep water sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. VOC were measured (detection limit >0.01 ppb) using a closed-loop stripping apparatus with gas chromatography (GC) and flame ionization, flame photometric, and mass spectrometric detectors. The five primary sources of Gulf of Mexico sediment VOC are: (1) planktonic and benthic fauna and flora; (2) terrestrial material from riverine and atmospheric deposition; (3) anthropogenic inputs: (4) upward migration of hydrocarbons; and (5) transport by bottom currents or slumping. Detected organo-sulfur compounds include alkylated sulfides, thiophene, alkylated thiophenes, and benzothiophenes. Benzothiophenes are petroleum related. Low molecular weight organo-sulfur compounds result from the biological oxidation of organic matter. A lack of organosulfur compounds in the reducing environment of the Orca Basin may result from a lack of free sulfides which are necessary for their production.

  18. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Ingrid J.; Black, Robert R.; Geron, Chris D.; Aurell, Johanna; Hays, Michael D.; Preston, William T.; Gullett, Brian K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, volatile and semi-volatile organic compound (VOCs and SVOCs) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. The peat samples originated from two National Wildlife Refuges on the coastal plain of North Carolina, U.S.A. Gas- and particle-phase organic compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by high pressure liquid chromatography. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) accounted for a large fraction (∼60%) of the speciated VOC emissions from peat burning, including large contributions of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and chloromethane. In the fine particle mass (PM2.5), the following organic compound classes were dominant: organic acids, levoglucosan, n-alkanes, and n-alkenes. Emission factors for the organic acids in PM2.5 including n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanedioic acids, and aromatic acids were reported for the first time for peat burning, representing the largest fraction of organic carbon (OC) mass (11-12%) of all speciated compound classes measured in this work. Levoglucosan contributed to 2-3% of the OC mass, while methoxyphenols represented 0.2-0.3% of the OC mass on a carbon mass basis. Retene was the most abundant particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Total HAP VOC and particulate PAH emissions from a 2008 peat wildfire in North Carolina were estimated, suggesting that peat fires can contribute a large fraction of state-wide HAP emissions.

  19. GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE PRESENCE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil columns were investigated. Three compounds (naphthalene, phenanthrene and DDT) that spanned three orders of magnitude in water solubility were used. Instead of humic matter, mo...

  20. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1987-01-01

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  1. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  2. Simplified Production of Organic Compounds Containing High Enantiomer Excesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for making an enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses including the steps of a) providing an aqueous solution including an initial reactant and a catalyst; and b) subjecting said aqueous solution simultaneously to a magnetic field and photolysis radiation such that said photolysis radiation produces light rays that run substantially parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field passing through said aqueous solution, wherein said catalyst reacts with said initial reactant to form the enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses.

  3. Matrix effect on the performance of headspace solid phase microextraction method for the analysis of target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Higashikawa, Fábio S; Cayuela, Maria Luz; Roig, Asunción; Silva, Carlos A; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2013-11-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is a fast, cheap and solvent free methodology widely used for environmental analysis. A SPME methodology has been optimized for the analysis of VOCs in a range of matrices covering different soils of varying textures, organic matrices from manures and composts from different origins, and biochars. The performance of the technique was compared for the different matrices spiked with a multicomponent VOC mixture, selected to cover different VOC groups of environmental relevance (ketone, terpene, alcohol, aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkylbenzenes). VOC recovery was dependent on the nature itself of the VOC and the matrix characteristics. The SPME analysis of non-polar compounds, such as alkylbenzenes, terpenes and aliphatic hydrocarbons, was markedly affected by the type of matrix as a consequence of the competition for the adsorption sites in the SPME fiber. These non-polar compounds were strongly retained in the biochar surfaces limiting the use of SPME for this type of matrices. However, this adsorption capacity was not evident when biochar had undergone a weathering/aging process through composting. Polar compounds (alcohol and ketone) showed a similar behavior in all matrices, as a consequence of the hydrophilic characteristics, affected by water content in the matrix. SPME showed a good performance for soils and organic matrices especially for non-polar compounds, achieving a limit of detection (LD) and limit of quantification (LQ) of 0.02 and 0.03 ng g(-1) for non-polar compounds and poor extraction for more hydrophilic and polar compounds (LD and LQ higher 310 and 490 ng g(-1)). The characteristics of the matrix, especially pH and organic matter, had a marked impact on SPME, due to the competition of the analytes for active sites in the fiber, but VOC biodegradation should not be discarded in matrices with active microbial biomass.

  4. Measurements of bromine containing organic compounds at the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauffler, S. M.; Atlas, E. L.; Flocke, F.; Lueb, R. A.; Stroud, V.; Travnicek, W.

    The amount of bromine entering the stratosphere from organic source gases is a primary factor involved in determining the magnitude of bromine catalyzed loss of ozone. Thirty two whole air samples were collected at the tropical tropopause during the NASA STRAT Campaign in Feb., Aug., and Dec., 1996 and were analyzed for brominated organic compounds. Total organic bromine was 17.4±0.9 ppt with 55% from methyl bromide, 38% from the Halons, 6% from dibromomethane, and 0.8% from bromochloromethane and dichlorobromomethane. One flight showed the presence of 0.42 ppt of additional organic bromine from bromoform and dibromochloromethane.

  5. Detection of Organic Compounds with Whole-Cell Bioluminescent Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan; Smartt, Abby; Ripp, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Natural and manmade organic chemicals are widely deposited across a diverse range of ecosystems including air, surface water, groundwater, wastewater, soil, sediment, and marine environments. Some organic compounds, despite their industrial values, are toxic to living organisms and pose significant health risks to humans and wildlife. Detection and monitoring of these organic pollutants in environmental matrices therefore is of great interest and need for remediation and health risk assessment. Although these detections have traditionally been performed using analytical chemical approaches that offer highly sensitive and specific identification of target compounds, these methods require specialized equipment and trained operators, and fail to describe potential bioavailable effects on living organisms. Alternatively, the integration of bioluminescent systems into whole-cell bioreporters presents a new capacity for organic compound detection. These bioreporters are constructed by incorporating reporter genes into catabolic or signaling pathways that are present within living cells and emit a bioluminescent signal that can be detected upon exposure to target chemicals. Although relatively less specific compared to analytical methods, bioluminescent bioassays are more cost-effective, more rapid, can be scaled to higher throughput, and can be designed to report not only the presence but also the bioavailability of target substances. This chapter reviews available bacterial and eukaryotic whole-cell bioreporters for sensing organic pollutants and their applications in a variety of sample matrices. PMID:25084996

  6. Removal of organic pollutants by surfactant modified zeolite: comparison between ionizable phenolic compounds and non-ionizable organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Meng, Wenna; Wu, Deyi; Zhang, Zhenjia; Kong, Hainan

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the adsorption capability and mechanism of hexadecyltrimethylammonium modified zeolite, which was synthesized from coal fly ash, for the removal of ionizable phenolic compounds (phenol, p-chlorophenol and bisphenol A, with different pK(a)) and non-ionizable organic compounds (aniline, nitrobenzene, and naphthalene, with different hydrophobicity). The obtained zeolite was identified as type Na-P1 (Na(6)Al(6)Si(10)O(32)·12H(2)O, JCPDS code 39-0219), which is classified into the gismondine group with a pore size of 3.1 Å × 4.5 Å [100] and 2.8 Å × 4.8 Å [101]. The adsorption of the two kinds of organic compounds was due to loaded surfactant bilayer because modified zeolite showed great ability for the removal of organic chemicals while little adsorption by zeolite was observed. The isotherm data of ionizable compounds fitted well to the Langmuir model but those of non-ionizable chemicals followed a linear equation. Uptake of ionizable compounds depended greatly on pH, increasing at alkaline pH conditions. In contrary, adsorption of non-ionizable chemicals was essentially the same at all pH levels studied. The adsorption of both kinds of organic compounds correlated well to k(ow) value, suggesting that more hydrophobic organic contaminants are more easily retained by modified zeolite. Based on the different adsorption behavior, the uptake of non-ionizable pollutants was thought to be a single partitioning process into the surfactant bilayer. For ionizable compounds, however, interaction of the phenol group(s) with the positively charged "head" of surfactant additionally functions.

  7. Chemical reactions of organic compounds on clay surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Y; Soma, M

    1989-01-01

    Chemical reactions of organic compounds including pesticides at the interlayer and exterior surfaces of clay minerals and with soil organic matter are reviewed. Representative reactions under moderate conditions possibly occurring in natural soils are described. Attempts have been made to clarify the importance of the chemical nature of molecules, their structures and their functional groups, and the Brönsted or Lewis acidity of clay minerals. PMID:2533556

  8. The photostabililty of prebiotic organic compounds on cometary dusts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiagh, K.; Aleian, A.; Fray, N.; Cloix, M.; Cottin, H.

    2013-09-01

    A new methodology for measuring the photostability of organic compounds in extraterrestrial environments will be presented. It is based on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and "classical" laboratory photolysis experiments, as well as on quantitative measurements of the VUV/UV ( < 300 nm) absorption cross section spectra. We will discuss the complementarily and limits of each approach, and discuss the astrobiological relevance of such studies in the frame of the importation of organic matter to Earth via micrometeorites.

  9. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13)C and (1)H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment.

  10. Key volatile organic compounds emitted from swine nursery house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H. Q.; Choi, H. L.; Zhu, K.; Lee, J. H.

    2011-05-01

    This study was carried out to quantify the concentration and emission levels of key volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - sulfides, indolics, phenolics and volatile fatty acids (VFA) - emitted from swine nursery house, and assess the effect of microclimate (including temperature, relative humidity and air speed) on the key odorous compounds. Samples were collected from the Experimental Farm of Seoul National University in Suwon, South Korea. And the collection took place for four seasons and the sampling time was fixed at 10:30 in the morning. The application of one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni t analyses revealed that, most of the odorous compound concentrations, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), indole, p-cresol and all the volatile fatty acids were lowest during the summer ( P < 0.01). Meanwhile, negative correlations were observed between temperature and odorants, as well as air speed and odorants. A possible reason was that high ventilation transferred most of the odors out of the house during the summer. From the whole year data, non-linear multiple regressions were conducted and the equations were proposed depending upon the relationships between microclimate parameters and odorous compounds. The equations were applied in hope of easily calculating the concentrations of the odorous compounds in the commercial farms. The results obtained in this study should be used for reducing the volatile organic compounds by controlling microclimate parameters and also could be helpful in setting a guideline for good management practices in nursery house.

  11. Analysis of Organic Compounds in Mars Analog Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Demick, J.; Glavin, D. P.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of organic compounds that might be preserved in rocks, ices, or sedimentary layers on Mars would be a significant step toward resolving the question of the habitability and potential for life on that planet. The fact that the Viking gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) did not detect organic compounds should not discourage further investigations since (a) an oxidizing environment in the near surface fines analyzed by Viking is likely to have destroyed many reduced carbon species; (b) there are classes of refractory or partially oxidized species such as carboxylic acids that would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS; and (c) the Viking landing sites are not representative of Mars overall. These factors motivate the development of advanced in situ analytical protocols to carry out a comprehensive survey of organic compounds in martian regolith, ices, and rocks. We combine pyrolysis GCMS for analysis of volatile species, chemical derivatization for transformation of less volatile organics, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) for analysis of elements and more refractory, higher-mass organics. To evaluate this approach and enable a comparison with other measurement techniques we analyze organics in Mars simulant samples.

  12. Global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Piccot, S.D.; Watson, J.J.; Jones, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. It includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds. These classes represent general classes of VOC compounds that possess different chemical reactivities in the atmosphere. The inventory shows total global anthropogenic VOC emissions of about 110,000 Gg/yr, about 10% lower than global VOC inventories developed by other researchers. The study identifies the U.S. as the largest emitter (21% of the total global VOC), followed by the USSR, China, India, and Japan. Globally, fuel wood combustion and savanna burning were among the largest VOC emission sources, accounting for over 35% of the total global VOC emissions. The production and use of gasoline, refuse disposal activities, and organic chemical and rubber manufacturing were also found to be significant sources of global VOC emissions.

  13. Biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Earth system.

    PubMed

    Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Taylor, Jane E; Paul, Nigel D; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds produced by plants are involved in plant growth, development, reproduction and defence. They also function as communication media within plant communities, between plants and between plants and insects. Because of the high chemical reactivity of many of these compounds, coupled with their large mass emission rates from vegetation into the atmosphere, they have significant effects on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Hence, biogenic volatile organic compounds mediate the relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Alteration of this relationship by anthropogenically driven changes to the environment, including global climate change, may perturb these interactions and may lead to adverse and hard-to-predict consequences for the Earth system.

  14. Influence of volatile organic compounds on Fusarium graminearum mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in a diverse range of ecological interactions. Due to their low molecular weight, lipophilic nature, and high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures, they can serve as airborne signaling molecules that are capable of mediating inter and intraspecies com...

  15. Volatile organic compound emissions from dairy facilities in central California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dairy facilities are thought to be an important contributor to high ozone levels in central California, but emissions inventories from these sources contain significant uncertainties. In this work, VOC emissions were measured at two central Califor...

  16. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photochemical smog is a major air pollution problem and a significant cause of premature death in the U.S. Smog forms in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are emitted primarily from industry and motor vehicles in the U.S. However, dairy farms may be an important source in so...

  17. LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

  18. Adsorption of Compounds that Mimic Urban Stormwater Dissolved Organic Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mehrdad; James, Bruce R; Davis, Allen P

    2017-02-01

      Stormwater runoff carrying nitrogen can accelerate eutrophication. Bioretention facilities are among low impact development systems which are commonly used to manage urban stormwater quality and quantity. They are, however, not designed to remove dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and may become a net DON exporter. Adsorption of seven organic nitrogenous compounds onto several adsorbents was examined. Batch adsorption study revealed that coal activated carbon (AC) exhibited the best performance in adsorption of the selected organic nitrogenous compounds. The highest adsorption capacity of coal AC was 0.4 mg N/g for pyrrole at an equilibrium concentration of 0.02 mg N/L, while adsorption was not detectable for urea at the same equilibrium concentration. The fastest compound to reach equilibrium adsorption capacity onto the coal AC was pyrrole (1 hour). The adsorption capacity of the coal AC for pyrrole and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and 1-hour contact time is recommended for designing bioretention systems targeting organic nitrogenous compounds.

  19. Volatile organic compounds of whole grain soft winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aroma from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an indicator of grain soundness and also an important quality attribute of grain foods. To identify the inherent VOCs of wheat grain unaffected by fungal infestation and other extrinsic factors, grains of nine soft wheat varieties were collected at...

  20. Measuring Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are considered to be important precursors to smog and ozone production. An experimental protocol was developed to obtain undisturbed silage samples from silage storages. Samples were placed in a wind tunnel where temperature, humidity, and air flow were cont...

  1. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), necessary reactants for photochemical smog formation, are emitted from numerous sources. Limited available data suggest that dairy farms emit VOCs with cattle feed, primarily silage, being the primary source. Process-based models of VOC transfer within and from si...

  2. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile...

  3. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile...

  4. Instrument for Analysis of Organic Compounds on Other Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daulton, Riley M.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the Instrument for Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Extraterrestrial Bodies using In Situ Resources (ISEE). Specifically, ISEE will extract and characterize organic compounds from regolith which is found on the surface of other planets or asteroids. The techniques this instrument will use are supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). ISEE aligns with NASA's goal to expand the frontiers of knowledge, capability, and opportunities in space in addition to supporting NASA's aim to search for life elsewhere by characterizing organic compounds. The outcome of this project will be conceptual designs of 2 components of the ISEE instrument as well as the completion of proof-of-concept extraction experiments to demonstrate the capabilities of SFE. The first conceptual design is a pressure vessel to be used for the extraction of the organic compounds from the regolith. This includes a comparison of different materials, geometry's, and a proposition of how to insert the regolith into the vessel. The second conceptual design identifies commercially available fluid pumps based on the requirements needed to generate supercritical CO2. The proof-of-concept extraction results show the percent mass lost during standard solvent extractions of regolith with organic compounds. This data will be compared to SFE results to demonstrate the capabilities of ISEE's approach.

  5. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile...

  6. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile...

  7. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile...

  8. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs ca...

  9. MEASUREMENT OF ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS USING SMALL TEST CHAMBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic compounds emitted from a variety of indoor materials have been measured using small (166 L) environmental test chambers. The paper discusses: a) factors to be considered in small chamber testing; b) parameters to be controlled; c) the types of results obtained. The follow...

  10. MICROBIAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES AND EXPOSURE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the results from a study that examined microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions from six fungi and one bacterial species (Streptomyces spp.) commonly found in indoor environments. Data are presented on peak emission rates from inoculated agar plate...

  11. The Survival of Meteorite Organic Compounds with Increasing Impact Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George; Horz, Friedrich; Oleary, Alanna; Chang, Sherwood; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The majority of carbonaceous meteorites studied today are thought to originate in the asteroid belt. Impacts among asteroidal objects generate heat and pressure that may have altered or destroyed pre-existing organic matter in both targets and projectiles to a greater or lesser degree depending upon impact velocities. Very little is known about the shock related chemical evolution of organic matter relevant to this stage of the cosmic history of biogenic elements and compounds. The present work continues our study of the effects of shock impacts on selected classes of organic compounds utilizing laboratory shock facilities. Our approach was to subject mixtures of organic compounds, embedded in a matrix of the Murchison meteorite, to a simulated hypervelocity impact. The molecular compositions of products were then analyzed to determine the degree of survival of the original compounds. Insofar as results associated with velocities < 8 km/sec may be relevant to impacts on planetary surfaces (e.g., oblique impacts, impacts on small outer planet satellites) or grain-grain collisions in the interstellar medium, then our experiments will be applicable to these environments as well.

  12. [Binding of Volatile Organic Compounds to Edible Biopolymers].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Medvedeva, I B

    2016-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatography was used to study the influence of the composition and structure of different edible polymers (polysaccharides, vegetable fibers, and animal protein gelatin) on the binding of essential oil components. The retention of volatile organic compounds on biopolymers was shown to depend on their molecule structure and the presence, type, and position of a functional group. The maximum extent of the binding was observed for nonpolar terpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, and the minimum extent was observed for alcohols. The components of essential oils were adsorbed due mostly to hydrophobic interactions. It was shown that the composition and structure of a compound, its physico-chemical state, and the presence of functional groups influence the binding. Gum arabic and guar gum were found to bind nonpolar compounds to a maximum and minimum extent, respectively. It was demonstrated the minimum adsorption ability of locust bean gum with respect to all studied compounds.

  13. Structuring of bacterioplankton communities by specific dissolved organic carbon compounds.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Lindh, Markus V; Gasol, Josep M; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2012-09-01

    The main role of microorganisms in the cycling of the bulk dissolved organic carbon pool in the ocean is well established. Nevertheless, it remains unclear if particular bacteria preferentially utilize specific carbon compounds and whether such compounds have the potential to shape bacterial community composition. Enrichment experiments in the Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea and the North Sea (Skagerrak) showed that different low-molecular-weight organic compounds, with a proven importance for the growth of marine bacteria (e.g. amino acids, glucose, dimethylsulphoniopropionate, acetate or pyruvate), in most cases differentially stimulated bacterial growth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis 'fingerprints' and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that some bacterial phylotypes that became abundant were highly specific to enrichment with specific carbon compounds (e.g. Acinetobacter sp. B1-A3 with acetate or Psychromonas sp. B3-U1 with glucose). In contrast, other phylotypes increased in relative abundance in response to enrichment with several, or all, of the investigated carbon compounds (e.g. Neptuniibacter sp. M2-A4 with acetate, pyruvate and dimethylsulphoniopropionate, and Thalassobacter sp. M3-A3 with pyruvate and amino acids). Furthermore, different carbon compounds triggered the development of unique combinations of dominant phylotypes in several of the experiments. These results suggest that bacteria differ substantially in their abilities to utilize specific carbon compounds, with some bacteria being specialists and others having a more generalist strategy. Thus, changes in the supply or composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool can act as selective forces structuring bacterioplankton communities.

  14. Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) in PM2.5 and PM10 at a subtropical site of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Puja; Baruah, B. P.; Rao, P. G.

    2011-11-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at a suburban site of northeastern part of India have been analysed for particle mass, total carbon (TC), water-soluble total carbon (WSTC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC), organic acids (formic, acetic, proponoic and oxalic acids) along with inorganic ions (NO3-, SO42- and NH4-). Most of the PM10 consists of PM2.5 in the present site (ratio 54-74%). WSTC content in PM2.5 and PM10 corresponds to 21% and 16%, respectively, of their total particle masses. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed the presence of humic-like substances (16-22%) in particulate samples. Domestic heating and stagnant atmospheric conditions enhanced the levels of these carbonaceous compounds in PM2.5 and PM10 in winter. Qualitative estimation of various functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicates the presence of carboxylic, hydroxyl, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, amines and sulphurous compounds in these aerosols. Absolute principal component analysis applied on the aerosol data resolves four factors. These factors are associated with carbonaceous aerosols released from combustion of coal and wood, secondary inorganic and organic aerosols and water-soluble inorganic fraction.

  15. Diagnostics of organic compounds in water quality monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Poryvkina, L.; Leeben, A.

    1997-08-01

    The application of two-dimensional fluorescent technique for automatic monitoring of organic compounds in a water is discussed. For recognition and quantitative estimation of water organics the spectra were systematized and arranged into the calibrated catalogues of spectral signatures. The catalogue compilation and training of expert system for diagnostics of natural organics, oils and chemical pollution are considered. The two-dimensional fluorescent method was applied for the investigation of the environmental effects of the power plants on the river`s water in the north area of Estonia.

  16. Analysis of organic compounds in returned comet nucleus samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for analysis of organic compounds in returned comet nucleus samples are described. Interstellar, chondritic and transitional organic components are discussed. Appropriate sampling procedures will be essential to the success of these analyses. It will be necessary to return samples that represent all the various regimes found in the nucleus, e.g., a complete core, volatile components (deep interior), and crustal components (surface minerals, rocks, processed organics such as macromolecular carbon and polymers). Furthermore, sampling, storage, return, and distribution of samples must be done under conditions that preclude contamination of the samples by terrestrial matter.

  17. Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: compounds, sources, and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission r...

  18. Determination of fluorine in organic compounds: Microcombustion method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, H.S.

    1951-01-01

    A reliable and widely applicable means of determining fluorine in organic compounds has long been needed. Increased interest in this field of research in recent years has intensified the need. Fluorine in organic combinations may be determined by combustion at 900?? C. in a quartz tube with a platinum catalyst, followed by an acid-base titration of the combustion products. Certain necessary precautions and known limitations are discussed in some detail. Milligram samples suffice, and the accuracy of the method is about that usually associated with the other halogen determinations. Use of this method has facilitated the work upon organic fluorine compounds in this laboratory and it should prove to be equally valuable to others.

  19. Measurements of Halogenated Organic Compounds near the Tropical Tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schauffler, S. M.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gilpin, T. M.; Vedder, J. F.; Solomon, S.; Leub, R. A.; Atlas, E. L.

    1993-01-01

    The amount of organic chlorine and bromine entering the stratosphere have a direct influence on the magnitude of chlorine and bromine catalyzed ozone losses. Twelve organic chlorine species and five organic bromine species were measured from 12 samples collected near the tropopause between 23.8 deg N and 25.3 deg N during AASE 2. The average mixing ratios of total organic chlorine and total organic bromine were 3.50 +/- 0.06 ppbv and 21.1 +/- 0.8 pptv, respectively. CH3Cl represented 15.1% of the total organic chlorine, with CFC 11 (CCl3F) and CFC 12 (CCl2F2) accounting for 22.6% and 28.2%, respectively, with the remaining 34.1% primarily from CCl4, CH3CCl3, and CFC 113 (CCl2FCClF2). CH3Br represented 54% of the total organic bromine. The 95% confidence intervals of the mixing ratios of all but four of the individual compounds were within the range observed in low and mid-latitude midtroposphere samples. The four compounds with significantly lower mixing ratios at the tropopause were CHCl3, CH2Cl2, CH2Br2, and CH3CCl3. The lower mixing ratios may be due to entrainment of southern hemisphere air during vertical transport in the tropical region and/or to exchange of air across the tropopause between the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere.

  20. Measurements of halogenated organic compounds near the tropical tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schauffler, S. M.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gilpin, T. M.; Vedder, J. F.; Solomon, S.; Lueb, R. A.; Atlas, E. L.

    1993-01-01

    The amount of organic chlorine and bromine entering the stratosphere have a direct influence on the magnitude of chlorine and bromine catalyzed ozone losses. Twelve organic chlorine species and five organic bromine species were measured from 12 samples collected near the tropopause between 23.8 deg N and 25.3 deg N during AASE 2. The average mixing ratios of total organic chlorine and total organic bromine were 3.50 +/- 0.06 ppbv and 21.1 +/- 0.8 pptv, respectively. CH3Cl represented 15.1% of the total organic chlorine, with CFC 11 (CCl3F) and CFC 12 (CCl2F2) accounting for 22.6% and 28.2%, respectively, with the remaining 34.1% primarily from CCl4, CH3CCl3, and CFC 113 (CCl2FCClF2). CH3Br represented 54% of the total organic bromine. The 95% confidence intervals of the mixing ratios of all but four of the individual compounds were within the range observed in low and mid-latitude mid-troposphere samples. The four compounds with significantly lower mixing ratios at the tropopause were CHCl3, CH2Cl2, CH2Br2, and CH3CCl3. The lower mixing ratios may be due to entrainment of southern hemisphere air during vertical transport in the tropical region and/or to exchange of air across the tropopause between the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere.

  1. Biodiversity of volatile organic compounds from five French ferns.

    PubMed

    Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

    2010-10-01

    Five French ferns belonging to different families were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Fifty-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carotenoid-type compounds were identified. The main volatile compound of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) was (E)-2-decenal with a plastic or "stink bug" odor. The volatile profiles of Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth (Woodsiaceae) and Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Blechnaceae) showed similarities, with small amounts of isoprenoids and the same main volatile compounds, i.e., 2-phenylethanal (odor of lilac and hyacinth) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor). The main volatile compound of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) was (E)-nerolidol with a woody or fresh bark note. Polyketides, as acylfilicinic acids, were mainly identified in this fern. Oreopteris limbosperma (Bellardi ex. All.) J. Holub (Thelypteridaceae), well-known for its lemon smell, contained the highest biodiversity of VOC. Eighty percent of the volatiles was issued from the terpenic pathway. The main volatiles were (E)-nerolidol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene and other minor monoterpenes (for example, linalool, pinenes, limonene, and gamma-terpinen-7-al). It was also the fern with the highest number of carotenoid-type derivatives, which were identified in large amounts. Our results were of great interest underlying new industrial valorisation for ferns based on their broad spectrum of volatiles.

  2. New graphene fiber coating for volatile organic compounds analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Guo, XiaoXi; Wang, ShuLing; Wang, XueLan; Zhou, YanPing; Xu, Hui

    2014-10-15

    In the work, a novel graphene-based solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of trace amount of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. The graphene fiber coating was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal reduction reaction. The fiber with porous and wrinkled structure exhibited excellent extraction efficiency toward eight studied volatile organic compounds (two n-alkanes, five n-aldehydes and one aromatic compound). Meanwhile, remarkable thermal and mechanical stability, long lifespan and low cost were also obtained for the fiber. Under the optimal conditions, the developed method provided low limits of detection (1.0-4.5ngL(-1)), satisfactory reproducibility (3.8-13.8%) and acceptable recoveries (93-122%). The method was applied successfully to the analysis of breath samples of lung cancer patients and healthy individuals. The unique advantage of this approach includes simple setup, non-invasive analysis, cost-efficient and sufficient sensitivity. The proposed method supply us a new possibility to monitor volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath samples.

  3. Temperature sensitivity of organic compound destruction in SCWO process.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yaqin; Shen, Zhemin; Guo, Weimin; Ouyang, Chuang; Jia, Jinping; Jiang, Weili; Zhou, Haiyun

    2014-03-01

    To study the temperature sensitivity of the destruction of organic compounds in supercritical water oxidation process (SCWO), oxidation effects of twelve chemicals in supercritical water were investigated. The SCWO reaction rates of different compounds improved to varying degrees with the increase of temperature, so the highest slope of the temperature-effect curve (imax) was defined as the maximum ratio of removal ratio to working temperature. It is an important index to stand for the temperature sensitivity effect in SCWO. It was proven that the higher imax is, the more significant the effect of temperature on the SCWO effect is. Since the high-temperature area of SCWO equipment is subject to considerable damage from fatigue, the temperature is of great significance in SCWO equipment operation. Generally, most compounds (imax > 0.25) can be completely oxidized when the reactor temperature reaches 500°C. However, some compounds (imax > 0.25) need a higher temperature for complete oxidation, up to 560°C. To analyze the correlation coefficients between imax and various molecular descriptors, a quantum chemical method was used in this study. The structures of the twelve organic compounds were optimized by the Density Functional Theory B3LYP/6-311G method, as well as their quantum properties. It was shown that six molecular descriptors were negatively correlated to imax while other three descriptors were positively correlated to imax. Among them, dipole moment had the greatest effect on the oxidation thermodynamics of the twelve organic compounds. Once a correlation between molecular descriptors and imax is established, SCWO can be run at an appropriate temperature according to molecular structure.

  4. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  5. [Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC): definition, classification and properties].

    PubMed

    Cicolella, A

    2008-02-01

    The term volatile organic compounds includes a wide variety of chemical substances with the common feature of being carbon compounds that are volatile at ambient temperature. They can be classified into different families defined by their chemical formulae, each of which possesses common properties, although there may be major differences in terms of toxicity. For that reason the effects of VOC on health have to be considered both in an individual way and also from a global viewpoint on account of their common toxic properties and the role they play in the formation of environmental photo-oxidative pollutants, both outdoors and indoors.

  6. Group extraction of organic compounds present in liquid samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, Vilhelm J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An extraction device is disclosed comprising a tube containing a substantially inert, chemically non-reactive packing material with a large surface area to volume ratio. A sample which consists of organic compounds dissolved in a liquid, is introduced into the tube. As the sample passes through the packing material it spreads over the material's large surface area to form a thin liquid film which is held on the packing material in a stationary state. A particular group or family of compounds is extractable from the sample by passing a particular solvent system consisting of a solvent and selected reagents through the packing material. The reagents cause optimum conditions to exist for the compounds of the particular family to pass through the phase boundary between the sample liquid and the solvent of the solvent system. Thus, the compounds of the particular family are separated from the sample liquid and become dissolved in the solvent of the solvent system. The particular family of compounds dissolved in the solvent, representing an extract, exits the tube together with the solvent through the tube's nozzle, while the rest of the sample remains on the packing material in a stationary state. Subsequently, a different solvent system may be passed through the packing material to extract another family of compounds from the remaining sample on the packing material.

  7. A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (tin, mercury, and lead). Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body resid...

  8. Identification and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipy, J.; Mount, G.; Westberg, H.; Rumburg, B.

    2003-12-01

    Livestock operations in the United States are an escalating environmental concern. The increasing density of livestock within a farm results in an increased emission of odorous gases, which have gained considerable attention by the public in recent years (National Research Council (NRC), 2002). Odorous compounds such as ammonia (NH3), volatile organic compounds (VOC's), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were reported to have a major effect on the quality of life of local residents living near livestock facilities (NRC, 2002). There has been little data collected related to identification and quantification of gaseous compounds collected from open stall dairy operations in the United States. The research to be presented identifies and quantifies VOCs produced from a dairy operation that contribute to odor and other air quality problems. Many different VOCs were identified in the air downwind of an open lactating cow stall area and near a waste lagoon at the Washington State University dairy using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis techniques. Identified compounds were very diverse and included many alcohols, aldehydes, amines, aromatics, esters, ethers, a fixed gas, halogenated hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons, ketones, other nitrogen containing compounds, sulfur containing compounds, and terpenes. The VOCs directly associated with cattle waste were dependent on ambient temperature, with the highest emissions produced during the summer months. Low to moderate wind speeds were ideal for VOC collection. Concentrations of quantified compounds were mostly below odor detection thresholds found in the literature, however the combined odor magnitude of the large number of compounds detected was most likely above any minimum detection threshold.

  9. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Jenni; Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2013-04-01

    Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m(3) which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m(3). In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m(3). High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m(3), a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most problematic factor was endotoxins whose average measured concentrations was 4853 EU/m(3).

  10. Volatile organic compounds in dwelling houses and stables of dairy and cattle farms in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jens P; Heutelbeck, Astrid; Dunkelberg, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to a complex mixture of airborne substances which can represent a health hazard. Especially animal production on a farm can be a risk factor for respiratory diseases. Most studies in this context focused on bioaerosols, compounds attached to bioaerosols or on gases such as ammonia or hydrogen sulfide. Less attention was paid to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which may also cause respiratory diseases. This pilot study presents results of measuring VOCs in the air of the dwellings and stables, as well as in the outdoor environment, of cattle farms in Northern Germany in spring and autumn. Farmers on all selected farms complained of symptoms such as asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis which occurred especially during work in the stable but also in the dwellings. The mean concentration of total VOC (TVOC) for the outdoor environment, the dwellings, and the stables were 100 microg m(-3), 763 microg m(-3), 322 microg m(-3) in spring and 143 microg m(-3), 544 microg m(-3), 595 microg m(-3) in autumn, respectively. There was no significant difference in season. TVOC concentrations in dwellings on farms were elevated when compared to dwellings in other environments, probably because of an additional exposure to fuels and chemicals used in agriculture. Aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and terpenes were main compounds of the dwellings and ketones, alcohols, and esters of the stables. Terpene concentrations in the stables were low probably because straw, which was not a strong terpene emitter, was used instead of sawdust as floor covering. Large amounts of methylethylketone were encountered in the air of one stable, probably from animal exhalation caused by increased animal activity. However, it was unlikely that this caused respiratory symptoms. Generally it was likely that the concentrations of VOCs were too low to have health effects on their own. On the other hand, the VOC concentrations were in a multifactor concentration

  11. Vapor phase adsorption of organic compounds on octyl silicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchina, T. M.; Shoniya, N. K.; Tayakina, O. Ya.; Fadeev, A. Y.

    2011-02-01

    The influence of the modification of silica by octyltrichlorosilane with the formation of an oligomeric grafted layer (sample C8(II)) and additional silanization (sample C8(III)) on the thermodynamic adsorption characteristics (TACs) of different classes of organic compounds was investigated by gas chromatography. It was shown that the modification leads to decreased adsorption values for most of the investigated compounds (with the exception of alkanes, for which TACs on sample C8(II) approach the values observed on the initial support, due probably to additional interactions with silanol groups formed in modifying the surface with octyltrichlorosilane). It was established that blocking these silanol groups during additional silanization with trimethylsilane resulted in inert surfaces whose adsorption properties with respect to many compounds (including some capable of participating in strong specific interactions) approaches to the properties of octyl-silica with a close-packed grafted monolayer.

  12. Identification of volatile organic compounds in flowers of Astragalus lagopoides.

    PubMed

    Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Amini, Majid; Asnaashari, Solmaz

    2012-01-01

    Composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in flowers of Astragalus lagopoides was studied using a hydrodistillation extraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analyses allowed the identification of a number of 25 compounds, among which the presence of several bioactive aromatic derivatives such as guaiacol, eugenol, linalool, α- and 4-terpineol as well as nerol was attention-grabbing. Moreover, some other compounds like cyclohexane, 2-bromoethyl with repellent function also appeared to be present in the flower. As a result, the floral VOCs profile of A. lagopoides might reflect an adaptation to attract specialised pollinator insects. These findings provide important information for advances in understanding the ecological and evolutionary perspectives of pollination biology of the giant genus Astragalus.

  13. Formation of combustible hydrocarbons and H2 during photocatalytic decomposition of various organic compounds under aerated and deaerated conditions.

    PubMed

    Mozia, Sylwia; Kułagowska, Aleksandra; Morawski, Antoni W

    2014-11-26

    A possibility of photocatalytic production of useful aliphatic hydrocarbons and H2 from various organic compounds, including acetic acid, methanol, ethanol and glucose, over Fe-modified TiO2 is discussed. In particular, the influence of the reaction atmosphere (N2, air) was investigated. Different gases were identified in the headspace volume of the reactor depending on the substrate. In general, the evolution of the gases was more effective in air compared to a N2 atmosphere. In the presence of air, the gaseous phase contained CO2, CH4 and H2, regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, formation of C2H6 and C3H8 in the case of acetic acid and C2H6 in the case of ethanol was observed. In case of acetic acid and methanol an increase in H2 evolution under aerated conditions was observed. It was concluded that the photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds with simultaneous generation of combustible hydrocarbons and hydrogen could be a promising method of "green energy" production.

  14. Low-dimensional hydrogen-bonded structures in the 1:1 and 1:2 proton-transfer compounds of 4,5-dichlorophthalic acid with the aliphatic Lewis bases triethylamine, diethylamine, n-butylamine and piperidine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2010-07-01

    The structures of the proton-transfer compounds of 4,5-dichlorophthalic acid (DCPA) with the aliphatic Lewis bases triethylamine, diethylamine, n-butylamine and piperidine, namely triethylaminium 2-carboxy-4,5-dichlorobenzoate, C(6)H(16)N(+) x C(8)H(3)Cl(2)O(4)(-), (I), diethylaminium 2-carboxy-4,5-dichlorobenzoate, C(4)H(12)N(+) x C(8)H(3)Cl(2)O(4)(-), (II), bis(butanaminium) 4,5-dichlorobenzene-1,2-dicarboxylate monohydrate, 2C(4)H(12)N(+) x C(8)H(2)Cl(2)O(4)(2-) x H(2)O, (III), and bis(piperidinium) 4,5-dichlorobenzene-1,2-dicarboxylate monohydrate, 2C(5)H(12)N(+) x C(8)H(2)Cl(2)O(4)(2-) x H(2)O, (IV), have been determined at 200 K. All compounds have hydrogen-bonding associations, giving discrete cation-anion units in (I) and linear chains in (II), while (III) and (IV) both have two-dimensional structures. In (I), a discrete cation-anion unit is formed through an asymmetric R(1)(2)(4) N(+)-H...O(2) hydrogen-bonding association, whereas in (II), chains are formed through linear N-H...O associations involving both aminium H-atom donors. In compounds (III) and (IV), the primary N-H...O-linked cation-anion units are extended into a two-dimensional sheet structure via amide-carboxyl N-H...O and amide-carbonyl N-H...O interactions. In the 1:1 salts (I) and (II), the hydrogen 4,5-dichlorophthalate anions are essentially planar with short intramolecular carboxyl-carboxyl O-H...O hydrogen bonds [O...O = 2.4223 (14) and 2.388 (2) A, respectively]. This work provides a further example of the uncommon zero-dimensional hydrogen-bonded DCPA-Lewis base salt and the one-dimensional chain structure type, while even with the hydrate structures of the 1:2 salts with the primary and secondary amines, the low dimensionality generally associated with 1:1 DCPA salts is also found.

  15. Photocatalytic destruction of volatile organic compounds in water. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Oluic, S.

    1991-12-10

    Ground water at the Anniston Army Depot in Anniston, Alabama has been found to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Recent research has indicated that advanced oxidation processes, namely hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ultraviolet light radiation, can be successful in destroying these contaminants. In this process hydrogen peroxide is decomposed by ultraviolet radiation producing hydroxyl free radicals which in turn oxidize the organic compounds present. A series of batch tests and flow through experiments using this oxidation process was performed on a synthetic wastewater that closely duplicated contaminant concentration levels found at Anniston. These contaminants, 1,2 dichloroethene, trichloroethene, dichloromethane and benzene, were found readily destructed by the UV/H2O2 process both individually and in mixtures during batch testing and in flow-through experiments. All experimentation was performed utilizing a thin film reactor.

  16. Bibliography on contaminants and solubility of organic compounds in oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M. (Compiler)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of a number of document citations is presented which contains information on contaminants in oxygen. Topics covered include contaminants and solubility of organic compounds in oxygen, reaction characteristics of organic compounds with oxygen, and sampling and detection limits of impurities. Each citation in the data bank contains many items of information about the document. Some of the items are title, author, abstract, corporate source, description of figures pertinent to hazards or safety, key references, and descriptors (keywords) by which the document can be retrieved. Each citation includes an evaluation of the technical contents as to being good/excellent, acceptable, or poor. The descriptors used to define the contents of the documents and subsequently used in the computerized search operations were developed for the cryogenic fluid safety by experts in the cryogenics field.

  17. Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from PVC floor coverings.

    PubMed

    Wiglusz, R; Igielska, B; Sitko, E; Nikel, G; Jarnuszkiewicz, I

    1998-01-01

    In this study 29 PVC floor coverings were tested for emission of vinyl chloride (VC) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A study on the effect of higher temperature on emission of VOCs from newly manufactured PVC flooring was also carried out. The study was conducted in climatic chamber, according to Polish Standard PN-89/Z-04021. GC method was used for analyzing of the compounds emitted. VC was not emitted from any of the floorings tested. Other VOCs were emitted in different concentrations. The influence of temperature on emission was conducted at temperatures of 23 degrees C and 35 degrees C from 2 hrs up to 180 days after introduction of materials in the chamber. The increase of temperature caused increase of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) emission during 24 hrs of experiment. Then the emission was comparable for both temperatures. After 9 days emission of identified and unidentified compounds (TVOC) showed a rapid decay and stayed on very low level during a few months. The study conducted showed that PVC floorings after 10 days of installation in the room should not be source of indoor air contamination.

  18. Destruction of organic compounds in water using supported photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Crittenden, J.C.; Hand, D.W.; Perram, D.L.

    1996-05-01

    Photocatalytic destruction of organic compounds in water is investigated using tanning lamps and fixed-bed photoreactors. Platinized titanium dioxide (Pt-TiO{sub 2}) supported on silica gel is used as a photocatalyst. Complete mineralization of influent concentrations of 4.98 mg/L tetrachloroethylene and 2.35 mg/L p-dichlorobenzene requires a reactor residence time less than 1.3 minutes. While for influent concentrations of 3.58 mg/L 2-chlorobiphenyl, 2.50 mg/L methyl ethyl ketone and 0.49 mg/L carbon tetrachloride, complete mineralization requires reactor residence times of 1.6, 10.5, and 16.8 minutes, respectively. A reactor model is developed using Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and the model parameters are determined using a reference compound, trichloroethylene. Based on the results of experiments with trichloroethylene, the model predicts the mineralization of the aforementioned compounds from ultraviolet (UV) irradiance, influent concentration, hydroxyl radical rate constants, and the known physical properties of the compounds. The model is also able to predict organic destruction using solar insolation (which has a different spectral distribution from the tanning lamps) based on the UV absorption characteristics of titanium dioxide.

  19. Smart Metal-Organic Framework Coatings: Triggered Antibiofilm Compound Release.

    PubMed

    Claes, Birgit; Boudewijns, Tom; Muchez, Laurens; Hooyberghs, Geert; Van der Eycken, Erik V; Vanderleyden, Jozef; Steenackers, Hans P; De Vos, Dirk E

    2017-02-08

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have a large potential for delivery of active molecules. Here, a MOF coating is investigated as a smart host matrix for triggered release of antibiofilm compounds. In addition to a coating consisting of the regular Fe-terephthalate MIL-88B(Fe), a new hydrophobic MIL-88B(Fe) coating is synthesized in hydrothermal conditions using palmitic acid as a lattice terminating group. These porous materials are used as a host matrix for the antibiofilm compound 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(2-isobutyl)-2-aminoimidazole, which has a specific biofilm-inhibiting effect at concentrations at which no activity against planktonic cells is detected. The stability of MIL-88B(Fe) in distilled water and tryptic soy broth medium is investigated, together with the ability of iron(III) chelators to serve as a trigger for controlled decomposition of MIL-88B(Fe) by metal complexation. Organic iron chelators are used to mimic the iron chelating function of siderophores, which are specific molecules excreted by biofilm-forming bacteria. Trisodium citrate is able to chelate metal ions from the junctions of the framework. By sequestration of these metal ions, the host matrix is partially degraded, resulting in an antibiofilm compound release. Finally, the antibiofilm properties against Salmonella Typhimurium are validated by monitoring biofilm growth on MOF layers either loaded or not with aminoimidazole. A strong proof-of-concept is shown for efficient inhibition of biofilm growth through triggered antibiofilm compound release.

  20. Hydroxyl radical-induced formation of highly oxidized organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Torsten; Richters, Stefanie; Jokinen, Tuija; Hyttinen, Noora; Kurtén, Theo; Otkjær, Rasmus V.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Sipilä, Mikko; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael

    2016-12-01

    Explaining the formation of secondary organic aerosol is an intriguing question in atmospheric sciences because of its importance for Earth's radiation budget and the associated effects on health and ecosystems. A breakthrough was recently achieved in the understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone reactions of biogenic emissions by the rapid formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds via autoxidation. However, the important daytime hydroxyl radical reactions have been considered to be less important in this process. Here we report measurements on the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with α- and β-pinene applying improved mass spectrometric methods. Our laboratory results prove that the formation of highly oxidized products from hydroxyl radical reactions proceeds with considerably higher yields than previously reported. Field measurements support these findings. Our results allow for a better description of the diurnal behaviour of the highly oxidized product formation and subsequent secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere.

  1. Hydroxyl radical-induced formation of highly oxidized organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Torsten; Richters, Stefanie; Jokinen, Tuija; Hyttinen, Noora; Kurtén, Theo; Otkjær, Rasmus V.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Sipilä, Mikko; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Explaining the formation of secondary organic aerosol is an intriguing question in atmospheric sciences because of its importance for Earth's radiation budget and the associated effects on health and ecosystems. A breakthrough was recently achieved in the understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone reactions of biogenic emissions by the rapid formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds via autoxidation. However, the important daytime hydroxyl radical reactions have been considered to be less important in this process. Here we report measurements on the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with α- and β-pinene applying improved mass spectrometric methods. Our laboratory results prove that the formation of highly oxidized products from hydroxyl radical reactions proceeds with considerably higher yields than previously reported. Field measurements support these findings. Our results allow for a better description of the diurnal behaviour of the highly oxidized product formation and subsequent secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere. PMID:27910849

  2. Sugar-Related Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G.; Kimmich, N.; Belisle, W.; Sarinana, J.; Brabham, K.; Garrel, L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Sugars and related polyols are critical components of all organisms and may have been necessary for the origin of life. To date, this class of organic compounds had not been definitively identified in meteorites. This study was undertaken to determine if polyols were present in the early Solar System as constituents of carbonaceous meteorites. Results of analyses of the Murchison and Murray meteorites indicate that formaldehyde and sugar chemistry may be responsible for the presence of a variety of polyols. We conclude that polyols were present on the early Earth through delivery by asteroids and possibly comets.

  3. Oceanic Emissions and Atmospheric Depositions of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Blomquist, B.; Beale, R.; Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect the tropospheric oxidative capacity due to their ubiquitous abundance and relatively high reactivity towards the hydroxyal radical. Over the ocean and away from terrestrial emission sources, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) make up a large fraction of VOCs as airmasses age and become more oxidized. In addition to being produced or destroyed in the marine atmosphere, OVOCs can also be emitted from or deposited to the surface ocean. Here we first present direct air-sea flux measurements of three of the most abundant OVOCs - methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde, by the eddy covariance technique from two cruises in the Atlantic: the Atlantic Meridional Transect in 2012 and the High Wind Gas Exchange Study in 2013. The OVOC mixing ratios were quantified by a high resolution proton-reaction-transfer mass spectrometer with isotopically labeled standards and their air-sea (net) fluxes were derived from the eddy covariance technique. Net methanol flux was consistently from the atmosphere to the surface ocean, while acetone varied from supersaturation (emission) in the subtropics to undersaturation (deposition) in the higher latitudes of the North Atlantic. The net air-sea flux of acetaldehyde is near zero through out the Atlantic despite the apparent supersaturation of this compound in the surface ocean. Knowing the dissolved concentrations and in situ production rates of these compounds in seawater, we then estimate their bulk atmospheric depositions and oceanic emissions. Lastly, we summarize the state of knowledge on the air-sea transport of a number of organic gasses, and postulate the magnitude and environmental impact of total organic carbon transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere.

  4. Engineering biosynthesis of high-value compounds in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Ellis C; Kelly, Steven

    2016-10-04

    The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules. This review provides a broad overview of the successes, challenges and future prospects for genetic engineering in plants and algae for enhanced or de novo production of biomolecules. The toolbox of technologies and strategies that have been used to engineer metabolism are discussed, and the potential use of engineered plants for industrial manufacturing of large quantities of high-value compounds is explored. This review also discusses the routes that have been taken to modify the profiles of primary metabolites for increasing the nutritional quality of foods as well as the production of specialized metabolites, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. As the universe of high-value biosynthetic pathways continues to expand, and the tools to engineer these pathways continue to develop, it is likely plants and algae will become increasingly valuable for the biomanufacturing of high-value compounds.

  5. Anticancer and cancer preventive compounds from edible marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena M M; Kijjoa, Anake

    2017-04-06

    A direct impact of food on health, which demonstrates that dietary habit is one of the most important determinants of chronic diseases such as cancers, has led to an increased interest of the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients or nutraceuticals. Epidemiological studies revealed that the populations of many Asian countries with high consumption of fish and seafood have low prevalence of particular type of cancers such as lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. This observation has led to extensive investigations of the benefits of compounds present in edible marine organisms such as fish, marine invertebrates (mollusks, echinoderms) and marine algae as cancer chemopreventive agents. Interestingly, many of these marine organisms not only constitute as seafood delicacy but also as ingredients used in folk medicine of some East and Southeast Asian countries. The results of the investigations on extracts and compounds from fish (cods, anchovy, eel and also fish protein hydrolysates), mollusks (mussel, oyster, clams and abalone), as well as from sea cucumbers on the in vivo/in vitro anticancer/antitumor activities can, in part, support the health benefits of these edible marine organisms.

  6. Refractory Organic Compounds in Enceladus' Ice Grains and Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, F.; Khawaja, N.; Hsu, H. W.; Sekine, Y.; Shibuya, T.

    2015-12-01

    Cassini's Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) generates time-of-flight mass spectra of individual grains impinging on the instruments target-plate. Following the analysis of salt rich ice grains emitted by Enceladus that indicated a salt-water ocean in contact with the moon's rocky core [1,2] a recent CDA analysis of nano-phase silica particles pointed at hydrothermal activity at the moon's rock/water interface [3]. The results imply temperatures above 80 - 90°C and alkaline pH values around 10 reminiscent of alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth like the Lost City Hydrothermal Field. In this context the compositional analysis of organic components in CDA mass spectra of the ejected ice grains is of particular relevance. A multitude of volatile organic species has already been identified in the gas component of the plume [4]. As expected, we find more complex organic molecules in ice grains than in the gas indicating aromatic species, amines, and carbonyl group species. The composition of organic-bearing ice grains displays a great diversity indicating a variety of different organic species in varying concentrations. Recent spatially resolved CDA in situ measurements inside Enceladus' plume indicate that these organic compounds are especially frequent in 'young' ice grains that have just been ejected by high velocity jets. We investigate the implications of our findings with respect to ice grain formation at the water surface and inside the icy vents. We constrain the generation of organic compounds at the rock/water interface in the light of hydrothermal activity and the potential for the formation of life precursor molecules in Enceladus' ocean. Ref:[1] Postberg et al., Nature 459, 1098-1101 (2009). [2] Postberg et al., Nature 474, 620-622 (2011). [3]. Hsu, Postberg, Sekine et al., Nature, 519, 207-210 (2015). [4] Waite et al., Nature 460, 487-490 (2009).

  7. Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl{sub 4} and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of diatom-bound organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatte, C.; Hodgins, G.; Jull, T.; Cruz, R.; Lange, T.; Biddulph, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new method for obtaining radiocarbon dates for the proteins intrinsic to diatom frustules (sillafin). By asserting age models for sediment cores that lack calcium carbonate, this method will improve interpretations of diatom-based paleoproxies either marine or lacustrine. In preparation for radiocarbon dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, diatoms were first concentrated out of the sediment. Through chemical and physical treatments that will be discussed and compared here, diatoms frustules are then freed of any surface-bound organic matter. Compounds intrinsic to diatoms frustules are then released from their opal matrix by HF dissolution. Since we have eliminated any of potentially contaminating organic matter, this method differs from approaches based on specific compounds extraction from a complex organic mixture by preparative chromatography such as proposed by Ingalls et al. (2004, Mar. Chem). The advantage of our method is that it does not require heavy cost investment. The method was applied to samples from a marine core collected in the Southern Ocean, that spans the last climatic cycle. Diatoms rich sediments from a Holocene lacustrine/palustrine record from Texas were also investigated. We report on the radiocarbon dating results obtained on organic matter at each step of the chemical treatment, from bulk to sillafin and their interpretation.

  9. Microbial cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds in anoxic environments.

    PubMed

    Lomans, B P; Pol, A; Op den Camp, H J M

    2002-01-01

    Microbial cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSC) is investigated due to the impact these compounds are thought to have on environmental processes like global temperature control, acid precipitation and the global sulfur cycle. Moreover, in several kinds of industries like composting plants and the paper industry VOSC are released causing odor problems. Waste streams containing these compounds must be treated in order to avoid the release of these compounds to the atmosphere. This paper describes the general mechanisms for the production and degradation of methanethiol (MT) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), two ubiquitous VOSC in anaerobic environments. Slurry incubations indicated that methylation of sulfide and MT resulting in MT and DMS, respectively, is one of the major mechanisms for VOSC in sulfide-rich anaerobic environments. An anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for the formation of MT and DMS through the anaerobic methylation of H2S and MT was isolated from a freshwater pond after enrichment with syringate as a methyl group donating compound and sole carbon source. In spite of the continuous formation of MT and DMS, steady state concentrations are generally very low. This is due to the microbial degradation of these compounds. Experiments with sulfate-rich and sulfate-amended sediment slurries demonstrated that besides methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria can also degrade MT and DMS, provided that sulfate is available. A methanogen was isolated that is able to grow on DMS as the sole carbon source. A large survey of sediments slurries of various origin demonstrated that both isolates are commonly occurring inhabitants of anaerobic environments.

  10. Certain Aliphatic Nitramines and Related Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-11-29

    2,2-Dindthyl- l ,3-dinitr&tiinopropanc 21 1,2,5-Trinitrar.iinoprcpane • • • . . • .,•...;•• . . 23 - . Attempts to Synthesize ...4 L I ° HEADQUARTERS AIR MATERIEL COMMAND WRIGHT FIELD, DAYTON, OHIO «. I I US GOVERNMENT IS ABSOLVED FROM ANY LITIGATION WHICH...Irvin Stewart Office of the Chief of Ordnance Attention: NDPC Lirison Officer Office of the Chief of Ordnance Attention: Dr. L . R. Littleton

  11. A method to quantify organic functional groups and inorganic compounds in ambient aerosols using attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy and multivariate chemometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coury, Charity; Dillner, Ann M.

    An attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic technique and a multivariate calibration method were developed to quantify ambient aerosol organic functional groups and inorganic compounds. These methods were applied to size-resolved particulate matter samples collected in winter and summer of 2004 at three sites: a downtown Phoenix, Arizona location, a rural site near Phoenix, and an urban fringe site between the urban and rural site. Ten organic compound classes, including four classes which contain a carbonyl functional group, and three inorganic species were identified in the ambient samples. A partial least squares calibration was developed and applied to the ambient spectra, and 13 functional groups related to organic compounds (aliphatic and aromatic CH, methylene, methyl, alkene, aldehydes/ketones, carboxylic acids, esters/lactones, acid anhydrides, carbohydrate hydroxyl and ethers, amino acids, and amines) as well as ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate were quantified. Comparison of the sum of the mass measured by the ATR-FTIR technique and gravimetric mass indicates that this method can quantify nearly all of the aerosol mass on sub-micrometer size-segregated samples. Analysis of sample results shows that differences in organic functional group and inorganic compound concentrations at the three sampling sites can be measured with these methods. Future work will analyze the quantified data from these three sites in detail.

  12. Iodination of organic compounds via organoborane intermediates: new methods

    SciTech Connect

    Gooch, E.E. III

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation of iodine into organic molecules can be accomplished through the use of organoboranes as synthetic intermediates. However, the iodination of organoboranes with molecular iodine is not suitable for the efficient incorporation of radioiodine into organic molecules since one-half of the radionuclide is lost as iodide. The iodination of organoboranes, vinylboronic acids and arylboronic acids was studied, using iodine monochloride or sodium iodide/chloramine-T. Both synthetic methods were rapid and efficient methods for iodinating organic substrates, including those with functional groups. The reactions provided maximum utilization of radioiodine in the synthesis of iodine-125 labeled compounds, both in preliminary tracer studies, and in experiments using carrier-free iodine-125.

  13. Selective Sorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon Compounds by Temperate Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie; Phillips, Jana Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Physico-chemical sorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on soil minerals is one of the major processes of organic carbon (OC) stabilization in soils, especially in deeper layers. The attachment of C on soil solids is related to the reactivity of the soil minerals and the chemistry of the sorbate functional groups, but the sorption studies conducted without controlling microbial activity may overestimate the sorption potential of soil. This study was conducted to examine the sorptive characteristics of a diverse functional groups of simple OC compounds (D-glucose, L-alanine, oxalic acid, salicylic acid, and sinapyl alcohol) on temperate climate soil orders (Mollisols, Ultisols and Alfisols) with and without biological degradative processes. Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted using 0-100 mg C L-1 at a solid-solution ratio of 1:60 for 48 hrs and the sorption parameters were calculated by Langmuir model fitting. The amount of added compounds that remained in the solution phase was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic C (TOC) analysis. Soil sterilization was performed by -irradiation technique and experiments were repeated to determine the contribution of microbial degradation to apparent sorption. Overall, Ultisols did not show a marked preference for apparent sorption of any of the model compounds, as indicated by a narrower range of maximum sorption capacity (Smax) of 173-527 mg kg soil-1 across compounds. Mollisols exhibited a strong preference for apparent sorption of oxalic acid (Smax of 5290 mg kg soil-1) and sinapyl alcohol (Smax of 2031 mg kg soil-1) over the other compounds. The propensity for sorption of oxalic acid is mainly attributed to the precipitation of insoluble Ca-oxalate due to the calcareous nature of most Mollisol subsoils and its preference for sinapyl alcohol could be linked to the polymerization of this lignin monomer on 2:2 mineral dominated soils. The reactivity of Alfisols to DOC was in

  14. Multiple microbial activities for volatile organic compounds reduction by biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Civilini, Marcello

    2006-07-01

    In the northeast of Italy, high volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions originate from small-medium companies producing furniture. In these conditions it is difficult to propose a single, efficient, and economic system to reduce pollution. Among the various choices, the biofiltration method could be a good solution, because microbial populations possess multiple VOC degradation potentials used to oxidize these compounds to CO2. Starting from the air emissions of a typical industrial wood-painting plant, a series of experiments studied in vitro microbial degradation of each individual VOC. Isolated strains were then added to a laboratory-scale biofiltration apparatus filled with an organic matrix, and the different VOC behavior demonstrated the potential of single and/or synergic microbial removal actions. When a single substrate was fed, the removal efficiency of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated reactor was 1.1, 1.17, and 0.33 g m(-3) hr(-1), respectively, for xylene, toluene, and ethoxy propyl acetate. A VOC mixture composed of butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, diacetin alcohol, ethoxy propanol acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, and xylene was then fed into a 2-m(3) reactor treating 100 m3 hr(-1) of contaminated air. The reactor was filled with the same mixture of organic matrix, enriched with all of the isolated strains together. During reactor study, different VOC loading rates were used, and the behavior was evaluated continuously. After a short acclimation period, the removal efficiency was > 65% at VOC load of 150-200 g m(-3) hr(-1). Quantification of removal efficiencies and VOC speciation confirmed the relationship among removal efficiencies, compound biodegradability, and the dynamic transport of each mixture component within the organic matrix. Samples of the fixed bed were withdrawn at different intervals and the heterogeneous microbial community evaluated for both total and differential compound counts.

  15. Global simulation of aromatic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Perez, David; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Pozzer, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Among the large number of chemical compounds in the atmosphere, the organic group plays a key role in the tropospheric chemistry. Specifically the subgroup called aromatics is of great interest. Aromatics are the predominant trace gases in urban areas due to high emissions, primarily by vehicle exhausts and fuel evaporation. They are also present in areas where biofuel is used (i.e residential wood burning). Emissions of aromatic compounds are a substantial fraction of the total emissions of the volatile organic compounds (VOC). Impact of aromatics on human health is very important, as they do not only contribute to the ozone formation in the urban environment, but they are also highly toxic themselves, especially in the case of benzene which is able to trigger a range of illness under long exposure, and of nitro-phenols which cause detrimental for humans and vegetation even at very low concentrations. The aim of this work is to assess the atmospheric impacts of aromatic compounds on the global scale. The main goals are: lifetime and budget estimation, mixing ratios distribution, net effect on ozone production and OH loss for the most emitted aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene and trimethylbenzenes). For this purpose, we use the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model to build the global atmospheric budget for the most emitted and predominant aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. A set of emissions was prepared in order to include biomass burning, vegetation and anthropogenic sources of aromatics into the model. A chemical mechanism based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) was developed to describe the chemical oxidation in the gas phase of these aromatic compounds. MCM have been reduced in terms of number of chemical equation and species in order to make it affordable in a 3D model. Additionally other features have been added, for instance the production of HONO via ortho

  16. Impact of tree cutting on water-soluble organic compounds in podzolic soils of the European North-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapteva, Elena; Bondarenko, Natalia; Shamrikova, Elena; Kubik, Olesya; Punegov, Vasili

    2016-04-01

    soils was dominated by carbohydrates with ratio from 49% (SP1) to 63-66% (SP2, SP3) of total content of all identified compounds. The increase in relative content in carbohydrates observed for soils under cuts was possibly affected by vegetation cover change after clear-cutting and presence of birch and aspen leaves in plant waste composition (due to tree species change). At SP2 and SP3 cuts, content of alcohols and low-molecular carboxylic acids fell by almost twice as compared with SP1. Tree cuts changed not only in total content of water-soluble compounds but also in ratio of individual low-molecular compounds in water extracts composition. Totally, we identified 26 various compounds, including 12 low-molecular organic (carboxylic) acids, 10 carbohydrates, and 4 alcohols. Composition of carboxylic acids was dominated by aliphatic substituted acids (mainly 2-oxyacetic acid, 2-oxypropane, and 2,3-dioxypropane acids). Total number of aliphatic substituted acids, as well as aliphatic non-substituted and aromatic carboxylic acids, decreased in soils under cuts at initial reforestation stages (SP2). Content of all mentioned acids gradually rose with time (SP3). Soils under cut forests were observed for a decrease of erythrite ratio in composition of water-soluble alcohols (from 52 to 40% of total alcohols) and an increase of glycerin ratio (from 46 to 72%). 10 of identified mono- and disaccharides were dominated by mannose, galactopyranose, and D-ribose. Disturbed soils were identified for increased ratio of galactopyranose and D-ribose and for by almost twice as decreased ratio of mannose. References 1. Dymov, A. A. Changes in the organic matter of taiga soils during the natural reaforestation after cutting in the middle taigaof the Komi Republic / A. A. Dymov, E. Yu. Milanovskii // Eurasian Soil Science, 2013. Vol. 46. № 12. P. 1164-1171. 2. Shamrikova E.V., Punegov V.V., Gruzdev I.V., Vanchikova E.V., Vetoshkina A.A. Individual organic compounds in water extracts from

  17. [New methods of constructing fluorinated organic compounds and their application].

    PubMed

    Kirihara, M

    2000-04-01

    This review summarizes several effective synthetic methods of fluorinated organic compounds developed by our group. Two topics have been described in this review. The first topic describes novel fluorinations using diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST). The treatment of tertiary cyclopropyl silyl ethers with DAST caused ring opening and produced allylic fluorides. The reaction of DAST with a tertiary cyclobutanol provided a fluorocyclobutane, a (fluoromethyl)cyclopropane or a homoallylic fluoride. DAST reacted with cyclic ketoximes bearing substituent(s) that can stabilize a carbocation to cause the fluorinative fragmentation which produces fluorinated carbonitrile. The second topic describes the novel syntheses of organic compounds containing the difluoromethylene moiety using fluorinated building blocks. The indium-mediated coupling of aldehydes with 3-bromo-3,3-difluoropropene gives alpha,alpha-difluorohomoallylic alcohols in high yields. alpha,alpha-Difluorohomopropargylic alcohols were also obtained from the indium-mediated coupling of aldehydes with alpha-bromo-alpha,alpha-difluoropropargyl compounds. In the presence of a palladium(0) catalyst, several nucleophiles regioselectively reacted with 3-bromo-3,3-difluoropropene at its gamma-position, and reacted with 1-substituted-3-bromo-3,3-difluoropropenes at their alpha-position. (+)-(R)-1-Amino-2,2-difluorocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid was synthesized via the lipase-catalyzed asymmetric acetylation of a pro-chiral diol as a key step.

  18. Catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Razzak, Shaikh A.; Hossain, Mohammad M.

    2016-09-01

    Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The main sources of VOCs are petroleum refineries, fuel combustions, chemical industries, decomposition in the biosphere and biomass, pharmaceutical plants, automobile industries, textile manufacturers, solvents processes, cleaning products, printing presses, insulating materials, office supplies, printers etc. The most common VOCs are halogenated compounds, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aromatic compounds, and ethers. High concentrations of these VOCs can cause irritations, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Some VOCs are also carcinogenic for both humans and animals. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize the emission of VOCs. Among the available technologies, the catalytic oxidation of VOCs is the most popular because of its versatility of handling a range of organic emissions under mild operating conditions. Due to that fact, there are numerous research initiatives focused on developing advanced technologies for the catalytic destruction of VOCs. This review discusses recent developments in catalytic systems for the destruction of VOCs. Review also describes various VOCs and their sources of emission, mechanisms of catalytic destruction, the causes of catalyst deactivation, and catalyst regeneration methods.

  19. Transport, behavior, and fate of volatile organic compounds in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compounds with chemical and physical properties that allow the compounds to move freely between the water and air phases of the environment. VOCs are widespread in the environment because of this mobility. Many VOCs have properties that make them suspected or known hazards to the health of humans and aquatic organisms. Consequently, understanding the processes affecting the concentration and distribution of VOCs in the environment is necessary. The transport, behavior, and fate of VOCs in streams are determined by combinations of chemical, physical, and biological processes. These processes are volatilization, absorption, wet and dry deposition, microbial degradation, sorption, hydrolysis, aquatic photolysis, oxidation, chemical reaction, biocon-centration, advection, and dispersion. The relative importance of each of these processes depends on the characteristics of the VOC and the stream. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program selected 55 VOCs for study. This article reviews the characteristics of the various processes that could affect the transport, behavior, and fate of these VOCs in streams.

  20. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in human blood.

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, D L; Bonin, M A; Cardinali, F L; McCraw, J M; Wooten, J V

    1996-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important public health problem throughout the developed world. Many important questions remain to be addressed in assessing exposure to these compounds. Because they are ubiquitous and highly volatile, special techniques must be applied in the analytical determination of VOCs. The analytical methodology chosen to measure toxicants in biological materials must be well validated and carefully carried out; poor quality assurance can lead to invalid results that can have a direct bearing on treating exposed persons. The pharmacokinetics of VOCs show that most of the internal dose of these compounds is quickly eliminated, but there is a fraction that is only slowly removed, and these compounds may bioaccumulate. VOCs are found in the general population at the high parts-per-trillion range, but some people with much higher levels have apparently been exposed to VOC sources away from the workplace. Smoking is the most significant confounder to internal dose levels of VOCs and must be considered when evaluating suspected cases of exposure. PMID:8933028

  1. Analyses of volatile organic compounds from human skin

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, M.; Wysocki, C.J.; Leyden, J.J.; Spielman, A.I.; Sun, X.; Preti, G.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Human skin emits a variety of volatile metabolites, many of them odorous. Much previous work has focused upon chemical structure and biogenesis of metabolites produced in the axillae (underarms), which are a primary source of human body odour. Nonaxillary skin also harbours volatile metabolites, possibly with different biological origins than axillary odorants. Objectives To take inventory of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the upper back and forearm skin, and assess their relative quantitative variation across 25 healthy subjects. Methods Two complementary sampling techniques were used to obtain comprehensive VOC profiles, viz., solid-phase micro extraction and solvent extraction. Analyses were performed using both gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Results Nearly 100 compounds were identified, some of which varied with age. The VOC profiles of the upper back and forearm within a subject were, for the most part, similar, although there were notable differences. Conclusions The natural variation in nonaxillary skin odorants described in this study provides a baseline of compounds we have identified from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Although complex, the profiles of volatile constituents suggest that the two body locations share a considerable number of compounds, but both quantitative and qualitative differences are present. In addition, quantitative changes due to ageing are also present. These data may provide future investigators of skin VOCs with a baseline against which any abnormalities can be viewed in searching for biomarkers of skin diseases. PMID:18637798

  2. Effect of volatile organic compounds from bacteria on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, You-Yao; Lu, Hao; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Li, Guo-Hong

    2015-09-01

    The five studied bacterial strains could produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that kill nematodes. Based on their 16S rRNA sequences, these strains were identified as Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum, Wautersiella falsenii, Proteus hauseri, Arthrobacter nicotianae, and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. The bacterial VOCs were extracted using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and subsequently identified by GC/MS analysis. The VOCs covered a wide range of aldehydes, ketones, alkyls, alcohols, alkenes, esters, alkynes, acids, ethers, as well as heterocyclic and phenolic compounds. Among the 53 VOCs identified, 19 candidates, produced by different bacteria, were selected to test their nematicidal activity (NA) against Caenorhabditis elegans and Meloidogyne incognita. The seven compounds with the highest NAs were acetophenone, S-methyl thiobutyrate, dimethyl disulfide, ethyl 3,3-dimethylacrylate, nonan-2-one, 1-methoxy-4-methylbenzene, and butyl isovalerate. Among them, S-methyl thiobutyrate showed a stronger NA than the commercial insecticide dimethyl disulfide. It was reported for the first time here that the five bacterial strains as well as S-methyl thiobutyrate, ethyl 3,3-dimethylacrylate, 1-methoxy-4-methylbenzene, and butyl isovalerate possess NA. These strains and compounds might provide new insights in the search for novel nematicides.

  3. Indoor air quality in hair salons: Screening of volatile organic compounds and indicators based on health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, Lucrezia; Mazzone, Antonio; Porcelli, Francesca; Tutino, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are common ingredients in cosmetic products which can impact human health. This study monitored 12 hairdressing salons in order to assess the individual exposure of the people working in or frequenting these environments as well as identify the main products or activities responsible for the presence of these compounds. In each site halogenated, oxygenated, aliphatic and aromatic compounds were monitored during the work week with diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption and analysed using GC-MS. The study of indoor-outdoor concentration ratios and a knowledge of the composition of most of the products, whether ecological or traditional, used in the hair salons verified the presence of compounds linked to hairdressing activities. In particular, compounds widely used in products for hair care as spray lacquer and foam (butane), shampoo, balms, hair masks and oils (camphene, camphor, limonene, eucalyptol, alpha pinene, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, n-butanol and menthol), and hair dye (benzyl alcohol, isopropanol, limonene, hexane and methyl ethyl ketone) were found at much higher levels inside rather than outside the salons (mean I/O > 10). The importance of this finding is linked to the potential health hazards of some of the VOCs detected. Integrated indicators of health risk were proposed in this study to assess the criticality level and rank the investigated environments accordingly. The results of this study indicate that the level of VOC concentrations was most affected by the type of products used while the size of the environment, the efficiency of air exchange and the number of customers had less impact on those levels.

  4. Biodesulfurization of refractory organic sulfur compounds in fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Mehran; Bassi, Amarjeet; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2007-01-01

    The stringent new regulations to lower sulfur content in fossil fuels require new economic and efficient methods for desulfurization of recalcitrant organic sulfur. Hydrodesulfurization of such compounds is very costly and requires high operating temperature and pressure. Biodesulfurization is a non-invasive approach that can specifically remove sulfur from refractory hydrocarbons under mild conditions and it can be potentially used in industrial desulfurization. Intensive research has been conducted in microbiology and molecular biology of the competent strains to increase their desulfurization activity; however, even the highest activity obtained is still insufficient to fulfill the industrial requirements. To improve the biodesulfurization efficiency, more work is needed in areas such as increasing specific desulfurization activity, hydrocarbon phase tolerance, sulfur removal at higher temperature, and isolating new strains for desulfurizing a broader range of sulfur compounds. This article comprehensively reviews and discusses key issues, advances and challenges for a competitive biodesulfurization process.

  5. Fate of Volatile Organic Compounds in Constructed Wastewater Treatment Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefe, S.H.; Barber, L.B.; Runkel, R.L.; Ryan, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of volatile organic compounds was evaluated in a wastewater-dependent constructed wetland near Phoenix, AZ, using field measurements and solute transport modeling. Numerically based volatilization rates were determined using inverse modeling techniques and hydraulic parameters established by sodium bromide tracer experiments. Theoretical volatilization rates were calculated from the two-film method incorporating physicochemical properties and environmental conditions. Additional analyses were conducted using graphically determined volatilization rates based on field measurements. Transport (with first-order removal) simulations were performed using a range of volatilization rates and were evaluated with respect to field concentrations. The inverse and two-film reactive transport simulations demonstrated excellent agreement with measured concentrations for 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, dichloromethane, and trichloromethane and fair agreement for dibromochloromethane, bromo-dichloromethane, and toluene. Wetland removal efficiencies from inlet to outlet ranged from 63% to 87% for target compounds.

  6. Native Fluorescence Detection Methods, Devices, and Systems for Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Naphthalene, benzene, toluene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds VOCs have been identified as serious health hazards. Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods and apparatus for near-real-time in-situ detection and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene vapor and other hazardous gaseous VOCs. The methods and apparatus employ excitation of fluorophors native or endogenous to compounds of interest using light sources emitting in the ultraviolet below 300 nm and measurement of native fluorescence emissions in distinct wavebands above the excitation wavelength. The apparatus of some embodiments are cell-phone-sized sensor/dosimeter "badges" to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to hazardous VOCs. The badge sensor of some embodiments provides both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene or other VOCs of interest from which both instantaneous and accumulated dose can be determined.

  7. Prediction of solvation enthalpy of gaseous organic compounds in propanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golmohammadi, Hassan; Dashtbozorgi, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel way for developing quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models to predict the gas-to-propanol solvation enthalpy (Δ H solv) of 95 organic compounds. Different kinds of descriptors were calculated for each compound using the Dragon software package. The variable selection technique of replacement method (RM) was employed to select the optimal subset of solute descriptors. Our investigation reveals that the dependence of physical chemistry properties of solution on solvation enthalpy is nonlinear and that the RM method is unable to model the solvation enthalpy accurately. The results established that the calculated Δ H solv values by SVM were in good agreement with the experimental ones, and the performances of the SVM models were superior to those obtained by RM model.

  8. QSPR Modeling of Bioconcentration Factors of Nonionic Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Omar; Khadikar, Padmakar V.; Goodarzi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The terms bioaccumulation and bioconcentration refer to the uptake and build-up of chemicals that can occur in living organisms. Experimental measurement of bioconcentration is time-consuming and expensive, and is not feasible for a large number of chemicals of potential regulatory concern. A highly effective tool depending on a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) can be utilized to describe the tendency of chemical concentration organisms represented by, the important ecotoxicological parameter, the logarithm of Bio Concentration Factor (log BCF) with molecular descriptors for a large set of non-ionic organic compounds. QSPR models were developed using multiple linear regression, partial least squares and neural networks analyses. Linear and non-linear QSPR models to predict log BCF of the compounds developed for the relevant descriptors. The results obtained offer good regression models having good prediction ability. The descriptors used in these models depend on the volume, connectivity, molar refractivity, surface tension and the presence of atoms accepting H-bonds. PMID:20706622

  9. The German Environmental Survey 1990/92 (GerES II): sources of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Krause, C; Seifert, B; Ullrich, D

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the second German Environmental Survey carried out in the Western part of Germany in 1990/91 (GerES IIa) 113 adults aged 25-69 years were selected at random from the total study population of about 2500 to investigate personal exposure to about 70 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each subject wore a diffusive badge-type sampler for 1 week. The VOCs determined included alkanes, aromatics, aliphatic halocarbons, terpenes, and oxygen-containing compounds. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out to determine and quantify the major sources of personal exposure to various VOCs. In this paper, results are given for benzene, and C8- and C9-aromatics. Being subject to environmental tobacco smoke was found to be the most important determinant of benzene exposure, but automobile-related activities such as driving a car or refuelling, were also associated with significantly increased levels of benzene. The major determinant of C8- and C9-aromatics concentrations was occupational exposure. Emissions from paints, lacquers, newspapers, magazines and print-works were also important contributors to C8-aromatics exposure. Renovation, painting and smoking were associated with a significant increase of the exposure to C9-aromatics.

  10. Differential Accumulation of Volatile Organic Compounds by Leaves and Roots of Two Guianese Philodendron Species, P. fragrantissimum Kunth and P. melinonii Brongn.

    PubMed

    Joffard, Nina; Legendre, Laurent; Gibernau, Marc; Pascal, Laurence

    2016-12-27

    Leaf and root essential oils of two closely related but ecologically distant Philodendron species were extracted in natural conditions in French Guiana and analysed by GC/MS to i) describe the blends of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by those species and ii) analyse species and environment-based variations in extracts composition. A total of 135 VOCs were detected with a majority of aliphatic sesquiterpenes. P. fragrantissimum produced mainly β-bisabolene (on average 29.12% of the extract) as well as α- and β-selinene (14.52% and 17.50%, respectively) while in P. melinonii, four aliphatic sesquiterpenes could alternatively be the main component: (E)-β-farnesene (up to 91.42% of the extract), germacrene-D (73.74%), β-caryophyllene (51.63%) and trans-α-bergamotene (41.26%). A significant effect of species and organs on extracts composition was observed while the environment (sun exposure) only affected the relative proportions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in roots of P. melinonii. These results are discussed in the light of the potential role of leaf and root terpenes in Philodendron species.

  11. Spatial Arrangment of Organic Compounds on a Model Mineral Surface: Implications for Soil Organic Matter Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Petridis, Loukas; Ambaye, Haile Arena; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Kilbey, S. Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Lauter, Valeria; Mayes, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the mineral organic carbon interface may influence the extent of stabilization of organic carbon compounds in soils, which is important for global climate futures. The nanoscale structure of a model interface was examined here by depositing films of organic carbon compounds of contrasting chemical character, hydrophilic glucose and amphiphilic stearic acid, onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3). Neutron reflectometry, a technique which provides depth-sensitive insight into the organization of the thin films, indicates that glucose molecules reside in a layer between Al2O3 and stearic acid, a result that was verified by water contact angle measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the thermodynamic driving force behind glucose partitioning on the mineral interface: The entropic penalty of confining the less mobile glucose on the mineral surface is lower than for stearic acid. The fundamental information obtained here helps rationalize how complex arrangements of organic carbon on soil mineral surfaces may arise

  12. Seeking organic compounds on Mars : in situ analysis of organic compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry on MOMA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Sternberg, R.; Pinnick, V.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P. J.; Rodier, C.; Garnier, C.; Steininger, H.; Moma Team

    2010-12-01

    The search for signs of past or present life is one of the primary goals of future Mars exploratory missions. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment of the ExoMars mission (set to launch 2016-2018) is a joint venture by the European Space Agency and NASA to develop a sensitive detector for organics on Mars. MOMA will be one of the main analytical instruments aboard the ExoMars Rover aimed at characterizing possible “signs-of-life molecules” in the Martian environment such as amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleobases or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). With the aim to separate and detect organic compounds from Martian soil, the French MOMA team has built a gas chromatograph able to work in standalone mode by using a TCD detector. The gas chromatograph can also be coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer developed by the US MOMA team. Moreover, a GC-MS compatible sample processing system (SPS) allowing the extraction and the chemical transformation of the organic compounds from the soil, that fits within space flight conditions, has also been developed. The sample processing is performed in an oven, dedicated to the MOMA experiment containing the solid sample (50-100mg). The internal temperature of oven can be ranged from 20 to 1000 °C which allows for pyrolysis, thermochemolysis or derivatization. The organic extraction step is achieved by using thermodesorption in the range of 100 to 300°C for 0.5 to 5 min. Then, the chemical derivatization and/or thermochemolysis of the extracted compounds is performed directly on the soil with a mixture of MTBSTFA-DMF, TMAH or DMF-DMA solution when enantiomeric separation is required. By decreasing the polarity of the target molecules, this step allows for their volatilization at a temperature below 250°C without any chemical degradation. Once derivatized, the volatile target molecules are trapped in a cold chemical trap and promptly desorbed into the gas chromatograph coupled to the mass

  13. Identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds from a dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipy, Jenny; Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to odor and air quality problems have been identified from the Washington State University Knott Dairy Farm using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eighty-two VOCs were identified at a lactating cow open stall and 73 were detected from a slurry wastewater lagoon. These compounds included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, terpenes, other hydrocarbons, amines, other nitrogen containing compounds, and sulfur-containing compounds. The concentration of VOCs directly associated with cattle waste increased with ambient air temperature, with the highest concentrations present during the summer months. Concentrations of most detected compounds were below published odor detection thresholds. Emission rates of ethanol (1026±513 μg cow -1 s -1) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) (13.8±10.3 μg cow -1 s -1) were measured from the lactating stall area using an atmospheric tracer method and concentrations were plotted using data over a 2-year period. Emission rates of acetone (3.03±0.85 ng cow -1 s -1), 2-butanone (145±35 ng cow -1 s -1), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.46±1.11 ng cow -1 s -1), 2-methyl-3-pentanone (25.1±8.0 ng cow -1 s -1), DMS (2.19±0.92 ng cow -1 s -1), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) (16.1±3.9 ng cow -1 s -1) were measured from the slurry waste lagoon using a laboratory emission chamber.

  14. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ronald J; Andraski, Brian J; Stonestrom, David A; Luo, Wentai

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0-2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m yr. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

  15. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Ronald J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Luo, Wentai

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

  16. Racemization and the origin of optically active organic compounds in living organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    The organic compounds synthesized in prebiotic experiments are racemic mixtures. A number of proposals have been offered to explain how asymmetric organic compounds formed on the Earth before life arose, with the influence of chiral weak nuclear interactions being the most frequent proposal. This and other proposed asymmetric syntheses give only sight enantiomeric excess and any slight excess will be degraded by racemization. This applies particularly to amino acids where half-lives of 10(5)-10(6) years are to be expected at temperatures characteristic of the Earth's surface. Since the generation of chiral molecules could not have been a significant process under geological conditions, the origins of this asymmetry must have occurred at the time of the origin of life or shortly thereafter. It is possible that the compounds in the first living organisms were prochiral rather than chiral; this is unlikely for amino acids, but it is possible for the monomers of RNA-like molecules.

  17. Process for removing an organic compound from water

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Kaschemekat, Jurgen; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Kamaruddin, Henky D.

    1993-12-28

    A process for removing organic compounds from water is disclosed. The process involves gas stripping followed by membrane separation treatment of the stripping gas. The stripping step can be carried out using one or multiple gas strippers and using air or any other gas as stripping gas. The membrane separation step can be carried out using a single-stage membrane unit or a multistage unit. Apparatus for carrying out the process is also disclosed. The process is particularly suited for treatment of contaminated groundwater or industrial wastewater.

  18. Nanostructured Polypyrrole-Based Ammonia and Volatile Organic Compound Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Šetka, Milena; Drbohlavová, Jana; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the fabrication of efficient nanostructured polymer-based sensors with special focus on polypyrrole. The correlation between physico-chemical parameters, mainly morphology of various polypyrrole nanostructures, and their sensitivity towards selected gas and volatile organic compounds (VOC) is provided. The different approaches of polypyrrole modification with other functional materials are also discussed. With respect to possible sensors application in medicine, namely in the diagnosis of diseases via the detection of volatile biomarkers from human breath, the sensor interaction with humidity is described as well. The major attention is paid to analytes such as ammonia and various alcohols. PMID:28287435

  19. Nanostructured Polypyrrole-Based Ammonia and Volatile Organic Compound Sensors.

    PubMed

    Šetka, Milena; Drbohlavová, Jana; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2017-03-10

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the fabrication of efficient nanostructured polymer-based sensors with special focus on polypyrrole. The correlation between physico-chemical parameters, mainly morphology of various polypyrrole nanostructures, and their sensitivity towards selected gas and volatile organic compounds (VOC) is provided. The different approaches of polypyrrole modification with other functional materials are also discussed. With respect to possible sensors application in medicine, namely in the diagnosis of diseases via the detection of volatile biomarkers from human breath, the sensor interaction with humidity is described as well. The major attention is paid to analytes such as ammonia and various alcohols.

  20. Competitive adsorption of organic compounds by microbial biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Selvakumar, A.; Hsieh, H.N. )

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of competitive adsorption of liquid organic compounds on inactive microbial biomass in bisolute solution systems. Phenol-nitrophenol, phenol-chlorophenol, nitrophenol-chlorophenol, and chlorobenzene-ethylbenzene systems were selected for the analysis. The experimental results suggest that although the amount of each solute adsorbed on the biomass can be reduced significantly by the presence of a second solute, the combined adsorptive capacity was greater than that for either of the individual substances from its pure solution. The octanol/water partition coefficient(K{sub ow}) indicates the relative extent of adsorption better than the aqueous solubility(S).

  1. Predicting liquid densities of organic compounds: II, Nitrogen and sulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, G.O.; Weaver, T.B.

    1993-02-01

    Correlations of liquid densities have been extended to more classes of organic compounds. The products of liquid density and molecular weight at or near 20{degrees}C were previously found to be linear functions of the number and types of carbon atoms in the molecule. Cyclic carbon atoms contributed more to density than carbon atoms not part of a ring structure. Carbon atoms which occupy two rings have since been found to contribute even different increments. Additional databases of liquid densities have been set up for compounds with cyclic oxygen atoms, cyclic and noncyclic nitrogen atoms, and cyclic and noncyclic sulfur atoms. Correlation parameters have been obtained by fitting these data by least squares minimization.

  2. Ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material as sorbent for solid-phase extraction of acidic and basic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Chen, Yihui; Ma, Junfeng; Chen, Mingliang; Nie, Chenggang; Hu, Minjie; Li, Ying; Jia, Zhijian; Fang, Jianghua; Gao, Haoqi

    2013-09-20

    A novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) was synthesized by chemical immobilization of ampholine on hybrid organic-inorganic silica material. The ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent is consisted of aliphatic amine groups, carboxyl groups and long carbon chains, allowing for extraction of both acidic and basic compounds. The retention properties of the developed sorbent were evaluated for 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), 1-naphthoic acid (NA), 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), vanillic aldehyde (VA), butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (BHB), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (PHB), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EHB), and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB). The results show that such a sorbent has three types of interaction, i.e., electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonding, exhibiting high extraction efficiency towards the compounds tested. The adsorption capacities of the analytes ranged from 0.61 to 6.54μgmg(-1). The reproducibility of the sorbent preparation was evaluated at three spiking concentration levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0-10.5%. The recoveries of ten acidic and basic compounds spiked in beverage Coca-Cola(®) sample ranged from 82.5% to 98.2% with RSDs less than 5.8%. Under optimum conditions, the ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent rendered higher extraction efficiency for acidic compounds than that of the commercially available ampholine-functionalized silica particles, and was comparable to that of the commercial Oasis WAX and Oasis WCX.

  3. Laboratory Studies of Organic Compounds With Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curchin, J. M.; Clark, R. N.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    In order to properly interpret reflectance spectra of any solar system surface from the earth to the Oort cloud, laboratory spectra of candidate materials for comparative analysis are needed. Although the common cosmochemical species (H2O, CO2, CO, NH3, and CH4) are well represented in the spectroscopic literature, comparatively little reflectance work has been done on organics from room to cryogenic temperatures at visible to near infrared wavelengths. Reflectance spectra not only enhance weak or unseen transmission features, they are also more analogous to spectra obtained by spacecraft that are imaging such bodies as giant planet moons, kuiper belt objects, centaurs, comets and asteroids, as well as remote sensing of the earth. The USGS Spectroscopy Laboratory is measuring reflectance spectra of organic compounds from room to cryogenic temperatures over the spectral range of 0.35 to 15.5 microns. This region encompasses the fundamental absorptions and many overtones and combinations of C, H, O, and N molecular bonds. Because most organic compounds belong to families whose members have similar structure and composition, individual species identification within a narrow wavelength range may be ambiguous. By measuring spectral reflectance of the pure laboratory samples from the visible through the near and mid-infrared, absorption bands unique to each can be observed, cataloged, and compared to planetary reflectance data. We present here spectra of organic compounds belonging to five families: the alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, and cyanides. Common to all of these are the deep C-H stretch fundamental absorptions, which shift shortward from 3.35+ microns in alkanes to 3.25+ microns in aromatics, to 3.2+ microns in alkenes, and down to 3.0+ microns in alkynes. Mid-IR absorptions due to C-H bending deformations at 6.8+ and 7.2+ microns are also identified. In the near infrared these stretching and bending fundamentals yield a diagnostic set of combination

  4. Thermodynamics of Aqueous Organic Sulfur Compounds: A Key to the Organic Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Mitchell; Rogers, Karyn L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Hydrothermal environments are locations of varied geochemistry due to the disequilibrium between vent fluids and seawater. The disequilibrium geochemistry has been hypothesized to include reactions to synthesize organic compounds. Observations of the organic geochemistry of hydrothermal vent sites has received little attention. Experimental simulations of these environments, however, indicate that organic compounds may have difficulty forming in a purely aqueous environment. On the other hand, thiols. thioesters and disulfides have been implicated as reaction intermediates between CO or CO2 in experiments of carbon reduction in hydrothermal environments as well as in a variety of biological processes and other abiotic reactions (Wachtershauser, 1990, OLEB 20, 173; Heinen and Lauwers, 1996, OLEB 26, 13 1, Huber and Wachtershauser, 1997, Science 276, 245; Russell et al., 1998, in Thermophiles: The keys to molecular evolution and the origin of life?). The reduction of CO2 to thiols, for example, is observed using the FeS-H2S/FeS2 couple to provide the reducing power (see Schoonen et al., 1999, OLEB 29, 5). In addition, the enzyme involved in final stage of methanogenesis, coenzyme-M, is itself a thiol. Thus, organic sulfur compounds may hold the key to the organic chemistry leading to the origin of life at high temperatures. Understanding the biochemical processes of microorganisms that can live to temperatures at least as high as 113 C (Blochl et al., 1996, Extremophiles 1, 14) requires knowledge of the properties of the chemical reactions involved. In order to assess the role of aqueous organic sulfur compounds in hydrothermal organic geochemistry, we have been attempting to determine their thermodynamic properties. We have culled the literature to obtain the properties of organic sulfur compounds. We are able to calculate a number of essential properties, such as free energies of formation, from solubility data available in the literature together with standard

  5. Extraction of organic compounds with room temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

    2010-04-16

    Room temperature ionic liquids are novel solvents with a rather specific blend of physical and solution properties that makes them of interest for applications in separation science. They are good solvents for a wide range of compounds in which they behave as polar solvents. Their physical properties of note that distinguish them from conventional organic solvents are a negligible vapor pressure, high thermal stability, and relatively high viscosity. They can form biphasic systems with water or low polarity organic solvents and gases suitable for use in liquid-liquid and gas-liquid partition systems. An analysis of partition coefficients for varied compounds in these systems allows characterization of solvent selectivity using the solvation parameter model, which together with spectroscopic studies of solvent effects on probe substances, results in a detailed picture of solvent behavior. These studies indicate that the solution properties of ionic liquids are similar to those of polar organic solvents. Practical applications of ionic liquids in sample preparation include extractive distillation, aqueous biphasic systems, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, matrix solvents for headspace analysis, and micellar extraction. The specific advantages and limitations of ionic liquids in these studies is discussed with a view to defining future uses and the need not to neglect the identification of new room temperature ionic liquids with physical and solution properties tailored to the needs of specific sample preparation techniques. The defining feature of the special nature of ionic liquids is not their solution or physical properties viewed separately but their unique combinations when taken together compared with traditional organic solvents.

  6. 76 FR 4835 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Organic Compound Reinforced Plastics Composites Production Operations Rule AGENCY: Environmental... control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from reinforced plastic composites production... plastic composites production operations. This rule is approvable because it satisfies the...

  7. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The resulting particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate ...

  8. Dynamic behavior of semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, Michael David Van

    1998-12-09

    Exposures to a wide range of air pollutants are often dominated by those occurring in buildings because of three factors: 1) most people spend a large fraction of their time indoors, 2) many pollutants have strong indoor sources, and 3) the dilution volume in buildings is generally several orders of magnitude smaller than that of an urban airshed. Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCS) are emitted by numerous indoor sources, including tobacco combustion, cooking, carpets, paints, resins, and glues, so indoor gasphase concentrations of these compounds are likely to be elevated relative to ambient levels. The rates of uptake and release of reversibly sorbing SVOCS by indoor materials directly affect both peak concentrations and persistence of the pollutants indoors after source elimination. Thus, accurate predictions of SVOC dynamics in indoor air require an understanding of contaminant sorption on surface materials such as carpet and wallboard. The dynamic behaviors of gas-phase nicotine and phenanthrene were investigated in a 20 ms stainless steel chamber containing carpet and painted wallboard. Each compound was studied independently, first in the empty chamber, then with each sorbent individually, and finally with both sorbents in the chamber.

  9. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joan W.; Inamdar, Arati A.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that “volatoxin” might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties. PMID:26402705

  10. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research1

    PubMed Central

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant–plant and plant–insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  11. Are Some Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Mycotoxins?

    PubMed

    Bennett, Joan W; Inamdar, Arati A

    2015-09-22

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon-compounds that easily evaporate at room temperature. Toxins are biologically produced poisons; mycotoxins are those toxins produced by microscopic fungi. All fungi emit blends of VOCs; the qualitative and quantitative composition of these volatile blends varies with the species of fungus and the environmental situation in which the fungus is grown. These fungal VOCs, produced as mixtures of alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ethers, esters, ketones, terpenes, thiols and their derivatives, are responsible for the characteristic moldy odors associated with damp indoor spaces. There is increasing experimental evidence that some of these VOCs have toxic properties. Laboratory tests in mammalian tissue culture and Drosophila melanogaster have shown that many single VOCs, as well as mixtures of VOCs emitted by growing fungi, have toxic effects. This paper describes the pros and cons of categorizing toxigenic fungal VOCs as mycotoxins, uses genomic data to expand on the definition of mycotoxin, and summarizes some of the linguistic and other conventions that can create barriers to communication between the scientists who study VOCs and those who study toxins. We propose that "volatoxin" might be a useful term to describe biogenic volatile compounds with toxigenic properties.

  12. Modeling Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from New Carpets

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J.C.; Hodgson, A.T.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1993-02-01

    A simple model is proposed to account for observed emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from new carpets. The model assumes that the VOCs originate predominantly in a uniform slab of polymer backing material. Parameters for the model (the initial concentration of a VOC in the polymer, a diffusion coefficient and an equilibrium polymer/air partition coefficient) are obtained from experimental data produced by a previous chamber study. The diffusion coefficients generally decrease as the molecular weight of the VOCs increase, while the polymer/air partition coefficients generally increase as the vapor pressure of the compounds decrease. In addition, for two of the study carpets that have a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) backing, the diffusion and partition coefficients are similar to independently reported values for SBR. The results suggest that predictions of VOCs emissions from new carpets may be possible based solely on a knowledge of the physical properties of the relevant compounds and the carpet backing material. However, a more rigorous validation of the model is desirable.

  13. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from new carpets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, John C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    A simple model is proposed to account for observed emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from new carpets. The model assumes that the VOCs originate predominantly in a uniform slab of polymer backing material. Parameters for the model (the initial concentration of a VOC in the polymer, a diffusion coefficient and an equilibrium polymer/air partition coefficient) are obtained from experimental data produced by a previous chamber study. The diffusion coefficients generally decrease as the molecular weight of the VOCs increase, while the partition coefficients generally increase as the vapor pressure of the compounds decreases. In addition, for two of the study carpets that have a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) backing, the diffusion and partition coefficients are similar to independently reported values for SBR. The results suggest that prediction of VOC emissions from new carpets may be possible based solely on a knowledge of the physical properties of the relevant compounds and the carpet backing material. However, a more rigorous validation of the model is desirable.

  14. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research.

    PubMed

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant-plant and plant-insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies.

  15. Organic marker compounds in surface soils of crop fields from the San Joaquin Valley fugitive dust characterization study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Fugitive dust from the erosion of arid and fallow land, after harvest and during agricultural activities, can at times be the dominant source of airborne particulate matter. In order to assess the source contributions to a given site, chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling is typically used together with source-specific profiles for organic and inorganic constituents. Yet, the mass balance closure can be achieved only if emission profiles for all major sources are considered. While a higher degree of mass balance closure has been achieved by adding individual organic marker compounds to elements, ions, EC, and organic carbon (OC), major source profiles for fugitive dust are not available. Consequently, neither the exposure of the population living near fugitive dust sources from farm land, nor its chemical composition is known. Surface soils from crop fields are enriched in plant detritus from both above and below ground plant parts; therefore, surface soil dust contains natural organic compounds from the crops and soil microbiota. Here, surface soils derived from fields growing cotton, safflower, tomato, almonds, and grapes have been analyzed for more than 180 organic compounds, including natural lipids, saccharides, pesticides, herbicides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The major result of this study is that selective biogenically derived organic compounds are suitable markers of fugitive dust from major agricultural crop fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Aliphatic homologs exhibit the typical biogenic signatures of epicuticular plant waxes and are therefore indicative of fugitive dust emissions and mechanical abrasion of wax protrusions from leaf surfaces. Saccharides, among which α- and β-glucose, sucrose, and mycose show the highest concentrations in surface soils, have been proposed to be generic markers for fugitive dust from cultivated land. Similarly, steroids are strongly indicative of fugitive dust. Yet, triterpenoids reveal the most

  16. Temporal variability measurement of specific volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pleil, J.D.; McClenny, W.A.; Oliver, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Methodology was developed to determine unambiguously trace levels of volatile organic compounds as they vary in concentration over a variety of time scales. This capability is important because volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are usually measured by time-integrative techniques that average peak exposures to insignificance. The specific method involves a preprogrammed sequential syringe sampler that can fill 150-cu cm syringes with air at rates of 2 to 90 min per syringe. The 12 collected samples are then transported to the laboratory for fully automated gas-chromatographic separation with mass spectrometric detection. The instrumentation and method are described, and representative results are given to document the variability in VOC concentrations in situations such as use of household products and water outgassing in residential air, automobiles during driving, and office indoor air that is subject to ventilation system cycling. The method is shown to perform automatically in both sampling and analytical modes. Contamination and sample integrity tests show typical precision to be about 10% relative standard deviation. Field tests show that VOC concentrations can vary by greater than an order of magnitude on different time scales.

  17. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires.

    PubMed

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Centritto, Mauro; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem.

  18. Volatile organic compounds in storm water from a parking lot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Rutherford, D.W.; Hiatt, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    A mass balance approach was used to determine the most important nonpoint source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in storm water from an asphalt parking lot without obvious point sources (e.g., gasoline stations). The parking lot surface and atmosphere are important nonpoint sources of VOCs, with each being important for different VOCs. The atmosphere is an important source of soluble, oxygenated VOCs (e.g., acetone), and the parking lot surface is an important source for the more hydrophobic VOCs (e.g., benzene). VOCs on the parking lot surface appear to be concentrated in oil and grease and organic material in urban particles (e.g., vehicle soot). Except in the case of spills, asphalt does not appear to be an important source of VOCs. The uptake isotherm of gaseous methyl tert-butyl ether on urban particles indicates a mechanism for dry deposition of VOCs from the atmosphere. This study demonstrated that a mass balance approach is a useful means of understanding non-point-source pollution, even for compounds such as VOCs, which are difficult to sample.

  19. Anti-photoaging and Photoprotective Compounds Derived from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Pallela, Ramjee; Na-Young, Yoon; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms form a prominent component of the oceanic population, which significantly contribute in the production of cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical molecules with biologically efficient moieties. In addition to the molecules of various biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative etc., these organisms also produce potential photoprotective or anti-photoaging agents, which are attracting present day researchers. Continuous exposure to UV irradiation (both UV-A and UV-B) leads to the skin cancer and other photoaging complications, which are typically mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated in the oxidative pathways. Many of the anti-oxidative and anti-photoaging compounds have been identified previously, which work efficiently against photodamage of the skin. Recently, marine originated photoprotective or anti-photoaging behavior was observed in the methanol extracts of Corallina pilulifera (CPM). These extracts were found to exert potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UV-A-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells by protecting DNA and also by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to UV-A. The present review depicts various other photoprotective compounds from algae and other marine sources for further elaborative research and their probable use in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:20479974

  20. Evaporation of volatile organic compounds from human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Rachna M; Miller, Matthew A; Kasting, Gerald B

    2013-08-01

    The specific evaporation rates of 21 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from either human skin or a glass substrate mounted in modified Franz diffusion cells were determined gravimetrically. The diffusion cells were positioned either on a laboratory bench top or in a controlled position in a fume hood, simulating indoor and outdoor environments, respectively. A data set of 54 observations (34 skin and 20 glass) was assembled and subjected to a correlation analysis employing 5 evaporative mass transfer relationships drawn from the literature. Models developed by Nielsen et al. (Prediction of isothermal evaporation rates of pure volatile organic compounds in occupational environments: a theoretical approach based on laminar boundary layer theory. Ann Occup Hyg 1995;39:497-511.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Peress, Estimate evaporative losses from spills. Chem Eng Prog 2003; April: 32-34.) were found to be the most effective at correlating observed and calculated evaporation rates under the various conditions. The U.S. EPA model was selected for further use based on its simplicity. This is a turbulent flow model based only on vapor pressure and molecular weight of the VOC and the effective air flow rate u. Optimum values of u for the two laboratory environments studied were 0.23 m s(-1) (bench top) and 0.92 m s(-1) (fume hood).

  1. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires

    PubMed Central

    CICCIOLI, PAOLO; CENTRITTO, MAURO; LORETO, FRANCESCO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. PMID:24689733

  2. Diagnosing gastrointestinal illnesses using fecal headspace volatile organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Daniel K; Leggett, Cadman L; Wang, Kenneth K

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from stool are the components of the smell of stool representing the end products of microbial activity and metabolism that can be used to diagnose disease. Despite the abundance of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane that have already been identified in human flatus, the small portion of trace gases making up the VOCs emitted from stool include organic acids, alcohols, esters, heterocyclic compounds, aldehydes, ketones, and alkanes, among others. These are the gases that vary among individuals in sickness and in health, in dietary changes, and in gut microbial activity. Electronic nose devices are analytical and pattern recognition platforms that can utilize mass spectrometry or electrochemical sensors to detect these VOCs in gas samples. When paired with machine-learning and pattern recognition algorithms, this can identify patterns of VOCs, and thus patterns of smell, that can be used to identify disease states. In this review, we provide a clinical background of VOC identification, electronic nose development, and review gastroenterology applications toward diagnosing disease by the volatile headspace analysis of stool. PMID:26819529

  3. Diagnosing gastrointestinal illnesses using fecal headspace volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel K; Leggett, Cadman L; Wang, Kenneth K

    2016-01-28

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from stool are the components of the smell of stool representing the end products of microbial activity and metabolism that can be used to diagnose disease. Despite the abundance of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane that have already been identified in human flatus, the small portion of trace gases making up the VOCs emitted from stool include organic acids, alcohols, esters, heterocyclic compounds, aldehydes, ketones, and alkanes, among others. These are the gases that vary among individuals in sickness and in health, in dietary changes, and in gut microbial activity. Electronic nose devices are analytical and pattern recognition platforms that can utilize mass spectrometry or electrochemical sensors to detect these VOCs in gas samples. When paired with machine-learning and pattern recognition algorithms, this can identify patterns of VOCs, and thus patterns of smell, that can be used to identify disease states. In this review, we provide a clinical background of VOC identification, electronic nose development, and review gastroenterology applications toward diagnosing disease by the volatile headspace analysis of stool.

  4. Investigation of membrane fouling in ultrafiltration using model organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kweon, J H; Lawler, D F

    2005-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is known to be the worst foulant in the membrane processes, but the complexities of NOM make it difficult to determine its effects on membrane fouling. Therefore, simple organic compounds (surrogates for NOM) were used in this research to investigate the fouling mechanisms in ultrafiltration. Previous research on NOM components in membrane processes indicated that polysaccharides formed an important part of the fouling cake. Three polysaccharides (dextran, alginic acid, and polygalacturonic acid) and a smaller carbohydrate (tannic acid) were evaluated for their removal in softening (the treatment process in the City of Austin). Two polysaccharides (dextran and alginic acid) were selected and further investigated for their effects on membrane fouling. The two raw organic waters (4 mg/L C) showed quite different patterns of flux decline indicating different fouling mechanisms. Softening pretreatment was effective to reduce flux decline of both waters. The SEM images of the fouled membrane clearly showed the shapes of deposited foulants. The high resolution results of the XPS spectra showed substantially different spectra of carbon, C(1s), in the membrane fouled by two raw organic waters. The XPS was beneficial in determining the relative composition of each fouling material on the membrane surface.

  5. Sorption characteristics of organic compounds on hexadecyltrimethylammonium-smectite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Stephen A.; Mortland, Max M.; Chiou, Cary T.

    1988-01-01

    When hexadedyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) ion is exchanged for metal cations like calcium in smectite, the sorptive properties of the clay are greatly modified. The resultant HDTMA-smectite complex behaves as a dual sorbent, in the sorption of organic compounds, in which the mineral fraction functions as a solid adsorbent and the organic (HDTMA) phase as a partition medium. Capacities of mineral adsorption and partition uptake by HDTMA in the HDTMA-smectites are illustrated by sorption of benzene, trichloroethene (TCE), and water as vapors on the dry sample and by sorption of benzene and TCE from water. The exchanged HDTMA in clay is found to be a much more powerful partition medium than ordinary soil organic matter in the uptake of benzene and TCE. Based on this finding, HDTMA-smectite appears to be an effective sorbent for removing organic contaminants from water. It is suggested that such sorptive organo-clay complexes could be used to enhance the containment capabilities of clay landfill liners and bentonite slurry walls.

  6. Chiral Analyses of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Characterization of Tagish Lake organic content. The first two grant years were largely devoted to the molecular and isotopic analyses of Tagish Lake organic composition. This carbonaceous meteorite fell in Canada in the winter of the year 2000, and its exceptional atmospheric entry and subsequent recovery (e. g., the sample was recovered and stored by avoiding hand contact and above freezing temperatures) contributed in providing a rare and pristine extraterrestrial material. 2. Chiral analyses of Murchison and Murray soluble organics. One of the most intriguing finding in regard to soluble meteorite organics is the presence within the amino acid suite of some compounds displaying L-enantiomeric excesses. This configuration is exclusive in the amino acids of terrestrial proteins and the finding has raised speculations of a possible role of amino acids from meteorites in the origin of homochirality on the early Earth. The main objective for this NASA funding was the characterization of enantiomeric excesses in meteorites and we have conducted several studies toward establishing their distribution and indignity.

  7. Development and Mining of a Volatile Organic Compound Database

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Azian Azamimi; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md.; Ono, Naoaki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Morita, Aki Hirai; Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Muto, Ai; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are small molecules that exhibit high vapor pressure under ambient conditions and have low boiling points. Although VOCs contribute only a small proportion of the total metabolites produced by living organisms, they play an important role in chemical ecology specifically in the biological interactions between organisms and ecosystems. VOCs are also important in the health care field as they are presently used as a biomarker to detect various human diseases. Information on VOCs is scattered in the literature until now; however, there is still no available database describing VOCs and their biological activities. To attain this purpose, we have developed KNApSAcK Metabolite Ecology Database, which contains the information on the relationships between VOCs and their emitting organisms. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Ecology is also linked with the KNApSAcK Core and KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity Database to provide further information on the metabolites and their biological activities. The VOC database can be accessed online. PMID:26495281

  8. Gas chromatographic determination of water in organic compounds and of organic compounds in water after steam distillations

    SciTech Connect

    Dix, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID) is shown to be effective in the determination of water in organic compounds. Since the FID gives little response for water, a reaction is needed to convert water into a detectable species. The ketal, 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP), reacts quantitatively with water to yield the products methanol and acetone when an acid catalyst is present. Acetone is easily determined with a GC equipped with a capillary column and FID. A solid acid catalyst, Nafion, has been effective and is easily separated before sample introduction into the GC.

  9. Changes in the compound classes of dissolved organic matter along an estuarine transect: A study using FTIR and 13C NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Dias, Robert F.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, we use Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 13C NMR) data to quantify the changes of major chemical compound classes (carboxylic acid, amide, ester, aliphatic, aromatic and carbohydrate) in high molecular weight (HMW, >1 kDa) dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated along a transect through the Elizabeth River/Chesapeake Bay system to the coastal Atlantic Ocean off Virginia, USA. Results show that carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds are lost along the transect, while HMW DOC becomes enriched in carbohydrate moieties that could have a mid-transect source, perhaps the intensive red tide bloom ( Choclodinium polykrikoides) which occurred during our sampling period. Taking the second derivative of the FTIR spectra resolved three pools of de-protonated carboxylic acids at our Dismal Swamp site (used to represent terrestrial organic matter in this area): one carboxylic acid pool, complexed with iron, seems to be lost between the Dismal Swamp and river sites; the second appears biogeochemically active throughout the riverine transect, disappearing in the coastal ocean sample; the third seems refractory, with the potential to be transported to and to accumulate within the open ocean. Five-member ring esters (γ-lactones) were the major ester form in the Dismal Swamp; aliphatic and acetate esters were the dominant esters in the estuary/marine DOM. No amide groups were detectable in Dismal Swamp DOM; secondary amides were present at the estuarine/marine sites. Coupling FTIR with 13C NMR provides new insights into the biogeochemical roles of carboxylic acid, amide and ester compounds in aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Microbial Fuel Cell Transformation of Recalcitrant Organic Compounds in Support of Biosensor Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Microbial Fuel Cell Transformation of Recalcitrant Organic Compounds in Support of Biosensor ...in the United States. AFIT-ENV-14-M-62 Microbial Fuel Cell Transformation of Recalcitrant Organic Compounds in Support of Biosensor Research...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENV-14-M-62 Microbial Fuel Cell Transformation of Recalcitrant Organic Compounds in Support of Biosensor Research Marc

  12. 75 FR 82363 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound... printing volatile organic compound (VOC) rule for approval into the Ohio State Implementation Plan (SIP..., Volatile organic compounds. Dated: December 17, 2010. Bharat Mathur, Acting Regional Administrator,...

  13. 78 FR 11119 - Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds-Exclusion of trans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AQ38 Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The EPA is proposing to revise the definition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: February 4, 2013. Lisa...

  14. 75 FR 24404 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Organic Compound Automobile Refinishing Rules for Indiana AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... approved volatile organic compound (VOC) automobile refinishing rules to all persons in Indiana who sell or..., Volatile organic compounds. Dated: March 31, 2010. Walter W. Kovalick Jr., Acting Regional...

  15. Biogeochemical processes governing exposure and uptake of organic pollutant compounds in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, J W

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge of biogeochemical cycles of pollutant organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems with a focus on coastal ecosystems. There is a bias toward discussing chemical and geochemical aspects of biogeochemical cycles and an emphasis on hydrophobic organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated organic compounds used as pesticides. The complexity of mixtures of pollutant organic compounds, their various modes of entering ecosystems, and their physical chemical forms are discussed. Important factors that influence bioavailability and disposition (e.g., organism-water partitioning, uptake via food, food web transfer) are reviewed. These factors include solubilities of chemicals; partitioning of chemicals between solid surfaces, colloids, and soluble phases; variables rates of sorption, desorption; and physiological status of organism. It appears that more emphasis on considering food as a source of uptake and bioaccumulation is important in benthic and epibenthic ecosystems when sediment-associated pollutants are a significant source of input to an aquatic ecosystem. Progress with mathematical models for exposure and uptake of contaminant chemicals is discussed briefly. PMID:1904812

  16. Occurrence of volatile organic compounds in shallow alluvial aquifers of a Mediterranean region: Baseline scenario and ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, T; Borgoni, R; Ambrosini, R; Cifoni, M; Galassi, D M P; Petitta, M

    2015-12-15

    A regional survey of eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), namely BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene) and four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs: chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene), was carried out at 174 sites, in 17 alluvial aquifers of Abruzzo, a Mediterranean region of southern Italy, from 2004 to 2009. Frequency of detection, concentration range, spatial distribution pattern, and temporal trend of contaminant concentration in each aquifer were analyzed as well as the relationships between VOC concentrations and the total amount of precipitation during the 90days preceding each sampling date. A review of published ecotoxicological data, providing an indication of the biological risk associated with the observed levels of VOC contamination, was presented and discussed. BTEX concentrations were under detection limits in all the investigated aquifers, indicating absence of contamination. In contrast, CAH contamination occurred in 14 out of 17 aquifers. The two most frequently detected compounds were chloroform and tetrachloroethene. No significant temporal trend was observed for chloroform and tetrachloroethene concentrations during the six years of observation, indicating the persistence of stable contaminations, except for some slightly decreasing trends observed in three out of 17 aquifers. In four aquifers chloroform and tetrachloroethene concentrations increased with precipitations in the preceding months. Spatial patterns of contamination differed among aquifers, indicating highly complex contaminant distributions at aquifer scale not related to single-plume geometries. Patterns of contamination by chloroform and tetrachloroethene in the most urbanized aquifers were likely associated with multiple sources of VOCs not clearly detectable at the scale used in this study. In five out of 17 aquifers, chloroform and tetrachloroethene co-occurred at concentrations that are lethal to groundwater

  17. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage.

  18. Project Summary. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the potential of an innovative approach to aquifer restoration: enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (...

  19. Influence of Biodegradation on the Organic Compounds Composition of Peat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrennikova, Olga; Svarovskaya, Lidiya; Duchko, Maria; Strelnikova, Evgeniya; Russkikh, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Largest wetland systems are situated on the territory of the Tomsk region. They are characterized by the high content of organic matter (OM), which undergoes transformation as a result of physical, chemical and biological processes. The composition of peat OM is determined by the nature of initial peat-forming plants, their transformation products and bacteria. An experiment in stimulated microbial impact was carried out for estimating the influence of biodegradation on the composition of peat lipids. The composition of the functional groups in the bacterial biomass, initial peat and peat after biodegradation was determined by IR-spectroscopy using the spectrometer NICOLET 5700. The IR spectra of peat and bacteria organic matter are characterized by the presence of absorption bands in ranges: 3400-3200 cm-1, which refers to the stretching vibrations of OH-group of carboxylic acids and various types of hydrogen bonds; 1738-1671 cm-1 - characteristic stretching vibrations of the C = O group of carboxylic acids and ketones; 1262 cm-1 - stretching vibrations of C-O of carboxylic acids. Group and individual composition of organic compounds in studied samples was determined by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry.

  20. Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds and Oligomers in Secondary Organic Aerosol Formed by Photooxidation of Isoprene

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Serguei

    2011-07-06

    Electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI HR-MS) was used to probe molecular structures of oligomers in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated in laboratory experiments on isoprene photooxidation at low- and high-NOx conditions. Up to 80-90% of the observed products are oligomers and up to 33% are nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC). We observe oligomers with up to 8 monomer units in length. Tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) confirms NOC compounds are organic nitrates and elucidates plausible chemical building blocks contributing to oligomer formation. Most organic nitrates are comprised of methylglyceric acid units. Other important multifunctional C2-C5 monomer units are identified including methylglyoxal, hydroxyacetone, hydroxyacetic acid, glycolaldehyde, and 2-methyltetrols. The majority of the NOC oligomers contain only one nitrate moiety resulting in a low average N:C ratio of 0.019. Average O:C ratios of the detected SOA compounds are 0.54 under the low-NOx conditions and 0.83 under the high-NOx conditions. Our results underscore the importance of isoprene photooxidation as a source of NOC in organic particulate matter.

  1. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments of the Mediterranean: assessment and source recognition of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Sadaawy, Manal M; Khaled, Azza; Draz, Suzanne O

    2013-06-01

    Coastal marine sediment samples were collected from ten sampling stations along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast in April 2010. All sediment samples were analyzed for aliphatic (C7 to C34) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) contents and grain size analysis. Total aliphatic hydrocarbons ranged from 1621.82 to 9069.99 ng/g (dry weight), while aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs) varied between 208.69 and 1020.02 ng/g with an average of 530.68 ± 225.86 ng/g dwt. Good correlations observed between certain PAH concentrations allowed to identify its origin. The average TOC percent was varied from 0.13 to 1.46 %. Principal component analysis was used to determine the sources of hydrocarbon pollutants in sediments of Mediterranean. Additionally, special PAHs compound ratios suggest the petrogenic origins.

  2. Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3 + biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, B. R.; Allen, H. M.; Draper, D. C.; Brown, S. S.; Wild, R. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Day, D. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Hu, W.; de Gouw, J.; Koss, A.; Cohen, R. C.; Duffey, K. C.; Romer, P.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E.; Takahama, S.; Thornton, J. A.; Lee, B. H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Nguyen, T. B.; Teng, A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Olson, K.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Gas- and aerosol-phase measurements of oxidants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and organic nitrates made during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS campaign, Summer 2013) in central Alabama show that a nitrate radical (NO3) reaction with monoterpenes leads to significant secondary aerosol formation. Cumulative losses of NO3 to terpenes are correlated with increase in gas- and aerosol-organic nitrate concentrations made during the campaign. Correlation of NO3 radical consumption to organic nitrate aerosol formation as measured by aerosol mass spectrometry and thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence suggests a molar yield of aerosol-phase monoterpene nitrates of 23-44 %. Compounds observed via chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) are correlated to predicted nitrate loss to BVOCs and show C10H17NO5, likely a hydroperoxy nitrate, is a major nitrate-oxidized terpene product being incorporated into aerosols. The comparable isoprene product C5H9NO5 was observed to contribute less than 1 % of the total organic nitrate in the aerosol phase and correlations show that it is principally a gas-phase product from nitrate oxidation of isoprene. Organic nitrates comprise between 30 and 45 % of the NOy budget during SOAS. Inorganic nitrates were also monitored and showed that during incidents of increased coarse-mode mineral dust, HNO3 uptake produced nitrate aerosol mass loading at a rate comparable to that of organic nitrate produced via NO3 + BVOCs.

  3. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar.

    PubMed

    Spokas, Kurt A; Novak, Jeffrey M; Stewart, Catherine E; Cantrell, Keri B; Uchimiya, Minori; Dusaire, Martin G; Ro, Kyoung S

    2011-10-01

    Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs can directly inhibit/stimulate microbial and plant processes. Over 70 biochars encompassing a variety of parent feedstocks and manufacturing processes were evaluated and were observed to possess diverse sorbed VOC composition. There were over 140 individual chemical compounds thermally desorbed from some biochars, with hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and fast pyrolysis biochars typically possessing the greatest number of sorbed volatiles. In contrast, gasification, thermal or chemical processed biochars, soil kiln mound, and open pit biochars possessed low to non-detectable levels of VOCs. Slow pyrolysis biochars were highly variable in terms of their sorbed VOC content. There were no clear feedstock dependencies to the sorbed VOC composition, suggesting a stronger linkage with biochar production conditions coupled to post-production handling and processing. Lower pyrolytic temperatures (⩽350°C) produced biochars with sorbed VOCs consisting of short carbon chain aldehydes, furans and ketones; elevated temperature biochars (>350°C) typically were dominated by sorbed aromatic compounds and longer carbon chain hydrocarbons. The presence of oxygen during pyrolysis also reduced sorbed VOCs. These compositional results suggest that sorbed VOCs are highly variable and that their chemical dissimilarity could play a role in the wide variety of plant and soil microbial responses to biochar soil amendment noted in the literature. This variability in VOC composition may argue for VOC characterization before land application to predict possible agroecosystem effects.

  4. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Lehtinen, Jenni; Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most

  5. Organic waste compounds as contaminants in Milwaukee-area streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Magruder, Christopher; Magruder, Matthew; Bruce, Jennifer L.

    2015-09-22

    Organic waste compounds (OWCs) are ingredients and by-products of common agricultural, industrial, and household substances that can contaminate our streams through sources like urban runoff, sewage overflows, and leaking septic systems. To better understand how OWCs are affecting Milwaukee-area streams, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District, conducted a three-year study to investigate the presence and potential toxicity of 69 OWCs in base flow, stormflow, pore water, and sediment at 14 stream sites and 3 Milwaukee harbor locations. This fact sheet summarizes the major findings of this study, including detection frequencies and concentrations, potential toxicity, the prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the influence of urbanization.

  6. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Pressley, S.; Allwine, Eugene J.; Westberg, Halvor; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Prazeller, Peter; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.

    2005-10-19

    Direct measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that include all anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in urban areas are a missing requirement to evaluate emission inventories and constrain current photochemical modelling practices. Here we demonstrate the use of micrometeorological techniques coupled with fast-response sensors to measure urban VOC fluxes from a neighborhood of Mexico City, where the spatial variability of surface cover and roughness is high. Fluxes of olefins, methanol, acetone, toluene and C2-benzenes were measured and compared with the local gridded emission inventory. VOC fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal pattern with a strong relationship to vehicular traffic. Recent photochemical modeling results suggest that VOC emissions are significantly underestimated in Mexico City1, but the measured VOC fluxes described here indicate that the official emission inventory2 is essentially correct. Thus, other explanations are needed to explain the photochemical modelling results.

  7. Subjective reactions to volatile organic compounds as air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, Lars; Grønkjær, John; Larsen, Søren

    Human subjective reactions to indoor air pollution in the form of volatile organic compounds in five concentrations ⩽ mg m -3 were examined in a climate chamber under controlled conditions in a balanced experimental design. The reactions of 25 subjects were registered in two questionnaires containing 25 and six questions and on a linear analogue rating scale. Each subject was tested for one day including four runs in each of the five treatments of 50 min duration. Dose effects were found for perceived odour intensity at 3 mgm -3. Air quality, need for ventilation, irritation of eye and nose showed significant effect at 8 mg m -3. Significant reduced well being was reported at 25 mgm -3. The analyses indicated that lower threshold for some of these effects would have been found if more subjects or longer exposure-times had been used. Gender, age, occupational education and smoking habits were co-factors for many of the symptoms reported.

  8. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, A. S.; Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Trabue, S.; Middala, S. R.; Ashkan, S.; Scoggin, K.; Vu, K. K.; Addala, L.; Olea, C.; Nana, L.; Scruggs, A. K.; Steele, J.; Shelton, T. C.; Osborne, B.; McHenry, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dairy facilities are thought to be an important contributor to high ozone levels in Central California, but emissions inventories from these sources contain significant uncertainties. In this work, VOC emissions were measured at two Central California dairies during 2010 and 2011. Isolation flux chambers were used to measure direct emissions from specific dairy sources, and upwind/downwind ambient profiles were measured from ground level up to heights of 60 m. Samples were collected using a combination of canisters and sorbent tubes, and were analyzed by GC-MS. Additional in-situ measurements were made using infra-red photoaccoustic detectors and Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. Temperature and ozone profiles up to 250 m above ground level were also measured using a tethersonde. Substantial fluxes of a number of VOCs including alcohols, volatile fatty acids and esters were observed at both sites. Implications of these measurements for regional air quality will be discussed.

  9. Organic volatile sulfur compounds in inland aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The speciation, concentration, and fluxes of organic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in a wide variety of inland aquatic systems wee studied. Dissolved VSCs were sparged from water samples, trapped cryogenically, and quantified by gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Species detected and mean surface water concentrations were: carbonyl sulfide (COS), 0.091-7.6 nM; methanethiol (MSH), undetected-180 nM; dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 0.48-1290 nM; carbon disulfide (CS[sub 2]), undetected-69 nM; dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), undetected-68 nM. The range in surface water concentrations of over five orders of magnitude was influenced principally by lake depth and sulfate concentration ([SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  10. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  11. Volatile Organic Compound Optical Fiber Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Elosua, Cesar; Matias, Ignacio R.; Bariain, Candido; Arregui, Francisco J.

    2006-01-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) detection is a topic of growing interest with applications in diverse fields, ranging from environmental uses to the food or chemical industries. Optical fiber VOC sensors offering new and interesting properties which overcame some of the inconveniences found on traditional gas sensors appeared over two decades ago. Thanks to its minimum invasive nature and the advantages that optical fiber offers such as light weight, passive nature, low attenuation and the possibility of multiplexing, among others, these sensors are a real alternative to electronic ones in electrically noisy environments where electronic sensors cannot operate correctly. In the present work, a classification of these devices has been made according to the sensing mechanism and taking also into account the sensing materials or the different methods of fabrication. In addition, some solutions already implemented for the detection of VOCs using optical fiber sensors will be described with detail.

  12. Source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Shao, Min; Liu, Ying; Lu, Sihua; Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul; Xie, Shaodong

    2007-06-15

    The ambient air quality standard for ozone is frequently exceeded in Beijing in summer and autumn. Source apportionments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are precursors of ground-level ozone formation, can be helpful to the further study of tropospheric ozone formation. In this study, ambient concentrations of VOCs were continuously measured with a time resolution of 30 min in August 2005 in Beijing. By using positive matrix factorization (PMF), eight sources for the selected VOC species were extracted. Gasoline-related emissions (the combination of gasoline exhaust and gas vapor), petrochemicals, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contributed 52, 20, and 11%, respectively, to total ambient VOCs. VOC emissions from natural gas (5%), painting (5%), diesel vehicles (3%), and biogenic emissions (2%) were also identified. The gasoline-related, petrochemical, and biogenic sources were estimated to be the major contributors to ozone formation potentials in Beijing.

  13. Solid-phase genotoxicity assay for organic compounds in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.R.; Chung, N.; Alexander, M.

    1999-03-01

    A genotoxicity assay was developed for samples from environments in which toxic organic compounds are largely sorbed. The assay entails measurement of the rate of mutation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida to rifampicin resistance. The ratio of induced to spontaneous mutants was a function of the concentration of a test mutagen in soil. In studies of the utility of the assay in samples amended with 2-aminofluorene as a test mutagen, the ratio of induced to spontaneous mutants declined with time. The decline paralleled the disappearance of extractable 2-aminofluorene from the soil. The ratio of induced to spontaneous mutants also feel in four other soils with dissimilar properties. The authors suggest that this solid-phase assay is more appropriate for the estimation of genotoxicants sorbed in soil than assays involving extractants or suspensions of soil or sediment samples.

  14. In situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and other organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1999-11-01

    From supertanker oil spills to the leaking underground storage tank at the corner gas station, contamination from petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and other organic compounds is an environmental concern that affects nearly every small hamlet and major metropolis throughout the world. Most petroleum hydrocarbons are amenable to biodegradation, and a considerable body of experience has been built up over the past two decades in applying in situ bioremediation to a variety of contaminants in all media. This volume provides a comprehensive guide to the latest technological breakthroughs in both the laboratory and the field, covering such topics as air sparging, co-metabolic biodegradation, treatment of MTBE, real-time control systems, nutrient addition, rapid biosensor analysis, multiphase extraction, and accelerated bioremediation.

  15. In situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and other organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1999-01-01

    From supertanker oil spills to the leaking underground storage tank at the corner gas station, contamination from petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and other organic compounds is an environmental concern that affects nearly every small hamlet and major metropolis throughout the world. Most petroleum hydrocarbons are amenable to biodegradation, and a considerable body of experience has been built up over the past two decades in applying in situ bioremediation to a variety of contaminants in all media. This volume provides a comprehensive guide to the latest technological breakthroughs in both the laboratory and the field, covering such topics as air sparging, co-metabolic biodegradation, treatment of MTBE, real-time control systems, nutrient addition, rapid biosensor analysis, multiphase extraction, and accelerated bioremediation.

  16. In situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and other organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1999-10-01

    From supertanker oil spills to the leaking underground storage tank at the corner gas station, contamination from petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and other organic compounds is an environmental concern that affects nearly every small hamlet and major metropolis throughout the world. Moreover, the world`s rivers, estuaries, and oceans are threatened by contamination from petroleum leaks and spills. Fortunately, most petroleum hydrocarbons are amenable to biodegradation, and a considerable body of experience has been built up over the past two decades in applying in situ bioremediation to a variety of contaminants in all media. Good progress is being made in terms of developing innovative, cost-effective in situ approaches to bioremediation. This volume provides a comprehensive guide to the latest technological breakthroughs in both the laboratory and the field, covering such topics as air sparging, cometabolic biodegradation, treatment of MTBE, real-time control systems, nutrient addition, rapid biosensor analysis, multiphase extraction, and accelerated bioremediation.

  17. Biosynthesis, function and metabolic engineering of plant volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Dudareva, Natalia; Klempien, Antje; Muhlemann, Joëlle K; Kaplan, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Plants synthesize an amazing diversity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that facilitate interactions with their environment, from attracting pollinators and seed dispersers to protecting themselves from pathogens, parasites and herbivores. Recent progress in -omics technologies resulted in the isolation of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of many volatiles and contributed to our understanding of regulatory mechanisms involved in VOC formation. In this review, we largely focus on the biosynthesis and regulation of plant volatiles, the involvement of floral volatiles in plant reproduction as well as their contribution to plant biodiversity and applications in agriculture via crop-pollinator interactions. In addition, metabolic engineering approaches for both the improvement of plant defense and pollinator attraction are discussed in light of methodological constraints and ecological complications that limit the transition of crops with modified volatile profiles from research laboratories to real-world implementation.

  18. [Definition and Control Indicators of Volatile Organic Compounds in China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Che, Fei; Zhao, Guo-hua; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the most complex of a wide range of pollutants that harms human health and ecological environment. However, various countries around the world differ on its definition and control indicators. Its definition, control indicators and monitoring methods of our country and local standards were also different. Based on detailed analysis of the definitions and control indicators of VOCs, the recommendations were proposed: the definition of VOCs should be different according to the different concerns between "air quality management" and "pollution emissions management"; base on different control way from production source, technological process, terminal emission, total discharge control, the control indicators system consists of 10 indicators; to formulate industry VOCs emissions standards, the most effective control way and indicators should be chosen according to characteristics of production process, way of VOCs emissions and possible control measures, etc.

  19. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-08

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture.

  20. Indoor carpet as an adsorptive reservoir for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Won, D.; Corsi, R.L.; Rynes, M.

    1999-07-01

    Carpet is recognized as a potential source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. However, carpet systems can also serve as adsorptive sinks with the potential for reductions in peak VOC concentrations and subsequent re-emission of VOCs over prolonged periods of time. A series of experiments involving eight VOCs, and several carpet systems and environmental conditions were completed using a set of parallel chambers to characterize carpet systems as sinks of VOCs. A linear adsorption and desorption model was used to describe interactions between VOCs and carpet. New carpet fibers treated with stain protection generally accounted for only a very small fraction of mass sorbed to carpet. Most of the sorbed mass for carpet systems was accounted for by either the underlying pad or a combination of the pad and structural backing. Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was the only compound to exhibit greater sorption to nylon fibers than to other carpet components. Vapor pressure was observed to be one of the properties that can be related to sorption parameters. Variations in relative humidity (RH) had a significant effect on the degree of sorption for a highly soluble VOC (isopropanol). However, RH had no apparent effect on other VOCs. Air exchange rates (0.5, 2.1, 3.2 /hr) and inlet concentrations (2.5, 5, 15 ppm) generally had little effect on sorption.

  1. Volatile organic compounds in fourteen U.S. retail stores.

    PubMed

    Nirlo, E L; Crain, N; Corsi, R L; Siegel, J A

    2014-10-01

    Retail buildings have a potential for both short-term (customer) and long-term (occupational) exposure to indoor pollutants. However, little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the retail sector and influencing factors, such as ventilation, in-store activities, and store type. We measured VOC concentrations and ventilation rates in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania. With the exception of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, VOCs were present in retail stores at concentrations well below health guidelines. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 4.6 ppb to 67 ppb. The two mid-sized grocery stores in the sample had the highest levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde, with concentrations up to 2.6 ppm and 92 ppb, respectively, possibly due to the preparation of dough and baking activities. Indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratios indicated that indoor sources were the main contributors to indoor VOC concentrations for the majority of compounds. There was no strong correlation between ventilation and VOC concentrations across all stores. However, increasing the air exchange rates at two stores led to lower indoor VOC concentrations, suggesting that ventilation can be used to reduce concentrations for some specific stores.

  2. Estimation of solubility of organic compounds in 1-octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Li, A.; Pinsuwan, S.; Yalkowsky, S.H.

    1994-12-31

    Five methods were evaluated for their ability to estimate the solubility of organic compounds in 1-octanol. OCTASOL is a modified group contribution method developed in this study. Another proposed method uses the product of octanol-water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) and water solubility (S{sub w}) as the approximate of octanol solubility. The average absolute error of the estimate obtained from using OCTASOL is 0.25 log units for the training set (N = 180), and 0.29 log units for a test set (N = 10). When the K{sub ow}*S{sub w} method is used, the error is 0.29 log units (N = 124). Three other approaches (ideal solubility, regular solution theory, and UNIFAC) are also evaluated. Their average absolute errors are 0.85 (N = 209), 0.58 (N = 174), and 0.31 (N = 1 31) log units, respectively. The difference between ideal solubility and octanol solubility increases as the latter decreases. Regular solution theory, combined with Fedors` group contribution method to estimate solubility parameter of solutes, compensates significantly for the systematic errors resulted from using the ideal solubility. Lack of the needed group interaction parameters prevents application of UNIFAC to about 50 compounds in the data set used in this study.

  3. Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds from semiconductor manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Chein, HungMin; Chen, Tzu Ming

    2003-08-01

    A huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is produced and emitted with waste gases from semiconductor manufacturing processes, such as cleaning, etching, and developing. VOC emissions from semiconductor factories located at Science-Based Industrial Park, Hsin-chu, Taiwan, were measured and characterized in this study. A total of nine typical semiconductor fabricators (fabs) were monitored over a 12-month period (October 2000-September 2001). A flame ionization analyzer was employed to measure the VOC emission rate continuously in a real-time fashion. The amount of chemical use was adopted from the data that were reported to the Environmental Protection Bureau in Hsin-chu County as per the regulation of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. The VOC emission factor, defined as the emission rate (kg/month) divided by the amount of chemical use (L/month), was determined to be 0.038 +/- 0.016 kg/L. A linear regression equation is proposed to fit the data with the correlation coefficient (R2)=0.863. The emission profiles of VOCs, which were drawn using the gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer analysis method, show that isopropyl alcohol is the dominant compound in most of the fabs.

  4. Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-12-01

    Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ≈ rosemary > tea tree ≈ lemon ≈ lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  5. Volatile organic compounds in foods: a five year study.

    PubMed

    Fleming-Jones, Mary Ellen; Smith, Robert E

    2003-12-31

    A purge and trap procedure was used with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination to analyze 70 foods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results from analyses over a 5 year period (1996-2000) are reported. VOCs were found in at least one sample of all foods tested, although no single compound was found in each of the foods. The total amount of VOCs found in a single food item over the 5 year period ranged from 24 to 5328 ppb, with creamed corn (canned) the lowest and cheddar cheese the highest. Benzene was found in all foods except American cheese and vanilla ice cream. Benzene levels ranged from 1 to 190 ppb, with the highest level found in fully cooked ground beef. Benzene was found in 12 samples of cooked ground beef, with an average of 40 ppb. Benzene levels above 100 ppb were also seen in at least one sample each of a cola (138 ppb), raw bananas (132 ppb), and cole slaw (102 ppb). This compares to a maximum contaminant level of 5 ppb set by the U.S. EPA for drinking water.

  6. Assessing the altitude effect on distributions of volatile organic compounds from different sources by principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jhih-Jhe; Liu, Chih-Chung; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Chitsan

    2013-05-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly those from industrial sources, have been of substantial concern because they have had adverse effects on the nearby environment and human health. In this study, the effect of altitude on the distributions of VOCs from petrochemical industrial sources was studied by analyzing the VOC concentrations at ground level and three different altitudes (100, 300, and 500 m above the ground) during three monitoring seasons from 2009 to 2010 and assessing the results by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. Kaohsiung city in southern Taiwan, known for its high levels of air contaminants due to many pollution-intensive industries in the city, was selected as the area to be examined. Of various types of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons being detected, acetone and toluene were the dominant VOC species with relatively high concentrations. By PCA application and cluster analysis, aromatic and aliphatic compounds were found to be the main VOCs accounting for the maximum variance of the data observed at ground level and high altitude, respectively. The presence of mono-aromatic hydrocarbons at ground level suggested an important contribution from traffic, while the presence of both saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons at high altitudes was likely to be due to the local petrochemical industries given the heights of flare stacks in the examined areas and short lifetimes of unsaturated hydrocarbons such as alkenes. 3-D loading plots exhibited clear grouping of the VOCs in terms of their chemical structures and/or physicochemical characteristics for the data at ground level and 500 m and less clear differentiation for the data at 100 and 300 m, possibly resulted by atmospheric dispersion and mixing. The influence of altitude on the VOC distributions appeared not to be negligible and was greatly impacted by the location (e.g., height) of emission sources and the physicochemical properties of the VOCs

  7. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds & their photochemical transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhujun; Hohaus, Thorsten; Tillmann, Ralf; Andres, Stefanie; Kuhn, Uwe; Rohrer, Franz; Wahner, Andreas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic activities emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere. While it is known that land vegetation accounts for 90% of the global VOC emissions, only a few molecules' emission factors are understood. Through VOCs atmospheric oxidation intermediate products are formed. The detailed chemical mechanisms involved are insufficiently known to date and need to be understood for air quality management and climate change predictions. In an experiment using a PTR-ToF-MS with the new-built plant chamber SAPHIR-PLUS in Forschungszentrum Juelich, biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from Quercus ilex trees were measured. The BVOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, minor emissions of isoprene and methanol were also observed with the overall emission pattern typical for Quercus ilex trees in the growing season. Monoterpenes and isoprene emissions showed to be triggered by light. Additionally, their emissions showed clear exponential temperature dependence under constant light condition as reported in literature. As a tracer for leaf growth, methanol emission showed an abrupt increase at the beginning of light exposure. This is explained as instantaneous release of methanol produced during the night once stomata of leaves open upon light exposure. Emission of methanol showed a near linear increase with temperature in the range of 10 to 35 °C. BVOC were transferred from the plant chamber PLUS to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR, where their oxidation products from O3 oxidation were measured with PTR-ToF-MS. Gas phase oxidation products such as acetone and acetaldehyde were detected. A quantitative analysis of the data will be presented, including comparison of observations to the Master Chemical Mechanism model.

  8. Source characteristics of oxygenated volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Changsub; Wang, Yuhang; Singh, Hanwant B.; Blake, Donald R.; Guenther, Alex B.

    2007-05-01

    Airborne trace gas measurements from Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P), Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM)-Tropics B, and Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-NA) experiments are analyzed to examine the major source factors contributing to the observed variabilities of oxygenated volatile organic compounds and cyanides. The positive matrix factorization method is applied to coincident measurements of 11 chemicals including CH3OH, CH3COCH3, CH3CHO, C2H2, C2H6, i-C5H12, CO, CH3Cl, and CHBr3. Measurements of HCN and CH3CN are available for TRACE-P and INTEX-NA. We identify major source contributions from the terrestrial biosphere, biomass burning, industry/urban regions, and oceans. Spatial and back trajectory characteristics of these factors are examined. On the basis of TRACE-P and PEM-Tropics B data, we find a factor that explains 80-88% of the CH3OH variability, 20-40% of CH3COCH3, 7-35% of CH3CHO, and 41% of HCN, most likely representing the emissions from terrestrial biosphere. Our analysis suggested that biogenic emissions of HCN may be significant. Cyanogenesis in plants is likely a major emission process for HCN, which was not fully accounted for previously. Larger contributions than previous global estimations to CH3COCH3 and CH3CHO by biomass burning and industry/urban sources likely reflect significant secondary production from volatile organic compound oxidation. No evidence was found for large emissions of CH3COCH3 from the ocean. The oceanic CH3CHO contribution implies large regional variations.

  9. Exchange of volatile organic compounds in the boreal forest floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, Hermanni; Bäck, Jaana; Pumpanen, Jukka; Pihlatie, Mari; Hakola, Hannele; Hellén, Heidi; Aalto, Juho; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kajos, Maija K.; Kolari, Pasi; Taipale, Risto; Vesala, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems, mainly plants, emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. In addition to plants, VOCs also have less-known sources, such as soil. VOCs are a very diverse group of reactive compounds, including terpenoids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Due to their high reactivity, VOCs take part in formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere and thus affect also Earth's radiation balance (Kulmala et al. 2004). We have studied boreal soil and forest floor VOC fluxes with chamber and snow gradient techniques we were developed. Spatial and temporal variability in VOC fluxes was studied with year-round measurements in the field and the sources of boreal soil VOCs in the laboratory with fungal isolates. Determination of the compounds was performed mass spectrometrically. Our results reveal that VOCs from soil are mainly emitted by living roots, above- and belowground litter and microbes. The strongest source appears to be litter, in which both plant residuals and decomposers play a role in the emissions. Soil fungi showed high emissions of lighter VOCs, like acetone, acetaldehyde and methanol, from isolates. Temperature and moisture are the most critical physical factors driving VOC fluxes. Since the environment in boreal forests undergoes strong seasonal changes, the VOC flux strength of the forest floor varies markedly during the year, being highest in spring and autumn. The high spatial heterogeneity of the forest floor was also clearly visible in VOC fluxes. The fluxes of other trace gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from soil, which are also related to the soil biological activity and physical conditions, did not show correlations with the VOC fluxes. These results indicate that emissions of VOCs from the boreal forest floor account for as much as several tens of percent, depending on the season, of the total forest ecosystem VOC emissions. This emphasises that forest floor compartment should be taken into

  10. OLFACTORY RESPONSES OF BLOWFLIES TO ALIPHATIC ALDEHYDES

    PubMed Central

    Dethier, V. G.

    1954-01-01

    The response of the blowfly Phormia regina to stimulation by aldehydes in the vapor phase has been studied by means of a specially designed olfactometer. The median rejection threshold and the maximum acceptance threshold were selected as criteria of response. For both acceptance and rejection the distribution of thresholds in the population is normal with respect to the logarithm of concentration. When thresholds are expressed as molar concentrations, the values decrease progressively as chain length is increased. There is no attraction beyond decanal and no rejection beyond dodecanal. When thresholds are expressed as activities, most members of the aldehyde series are approximately equally stimulating at rejection and equally stimulating at acceptance. The relationship is most exact over the middle range of chain lengths. There is a tendency for the terminal members to stimulate at higher activities. These relationships are in close agreement with those which were found earlier to apply to the normal aliphatic alcohols. The similarity between the relative actions of the members of the two series suggests that the relation of equal olfactory stimulation at equal thermodynamic activities by homologous aliphatic compounds at least for homologues of intermediate chain length may be of rather general application in olfaction. PMID:13174780

  11. Biodegradation of organic compounds sequestered in organic solids or in nanopores within silica particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzinger, P.B.; Alexander, M.

    1997-11-01

    A study was conducted using model solids to determine whether the time-dependent decline in availability for biodegradation of organic pollutants in soil might result from the entrapment of these compounds in porous or nonporous solids. A strain of Pseudomonas mineralized phenanthrene in solid alkanes containing 18 to 32 carbons, three waxes, and low-molecular-weight polycaprolactone, polyethylene, and polypropylene. The rates were appreciably slower than when the substrate was not initially present within these nonporous solids. From 1.4 to 63.4% of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon added to the solids was mineralized in 90 d. The rates and extents of partitioning of phenanthrene varied markedly among the solids. The rates of partitioning and biodegradation of phenanthrene initially present in the alkanes were positively correlated. The bacterium rapidly and extensively mineralized phenanthrene provided in calcium alginate beads containing varying amounts of soluble soil organic matter. The rates and extents of phenanthrene mineralization declined as the percentage of the substrate in the nanopores within silica particles increased, but the reductions in rate, extent, or both were less pronounced than with nonporous solids. The rate of 4-nitrophenol biodegradation also declined with increasing percentages of the compound in these nanopores. The data are consistent with hypotheses that the sequestration and consequent decrease in bioavailability of organic compounds that persist in soil result from their partitioning into organic matter or their presence within nanopores in soil.

  12. Effect of water saturation in soil organic matter on the partition of organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Chlou, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    The sorption of benzene, trichloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride at room temperature from water solution and from vapor on two high-organic-content soils (peat and muck) was determined in order to evaluate the effect of water saturation on the solute partition in soil organic matter (SOM). The uptake of water vapor was similarly determined to define the amounts of water in the saturated soil samples. In such high-organic-content soils the organic vapor sorption and the respective solute sorption from water exhibit linear isotherms over a wide range of relative concentrations. This observation, along with the low BET surface areas of the samples, suggests that partition in the SOM of the samples is the dominant process in the uptake of these liquids. A comparison of the sorption from water solution and from vapor phase shows that water saturation reduces the sorption (partition) efficiency of SOM by ?? 42%; the saturated water content is ??38% by weight of dry SOM. This reduction is relatively small when compared with the almost complete suppression by water of organic compound adsorption on soil minerals. While the effect of water saturation on solute uptake by SOM is much expected in terms of solute partition in SOM, the influence of water on the solubility behavior of polar SOM can be explained only qualitatively by regular solution theory. The results suggest that the major effect of water in a drying-wetting cycle on the organic compound uptake by normal low-organic-content soils (and the associated compound's activity) is the suppression of adsorption by minerals rather than the mitigation of the partition effect in SOM.

  13. [Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from furniture and electrical appliances].

    PubMed

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto; Furukawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Therefore, furniture and other household products as well as building products may influence the indoor air quality. This study was performed to estimate quantitatively influence of household products on indoor air quality. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were investigated for 10 products including furniture (chest, desk, dining table, sofa, cupboard) and electrical appliances (refrigerator, electric heater, desktop personal computer, liquid crystal display television and audio) by the large chamber test method (JIS A 1912) under the standard conditions of 28 degrees C, 50% relative humidity and 0.5 times/h ventilation. Emission rate of total VOC (TVOC) from the sofa showed the highest; over 7900 microg toluene-equivalent/unit/h. Relatively high TVOC emissions were observed also from desk and chest. Based on the emission rates, the impacts on the indoor TVOC were estimated by the simple model with a volume of 17.4 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated TVOC increment for the sofa was 911 microg/m3, accounting for almost 230% of the provisional target value, 400 microg/m3. The values of estimated increment of toluene emitted from cupboard and styrene emitted from refrigerator were 10% and 16% of guideline values, respectively. These results revealed that VOC emissions from household products may influence significantly indoor air quality.

  14. Field-usable portable analyzer for chlorinated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, W.J.; Penrose, W.R.; Stetter, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Transducer Research, Inc. (TRI) has been working with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center to develop a new chemical monitor based on a unique sensor which responds selectively to vapors of chlorinated solvents. We are also developing field applications for the monitor in actual DOE cleanup operations. During the initial phase, prototype instruments were built and field tested. Because of the high degree of selectivity that is obtained, no response was observed with common hydrocarbon organic compounds such as BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) or POLs (petroleum, oil, lubricants), and in fact, no non-halogen-containing chemical has been identified which induces a measurable response. By the end of the Phase I effort, a finished instrument system was developed and test marketed. This instrument, called the RCL MONITOR, was designed to analyze individual samples or monitor an area with automated repetitive analyses. Vapor levels between 0 and 500 ppm can be determined in 90 s with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ppm using the handportable instrument. In addition to the development of the RCL MONITOR, advanced sampler systems are being developed to: (1) extend the dynamic range of the instrument through autodilution of the vapor and (2) allow chemical analyses to be performed on aqueous samples. When interfaced to the samplers, the RCL MONITOR is capable of measuring chlorinated solvent contamination in the vapor phase up to 5000 ppm and in water and other condensed media from 10 to over 10,000 ppb(wt)--without hydrocarbon and other organic interferences.

  15. Removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using biofilters

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, P.E.; Mohaghegh, S.D.; Madabhushi, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    One of the most significant air pollution control challenges being faced by the Federal and State agencies and the chemical process industries is the control of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are discharged from process industries as major components of mixed organic wastes which contaminate the environment. Among these wastes, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene are classified as major pollutants with high frequencies of occurrence on the EPA list of priority pollutants. Biofiltration, a recent air pollution control technology, is the removal and decomposition of contaminants present in emissions of non hazardous substances using a biologically activated medium. Biofiltration involves contacting the contaminated emission gas stream with microorganisms in a filter media. Biofiltration utilizes microorganisms immobilized in the form of a biofilm layer on an adsorptive filter media. Compared to other technologies, biofiltration is inexpensive, reliable and requires no post treatment. The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of both Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and Biologically Activated Carbon (BAC) for the removal of benzene and toluene.

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds: Characteristics, distribution and sources in urban schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Nitika; Bartsch, Jennifer; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Salthammer, Tunga; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    Long term exposure to organic pollutants, both inside and outside school buildings may affect children's health and influence their learning performance. Since children spend significant amount of time in school, air quality, especially in classrooms plays a key role in determining the health risks associated with exposure at schools. Within this context, the present study investigated the ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in 25 primary schools in Brisbane with the aim to quantify the indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations, identify VOCs sources and their contribution, and based on these; propose mitigation measures to reduce VOCs exposure in schools. One of the most important findings is the occurrence of indoor sources, indicated by the I/O ratio >1 in 19 schools. Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation was used to identify common sources of VOCs and source contribution was calculated using an Absolute Principal Component Scores technique. The result showed that outdoor 47% of VOCs were contributed by petrol vehicle exhaust but the overall cleaning products had the highest contribution of 41% indoors followed by air fresheners and art and craft activities. These findings point to the need for a range of basic precautions during the selection, use and storage of cleaning products and materials to reduce the risk from these sources.

  17. Emerging site characterization technologies for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.; Last, G.V.

    1992-05-01

    A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) expedited response action (ERA) has been initiated at Hanford Site`s 200 West Area for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated soils. In coordination with the ERA, innovative technology demonstrations are being conducted as part of DOE`s Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration in an effort to improve upon baseline technologies. Improved methods for accessing, sampling, and analyzing soil and soil-vapor contaminants is a high priority. Sonic drilling is being evaluated as an alternative to cable-tool drilling, while still providing the advantages of reliability, containment, and waste minimization. Applied Research Associates, Inc. used their cone penetrometer in the 200 West Area to install a permanent soil-gas monitoring probe and to collect soil-gas profile data. However, successful application of this technology will require the development of an improved ability to penetrate coarse gravel units. A Science and Engineering Associates Membrane Instrumentation and Sampling Technique (SEAMIST) system designed for collecting in situ soil samples and air permeability data in between drilling runs at variable depths is being tested in 200 West Area boreholes. Analytical technologies scheduled for testing include supercritical fluid extraction and analysis for non- and semi-volatile organic co-contaminants and an unsaturated flow apparatus developed by Washington State University for the measurement of transport parameters.

  18. Emerging site characterization technologies for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.; Last, G.V.

    1992-05-01

    A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) expedited response action (ERA) has been initiated at Hanford Site's 200 West Area for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated soils. In coordination with the ERA, innovative technology demonstrations are being conducted as part of DOE's Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration in an effort to improve upon baseline technologies. Improved methods for accessing, sampling, and analyzing soil and soil-vapor contaminants is a high priority. Sonic drilling is being evaluated as an alternative to cable-tool drilling, while still providing the advantages of reliability, containment, and waste minimization. Applied Research Associates, Inc. used their cone penetrometer in the 200 West Area to install a permanent soil-gas monitoring probe and to collect soil-gas profile data. However, successful application of this technology will require the development of an improved ability to penetrate coarse gravel units. A Science and Engineering Associates Membrane Instrumentation and Sampling Technique (SEAMIST) system designed for collecting in situ soil samples and air permeability data in between drilling runs at variable depths is being tested in 200 West Area boreholes. Analytical technologies scheduled for testing include supercritical fluid extraction and analysis for non- and semi-volatile organic co-contaminants and an unsaturated flow apparatus developed by Washington State University for the measurement of transport parameters.

  19. Identification of volatile organic compounds in human cerumen

    PubMed Central

    Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A.; Thaler, Erica; Wysocki, Charles J.; Preti, George

    2014-01-01

    We report here the initial examination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human earwax (cerumen). Recent studies link a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette, sub-family C, member 11 gene (ABCC11) to the production of different types of axillary odorants and cerumen. ABCC11 encodes an ATP-driven efflux pump protein that plays an important function in ceruminous apocrine glands of the auditory canal and the secretion of axillary odor precursors. The type of cerumen and underarm odor produced by East Asians differ markedly from that produced by non-Asians. In this initial report we find that both groups emit many of the same VOCs but differ significantly in the amounts produced. The principal odorants are volatile organic C2-to-C6 acids. The physical appearance of cerumen from the two groups also matches previously reported ethnic differences, viz., cerumen from East Asians appears dry and white while that from non-Asians is typically wet and yellowish-brown. PMID:24572763

  20. Identification of volatile organic compounds in human cerumen.

    PubMed

    Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Thaler, Erica; Wysocki, Charles J; Preti, George

    2014-03-15

    We report here the initial examination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human earwax (cerumen). Recent studies link a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette, sub-family C, member 11 gene (ABCC11) to the production of different types of axillary odorants and cerumen. ABCC11 encodes an ATP-driven efflux pump protein that plays an important function in ceruminous apocrine glands of the auditory canal and the secretion of axillary odor precursors. The type of cerumen and underarm odor produced by East Asians differ markedly from that produced by non-Asians. In this initial report we find that both groups emit many of the same VOCs but differ significantly in the amounts produced. The principal odorants are volatile organic C2-to-C6 acids. The physical appearance of cerumen from the two groups also matches previously reported ethnic differences, viz., cerumen from East Asians appears dry and white while that from non-Asians is typically wet and yellowish-brown.

  1. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

    2013-03-01

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires detailed measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground, 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from ground idle (~4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine-idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

  2. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from idle (4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas-phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas-phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 266 - Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organic Compounds for Which Residues...—Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed Volatiles Semivolatiles Benzene Bis(2-ethylhexyl... those compounds that do not have an established F039 nonwastewater concentration limit....

  4. Measuring the bioavailability of two hydrophobic organic compounds in the presence of dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Akkanen, Jarkko; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2003-03-01

    Bioavailability of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) was studied in natural lake water containing dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lake water was diluted to give a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) range of 1 to 20 mg/L. Partition coefficients for the model compounds were assessed at different DOM concentrations and over time with three different methods, namely equilibrium dialysis and reverse-phase and liquid-liquid extraction. In addition, biological partition coefficients were estimated from the difference in the bioconcentration of the model compounds in Daphnia magna in the presence and absence of DOM. Results showed that bioavailability of the model compounds was reduced by the presence of DOM. The equilibrium dialysis method gave the best estimates for bioavailability of the model compounds when compared with biologically determined values. Both the reverse-phase and the liquid-liquid extraction overestimated the bioavailable fraction. The more pronounced overestimation of bioavailable fraction of TCB suggested that the sorption of TCB was not only lower but the interaction was also weaker than that of BaP. Increasing DOM concentration produced lower partition coefficients and the effect seemed to be more pronounced when measured by the reverse-phase and the extraction methods.

  5. Introducing Aliphatic Substitution with a Discovery Experiment Using Competing Electrophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Timothy P.; Mostovoy, Amelia J.; Curran, Margaret E.; Berger, Clara

    2016-01-01

    A facile, discovery-based experiment is described that introduces aliphatic substitution in an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. Unlike other discovery-based experiments that examine substitution using two competing nucleophiles with a single electrophile, this experiment compares two isomeric, competing electrophiles…

  6. Bioactive volatile organic compounds from Antarctic (sponges) bacteria.

    PubMed

    Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; Romoli, Riccardo; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Fondi, Marco; Orlandini, Valerio; Mengoni, Alessio; Emiliani, Giovanni; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; de Pascale, Donatella; Michaud, Luigi; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Fani, Renato

    2013-09-25

    Antarctic bacteria represent a reservoir of unexplored biodiversity, which, in turn, might be correlated to the synthesis of still undescribed bioactive molecules, such as antibiotics. In this work we have further characterized a panel of four marine Antarctic bacteria able to inhibit the growth of human opportunistic multiresistant pathogenic bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (responsible for the 'cepacia' syndrome in Cystic Fibrosis patients) through the production of a set of microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (mVOCs). A list of 30 different mVOCs synthesized under aerobic conditions by Antarctic bacteria was identified by GC-SPME analysis. Cross-streaking experiments suggested that Antarctic bacteria might also synthesize non-volatile molecules able to enhance the anti-Burkholderia activity. The biosynthesis of such a mixture of mVOCs was very probably influenced by both the presence/absence of oxygen and the composition of media used to grow the Antarctic strains. The antimicrobial activity exhibited by Antarctic strains also appeared to be more related to their taxonomical position rather than to the sampling site. Different Bcc bacteria were differently sensitive to the 'Antarctic' mVOCs and this was apparently related neither to the taxonomical position of the different strains nor to their source. The genome sequence of three new Antarctic strains was determined revealing that only P. atlantica TB41 possesses some genes belonging to the nrps-pks cluster. The comparative genomic analysis performed on the genome of the four strains also revealed the presence of a few genes belonging to the core genome and involved in the secondary metabolites biosynthesis. Data obtained suggest that the antimicrobial activity exhibited by Antarctic bacteria might rely on a (complex) mixture of mVOCs whose relative concentration may vary depending on the growth conditions. Besides, it is also possible that the biosynthesis of these compounds might occur

  7. Solubility of volatile organic compounds in aqueous ammonia solution.

    PubMed

    Görgényi, Miklós; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; Király, Zoltán

    2005-05-01

    The Ostwald solubility coefficient, L of 17 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase into water and dilute aqueous ammonia solutions was determined by the equilibrium partitioning in closed system-solid phase micro extraction (EPICS-SPME) method at 303 K and at 0-2.5 mol dm(-3) ammonia concentrations. Ammonia increased the solubility of all VOCs nearly linearly, but to a different extent. The difference in the solubility values in aqueous ammonia solutions (Lmix) compared to pure water (L) is explained on the basis of a Linear Solvation Energy Relationship (LSER) equation made applicable for solvent mixtures, logLmix - logL = x((sNH3 - sH2O)pi2H + (aNH3 - aH2O)Sigma2H + (bNH3 - bH2O)Sigmabeta2H + (vNH3 - VH2O)Vx). sNH3 - sH2O, aNH3 - aH2O, bNH3 - bH2O, vNH3 - vH2O are the differences of solvent parameters, x is the mole fraction, pi2H is the solute dipolarity-polarizability, Sigmaalpha2H is the effective hydrogen bond acidity of the solute, Sigmabeta2H is the effective hydrogen bond basicity of the solute and Vx, the McGowan characteristic volume. The most significant term was v, the phase hydrophobicity. The solubility behavior was explained by the change in structure of the aqueous solution: the presence of ammonia reduces the cavity effect. These findings show that the presence of compounds such as ammonia, frequently observed in environmental waters, especially wastewaters, affect the fugacity of VOCs, having consequences for the environmental partitioning of VOCs and having technical consequences towards wastewater treatment technologies.

  8. Aqueous processing of organic compounds in carbonaceous asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep Maria; Rimola, Albert; Martins, Zita

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence pointing towards a prebiotic synthesis of complex organic species in water-rich undifferentiated bodies. For instance, clays have been found to be associated with complex organic compounds (Pearson et al. 2002; Garvie & Buseck 2007; Arteaga et al. 2010), whereas theoretical calculations have studied the interaction between the organic species and surface minerals (Rimola et al., 2013) as well as surface-induced reactions (Rimola at al. 2007). Now, we are using more detailed analytical techniques to study the possible processing of organic molecules associated with the mild aqueous alteration in CR, CM and CI chondrites. To learn more about these processes we are studying carbonaceous chondrites at Ultra High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (UHR-TEM). We are particularly interested in the relationship between organics and clay minerals in carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) matrixes (Trigo-Rodríguez et al. 2014, 2015).We want to address two goals: i) identifying the chemical steps in which the organic molecules could have increased their complexity (i.e., surface interaction and catalysis); and ii) studying if the organic matter present in CCs experienced significant processing concomitant to the formation of clays and other minerals at the time in which these planetary bodies experienced aqueous alteration. Here, these two points are preliminarily explored combing experimental results with theoretical calculations based on accurate quantum mechanical methods. References Arteaga O, Canillas A, Crusats J, El-Hachemi Z, Jellison GE, Llorca J, Ribó JM (2010) Chiral biases in solids by effect of shear gradients: a speculation on the deterministic origin of biological homochirality. Orig Life Evol Biosph 40:27-40. Garvie LAJ, Buseck PR (2007) Prebiotic carbon in clays from Orgueil and Ivuna (CI) and Tagish lake (C2 ungrouped) meteorites. Meteorit Planet Sci 42:2111-2117. Pearson VK, Sephton MA, Kearsley AT, Bland AP, Franchi IA, Gilmour

  9. Distribution of hydrophobic ionogenic organic compounds between octanol and water: Organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Jafvert, C.T. ); Westall, J.C. ); Grieder, E.; Schwarzenbach, R.P. )

    1990-12-01

    The octanol-water distributions of 10 environmentally significant organic acid compounds were determined as a function of aqueous-phase salt concentration (0.05-0.2 M LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, or MgCl{sub 2}) and pH. The compounds were pentachlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid, 4-chloro-{alpha}-(4-chlorophenyl)benzeneacetic acid, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol, (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butanoic acid, 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid, 2,3,6-trichlorobenzeneacetic acid, and 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid. The experimental results were interpreted quantitatively with an equilibrium model that accounts for acid dissociation in the aqueous phase and partitioning into the octanol phase by the neutral organic species, free inorganic and organic ions, and ion pairs. The partition constants for the neutral ion pairs correlate well with the partition constants of the neutral acids. Two experiments address the applicability of these octanol-water distribution data to the distribution of ionogenic compounds in the environment: the distribution of 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol on a natural sorbent as a function of salt concentration (NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}) and pH, and competitive adsorption of pentachlorophenol and 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol on an environmental sorbent.

  10. Exposure to volatile organic compounds: Comparison among different transportation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Duc Hoai; Van Langenhove, Herman; Chigbo, Stephen Izuchukwu; Amare, Abebech Nuguse; Demeestere, Kristof; Walgraeve, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    The increasing trend of promoting public transportation (bus tram, metro, train) and more environmental friendly and sustainable non fossil-fuel alternatives (walking, cycling etc) as substitutes for auto vehicles brings forward new questions with regard to pollutant levels to which commuters are exposed. In this study, three transportation modes (tram, auto vehicle and bicycle) are studied and concentration levels of 84 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygen containing hydrocarbons, terpenes and halogenated compounds) are measured along a route in the city of Ghent, Belgium. The concentration levels are obtained by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent tubes followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) using deuterated toluene as an internal standard. The median total VOC concentrations for the tram mode (33 μg/m³) is 1.7 times higher than that of the bicycle mode (20 μg/m³) and 1.5 times higher than for the car mode (22 μg/m³). It is found that aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant proportion in the total VOCs concentration (TVOCs) being as high as 41-57%, 59-72% and 58-72% for the tram, car and bicycle respectively. In all transportation modes, there was a high (r > 0.6) degree of correlation between BTEX compounds, isopropylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. When comparing time weighed average concentrations along a fixed route in Ghent, it is found that commuters using the tram mode experience the highest TVOCs concentration levels. However, next to the concentration level to which commuters are exposed, the physical activity level involving the mode of transportation is important to assess the exposure to toxic VOCs. It is proven that the commuter using a bicycle (4.3 ± 1.5 μg) inhales seven and nine times more benzene compared to the commuter using the car and tram respectively, when the same route is followed.

  11. Organic Synthesis in the Late Stages of Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, S.

    2015-12-01

    Infrared and mm-wave observations have revealed a rapid and continuous synthesis of gas-phase and solid organic compounds in the late stages of stellar evolution. This process gives rise to an amorphous carbonaceous compound of mixed aromatic and aliphatic structure which is probably responsible for the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) bands that emerge during the PN phase.

  12. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on insect herbivory in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Beekwilder, Jules; van Leeuwen, Wessel; van Dam, Nicole M; Bertossi, Monica; Grandi, Valentina; Mizzi, Luca; Soloviev, Mikhail; Szabados, Laszlo; Molthoff, Jos W; Schipper, Bert; Verbocht, Hans; de Vos, Ric C H; Morandini, Piero; Aarts, Mark G M; Bovy, Arnaud

    2008-04-30

    Aliphatic glucosinolates are compounds which occur in high concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species. They are important for the resistance of the plant to pest insects. Previously, the biosynthesis of these compounds was shown to be regulated by transcription factors MYB28 and MYB29. We now show that MYB28 and MYB29 are partially redundant, but in the absence of both, the synthesis of all aliphatic glucosinolates is blocked. Untargeted and targeted biochemical analyses of leaf metabolites showed that differences between single and double knock-out mutants and wild type plants were restricted to glucosinolates. Biosynthesis of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates was blocked by the myb28 mutation, while short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates were reduced by about 50% in both the myb28 and the myb29 single mutants. Most remarkably, all aliphatic glucosinolates were completely absent in the double mutant. Expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes was slightly but significantly reduced by the single myb mutations, while the double mutation resulted in a drastic decrease in expression of these genes. Since the myb28myb29 double mutant is the first Arabidopsis genotype without any aliphatic glucosinolates, we used it to establish the relevance of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis to herbivory by larvae of the lepidopteran insect Mamestra brassicae. Plant damage correlated inversely to the levels of aliphatic glucosinolates observed in those plants: Larval weight gain was 2.6 fold higher on the double myb28myb29 mutant completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates and 1.8 higher on the single mutants with intermediate levels of aliphatic glucosinolates compared to wild type plants.

  13. The Impact of the Absence of Aliphatic Glucosinolates on Insect Herbivory in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Nicole M.; Bertossi, Monica; Grandi, Valentina; Mizzi, Luca; Soloviev, Mikhail; Szabados, Laszlo; Molthoff, Jos W.; Schipper, Bert; Verbocht, Hans; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Morandini, Piero; Aarts, Mark G. M.; Bovy, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Aliphatic glucosinolates are compounds which occur in high concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species. They are important for the resistance of the plant to pest insects. Previously, the biosynthesis of these compounds was shown to be regulated by transcription factors MYB28 and MYB29. We now show that MYB28 and MYB29 are partially redundant, but in the absence of both, the synthesis of all aliphatic glucosinolates is blocked. Untargeted and targeted biochemical analyses of leaf metabolites showed that differences between single and double knock-out mutants and wild type plants were restricted to glucosinolates. Biosynthesis of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates was blocked by the myb28 mutation, while short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates were reduced by about 50% in both the myb28 and the myb29 single mutants. Most remarkably, all aliphatic glucosinolates were completely absent in the double mutant. Expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes was slightly but significantly reduced by the single myb mutations, while the double mutation resulted in a drastic decrease in expression of these genes. Since the myb28myb29 double mutant is the first Arabidopsis genotype without any aliphatic glucosinolates, we used it to establish the relevance of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis to herbivory by larvae of the lepidopteran insect Mamestra brassicae. Plant damage correlated inversely to the levels of aliphatic glucosinolates observed in those plants: Larval weight gain was 2.6 fold higher on the double myb28myb29 mutant completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates and 1.8 higher on the single mutants with intermediate levels of aliphatic glucosinolates compared to wild type plants. PMID:18446225

  14. Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds with a Flame Ionization Detector Using the Effective Carbon Number Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Erickson, M. H.; Fricaud, V. L.; Wallace, H. W.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere by plants and include structurally complex organic molecules such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their oxygenated derivatives. These BVOCs are among the principle factors influencing the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in forested regions. BVOC emission rates are often measured by collecting samples onto adsorptive cartridges in the field and then transporting these samples to the laboratory for chromatographic analysis. One of the most commonly used detectors in gas chromatography is the flame ionization detector (FID) due to its broad linear range, high sensitivity, and predictable response to many compounds. The FID response to saturated aliphatic molecules is proportional to carbon number. However, deviations occur as the complexity of the molecular structure increases. To account for these deviations, Sternberg et al. (1962) developed the effective carbon number (ECN) concept, which describes the number of carbons the FID "effectively" responds to. The ECN of a complex molecule can be estimated from the number and type of functional groups present, allowing an estimate of relative response factors for quantification. This approach is particularly useful for applications where samples contain a mixture of organic compounds and standards are not realistically accessible- a common predicament for environmental measurements. ECNs for a limited number of compounds with varying functional groups have been quantified in previous studies. However, there remain large gaps in the variety of compounds for which published data are available. This results in higher than necessary uncertainties when quantifying compounds that are structurally dissimilar to those that have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the ECN for a variety of terpenoid compounds to enable improved quantification of BVOC measurements. A dynamic dilution system was developed to

  15. Analysis of partitioning of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems in terms of solute-solvent interactions.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-10-09

    Partition behavior of nine small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. It was found out that the partition coefficient of all compounds examined (including proteins) may be described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system differ from those in polyethylene glycol-dextran system.

  16. 75 FR 2090 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Organic Compound Automobile Refinishing Rules for Indiana AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...) submitted amendments to Indiana's automobile refinishing rule for approval into its State Implementation... compound (VOC) automobile refinishing rules to all persons in Indiana who sell or manufacture...

  17. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    DOEpatents

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-09-11

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  18. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    DOEpatents

    Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2013-06-25

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  19. 78 FR 55234 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Compound Emission Control Measures for Industrial Solvent Cleaning for Northwest Indiana AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: On May 29, 2012, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) submitted revisions to its volatile organic compound...

  20. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    PubMed

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils.