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Sample records for aliphatic primary alcohols

  1. Amination of ω-Functionalized Aliphatic Primary Alcohols by a Biocatalytic Oxidation–Transamination Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Pickl, Mathias; Fuchs, Michael; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Amination of non-activated aliphatic fatty alcohols to the corresponding primary amines was achieved through a five-enzyme cascade reaction by coupling a long-chain alcohol oxidase from Aspergillus fumigatus (LCAO_Af) with a ω-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum (ω-TA_Cv). The alcohol was oxidized at the expense of molecular oxygen to yield the corresponding aldehyde, which was subsequently aminated by the PLP-dependent ω-TA to yield the final primary amine product. The overall cascade was optimized with respect to pH, O2 pressure, substrate concentration, decomposition of H2O2 (derived from alcohol oxidation), NADH regeneration, and biocatalyst ratio. The substrate scope of this concept was investigated under optimized conditions by using terminally functionalized C4–C11 fatty primary alcohols bearing halogen, alkyne, amino, hydroxy, thiol, and nitrile groups. PMID:26583050

  2. Triphosgene–Amine Base Promoted Chlorination of Unactivated Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando, Andrés; Ayala, Caitlan E.; Watson, Christopher B.; Kartika, Rendy

    2014-01-01

    Unactivated α-branched primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols have been successfully transformed into their corresponding alkyl chlorides in high yields upon treatment with a mixture of triphosgene and pyridine in dichloromethane at reflux. These mild chlorination conditions are high yielding, stereospecific, and well tolerated by numerous sensitive functionalities. Furthermore, no nuisance waste products are generated in the course of the reactions. PMID:23496045

  3. 40 CFR 721.10534 - Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10534 - Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 Brominated aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. Synthesis of even C/sub 24/-C/sub 30/ primary normal aliphatic alcohols from cyclododecanone

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharkin, L.I.; Churilova, I.M.; Anikina, E.V.

    1988-06-10

    A simple method has been developed for the oxidation of cyclododecanone by sodium persulfate in an aqueous methanol solution of sulfuric acid to give 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid, which upon treatment with HBr in acetic acid gives 12-bromododecanoic acid with RMgX, where R = C/sub 12/H/sub 25/, C/sub 14/H/sub 29/, C/sub 16/H/sub 33/, and C/sub 18/H/sub 37/ in THF in the presence of Li/sub 2/CuCl/sub 4/ and subsequent reduction of the salts of the alkanecarboxylic acids by LiAlH/sub 4/ give primary even normal C/sub 24/-C/sub 30/ alcohols.

  6. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-01-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed. PMID:26470633

  7. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-01-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed. PMID:26470633

  8. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-10-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed.

  9. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7250 - Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alcohol (generic). 721.7250 Section 721.7250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7250 Polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a... generically as a polyaziridinyl ester of an aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-01-97) is subject to reporting under...

  13. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  14. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Greene, Marvin I.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1984-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  15. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water. Part 2. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 37 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aliphatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For 14 systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem and another one can be in the methanol + hydrocarbon subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  16. Coefficients of caffeine distribution in aliphatic alcohol-ammonium sulfate-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-11-01

    The extraction of caffeine with aliphatic alcohols C3-C9 from aqueous solutions in the presence of a salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate) is studied. Quantitative characteristics of extraction are calculated: the distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of recovery ( R, %). Relations are found between log D of caffeine and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the alcohol molecule, along with certain physicochemical properties of the extragents.

  17. Catalytic activity of carbon nanotubes in the conversion of aliphatic alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitnev, Yu. N.; Tveritinova, E. A.; Chernyak, S. A.; Savilov, S. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained via the catalytic pyrolysis of hexane at 750°C were studied as the catalysts in conversion of C2-C4 alcohols. The efficiency of CNTs as catalysts in dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol was studied by means of pulse microcatalysis. The surface and structural characteristics of CNTs are investigated via SEM, TEM, DTA, BET, and XPS. CNTs are shown to be effective catalysts in the conversion of alcohols and do not require additional oxidative treatment. The regularities of the conversion of aliphatic alcohols, related to the properties of the CNTs surface and the structure of the alcohols are identified.

  18. Competitive Oxidation and Reduction of Aliphatic Alcohols over (WO3)3 Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu K.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.; Rousseau, Roger J.

    2009-06-04

    The reactions of C1 to C4 aliphatic alcohols over (WO3)3 clusters were studied experimentally and theoretically using temperature-programmed desorption, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory. The results reveal that all C1 to C4 aliphatic alcohols readily react with (WO3)3 clusters by heterolytic cleavage of the RO-H bond to give alkoxy (RO ) bound to W(VI) centers and a proton (H+) attached to the terminal oxygen atom of a tungstyl group (W=O). Two protons adsorbed onto the cluster readily react with the doubly-bonded oxygen to from a water molecule that desorbs at 200-300 K and the alkoxy that undergoes decomposition at higher temperatures into the corresponding alkene, aldehyde, and/or ether. Our theory predicts that all three channels proceed over the W(VI) Lewis acid site with energy barriers of 30-40 kcal/mol, where dehydration is favored over the others. We also present further analysis of the yield and reaction temperature as a function of the alkyl substituents and discuss the origin of the reaction selectivity among the three reaction channels.

  19. En Route to a Practical Primary Alcohol Deoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xi-Jie; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-04-27

    A long-standing scientific challenge in the field of alcohol deoxygenation has been direct catalytic sp(3) C-O defunctionalization with high selectivity and efficiency, in the presence of other functionalities, such as free hydroxyl groups and amines widely present in biological molecules. Previously, the selectivity issue had been only addressed by classic multistep deoxygenation strategies with stoichiometric reagents. Herein, we propose a catalytic late-transition-metal-catalyzed redox design, on the basis of dehydrogenation/Wolff-Kishner (WK) reduction, to simultaneously tackle the challenges regarding step economy and selectivity. The early development of our hypothesis focuses on an iridium-catalyzed process efficient mainly with activated alcohols, which dictates harsh reaction conditions and thus limits its synthetic utility. Later, a significant advancement has been made on aliphatic primary alcohol deoxygenation by employing a ruthenium complex, with good functional group tolerance and exclusive selectivity under practical reaction conditions. Its synthetic utility is further illustrated by excellent efficiency as well as complete chemo- and regio-selectivity in both simple and complex molecular settings. Mechanistic discussion is also included with experimental supports. Overall, our current method successfully addresses the aforementioned challenges in the pertinent field, providing a practical redox-based approach to the direct sp(3) C-O defunctionalization of aliphatic primary alcohols. PMID:27046095

  20. A steric tethering approach enables palladium-catalysed C-H activation of primary amino alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleja, Jonas; Pla, Daniel; Gorman, Timothy W.; Domingo, Victoriano; Haffemayer, Benjamin; Gaunt, Matthew J.

    2015-12-01

    Aliphatic primary amines are a class of chemical feedstock essential to the synthesis of higher-order nitrogen-containing molecules, commonly found in biologically active compounds and pharmaceutical agents. New methods for the construction of complex amines remain a continuous challenge to synthetic chemists. Here, we outline a general palladium-catalysed strategy for the functionalization of aliphatic C-H bonds within amino alcohols, an important class of small molecule. Central to this strategy is the temporary conversion of catalytically incompatible primary amino alcohols into hindered secondary amines that are capable of undergoing a sterically promoted palladium-catalysed C-H activation. Furthermore, a hydrogen bond between amine and catalyst intensifies interactions around the palladium and orients the aliphatic amine substituents in an ideal geometry for C-H activation. This catalytic method directly transforms simple, easily accessible amines into highly substituted, functionally concentrated and structurally diverse products, and can streamline the synthesis of biologically important amine-containing molecules.

  1. A spectroscopic and theoretical study in the near-infrared region of low concentration aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Beć, Krzysztof B; Futami, Yoshisuke; Wójcik, Marek J; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-05-11

    The near-infrared (NIR) spectra of low-concentration (5 × 10(-3) M) solutions in CCl4 of basic aliphatic alcohols, methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol were, for the first time, calculated by second-order vibrational perturbation theory computations and were compared with the corresponding experimental data. Density functional theory (DFT) using single hybrid (B3LYP) and double hybrid (B2PLYP) density functionals and their derivatives with additional empirical dispersion correction (B3LYP-D3 and B2PLYP-D, respectively) and second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory were used in combination with selected basis sets including fairly new basis sets from the "spectroscopic" SNS family, double-ζ SNSD and triple-ζ SNST basis sets. Each time, anharmonic vibrational modes and intensities were calculated by using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. The effect of solvent cavity on the calculated results was included by the application of a self-consistent reaction field with a polarized continuum model. Ethanol and 1-propanol have conformational isomerism; following a conformational analysis, theoretical spectra of all isomers were calculated and their final predicted NIR spectra were obtained as Boltzmann-averaged spectra of resolved conformers. For ethanol and 1-propanol, the observed broadening of the overtone band of the OH stretching mode was well reflected by the differences in the position of the relevant band among conformational isomers of these alcohols; the effect of solvent on broadening was also discussed. Detailed band assignments in the experimental NIR spectra of the studied alcohols were proposed based on the calculation of potential energy distributions. The final accuracy of the predicted NIR spectra for each of the theoretical methods was estimated based on the errors in calculated frequencies of overtones and combination bands. PMID:27137865

  2. C-O cross-coupling of activated aryl and heteroaryl halides with aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Maligres, Peter E; Li, Jing; Krska, Shane W; Schreier, John D; Raheem, Izzat T

    2012-09-01

    A robust and general catalyst system facilitates the alkoxylation of activated heteroaryl halides with primary, secondary, and select tertiary alcohols without the need for an excess of either coupling partner. This catalyst system displays broad functional-group tolerance and excellent regioselectivity, and is insensitive to the order of reagent addition. PMID:22887962

  3. Disposition of short-chain aliphatic alcohols in rabbit vitreous by ocular microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Atluri, Harisha; Mitra, Ashim K

    2003-03-01

    Anatomic and physiological barriers limit drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye via topical or systemic administration. Intravitreal administration has proven to be a safe and effective means of treating various posterior segment diseases. Elimination of a compound from the vitreous chamber may depend on lipophilicity, diffusivity, and aqueous solubility. This information is critical for optimizing intravitreal dosing which in turn can aid in the design of drug delivery systems. The purpose of this study is to determine the vitreous disposition of an ascending homologous series of short chain aliphatic alcohols ranging from hydrophilic methanol to lipophilic 1-heptanol by microdialysis. Radiolabelled 14C-methanol, 14C-1-propanol, 14C-1-pentanol, and 14C-1-heptanol with log partition coefficient values ranging from -0.77 to 2.7 were studied. Microdialysis probes were implanted in both anterior and vitreous chamber of the rabbit eye to sample aqueous and vitreous humors simultaneously. Concentric probe was implanted in vitreous chamber about 3mm below the cornealscleral limbus. Linear probe was implanted in the anterior chamber using a 25-guage needle. Isotonic phosphate buffer saline (IPBS) (pH 7.4) was perfused through the probe with a flow rate of 2 microlml(-1). Alcohols (2.0 microg-130.72 microg) were injected into the vitreous body. In vitro recovery for the probes was calculated using respective alcohols in IPBS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Vitreal elimination half-lives of methanol, 1-propanol, 1-pentanol and 1-heptanol are 52.0+/-5.7, 58.5+/-5.8, 72.9+/-5.8 and 153.7+/-21.6 min, respectively. Dose normalized area under the aqueous concentration time curve values of methanol, 1-propanol and 1-pentanol are 33.8+/-13.4, 28.3+/-11.9 and 29.2+/-4.9 microgminml(-1)microg(-1)10(-2), respectively. Time taken to reach maximum concentration in the anterior chamber for methanol, 1-propanol and 1-pentanol is 120

  4. Low-temperature microchip nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis of aliphatic primary amines: applications to Titan chemistry.

    PubMed

    Cable, Morgan L; Stockton, Amanda M; Mora, Maria F; Willis, Peter A

    2013-01-15

    We demonstrate microchip nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (μNACE) analysis of primary aliphatic amines (C1-C18) in ethanol down to -20 °C as a first step in adapting microfluidic protocols for in situ analysis on Titan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a nonaqueous separation at -20 °C on-chip. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 1.0 nM to 2.6 nM, and we identified several primary amines ranging in length from C2 to C16 in Titan aerosol analogue (tholin) samples; new amines were also detected in a tholin sample exposed to oxygen and liquid water. This preliminary work validates the sensitivity and efficacy of microfluidic chemical analysis of complex organics with relevance to Titan aerosols and surface deposits. PMID:23214444

  5. A Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) Study of Aliphatic Alcohols by the Method of Dividing the Molecular Structure into Substructure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fengping; Cao, Chenzhong; Cheng, Bin

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) analysis of aliphatic alcohols is presented. Four physicochemical properties were studied: boiling point (BP), n-octanol–water partition coefficient (lg POW), water solubility (lg W) and the chromatographic retention indices (RI) on different polar stationary phases. In order to investigate the quantitative structure–property relationship of aliphatic alcohols, the molecular structure ROH is divided into two parts, R and OH to generate structural parameter. It was proposed that the property is affected by three main factors for aliphatic alcohols, alkyl group R, substituted group OH, and interaction between R and OH. On the basis of the polarizability effect index (PEI), previously developed by Cao, the novel molecular polarizability effect index (MPEI) combined with odd-even index (OEI), the sum eigenvalues of bond-connecting matrix (SX1CH) previously developed in our team, were used to predict the property of aliphatic alcohols. The sets of molecular descriptors were derived directly from the structure of the compounds based on graph theory. QSPR models were generated using only calculated descriptors and multiple linear regression techniques. These QSPR models showed high values of multiple correlation coefficient (R > 0.99) and Fisher-ratio statistics. The leave-one-out cross-validation demonstrated the final models to be statistically significant and reliable. PMID:21731451

  6. Oxidation of Aliphatic Alcohols by Using Precious Metals Supported on Hydrotalcite under Solvent- and Base-Free Conditions.

    PubMed

    He, Yufei; Feng, Junting; Brett, Gemma L; Liu, Yanan; Miedziak, Peter J; Edwards, Jennifer K; Knight, David W; Li, Dianqing; Hutchings, Graham J

    2015-10-12

    Precious metal nanoparticles supported on magnesium-aluminum hydrotalcite (HT), TiO2 , and MgO were prepared by sol immobilization and assessed for the catalytic oxidation of octanol, which is a relatively unreactive aliphatic alcohol, with molecular oxygen as the oxidant under solvent- and base-free conditions. Compared with the TiO2 - and MgO-supported catalysts, platinum HT gave the highest activity and selectivity towards the aldehyde. The turnover number achieved for the platinum HT catalyst was >3700 after 180 min under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, the results for the oxidation of different substrates indicate that a specific interaction of octanal with the platinum HT catalyst could lead to deactivation of the catalyst. PMID:26337897

  7. RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3-catalyzed α-alkylation of ketones with primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Takashi; Fukuyama, Takahide; Ryu, Ilhyong

    2012-09-21

    The α-alkylation reaction of ketones with primary alcohols to give α-alkylated ketones was achieved using RuHCl(CO)(PPh(3))(3) as a catalyst in the presence of Cs(2)CO(3) as a base. This reaction proceeds via an aldol condensation of ketones with aldehydes, formed via transfer dehydrogenation of alcohols, to give α,β-unsaturated ketones, which then undergo transfer hydrogenation with primary alcohols to give α-alkylated ketones and aldehydes, the latter of which participate in the next catalytic cycle. While the reaction of aliphatic primary alcohols was sluggish compared with that of benzylic alcohols, a catalytic amount of 1,10-phenanthroline was found to promote the alkylation dramatically. PMID:22931460

  8. Using aliphatic alcohols as gaseous tracers in determination of water contents and air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Menghau; Chen, Bi-Hsiang

    2011-11-01

    A new type of gaseous tracer utilizing nontoxic aliphatic alcohols for the determination of water content and air-water interfacial area is tested on unsaturated sands of low water content. Alcohol vapors are generated at room temperature and passed through the experimental sand column. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of these vapors are obtained by monitoring their effluent concentrations using GC-FID. The retardation factor with respect to each vapor transport process is obtained by optimizing BTCs data using the CXTFIT program in the reverse problem mode. The water content and the interfacial area are subsequently calculated from their retardation factors by both equilibrium and nonequilibrium transport models. Experimental results indicate that the pentanol tracer is feasible in the determination of water content at conditions when the degree of water saturation is low. In the determination of air-water interfacial area, decanol is selected due to its interfacial adsorption characteristics. By comparing to interfacial areas from theoretical predictions as well as other conventional tarcer methods, the ones determined from the decanol tracer tests are found to be close to the true interfacial areas when the water content is low.

  9. Hemolysis by aliphatic alcohols and saponin measured by the coil planet centrifugation method.

    PubMed

    Finegold, A A; Horiuchi, K; Kamiya, K; Asakura, T

    1989-09-01

    Using the coil planet centrifugation method, the mechanism of hemolysis by alcohols and saponin was investigated. With this technique, erythrocytes are introduced into a gradient of hemolytic agents in saline, which is prepared in a long coiled polyethylene tube. The tube is centrifuged so that the cells move from a low to a high concentration of hemolytic agent. When the cells lyse, they release hemoglobin which remains stationary, and therefore hemolytic potency can be determined spectrophotometrically by the distance the cells move before lysing. We found that alcohols caused hemolysis at a particular concentration, whereas saponin-induced hemolysis was dependent on the amount of saponin accumulated in the environment of the cell. In addition, alcohols with longer carbon chains were more potent hemolytic agents than those with shorter chains, but each additional carbon group produced less of an increase in hemolysis per mole of alcohol. This chain-length dependency is consistent with a previous study on in vivo alcohol-induced hemolysis. The coil planet centrifugation method is also adaptable to comparative studies on the mechanism of other types of hemolysis, such as immune or drug-induced lysis, and to toxicological studies. PMID:2774556

  10. Electrical response of monolayer MoS2 to vapors of aliphatic alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulveda, Pablo; Ramos, Idalia; Naylor, Carl; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Pinto, Nicholas

    Monolayer MoS2 crystals were used to sense vapors of Methanol, Ethanol and 1-Propanol. Due to the large surface area, these sensors are expected to show rapid response and recovery times. The current through the sensor was monitored as a function of time with a constant applied voltage. This current decreased in the presence of the sensing gas and recovered upon its removal. Our results show that the response time gets longer as the size of the alcohol increases, but the recovery time stays approximately the same (~20s) regardless of the size of the alcohol. The sensitivity was also seen to decrease as the size of the alcohol increased. These observations could be associated with the slower diffusion of the larger alcohol molecules into the MoS2 crystal. The sensors are also fairly robust since the same sensor was used in all of the measurements after annealing in air at 70C for 10 minutes. Additional sensing measurements as a function of gas concentration will also be presented. This work was supported by NSF under Grants DMR-PREM-1523463 and DMR-RUI-1360772.

  11. Visible-light driven oxidation of gaseous aliphatic alcohols to the corresponding carbonyls via TiO2 sensitized by a perylene derivative.

    PubMed

    Guarisco, Chiara; Palmisano, Giovanni; Calogero, Giuseppe; Ciriminna, Rosaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Loddo, Vittorio; Pagliaro, Mario; Parrino, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    Sensitized P25 TiO2 was prepared by wet impregnation with a home-prepared perylene dye, i.e., N,N'-bis(2-(1-piperazino)ethyl)-3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid diimide dichloride (PZPER). Energy levels of PZPER were found to be compatible with those of TiO2 allowing fast electron transfer. The obtained catalyst has been characterized and used in the gas-phase partial oxidation of aliphatic primary and secondary alcohols, i.e., methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol. The reaction was carried out under cut-off (λ > 400 nm) simulated solar radiation in O2 atmosphere. The perylene derivative allowed a good absorbance of visible radiation thanks to its low optical energy gap (2.6 eV) which was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. The optimal organic sensitizing amount was found to be 5.6 % w/w in terms of yield in carbonyl derivatives. Moreover, no change in reactivity/selectivity was observed after 10-h irradiation thus confirming the catalyst stability. Yields into formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were 67, 70, and 96 %, respectively. No significant amounts of organic byproducts were detected but for methanol oxidation, whereas a minor amount of the substrate degraded to CO2. PMID:24469771

  12. The TCICA Test for Distinguishing Primary and Secondary Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiegel, Gene A.; Chaharmohal, Afshin K.

    1997-04-01

    Simple primary and secondary alcohols can easily be distinguished by their rate of oxidation with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCICA).1,2 The TCICA test is conducted by adding the unknown to a solution of TCICA in acetonitrile3 containing hydrochloric acid4 and measuring the time for a precipitate5 to form. Primary alcohols react slowly and secondary alcohols react rapidly. To generate comparison data for primary and secondary alcohols, tests should be first carried out using ethanol and 2-propanol.6

  13. Simultaneous solid phase extraction and derivatization of aliphatic primary amines prior to separation and UV-absorbance detection.

    PubMed

    Felhofer, Jessica L; Scida, Karen; Penick, Mark; Willis, Peter A; Garcia, Carlos D

    2013-10-15

    To overcome the problem of poor sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis-UV absorbance for the detection of aliphatic amines, a solid phase extraction and derivatization scheme was developed. This work demonstrates successful coupling of amines to a chromophore immobilized on a solid phase and subsequent cleavage and analysis. Although the analysis of many types of amines is relevant for myriad applications, this paper focuses on the derivatization and separation of amines with environmental relevance. This work aims to provide the foundations for future developments of an integrated sample preparation microreactor capable of performing simultaneous derivatization, preconcentration, and sample cleanup for sensitive analysis of primary amines. PMID:24054648

  14. Simultaneous Solid Phase Extraction and Derivatization of Aliphatic Primary Amines Prior to Separation and UV-Absorbance Detection

    PubMed Central

    Felhofer, Jessica L.; Scida, Karen; Penick, Mark; Willis, Peter A.; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the problem of poor sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis-UV absorbance for the detection of aliphatic amines, a solid phase extraction and derivatization scheme was developed. This work demonstrates successful coupling of amines to a chromophore immobilized on a solid phase and subsequent cleavage and analysis. Although the analysis of many types of amines is relevant for myriad applications, this paper focuses on the derivatization and separation of amines with environmental relevance. This work aims to provide the foundations for future developments of an integrated sample preparation microreactor capable of performing simultaneous derivatization, preconcentration, and sample cleanup for sensitive analysis of primary amines. PMID:24054648

  15. Screening and diagnosis of alcoholism in the primary care setting.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    As many as 20% of patients seeing their primary physicians may suffer from alcohol abuse and dependence. Often the problem goes unrecognized. In this article I summarize what is known regarding the natural history, risk factors, and available screening techniques for alcoholism. Ultimately, a diagnosis of alcoholism is based on a patient's history, and there are various approaches to obtaining a thorough alcohol history and overcoming patient denial regarding an alcohol problem. Primary physicians have an important role in educating patients about alcoholism. PMID:1536066

  16. Solid-State Characterization and Interconversion of Recrystallized Amodiaquine Dihydrochloride in Aliphatic Monohydric Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sirikun, Wiriyaporn; Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Sutanthavibul, Narueporn

    2016-04-01

    Amodiaquine dihydrochloride monohydrate (AQ-DM) was obtained by recrystallizing amodiaquine dihydrochloride dihydrate (AQ-DD) in methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol. Solid-state characterization of AQ-DD and AQ-DM was performed using X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. All recrystallized samples were identified as AQ-DM. Crystal habits of AQ-DD and AQ-DM were shown to be needle-like and rhombohedral crystals, respectively. When AQ-DD and AQ-DM were exposed to various relative humidity in dynamic vapor sorption apparatus, no solid-state interconversion was observed. However, AQ-DM showed higher solubility than AQ-DD when exposed to bulk water during solubility study, while excess AQ-DM was directly transformed back to a more stable AQ-DD structure. Heating AQ-DM sample to temperatures ≥190°C induced initial change to metastable amorphous form (AQ-DA) which was rapidly recrystallized to AQ-DD upon ≥80%RH moisture exposure. AQ-DD was able to be recrystallized in alcohols (C1-C3) as AQ-DM solid-state structure. In summary, AQ-DM was shown to have different solubility, moisture and temperature stability, and interconversion pathways when compared to AQ-DD. Thus, when AQ-DM was selected for any pharmaceutical applications, these critical transformation and property differences should be observed and closely monitored. PMID:26206402

  17. Simple and Efficient Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Primary Alcohols with Molecular Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Ray, Ritwika; Chandra, Shubhadeep; Maiti, Debabrata; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2016-06-20

    Oxidative transformations utilizing molecular oxygen (O2 ) as the stoichiometric oxidant are of paramount importance in organic synthesis from ecological and economical perspectives. Alcohol oxidation reactions that employ O2 are scarce in homogeneous catalysis and the efficacy of such systems has been constrained by limited substrate scope (most involve secondary alcohol oxidation) or practical factors, such as the need for an excess of base or an additive. Catalytic systems employing O2 as the "primary" oxidant, in the absence of any additive, are rare. A solution to this longstanding issue is offered by the development of an efficient ruthenium-catalyzed oxidation protocol, which enables smooth oxidation of a wide variety of primary, as well as secondary benzylic, allylic, heterocyclic, and aliphatic, alcohols with molecular oxygen as the primary oxidant and without any base or hydrogen- or electron-transfer agents. Most importantly, a high degree of selectivity during alcohol oxidation has been predicted for complex settings. Preliminary mechanistic studies including (18) O labeling established the in situ formation of an oxo-ruthenium intermediate as the active catalytic species in the cycle and involvement of a two-electron hydride transfer in the rate-limiting step. PMID:27257955

  18. Highly practical copper(I)/TEMPO catalyst system for chemoselective aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Stahl, Shannon S

    2011-10-26

    Aerobic oxidation reactions have been the focus of considerable attention, but their use in mainstream organic chemistry has been constrained by limitations in their synthetic scope and by practical factors, such as the use of pure O(2) as the oxidant or complex catalyst synthesis. Here, we report a new (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO catalyst system that enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary alcohols, including allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic derivatives, to the corresponding aldehydes using readily available reagents, at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system is compatible with a wide range of functional groups and the high selectivity for 1° alcohols enables selective oxidation of diols that lack protecting groups. PMID:21861488

  19. Management of alcoholism in the primary care setting.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    Primary care physicians can play an important role in managing alcoholic patients. Identifying and treating alcoholism early, before it has interfered with patients' relationships and work, may increase the likelihood of prolonged recovery. Simple office interventions can help motivate patients to abstain and seek treatment. People who abuse alcohol and are unwilling to abstain can benefit from a recommendation to reduce their intake of alcohol. For alcohol-dependent patients who decide to stop drinking, primary care physicians often can manage withdrawal on an outpatient basis. Selecting an appropriate treatment program for each alcoholic patient is important, and referral to a specialist to assist in matching patients to treatments is often necessary. Primary care physicians also can help prevent relapse. Although disulfiram is of limited value, primary care physicians can support recovery by identifying coexistent psychosocial problems, helping patients to restructure their lives, and ensuring continuity of care. PMID:1595243

  20. Quantum chemical analysis of thermodynamics of 2D cluster formation of alkanes at the water/vapor interface in the presence of aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Vysotsky, Yu B; Kartashynska, E S; Belyaeva, E A; Fainerman, V B; Vollhardt, D; Miller, R

    2015-11-21

    Using the quantum chemical semi-empirical PM3 method it is shown that aliphatic alcohols favor the spontaneous clusterization of vaporous alkanes at the water surface due to the change of adsorption from the barrier to non-barrier mechanism. A theoretical model of the non-barrier mechanism for monolayer formation is developed. In the framework of this model alcohols (or any other surfactants) act as 'floats', which interact with alkane molecules of the vapor phase using their hydrophobic part, whereas the hydrophilic part is immersed into the water phase. This results in a significant increase of contact effectiveness of alkanes with the interface during the adsorption and film formation. The obtained results are in good agreement with the existing experimental data. To test the model the thermodynamic and structural parameters of formation and clusterization are calculated for vaporous alkanes C(n)H(2n+2) (n(CH3) = 6-16) at the water surface in the presence of aliphatic alcohols C(n)H(2n+1)OH (n(OH) = 8-16) at 298 K. It is shown that the values of clusterization enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs' energy per one monomer of the cluster depend on the chain lengths of corresponding alcohols and alkanes, the alcohol molar fraction in the monolayers formed, and the shift of the alkane molecules with respect to the alcohol molecules Δn. Two possible competitive structures of mixed 2D film alkane-alcohol are considered: 2D films 1 with single alcohol molecules enclosed by alkane molecules (the alcohols do not form domains) and 2D films 2 that contain alcohol domains enclosed by alkane molecules. The formation of the alkane films of the first type is nearly independent of the surfactant type present at the interface, but depends on their molar fraction in the monolayer formed and the chain length of the compounds participating in the clusterization, whereas for the formation of the films of the second type the interaction between the hydrophilic parts of the surfactant is

  1. Screening and Quantification of Aliphatic Primary Alkyl Corrosion Inhibitor Amines in Water Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Damon, Deidre E; Barrett, Richard M; Syed, S U; Heeren, Ron M A; Taylor, Stephen; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2016-01-19

    Direct analysis and identification of long chain aliphatic primary diamine Duomeen O (n-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane), corrosion inhibitor in raw water samples taken from a large medium pressure water tube boiler plant water samples at low LODs (<0.1 pg) has been demonstrated for the first time, without any sample preparation using paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS). The presence of Duomeen O in water samples was confirmed via tandem mass spectrometry using collision-induced dissociation and supported by exact mass measurement and reactive paper spray experiments using an LTQ Orbitrap Exactive instrument. Data shown herein indicate that paper spray ambient ionization can be readily used as a rapid and robust method for in situ direct analysis of polymanine corrosion inhibitors in an industrial water boiler plant and other related samples in the water treatment industry. This approach was applied for the analysis of three complex water samples including feedwater, condensate water, and boiler water, all collected from large medium pressure (MP) water tube boiler plants, known to be dosed with varying amounts of polyamine and amine corrosion inhibitor components. Polyamine chemistry is widely used for example in large high pressure (HP) boilers operating in municipal waste and recycling facilities to prevent corrosion of metals. The samples used in this study are from such a facility in Coventry waste treatment facility, U.K., which has 3 × 40 tonne/hour boilers operating at 17.5 bar. PMID:26727190

  2. Iridium-Catalyzed Selective Isomerization of Primary Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément

    2016-06-21

    This Account presents the development of the iridium-catalyzed isomerization of primary allylic alcohols in our laboratory over the past 8 years. Our initial interest was driven by the long-standing challenge associated with the development of a general catalyst even for the nonasymmetric version of this seemingly simple chemical transformation. The added value of the aldehyde products and the possibility to rapidly generate molecular complexity from readily accessible allylic alcohols upon a redox-economical isomerization reaction were additional sources of motivation. Certainly influenced by the success story of the related isomerization of allylic amines, most catalysts developed for the selective isomerization of allylic alcohols were focused on rhodium as a transition metal of choice. Our approach has been based on the commonly accepted precept that hydrogenation and isomerization are often competing processes, with the latter being usually suppressed in favor of the former. The cationic iridium complexes [(Cy3P)(pyridine)Ir(cod)]X developed by Crabtree (X = PF6) and Pfaltz (X = BArF) are usually considered as the most versatile catalysts for the hydrogenation of allylic alcohols. Using molecular hydrogen to generate controlled amounts of the active form of these complexes but performing the reaction in the absence of molecular hydrogen enabled deviation from the typical hydrogenation manifold and favored exclusively the isomerization of allylic alcohols into aldehydes. Isotopic labeling and crossover experiments revealed the intermolecular nature of the process. Systematic variation of the ligand on the iridium center allowed us to identify the structural features beneficial for catalytic activity. Subsequently, three generations of chiral catalysts have been investigated and enabled us to reach excellent levels of enantioselectivity for a wide range of 3,3-disubstituted aryl/alkyl and alkyl/alkyl primary allylic alcohols leading to β-chiral aldehydes. The

  3. Ion-exclusion chromatographic behavior of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids on a sulfonated styrene--divinylbenzene co-polymer resin column with sulfuric acid containing various alcohols as eluent.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    2003-05-16

    The addition of C1-C7 alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, heptanol, hexanol and heptanol) to dilute sulfuric acid as eluent in ion-exclusion chromatography using a highly sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer resin (TSKgel SCX) in the H+ form as the stationary phase was carried out for the simultaneous separations of both (a) C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, 2-methylvaleric, isocaproic, caproic, 2,2-dimethyl-n-valeric, 2-methylhexanoic, 5-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and (b) benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, hemimellitic, trimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic and salicylic acids and phenol). Heptanol was the most effective modifier in ion-exclusion chromatography for the improvement of peak shapes and a reduction in retention volumes for higher aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation and relatively highly sensitive conductimetric detection for these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids were achieved on the TSKgel SCX column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 30 min using 0.5 mM sulfuric acid containing 0.025% heptanol as eluent. Excellent simultaneous separation and highly sensitive UV detection at 200 nm for these benzenecarboxylic acids were also achieved on the TSKgel SCX column in 30 min using 5 mM sulfuric acid containing 0.075% heptanol as eluent. PMID:12830881

  4. Guided desaturation of unactivated aliphatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Ana-Florina; Mendoza, Abraham; Gutekunst, Will R.; Fraga, Jorge Otero; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-08-01

    The excision of hydrogen from an aliphatic carbon chain to produce an isolated olefin (desaturation) without overoxidation is one of the most impressive and powerful biosynthetic transformations for which there are no simple and mild laboratory substitutes. The versatility of olefins and the range of reactions they undergo are unsurpassed in functional group space. Thus, the conversion of a relatively inert aliphatic system into its unsaturated counterpart could open new possibilities in retrosynthesis. In this article, the invention of a directing group to achieve such a transformation under mild, operationally simple, metal-free conditions is outlined. This ‘portable desaturase’ (TzoCl) is a bench-stable, commercial entity (Aldrich, catalogue number L510092) that is facile to install on alcohol and amine functionalities to ultimately effect remote desaturation, while leaving behind a synthetically useful tosyl group.

  5. Cu-NHC-TEMPO catalyzed aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolong; Xia, Qinqin; Zhang, Yuejiao; Chen, Congyan; Chen, Wanzhi

    2013-09-01

    Imidazolium salts bearing TEMPO groups react with commercially available copper powder affording Cu-NHC complexes. The in situ generated Cu-NHC-TEMPO complexes are quite efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols into aldehydes. The catalyst is easily available, and various primary alcohols were selectively converted to aldehydes in excellent yields. PMID:23944937

  6. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  7. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, Robert A.; Laugal, James A.; Rappa, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  8. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  9. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1988-02-16

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary alcohols and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  10. Primary care management of alcohol use disorder and at-risk drinking

    PubMed Central

    Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with evidence-based information and advice on the screening and assessment of at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD). A companion article outlines the management of at-risk drinking and AUD. Sources of information We conducted a nonsystematic literature review, using search terms on primary care, AUD, alcohol dependence, alcohol abuse, alcohol misuse, unhealthy drinking, and primary care screening, identification, and assessment. Main message Family physicians should screen all patients at least yearly for unhealthy drinking with a validated screening test. Screen patients who present with medical or psychosocial problems that might be related to alcohol use. Determine if patients who have positive screening results are at-risk drinkers or have AUD. If patients have AUD, categorize it as mild, moderate, or severe using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, criteria. Share this diagnosis with the patient and offer assistance. Do a further assessment for patients with AUD. Screen for other substance use, concurrent disorders, and trauma. Determine whether there is a need to report to child protection services or the Ministry of Transportation. Determine the need for medical management of alcohol withdrawal. Conduct a brief physical examination and order laboratory tests to assess complete blood count and liver transaminase levels, including γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Conclusion Primary care is well suited to screening and assessment of alcohol misuse. PMID:26071154

  11. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  12. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  13. Acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase of Rauwolfia serpentina cells: the key enzyme in biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, H; Esaki, N; Nakai, S; Hashimoto, K; Uesato, S; Soda, K; Fujita, T

    1991-02-01

    Acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols in plants, is unstable and has been only poorly characterized. However we have established conditions which stabilize the enzyme from Rauwolfia serpentina cells, and then purified it to homogeneity. It is a monomer with a molecular weight of about 44,000 and contains zinc ions. Various branched-chain allylic primary alcohols such as nerol, geraniol, and 10-hydroxygeraniol were substrates, but ethanol was inert. The enzyme exclusively requires NADP+ or NADPH as the cofactor. Steady-state kinetic studies showed that the nerol dehydrogenation proceeds by an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism. NADP+ binds the enzyme first and then NADPH is the second product released from it. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the reaction products showed that 10-hydroxygeraniol undergoes a reversible dehydrogenation to produce 10-oxogeraniol or 10-hydroxygeranial, which are oxidized further to give 10-oxogeranial, the direct precursor of iridodial. The enzyme has been found to exclusively transfer the pro-R hydrogen of NADPH to neral. The N-terminal sequence of the first 21 amino acids revealed no significant homology with those of various other proteins including the NAD(P)(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases registered in a protein data bank. PMID:1864846

  14. Aliphatic amines in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jungclaus, G.; Cronin, J. R.; Moore, C. B.; Yuen, G. U.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports on the determination of aliphatic amines in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite. The amines were analyzed by gas chromatography both as the free amines and as 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) derivatives. The results give evidence for the presence of all of the possible primary aliphatic monoamines (eight) with fewer than five carbon atoms. Two of the seven possible secondary or tertiary aliphatic monoamines were identified. The identified primary amines total 80 nmol per g meteorite, and seem to be chemically or physically trapped in the meteorite. Similarities between the water-extractable amines and amino acids suggest that (1) a simple carbon compound, methane, for example, is the precursor of meteorite amines and amino acids, and (2) both amines and amino acids are extracted from the meteorite both as such and in the form of acid-hydrolyzable derivative or precursor species.

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  16. Use of Pharmacotherapies in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders and Opioid Dependence in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhee; Kresina, Thomas F.; Campopiano, Melinda; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H. Westley

    2015-01-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions that substantially impact public health. Effective treatments for these disorders require addressing substance use/dependence comprehensively as well as other associated comorbidities. Comprehensive addressing of substance use in a medical setting involves screening for substance use, addressing substance use directly with the patient, and formulating an appropriate intervention. For alcohol dependence and opioid dependence, pharmacotherapies are available that are safe and effective when utilized in a comprehensive treatment paradigm, such as medication assisted treatment. In primary care, substance use disorders involving alcohol, illicit opioids, and prescription opioid abuse are common among patients who seek primary care services. Primary care providers report low levels of preparedness and confidence in identifying substance-related and addictive disorders and providing appropriate care and treatment. However, new models of service delivery in primary care for individuals with substance-related and addictive disorders are being developed to promote screening, care and treatment, and relapse prevention. The education and training of primary care providers utilizing approved medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in a primary care setting would have important public health impact and reduce the burden of alcohol abuse and opioid dependence. PMID:25629034

  17. [SEMERGEN positioning for the treatment of alcohol disorders in primary care].

    PubMed

    Arbesú, José Ángel; Gual, Antoni; Casquero, Rafael; Bobes, Julio; Ortega, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The present manuscript is based on the recommendations of a panel of health care professionals, including several experts in primary health care, psychiatry and addictions. The participants are recognized specialists in the treatment of alcohol use disorder. The panel met in Barcelona on 2015 April 22 with the aims of evaluating the current management of alcohol use disorder in primary health care and developing a strategy to address this problem, basing on the evidence and the recommendations of the scientific societies and national and international organizations. PMID:26710714

  18. [Brief questionnaires for the early detection of alcoholism in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Díez Martínez, S; Martín Moros, J M; Altisent Trota, R; Aznar Tejero, P; Cebrián Martín, C; Imaz Pérez, F J; del Castillo Pardo, M

    1991-05-01

    The utility of two tests for the early detection of alcoholism (CBA and CAGE) is studied in a group of 247 adult patients of both sexes at the primary care environment. For the definition of the "problem drinker case", the Münchner alkoholismus test (MALT) protocol is used as "gold standard". A sensitiveness of 79 and 75% is obtained for the CBA and CAGE respectively, a specifity of 94 and 96%, and predictive positive value of 63 and 73%, with a prevalence of "problematic drinkers" of 12%. Both questionnaires are shown as efficient instruments for the secundary prevention of alcoholism in the primary care consulting rooms. PMID:1912225

  19. Quantification of structurally related aliphatic amino alcohols in l-valinol by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation combined with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Douša, Michal; Stach, Jan; Gibala, Petr; Lemr, Karel

    2016-03-01

    The amino alcohols in l-valinol were effectively separated and quantified using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with fluorescence detection. The influence of the mobile phase (salt type, buffer concentration, and pH) on retention was studied. A column TSKgel amide and mobile phase consisting of 10 mM acetate buffer pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) provided well-separated symmetric peaks of analytes. Fluorescence detection was performed using postcolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde/2-mercaptoethanol at an excitation and emission wavelength of 345 and 450 nm, respectively. Simple sample pretreatment and very high sensitivity represent the main advantages of the developed method. After validation, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial samples of l-valinol. PMID:26697727

  20. [Effectiveness of the brief intervention for the use of abusive alcohol in primary care: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria Odete; Anginoni, Bárbara Marques; Ferreira, Natany da Costa; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; de Vargas, Divane; Colvero, Luciana de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The research identified clinical studies on the brief interventions for the abusive use of alcohol and analyzed the effectiveness of professional advises proposed to alcohol consumers. The systematic bibliographical study was based on articles published during the period of 1997 to 2010. Brief intervention strategy is effective in the reduction on the frequency and amount of alcohol use, with better results when the strategy is applied to the primary attention situations. All professionals obtained good results using this therapy. It was not possible to determine if the strategy is most effective when applied to harmful drinkers or to chronic drinkers, since the intervention also depends on the patient's availability of motivational resources and on changes in attitude regarding the abusive use of alcohol. PMID:23887793

  1. See my suffering: women with alcohol use disorders and their primary care experiences.

    PubMed

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Wood, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Despite global initiatives to improve the primary care of 2.5 million US women meeting criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD), many women with serious problems are unseen, misunderstood, misdiagnosed, or ignored. This interpretive phenomenological study explored the meaning of the primary care experience for a small group of women with self-identified AUD. Interviews uncovered suffering. Subsuming themes of Presenting My Damaged Self and Being Silenced/Being Heard revealed potential interventions for primary care practitioners. Analyzed alongside extant literature on suffering, these findings complement and enhance recent important research in the area of diagnosis of and intervention for AUD in primary care. PMID:19916806

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  4. Alcohol use, military sexual trauma, expectancies, and coping skills in women veterans presenting to primary care

    PubMed Central

    Creech, Suzannah K.; Borsari, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding alcohol use and its correlates in women veterans. An understanding of these variables is of utility to providers in primary care at Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals, who are among the first to identify and intervene for problem drinking. Objective The objective of this study was to describe and explore the associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, experience of military sexual trauma (MST), expectancies for alcohol use, and coping skills in predicting drinking behavior. Design Each month all women veterans attending appointments in primary care were mailed a letter alerting them to the study. Women then received a call asking them to participate, and many were directly recruited at their primary care appointment. Participants then completed a survey of current alcohol use and related variables in a private room. Participants Participants were 93 women veterans seeking care at VA. Main measures Measures included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, a modified version of the VA MST screen, the Davidson Trauma Scale; the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire. Key results Positive expectancies and evaluations emerged as significant correlates of AUDIT scores, while PTSD symptoms were not related to AUDIT scores. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant positive interaction between avoidance coping and positive evaluations. Depression, positive evaluations and avoidance coping were significant independent predictors of AUDIT scores in the final model, but MST was not. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of considering of the function of alcohol use when delivering clinical interventions and the need for further research on the association between MST and drinking in women veterans. PMID:23498717

  5. Molecular Characterization of TaFAR1 Involved in Primary Alcohol Biosynthesis of Cuticular Wax in Hexaploid Wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Hegebarth, Daniela; Li, Tingting; Jetter, Reinhard; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-10-01

    Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain (VLC) fatty acids and their derivatives in which primary alcohols are the most abundant components in the leaf surface of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). However, the genes involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis in wheat are still largely unknown. Here we identified, via a homology-based approach, the TaFAR1 gene belonging to the fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs) from wheat. Heterologous expression of TaFAR1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cer4-3 mutant afforded production of C22 primary alcohol and C22-C24 primary alcohols, respectively, and transgenic expression of TaFAR1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves and fruits resulted in the accumulation of C26-C30 primary alcohols and C30-C34 primary alcohols, respectively. The TaFAR1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaf protoplasts. Moreover, the TaFAR1 expression pattern across various organs correlated with the levels of primary alcohols accumulating in corresponding waxes, and with the presence of platelet-shaped epicuticular wax crystals formed by primary alcohols. A nullisomic-tetrasomic wheat line lacking TaFAR1 had significantly reduced levels of primary alcohols in its leaf blade and anther wax. TaFAR1 was located on chromosome 4AL and appeared to be highly conserved, with only one haplotype among 32 wheat cultivars. Finally, TaFAR1 expression was induced by drought and cold stress in an ABA-dependent manner. Taken together, our results show that TaFAR1 is an active enzyme forming primary alcohols destined for the wheat cuticle. PMID:26220905

  6. Primary care management of alcohol use disorder and at-risk drinking

    PubMed Central

    Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with evidence-based information and advice on the management of at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Sources of information We conducted a nonsystematic literature review using search terms that included primary care; screening, interventions, management, and treatment; and at-risk drinking, alcohol use disorders, alcohol dependence, and alcohol abuse; as well as specific medical and counseling interventions of relevance to primary care. Main message For their patients with at-risk drinking and AUD, physicians should counsel and, when indicated (ie, in patients with moderate or severe AUD), prescribe and connect. Counsel: Offer all patients with at-risk drinking a brief counseling session and follow-up. Offer all patients with AUD counseling sessions and ongoing (frequent and regular) follow-up. Prescribe: Offer medications (disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to all patients with moderate or severe AUD. Connect: Encourage patients with AUD to attend counseling, day or residential treatment programs, and support groups. If indicated, refer patients to an addiction medicine physician, concurrent mental health and addiction services, or specialized trauma therapy. Conclusion Family physicians can effectively manage patients with at-risk drinking and AUD. PMID:26071155

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  8. Beyond primary prevention of alcohol use: a culturally specific secondary prevention program for Mexican heritage adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-06-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants' use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents. PMID:22193861

  9. Iridium-catalyzed dehydrogenative decarbonylation of primary alcohols with the liberation of syngas.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Esben P K; Madsen, Robert

    2012-12-01

    A new iridium-catalyzed reaction in which molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide are cleaved from primary alcohols in the absence of any stoichiometric additives has been developed. The dehydrogenative decarbonylation was achieved with a catalyst generated in situ from [Ir(coe)(2)Cl](2) (coe = cyclooctene) and racemic 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl (rac-BINAP) in a mesitylene solution saturated with water. A catalytic amount of lithium chloride was also added to improve the catalyst turnover. The reaction has been applied to a variety of primary alcohols and gives rise to products in good to excellent yields. Ethers, esters, imides, and aryl halides are stable under the reaction conditions, whereas olefins are partially saturated. The reaction is believed to proceed by two consecutive organometallic transformations that are catalyzed by the same iridium(I)-BINAP species. First, dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol to the corresponding aldehyde takes place, which is then followed by decarbonylation to the product with one less carbon atom. PMID:23108889

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  11. The impact of alcohol use severity on anxiety treatment outcomes in a large effectiveness trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Brown, Lily A.; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Sherbourne, Cathy; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Craske, Michelle G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The presence of anxiety disorders is associated with poorer alcohol use disorder treatment outcomes, but little is known about the impact of alcohol use problems on anxiety disorder treatment outcomes despite their high comorbidity. The current study examined the impact of alcohol use symptom severity on anxiety disorder treatment outcomes in a multi-site primary care effectiveness study of anxiety disorder treatment. Method Data came from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) effectiveness trial. Participants (N = 1004) were randomized to an evidence-based anxiety intervention (including cognitive behavioral therapy and medications) or usual care in primary care. Participants completed measures of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression a baseline, 6-mo, 12-mo, and 18-mo follow-up periods. Patients with alcohol dependence were excluded. Results There were no significant moderating (Treatment Group x Alcohol Use Severity) interactions. The majority of analyses revealed no predictive effects of alcohol use severity on outcome; however, alcohol problems at baseline were associated with somewhat higher anxiety and depression symptoms at the 18-mo follow-up. Conclusions These data indicate that patients with alcohol problems in primary care can be effectively treated for anxiety disorders. Baseline alcohol problems were associated with some poorer long-term outcomes, but this was evident across CALM and usual care. These findings provide preliminary evidence that there may be no need to postpone treatment of anxiety disorders until alcohol problems are addressed, at least among those who have mild to moderate alcohol problems. Replication with more severe alcohol use disorders is needed. PMID:25615523

  12. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  13. [Early detection, negotiation and treatment of alcohol use disorders in primary care].

    PubMed

    Reimer, J; Cimander, K F; Reimer, C

    2014-05-01

    Subjects with alcohol dependence or alcohol-related health problems frequently use the primary care system without receiving the correct diagnosis or specific interventions. Stigma, lack of knowledge and know-how with regards to diagnosis and treatment of alcohol-related disorders on the site of the health care professionals may contribute to the treatment gap. General anamnesis, clinical evaluation, and laboratory parameters can serve as indicators, and validated screening tests can further corroborate the hypothesis. However, a diagnosis should only be made according to ICD-10 criteria. Adequate counselling techniques substantially contribute to successful physician-patient interaction. Motivational Interviewing combines a positive, appreciative attitude with communicative techniques to create a motivation to change. It includes general approaches as open questions, appreciation of the patient, active listening, summarizing results as well as specific approaches such as change and confidence talk and dealing with resistance. Within a positive relationship, the conversation can lead to change. Brief interventions cover four to five sessions with a duration between five and sixty minutes. Brief interventions based on an empathic attitude und reflection of findings, a brief advice leaving the responsibility on the patient's side and supporting self-efficacy can improve alcohol-related disorders. The transtheoretical model of change may help the health care provider to adapt intervention strategies to the patient's state. Primary health care provides an adequate framework for screening, diagnosis and intervention for alcohol-related disorders with the aim of reduction or abstinence. Further institutions in addiction treatment such as self-help and clinical institutions may complement the treatment system. PMID:24760716

  14. Primary hyperhidrosis: Implications on symptoms, daily life, health and alcohol consumption when treated with botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Shayesteh, Alexander; Boman, Jens; Janlert, Urban; Brulin, Christine; Nylander, Elisabet

    2016-08-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 3% of the population and reduces quality of life in affected persons. Few studies have investigated the symptoms of anxiety, depression and hazardous alcohol consumption among those with hyperhidrosis and the effect of treatment with botulinum toxin. The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of primary hyperhidrosis on mental and physical health, and alcohol consumption. Our second aim was to study whether and how treatment with botulinum toxin changed these effects. One hundred and fourteen patients answered questionnaires regarding hyperhidrosis and symptoms, including hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS), visual analog scale (VAS) 10-point scale for hyperhidrosis symptoms, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) and short-form health survey (SF-36) before treatment with botulinum toxin and 2 weeks after. The age of onset of hyperhidrosis was on average 13.4 years and 48% described heredity for hyperhidrosis. Significant improvements were noted in patients with axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis regarding mean HDSS, VAS 10-point scale, HADS, SF-36 and sweat-related health problems 2 weeks after treatment with botulinum toxin. Changes in mean AUDIT for all participants were not significant. Primary hyperhidrosis mainly impairs mental rather than physical aspects of life and also interferes with specific daily activities of the affected individuals. Despite this, our patients did not show signs of anxiety, depression or hazardous alcohol consumption. Treatment with botulinum toxin reduced sweat-related problems and led to significant improvements in HDSS, VAS, HADS and SF-36 in our patients. PMID:26875781

  15. Practical Synthesis of Amides via Copper/ABNO-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Coupling of Alcohols and Amines.

    PubMed

    Zultanski, Susan L; Zhao, Jingyi; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-05-25

    A modular Cu/ABNO catalyst system has been identified that enables efficient aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols and amines to amides. All four permutations of benzylic/aliphatic alcohols and primary/secondary amines are viable in this reaction, enabling broad access to secondary and tertiary amides. The reactions exhibit excellent functional group compatibility and are complete within 30 min-3 h at rt. All components of the catalyst system are commercially available. PMID:27171973

  16. Alcohol in Primary Care. Differential characteristics between alcohol-dependent patients who are receiving or not receiving treatment.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Miquel, Laia; Moreno-España, Jose; Martínez, Alicia; Ortega, Lluisa; Teixidor, Lidia; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    primary health care services for other reasons. The aim of the present study is to describe the differential characteristics of AD patients in primary care, distinguishing between those who receive treatment and those who do not, and their reasons for not seeking it. In a cross-sectional study patients were evaluated by their general practitioner (GP) and interviewed by a member of the research team. Sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical data were collected. From 1,372 patients interviewed in Catalonia, 118 (8.6%) were diagnosed as AD. These patients showed a lower socioeconomic status (48.3% vs 33.3%, odds ratio 2.02), higher unemployment rates (32.2% vs 19.2 %, odds ratio 2.11), and greater psychological distress and disability. Patients with AD receiving treatment (16.9%), were older (44 vs 36 years of age), reported higher unemployment rates (66% vs 25.5%, odds ratio 6.32) and higher daily alcohol consumption (61.5 vs 23.7 grams), suggesting a more advanced disease. Patients with AD in general showed a higher degree of comorbidity compared to other patients, with patients in treatment showing the most elevated level. The main reasons given for not seeking treatment were shame, fear of giving up drinking and barriers to treatment. Taken together, the data suggest the need to implement earlier strategies for the detection and treatment of AD. PMID:26990264

  17. Unspecific drug action. The effects of a homologous series of primary alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Rang, H. P.

    1960-01-01

    Experimental results relating to the unspecific depressant action of normal primary alcohols from methanol to octanol on four separate biological systems are presented. It was found that the log-concentration action curves of alcohols on all four systems were straight over most of their range and, for any one system, parallel throughout the series. With arithmetic increase in the alcohol chainlength the concentration required to produce a given effect diminished logarithmically. The rate of this decrease varied in different biological systems, and was always less than the rate of decrease of solubility with chainlength. In two of the systems investigated alcohols beyond octanol failed to show any activity (cut-off phenomenon). The implications of these findings are discussed, with reference to the mechanism of action of unspecific depressants. Ferguson's principle of using thermodynamic activity instead of concentration as an index of activity was applied to the present results. In an appendix, the results are compared with predictions according to Mullins' hypothesis of narcotic action, and found not to agree well. PMID:14436171

  18. A simple, sensitive, and accurate alcohol electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Verduyn, C.; Scheffers, W.A.; Van Dijken, J.P.

    1983-04-01

    The construction and performance of an enzyme electrode is described which specifically detects lower primary aliphatic alcohols in aqueous solutions. The electrode consists of a commercial Clark-type oxygen electrode on which alcohol oxidase (E.C. 1.1.3.13) and catalase were immobilized. The decrease in electrode current is linearly proportional to ethanol concentrations betwee 1 and 25 ppm. The response of the electrode remains constant during 400 assays over a period of two weeks. The response time is between 1 and 2 min. Assembly of the electrode takes less than 1 h.

  19. The Impact of an Implementation Project on Primary Care Staff Perceptions of Delivering Brief Alcohol Advice

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdz, Hanna; Bendtsen, Preben; Spak, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore how the perceptions and experiences of working with risky drinkers change over time among primary health care staff during a systematic implementation project. Methods. Qualitative focus group interviews took place before and after the implementation of the project. Results. The staff displayed a positive change during the implementation period with regard to awareness, knowledge, and confidence that led to a change in routine practice. Throughout the project, staff were committed to engaging with risky drinkers and appeared to have been learning-by-doing. Conclusions. The results indicated a positive attitude to alcohol prevention work but staff lack knowledge and confidence in the area. The more practical experience during the study is, the more confidence seems to have been gained. This adds new knowledge to the science of implementation studies concerning alcohol prevention measures, which have otherwise shown disappointing results, emphasizing the importance of learning in practice. PMID:27446626

  20. Electron-impact promoted fragmentation of alkyl-n-/1-phenylethyl/-carbamates of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, W. E.; Halpern, B.; Solomon, D. D.; Duffield, A. M.

    1971-01-01

    The mass spectra of twenty alkyl carbamates derived from primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols are investigated, using deuterium labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Several of the primary and secondary alcohol derivatives are found to yield an ion formally equivalent to the product ion of a McLafferty rearrangement. Deuterium labeling, however, revealed a lack, in these carbamate derivatives, of the usual site specificity associated with the McLafferty rearrangement. A double hydrogen rearrangement process was observed in the mass spectra of several carbamates derived from tertiary alcohols.

  1. Hyperlipoproteinaemia in primary gout: hyperlipoproteinaemic phenotype and influence of alcohol intake and obesity in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, S; Kameda, K; Matsuzawa, Y; Tarui, S

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were investigated in 108 male patients with primary gout before treatment to elucidate the prevalence of each individual phenotype of coexisting hyperlipoproteinaemia and pathogenic factors responsible for it. The mean serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels in the patients with gout were 2.10 +/- 0.14 mmol/l and 5.26 +/- 0.10 mmol/l (mean +/- SEM) respectively, which were significantly higher (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05 respectively) than the levels in age matched controls without gout (1.30 +/- 0.07 mmol/l and 4.77 +/- 0.08 mmol/l respectively). Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were slightly decreased in patients with gout compared with controls (1.24 +/- 0.08 mmol/l v 1.40 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, p less than 0.05). Hyperlipoproteinaemia was seen in 61 patients (56%), of whom patients with type IIa, IIb, and IV hyperlipoproteinaemia formed 13, 15, and 69% respectively. Thus the prevalence of type IV hyperlipoproteinaemia was high in primary gout as compared with primary hyperlipoproteinaemia with primary hyperlipoproteinaemia (69% v 43%, p less than 0.01). The independent and relative influences of clinical data of the patients upon the concentrations of serum lipids were assessed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Two major predictors of serum TG level were alcohol intake (p less than 0.01) and serum uric acid level (p less than 0.05). The most significant predictive variable was alcohol intake, but its influence was judged to be small (r2 = 0.067). None of the other variables, including obesity index, had any significant influence. The relationships between any of these variables and serum TC or HDL-C levels were not significant. In addition, serum lipid levels were investigated in patients with neither obesity (defined as 120% or more of ideal body weight) nor a history of alcohol intake. Their serum TG and TC concentrations were also significantly higher than the respective

  2. Copper(I)/ABNO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation: alleviating steric and electronic constraints of Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems.

    PubMed

    Steves, Janelle E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-10-23

    Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems promote efficient aerobic oxidation of sterically unhindered primary alcohols and electronically activated substrates, but they show reduced reactivity with aliphatic and secondary alcohols. Here, we report a catalyst system, consisting of ((MeO)bpy)Cu(I)(OTf) and ABNO ((MeO)bpy = 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine; ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl), that mediates aerobic oxidation of all classes of alcohols, including primary and secondary allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic alcohols with nearly equal efficiency. The catalyst exhibits broad functional group compatibility, and most reactions are complete within 1 h at room temperature using ambient air as the source of oxidant. PMID:24128057

  3. Photochemistry of (E)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethene in the presence of aliphatic amines: H-bonding and charge-transfer effects.

    PubMed

    Bortolus, Pietro; Galiazzo, Guido; Gennari, Giorgio; Monti, Sandra E

    2002-06-01

    Polysubstituted aliphatic and aromatic amines and alcohols quench the fluorescence of (E)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethene (NA). The quenching occurs without modification of the NA emission characteristics, follows a Stern-Volmer (SV) relationship and correlates with the decrease of the photoisomerization and intersystem crossing (ISC) yields. The dependence of the quenching rate constants (k(q)) on the ionization potentials suggests a charge-transfer interaction for the amines. The dependence of the k(q) values on alcohol acidity indicates the intervention of H-bonding phenomena. The interaction of primary aliphatic amines and NA in low-polarity solvents results in a broadening and a quenching of the NA emission. The quenching does not follow the SV relationship, has no effect on the E --> Z photoisomerization nor on the population of the triplet state, and increases the yield of the photobleaching reaction, especially in more polar solvents (chlorobenzene). This peculiar behaviour of primary aliphatic amines is attributed to H-bonded complexes in both the ground and the lowest excited singlet state. PMID:12856709

  4. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  5. Alcohol Misuse is an Independent Risk Factor for Poorer Postoperative Outcomes Following Primary Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Best, Matthew J; Buller, Leonard T; Gosthe, Raul G; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K

    2015-08-01

    The influence of alcohol misuse on outcomes following primary total hip (THA) or knee (TKA) arthroplasty is poorly understood. Using the National Hospital Discharge Survey, a cohort representative of 8,372,232 patients (without cirrhosis) who underwent THA or TKA between 1990 and 2007 was identified and divided into two groups: (1) those who misused alcohol (n=50,861) and (2) those who did not (n=8,321,371). Differences in discharge status, comorbidities and perioperative complications were analyzed. Compared to patients with no diagnosis of alcohol misuse, alcohol misusers were nine times more likely to leave against medical advice and had longer hospital stays (P<0.001). Alcohol misuse was independently associated with higher odds of in hospital complications (OR: 1.334, range: 1.307-1.361), surgery related complications (OR: 1.293, range: 1.218-1.373) and general medical complications (OR: 1.300, range: 1.273-1.327). PMID:25769745

  6. A Kinetic Modeling study on the Oxidation of Primary Reference Fuel?Toluene Mixtures Including Cross Reactions between Aromatics and Aliphatics

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y; Miyoshi, A; Koshi, M; Pitz, W J

    2008-01-09

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for the mixtures of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF: n-heptane and iso-octane) and toluene has been proposed. This model is divided into three parts; a PRF mechanism [T. Ogura et al., Energy & Fuels 21 (2007) 3233-3239], toluene sub-mechanism and cross reactions between PRF and toluene. Toluene sub-mechanism includes the low temperature kinetics relevant to engine conditions. A chemical kinetic mechanism proposed by Pitz et al. [Proc. the 2nd Joint Meeting of the U.S. Combust. Institute (2001)] was used as a starting model and modified by updating rate coefficients. Theoretical estimations of rate coefficients were performed for toluene and benzyl radical reactions important at low temperatures. Cross-reactions between alkane, alkene, and aromatics were also included in order to account for the acceleration by the addition of toluene into iso-octane recently found in the shock tube study of the ignition delay [Y. Sakai et al, SAE 2007-01-4014 (2007)]. Validations of the model were performed with existing shock tube and flow tube data. The model well predicts the ignition characteristics of toluene and PRF/Toluene mixtures under the wide range of temperatures (500-1700 K) and pressures (2-50 atm). It is found that reactions of benzyl radical with oxygen molecule determine the reactivity of toluene at low temperature. Although the effect of toluene addition to iso-octane is not fully resolved, the reactions of alkene with benzyl radical have the possibility to account for the kinetic interactions between PRF and toluene.

  7. Co(II) PCP Pincer Complexes as Catalysts for the Alkylation of Aromatic Amines with Primary Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Mastalir, Matthias; Tomsu, Gerald; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-07-15

    Efficient alkylations of amines by alcohols catalyzed by well-defined Co(II) complexes are described that are stabilized by a PCP ligand (N,N'-bis(diisopropylphosphino)-N,N'-dimethyl-1,3-diaminobenzene) based on the 1,3-diaminobenzene scaffold. This reaction is an environmentally benign process implementing inexpensive, earth-abundant nonprecious metal catalysts and is based on the acceptorless alcohol dehydrogenation concept. A range of primary alcohols and aromatic amines were efficiently converted into mono-N-alkylated amines in good to excellent isolated yields. PMID:27356282

  8. Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use and Associated Factors in Tuberculosis Public Primary Care Patients in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Louw, Julia; Mchunu, Gugu; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol use and associated factors among patients with tuberculosis in South Africa. In a cross-sectional survey new tuberculosis (TB) and TB retreatment patients were consecutively screened using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) within one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The sample included 4,900 (54.5% men and women 45.5%) tuberculosis patients from 42 primary care clinics in three districts. Results indicate that, overall 23.2% of the patients were hazardous or harmful alcohol drinkers, 31.8% of men and 13.0% of women were found to be hazardous drinkers, and 9.3% of men and 3.4% of women meet criteria for probable alcohol dependence (harmful drinking) as defined by the AUDIT. Men had significantly higher AUDIT scores than women. In multivariable analyses it was found that among men poor perceived health status, tobacco use, psychological distress, being a TB retreatment patient and not being on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and among women lower education, tobacco use and being a TB retreatment patient were associated with hazardous or harmful alcohol use. The study found a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful alcohol use among tuberculosis primary care patients. This calls for screening and brief intervention and a comprehensive alcohol treatment programme as a key component of TB management in South Africa. PMID:23202681

  9. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 2. The primary structure of the gamma 1 protein chain.

    PubMed

    Bühler, R; Hempel, J; Kaiser, R; de Zalenski, C; von Wartburg, J P; Jörnvall, H

    1984-12-17

    The primary structure of the gamma 1 subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme gamma 1 gamma 1 was deduced by characterization of 36 tryptic and 2 CNBr peptides. The polypeptide chain is composed of 373 amino acid residues. gamma 1 differs from the beta 1 subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase at 21 positions, and from the E subunit of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase at 43 positions including a gap at position 128 as in the beta 1 subunit. All zinc-liganding residues from the E subunit of the horse protein and the beta 1 subunit of the human enzyme are conserved, but like beta 1, gamma 1 also has an additional cysteine residue at position 286 (in the positional numbering system of the horse enzyme) due to a Tyr----Cys exchange. Most amino acid exchanges preserve the properties of the residues affected and are largely located on the surface of the molecules, away from the active site and the coenzyme binding region. However, eight positions with charge differences in relation to the E subunit of the horse enzyme are noticed. These result in a net positive charge increase of one in gamma 1 versus E, explaining the electrophoretic mobilities on starch gels. Of functional significance is the conservation of Ser-48 in gamma 1 relative to E. The residue is close to the active site but different (Thr-48) in the beta 1 subunit of the human enzyme. Thus, the closer structural relationship between human gamma 1 and horse E enzyme subunit than between beta 1 and E is also reflected in functionally important residues, explaining a greater similarity between gamma 1 gamma 1 and EE than between beta 1 beta 1 and EE. PMID:6391921

  10. Vital Signs Screening for Alcohol Misuse in a Rural Primary Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Guyinn, Monique R.; Matthews, Michael; Okosun, Ike; Dent, M. Marie

    2008-01-01

    Context: Alcohol misuse is more common in rural areas, and rural problem drinkers are less likely to seek alcohol treatment services. Rural clinics face unique challenges to implementing routine alcohol screening and intervention. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using the single alcohol screening question (SASQ) during routine nursing vital…

  11. Functions of granulocytes and monocytes in primary biliary and alcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Blussé van Oud, A; Janssens, A R; Leijh, P C; van Furth, R

    1985-01-01

    Granulocytes and monocytes from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) were investigated with respect to the major functional activities involved in host defence against micro-organisms. Chemokinesis, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing of micro-organisms as well as the ability of these cells to consume O2 and convert it to H2O2 were all comparable to those of granulocytes and monocytes of healthy donors. Investigation of sera of PBC and AC patients revealed normal opsonic activity in sera from both sources and normal chemotactic activity in PBC sera. Compared with normal donor serum AC sera were less chemotactic for granulocytes but not for monocytes. This diminished chemotactic activity is probably ascribable to the presence of a specific inhibitor of granulocyte chemotaxis in AC serum. Taken together, these results indicate that a postulated defective functioning of phagocytic cells can not explain the frequent and serious infections observed in patients with chronic liver disorders. PMID:4085152

  12. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates.

    PubMed

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Santos, Patricia; Kosma, Dylan K; Joubès, Jérôme; Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:27231100

  13. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Kosma, Dylan K.; Joubès, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:27231100

  14. Internet Applications for Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol in Primary Care Settings – Implementation and Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Paul; Bendtsen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Screening and brief interventions head the list of effective evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders in healthcare settings. However, healthcare professionals have been reluctant to engage with this kind of activity both because of the sensitive nature of the subject and because delivery is potentially time-consuming. Digital technologies for behavioral change are becoming increasingly widespread and their low delivery costs make them highly attractive. Internet and mobile technologies have been shown to be effective for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and smoking cessation in healthcare settings, and have the potential to add substantial value to the delivery of brief intervention for alcohol. Online alcohol questionnaires have been shown to elicit reliable responses on alcohol consumption and compared with conventional prevention techniques, digital alcohol interventions delivered in various settings have been found to be as effective in preventing alcohol-related harms. The last decade has seen the emergence of a range of approaches to the implementation in health care settings of referral to Internet-based applications for screening and brief interventions (eSBI) for alcohol. Research in this area is in its infancy, but there is a small body of evidence providing early indications about implementation and sustainability, and a number of studies are currently underway. This paper examines some of the evidence emerging from these and other studies and assesses the implications for the future of eSBI delivery in primary care settings. PMID:25400593

  15. Enzymatic kinetic resolution of primary allenic alcohols. Application to the total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of striatisporolide A.

    PubMed

    Deska, Jan; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2009-09-01

    Crude Porcine pancreatic lipase was successfully used for the kinetic resolution of axially chiral primary allenic alcohols providing very high enantioselectivities with E values above 200. This simple access to optically active allenes was applied to the total synthesis of the fungal metabolite (-)-striatisporolide A, allowing its unambiguous stereochemical assignment. PMID:19675888

  16. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721... Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721... Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to reporting under...

  18. Highly efficient direct aerobic oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with alkyl alcohols catalysed by gold nanoparticles incarcerated in a nanoporous polymer matrix: a tool for investigating the role of the polymer host.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Antonio; Noschese, Annarita; Grassi, Alfonso

    2014-04-25

    The selective aerobic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, as well as direct oxidative esterification of this alcohol with primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols, were achieved with high chemoselectivity by using gold nanoparticles supported in a nanoporous semicrystalline multi-block copolymer matrix, which consisted of syndiotactic polystyrene-co-cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The cascade reaction that leads to the alkyl cinnamates occurs through two oxidation steps: the selective oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, followed by oxidation of the hemiacetal that results from the base-catalysed reaction of cinnamaldehyde with an aliphatic alcohol. The rate constants for the two steps were evaluated in the temperature range 10-45 °C. The cinnamyl alcohol oxidation is faster than the oxidative esterification of cinnamaldehyde with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol or 1-octanol. The rate constants of the latter reaction are pseudo-zero order with respect to the aliphatic alcohol and decrease as the bulkiness of the alcohol is increased. The activation energy (Ea) for the two oxidation steps was calculated for esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 1-butanol (Ea = 57.8±11.5 and 62.7±16.7 kJ mol(-1) for the first and second step, respectively). The oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 2-phenylethanol follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 2-phenylethanol and is faster than observed for other alcohols because of fast diffusion of the aromatic alcohol in the crystalline phase of the support. The kinetic investigation allowed us to assess the role of the polymer support in the determination of both high activity and selectivity in the title reaction. PMID:24644103

  19. Iron/ABNO-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Ambient Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianyue; Shang, SenSen; Li, Guosong; Ren, Lanhui; Lv, Ying; Gao, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    We report a new Fe(NO3)3·9H2O/9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-N-oxyl catalyst system that enables efficient aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system exhibits excellent activity and selectivity for primary aliphatic alcohol oxidation. This procedure can also be scaled up. Kinetic analysis demonstrates that C-H bond cleavage is the rate-determining step and that cationic species are involved in the reaction. PMID:26859251

  20. A Facile Method for Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids and Its Application in Glycosaminoglycan Syntheses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lijun; Teumelsan, Nardos; Huang, Xuefei

    2006-01-01

    A convenient two-step, one-pot procedure was developed for the conversion of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids. The alcohol was first treated with NaOCl and TEMPO under phase-transfer conditions, followed by NaClO2 oxidation in one pot. This reaction is applicable to a wide range of alcohols and the mild reaction conditions are compatible with many sensitive functional groups, including electron-rich aromatic rings, acid-labile isopropylidene ketal and glycosidic linkages, and oxidation-prone thioacetal, p-methoxybenzyl, and allyl moieties. Several glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin, and hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides have been synthesized in high yields by using this new oxidation protocol. PMID:16637084

  1. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  2. Alcohol vapor sensory properties of nanostructured conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearzotti, Andrea; Macagnano, Antonella; Pantalei, Simone; Zampetti, Emiliano; Venditti, Iole; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Vittoria Russo, Maria

    2008-11-01

    The response to relative humidity (RH) and alcohol vapors of resistive-type sensors based on nanobeads of conjugated polymers, namely polyphenylacetylene (PPA) and copolymer poly[phenylacetylene-(co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)] (P(PA/HEMA)), were investigated. Sensors based on ordered arrays of these nanostructured polymeric materials showed stable and reproducible current intensity variations in the range 10-90% of relative humidity at room temperature. Both polymers also showed sensitivity to aliphatic chain primary alcohols, and a fine tuning of the sensor response was obtained by varying the chain length of the alcohol in relation to the polarity. The nanostructured feature of polymeric-based membranes seems to have an effect on the sensing response and an enhancement of the sensitivity was observed for the response to water and alcohol vapor variations with respect to previous studies based on amorphous polyphenylacetylene. High stability of the polymeric nanostructured membranes was detected with no aging after two weeks in continuum stressing measurement conditions.

  3. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks. PMID:21120449

  4. Sixth Grade Students Who Use Alcohol: Do We Need Primary Prevention Programs for "Tweens"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2009-01-01

    Young adolescent alcohol users drink at higher rates than their peers throughout adolescence and appear to be less amenable to intervention. This study compares those who reported alcohol use in the past year to those who reported no use in a multiethnic, urban sample of sixth graders in 61 schools in Chicago in 2002 (N = 4,150). Demographic,…

  5. Nearly Half of College Student Treatment Admissions Were for Primary Alcohol Abuse. Data Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many students, and the public in general, believe that drinking alcohol is a normal part of the college experience. Unfortunately, students' efforts to "be sociable" or "fit in" can escalate into substance use behavior that puts their health and well-being at risk: One in four full-time college students have experienced past year alcohol abuse or…

  6. Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Headquarters chartered the Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objective of this effort is to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Successful completion of this project will result in one or more isocyanate-free coating systems qualified for use at Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA centers participating in this study. The objective of this project is to qualify the candidates under the specifications for the standard system. This project will compare coating performance of the proposed alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  7. Unexpected lateral-lithiation-induced alkylative ring opening of tetrahydrofurans in deep eutectic solvents: synthesis of functionalised primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sassone, Francesca C; Perna, Filippo M; Salomone, Antonio; Florio, Saverio; Capriati, Vito

    2015-06-11

    o-Tolyl-substituted tetrahydrofurans undergo highly regioselective ring opening with the concomitant formation of new C-C bonds as the result of a lateral lithiation reaction. This reaction provides a new method for the synthesis of functionalised primary alcohols and can be run directly in protic eutectic mixtures as benign reaction media at 0 °C and under air, competitively with protonolysis. PMID:25959580

  8. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary care: a cluster randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Eileen; Bland, Martin; Cassidy, Paul; Coulton, Simon; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Gilvarry, Eilish; Godfrey, Christine; Heather, Nick; Myles, Judy; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Parrott, Steve; Perryman, Katherine; Phillips, Tom; Shenker, Don; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Background There have been many randomized controlled trials of screening and brief alcohol intervention in primary care. Most trials have reported positive effects of brief intervention, in terms of reduced alcohol consumption in excessive drinkers. Despite this considerable evidence-base, key questions remain unanswered including: the applicability of the evidence to routine practice; the most efficient strategy for screening patients; and the required intensity of brief intervention in primary care. This pragmatic factorial trial, with cluster randomization of practices, will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different models of screening to identify hazardous and harmful drinkers in primary care and different intensities of brief intervention to reduce excessive drinking in primary care patients. Methods and design GPs and nurses from 24 practices across the North East (n = 12), London and South East (n = 12) of England will be recruited. Practices will be randomly allocated to one of three intervention conditions: a leaflet-only control group (n = 8); brief structured advice (n = 8); and brief lifestyle counselling (n = 8). To test the relative effectiveness of different screening methods all practices will also be randomised to either a universal or targeted screening approach and to use either a modified single item (M-SASQ) or FAST screening tool. Screening randomisation will incorporate stratification by geographical area and intervention condition. During the intervention stage of the trial, practices in each of the three arms will recruit at least 31 hazardous or harmful drinkers who will receive a short baseline assessment followed by brief intervention. Thus there will be a minimum of 744 patients recruited into the trial. Discussion The trial will evaluate the impact of screening and brief alcohol intervention in routine practice; thus its findings will be highly relevant to clinicians working in primary care in the UK. There will

  9. Quantum chemical approach in the description of the amphiphile clusterization at the air/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces with phase nature accounting. I. Aliphatic normal alcohols at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Vysotsky, Yuri B; Belyaeva, Elena A; Kartashynska, Elena S; Fainerman, Valentine B; Smirnova, Natalia A

    2015-02-19

    A new model based on the quantum chemical approach is proposed to describe structural and thermodynamic parameters of clusterization for substituted alkanes at the air/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. The new model by the authors, unlike the previous one, proposes an explicit account of the liquid phase (phases) influence on the parameters of monomers, clusters and monolayers of substituted alkanes at the regarded interface. The calculations were carried out in the frameworks of the quantum chemical semiempirical PM3 method (Mopac 2012), using the COSMO procedure. The new model was tested in the calculations of the clusterization parameters of fatty alcohols under the standard conditions at the air/water interface. The enthalpy, Gibbs' energy and absolute entropy of formation for alcohol monomers alongside with clusterization parameters for the cluster series including the monolayer at air/water interface were calculated. In our calculations the sinkage of monomers, molecules in clusters and monolayers was varied from 1 up to 5 methylene groups. Thermodynamic parameters calculated using the proposed model for the alcohol monolayers are in a good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. However, the proposed model cannot define the most energetically preferable immersion of the monolayer molecules in the water phase. PMID:25640463

  10. [Alcohol consumption patterns among patients in primary health care and detection by health professionals].

    PubMed

    Taufick, Maíra Lemos de Castro; Evangelista, Lays Aparecida; Silva, Michelle da; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques de

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated patterns of alcohol consumption among patients enrolled in the Family Health Program (FHP) in a city in Southeast Brazil, as well as the detection of such consumption by FHP professionals. A total of 932 adult patients were evaluated from November 2010 to November 2011. Of this total, 17.5% were considered at risk for hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8); increased risk was associated with male gender, younger age, and chronic illness. The CAGE questionnaire was positive in 98 patients (10.5%), with a higher proportion in men. Health professionals were more likely to ask about alcohol consumption in men, individuals aged ≥ 55 years, those with chronic illnesses, and heavier drinkers (438/932; 47.8%). Positive diagnosis of alcoholism was more frequent in men, individuals aged 35-54 years, and those with serious alcohol abuse (22/175; 12.6%). The study concluded that alcohol consumption is common among patients treated by FHP teams (although insufficiently recognized by professionals) and that a minority of alcoholics is instructed on the risks of drinking. PMID:24627069

  11. Conversion of alcohols to enantiopure amines through dual enzyme hydrogen-borrowing cascades

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Francesco G.; Knaus, Tanja; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Breuer, Michael; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    α-Chiral amines are key intermediates for the synthesis of a plethora of chemical compounds on industrial scale. Here we present a biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing amination of primary and secondary alcohols that allows for the efficient and environmentally benign production of enantiopure amines. The method relies on the combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHs from Aromatoleum sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Bacillus sp.) enzyme operating in tandem with an amine dehydrogenase (AmDHs engineered from Bacillus sp.) to aminate a structurally diverse range of aromatic and aliphatic alcohols (up to 96% conversion and 99% enantiomeric excess). Furthermore, primary alcohols are aminated with high conversion (up to 99%). This redox self-sufficient network possesses high atom efficiency, sourcing nitrogen from ammonium and generating water as the sole by-product. PMID:26404833

  12. Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylation of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lei; Chen, He; Liu, Chao; Li, Chaozhong

    2016-05-01

    Direct decarboxylative radical allylation of aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. With K2S2O8 as the oxidant and AgNO3 as the catalyst, the reactions of aliphatic carboxylic acids with allyl sulfones in aqueous CH3CN solution gave the corresponding alkenes in satisfactory yields under mild conditions. This site-specific allylation method is applicable to all primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl acids and exhibits wide functional group compatibility. PMID:27065060

  13. Physiological Studies of Methane- and Methanol-Oxidizing Bacteria: Comparison of a Primary Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Texas Strain) and Pseudomonas Species M27

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R. N.; Bose, H. R.; Mandy, W. J.; Hoare, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    A primary alcohol dehydrogenase has been purified from Methylococcus capsulatus (Texas strain). The purified enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of methanol and formaldehyde to formate; other primary alcohols are oxidized to their corresponding aldehydes. Ammonium ions are required for enzyme activity. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 120,000 daltons and consists of two 62,000 molecular-weight subunits which dissociate at acidic pH. The enzyme is similar to an alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme isolated from Pseudomonas sp. M27. Images PMID:5022170

  14. Synthesis of novel naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and esters and their anticancer evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kongkathip, Boonsong; Akkarasamiyo, Sunisa; Hasitapan, Komkrit; Sittikul, Pichamon; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Kongkathip, Ngampong

    2013-02-01

    Fourteen new naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and seventeen naphthoquinone aliphatic esters were synthesized in nine to ten steps from 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid with 9-25% overall yield for the amides, and 16-21% overall yield for the esters. The key step of the amide synthesis is a coupling reaction between amine and various aliphatic acids using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM) as a coupling agent while for the ester synthesis, DCC/DMAP or CDI was used as the coupling reagent between aliphatic acids and naphthoquinone alcohol. Both naphthoquinone amides and esters were evaluated for their anticancer activity against KB cells. It was found that naphthoquinone aliphatic amides showed stronger anticancer activity than those of the esters when the chains are longer than 7-carbon atoms. The optimum chain of amides is expected to be 16-carbon atoms. In addition, naphthoquinone aliphatic esters with α-methyl on the ester moiety possessed much stronger anticancer activity than the straight chains. Decatenation assay revealed that naphthoquinone amide with 16-carbon atoms chain at 15 μM and 20 μM can completely inhibit hTopoIIα activity while at 10 μM the enzyme activity was moderately inhibited. Molecular docking result also showed the same trend as the cytotoxicity and decatenation assay. PMID:23313636

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Aminocarbonylation of Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoquan; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-11

    A benign and efficient palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation reaction of allylic alcohols is presented. The generality of this novel process is demonstrated by the synthesis of β,γ-unsaturated amides including aliphatic, cinnamyl, and terpene derivatives. The choice of ligand is crucial for optimal carbonylation processes: Whereas in most cases the combination of PdCl2 with Xantphos (L6) gave best results, sterically hindered substrates performed better in the presence of simple triphenylphosphine (L10), and primary anilines gave the best results using cataCXium® PCy (L8). The reactivity of the respective catalyst system is significantly enhanced by addition of small amounts of water. Mechanistic studies and control experiments revealed a tandem allylic alcohol amination/C-N bond carbonylation reaction sequence. PMID:27283958

  16. An Iminium Salt Organocatalyst for Selective Aliphatic C-H Hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoyong; Shuler, William G; Pierce, Conor J; Hilinski, Michael K

    2016-08-01

    The first examples of catalysis of aliphatic C-H hydroxylation by an iminium salt are presented. The method allows the selective organocatalytic hydroxylation of unactivated 3° C-H bonds at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant. Hydroxylation of an unactivated 2° C-H bond is also demonstrated. Furthermore, improved functional group compatibility over other catalytic methods is reported in the form of selectivity for aliphatic C-H hydroxylation over alcohol oxidation. On the basis of initial mechanistic studies, an oxaziridinium species is proposed as the active oxidant. PMID:27391543

  17. Dielectric relaxations in aliphatic polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sudeepto

    2001-07-01

    The dielectric technique was used to study the relaxation processes of five linear aliphatic polyesters. The polyesters studied were poly (ethylene succinate/adipate) or PESA, poly (trimethylene succinate/adipate) or PTSA, poly (butylene succinate/adipate) or PBSA, poly (ethylene succinate) or PES, and poly (ethylene adipate) or PEA. Three of the polyesters were copolymers (PESA, PTSA, and PBSA), and the remaining two (PES and PEA) were homopolymers. Two of the five were amorphous (PESA and PTSA), and the remaining three (PBSA, PES, and PEA) were semicrystalline. All the five polyesters were synthesized in the laboratory using a poly-condensation reaction between a series of aliphatic diols and diesters. The succinic and adipic groups in the copolymers are in equimolar amounts. The polymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and density measurements. Elemental analysis done on the polymers confirmed that their compositions matched theoretical estimates. The relaxation processes were studied dielectrically using an IMASS time domain dielectric spectrometer (TDS) and an HP 4284A LCR meter. Together they allowed a frequency range from 0.001 Hz to 1 MHz. Typically in the subglass region, good data were obtained between 0.01 Hz and 100 kHz. In the glass transition region, good data were occasionally available over the entire range. Two relaxation processes were detected in the subglass temperature region for all the polymers, and in the case of the copolymers PTSA and PBSA, they were also well resolved. Both the processes showed Arrhenius behavior with modest activation energies characteristic of subglass processes in general. They also progressively merged with increasing temperature, which implies a lower activation energy for the faster process which is consistent with the current understanding of relaxation phenomena. The glass transition region of all the polymers also showed a merging of the dominant alpha relaxation with the subglass

  18. Primary oral cancer in a Turkish population sample: association with sociodemographic features, smoking, alcohol, diet and dentition.

    PubMed

    Güneri, Pelin; Cankaya, Hülya; Yavuzer, Atilla; Güneri, E Alpin; Erişen, Levent; Ozkul, Doğan; El, Sedef Nehir; Karakaya, Sibel; Arican, Armağan; Boyacioğlu, Hayal

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this multicentre case-control study was to investigate the association of a variety of factors with oral cancer in a group of Turkish patients. Questionnaires were used to investigate the sociodemographic features, smoking and alcohol consumptions, dietary habits and dental status of 79 primary oral cancer patients and 61 controls. Data were statistically analysed with Mann-Whitney U-test, Pearson Chi-square and binary logistic regression analyses to determine the odds ratios. Low level of education, gender, dietary habits, having poor oral hygiene and denture sores were associated with primary oral cancer in this patient sample; but eating salads and raw vegetables, fish, and drinking red wine were related with healthy status. Determination of the factors associated with oral cancer and of the high-risk groups would be beneficial to provide efficient screening protocols and prevention programmes for oral cavity cancers. PMID:16139559

  19. A rapid and sensitive alcohol oxidase/catalase conductometric biosensor for alcohol determination.

    PubMed

    Hnaien, M; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2010-04-15

    A new conductometric biosensor has been developed for the determination of short chain primary aliphatic alcohols. The biosensor assembly was prepared through immobilization of alcohol oxidase from Hansenula sp. and bovine liver catalase in a photoreticulated poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane at the surface of interdigitated microelectrodes. The local conductivity increased rapidly after alcohol addition, reaching steady-state within 10 min. The sensitivity was maximal for methanol (0.394+/-0.004 microS microM(-1), n=5) and decreased by increasing the alcohol chain length. The response was linear up to 75 microM for methanol, 70 microM for ethanol and 65 microM for 1-propanol and limits of detection were 0.5 microM, 1 microM and 3 microM, respectively (S/N=3). No significant loss of the enzyme activities was observed after 3 months of storage at 4 degrees C in a 20mM phosphate buffer solution pH 7.2 (two or three measurements per week). After 4 months, 95% of the initial signal still remained. The biosensor response to ethanol was not significantly affected by acetic, lactic, ascorbic, malic, oxalic, citric, tartaric acids or glucose. The bi-enzymatic sensor was successfully applied to the determination of ethanol in different alcoholic beverages. PMID:20188912

  20. Efficient Synthesis of Primary Nitrocarbamates of Sugar Alcohols: From Food to Energetic Materials.

    PubMed

    Axthammer, Quirin J; Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard

    2016-02-18

    The synthesis of various new polyvalent nitrocarbamates derived from sugar alcohols was accomplished by an economically benign two-step synthesis. The precursor carbamates were synthesized with the reagent chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) and further nitrated using mixed acid. The starting materials, sugar alcohols, are renewable biomass, mainly used in food and cosmetic industry. The structures of one carbamate and one nitrocarbamate were exemplary described by single-crystal X-ray-analysis. The heat of formation is calculated by the use of isodesmic reactions and the energetic performance data were estimated. All compounds were fully characterized by elemental analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, (1)H, (13)C, and (14/15)N NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC). The nitrocarbamates exhibit good detonation performance and have significantly lower sensitivities compared to the commonly used nitrate ester explosive PETN. PMID:26633737

  1. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 1. The primary structure of the beta 1 beta 1 isoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Hempel, J; Bühler, R; Kaiser, R; Holmquist, B; de Zalenski, C; von Wartburg, J P; Vallee, B; Jörnvall, H

    1984-12-17

    Determination of the amino acid sequence of the beta 1 subunit from the class I (pyrazole-sensitive) human liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme beta 1 beta 1 revealed a 373-residue structure differing at 48 positions (including a gap) from that of the subunit of the well studied horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase EE isoenzyme. The structure deduced is compatible with known differences in composition, ultraviolet absorbance, electrophoretic mobility and catalytic properties between the horse and human enzymes. All zinc-liganding residues of the horse E subunit are strictly conserved in the human beta 1 subunit, despite an earlier report of a mutation involving Cys-46. This residue therefore remains conserved in all known alcohol dehydrogenase structures. However, the total cysteine content of the beta 1 structure is raised from 14 in the subunit of the horse enzyme to 15 by a Tyr----Cys exchange. Most exchanges are on the surface of the molecule and of a well conserved nature. Substitutions close to the catalytic centre are of interest to explain the altered substrate specificity and different catalytic activity of the beta 1 homodimer. Functionally, a Ser----Thr exchange at position 48 appears to be of special importance, since Thr-48 in beta 1 instead of Ser-48 in the horse enzyme can restrict available space. Four other substitutions also line the active-site pocket, and appear to constitute partly compensated exchanges. PMID:6391920

  2. FAR5, a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase, is involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis of the leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Wang, Yanting; Li, Tingting; Chai, Guaiqiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Shan, Liwei; Li, Chunlian; Xiao, Enshi; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-03-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against non-stomatal water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It comprises a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Results show that primary alcohols are the major components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf blade cuticular waxes. Here, the characterization of TaFAR5 from wheat cv Xinong 2718, which is allelic to TAA1b, an anther-specific gene, is reported. Evidence is presented for a new function for TaFAR5 in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols of leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat. Expression of TaFAR5 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to production of C22:0 primary alcohol. The transgenic expression of TaFAR5 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves resulted in the accumulation of C26:0, C28:0, and C30:0 primary alcohols. TaFAR5 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR5 was expressed at high levels in the leaf blades, anthers, pistils, and seeds. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged TaFAR5 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of primary alcohol biosynthesis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the TaFAR5 protein possessed a molecular mass of 58.4kDa, and it was also shown that TaFAR5 transcript levels were regulated in response to drought, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). Overall, these data suggest that TaFAR5 plays an important role in the synthesis of primary alcohols in wheat leaf blade. PMID:25468933

  3. FAR5, a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase, is involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis of the leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Wang, Yanting; Li, Tingting; Chai, Guaiqiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Shan, Liwei; Li, Chunlian; Xiao, Enshi; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against non-stomatal water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It comprises a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Results show that primary alcohols are the major components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf blade cuticular waxes. Here, the characterization of TaFAR5 from wheat cv Xinong 2718, which is allelic to TAA1b, an anther-specific gene, is reported. Evidence is presented for a new function for TaFAR5 in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols of leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat. Expression of TaFAR5 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to production of C22:0 primary alcohol. The transgenic expression of TaFAR5 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves resulted in the accumulation of C26:0, C28:0, and C30:0 primary alcohols. TaFAR5 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR5 was expressed at high levels in the leaf blades, anthers, pistils, and seeds. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged TaFAR5 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of primary alcohol biosynthesis. SDS–PAGE analysis indicated that the TaFAR5 protein possessed a molecular mass of 58.4kDa, and it was also shown that TaFAR5 transcript levels were regulated in response to drought, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). Overall, these data suggest that TaFAR5 plays an important role in the synthesis of primary alcohols in wheat leaf blade. PMID:25468933

  4. Problem alcohol use among problem drug users in primary care: a qualitative study of what patients think about screening and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Problem alcohol use is common and associated with considerable adverse outcomes among patients who attend primary care in Ireland and other European countries for opiate substitution treatment. This paper aims to describe patients’ experience of, and attitude towards, screening and therapeutic interventions for problem alcohol use in primary care. Methods This qualitative study recruited problem drug users (N = 28) from primary care based methadone programmes in the Ireland’s Eastern region, using a stratified sampling matrix to include size of general practice and geographical area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis, and audited by a third reviewer. Results We identified three overarching themes relevant to the purpose of this paper: (1) patients’ experience of, and (2) attitude towards, screening and treatment for problem alcohol use in primary care, as well as their (3) views on service improvement. While most patients reported being screened for problem alcohol use at initial assessment, few recalled routine screening or treatment. Among the barriers and enablers to screening and treatment, patients highlighted the importance of the practitioner-patient relationship in helping them address the issue. Nevertheless, patients felt that healthcare professionals should be more proactive in the management of problem alcohol use at a primary care level and that primary care can play an important role in their treatment. Conclusions Problem alcohol use is an important challenge in the care of problem drug users. While primary care is well placed to address this issue, little data has reported on this topic. The development of interventions which promote screening and brief interventions in practice are likely to benefit this at-risk group and further research and education, that help achieve this goal, are a priority. Strategies such as dissemination of clinical guidelines, educational videos, academic

  5. Oxygenases for aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenases catalyzing the insertion of oxygen into either aliphatic hydrocarbons or fatty acids have great similarity. There are two classes of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Dioxygenase inserts both atoms of molecular oxygen into a substrate, whereas monooxygenase incorporates one a...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  7. Opportunities for prevention of alcohol-related death in primary care: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Margaret; Johnson, David; Morrison, David S

    2012-11-01

    The mortality rate from alcohol-related conditions has risen sharply in the United Kingdom and it is not known whether opportunities for preventive interventions could be improved. The purpose of our study was to identify opportunities to detect, assess, and manage alcohol problems in primary care according to evidence-based guidelines. We carried out a cross-sectional study on patients who died from alcohol-related conditions in the calendar year 2003 within National Health Service Greater Glasgow Health Board area, Scotland (population 920,000). We described patient characteristics and care recorded in health service records, comparing it with best evidence-based practice in Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and Health Technology Board for Scotland recommendations on the management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence. 501 deaths occurred from an alcohol-related cause. The mean age at death was 57.5 years and 72% were male. The most common causes of death, recorded by the International Classification of Diseases, revision 10, excluding accidents, were alcoholic liver disease (290, 57.9%) and mental and behavioural disorders due to alcohol (70, 14.0%). Lifetime mean consultations at primary care general practitioner and hospital outpatient departments were 24 in males and 5 in females. All individuals who died from an alcohol-related cause had at least one biochemical or physical indicator suggestive of alcohol misuse. 21% (95% CI 13-33%) had no record of having been advised to abstain from alcohol and 23% (95% CI 15-35%) had received brief interventions. 58% (95% CI 46-70%) had been referred to specialist alcohol services but a third of them did not attend. The majority of patients (83%, 95% CI 72-90%) had no evidence of shared health service and social work care. We concluded that individuals who died from alcohol-related conditions were usually in contact with statutory and voluntary services but further efforts were required to use these

  8. Alcohol Use in Students Seeking Primary Care Treatment at University Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakletskaia, Larissa; Wilson, Ellen; Fleming, Michael Francis

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the high rate of at-risk drinking in college students, the authors examined drinking behaviors and associated factors in students being seen in student health services for primary care visits from October 30, 2004, to February 15, 2007. Methods: Analyses were based on a Health Screening Survey completed by 10,234 college students…

  9. Short-chain aliphatic ester synthesis using Thermobifida fusca cutinase.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingqia; Hong, Ruoyu; Guo, Xiaojie; Wu, Jing; Xia, Yongmei

    2016-09-01

    Short-chain aliphatic esters are commonly used as fruit flavorings in the food industry. In this study, Thermobifida fusca (T. fusca) cutinase was used for the synthesis of aliphatic esters, and the maximum yield of ethyl caproate reached 99.2% at a cutinase concentration of 50U/ml, 40°C, and water content of 0.5%, representing the highest ester yield to date. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification displayed strong tolerance for water content (up to 8%) and acid concentration (up to 0.8M). At substrate concentrations ⩽0.8M, the ester yield remained above 80%. Moreover, ester yields of more than 98% and 95% were achieved for acids of C3-C8 and alcohols of C1-C6, respectively, indicating extensive chain length selectivity of the cutinase. These results demonstrate the superior ability of T. fusca cutinase to catalyze the synthesis of short-chain esters. This study provides the basis for industrial production of short-chain esters using T. fusca cutinase. PMID:27041308

  10. First Infrared Predissociation Spectra of He-TAGGED Protonated Primary Alcohols at 4 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, Alexander; Redlich, Britta; Oomens, J.; Asvany, Oskar; Brünken, Sandra; Jusko, Pavol; Thorwirth, Sven; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Cryogenic multipole ion traps have become popular devices in the development of sensitive action-spectroscopic techniques. The low ion temperature leads to enhanced spectral resolution, and less congested spectra. In the early 2000s, a 22-pole ion trap was coupled to the Free-Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments (FELIX), yielding infrared Laser Induced Reaction (LIR) spectra of the molecular ions C_2H_2+ and CH_5+. This pioneering work showed the great opportunities combining cold mass-selected molecular ions with widely tunable broadband IR radiation. In the past year a cryogenic (T>3.9 K) 22-pole ion trap designed and built in Cologne (FELion) has been successfully coupled to FELIX, which in its current configuration provides continuously tunable infrared radiation from 3 μm to 150 μm, hence allowing to probe characteristic vibrational spectra in the so-called "fingerprint region" with a sufficient spectral energy density also allowing for multiple photon processes (IR-MPD). Here we present the first infrared predissociation spectra of He-tagged protonated methanol and ethanol (MeOH_2+/EtOH_2+) stored at 4 K. These vibrational spectra were recorded with both a commercial OPO and FELIX, covering a total spectral range from 3700 wn to 550 wn at a spectral resolution of a few wn. The H-O-H stretching and bending modes clearly distinguish the protonated alcohols from their neutral analoga. For EtOH_2+, also IR-MPD spectra of the bare ion could be recorded. The symmetric and antisymmetric H-O-H stretching bands at around 3 μm show no significant shift within the given spectral resolution in comparison to those recorded with He predissociation, indicating a rather small perturbation caused by the attached He. The vibrational bands were assigned using quantum-chemical calculations on different levels of theory. The computed frequencies correspond favorably to the experimental spectra. Subsequent high resolution measurements could lead to a better structural

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) quantifies the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coatings. The estimates in this CBA are to be used for assessing the relative merits of the selected alternatives. The actual economic effects at any specific facility will depend on the alternative material or technology implemented, the number of actual applications converted, future workloads, and other factors . The participants initially considered eighteen (18) alternative coatings as described in the Potential Alternatives Report entitled Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB. Of those, 8 alternatives were selected for testing in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, and the Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives 10 Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both of which were prepared by ITB. A joint Test Report entitled Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB, documents the results of the laboratory and field testing, as well as any

  12. Diverse Asymmetric Hydrofunctionalization of Aliphatic Internal Alkenes through Catalytic Regioselective Hydroboration.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yumeng; Hartwig, John F

    2016-06-01

    We report a two-step strategy for diverse hydrofunctionalizations of aliphatic internal alkenes with high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity. This process comprises a copper-catalyzed asymmetric hydroboration and subsequent stereospecific derivatizations of the secondary boronates. By this strategy, a range of compounds, such as amides, alkyl fluorides and bromides, alcohols, aldehydes, arenes, and heteroarenes, were synthesized from an internal alkene with high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity. Computational studies provide insight into the origins of these selectivities. PMID:27167490

  13. Alkynes as Allylmetal Equivalents in Redox-Triggered C–C Couplings to Primary Alcohols: (Z)-Homoallylic Alcohols via Ruthenium-Catalyzed Propargyl C–H Oxidative Addition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The cationic ruthenium catalyst generated upon the acid–base reaction of H2Ru(CO)(PPh3)3 and 2,4,6-(2-Pr)3PhSO3H promotes the redox-triggered C–C coupling of 2-alkynes and primary alcohols to form (Z)-homoallylic alcohols with good to complete control of olefin geometry. Deuterium labeling studies, which reveal roughly equal isotopic compositions at the allylic and distal vinylic positions, along with other data, corroborate a catalytic mechanism involving ruthenium(0)-mediated allene–aldehyde oxidative coupling to form a transient oxaruthenacycle, an event that ultimately defines (Z)-olefin stereochemistry. PMID:25075434

  14. Cutoff in potency implicates alcohol inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, R W; Weight, F F

    1995-01-01

    As the number of carbon atoms in an aliphatic n-alcohol is increased from one to five, intoxicating potency, lipid solubility, and membrane lipid disordering potency all increase in a similar exponential manner. However, the potency of aliphatic n-alcohols for producing intoxication reaches a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then decreases. The molecular basis of this "cutoff" effect is not understood, as it is not correlated with either the lipid solubility or the membrane disordering potency of the alcohols, which continue to increase exponentially. Since it has been suggested that inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by alcohols may play a role in alcohol intoxication, we investigated whether a series of aliphatic n-alcohols would exhibit a cutoff in potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors. We found that although potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors increased exponentially for alcohols with one to five carbon atoms, potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors reached a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then abruptly disappeared. This cutoff for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors is consistent with an interaction of the alcohols with a hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. In addition, the similarity of the cutoffs for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors and alcohol intoxication suggests that the cutoff for NMDA receptor inhibition may contribute to the cutoff for alcohol intoxication, which is consistent with an important role of NMDA receptors in alcohol intoxication. PMID:7708732

  15. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  16. Aliphatic polyamines in physiology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramani, D; De Bandt, J P; Cynober, L

    2014-02-01

    Aliphatic polyamines are a family of polycationic molecules derived from decarboxylation of the amino acid ornithine that classically comprise three molecules: putrescine, spermidine and spermine. In-cell polyamine homeostasis is tightly controlled at key steps of cell metabolism. Polyamines are involved in an array of cellular functions from DNA stabilization, and regulation of gene expression to ion channel function and, particularly, cell proliferation. As such, aliphatic polyamines play an essential role in rapidly dividing cells such as in the immune system and digestive tract. Because of their role in cell proliferation, polyamines are also involved in carcinogenesis, prompting intensive research into polyamine metabolism as a target in cancer therapy. More recently, another aliphatic polyamine, agmatine, the decarboxylated derivative of arginine, has been identified as a neurotransmitter in mammals, and investigations have focused on its effects in the CNS, notably as a neuroprotector in brain injury. PMID:24144912

  17. Microbial degradation of aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Kato, Satoshi; Shintani, Noboru; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable plastics (BPs) have attracted much attention since more than a decade because they can easily be degraded by microorganisms in the environment. The development of aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability and an ideal replacement for the conventional nondegradable thermoplastics. The microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various aliphatic, aromatic, and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyester-degrading microorganisms and their enzymes have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. In this review, we have reported some new microorganisms and their enzymes which could degrade various aliphatic, aromatic, as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters like poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydoxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalterate) (PHB/PHBV), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT), poly(butylene succinate-co-terephthalate) (PBST), and poly(butylene succinate/terephthalate/isophthalate)-co-(lactate) (PBSTIL). The mechanism of degradation of aliphatic as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has also been discussed. The degradation ability of microorganisms against various polyesters might be useful for the treatment and recycling of biodegradable wastes or bioremediation of the polyester-contaminated environments. PMID:24522729

  18. Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort is to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes. Successful completion of this project will result in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project.

  19. PRECONCENTRATION OF ALIPHATIC AMINES FROM WATER DETERMINED BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS WITH INDIRECT UV DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preconcentration methodology based on adsorption chromatographies for enriching aliphatic amines (c1 to C4 substituted primary, secondary, and tertiary) and alkanolamines in water was studied by free zone capillary electrophoresis (CZE)with indirect UV detection. The solid-phase ...

  20. Ruthenium/Imidazolylphosphine catalysis: hydrogenation of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles to form amines.

    PubMed

    Werkmeister, Svenja; Junge, Kathrin; Wendt, Bianca; Spannenberg, Anke; Jiao, Haijun; Bornschein, Christoph; Beller, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    A convenient and efficient catalyst system for the hydrogenation of aliphatic nitriles towards the corresponding primary amines in high to excellent yields is presented. In addition, aromatic nitriles are reduced smoothly, too. The use of low catalyst loadings and molecular hydrogen make this protocol an attractive methodology. PMID:24615766

  1. Alcoholic extract of tarantula cubensis improves sharp ruptured tendon healing after primary repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali; Meimandi Parizi, Abdolhamid

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of tarantula cubensis (TC) on the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) rupture after surgical anastomosis, on day 84-postinjury (DPI) in rabbits. Forty white New Zealand, mature, male rabbits were randomly and evenly divided into treated and control groups. After tenotomy and primary repair, the injured legs were immobilized for 2 weeks. TC was injected subcutaneously over the lesion on 3, 7, and 10 DPI. The control animals received subcutaneous injections of normal saline similarly. Animal's weight, tendon diameter, clinical status, radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluations were recorded at weekly intervals. The animals were euthanized on 84 DPI and the injured tendons and their normal contralaterals were evaluated for histopathologic, histomorphometric, ultrastructural, biomechanical, and percentage dry weight parameters. Treatment significantly improved the clinical performance, cell, collagen and tissue maturation, tissue alignment and remodeling, ultimate strength, stiffness, maximum stress, and dry weight content and decreased the tendon diameter, inflammation, adhesions and degeneration of the injured treated tendons compared to the injured control ones. The present findings showed that TC is effective on sharp ruptured SDFT in rabbits and it could be one of the novel therapeutic options in clinical trial studies. PMID:23431525

  2. Transformations of 1- and 2-carbon halogenated aliphatic organic compounds under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Bouwer, E J; McCarty, P L

    1983-01-01

    Several 1- and 2-carbon halogenated aliphatic organic compounds present at low concentrations (less than 100 micrograms/liter) were degraded under methanogenic conditions in batch bacterial cultures and in a continuous-flow methanogenic fixed-film laboratory-scale column. Greater than 90% degradation was observed within a 2-day detention time under continuous-flow methanogenic conditions with acetate as a primary substrate. Carbon-14 measurements indicated that chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and 1,2-dichloroethane were almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide, confirming removal by biooxidation. The initial step in the transformations of tetrachloroethylene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane to nonchlorinated end products appeared to be reductive dechlorination to trichloroethylene and 1,1,2-trichloroethane, respectively. Transformations of the brominated aliphatic compounds appear to be the result of both biological and chemical processes. The data suggest that transformations of halogenated aliphatic compounds can occur under methanogenic conditions in the environment. PMID:6859849

  3. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520... Substances § 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520... Substances § 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  14. Implementing referral to an electronic alcohol brief advice website in primary healthcare: results from the ODHIN implementation trial

    PubMed Central

    Bendtsen, Preben; Müssener, Ulrika; Karlsson, Nadine; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Palacio-Vieira, Jorge; Colom, Joan; Gual, Antoni; Reynolds, Jillian; Wallace, Paul; Segura, Lidia; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to explore whether the possibility of offering facilitated access to an alcohol electronic brief intervention (eBI) instead of delivering brief face-to-face advice increased the proportion of consulting adults who were screened and given brief advice. Design The study was a 12-week implementation study. Sixty primary healthcare units (PHCUs) in 5 jurisdictions (Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden) were asked to screen adults who attended the PHCU for risky drinking. Setting A total of 120 primary healthcare centres from 5 jurisdictions in Europe. Participants 746 individual providers (general practitioners, nurses or other professionals) participated in the study. Primary outcome Change in the proportion of patients screened and referred to eBI comparing a baseline 4-week preimplementation period with a 12-week implementation period. Results The possibility of referring patients to the eBI was not found to be associated with any increase in the proportion of patients screened. However, it was associated with an increase in the proportion of screen-positive patients receiving brief advice from 70% to 80% for the screen-positive sample as a whole (p<0.05), mainly driven by a significant increase in brief intervention rates in England from 87% to 96% (p<0.01). The study indicated that staff displayed a low level of engagement in this new technology. Staff continued to offer face-to-face advice to a larger proportion of patients (54%) than referral to eBI (38%). In addition, low engagement was seen among the referred patients; on average, 18% of the patients logged on to the website with a mean log-on rate across the different countries between 0.58% and 36.95%. Conclusions Referral to eBI takes nearly as much time as brief oral advice and might require more introduction and training before staff are comfortable with referring to eBI. Trial registration number NCT01501552; Post-results. PMID:27311902

  15. Three TaFAR genes function in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols and the response to abiotic stresses in Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiling; Wang, Yong; Wu, Hongqi; Xu, Jing; Li, Tingting; Hegebarth, Daniela; Jetter, Reinhard; Chen, Letian; Wang, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular waxes play crucial roles in protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. They are complex mixtures of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives, including C20-C32 fatty alcohols. Here, we report the identification of 32 FAR-like genes and the detailed characterization of TaFAR2, TaFAR3 and TaFAR4, wax biosynthetic genes encoding fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) in wheat leaf cuticle. Heterologous expression of the three TaFARs in wild-type yeast and mutated yeast showed that TaFAR2, TaFAR3 and TaFAR4 were predominantly responsible for the accumulation of C18:0, C28:0 and C24:0 primary alcohols, respectively. Transgenic expression of the three TaFARs in tomato fruit and Arabidopsis cer4 mutant led to increased production of C22:0-C30:0 primary alcohols. GFP-fusion protein injection assay showed that the three encoded TaFAR proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of wax biosynthesis. The transcriptional expression of the three TaFAR genes was induced by cold, salt, drought and ABA. Low air humidity led to increased expression of TaFAR genes and elevated wax accumulation in wheat leaves. Collectively, these data suggest that TaFAR2, TaFAR3 and TaFAR4 encode active alcohol-forming FARs involved in the synthesis of primary alcohol in wheat leaf and the response to environmental stresses. PMID:27112792

  16. Three TaFAR genes function in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols and the response to abiotic stresses in Triticum aestivum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meiling; Wang, Yong; Wu, Hongqi; Xu, Jing; Li, Tingting; Hegebarth, Daniela; Jetter, Reinhard; Chen, Letian; Wang, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular waxes play crucial roles in protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. They are complex mixtures of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives, including C20–C32 fatty alcohols. Here, we report the identification of 32 FAR-like genes and the detailed characterization of TaFAR2, TaFAR3 and TaFAR4, wax biosynthetic genes encoding fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) in wheat leaf cuticle. Heterologous expression of the three TaFARs in wild-type yeast and mutated yeast showed that TaFAR2, TaFAR3 and TaFAR4 were predominantly responsible for the accumulation of C18:0, C28:0 and C24:0 primary alcohols, respectively. Transgenic expression of the three TaFARs in tomato fruit and Arabidopsis cer4 mutant led to increased production of C22:0–C30:0 primary alcohols. GFP-fusion protein injection assay showed that the three encoded TaFAR proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of wax biosynthesis. The transcriptional expression of the three TaFAR genes was induced by cold, salt, drought and ABA. Low air humidity led to increased expression of TaFAR genes and elevated wax accumulation in wheat leaves. Collectively, these data suggest that TaFAR2, TaFAR3 and TaFAR4 encode active alcohol-forming FARs involved in the synthesis of primary alcohol in wheat leaf and the response to environmental stresses. PMID:27112792

  17. Effectiveness of Nurse-Practitioner-Delivered Brief Motivational Intervention for Young Adult Alcohol and Drug Use in Primary Care in South Africa: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Jennifer R.; Ward, Catherine L.; Bresick, Graham F.; Broder, Tina; Weisner, Constance M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of brief motivational intervention for alcohol and drug use in young adult primary care patients in a low-income population and country. Methods: A randomized controlled trial in a public-sector clinic in Delft, a township in the Western Cape, South Africa recruited 403 patients who were randomized to either single-session, nurse practitioner-delivered Brief Motivational Intervention plus referral list or usual care plus referral list, and followed up at 3 months. Results: Although rates of at-risk alcohol use and drug use did not differ by treatment arm at follow-up, patients assigned to the Brief Motivational Intervention had significantly reduced scores on ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) for alcohol—the most prevalent substance. Conclusion: Brief Motivational Intervention may be effective at reducing at-risk alcohol use in the short term among low-income young adult primary care patients; additional research is needed to examine long-term outcomes. PMID:24899076

  18. QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR A SERIES OF PRIMARY ALCOHOLS IN A MAMMALIAN VIRAL HOST CELL REACTIVATION ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structure-toxicity relationships for alcohols in a wide variety of systems have been found to depend primarily on the effective molar concentration of alcohol that penetrates to a lipid site of action in the cell, and not on specific structural features. n contrast, a structure-a...

  19. Renaissance of Aliphatic Polycarbonates: New Techniques and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianwen; Feng, Ellva; Song, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic polycarbonates were discovered a long time ago, with their conventional applications mostly limited to low molecular weight oligomeric intermediates for copolymerization with other polymers. Recent developments in polymerization techniques have overcome the difficulty in preparing high molecular weight aliphatic polycarbonates. These in turn, along with new functional monomers, have enabled the preparation of a wide range of aliphatic polycarbonates with diverse chemical compositions and structures. This review summarizes the latest polymerization techniques for preparing well-defined functional aliphatic polycarbonates, as well as the new applications of those aliphatic polycarbonates, esecially in the biomedical field. PMID:24994939

  20. Physiological Studies of Methane- and Methanol-Oxidizing Bacteria: Immunological Comparison of a Primary Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus and Pseudomonas sp. M27

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R. N.; Mandy, W. J.; Hoare, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    A primary alcohol dehydrogenase was purified from cell extracts of two apparently unrelated microorganisms, namely, Pseudomonas sp. M27 and Methylococcus capsulatus. Rabbit antiserum prepared against the purified enzyme from M. capsulatus revealed distinctive antigenic determinants by quantitative and gel precipitin reactions. Rabbit antiserum to M27 enzyme detected both distinctive and shared antigenic determinants. Certain methane- and methanol-oxidizing bacteria were grouped on the basis of serological cross-reacting enzyme specificities. Images PMID:4120569

  1. Reconstruction of an Acetogenic 2,3-Butanediol Pathway Involving a Novel NADPH-Dependent Primary-Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L.; Maddock, Danielle J.; Mueller, Alexander P.; Liew, FungMin

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 μM h−1 optical density unit−1), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  2. Reconstruction of an acetogenic 2,3-butanediol pathway involving a novel NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L; Maddock, Danielle J; Mueller, Alexander P; Liew, FungMin; Simpson, Séan D; Patrick, Wayne M

    2014-06-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 μM h(-1) optical density unit(-1)), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  4. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Shannon D.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

  5. Photolysis of aryl chlorides with aliphatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, N.J.

    1982-05-07

    Kinetic arguments show that the aliphatic amine assisted photodechlorinations of chlorides of the benzene, naphthalene, and biphenyl series take place mainly from the triplet excited state. Deuterium labeling studies have been used to determine the origin of the hydrogen atom which replaces chlorine when 4-chlorobiphenyl is photoreduced. Three pathways are inferred: hydrogen abstraction from the solvent and protonation both within the exciplex (or radical ion pair) and by external proton donors.

  6. Individual biotransformation rates in chlorinated aliphatic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.B.; Parkin, G.F.

    1996-02-01

    Anaerobic biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatics has been widely studied over the past decade, and anaerobic bioremediation is considered a promising technique for restoration of contaminated aquifers. Studies using batch cultures and continuously fed attached-growth systems investigated the effect of mixtures of chlorinated aliphatics on the anaerobic biotransformation rates of individual components of the mixture. Dichloromethane (DCM), chloroform (CF), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) were selected for study because of their frequent detection in groundwater. Biotransformation of CF and TCA occurred in all systems. When CF and TCA were fed together, transformation rates for both aliphatics were lower than when fed individually. DCM generally had minor to negligible effects on the transformation of CF and TCA, but in one case, it caused a slight but statistically significant decrease in TCA transformation (p = 0.05). DCM transformation was not observed when fed individually or in mixtures to batch resting cultures, so the effect of CF and TCA on DCM transformation could not be determined.

  7. A proposed model for community-assisted alcohol withdrawal in primary care in the UK Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Faerestrand, Nicholas H; Coetzee, R H

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol misuse and related morbidity continues to represent a challenge to the both the National Health Service (NHS) and the Defence Medical Services (DMS). A significant part of the management of patients who misuse alcohol involves planned assisted withdrawal for dependent drinkers. Traditionally, assisted alcohol withdrawal has been conducted in an in-patient setting owing to the perceived risks of carrying out this treatment. Current evidence shows that community-based approaches offer a safe and effective alternative to the traditional in-patient model with significant cost savings. This article proposes a model for community-assisted alcohol withdrawal (CAAW) for use within the DMS. It considers current guidelines and models already in operation within the NHS, offering evaluation and adjustments to fit the requirements that are applicable to the UK Armed Forces medical environment. PMID:24760878

  8. Nanosecond flash studies of reduction of benzophenone by aliphatic amines. Quantum yields and kinetic isotope effects

    SciTech Connect

    Inbar, S.; Linschitz, H.; Cohen, S.G.

    1981-03-11

    Nanosecond flash photolysis, steady irradiation, and deuterium substitution studies have been carried out on solutions of benzophenone with added reductants. Quantum yields (phi/sub ketyl/) for reduction in benzene of benzophenone triplet to ketyl radical, based on phi = 2 for benzhydrol (I), were approx. 1 for cyclohexane (II), tert-butylamine (III), 2-aminobutane (IV), cyclohexylamine (V), di-n-propylamine (VI), and triethylamine (VII), approx. 0.7 for 1,4-diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane (VIII), and approx. 0 for tert-butyl alcohol (IX). Thus, quenching, without radical formation by H abstraction from N and/or ..cap alpha..-C, does not occur with common aliphatic amines but does with Dabco (VIII). The latter quenching is markedly increased by small additions of acetonitrile; the flash spectrum from this compound indicates formation of a triplet amine CT complex or radical ion pair. Triplet-reductant interaction rate constants, k/sur ir/, are high for the amines (approx. 10/sup 8/-10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) but also show significant deuterium kinetic isotope effects: 1.9 with III-N-d/sub 2/; 1.4 with IV-N-d/sub 2/; 1.2-1.3 with IV-..cap alpha..-C-d. It is proposed that k/sub ir/ measures H atom abstraction, favored in the transition state by an initial charge-transfer interaction. Overall steady irradiation quantum yields of reduction by amines, phi/sub Red/, are much lower than phi/sub ketyl/. This is attributed to disproportionationreactions of ketyl and alkylaminyl radicals for primary and secondary amines, and, possibly, aminoalkyl radicals for tertiary amines. In the case of tert-butylamine, the rate constant for disproportionation is obtained from the decay kinetics of ketyl radical and leads to phi/sub Red/ in agreement with that directly measured.

  9. CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE-C and -D are the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Mouille, Gregory; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise; Séguin, Armand

    2005-07-01

    During lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms, coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes are believed to be converted into their corresponding alcohols by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and by sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), respectively. This work clearly shows that CAD-C and CAD-D act as the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis thaliana by supplying both coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. An Arabidopsis CAD double mutant (cad-c cad-d) resulted in a phenotype with a limp floral stem at maturity as well as modifications in the pattern of lignin staining. Lignin content of the mutant stem was reduced by 40%, with a 94% reduction, relative to the wild type, in conventional beta-O-4-linked guaiacyl and syringyl units and incorportion of coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that both xylem vessels and fibers were affected. GeneChip data and real-time PCR analysis revealed that transcription of CAD homologs and other genes mainly involved in cell wall integrity were also altered in the double mutant. In addition, molecular complementation of the double mutant by tissue-specific expression of CAD derived from various species suggests different abilities of these genes/proteins to produce syringyl-lignin moieties but does not indicate a requirement for any specific SAD gene. PMID:15937231

  10. Controlled oxidation of aliphatic CH bonds in metallo-monooxygenases: mechanistic insights derived from studies on deuterated and fluorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Sheng; Luo, Wen-I; Yang, Chung-Ling; Tu, Yi-Jung; Chang, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Chi-Yao; Chan, Sunney I; Yu, Steve S-F

    2014-05-01

    The control over the regio- and/or stereo-selective aliphatic CH oxidation by metalloenzymes is of great interest to scientists. Typically, these enzymes invoke host-guest chemistry to sequester the substrates within the protein pockets, exploiting sizes, shapes and specific interactions such as hydrogen-bonding, electrostatic forces and/or van der Waals interactions to control the substrate specificity, regio-specificity and stereo-selectivity. Over the years, we have developed a series of deuterated and fluorinated variants of these hydrocarbon substrates as probes to gain insights into the controlled CH oxidations of hydrocarbons facilitated by these enzymes. In this review, we illustrate the application of these designed probes in the study of three monooxygenases: (i) the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), which oxidizes straight-chain C1-C5 alkanes and alkenes to form their corresponding 2-alcohols and epoxides, respectively; (ii) the recombinant alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) from Pseudomonas putida GPo1, which oxidizes the primary CH bonds of C5-C12 linear alkanes; and (iii) the recombinant cytochrome P450 from Bacillus megaterium, which oxidizes C12-C20 fatty acids at the ω-1, ω-2 or ω-3 CH positions. PMID:24629413

  11. Thermodynamics of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in alcohol solutions: Calorimetry of solution, IR-spectroscopy and vapor pressure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitseva, Ksenia V.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2012-06-01

    The properties of solutes and their reactivity in aliphatic alcohols significantly depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds. In this work, calorimetric, FTIR-spectroscopic and gas chromatographic vapor pressure studies of hydrogen bonds of weak bases in solution of aliphatic alcohols were carried out. Enthalpies of solutions at infinite dilution of ketones, nitriles and acetates in methanol and octan-1-ol were measured. Obtained from the calorimetric data, the enthalpies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols unexpectedly found to be positive. IR spectra of solutions of ketones in aliphatic alcohols at infinite dilution were measured at different temperatures. Enthalpies of specific interaction in studied systems obtained from the spectroscopic data confirmed the endothermic process and are in good agreement with calorimetric results. Gibbs energies and entropies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols were determined. Obtained results show, that the hydrogen bonding process of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols differs substantially from the formation of complexes 1:1 ROH⋯B (B - weak proton acceptor) in aprotic media. The complicated process of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols apparently is controlled by the entropy factor, because these values are above zero.

  12. An Online Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Primary Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and problematic alcohol use represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this is associated with increased harm and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective; however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it. The increased availability of eHealth programs presents a unique opportunity to treat these conditions. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an automated Web-based self-help intervention (DEAL Project) in treating co-occurring depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use in young people. Methods Young people (aged 18 to 25 years) with moderate depression symptoms and drinking at hazardous levels (recruited largely via social media) were randomly allocated to the DEAL Project (n=60) or a Web-based attention-control condition (HealthWatch; n=44). The trial consisted of a 4-week intervention phase with follow-up assessment at posttreatment and at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. The primary outcomes were change in depression severity according to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as quantity and frequency of alcohol use (TOT-AL). Results The DEAL Project was associated with statistically significant improvement in depression symptom severity (d=0.71) and reductions in alcohol use quantity (d=0.99) and frequency (d=0.76) in the short term compared to the control group. At 6-month follow-up, the improvements in the intervention group were maintained; however, the differences between the intervention and control groups were no longer statistically significant, such that between-group effects were in the small to moderate range at 6 months (depression symptoms: d=0.39; alcohol quantity: d=–0.09; alcohol frequency: d=0.24). Conclusions Overall, the DEAL Project was associated with more rapid improvement in both

  13. Copper(I) Metal-Organic Framework: Visual Sensor for Detecting Small Polar Aliphatic Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Ma, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Chao-Wei; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Liu, Qi-Kui; Dong, Yu-Bin

    2015-12-21

    A porous Cu(I)-MOF [H2O⊂Cu2(L)2I2; L = 1-benzimidazolyl-3,5-bis(4-pyridyl)benzene], which can be a visual and luminescent sensor for detecting small polar aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as alcohols, ketones, and halocarbons, is reported. The naked-eye and luminescent detection limitations for these VOCs are 5 and 1 ppm, respectively. PMID:26645672

  14. Spreading coefficients of aliphatic hydrocarbons on water

    SciTech Connect

    Takii, Taichi; Mori, Y.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the equilibrium spreading coefficients of some aliphatic hydrocarbons (C[sub 6]C[sub 10]) on water. The thickness of a discrete lens of each hydrocarbon sample floating on a stagnant water pool was measured interferometrically and used to calculate the spreading coefficient of the hydrocarbon with the aid of Langmuir's capillarity theory. The dependences of the spreading coefficient, thus observed, on temperature (0--50 C) and on the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule are in qualitative agreement with the predictions based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces.

  15. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra

    1990-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fractions from the Murchison meteorite were prepared using benzene-methanol as the extraction solvent, fractionated on silica gel columns, and analyzed using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry and IR and NMR techniques. Results indicate that the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon components of the Murchison meteorite are C15 to C30 branched-alkyl-substituted mono-, di-, and tricyclic alkanes. It is shown that the n-alkanes, methyl alkanes, and isoprenoid alkanes that are sometimes found in extracts of the Murchison meteorite are terrestrial contaminants.

  16. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 96. Amines with Water Part 3. Non-Aliphatic Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góral, Marian; Shaw, David G.; Mański, Andrzej; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Oracz, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria of 36 binary systems of non-aliphatic amines with water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2010 are compiled. For 13 systems, sufficient data are available to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units.

  17. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  18. Direct Olefination of Alcohols with Sulfones by Using Heterogeneous Platinum Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Touchy, Abeda Sultana; Kon, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi

    2016-04-18

    Carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C) were found to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for the direct Julia olefination of alcohols in the presence of sulfones and KOtBu under oxidant-free conditions. Primary alcohols, including aryl, aliphatic, allyl, and heterocyclic alcohols, underwent olefination with dimethyl sulfone and aryl alkyl sulfones to give terminal and internal olefins, respectively. Secondary alcohols underwent methylenation with dimethyl sulfone. Under 2.5 bar H2, the same reaction system was effective for the transformation of alcohol OH groups to alkyl groups. Structural and mechanistic studies of the terminal olefination system suggested that Pt(0) sites on the Pt metal particles are responsible for the rate-limiting dehydrogenation of alcohols and that KOtBu may deprotonate the sulfone reagent. The Pt/C catalyst was reusable after the olefination, and this method showed a higher turnover number (TON) and a wider substrate scope than previously reported methods, which demonstrates the high catalytic efficiency of the present method. PMID:26928740

  19. Olfactory discrimination ability for aliphatic esters in squirrel monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Laska, M; Freyer, D

    1997-08-01

    Using a behavioral paradigm designed to simulate olfactory-guided foraging, the ability of five squirrel monkeys to distinguish iso-amyl acetate from n- and iso-forms of other acetic esters (ethyl acetate to decyl acetate) and from other esters carrying the iso-amyl group (iso-amyl propionate to iso-amyl capronate) was investigated. We found (i) that all five animals were clearly able to discriminate between all odor pairs tested; (ii) a significant negative correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length of both the aliphatic alcohol group and the aliphatic acid group of the esters; and (iii) that iso- and n-amyl acetate were perceived as qualitatively similar despite different steric conformation. Using a triple-forced choice procedure, 20 human subjects were tested on the same tasks in parallel and showed a very similar pattern of discrimination performance compared with the squirrel monkeys. Thus, the results of this study provide evidence of well-developed olfactory discrimination ability in squirrel monkeys for aliphatic esters and support the assumption that human and non-human primates may share common principles of odor quality perception. PMID:9279468

  20. C-Propargylation Overrides O-Propargylation in Reactions of Propargyl Chloride with Primary Alcohols: Rhodium-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tao; Woo, Sang Kook; Krische, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    The canonical SN 2 behavior displayed by alcohols and activated alkyl halides in basic media (O-alkylation) is superseded by a pathway leading to carbinol C-alkylation under the conditions of rhodium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation. Racemic and asymmetric propargylations are described. PMID:27321353

  1. Alcohol-Specific Parenting within a Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Swedish Primary Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Anna K.; Bodin, Maria C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Within the framework of an ongoing cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of a parental prevention program, the aim of the present study is to investigate attitudes towards under-age drinking and use of program components, i.e. alcohol-specific parenting behaviors, in parents who did and did not take part in the programme.…

  2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols by a carbon-supported Rh porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shin-ichi; Yao, Masaru; Fujiwara, Naoko; Siroma, Zyun; Yasuda, Kazuaki; Ioroi, Tsutomu

    2012-05-01

    A Rh porphyrin on carbon black was shown to catalyze the electro-oxidation of several aliphatic alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) and benzyl alcohols. The overpotentials for alcohol oxidation were very low. The reaction mechanism and substrate specificity are discussed. PMID:22450541

  3. Multifunctional aliphatic polyester nanofibers for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jianan; Singh, Anirudha; Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Ling; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2012-01-01

    Electrospun fibers based on aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), have been widely used in regenerative medicine and drug delivery applications due to their biocompatibility, low cost and ease of fabrication. However, these aliphatic polyester fibers are hydrophobic in nature, resulting in poor wettability, and they lack functional groups for decorating the scaffold with chemical and biological cues. Current strategies employed to overcome these challenges include coating and blending the fibers with bioactive components or chemically modifying the fibers with plasma treatment and reactants. In the present study, we report on designing multifunctional electrospun nanofibers based on the inclusion complex of PCL-α-cyclodextrin (PCL-α-CD), which provides both structural support and multiple functionalities for further conjugation of bioactive components. This strategy is independent of any chemical modification of the PCL main chain, and electrospinning of PCL-α-CD is as easy as electrospinning PCL. Here, we describe synthesis of the PCL-α-CD electrospun nanofibers, elucidate composition and structure, and demonstrate the utility of functional groups on the fibers by conjugating a fluorescent small molecule and a polymeric-nanobead to the nanofibers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of PCL-α-CD nanofibers for promoting osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), which induced a higher level of expression of osteogenic markers and enhanced production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins or molecules compared with control PCL fibers. PMID:23507886

  4. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4497 - Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). 721.4497 Section 721.4497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4497 Aliphatic polyisocyanates (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  10. Comparison of brief interventions in primary care on smoking and excessive alcohol consumption: a population survey in England

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Angus, Colin; Beard, Emma; Brennan, Alan; Drummond, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Holmes, John; Kaner, Eileen; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Brief interventions have a modest but meaningful effect on promoting smoking cessation and reducing excessive alcohol consumption. Guidelines recommend offering such advice opportunistically and regularly but incentives vary between the two behaviours. Aim To use representative data from the perspective of patients to compare the prevalence and characteristics of people who smoke or drink excessively and who receive a brief intervention. Design and setting Data was from a representative sample of 15 252 adults from household surveys in England. Method Recall of brief interventions on smoking and alcohol use, sociodemographic information, and smoking and alcohol consumption patterns were assessed among smokers and those who drink excessively (AUDIT score of ≥8), who visited their GP surgery in the previous year. Results Of 1775 smokers, 50.4% recalled receiving brief advice on smoking in the previous year. Smokers receiving advice compared with those who did not were more likely to be older (odds ratio [OR] 17-year increments 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.06 to 1.34), female (OR 1.35, 95% CI =1.10 to 1.65), have a disability (OR 1.44, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.88), have made more quit attempts in the previous year (compared with no attempts: one attempt, OR 1.65, 95% CI = 1.32 to 2.08; ≥2 attempts, OR 2.02, 95% CI =1.49 to 2.74), and have greater nicotine dependence (OR 1.17, 95% CI =1.05 to 1.31) but were less likely to have no post-16 qualifications (OR 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.00). Of 1110 people drinking excessively, 6.5% recalled receiving advice in their GP surgery on their alcohol consumption in the previous year. Those receiving advice compared with those who did not had higher AUDIT scores (OR 1.17, 95% CI =1.12 to 1.23) and were less likely to be female (OR 0.44, 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.87). Conclusion Whereas approximately half of smokers in England visiting their GP in the past year report having received advice on cessation, <10% of those who

  11. Polyimide nanofoams from aliphatic polyester based copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.L.; Carter, K.R.; Richter, R.; Russell, T.P.

    1996-10-01

    High temperature polymer foams were prepared using microphase separated block copolymers where the major component is thermally stable block and the minor component is thermally labile. Upon thermal treatment, the dispersed minor component undergoes thermolysis leaving pores the size and shape of which are dictated by the initial copolymer morphology. The driving force behind the survey of aliphatic polyesters as possible labile blocks stems from their quantitative degradation into low boiling, polar degradation products via a backbiting process. Block copolymers were prepared using either a monofunctional caprolactone or a valerolactone oligomer and a high T. polyimide. Microphase morphologies were observed in each case. Thermal decomposition of the polyester blocks was accomplished by a thermal treatment at 370{degrees}C for 5 h. Significant density reductions were measured, and the resulting foams showed pore sizes in the 60-70 {Angstrom} range.

  12. Stable isotope investigations of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.; Heraty, L. J.; Holt, B. D.; Huang, L.; Sturchio, N. C.

    1999-06-01

    Stable isotope ratio measurements for carbon (C) and chlorine (Cl) can be used to elucidate the processes affecting transformation and transportation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in the environment. Methods recently developed in our laboratory for isotopic analysis of CAHs have been applied to laboratory measurements of the kinetic isotope effects associated with aerobic degradation of dichloromethane (DCM) and with both anaerobic and aerobic cometabolic degradation of trichlomethene (TCE) in batch and column microbial cultures. These experimental determinations of fractionation factors are crucial for understanding the behavior of CAHs in complex natural systems, where the extent of biotransformation can be masked by dispersion and volatilization. We have also performed laboratory investigations of kinetic isotope effects accompanying evaporation of CAHs, as well as field investigations of natural attenuation and in situ remediation of CAHs in a number of contaminated shallow aquifers at sites operated by the federal government and the private sector.

  13. Comparison of anamnestic history, alcohol intake and smoking, nutritional status, and liver dysfunction between thorotrast patients who developed primary liver cancer and those who did not

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyosawa, K.; Imai, H.; Sodeyama, T.; Franca, S.T.; Yousuf, M.; Furuta, S.; Fujisawa, K.; Kido, C. )

    1989-08-01

    In order to clarify the differences in past history, nutritional condition and, consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and liver dysfunction between the thorotrast patients who developed primary liver cancer and those who did not, 103 persons who had no primary liver cancer in January 1980 were studied. All subjects were military men who had undergone angiography with thorotrast between 1943 and 1946. Twenty persons developed hepatocellular carcinoma and 16 developed intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma by April 1987, whereas 67 are still alive without any cancer. There was no difference in age or period after thorotrast infusion between those two groups of patients in January 1980. A difference in history of hepatitis and/or jaundice and presence of hepatic dysfunction was found between the subjects who developed primary liver cancers and those who did not. These findings suggest that an anamnestic history of hepatitis and liver dysfunction are risks for development of thorotrast-induced liver cancer. On the basis of the above findings, early detection of liver dysfunction offers a possibility of early diagnosis of primary liver cancer.

  14. Thalamic Volume Deficit Contributes to Procedural and Explicit Memory Impairment in HIV Infection with Primary Alcoholism Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2014-01-01

    Component cognitive and motor processes contributing to diminished visuomotor procedural learning in HIV infection with comorbid chronic alcoholism (HIV+ALC) include problems with attention and explicit memory processes. The neural correlates associated with this constellation of cognitive and motor processes in HIV infection and alcoholism have yet to be delineated. Frontostriatal regions are affected in HIV infection, frontothalamocerebellar regions are affected in chronic alcoholism, and frontolimbic regions are likely affected in both; all three of these systems have the potential of contributing to both visuomotor procedural learning and explicit memory processes. Here, we examined the neural correlates of implicit memory, explicit memory, attention, and motor tests in 26 HIV+ALC (5 with comorbidity for nonalcohol drug abuse/dependence) and 19 age-range matched healthy control men. Parcellated brain volumes, including cortical, subcortical, and allocortical regions, as well as cortical sulci and ventricles, were derived using the SRI24 brain atlas. Results indicated that smaller thalamic volumes were associated with poorer performance on tests of explicit (immediate and delayed) and implicit (visuomotor procedural) memory in HIV+ALC. By contrast, smaller hippocampal volumes were associated with lower scores on explicit, but not implicit memory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that volumes of both the thalamus and the hippocampus were each unique independent predictors of explicit memory scores. This study provides evidence of a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory tasks in HIV+ALC, with selective relationships observed between hippocampal volume and explicit but not implicit memory, and highlights the relevance of the thalamus to mnemonic processes. PMID:24421067

  15. Alcohol's Effects on Lipid Bilayer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohols are known modulators of lipid bilayer properties. Their biological effects have long been attributed to their bilayer-modifying effects, but alcohols can also alter protein function through direct protein interactions. This raises the question: Do alcohol's biological actions result predominantly from direct protein-alcohol interactions or from general changes in the membrane properties? The efficacy of alcohols of various chain lengths tends to exhibit a so-called cutoff effect (i.e., increasing potency with increased chain length, which that eventually levels off). The cutoff varies depending on the assay, and numerous mechanisms have been proposed such as: limited size of the alcohol-protein interaction site, limited alcohol solubility, and a chain-length-dependent lipid bilayer-alcohol interaction. To address these issues, we determined the bilayer-modifying potency of 27 aliphatic alcohols using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay. All of the alcohols tested (with chain lengths of 1–16 carbons) alter the bilayer properties, as sensed by a bilayer-spanning channel. The bilayer-modifying potency of the short-chain alcohols scales linearly with their bilayer partitioning; the potency tapers off at higher chain lengths, and eventually changes sign for the longest-chain alcohols, demonstrating an alcohol cutoff effect in a system that has no alcohol-binding pocket. PMID:21843475

  16. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  17. Mechanism of Copper(I)/TEMPO-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Jessica M.; Ryland, Bradford L.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) have emerged as some of the most versatile and practical catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Recently, we disclosed a (bpy)CuI/TEMPO/NMI catalyst system (NMI = N-methylimidazole) that exhibits fast rates and high selectivities, even with unactivated aliphatic alcohols. Here, we present a mechanistic investigation of this catalyst system, in which we compare the reactivity of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols. This work includes analysis of catalytic rates by gas-uptake and in situ IR kinetic methods and characterization of the catalyst speciation during the reaction by EPR and UV–visible spectroscopic methods. The data support a two-stage catalytic mechanism consisting of (1) “catalyst oxidation” in which CuI and TEMPO–H are oxidized by O2 via a binuclear Cu2O2 intermediate and (2) “substrate oxidation” mediated by CuII and the nitroxyl radical of TEMPO via a CuII-alkoxide intermediate. Catalytic rate laws, kinetic isotope effects, and spectroscopic data show that reactions of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols have different turnover-limiting steps. Catalyst oxidation by O2 is turnover limiting with benzylic alcohols, while numerous steps contribute to the turnover rate in the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:23317450

  18. Mechanism of copper(I)/TEMPO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-02-13

    Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) have emerged as some of the most versatile and practical catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Recently, we disclosed a (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO/NMI catalyst system (NMI = N-methylimidazole) that exhibits fast rates and high selectivities, even with unactivated aliphatic alcohols. Here, we present a mechanistic investigation of this catalyst system, in which we compare the reactivity of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols. This work includes analysis of catalytic rates by gas-uptake and in situ IR kinetic methods and characterization of the catalyst speciation during the reaction by EPR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods. The data support a two-stage catalytic mechanism consisting of (1) "catalyst oxidation" in which Cu(I) and TEMPO-H are oxidized by O(2) via a binuclear Cu(2)O(2) intermediate and (2) "substrate oxidation" mediated by Cu(II) and the nitroxyl radical of TEMPO via a Cu(II)-alkoxide intermediate. Catalytic rate laws, kinetic isotope effects, and spectroscopic data show that reactions of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols have different turnover-limiting steps. Catalyst oxidation by O(2) is turnover limiting with benzylic alcohols, while numerous steps contribute to the turnover rate in the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:23317450

  19. Composites of vinyl polystyrylpyridine/bismaleimide-aliphatic ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbuch, Alvin H.; Rosser, Robert W.; Hsu, Ming-Ta S.

    1989-01-01

    An aliphatic ether bismaleimide was prepared and coreacted with a polyvinylstyrylpyridine (VPSP) oligomer. Studies showed that a controlled ratio of aliphatic to aromatic units in the polymer backbone improved both processibility and interlaminar shear properties for the carbon-fiber composite system. This modified resin was readily soluble in tetrahydrofuran, allowing for better fiber impregnation and thus enhancing adhesive properties and reproducibility. DSC studies have shown a lower cure temperature for the copolymer than for the neat aliphatic bismaleimide, and a glass transition temperature of 260 C, which is more than adequate for most applications. Limited measurements indicated an improvement in toughness (impact resistance).

  20. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  1. Cobalt-Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amines with Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqi; Yin, Zhiwei; Zheng, Shengping

    2016-01-15

    A well-defined nonprecious metal cobalt(II) catalyst based on a pincer PNP ligand has been employed for the efficient N-alkylation of both aromatic and aliphatic amines with alcohols. A subtle change of reaction conditions (simply adding 4 Å molecular sieves) was observed to readily switch the resulting products (amines vs imines) with high chemoselectivity. A range of alcohols and amines including both aromatic and aliphatic substrates were efficiently converted to secondary amines in good-to-excellent yields when 2 mol % cobalt catalyst was used. Additional experiments indicate that a hydrogen-borrowing mechanism is responsible for the tandem acceptorless dehydrogenation/condensation/hydrogenation process. PMID:26695594

  2. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Deficient activity of the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase component of fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, W B; Craft, D A

    1991-01-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an inherited disorder associated with impaired fatty alcohol oxidation due to deficient activity of fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAO). FAO is a complex enzyme which consists of two separate proteins that sequentially catalyze the oxidation of fatty alcohol to fatty aldehyde and fatty acid. To determine which enzymatic component of FAO was deficient in SLS, we assayed fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) and fatty alcohol dehydrogenase in cultured fibroblasts from seven unrelated SLS patients. All SLS cells were selectively deficient in the FALDH component of FAO, and had normal activity of fatty alcohol dehydrogenase. The extent of FALDH deficiency in SLS cells depended on the aliphatic aldehyde used as substrate, ranging from 62% of mean normal activity using propionaldehyde as substrate to 8% of mean normal activity with octadecanal. FALDH activity in obligate SLS heterozygotes was partially decreased to 49 +/- 7% of mean normal activity using octadecanal as substrate. Differential centrifugation studies in fibroblasts indicated that this FALDH enzyme was largely particulate; soluble FALDH activity was normal in SLS cells. Intact SLS fibroblasts oxidized octadecanol to fatty acid at less than 10% of the normal rate, but oxidized free octadecanal normally, suggesting that the FALDH affected in SLS is chiefly involved in the oxidation of fatty alcohol to fatty acid. These results show that the primary enzymatic defect in SLS is the FALDH component of the FAO complex, which leads to deficient oxidation of fatty aldehyde derived from fatty alcohol. PMID:1939650

  3. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Disorders among American Indian Women from Southwest Tribes in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Bonnie; Oetzel, John; Parker, Tassy; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lucero, Julie; Jiang, Yizhou

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of intimate partner violence (IPV) with mental disorders was investigated among 234 American Indian/Alaska Native female primary care patients. Results indicated that unadjusted prevalence ratios for severe physical or sexual abuse (relative to no IPV) were significant for anxiety, PTSD, mood, and any mental disorder. Adjusted…

  4. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  5. Hydrogen Atom Reactivity toward Aqueous tert-Butyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lymar S. V.; Schwarz, H.A.

    2012-02-09

    Through a combination of pulse radiolysis, purification, and analysis techniques, the rate constant for the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH {yields} H{sub 2} + {sm_bullet}CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}OH reaction in aqueous solution is definitively determined to be (1.0 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is about half of the tabulated number and 10 times lower than the more recently suggested revision. Our value fits on the Polanyi-type, rate-enthalpy linear correlation ln(k/n) = (0.80 {+-} 0.05){Delta}H + (3.2 {+-} 0.8) that is found for the analogous reactions of other aqueous aliphatic alcohols with n equivalent abstractable H atoms. The existence of such a correlation and its large slope are interpreted as an indication of the mechanistic similarity of the H atom abstraction from {alpha}- and {beta}-carbon atoms in alcohols occurring through the late, product-like transition state. tert-Butyl alcohol is commonly contaminated by much more reactive secondary and primary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, ethanol, and methanol), whose content can be sufficient for nearly quantitative scavenging of the H atoms, skewing the H atom reactivity pattern, and explaining the disparity of the literature data on the H + (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH rate constant. The ubiquitous use of tert-butyl alcohol in pulse radiolysis for investigating H atom reactivity and the results of this work suggest that many other previously reported rate constants for the H atom, particularly the smaller ones, may be in jeopardy.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of synthetic aliphatic and aromatic monoacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela; Todorova, Iva; Parushev, Stoyan; Tsvetkova, Iva; Najdenski, Hristo; Ubukata, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of synthetic aliphatic and aromatic monoacylglycerols (MAGs) was studied against two human pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The active compounds inhibited selectively S. aureus. The most active compounds amongst them were those with medium size aliphatic chain and aromatic MAGs with electron withdrawing substituents at the aryl ring. The introduction of one or two-carbon spacer between the aryl ring and the carboxylic function did not influence antibacterial effectiveness. PMID:19004249

  7. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  8. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Palasz, Peter D.

    1986-01-01

    A process for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems comprising: adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8-9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids; oxidizing the solution to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes; removing said aldehydes as they are generated; and converting said aldehydes to peracids.

  9. Synthesis of a-Alkylated Ketones via Tandem Acceptorless Dehydrogenation/a-Alkylation from Secondary and Primary Alcohols Catalyzed by Metal-Ligand Bifunctional Iridium Complex [Cp*Ir(2,2'-bpyO)(H2O)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongzhou; Ma, Juan; Li, Feng

    2015-11-01

    A new strategy for the synthesis of α-alkylated ketones via tandem acceptorless dehydrogenation/α-alkylation from secondary and primary alcohols was proposed and accomplished. In the presence of metal-ligand bifunctional iridium complex [Cp*Ir(2,2'-bpyO)(H2O)], various desirable products were obtained in high yields. Compared with previous methods for the direct dehydrogenative coupling of secondary alcohols with primary alcohols to α-alkylated ketones, this protocol has obvious advantages including complete selectivity for α-alkylated ketones and more environmentally benign conditions. Notably, the study also exhibited the potential to develop tandem reactions catalyzed using a metal-ligand bifunctional iridium complex. PMID:26428210

  10. The damage-associated molecular pattern HMGB1 is elevated in human alcoholic hepatitis, but does not seem to be a primary driver of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Tea Lund; Støy, Sidsel; Deleuran, Bent; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Grønbaek, Henning; Sandahl, Thomas Damgaard

    2016-09-01

    The role of sterile inflammation caused by release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) remains unclear in human alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The DAMP, high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) is released by tissue damage and inflammation. We aimed to investigate whether HMGB1 is a primary inflammatory driver in AH by determining HMGB1 serum levels and effects on inflammatory cells from AH patients. We measured serum HMGB1 in 34 AH patients and 10 healthy controls using ELISA. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 expressions were assessed by flow cytometry on HMGB1-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and ELISA was used to measure TNF-α and IL-1β in the supernatants. We observed 5-fold higher serum levels of HMGB1 in AH patients at the day of diagnosis and day 30, but no associations to clinical outcome. HMGB1 stimulation increased the expression of TLR4 on CD14+-monocytes compared with unstimulated cells in the AH patients. The TNF-α and IL-1β production in response to HMGB1 was diminished in AH patients. In conclusion, AH patients have increased levels of HMGB1 in their blood. This combined with an increased TLR4 expression, but an unaffected cytokine response to HMGB1 suggest that HMGB1 is not the primary driver of inflammation in AH. PMID:27357188

  11. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use among patients with active tuberculosis attending primary public care clinics in South Africa: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2008 the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that South Africa had the highest tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the world. This high incidence rate is linked to a number of factors, including HIV co-infection and alcohol use disorders. The diagnosis and treatment package for TB and HIV co-infection is relatively well established in South Africa. However, because alcohol use disorders may present more insidiously, making it difficult to diagnose, those patients with active TB and misusing alcohol are not easily cured from TB. With this in mind, the primary purpose of this cluster randomized controlled trial was to provide screening for alcohol misuse and to test the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing alcohol intake in those patients with active TB found to be misusing alcohol in primary public health care clinics in three districts in South Africa. Methods Within each of the three provinces targeted, one district with the highest TB burden was selected. Furthermore, 14 primary health care facilities with the highest TB caseload in each district were selected. In each district, 7 of the 14 (50%) clinics were randomly assigned to a control arm and another 7 of the 14 (50%) clinics assigned to intervention arm. At the clinic level systematic sampling was used to recruit newly diagnosed and retreatment TB patients. Those consenting were screened for alcohol misuse using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Patients who screened positive for alcohol misuse over a 6-month period were given either a brief intervention based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model or an alcohol use health education leaflet. Results Of the 4882 tuberculosis patients screened for alcohol and agreed to participate in the trial, 1196 (24.6%) tested positive for the AUDIT. Among the 853 (71%) patients who also attended the 6-month follow-up session, the frequency of positive screening results at baseline/follow-up were 100

  12. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  13. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  14. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  15. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  16. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  17. Aliphatic esters as targets of esterase activity in the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella).

    PubMed

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Liao, Ling-Hsiu; Jogesh, Tania; Berenbaum, May R

    2012-02-01

    As a specialist on the reproductive structures of Pastinaca sativa and species in the related genus Heracleum, the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella) routinely encounters a distinctive suite of phytochemicals in hostplant tissues. Little is known, however, about the detoxification mechanisms upon which this species relies to metabolize these compounds. In this study, larval guts containing hostplant tissues were homogenized, and metabolism was determined by incubating reactions with and without NADPH and analyzing for substrate disappearance and product appearance by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we found indications of carboxylesterase activity, in the form of appropriate alcohol metabolites for three aliphatic esters in hostplant tissues-octyl acetate, octyl butyrate, and hexyl butyrate. Involvement of webworm esterases in hostplant detoxification subsequently was confirmed with metabolism assays with pure compounds. This study is the first to implicate esterases in lepidopteran larval midgut metabolism of aliphatic esters, ubiquitous constituents of flowers and fruits. In addition, this method confirmed that webworms detoxify furanocoumarins and myristicin in their hostplants via cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism, and demonstrated that these enzymes also metabolize the coumarin osthol and the fatty acid derivative palmitolactone. PMID:22350520

  18. Indian Alcoholism and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Wayne; Patch, Kenneth

    1981-01-01

    Educational programs about alcohol should be presented in the formal school setting for Indian youth and in the communities for the general population. The primary outcome of these programs would be the development of self-management skills. (Author)

  19. The first step in polyethylene glycol degradation by sphingomonads proceeds via a flavoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase containing flavin adenine dinucleotide.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, M; Tanabe, M; Hataya, M; Enokibara, S; Duine, J A; Kawai, F

    2001-11-01

    Several Sphingomonas spp. utilize polyethylene glycols (PEGs) as a sole carbon and energy source, oxidative PEG degradation being initiated by a dye-linked dehydrogenase (PEG-DH) that oxidizes the terminal alcohol groups of the polymer chain. Purification and characterization of PEG-DH from Sphingomonas terrae revealed that the enzyme is membrane bound. The gene encoding this enzyme (pegA) was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme was vulnerable to aggregation and inactivation, but this could be prevented by addition of detergent. It is as a homodimeric protein with a subunit molecular mass of 58.8 kDa, each subunit containing 1 noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide but not Fe or Zn. PEG-DH recognizes a broad variety of primary aliphatic and aromatic alcohols as substrates. Comparison with known sequences revealed that PEG-DH belongs to the group of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) flavoprotein oxidoreductases and that it is a novel type of flavoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase related (percent identical amino acids) to other, so far uncharacterized bacterial, membrane-bound, dye-linked dehydrogenases: alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas oleovorans (46%); choline dehydrogenase from E. coli (40%); L-sorbose dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter oxydans (38%); and 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase from a Pseudomonas species (35%). PMID:11673442

  20. Primary rat hepatocytes in chemical testing and QSAR predictive applicability.

    PubMed

    Tichý, Milon; Pokorná, Adéla; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Nerudová, Jana; Tumová, Jana; Uzlová, Rút

    2010-02-01

    Primary rat hepatocytes were used to test acute toxicities of 16 neutral aliphatic alcohols, ketones and esters. Their effects on cell viability and metabolic function (ureogenesis, i.e. biotransformation of ornithine to urea) were measured and expressed as EC50 values. Log EC50 values from both tests correlated with the log partition coefficients for the chemicals between n-octanol and water and log P(ow)-based QSAR models were derived. Log EC50 (viability) tightly correlates with log EC50 (ureogenesis): log EC50 (viability)=0.91 log EC50 (ureogenesis)+0.06. Each of these toxic indices can be substituted by the other one. The toxic indices for both cell viability and metabolic disorder can be estimated using log EC50 for movement inhibition in the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and the respective QSAR equation. It eliminates a usage of rats. Their correlations were proved and justified. PMID:19735719

  1. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  2. Complete amino acid sequence and characterization of the reaction mechanism of a glucosamine-induced novel alcohol dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (tumefaciens).

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Ryoko; Kubota, Humie; Hosoki, Tomoko; Ikehara, Kenji; Tanaka, Mieko

    2002-02-15

    A glucosamine-induced novel alcohol dehydrogenase has been isolated from Agrobacterium radiobacter (tumefaciens) and its fundamental properties have been characterized. The enzyme catalyzes NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of aliphatic alcohols and amino alcohols. In this work, the complete amino acid sequence of the alcohol dehydrogenase was determined by PCR method using genomic DNA of A. radiobacter as template. The enzyme comprises 336 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 36 kDa. The primary structure of the enzyme demonstrates a high homology to structures of alcohol dehydrogenases from Shinorhizobium meliloti (83% identity, 90% positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (65% identity, 76% positive). The two Zn(2+) ion binding sites, both the active site and another site that contributed to stabilization of the enzyme, are conserved in those enzymes. Sequences analysis of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family using a hypothetical phylogenetic tree indicates that these three enzymes form a new group distinct from other members of the Zn-containing long-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family. The physicochemical properties of alcohol dehydrogenase from A. radiobacter were characterized as follows. (1) Stereospecificity of the hydride transfer from ethanol to NADH was categorized as pro-R type by NMR spectra of NADH formed in the enzymatic reaction using ethanol-D(6) was used as substrate. (2) Optimal pH for all alcohols with no amino group examined was pH 8.5 (of the C(2)-C(6) alcohols, n-amyl alcohol demonstrated the highest activity). Conversely, glucosaminitol was optimally dehydrogenated at pH 10.0. (3) The rate-determining step of the dehydrogenase for ethanol is deprotonation of the enzyme-NAD-Zn-OHCH(2)CH(3) complex to enzyme-NAD-Zn-O(-)CH(2)CH(3) complex and that for glucosaminitol is H(2)O addition to enzyme-Zn-NADH complex. PMID:11831851

  3. Differential effects of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates on lepidopteran herbivores.

    PubMed

    Müller, René; de Vos, Martin; Sun, Joel Y; Sønderby, Ida E; Halkier, Barbara A; Wittstock, Ute; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Glucosinolates are a diverse group of defensive secondary metabolites that is characteristic of the Brassicales. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Brassicaceae) lines with mutations that greatly reduce abundance of indole glucosinolates (cyp79B2 cyp79B3), aliphatic glucosinolates (myb28 myb29), or both (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29) make it possible to test the in vivo defensive function of these two major glucosinolate classes. In experiments with Lepidoptera that are not crucifer-feeding specialists, aliphatic and indole glucosinolates had an additive effect on Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval growth, whereas Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Manduca sexta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) were affected only by the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates. In the case of two crucifer-feeding specialists, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), there were no major changes in larval performance due to decreased aliphatic and/or indole glucosinolate content. Nevertheless, choice tests show that aliphatic and indole glucosinolates act in an additive manner to promote larval feeding of both species and P. rapae oviposition. Together, these results support the hypothesis that a diversity of glucosinolates is required to limit the growth of multiple insect herbivores. PMID:20617455

  4. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 96. Amines with Water Part 2. C7-C24 Aliphatic Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góral, Marian; Shaw, David G.; Måczyński, Andrzej; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Oracz, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria of 41 binary systems of C7-C24 aliphatic amines with water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2010 are compiled. For seven systems, sufficient data are available to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units.

  5. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 96. Amines with Water Part 1. C4-C6 Aliphatic Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góral, Marian; Shaw, David G.; Mański, Andrzej; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Oracz, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria of 24 binary systems of C4-C6 aliphatic amines with water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2010 are compiled. For ten systems, sufficient data are available to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units.

  6. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  7. Catalytic Asymmetric Hydroamination of Unactivated Internal Olefins to Aliphatic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Shi-Liang; Niu, Dawen; Liu, Peng; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic assembly of enantiopure aliphatic amines from abundant and readily available precursors has long been recognized as a paramount challenge in synthetic chemistry. Herein, we describe a mild and general copper-catalyzed hydroamination that effectively converts unactivated internal olefins, an important yet unexploited class of abundant feedstock chemicals, into highly enantioenriched α-branched amines (≥ 96% enantiomeric excess) featuring two minimally differentiated aliphatic substituents. This method provides a powerful means to access a broad range of advanced, highly functionalized enantioenriched amines of interest in pharmaceutical research and other areas. PMID:26138973

  8. Primary quantum yields of ketyl radicals in photoreduction by amines. Abstraction of H from N

    SciTech Connect

    Inbar, S.; Linschitz, H.; Cohen, S.G.

    1980-02-13

    Results of laser flash photolysis studies of the primary reaction of benzophenone triplet with aliphatic amines in benzene solution are reported. Quantum yield of formation of benzophenone ketyl radical was 0.9 - 1.0. Quantum yields for reduction of ketone also were determined for various amines, and the effects of tert-butyl alcohol on radical formation was investigated. Data indicated that H is not abstracted from -CH/sub 3/ but is abstracted efficiently from -NH/sub 2/. The very high quantum yields observed with tertiary and secondary amines were thought to imply exciplex formation, but lower quantum yields with primary amines were conditionally attributed to higher ionization potentials. (BLM)

  9. Supportive Text Messages to Reduce Mood Symptoms and Problem Drinking in Patients With Primary Depression or Alcohol Use Disorder: Protocol for an Implementation Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Mrklas, Kelly; Suen, Victoria Yung Mei; Rose, Marianne Sarah; Jahn, Megan; Gladue, Irene; Kozak, Jody; Leslie, Maureen; Dursun, Serdar; Ohinmaa, Arto; Greenshaw, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) are two leading causes of disability worldwide and are associated with significant treatment challenges requiring new, innovative, cost-effective and technologically-based therapies including the use of supportive text messages. Objective To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of supportive text messages in long-term follow-up to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with Depression or AUD respectively and to explore the usefulness of self-reports of health services utilization as an outcomes measure. Methods This will be a longitudinal, prospective, parallel-design, two-arm, placebo-controlled single-rater-blinded randomized clinical trial with a recruitment period of 6 months and an observation period of 12 months for each participant, with two strata based on primary diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder or AUD. The sample size will be 120, with about 60 patients randomized from each primary diagnostic grouping. Patients in all intervention groups will receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 3 months and then daily supportive text messages for the next three months. Patients will also receive a phone call every two weeks from the research assistant assigning treatment allocation to confirm that they are still receiving the text messages and to thank them for taking part in the study. Patients in the control group will receive no text messages but will also receive a phone call from the same research assistant every two weeks to thank them for taking part in the study. Results The study starts in April 2015 and ends in September 2016. It is envisaged that both qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary outcomes, including patient perceptions of the intervention, will shed light on the feasibility of using automated supportive text message interventions in long term for patients with Depression and AUD. This will inform a full-scale clinical trial. Conclusions The

  10. Applicability of the theory of thermodynamic similarity to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of thermodynamic similarity is used to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes. The predicted data allow us to calculate the phase diagrams of liquid-vapor equilibrium in a binary water-aliphatic aldehyde system.

  11. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-05-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  12. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  13. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  14. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  15. Introducing Aliphatic Substitution with a Discovery Experiment Using Competing Electrophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Timothy P.; Mostovoy, Amelia J.; Curran, Margaret E.; Berger, Clara

    2016-01-01

    A facile, discovery-based experiment is described that introduces aliphatic substitution in an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. Unlike other discovery-based experiments that examine substitution using two competing nucleophiles with a single electrophile, this experiment compares two isomeric, competing electrophiles…

  16. Selective stabilization of aliphatic organic carbon by iron oxide

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Dinesh; Yang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Stabilization of organic matter in soil is important for natural ecosystem to sequestrate carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emission. It is largely unknown what factors govern the preservation of organic carbon in soil, casting shadow on predicting the response of soil to climate change. Iron oxide was suggested as an important mineral preserving soil organic carbon. However, ferric minerals are subject to reduction, potentially releasing iron and decreasing the stability of iron-bound organic carbon. Information about the stability of iron-bound organic carbon in the redox reaction is limited. Herein, we investigated the sorptive interactions of organic matter with hematite and reductive release of hematite-bound organic matter. Impacts of organic matter composition and conformation on its sorption by hematite and release during the reduction reaction were analyzed. We found that hematite-bound aliphatic carbon was more resistant to reduction release, although hematite preferred to sorb more aromatic carbon. Resistance to reductive release represents a new mechanism that aliphatic soil organic matter was stabilized by association with iron oxide. Selective stabilization of aliphatic over aromatic carbon can greatly contribute to the widely observed accumulation of aliphatic carbon in soil, which cannot be explained by sorptive interactions between minerals and organic matter. PMID:26061259

  17. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The resulting particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate ...

  18. A thermostable transketolase evolved for aliphatic aldehyde acceptors.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong; Saravanan, Thangavelu; Devamani, Titu; Charmantray, Franck; Hecquet, Laurence; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-01-11

    Directed evolution of the thermostable transketolase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus based on a pH-based colorimetric screening of smart libraries yielded several mutants with up to 16-fold higher activity for aliphatic aldehydes and high enantioselectivity (>95% ee) in the asymmetric carboligation step. PMID:25415647

  19. 40 CFR 721.10199 - Substituted aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic vapor, acid gas, or substance... combination cartridges, cartridges should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10199 Substituted aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10199 - Substituted aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic vapor, acid gas, or substance... combination cartridges, cartridges should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10199 Substituted aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10199 - Substituted aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic vapor, acid gas, or substance... combination cartridges, cartridges should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10199 Substituted aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10199 - Substituted aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic vapor, acid gas, or substance... combination cartridges, cartridges should be tested and approved for the gas/vapor substance (i.e., organic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10199 Substituted aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  3. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol isolated from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-03-16

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:22262865

  4. Dehydrodiconiferyl Alcohol Isolated from Cucurbita moschata Shows Anti-adipogenic and Anti-lipogenic Effects in 3T3-L1 Cells and Primary Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:22262865

  5. 40 CFR 721.10608 - Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with alkanediol and alkylglycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10608 Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10608 - Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with alkanediol and alkylglycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10608 Aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic diisocyanate polymer with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  10. Effects of Functional Group Position on Spatial Representations of Aliphatic Odorants in the Rat Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brett A.; Farahbod, Haleh; Saber, Sepideh; Leon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Principles of olfactory coding can be clarified by studying the olfactory bulb activity patterns that are evoked by odorants differing systematically in chemical structure. In the present study, we used series of aliphatic esters, ketones, and alcohols (27 odorants total) to determine the effects of functional group position on glomerular-layer activity patterns. These patterns were measured as uptake of [14C]2-deoxyglucose and were mapped into standardized data matrices for statistical comparison across different rats. The magnitude of the effect of position differed greatly for the different functional groups. For ketones, there was little or no effect of position on evoked patterns. For esters, uptake in individual glomerular modules increased, while uptake in others decreased with changing group position, and yet the overall patterns remained similar. For alcohols, group position had a profound effect on evoked activity patterns. For example, moving the hydroxyl group in either heptanol or nonanol from the first to the fourth carbon changed the activity patterns so greatly that the major areas of response did not overlap. Within every functional group series, however, responses were globally chemotopic, such that pairs of odorants with the smallest difference in functional group position evoked the most similar patterns. These results help to define further the specificities of glomeruli within previously described glomerular modules, and they show that functional group position can be an important feature in encoding an odorant molecule. PMID:15678475

  11. Synthesis gas to alcohols process

    SciTech Connect

    Prada-Silva, G.; Patel, J.A.; Bhattacharya, A.K.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a method of preparing a mixture of lower aliphatic alcohols which comprises reacting carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a sulfide-containing heavy metal catalyst under carbon monoxide-hydrogenation conditions. The catalyst consists of: (1) at least one sulfided heavy metal element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum; tungsten, and rhenium, (2) a sulfided heavy metal element form the group consisting of cobalt, iron, and nickel, (3) a promoter comprising an alkali or alkaline earth element in free or combined form, and optionally, (4) a support, the improvement which comprises improving the selectivity to the alcohols by treating the sulfided heavy metal elements with a nitrogen-containing base prior to treatment with the promoter, the nitrogen-containing base being selected from the group consisting of urea, dimethylolurea, cyanuric acid, melamine, melam, melem, and melon.

  12. Mechanism of Alcohol Oxidation Mediated by Copper(II) and Nitroxyl Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Ryland, Bradford L.; McCann, Scott D.; Brunold, Thomas C.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2015-01-01

    2,2′-Bipyridine-ligated copper complexes, in combination with TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl), are highly effective catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Considerable uncertainty and debate exist over the mechanism of alcohol oxidation mediated by CuII and TEMPO. Here, we report experimental and density functional theory (DFT) computational studies that distinguish among numerous previously proposed mechanistic pathways. Oxidation of various classes of radical-probe substrates shows that long-lived radicals are not formed in the reaction. DFT computational studies support this conclusion. A bimolecular pathway involving hydrogen-atom-transfer from a CuII–alkoxide to a nitroxyl radical is higher in energy than hydrogen transfer from a CuII–alkoxide to a coordinated nitroxyl species. The data presented here reconcile a collection of diverse and seemingly contradictory experimental and computational data reported previously in the literature. The resulting Oppenauer-like reaction pathway further explains experimental trends in the relative reactivity of different classes of alcohols (benzylic versus aliphatic and primary versus secondary), as well as the different reactivity observed between TEMPO and bicyclic nitroxyls, such as ABNO (ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl). PMID:25090238

  13. New aliphatic glycerophosphoryl-containing polyurethanes: synthesis, platelet adhesion and elution cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Acetti, Daniela; D'Arrigo, Paola; Giordano, Carmen; Macchi, Piero; Servi, Stefano; Tessaro, Davide

    2009-04-01

    in this study new poly(ether)urethanes (PeUs) based on aliphatic diisocyanates were synthesized with phospholipid-like residues as chain extenders. The primary objective was to prepare new polyurethanes from diisocyanates that are less toxic than the aromatic ones widely used in medical-grade polyurethanes, in order to investigate the effect of the different aromatic or aliphatic hard segment content on the final properties of the materials. Some glycerophospho residues were simultaneously introduced to enhance the hemocompatibility of these materials. Polymers were prepared by a conventional two-step solution polymerization procedure using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDi) and dodecametilendiisocyanate (DDi) and poly(1,4-butanediol) with molecular weight 1000 to form prepolymers, which were subsequently polymerized with 1-glycerophosphorylcholine (1-GPC) or glycerophosphorylserine (GPS) to act as chain extenders. The reference polymers bearing 1,4-butandiol (BD) were also synthesized. The polymers obtained were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (fT-iR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H nmR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The hemocompatibility of synthesized segmented polyurethanes was preliminarily investigated by platelet-rich plasma contact studies and related scanning electron microscopy (Sem) photographs as well as by cell viability assay after cell exposure to material elutions to assess the effect of any toxic leachables coming out from the samples. Two of the polymers gave interesting results, suggesting the desirability of further investigation into their possible use in biomedical devices. PMID:19569028

  14. Analysis of aliphatic waxes associated with root periderm or exodermis from eleven plant species.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Dylan K; Rice, Adam; Pollard, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Aliphatic waxes can be found in association with suberized tissues, including roots. Non-polar lipids were isolated by rapid solvent extraction of mature regions of intact roots from eleven angiosperms, including both monocots and dicots. The majority of roots analyzed were taproots or tuberous taproots that had undergone secondary growth and thus were covered by a suberized periderm. The exceptions therein were maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), which present a suberized exodermis. The analysis herein focused on aliphatic waxes, with particular emphasis on alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs). AHCs were widely distributed, absent from only one species, were found in both aerial and subterranean portions of tuberous taproots, and were associated with the fibrous roots of both maize and rice. Most species also contained monoacylglycerols, fatty alcohols and/or free fatty acids. Carrot (Daucus carrota L.) was the outlier, containing only free fatty acids, sterols, and polyacetylenes as identified components. Sterols were the only ubiquitous component across all roots analyzed. Monoacylglycerols of ω-hydroxy fatty acids were present in maize and rice root waxes. For species within the Brassiceae, wax compositions varied between subspecies or varieties and between aerial and subterranean portions of taproots. In addition, reduced forms of photo-oxidation products of ω-hydroxy oleate and its corresponding dicarboxylic acid (10,18-dihydroxy-octadec-8-enoate, 9,18-dihydroxy-octadec-10-enoate and 9-hydroxyoctadec-10-ene-1,18-dioate) were identified as naturally occurring suberin monomers in rutabaga (Brassica napus subsp. rapifera Metzg.) periderm tissues. PMID:26143051

  15. Composition of the epicuticular waxes coating the adaxial side of Phyllostachys aurea leaves: Identification of very-long-chain primary amides.

    PubMed

    Racovita, Radu C; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The present study presents comprehensive chemical analyses of cuticular wax mixtures of the bamboo Phyllostachys aurea. The epicuticular and intracuticular waxes were sampled selectively from the adaxial side of leaves on young and old plants and investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. The epi- and intracuticular layers on young and old leaves had wax loads ranging from 1.7 μg/cm(2) to 1.9 μg/cm(2). Typical very-long-chain aliphatic wax constituents were found with characteristic chain length patterns, including alkyl esters (primarily C48), alkanes (primarily C29), fatty acids (primarily C28 and C16), primary alcohols (primarily C28) and aldehydes (primarily C30). Alicyclic wax components were identified as tocopherols and triterpenoids, including substantial amounts of triterpenoid esters. Alkyl esters, alkanes, fatty acids and aldehydes were found in greater amounts in the epicuticular layer, while primary alcohols and most terpenoids accumulated more in the intracuticular wax. Alkyl esters occurred as mixtures of metamers, combining C20 alcohol with various acids into shorter ester homologs (C36C40), and a wide range of alcohols with C22 and C24 acids into longer esters (C42C52). Primary amides were identified, with a characteristic chain length profile peaking at C30. The amides were present exclusively in the epicuticular layer and thus at or near the surface, where they may affect plant-herbivore or plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:27402630

  16. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that insomnia and associated sleep disruptions, observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired sleep homeostasis. Based on our findings, we suggest that alcohol may disrupt sleep homeostasis to cause sleep disruptions. PMID:25499829

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  18. Determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the alga Himanthalia elongata.

    PubMed

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2004-02-01

    The algae considered new foods according to Regulation CE 258/97 need a guarantee of their healthfulness before being in the European market. In this work ten samples of the brown alga Himanthalia elongata have been analyzed with the aim of verifying the absence of aliphatic hydrocarbons, due to the ability of the macroalgae to capture lipophilic organic compounds of the marine water coming from accidental or continuous leaks of raw oil and refined products, which happen each year with the growth of the industrialization and the demand of energy. The fat of the samples were Soxhlet extracted using hexane:dichloromethane (1:1) for 7h. The organic fractions were purified using silica microcolumns. The identification and quantification of the aliphatic hydrocarbons have been carried out using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). The total hydrocarbon content was between 14.8 and 40.2 microg g(-1) dry weight. PMID:14759670

  19. Biodegradation of Trihalomethanes and Other Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    The biological dehalogenation of common water pollutants such as trichloromethane (chloroform) and other halogenated aliphatic compounds was the subject of this project. Samples from diverse water environments such as from groundwater contaminated with halogenated compounds and wastewaters from regional treatment plants were studied to identify conditions that favor certain dehalogenation reactions over others. Gene probe analyses of DNA extracted from the dichlormethane-degrading wastewater indicated the presence of the gene coding for dichloromethane dehalogenase, indicating the genetic basis for the dechlorination activity observed. These studies indicate that methanogenic bacteria are the organisms responsible for the chloroform dechlorination. Dechlorination of a common chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11) was identified in samples taken from a regional aquifer contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  20. Aliphatics hydrocarbon content in surface sediment from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YAzis, M.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbons content have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively using GC/MS method in eight coastal stations located in the Jakarta Bay, North of Jakarta, Indonesia. The total concentrations n-alkanes have ranged from 480 μg.kg-1to 1,935 μg.kg-1sediment dry weight. Several ratios (e.g. CPI24-32, NAR, TAR, Pr/Phy, n-C17/Pr, n- C18/Phyt,n-C29/n-C17, Ʃn-alkanes/n-C16LMW/HMW, Paq and TMD) were used to evaluate the possible sources of terrestrial-marine inputs of these hydrocarbons in the sediments. The various origins of aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally biogenic, including both terrigenous and marine, with an anthropogenic pyrolytic contribution (petrogenic and biogenic combustion). Two stations (G,H) were thehighest concentration and had potential risk to environment

  1. 40 CFR 721.4490 - Capped aliphatic isocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a capped aliphatic isocyanate (PMN P-86-1146...) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), (f), (h)(1)(ii)(G), (h)(1)(iii)(A), (h)(1)(iii)(B), (h)(1)(iii)(D), and (h)(1...(h). (iv) Disposal. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (a)(2), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c)(1),...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4490 - Capped aliphatic isocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a capped aliphatic isocyanate (PMN P-86-1146...) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), (f), (h)(1)(ii)(G), (h)(1)(iii)(A), (h)(1)(iii)(B), (h)(1)(iii)(D), and (h)(1...(h). (iv) Disposal. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (a)(2), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c)(1),...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4490 - Capped aliphatic isocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a capped aliphatic isocyanate (PMN P-86-1146...) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), (f), (h)(1)(ii)(G), (h)(1)(iii)(A), (h)(1)(iii)(B), (h)(1)(iii)(D), and (h)(1...(h). (iv) Disposal. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (a)(2), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c)(1),...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4490 - Capped aliphatic isocyanate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a capped aliphatic isocyanate (PMN P-86-1146...) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), (f), (h)(1)(ii)(G), (h)(1)(iii)(A), (h)(1)(iii)(B), (h)(1)(iii)(D), and (h)(1...(h). (iv) Disposal. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (a)(2), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c)(1),...

  5. Rhodium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Arylation of Aliphatic Imines.

    PubMed

    Kato, Naoya; Shirai, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Yasunori

    2016-06-01

    Chiral rhodium(I)-catalyzed highly enantioselective arylation of aliphatic N-sulfonyl aldimines with arylboronic acids has been developed. This transformation is achieved by the use of a rhodium/bis(phosphoramidite) catalyst to give enantiomerically enriched α-branched amines (up to 99 % ee). In addition, this system enables efficient synthesis of (+)-NPS R-568 and Cinacalcet which are calcimimetic agents. PMID:27119262

  6. Mechanics of networks of aliphatic fibers in aqueous surfactant media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, Giuliano; Caggioni, Marco; Guida, Vincenzo; Trappe, Veronique

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the structural and rheological properties of aliphatic fibers dispersed in aqueous solutions of anionic surfactants, typically used in liquid detergents to provide yield stress. This system displays an onset to solid-like properties that depends on fiber concentration. In this contribution we will discuss how tuning the state of the surfactant background influences the fiber-fiber interactions and the mechanical properties of the gel.

  7. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  8. Hygienic safety of alcohol-based hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauer, Katrin; Meyer, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Rödger, Hans-Joachim; Hintzpeter, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall risk of hand disinfectants and skin antiseptics to become contaminated with bacterial spores throughout the production process and the subsequent in-use period, hence posing a public health risk. Methods: Microbiological assessment of primary packaging material was carried out and long-term survival of bacterial spores in alcohol was assessed using sporulated B. subtilis ATCC 6633 as a standard. In-use contamination of alcohol-based formulations was tested by repeated use over 12 months under practical conditions and microbiological and physico-chemical data were determined. Results: Among 625 containers analyzed, 542 did not yield any microbial growth. Median colony count for aerobic spore-forming bacteria was 0.2 cfu/10 ml container content. No anaerobic spore-forming bacteria were detected. Additionally, long-term survival of bacterial spores in aliphatic C2–C3 alcohols revealed 1-propanol to reduce the number of spores most effectively, with 2-propanol and ethanol having a somewhat less pronounced impact. In-use tests did not detect any microbial contamination or change in the physicochemical properties of the tested products over 12 months. Conclusions: Our data reveals that state-of-the-art production processes of alcohol-based hand rubs and antiseptics can be regarded safe. Primary packaging material and use were not found to pose a significant contamination risk as far as bacterial spores are concerned. Based on the data from this study, a microbial limit of <1 cfu/10 ml can be suggested as a quality-control threshold for finished goods to ensure high quality and safe products. PMID:24327945

  9. Biodegradation of aliphatic vs. aromatic hydrocarbons in fertilized arctic soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out to test a simple bioremediation treatment strategy in the Arctic and analyze the influence of fertilization the degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., pristine, n-tetradecane, n-pentadecane, 2-methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, and acenaphthalene. The site was a coarse sand pad that once supported fuel storage tanks. Diesel-range organics concentrations were 250-860 mg/kg soil at the beginning of the study. Replicate field plots treated with fertilizer yielded final concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg N/kg soil. Soil pH and soil-water potentials decreased due to fertilizer application. The addition of fertilizer considerably increased soil respiration potentials, but not the populations of microorganisms measured. Fertilizer addition also led to ??? 50% loss of measured aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in surface and subsurface soils. For fertilized plots, hydrocarbon loss was not associated with the quantity of fertilizer added. Losses of aliphatic hydrocarbons were ascribed to biotic processes, while losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were due to biotic and abiotic processes.

  10. Chemically responsive nanoporous pigments: colorimetric sensor arrays and the identification of aliphatic amines.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jin Ho; Lim, Sung H; Park, Erwin; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2008-11-18

    A general method has been developed for the preparation of microspheres of nanoporous pigments, their formulation into chemically responsive pigment inks, and the printing of these inks as colorimetric sensor arrays. Using an ultrasonic-spray aerosol-gel synthesis from chemically responsive dyes and common silica precursors, 16 different nanoporous pigment microspheres have been prepared and characterized. New colorimetric sensor arrays have been created by printing inks of these chemically responsive pigments as primary sensor elements; these arrays have been successfully tested for the detection, identification, and quantitation of toxic aliphatic amines. Among 11 structurally similar amines, complete identification of each analyte without confusion was achieved using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Furthermore, visual identification of ammonia gas was easily made at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health), PEL (permissible exposure limits), and 0.1 PEL concentrations with high reproducibility. PMID:18950204

  11. Highly efficient photochemically induced thiyl radical-mediated racemization of aliphatic amines at 30 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Routaboul, Lucie; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Gastaldi, Stéphane; Gil, Gérard; Bertrand, Michèle

    2008-01-18

    UV irradiation in the presence of thiol enables the performance of highly efficient aliphatic amines racemization, under mild conditions at 30 degrees C. The reaction proceeds via the reversible generation of prochiral alpha-aminoalkyl radicals. The latter may result either from a redox process between the thiyl radical and the amine or from direct hydrogen atom abstraction by thiyl radical. As hydrogen atom donor, the thiol plays a crucial role. While the racemization of both primary and secondary amines were fast processes, the racemization of tertiary amines was sluggish. A tentative rationale is based on the photostimulated amine-catalyzed oxidation of the thiol into the corresponding disulfide, which makes the hydrogen atom donor concentration in the reaction medium drop up to trace amount at a rate that depends on the nature of the amine. PMID:18076189

  12. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  13. Suberin-Associated Fatty Alcohols in Arabidopsis: Distributions in Roots and Contributions to Seed Coat Barrier Properties1[W

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanath, Sollapura J.; Kosma, Dylan K.; Pulsifer, Ian P.; Scandola, Sabine; Pascal, Stéphanie; Joubès, Jérôme; Dittrich-Domergue, Franziska; Lessire, René; Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Suberin is found in a variety of tissues, such as root endoderms and periderms, storage tuber periderms, tree cork layer, and seed coats. It acts as a hydrophobic barrier to control the movement of water, gases, and solutes as well as an antimicrobial barrier. Suberin consists of polymerized phenolics, glycerol, and a variety of fatty acid derivatives, including primary fatty alcohols. We have conducted an in-depth analysis of the distribution of the C18:0 to C22:0 fatty alcohols in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots and found that only 20% are part of the root suberin polymer, together representing about 5% of its aliphatic monomer composition, while the remaining 80% are found in the nonpolymeric (soluble) fraction. Down-regulation of Arabidopsis FATTY ACYL REDUCTASE1 (FAR1), FAR4, and FAR5, which collectively produce the fatty alcohols found in suberin, reduced their levels by 70% to 80% in (1) the polymeric and nonpolymeric fractions from roots of tissue culture-grown plants, (2) the suberin-associated root waxes from 7-week-old soil-grown plants, and (3) the seed coat suberin polymer. By contrast, the other main monomers of suberin were not altered, indicating that reduced levels of fatty alcohols did not influence the suberin polymerization process. Nevertheless, the 75% reduction in total fatty alcohol and diol loads in the seed coat resulted in increased permeability to tetrazolium salts and a higher sensitivity to abscisic acid. These results suggest that fatty alcohols and diols play an important role in determining the functional properties of the seed coat suberin barrier. PMID:24019425

  14. Olfactory discrimination of structurally similar alcohols by cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Sakura, M; Okada, R; Mizunami, M

    2002-11-01

    The capability of the cockroach Periplaneta americana to discriminate odors of structurally similar aliphatic alcohols was studied by using an operant conditioning paradigm. Cockroaches were trained to discriminate three odors: one odor associated with sucrose solution (reward) and two odors associated with NaCl solution (non-reward). After training, their odor preferences were tested by counting the number of visits to each odor source. We tested the capability of cockroaches to discriminate (1) three normal aliphatic alcohols with different numbers of carbon (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol), (2) three C6 aliphatic alcohols (1-hexanol, 2-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol), (3) binary mixtures of two of these three alcohols and their components, and (4) 1-hexanol solution of three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 micro g micro l(-1)). Cockroaches exhibited higher preferences for the odors associated with reward in these tests, and we therefore conclude that cockroaches can discriminate these odors. However, discrimination of 1-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol and their binary mixture was imperfect, in that some statistical tests suggested significant level of discrimination but other tests did not. In addition, the cockroaches learned to associate a 1-hexanol solution of the highest or lowest concentration with sucrose reward but failed to learn to associate 1-hexanol of an intermediate concentration with reward. PMID:12466954

  15. Hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer in a packed bed split-cylinder airlift reactor containing dilute alcoholic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz Moraveji, Mostafa; Ebrahimi Fakhari, Mona; Mohsenzadeh, Elmira; Davarnejad, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the influences of alcohols on the hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer characteristics in an airlift reactor equipped with packing were investigated. The hydrodynamic parameters and mass transfer coefficient in 1 % (v/v) aqueous solutions of four aliphatic alcohols were tested. It was concluded that alcohols addition increased gas holdup and gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient. The packing installation increased mass transfer coefficient, gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity, as well.

  16. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  17. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  18. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  19. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  20. Reactions of organoaluminum compounds with acetylene as a method for the synthesis of aliphatic derivatives with a z-disubstituted double bond

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, N.I.; Kuchin, A.V.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1985-11-01

    This paper develops a method for the synthesis of aliphatic compounds with a Z-disubstituted double bond, which are important synthons for the preparation of such natural products as insect pheromones, aromatic principles, etc. In the carbalumination reaction of acetylene Z-alkenyldialkylaluminums are formed selectively. A-Alkenyldialkylaluminums are highly reactive and can readily be converted into Z-allyl alcohols and their ethers, and into Z-iodovinyl derivatives. By the reactions of vinyl organoaluminum compounds with the complex CH/sub 3/COClhaAlCl/sub 3/ E-conjugated ketones were obtained.

  1. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  2. Structural studies of aliphatic substituted phthalocyanine-lipid multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zarbakhsh, Ali; Campana, Mario; Mills, David; Webster, John R P

    2010-10-01

    A Langmuir-Blodgett film of aliphatic substituted phthalocyanines on a C18 silane supporting layer coupled onto a silicon substrate has been investigated using neutron reflectometry. This multilayer structure is seen as a possible candidate for phthalocyanine-lipid biosensor devices. The results show the suitability of the C18 ligands as an anchoring layer for the phthalocyanines. The scattering length density profiles demonstrate the effectiveness of a lipid monolayer in partitioning the composition of phthalocyanine layers from that of the bulk liquid. The effectiveness of this barrier is a critical factor in the efficiency of such devices. PMID:20831252

  3. Decarboxylative Fluorination of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids via Photoredox Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Ventre, Sandrine; Petronijevic, Filip R.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-01-01

    The direct conversion of aliphatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alkyl fluorides has been achieved via visible light-promoted photoredox catalysis. This operationally simple, redox-neutral fluorination method is amenable to a wide variety of carboxylic acids. Photon-induced oxidation of carboxylates leads to the formation of carboxyl radicals, which upon rapid CO2-extrusion and F• transfer from a fluorinating reagent yield the desired fluoroalkanes with high efficiency. Experimental evidence indicates that an oxidative quenching pathway is operable in this broadly applicable fluorination protocol. PMID:25881929

  4. Aliphatic Polyethers: Classical Polymers for the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rebecca; Wurm, Frederik R

    2015-06-01

    Polyethers-polymers with the structural element (R'-O-R)n in their backbone--are an old class of polymers which were already used at the time of the ancient Egyptians. However, still today these materials are highly important with applications in all areas of our life, reaching from the automotive and paper industry to cosmetics and biomedical applications. In this Review, different aliphatic polyethers like poly(epoxide)s, poly(oxetane)s, and poly(tetrahydrofuran) are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the history, the polymerization techniques (industrially and in academia), the properties, the applications as well as recent developments of these materials. PMID:25967116

  5. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  6. A laser photolysis study of the pressure-induced viscosity dependence of the primary process of benzophenone photoreduction in alcohol solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Masami )

    1990-10-18

    Decay constants of the benzophenone triplet, k{sub T}, were measured for four alcohol solvents at pressures varying from 0.1 to 400 MPa. It was found that plots of ln k{sub T} were almost linearly with pressure up to ca. 150 MPa. However, at higher pressures these plots deviate significantly from linearity. This effect was attributed to the enhancement with pressure of the participation of diffusion in the abstraction of a hydrogen atom by benzophenone triplet from solvent molecules. The kinetics of this hydrogen-abstraction reaction in viscous alcohol solvents at higher pressure was analyzed by assuming the presence of a complex species which is associated with the diffusion processes.

  7. Structural analysis of aliphatic versus aromatic substrate specificity in a copper amine oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Klema, Valerie J; Solheid, Corinne J; Klinman, Judith P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2013-04-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are responsible for the oxidative deamination of primary amines to their corresponding aldehydes. The CAO catalytic mechanism can be divided into two half-reactions: a reductive half-reaction in which a primary amine substrate is oxidized to its corresponding aldehyde with the concomitant reduction of the organic cofactor 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ) and an oxidative half-reaction in which reduced TPQ is reoxidized with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The reductive half-reaction proceeds via Schiff base chemistry, in which the primary amine substrate first attacks the C5 carbonyl of TPQ, forming a series of covalent Schiff base intermediates. The X-ray crystal structures of copper amine oxidase-1 from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HPAO-1) in complex with ethylamine and benzylamine have been determined to resolutions of 2.18 and 2.25 Å, respectively. These structures reveal the two amine substrates bound at the back of the active site coincident with TPQ in its two-electron-reduced aminoquinol form. Rearrangements of particular amino acid side chains within the substrate channel and specific protein-substrate interactions provide insight into the substrate specificity of HPAO-1. These changes begin to account for this CAO's kinetic preference for small, aliphatic amines over the aromatic amines or whole peptides preferred by some of its homologues. PMID:23452079

  8. Inhibition of jet fuel aliphatic hydrocarbon induced toxicity in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Inman, A O; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Riviere, J E

    2008-05-01

    Jet propellant (JP)-8, the primary jet fuel used by the U.S. military, consists of hydrocarbon-rich kerosene base commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) plus additives DC1-4A, Stadis 450 and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) were exposed to JP-8, aliphatic hydrocarbon (HC) fuel S-8 and aliphatic HC pentadecane (penta), tetradecane (tetra), tridecane (tri) and undecane (un) for 5 min. Additional studies were conducted with signal transduction pathway blockers parthenolide (P; 3.0 microm), isohelenin (I; 3.0 microm), SB 203580 (SB; 13.3 microm), substance P (SP; 3.0 microm) and recombinant human IL-10 (rHIL-10; 10 ng ml(-1)). In the absence of inhibitors, JP-8 and to a lesser extent un and S-8, had the greatest toxic effect on cell viability and inflammation suggesting, as least in vitro, that synthetic S-8 fuel is less irritating than the currently used JP-8. Each inhibitor significantly (P < 0.05) decreased HEK viability. DMSO, the vehicle for P, I and SB, had a minimal effect on viability. Overall, IL-8 production was suppressed at least 30% after treatment with each inhibitor. Normalizing data relative to control indicate which inhibitors suppress HC-mediated IL-8 to control levels. P was the most effective inhibitor of IL-8 release; IL-8 was significantly decreased after exposure to un, tri, tetra and penta but significantly increased after JP-8 exposure compared with controls. Inhibitors were not effective in suppressing IL-8 release in JP-8 exposures to control levels. This study shows that inhibiting NF-kappa B, which appears to play a role in cytokine production in HC-exposed HEK in vitro, may reduce the inflammatory effect of HC in vivo. PMID:17966119

  9. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  10. Light Induced C-C Coupling of 2-Chlorobenzazoles with Carbamates, Alcohols, and Ethers.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Alexander; Lahm, Günther; Opatz, Till

    2016-06-01

    A light induced, transition-metal-free C-C coupling reaction of 2-chlorobenzazoles with aliphatic carbamates, alcohols, and ethers is presented. Inexpensive reagents, namely sodium acetate, benzophenone, water, and acetonitrile, are employed in a simple reaction protocol using a cheap and widely available 25 W energy saving UV-A lamp at ambient temperature. PMID:27128627

  11. Graphene oxide as a metal-free catalyst for oxidation of primary amines to nitriles by hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Primo, Ana; Puche, Marta; Pavel, Octavian D; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Tirsoaga, Alina; Parvulescu, Vasile; García, Hermenegildo

    2016-01-31

    Graphene oxide catalyzes oxidation by NaClO of primary benzyl and aliphatic amines to a product distribution comprising nitriles and imines. Nitriles are the sole product for long chain aliphatic amines. Spectroscopic characterization suggests that percarboxylic and perlactone groups could be the active sites of the process. PMID:26670136

  12. Chemoselectivity in the Cu-catalyzed O-arylation of phenols and aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Debabrata

    2011-08-01

    An orthogonal set of Cu-catalysts for the selective mono-arylation of alkyl aryl diols using aryl iodides is presented. Picolinic acid ligated copper catalyst provided phenol O-arylation only, while alkyl aryl ethers are generated by ligand-free copper catalyst in the presence of 2 equivalents NaOt-Bu. PMID:21698330

  13. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained. PMID:19552446

  14. Polarized Raman spectra and intensities of aliphatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmler, Hans J.; Eysel, Hans H.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectra of aliphatic α- L-amino acids, glycine, alanine, and valine were re-investigated both in aqueous solution and deuterium oxide solution. The spectra were taken of the zwitterionic and of the completely deprotonated form of the amino acids. Spectra of leucine and isoleucine were studied in water at the isoelectric point. Spectra were recorded both with parallel and perpendicular polarization and the isotropic and anisotropic scattering components were isolated. The integrated intensities of CH stretch, CC stretch and carboxylate bend vibrations are discussed. Linear relations between the number of CC and CH bonds and the total scattered intensity in the appropriate spectral regions are observed. The sum over the carboxylate modes shows characteristic intensities for the first three members of the aliphatic amino acids. An increase of isotropic scattering of ϱ co 2 near 510 cm -1 with increasing chain length of the amino acid (or with increasing concentration) is interpreted as the result of micelle formation.

  15. Tailoring NO donors metallopharmaceuticals: ruthenium nitrosyl ammines and aliphatic tetraazamacrocycles.

    PubMed

    Tfouni, E; Doro, F G; Figueiredo, L E; Pereira, J C M; Metzker, G; Franco, D W

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in several physiological and pathophysiological processes launched a spectacular increase in studies in areas such as chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology. As a consequence, the development of NO donors or scavengers for regulation of its concentration and bioavailability in vivo is required. In this sense, ruthenium nitrosyl ammines and aliphatic tetraazamacrocyles have attracted a lot of attention due to their unique chemical properties. These complexes are water soluble and stable in solution, not to mention that they can deliver NO when photochemically or chemically activated by the reduction of the coordinated nitrosonium (NO+). The tuning of the energies of the charge transfer bands, the redox potential, and the specific rate constants of NO liberation, in both solution and matrices, is desirable for the achievement of selective NO delivery to biological targets, hence making the ruthenium ammines and aliphatic tetraazamacrocyles a quite versatile platform for biological application purposes. These ruthenium nitrosyls have shown to be active in firing neurons in mouse hippocampus, performing redox reactions in mitochondria, acting in blood pressure control, exhibiting cytotoxic activities against trypanosomatids (T.cruzi and L.major) and tumor cells. This tailoring approach is explored here, being heavily supported by the accumulated knowledge on the chemistry and photochemistry of ruthenium complexes, which allows NO donors/scavengers systems to be custom made designed. PMID:20846113

  16. Terrestrial ecotoxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Peric, Brezana; Martí, Esther; Sierra, Jordi; Cruañas, Robert; Iglesias, Miguel; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2011-12-01

    A study of the ecotoxicity of different short aliphatic protic ionic liquids (PILs) on terrestrial organisms was conducted. Tests performed within the present study include those assessing the effects of PILs on soil microbial functions (carbon and nitrogen mineralization) and terrestrial plants. The results show that the nominal lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration (LOAEC) values were 5,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for the plant test in two species (Lolium perenne, Allium cepa), 1,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for the plant test in one species (Raphanus sativus), and 10,000 mg/kg (dry soil) for carbon and nitrogen microbial transformation tests (all concentrations are nominal). Most of the median effective concentration values (EC50) were above 1,000 mg/kg (dry soil). Based on the obtained results, these compounds can be described as nontoxic for soil microbiota and the analyzed plants, and potentially biodegradable in soils, as can be deduced from the respirometric experiment. The toxicity rises with the increase of complexity of the PILs molecule (branch and length of aliphatic chain) among the three PILs analyzed. PMID:21935980

  17. Kinetics of bacterial growth on chlorinated aliphatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wijngaard, A.J. van den; Wind, R.E.; Janssen, D.B. )

    1993-07-01

    Halogenated aliphatic compounds are frequent constituents of industrial waste gases. Because of the environmental and biological toxic effects of these compounds, there is a growing interest in technologies for their removal. Biological waste gas purification is an option if specialized bacterial strains that use halogenated aliphatics as sole carbon and energy sources can be used. Elimination efficiency of the compounds depends not only on the process technology but on the degradation properties of the bacterial strains. Important aspects of bacterial growth are the Monod half-saturation constant and the maximum growth rate. In this study the kinetic properties of the organisms (Ancylobacter aquaticus AD20 and AD25, Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10, Pseudomonas sp. strain AD1) weree measured during growth in continuous cultures and wer compared with the kinetic properties of the first catabolic enzyme involved in the degradation of the growth substrate. The results indicate that the growth of the strains examined followed Monod kinetics. Stains AD20 and GJ10 showed growth rates on DCE somewhat higher than predicted from the amount of haloalkane dehalogenase present in the cells, while strain AD25 was much lower. 33 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Process for reacting alcohols and olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.T.; Nevitt, T.D.

    1985-01-29

    A method for producing branched aliphatic hydrocarbons by reacting H/sub 2/ with a C/sub 1/-C/sub 6/ alcohol and/or a C/sub 2/-C/sub 6/ olefin in the presence of a cadmium component and a support which comprises an amorphous refractory inorganic oxide, a pillared smectite or vermiculite clay, a molecular sieve consisting essentially of unexchanged or cation-exchanged chabazite, clinoptilite, zeolite A, zeolite L, zeolite X, zeolite Y, ultrastable zeolite Y, or crystalline borosilicate molecular sieve, or a combination thereof.

  19. Alcohol-Specific Parenting as a Mechanism of Parental Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorder Risk on Adolescent Alcohol Use Onset

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the current study was to examine three dimensions of alcohol-specific parenting (anti-alcohol parenting strategies, parental legitimacy in regulating adolescent drinking, and parental disclosure of negative alcohol experiences) as mechanisms in the prospective relations between parental drinking and alcohol use disorder (recovered, current, and never diagnosed) and adolescent alcohol use initiation. Method: Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism. Structural equation modeling was used to test a maternal model (n = 268 adolescents and their mothers) and a paternal model (n = 204 adolescents and their fathers) of alcohol-specific parenting. Results: Results indicated that higher levels of drinking among mothers and current alcohol use disorder among fathers were related to more frequent parental disclosure of personal negative experiences with alcohol. Maternal disclosure of negative alcohol experiences mediated the effect of maternal drinking on adolescent onset of alcohol use such that more disclosure predicted a greater likelihood of adolescent drinking initiation at follow-up over and above general parenting. In addition, currently alcoholic mothers were perceived as having less legitimate authority to regulate adolescent drinking, and low levels of legitimacy among fathers was predictive of drinking onset among adolescents. Conclusions: Alcohol-specific parenting is a distinct and influential predictor of adolescent alcohol use initiation that is partially shaped by parents’ own drinking experiences. Moreover, parental conversations about their own personal experiences with alcohol may not represent a form of parent–child communication about drinking that deters adolescent drinking. PMID:23948527

  20. Activities of Secreted Aryl Alcohol Quinone Oxidoreductases from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus Provide Insights into Fungal Degradation of Plant Biomass.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Yann; Piumi, Francois; Valli, Richard; Aramburu, Juan Carro; Ferreira, Patricia; Faulds, Craig B; Record, Eric

    2016-04-15

    Auxiliary activities family 3 subfamily 2 (AA3_2) from the CAZy database comprises various functions related to ligninolytic enzymes, such as fungal aryl alcohol oxidases (AAO) and glucose oxidases, both of which are flavoenzymes. The recent study of thePycnoporus cinnabarinusCIRM BRFM 137 genome combined with its secretome revealed that four AA3_2 enzymes are secreted during biomass degradation. One of these AA3_2 enzymes, scf184803.g17, has recently been produced heterologously inAspergillus niger Based on the enzyme's activity and specificity, it was assigned to the glucose dehydrogenases (PcinnabarinusGDH [PcGDH]). Here, we analyze the distribution of the other three AA3_2 enzymes (scf185002.g8, scf184611.g7, and scf184746.g13) to assess their putative functions. These proteins showed the highest homology with aryl alcohol oxidase fromPleurotus eryngii Biochemical characterization demonstrated that they were also flavoenzymes harboring flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor and able to oxidize a wide variety of phenolic and nonphenolic aryl alcohols and one aliphatic polyunsaturated primary alcohol. Though presenting homology with fungal AAOs, these enzymes exhibited greater efficiency in reducing electron acceptors (quinones and one artificial acceptor) than molecular oxygen and so were defined as aryl-alcohol:quinone oxidoreductases (AAQOs) with two enzymes possessing residual oxidase activity (PcAAQO2 andPcAAQO3). Structural comparison ofPcAAQO homology models withP. eryngiiAAO demonstrated a wider substrate access channel connecting the active-site cavity to the solvent, explaining the absence of activity with molecular oxygen. Finally, the ability ofPcAAQOs to reduce radical intermediates generated by laccase fromP. cinnabarinuswas demonstrated, shedding light on the ligninolytic system of this fungus. PMID:26873317

  1. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  2. A Study of the Solvation Structure of L-Leucine in Alcohol-Water Binary Solvents through Molecular Dynamics Simulations and FTIR and NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Hatomoto, Yohei; Tonegawa, Junko; Tsutsumi, Youichi; Umecky, Tatsuya

    2015-10-26

    The solvation structures of l-leucine (Leu) in aliphatic-alcohol-water and fluorinated-alcohol-water solvents are elucidated for various alcohol contents by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and IR, and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. The aliphatic alcohols included methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, whereas the fluorinated alcohols were 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The MD results show that the hydrophobic alkyl moiety of Leu is surrounded by the alkyl or fluoroalkyl groups of the alcohol molecules. In particular, TFE and HFIP significantly solvate the alkyl group of Leu. IR spectra reveal that the Leu C-H stretching vibration blueshifts in fluorinated alcohol solutions with increasing alcohol content, whereas the vibration redshifts in aliphatic alcohol solutions. When the C-H stretching vibration blueshifts in the fluorinated alcohol solutions, the hydrogen and carbon atoms of the Leu alkyl group are magnetically shielded. Consequently, TFE and HFIP molecules may solvate the Leu alkyl group through the blue-shifting hydrogen bonds. PMID:26289908

  3. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721.9952 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9952 Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether... identified generically as alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721.9952 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9952 Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether... identified generically as alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  10. Preferences in removal of aliphatic and aromatic gasoline components by biofiltration under varied loading.

    PubMed

    Halecky, Martin; Paca, Jan; Kozliak, Evguenii I

    2012-01-01

    Removal of gasoline vapors from waste air was investigated in a bench-scale perlite biofilter for three aromatic-to-aliphatic mass ratios (62/38, 92/8 and 44/56) under different loads, varied by changing both the substrate inlet concentration and air flow rate. The measurement of concentration profiles along the bed height allowed for an assessment of interactions between the aromatic and aliphatic fractions of gasoline. Variations in both the inlet concentrations and empty bed residence time significantly influenced the removal of aliphatic gasoline components. Except for the lowest organic loads, the whole biofilter bed was required for achieving an acceptable removal efficiency of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The presence of large amounts of aromatics negatively impacted the removal of aliphatics. By contrast, the aromatic gasoline components were near-completely removed from any mixtures; the bulk of them were degraded in the first (out of three) biofilter section, even at high concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The observed effect was shown to be due to competitive interactions of aliphatic and aromatic components, which is consistent with the biological steps being rate limiting. Mass transfer, particularly for aliphatic components due to their high Henry's law constants, was shown to be rate-limiting under extreme scenarios, such as low loading rates and EBRT. PMID:22486669

  11. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  15. Hydrodefluorination and other hydrodehalogenation of aliphatic carbon-halogen bonds using silylium catalysis.

    PubMed

    Douvris, Christos; Nagaraja, C M; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Foxman, Bruce M; Ozerov, Oleg V

    2010-04-01

    Trialkylsilylium cation equivalents partnered with halogenated carborane anions (such as Et(3)Si[HCB(11)H(5)Cl(6)]) function as efficient and long-lived catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of C-F, C-Cl, and C-Br bonds with trialkylsilanes as stoichiometric reagents. Only C(sp(3))-halogen bonds undergo this reaction. The range of C-F bond-containing substrates that participate in this reaction is quite broad and includes simple alkyl fluorides, benzotrifluorides, and compounds with perfluoroalkyl groups attached to an aliphatic chain. However, CF(4) has proven immune to this reaction. Hydrodechlorination was carried out with a series of alkyl chlorides and benzotrichlorides, and hydrodebromination was studied only with primary alkyl bromide substrates. Competitive experiments established a pronounced kinetic preference of the catalytic system for activation of a carbon-halogen bond of a lighter halide in primary alkyl halides. On the contrary, hydrodechlorination of C(6)F(5)CCl(3) proceeded much faster than hydrodefluorination of C(6)F(5)CF(3) in one-pot experiments. A solid-state structure of Et(3)Si[HCB(11)H(5)Cl(6)] was determined by X-ray diffraction methods. PMID:20218686

  16. A statistical approach to the interpretation of aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions in marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Q-mode factor analysis was used to quantitate the distribution of the major aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-alkanes, pristane, phytane) systems in sediments from a variety of marine environments. The compositions of the pure end members of the systems were obtained from factor scores and the distribution of the systems within each sample was obtained from factor loadings. All the data, from the diverse environments sampled (estuarine (San Francisco Bay), fresh-water (San Francisco Peninsula), polar-marine (Antarctica) and geothermal-marine (Gorda Ridge) sediments), were reduced to three major systems: a terrestrial system (mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with odd-numbered-carbon predominance), a mature system (mostly low molecular weight aliphatics without predominance) and a system containing mostly high molecular weight aliphatics with even-numbered-carbon predominance. With this statistical approach, it is possible to assign the percentage contribution from various sources to the observed distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in each sediment sample. ?? 1991.

  17. The Impact of the Absence of Aliphatic Glucosinolates on Insect Herbivory in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Nicole M.; Bertossi, Monica; Grandi, Valentina; Mizzi, Luca; Soloviev, Mikhail; Szabados, Laszlo; Molthoff, Jos W.; Schipper, Bert; Verbocht, Hans; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Morandini, Piero; Aarts, Mark G. M.; Bovy, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Aliphatic glucosinolates are compounds which occur in high concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species. They are important for the resistance of the plant to pest insects. Previously, the biosynthesis of these compounds was shown to be regulated by transcription factors MYB28 and MYB29. We now show that MYB28 and MYB29 are partially redundant, but in the absence of both, the synthesis of all aliphatic glucosinolates is blocked. Untargeted and targeted biochemical analyses of leaf metabolites showed that differences between single and double knock-out mutants and wild type plants were restricted to glucosinolates. Biosynthesis of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates was blocked by the myb28 mutation, while short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates were reduced by about 50% in both the myb28 and the myb29 single mutants. Most remarkably, all aliphatic glucosinolates were completely absent in the double mutant. Expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes was slightly but significantly reduced by the single myb mutations, while the double mutation resulted in a drastic decrease in expression of these genes. Since the myb28myb29 double mutant is the first Arabidopsis genotype without any aliphatic glucosinolates, we used it to establish the relevance of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis to herbivory by larvae of the lepidopteran insect Mamestra brassicae. Plant damage correlated inversely to the levels of aliphatic glucosinolates observed in those plants: Larval weight gain was 2.6 fold higher on the double myb28myb29 mutant completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates and 1.8 higher on the single mutants with intermediate levels of aliphatic glucosinolates compared to wild type plants. PMID:18446225

  18. Mass spectrometry study of the sublimation of aliphatic dipeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badelin, V. G.; Tyunina, E. Yu.; Krasnov, A. V.; Tyunina, V. V.; Giricheva, N. I.; Girichev, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    The sublimation of glycyl-L-α-alanine (Gly-Ala), L-α-alanyl-L-α-alanine (Ala-Ala), and DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine (Ala-Val) aliphatic dipeptides is studied by electron ionization mass spectrometry in combination with Knudsen effusion. The temperature range in which substances sublime as monomer molecular forms is determined. Enthalpies of sublimation Δs H°( T) are determined for Gly-Ala, Ala-Ala, and Ala-Val. It is shown that the enthalpy of sublimation of dipeptides increases with an increase in the side hydrocarbon radical. The unknown Δs H°(298) values for 17 amino acids and nine dipeptides are estimated using the proposed "structure-property" correlation model, in which the geometry and electron characteristics of molecules are used as structural descriptors.

  19. Aqueous infrared carboxylate absorbances: Aliphatic di-acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; McVey, I.F.

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of 18 aliphatic di-carboxylic acids are reported as a function of pH. The spectra show isosbestic points and intensity changes which indicate that Beer's law is obeyed, and peak frequencies lie within previously reported ranges for aqueous carboxylates and pure carboxylic acids. Intensity sharing from the symmetric carboxylate stretch is evident in many cases, so that bands which are nominally due to alkyl groups show increased intensity at higher pH. The asymmetric stretch of the HA- species is linearly related to the microscopic acidity constant of the H2A species, with ??pK 2 intervening atoms). The results suggest that aqueous ATR-FTIR may be able to estimate 'intrinsic' pKa values of carboxylic acids, in addition to providing quantitative estimates of ionization. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage. PMID:26702553

  1. [Exposure to phtalates and their presence in alcoholic beverages].

    PubMed

    Jurica, Karlo; Uršulin-Trstenjak, Natalija; Vukić Lušić, Darija; Lušić, Dražen; Smit, Zdenko

    2013-06-01

    Phthalates are phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohol esters used as additives to plastic in order to improve its softness, flexibility, and elongation. Phthalates are highly mobile and migrate easily from plastic products into the environment due to their physical and chemical properties. This study briefly describes the characteristics and distribution of phthalates in the environment, their toxic effects on human health, the legislation regarding the maximum allowed concentration of phthalates in drinking water and products intended for infants, as well as the tolerable daily intake. Special attention is given to the methods of determining phthalates and their levels in alcoholic beverages, with an overview of phthalate occurrences and concentrations in plum brandy made in Croatia. A segment on denatured alcohol and illegally marketed alcohol is also included, as well as guidelines for the effective monitoring of the routes of human exposure to phthalates. PMID:23819941

  2. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  3. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  4. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  5. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  6. Enzymatic Catalytic Beds For Oxidation Of Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.; Schussel, Leonard J.

    1993-01-01

    Modules containing beds of enzymatic material catalyzing oxidation of primary alcohols and some other organic compounds developed for use in wastewater-treatment systems of future spacecraft. Designed to be placed downstream of multifiltration modules, which contain filters and sorbent beds removing most of non-alcoholic contaminants but fail to remove significant amounts of low-molecular-weight, polar, nonionic compounds like alcohols. Catalytic modules also used on Earth to oxidize primary alcohols and other compounds in wastewater streams and industrial process streams.

  7. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  8. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  9. Rhodium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Intermolecular Hydroalkoxylation of Allenes and Alkynes with Alcohols: Synthesis of Branched Allylic Ethers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-07-11

    Regio- and enantioselective additions of alcohols to either terminal allenes or internal alkynes provides access to allylic ethers by using a Rh(I) /diphenyl phosphate catalytic system. This method provides an atom-economic way to obtain chiral aliphatic and aryl allylic ethers in moderate to good yield with good to excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:27244349

  10. New insight on aliphatic linkages in the macromolecular organic fraction of Orgueil and Murchison meteorites through ruthenium tetroxide oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remusat, Laurent; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2005-09-01

    Ruthenium tetroxide oxidation was used to examine the macromolecular insoluble organic matter (IOM) from the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites and especially to characterize the aliphatic linkages. Already applied to various terrestrial samples, ruthenium tetroxide is a selective oxidant which destroys aromatic units, converting them into CO 2, and yields aliphatic and aromatic acids. In our experiment on chondritic IOM, it produces mainly short aliphatic diacids and polycarboxylic aromatic acids. Some short hydroxyacids are also detected. Aliphatic diacids are interpreted as aliphatic bridges between aromatic units in the chemical structure, and polycarboxylic aromatic acids are the result of the fusion of polyaromatic units. The product distribution shows that aliphatic links are short with numerous substitutions. No indigenous monocarboxylic acid was detected, showing that free aliphatic chains must be very short (less than three carbon atoms). The hydroxyacids are related to the occurrence of ester and ether functional groups within the aliphatic bridges between the aromatic units. This technique thus allows us to characterize in detail the aliphatic linkages of the IOMs, and the derived conclusions are in agreement with spectroscopic, pyrolytic, and degradative results previously reported. Compared to terrestrial samples, the aliphatic part of chondritic IOM is shorter and highly substituted. Aromatic units are smaller and more cross-linked than in coals, as already proposed from NMR data. Orgueil and Murchison IOM exhibit some tiny differences, especially in the length of aliphatic chains.

  11. High T(g) bio-based aliphatic polyesters from bicyclic D-mannitol.

    PubMed

    Lavilla, Cristina; Alla, Abdelilah; Martínez de Ilarduya, Antxon; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián

    2013-03-11

    The carbohydrate-based diol 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol (Manx) has been used to obtain aliphatic polyesters. Manx is a symmetric bicyclic compound consisting of two fused 1,3-dioxane rings and bearing two primary hydroxyl groups. In terms of stiffness, it is comparable to the widely known isosorbide, but it affords the additional advantages of being much more reactive in polycondensation and capable of producing stereoregular polymers with fairly high molecular weights. A fully bio-based homopolyester (PManxS) has been synthesized by polycondensation in the melt from dimethyl succinate and Manx. The high thermal stability of PManxS, its relatively high glass transition temperature (Tg = 68 °C) and elastic modulus, and its enhanced sensitivity to the action of lipases point to PManxS as a polyester of exceptional interest for those applications where biodegradability and molecular stiffness are priority requirements. In addition, random copolyesters (PBxManxyS) covering a broad range of compositions have been obtained using mixtures of Manx and 1,4-butanediol in the reaction with dimethyl succinate. All PBxManxyS were semicrystalline and displayed Tg values from -29 to +51 °C steadily increasing with the content in Manx units. The stress-strain behavior of these copolyesters largely depended on their content in Manx and they were enzymatically degraded faster than PBS. PMID:23363397

  12. Plant observation report and evaluation, Pennwalt Corporation, secondary and tertiary aliphatic monoamines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-27

    A site visit was made to the amine manufacturing facility of the Pennwalt Corporation, Wyandotte, Michigan, to evaluate the facility in regard to the Secondary and Tertiary Aliphatic Monoamines Criteria Document. A total of 21 people were directly in contact with the amine production process. Two to four of the maintenance personnel may also come in contact with the process. Maintenance workers ran the risk of exposure not only to primary, secondary and tertiary amine compounds, but also to several other chemicals being used in the process. The processes used to unload raw materials are described, along with reactor operations, decanter and recycling operations, distillation operations, product storage and shipping. Medical monitoring at the facility included chest x-ray, respiratory function tests, sight screening, urinalysis, and back x-rays. Restricted and potentially hazardous area signs were clearly posted. Employees wore hard hats and safety glasses on the job as well as gloves, rubber boots, face shields, goggles, and respirators as necessary. Emergency procedures are described, including fire protection. Sanitation and personal hygiene are discussed, along with monitoring of the workplace conditions.

  13. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  14. Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to qualify candidate alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethane coatings under the specifications for the standard system. This project will compare coating performance of the proposed alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  15. Project Summary. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the potential of an innovative approach to aquifer restoration: enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (...

  16. ANAEROBIC TRANSFORMATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SAND AQUIFER BASED ON SPATIAL CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We estimated the distribution of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) from groundwater samples collected along three transects in a sand aquifer. richloroethylene (TCE) leaked and contaminated the aquifer probably more than a decade before we collected the measurements. he d...

  17. CHEMICAL DISTRIBUTION AND ANAEROBIC TRANSFORMATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SAND AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We estimated the distribution of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHS) from groundwater samples collected along three transects in a sand aquifer. richloroethylene (TCE) leaked and contaminated the aquifer probably more than a decade before we collected the measurements. he d...

  18. Shape memory polymers based on uniform aliphatic urethane networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T S; Bearinger, J P; Herberg, J L; Marion III, J E; Wright, W J; Evans, C L; Maitland, D J

    2007-01-19

    Aliphatic urethane polymers have been synthesized and characterized, using monomers with high molecular symmetry, in order to form amorphous networks with very uniform supermolecular structures which can be used as photo-thermally actuable shape memory polymers (SMPs). The monomers used include hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trimethylhexamethylenediamine (TMHDI), N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine (HPED), triethanolamine (TEA), and 1,3-butanediol (BD). The new polymers were characterized by solvent extraction, NMR, XPS, UV/VIS, DSC, DMTA, and tensile testing. The resulting polymers were found to be single phase amorphous networks with very high gel fraction, excellent optical clarity, and extremely sharp single glass transitions in the range of 34 to 153 C. Thermomechanical testing of these materials confirms their excellent shape memory behavior, high recovery force, and low mechanical hysteresis (especially on multiple cycles), effectively behaving as ideal elastomers above T{sub g}. We believe these materials represent a new and potentially important class of SMPs, and should be especially useful in applications such as biomedical microdevices.

  19. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in Great Barrier Reef organisms and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, M.; Connell, D. W.; Bodero, J.; Miller, G. J.; Back, R.

    1986-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the chemical nature, occurrence, and possible origin of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments, water, and a suite of seven species from widely separated coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef area were analysed by gas chromatography, and by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The hydrocarbons found were substantially of biogenic origin. The major components were n-pentadecane, n-heptadecane, pristane and mono-alkenes based on heptadecane, and were believed to originate from benthic algae and phytoplankton. There was no evidence to suggest that lipid content had any influence on hydrocarbon content. Hydrocarbons from the organisms and sediments have characteristic composition patterns which would be altered by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. An unresolved complex mixture, usually considered indicative of petroleum contamination, was found in greater than trace amounts only in Holothuria (sea cucumber) and Acropora (coral) from the Capricorn Group, and in some sediment samples from the Capricorn Group and Lizard Island area.

  20. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol's aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  1. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  2. THE CARRIERS OF THE INTERSTELLAR UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES: AROMATIC OR ALIPHATIC?

    SciTech Connect

    Li Aigen; Draine, B. T. E-mail: draine@astro.princeton.edu

    2012-12-01

    The unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 {mu}m, commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, have been recently ascribed to coal- or kerogen-like organic nanoparticles with a mixed aromatic-aliphatic structure. However, we show in this Letter that this hypothesis is inconsistent with observations. We estimate the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers based on the observed intensities of the 3.4 {mu}m and 6.85 {mu}m emission features by attributing them exclusively to aliphatic C-H stretch and aliphatic C-H deformation vibrational modes, respectively. We derive the fraction of carbon atoms in aliphatic form to be <15%. We conclude that the UIE emitters are predominantly aromatic, with aliphatic material at most a minor part of the UIE carriers. The PAH model is consistent with astronomical observations and PAHs dominate the strong UIE bands.

  3. A Theoretical Study on the Vibrational Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Molecules with Aliphatic Sidegroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, SeyedAbdolreza; Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun

    2015-03-01

    The role of aliphatic side groups in the formation of astronomical unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features is investigated by applying the density functional theory to a series of molecules with mixed aliphatic-aromatic structures. The effects of introducing various aliphatic groups to a fixed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) core (ovalene) are studied. Simulated spectra for each molecule are produced by applying a Drude profile at T = 500 K while the molecule is kept at its electronic ground state. The vibrational normal modes are classified using a semi-quantitative method. This allows us to separate the aromatic and aliphatic vibrations, and therefore provides clues to what types of vibrations are responsible for the emissions bands at different wavelengths. We find that many of the UIE bands are not pure aromatic vibrational bands but may represent coupled vibrational modes. The effects of aliphatic groups on the formation of the 8 μm plateau are quantitatively determined. The vibrational motions of methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2 -) groups can cause the merging of the vibrational bands of the parent PAH and the forming of broad features. These results suggest that aliphatic structures can play an important role in the UIE phenomenon.

  4. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

  5. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    characteristic of alcoholism type 2 is seeking for excitement (Novelty Seeking, NS), unchanged dopamine transmission and decreased serotonin transmission. These neurochemical differences among alcoholism subtypes represent the basis for a different therapy approach. Intake of alcohol changes different gene expression in the human brain. The inheritance model of alcoholism is not fully explained, however, it is considered that the disease is connected to a larger gene number included in neurotransmission, cell mechanisms and general metabolic function, with a simultaneous influence of the environment. The contribution of genetic factors is stronger in certain types of alcoholism and thus we have been confronted in the last years of alcoholism research with studies researching the connections of some alcoholism subtypes with the polymorphism phenomenon in the genes coding the synaptic proteins included in the alcoholism etiology. The primary role of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the brain is catalysis of deamination of the oxidative neurotransmitter amines, i.e. serotonin, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. Thus, this enzyme is the key factor for maintaining cytoplasmic concentration of various neurotransmitters and for regulation of the neurotransmitting synaptic activity. Taken this MAO function into consideration, MAO is the enzyme included in the etiology and pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. The finding of the decreased platelet MAO activity in various psychiatric disorders has brought us to the assumption that this enzyme may be a constitutional/genetic indicator (trait marker) or an indicator of disease condition (state marker) in biologic psychiatry. There are only a few studies of alcohol addiction researching the connections of the MAO coding gene polymorphism and alcoholism; however, these studies are primarily related to the variable number of tandem repeats (VTNR) polymorphism in the regulatory gene region for MAO-A, considered to

  6. Aliphatic polyester block polymers: renewable, degradable, and sustainable.

    PubMed

    Hillmyer, Marc A; Tolman, William B

    2014-08-19

    Nearly all polymers are derived from nonrenewable fossil resources, and their disposal at their end of use presents significant environmental problems. Nonetheless, polymers are ubiquitous, key components in myriad technologies and are simply indispensible for modern society. An important overarching goal in contemporary polymer research is to develop sustainable alternatives to "petro-polymers" that have competitive performance properties and price, are derived from renewable resources, and may be easily and safely recycled or degraded. Aliphatic polyesters are particularly attractive targets that may be prepared in highly controlled fashion by ring-opening polymerization of bioderived lactones. However, property profiles of polyesters derived from single monomers (homopolymers) can limit their applications, thus demanding alternative strategies. One such strategy is to link distinct polymeric segments in an A-B-A fashion, with A and B chosen to be thermodynamically incompatible so that they can self-organize on a nanometer-length scale and adopt morphologies that endow them with tunable properties. For example, such triblock copolymers can be useful as thermoplastic elastomers, in pressure sensitive adhesive formulations, and as toughening modifiers. Inspired by the tremendous utility of petroleum-derived styrenic triblock copolymers, we aimed to develop syntheses and understand the structure-property profiles of sustainable alternatives, focusing on all renewable and all readily degradable aliphatic polyester triblocks as targets. Building upon oxidation chemistry reported more than a century ago, a constituent of the peppermint plant, (-)-menthol, was converted to the ε-caprolactone derivative menthide. Using a diol initiator and controlled catalysis, menthide was polymerized to yield a low glass transition temperature telechelic polymer (PM) that was then further functionalized using the biomass-derived monomer lactide (LA) to yield fully renewable PLA

  7. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  9. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  10. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25340465

  11. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues of alcohol abuse and depression among teenagers, noting co-occurrence of these two problems and the special challenge co-occurrence poses for clinicians who must treat both problems aggressively. Looks at prevention of alcohol use and abuse among adolescents, considers assessment issues, and distinguishes between primary and…

  12. Separation and conductimetric detection of C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines on unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin columns.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2004-06-11

    The application of unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin (TSKgel G3000PWXL) as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 5-methylhexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isobutylamine, butylamine, isoamylamine, amylamine, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, hexylamine, 2-heptylamine and heptylamine) was attempted with C8 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (2-propylvaleric acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid and octanoic acid) and C8 aliphatic monoamines (1,5-dimethylhexylamine, 2-ethylhexylamine, 1-methylheptylamine and octylamine) as eluents, respectively. Using 1 mM 2-methylheptanoic acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids were achieved on a TSKgel G3000PWXL column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) in 60 min. Using 2 mM octylamine at pH 11.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 amines were also achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 60 min. PMID:15250420

  13. Microbial production of fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Adrio, José L

    2016-09-01

    Fatty alcohols have numerous commercial applications, including their use as lubricants, surfactants, solvents, emulsifiers, plasticizers, emollients, thickeners, and even fuels. Fatty alcohols are currently produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acids from plant oils or animal fats. Microbial production of fatty alcohols may be a more direct and environmentally-friendly strategy since production is carried out by heterologous enzymes, called fatty acyl-CoA reductases, able to reduce different acyl-CoA molecules to their corresponding primary alcohols. Successful examples of metabolic engineering have been reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in which the production of fatty alcohols ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. Due to their metabolic advantages, oleaginous yeasts are considered the best hosts for production of fatty acid-derived chemicals. Some of these species can naturally produce, under specific growth conditions, lipids at high titers (>50 g/L) and therefore provide large amounts of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acids as precursors. Very recently, taking advantage of such features, over 8 g/L of C16-C18 fatty alcohols have been produced in Rhodosporidium toruloides. In this review we summarize the different metabolic engineering strategies, hosts and cultivation conditions used to date. We also point out some future trends and challenges for the microbial production of fatty alcohols. PMID:27465852

  14. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  15. Alcohol Consumption and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Gaziano, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) remains a major public health issue. It is estimated that about 500,000 Americans per year are diagnosed with HF. Despite advanced medical and surgical treatments for HF, mortality after the onset of HF is still high, thereby underscoring the importance of primary prevention. Among modifiable lifestyle factors, alcohol consumption appears to play a role in the development of HF. Although excessive drinking has been known to lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy and light-to-moderate drinking may confer some cardiovascular benefits, recent studies suggest it is not only the quantity, but also drinking patterns and genetic factors, that may influence the relation between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews current evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and HF. PMID:18417065

  16. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  17. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  18. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  19. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  20. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  1. Alcoholic neurobiology: changes in dependence and recovery.

    PubMed

    Crews, Fulton T; Buckley, Tracey; Dodd, Peter R; Ende, Gabriele; Foley, Nina; Harper, Clive; He, Jun; Innes, David; Loh, El-Wui; Pfefferbaum, Adolph; Zou, Jian; Sullivan, Edith V

    2005-08-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) in Mannheim, Germany, in October, 2004. Chronic alcoholism follows a fluctuating course, which provides a naturalistic experiment in vulnerability, resilience, and recovery of human neural systems in response to presence, absence, and history of the neurotoxic effects of alcoholism. Alcohol dependence is a progressive chronic disease that is associated with changes in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neural gene expression, psychology, and behavior. Specifically, alcohol dependence is characterized by a neuropsychological profile of mild to moderate impairment in executive functions, visuospatial abilities, and postural stability, together with relative sparing of declarative memory, language skills, and primary motor and perceptual abilities. Recovery from alcoholism is associated with a partial reversal of CNS deficits that occur in alcoholism. The reversal of deficits during recovery from alcoholism indicates that brain structure is capable of repair and restructuring in response to insult in adulthood. Indirect support of this repair model derives from studies of selective neuropsychological processes, structural and functional neuroimaging studies, and preclinical studies on degeneration and regeneration during the development of alcohol dependence and recovery form dependence. Genetics and brain regional specificity contribute to unique changes in neuropsychology and neuroanatomy in alcoholism and recovery. This symposium includes state-of-the-art presentations on changes that occur during active alcoholism as well as those that may occur during recovery-abstinence from alcohol dependence. Included are human neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessments, changes in human brain gene expression, allelic combinations of genes associated with alcohol dependence and preclinical studies investigating mechanisms of

  2. New Headings: Navy Alcoholism Prevention Program. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This brief booklet outlines the goals and rationale behind the Navy Alcoholism Prevention Program (NAPP). The program is built upon the assumption that alcoholism is a preventable and treatable illness. More than half the directors, counselors, and support staff at NAPP are sober alcoholics whose primary objectives involve aiding other alcoholics…

  3. Thermally induced dissolution/precipitation--a simple approach for the preparation of macroporous monoliths from linear aliphatic polyamides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Mai; Nordborg, Anna; Shchukarev, Andrei; Irgum, Knut

    2009-08-01

    A versatile way of preparing macroporous monolithic materials from linear aliphatic polyamides is presented. Simply, polyamide pellets were treated in benzyl alcohol (BA) at elevated temperature, causing dissolution by interchain hydrogen bond disruption. Subsequent cooling below the upper critical solution temperature (UCST) resulted in precipitation and partial restoration of the semicrystalline polymer, which is organized into network structures. The final steps were a solvent exchange of BA for methanol, followed by drying to form monolithic entities. A number of polyamides ranging from hydrophilic to hydrophobic were tested and under the experimental conditions, poly(1-aza-2-cycloheptanone (PA6) and (poly-[imino-1,6-hexanediylimino{1,10-dioxo-1,10-decanediyl}] (PA610) yielded entities with macroporous properties that were deemed useful for liquid chromatography. The morphological features and porous properties of the monoliths produced by this dissolution-precipitation procedure were studied by scanning electron microscopy, adsorption/desorption of N(2)(g) according to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) principle, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Degradation of the polymer backbone was noticeable when the dissolution time was extended and shortening of the polymer chains was confirmed by MALDI-MS, viscosity measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and potentiometric titration. When the heating was limited to the time it took to dissolve the polymers, mechanically stable monoliths could be obtained. The dissolution/heat treatment time further seemed to be useful for controlling the macroporous morphology. PMID:19670277

  4. Aliphatic β-nitroalcohols for therapeutic corneoscleral cross-linking: corneal permeability considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Quan; Trokel, Stephen L.; Paik, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Our recent tissue cross-linking studies have raised the possibility of using aliphatic β-nitro alcohols (BNAs) for pharmacologic, therapeutic corneal cross-linking. The present study was performed in order to determine the permeability of BNAs and to explore the use of permeability enhancing agents. Methods Ex vivo rabbit corneas were mounted in a typical Franz diffusion chamber. BNA permeability was determined by assaying the recipient chamber over time using a modification of the Griess nitrite colorimetric assay. The apparent permeability coefficient (Ptot) was determined for 2 mono-nitroalcohols, 2-nitroethanol (2NE) and 2-nitro-1-propanol (2NProp); a nitro-diol (2-methyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol=MNPD); and a nitro-triol (2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol=HNPD). Permeability enhancing effects using benzalkonium chloride (BAC) [0.01 and 0.02%], ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) [0.05%], and a combination of BAC 0.01% + tetracaine (TC) [0.5%] were also studied. Results The Ptot (+/−S.E.) values (cm/sec) were as follows: Ptot=4.33×10−5 (+/−9.82×10−6) for 2NE (MW=91), Ptot=9.34×10−6 (+/− 2.16×10−7) for 2NProp (MW=105), Ptot=4.37×10−6 (+/− 1.86×10−7) for MNPD (MW=135), and Ptot=8.95×10−7 (+/−1.93×10−8) for HNPD (MW=151). Using the nitrodiol, permeability increased approximately two-fold using BAC 0.01%, five-fold using BAC 0.02% and five-fold using the combination of BAC 0.01% + TC 0.5%. No effect was observed using EDTA 0.05%. Conclusions The results indicate that the corneal epithelium is permeable to BNAs with the apparent permeability corresponding to molecular weight. The findings are consistent with previous literature indicating that the small size of these compounds (<10Å) favors their passage through the corneal epithelium via the paracellular route. This information will help to guide dosing regimens for in vivo topical cross-linking studies. PMID:22868628

  5. Acid-catalyzed Furfuryl Alcohol Polymerization: Characterizations of Molecular Structure and Thermodynamic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taejin; Assary, Rajeev A.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Gosztola, David J.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Stair, Peter C.

    2011-07-22

    The liquid-phase polymerization of furfuryl alcohol catalyzed by sulfuric acid catalysts and the identities of molecular intermediates were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation. At room temperature, with an acid catalyst, a vigorous furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction was observed, whereas even at a high water concentration, furfuryl alcohol was very stable in the absence of an acid catalyst. Theoretical studies were carried out to investigate the thermodynamics of protonation of furfuryl alcohol, initiation of polymerization, and formation of conjugated dienes and diketonic species by using the B3LYP level of theory. A strong aliphatic C=C band observed in the calculated and measured Raman spectra provided crucial evidence to understand the polymerization reaction mechanism. It is confirmed that the formation of a conjugated diene structure rather than a diketone structure is involved in the furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction.

  6. Acid-catalyzed furfurly alcohol polymerization : characterizations of molecular structure and thermodynamic properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.; Assary, R. S.; Marshall, C. L.; Gosztola, D. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stair, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    The liquid-phase polymerization of furfuryl alcohol catalyzed by sulfuric acid catalysts and the identities of molecular intermediates were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation. At room temperature, with an acid catalyst, a vigorous furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction was observed, whereas even at a high water concentration, furfuryl alcohol was very stable in the absence of an acid catalyst. Theoretical studies were carried out to investigate the thermodynamics of protonation of furfuryl alcohol, initiation of polymerization, and formation of conjugated dienes and diketonic species by using the B3LYP level of theory. A strong aliphatic C=C band observed in the calculated and measured Raman spectra provided crucial evidence to understand the polymerization reaction mechanism. It is confirmed that the formation of a conjugated diene structure rather than a diketone structure is involved in the furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction.

  7. Issues in Primary Prevention in Substance Abuse. A Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Donald G.

    The purpose of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is to reduce the incidence of social, psychological, and health problems due to the use of alcohol. Soliciting financial support for primary prevention programs is difficult because of: (1) Federal, state, and local revenues derived from sales of alcoholic beverages; (2) The…

  8. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Travaglini, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

  9. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1983-09-20

    A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

  10. Structural Analysis of Aliphatic vs. Aromatic Substrate Specificity in a Copper Amine Oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Klema, Valerie J.; Solheid, Corinne J.; Klinman, Judith P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2013-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are responsible for the oxidative deamination of primary amines to their corresponding aldehydes. The CAO catalytic mechanism can be divided into two half-reactions: a reductive half-reaction, in which a primary amine substrate is oxidized to its corresponding aldehyde with the concomitant reduction of the organic cofactor 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ), and an oxidative half-reaction, in which reduced TPQ is re-oxidized with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The reductive half-reaction proceeds via Schiff base chemistry, in which the primary amine substrate first attacks the C5 carbonyl of TPQ, forming a series of covalent Schiff base intermediates. The X-ray crystal structures of copper amine oxidase-1 from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HPAO-1) in complex with ethylamine and benzylamine have been solved to resolutions of 2.18 and 2.25 Å, respectively. These structures reveal the two amine substrates bound at the back of the active site coincident with TPQ in its two-electron reduced aminoquinol form. Rearrangements of particular amino acid side chains within the substrate channel and specific protein-substrate interactions provide insight into substrate specificity in HPAO-1. These changes begin to account for this CAO’s kinetic preference for small, aliphatic amines over the aromatic amines or whole peptides preferred by some of its homologs. PMID:23452079

  11. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  12. Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, B.I.

    1987-01-13

    An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means, operable to release heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means, including the expansion chamber, in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; carburetor means in fluid communication with the converter means for metering and mixing vaporized alcohol with air for proper combustion and for feeding the mixture to an internal combustion engine; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the fuel storage means to the heat exchanger means, converter means, carburetor means, and to the engine.

  13. Fragrance material review on phenylethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenylethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenylethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenylethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036972

  14. Fragrance material review on anisyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22033097

  15. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036973

  16. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YMR318C (ADH6) gene product as a broad specificity NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase: relevance in aldehyde reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Larroy, Carol; Fernández, M Rosario; González, Eva; Parés, Xavier; Biosca, Josep A

    2002-01-01

    YMR318C represents an open reading frame from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with unknown function. It possesses a conserved sequence motif, the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) signature, specific to the medium-chain zinc-containing ADHs. In the present study, the YMR318C gene product has been purified to homogeneity from overexpressing yeast cells, and found to be a homodimeric ADH, composed of 40 kDa subunits and with a pI of 5.0-5.4. The enzyme was strictly specific for NADPH and was active with a wide variety of substrates, including aliphatic (linear and branched-chain) and aromatic primary alcohols and aldehydes. Aldehydes were processed with a 50-fold higher catalytic efficiency than that for the corresponding alcohols. The highest k(cat)/K(m) values were found with pentanal>veratraldehyde > hexanal > 3-methylbutanal >cinnamaldehyde. Taking into consideration the substrate specificity and sequence characteristics of the YMR318C gene product, we have proposed this gene to be called ADH6. The disruption of ADH6 was not lethal for the yeast under laboratory conditions. Although S. cerevisiae is considered a non lignin-degrading organism, the catalytic activity of ADHVI can direct veratraldehyde and anisaldehyde, arising from the oxidation of lignocellulose by fungal lignin peroxidases, to the lignin biodegradation pathway. ADHVI is the only S. cerevisiae enzyme able to significantly reduce veratraldehyde in vivo, and its overexpression allowed yeast to grow under toxic concentrations of this aldehyde. The enzyme may also be involved in the synthesis of fusel alcohols. To our knowledge this is the first NADPH-dependent medium-chain ADH to be characterized in S. cerevisiae. PMID:11742541

  17. [Approaches for the prevention of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Watzl, H

    1996-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of alcohol problems have demonstrated a considerable variation between countries and epoches. Two types of primary prevention strategies of alcohol problems are examined. Firstly, efforts to control and reduce the availability of alcohol including increase of price, restriction of alcohol retail outlets or hours during which alcohol can be sold, minimum legal age for purchase or consumption, drinking-driving laws and enforcement programmes, restriction of alcohol advertising. The second type consists of educational prevention programmes aiming at the reduction of risk factors or the increase of protective factors within the general population. This type includes information to change knowledge and attitudes, education of affects and values, life skill training, resistance training, and mass media campaigns. Programmes aiming at high risk groups and the development of standardised secondary prevention programmes might be more effective and cost-efficient. PMID:8963092

  18. Development of Alternative Reductant Application in Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domae, Masafumi; Kawamura, Hirotaka; Ohira, Taku

    In primary coolant of pressurized water reactors, high concentration dissolved hydrogen (DH) has been added, to prevent generation of oxidizing species through radiolysis of the coolant. Recently, number of ageing plants is increasing and utilities are concerned about primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). Some researchers consider that occurrence of PWSCC and crack propagation rate are affected by the DH concentration. The authors consider that one of possible mitigation methods toward PWSCC is use of alternative reductant in place of hydrogen. Because from the radiation chemical aspect aliphatic alcohols are typical scavengers of the oxidizing radical generated through the radiolysis of water, they are promising candidates of the alternative reductant. In the present work, possible alternatives of hydrogen were screened, and methanol was selected as the best candidate. Corrosion tests of type 304 stainless steels were carried out in high temperature water at 320°C without irradiation under two conditions: (1) DH 1.5 ppm (part per million) and (2) methanol 2.9 ppm. Electrochemical corrosion potential of the stainless steel specimens was measured during the immersion tests. After the immersion tests for 1500 h, surface morphology of the stainless steel specimens was observed by scanning probe microscope. Major component of the oxide film formed on the stainless steel specimens was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. From comparison of the test results, it is concluded that addition of 2.9 ppm methanol has almost the same effect on corrosion environment as DH 1.5 ppm addition.

  19. Manganese-catalyzed late-stage aliphatic C-H azidation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiongyi; Bergsten, Tova M; Groves, John T

    2015-04-29

    We report a manganese-catalyzed aliphatic C-H azidation reaction that can efficiently convert secondary, tertiary, and benzylic C-H bonds to the corresponding azides. The method utilizes aqueous sodium azide solution as the azide source and can be performed under air. Besides its operational simplicity, the potential of this method for late-stage functionalization has been demonstrated by successful azidation of various bioactive molecules with yields up to 74%, including the important drugs pregabalin, memantine, and the antimalarial artemisinin. Azidation of celestolide with a chiral manganese salen catalyst afforded the azide product in 70% ee, representing a Mn-catalyzed enantioselective aliphatic C-H azidation reaction. Considering the versatile roles of organic azides in modern chemistry and the ubiquity of aliphatic C-H bonds in organic molecules, we envision that this Mn-azidation method will find wide application in organic synthesis, drug discovery, and chemical biology. PMID:25871027

  20. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments of Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.B.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Clifton, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor are two adjacent estuaries along the coast of Washington state. Willapa Bay is a recreational area minimally affected by industry; Grays Harbor, on the other hand, is moderately industrialized. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from these two estuaries reflect the differences in human activities. For example, the mean concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons for seven stations in Willapa Bay is 1,000 ?g/g (relative to organic carbon) while in Grays Harbor this mean concentration for six stations is 1,900 ?g/g. The difference is attributed mainly to the greater urban and industrial pollution in Grays Harbor. The gas chromatographic records of aliphatic hydrocarbons also reflect the extent of hydrocarbon pollution by the presence of a chromatographically unresolved mixture of hydrocarbons. This kind of mixture is more evident in sediments from Grays Harbor, and in both estuaries it is more concentrated in sediments collected nearest to urban centers.

  1. Seasonal distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the Vaza Barris Estuarine System, Sergipe, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, José Carlos S; Santos, Lukas G G V; Sant'Anna, Mércia V S; Souza, Michel R R; Damasceno, Flaviana C; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2016-03-15

    The seasonal assessment of anthropogenic activities in the Vaza Barris estuarine river system, located in the Sergipe state, northeastern Brazil, was performed using the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution. The aliphatic hydrocarbon and isoprenoid (Pristane and Phytane) concentrations ranged between 0.19μgg(-1) and 8.5μgg(-1) of dry weight. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, with significance level set at p<0.05, and no seasonality distribution change was observed. The Carbon Preference Index (CPI), associated with n-alkanes/n-C16, Low Molecular Weight/High Molecular Weight ratio (LMW/HMW) and Terrigenous to Aquatic Ratio (TAR) suggested biogenic input of aliphatic hydrocarbons for most samples, with significant contribution of higher plants. PMID:26837270

  2. The effect of aliphatic fuel constituents on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gamerdinger, A.P.

    1995-12-01

    In petroleum-derived waste, n-alkanes are often codeposited with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The impact of aliphatic fuel constituents on the biodegradation of the more toxic PAHs is considered. Biodegradation of naphthalene by a Coryneform bacteria was examined in biphasic, slurry systems containing and aliphatic solvent in addition to the aqueous phase. The effect of solvent hydrophobicity was evaluated by varying the solvent treatment; a homologous series of n-alkanes was used. Relative to an aqueous system (no solvent), the extent of naphthalene degradation was enhanced in the presence of decane, dodecane, and hexadecane. Biodegradation was apparent, but decreased in the presence of octane, and was completely absent in the presence of hexane. The impact of aliphatic constituents on PAH biodegradation is a function of solvent hydrophobicity. The results indicate that the presence of multiple chemical constituents in complex systems modifies bioavailability and biodegradation.

  3. Enzymatic degradation of aliphatic nitriles by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2, a versatile nitrile-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shumei; An, Xuejiao; Liu, Hongyuan; Cheng, Yi; Hou, Ning; Feng, Lu; Huang, Xinning; Li, Chunyan

    2015-06-01

    Nitriles are common environmental pollutants, and their removal has attracted increasing attention. Microbial degradation is considered to be the most acceptable method for removal. In this work, we investigated the biodegradation of three aliphatic nitriles (acetonitrile, acrylonitrile and crotononitrile) by Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2 and the expression of their corresponding metabolic enzymes. This organism can utilize all three aliphatic nitriles as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, resulting in the complete degradation of these compounds. The degradation kinetics were described using a first-order model. The degradation efficiency was ranked according to t1/2 as follows: acetonitrile>trans-crotononitrile>acrylonitrile>cis-crotononitrile. Only ammonia accumulated following the three nitriles degradation, while amides and carboxylic acids were transient and disappeared by the end of the assay. mRNA expression and enzyme activity indicated that the tested aliphatic nitriles were degraded via both the inducible NHase/amidase and the constitutive nitrilase pathways, with the former most likely preferred. PMID:25746475

  4. Classical-Reaction-Driven Stereo- and Regioselective C(sp(3) )-H Functionalization of Aliphatic Amines.

    PubMed

    Mahato, Sujit; Jana, Chandan K

    2016-06-01

    A large variety of synthetic methods have been developed for the synthesis of functionalized aliphatic amines because of their broad spectrum of application. Metallic reagents/catalysts and/or toxic oxidants are involved in most of the cases. Direct CH functionalization of aliphatic amines via their classical condensation reactions with suitable carbonyl compounds is advantageous because this method avoids hazardous metallic reagents, toxic oxidants and pre-activation/pre-functionalization step(s). In this account, the concept of direct CH functionalization of aliphatic amines based on the classical condensation-isomerization-addition (CIA) strategy followed by recent contributions from our ongoing research in the field along with relevant examples from other groups are described. Successes in stereo- and regioselective CC and CO bond formation via direct α- as well as β-C(sp(3) )-H functionalization are discussed. PMID:27185195

  5. Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, D B; Scheper, A; Dijkhuizen, L; Witholt, B

    1985-01-01

    A bacterium that is able to utilize a number of halogenated short-chain hydrocarbons and halogenated carboxylic acids as sole carbon source for growth was identified as a strain of Xanthobacter autotrophicus. The organism constitutively produces two different dehalogenases. One enzyme is specific for halogenated alkanes, whereas the other, which is more heat stable and has a higher pH optimum, is specific for halogenated carboxylic acids. Haloalkanes were hydrolyzed in cell extracts to produce alcohols and halide ions, and a route for the metabolism of 1,2-dichlorethane is proposed. Both dehalogenases show a broad substrate specificity, allowing the degradation of bromine- and chlorine-substituted organic compounds. The results show that X. autotrophicus may play a role in the degradation of organochlorine compounds and that hydrolytic dehalogenases may be involved in the microbial metabolism of short-chain halogenated hydrocarbons in microorganisms. Images PMID:3994371

  6. Friction differences between aliphatic and aromatic structures in lubrication of titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a titanium (0001) single crystal surface with various adsorbed aliphatic and aromatic compounds containing the same number of carbon atoms. An Auger emission spectroscopy analysis was used to monitor the presence of the organic lubricating compounds. Results of the investigation indicate that hexane and benzene give the same friction coefficients over a range of loads. At light loads the friction decreased with an increase in the halogen atom size where the halogens chlorine, bromine, and iodine are incorporated into the benzene molecular structure. The aliphatic compounds chlorohexane and bromohexane exhibited lower friction coefficients than the aromatic structures chlorobenzene and bromobenzene.

  7. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  8. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  9. Equation of state for water-alcohol mixtures over a wide range of state variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabekova, B. K.; Bazaev, E. A.

    2015-09-01

    Coefficients of the three-parameter polynomial equation of states are determined from experimental data on the ( p, ρ, T, x) relationship for water-aliphatic alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol) mixtures in the liquid and vapor phases and in the supercritical state: expansions of compressibility factor Z = p/ RTρ m into series in powers of reduced density ω = ρm/ρmcr; reduced temperature τ = T/T cr and composition x (as the mole fraction of alcohol), . The mean percentage errors of the calculated pressure values relative to the experimental values are 2% (liquid phase), 0.7% (vapor phase), and 0.5% (supercritical fluid).

  10. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  11. Copper/TEMPO-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Mechanistic Assessment of Different Catalyst Systems.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-11-01

    Combinations of homogeneous Cu salts and TEMPO have emerged as practical and efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Several closely related catalyst systems have been reported, which differ in the identity of the solvent, the presence of 2,2'-bipyridine as a ligand, the identity of basic additives, and the oxidation state of the Cu source. These changes have a significant influence on the reaction rates, yields, and substrate scope. In this report, we probe the mechanistic basis for differences among four different Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems and elucidate the features that contribute to efficient oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:24558634

  12. Copper/TEMPO-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Mechanistic Assessment of Different Catalyst Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Jessica M.; Ryland, Bradford L.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2013-01-01

    Combinations of homogeneous Cu salts and TEMPO have emerged as practical and efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Several closely related catalyst systems have been reported, which differ in the identity of the solvent, the presence of 2,2′-bipyridine as a ligand, the identity of basic additives, and the oxidation state of the Cu source. These changes have a significant influence on the reaction rates, yields, and substrate scope. In this report, we probe the mechanistic basis for differences among four different Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems and elucidate the features that contribute to efficient oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:24558634

  13. A ratiometric fluorescent probe for detection of biogenic primary amines with nanomolar sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Suman; Chandra, Falguni; Koner, Apurba L

    2016-02-01

    An ultrasensitive ratiometric fluorescent sensor made of an N,N-dimethylaminonaphthalene anhydride moiety for detection of aliphatic primary amines is reported. Biogenic amines at nanomolar concentration is detected with the additional ability to discriminate between primary, secondary and tertiary amines by using both UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:26734688

  14. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  15. Understanding the Effects of Stress and Alcohol Cues on Motivation for Alcohol via Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and alcohol cues are common antecedents of both ongoing drinking and relapse. One candidate mechanism of risk from these factors is acute increases in craving, but experimental support for this hypothesis is mixed. Furthermore, the combination of stress and cues has been largely unstudied. The current study employed a behavioral economic approach to investigate the combined roles of psychosocial stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol. Methods In a sample of 84 adult heavy drinkers, we examined the effects of an acute laboratory stress induction and an alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and stress, arousal, and behavioral economic decision-making. Primary dependent measures included an intertemporal cross-commodity multiple choice procedure (ICCMCP), incorporating both price and delay elements; an alcohol purchase task (APT), measuring alcohol demand; and a monetary delay discounting task (DDT), measuring intertemporal choice. Results The stress induction significantly increased stress, craving, and the incentive value of alcohol on the ICCMCP and APT. Stress-related increases in value on the ICCMCP were mediated by increased alcohol demand. Exposure to alcohol cues only significantly affected craving, APT breakpoint, and arousal. Delay discounting was not affected by either stress or cues. Conclusions These results reveal unique behavioral economic dimensions of motivation for alcohol following acute stress and an alcohol cue exposure. More broadly, as the first application of this approach to understanding the role of stress in drug motivation, these findings support its utility and potential in future applications. PMID:24890323

  16. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  17. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  18. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  20. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  1. SELECTIVE ENUMERATION OF AROMATIC AND ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON DEGRADING BACTERIA BY A MOST-PROBABLE-NUMBER PROCEDURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A most-portable-number (MPN) procedure was developed to separately enumerate aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, because most of the currently available methods are unable to distinguish between these two groups. Separate 96-well microtiter plates are used to ...

  2. Decrease of aliphatic CHs from diatoms by in situ heating infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Leila; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-04-01

    In situ heating IR microspectroscopy at 260-300°C under air and N2 conditions has been conducted on diatom frustules to examine aliphatic CH losses during heating, simulating their changes with burial-diagenesis. Assuming a reaction model made up of two first-order kinetic relations, reaction rate constants k1 and k2 and activation energies (Ea) were evaluated for aliphatic CHs. The rate constants for loss of aliphatic CHs of diatom frustules under air and N2 flow are much larger, with much smaller activation energies (57-109 kJ/mol: air; 14-44 kJ/mol: N2), than those for conventional hydrocarbon generation reactions from kerogens (170-370 kJ/mol) studied at higher temperatures (350-450°C). The CH decrease rates are somewhat different from the amide I decrease (protein degradation) rates. The obtained results suggest that organic transformation reactions including degradation of aliphatic CHs inside the diatom silica frustules might be quite different from those of kerogens separated from the biological structures.

  3. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  4. 40 CFR 721.530 - Substituted aliphatic acid halide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance substituted aliphatic acid halide (PMN P-84-491) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  5. 40 CFR 721.530 - Substituted aliphatic acid halide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance substituted aliphatic acid halide (PMN P-84-491) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  6. Mass spectral analysis of C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acid derivatives.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.; Chadha, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria are obtained for the distinction of alpha, beta, gamma, and N-methyl isomers of the C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acids, using mass spectral analysis of the derivatives of these acids. The use of deuterium labeling has helped in the understanding of certain fragmentation pathways.

  7. PATTERN RECOGNITION ANALYSIS OF A SET OF MUTAGENIC ALIPHATIC N-NITROSAMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of 21 mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines were subjected to a pattern recognition analysis using ADAPT software. Four descriptors based on molecular connectivity, geometry and sigma charge on nitrogen were capable of achieving a 100% classification using the linear learning ...

  8. Spectrofluorimetric evaluation of total aliphatic and aromatic amines in well waters and wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Djozan, D.; Faraj-Zadeh, M.A.

    1998-09-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic amines are important metabolic intermediates in decomposition processes and are distributed in wastewaters. Monitoring of these compounds in the water samples can indicate whether the environmental waters are contaminated with wastewaters. A simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method is described for the determination of aliphatic and aromatic amines on the basis of ammonia and aniline, respectively. Aromatic amines in samples were reacted at pH 5.5 with fluram immobilized on an Octadecylsilane Solid Phase Extraction (ODS-SPE) cartridge. The produced pyrrolinones were adsorbed on SPE and separated from the aliphatic amines. Analysis of these compounds was carried out by elution of SPE with 1 ml Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and determination of fluorescence intensity at excitation wavelength 400 nm and emission wavelength 475 nm. Aliphatic amines after passing from SPE were collected and reacted with fluram at pH 9.2, and extracted into dichloromethane at pH 3 and quantitated fluorimetrically. Linear dynamic ranges and detection limits (LOD) were 1-20, 0.43 mg l{sup {minus}1} and 1-200, 0.39 {micro}g l{sup {minus}1} for ammonia and aniline, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the evaluation of these compounds in local well waters and municipality wastewaters.

  9. Copper-catalyzed aliphatic C-H amination with an amidine moiety.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Sanjaya, Stephen; Wang, Yi-Feng; Chiba, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    A method for amination of aliphatic C-H bonds of N-alkylamidines is described that utilizes Cu(OAc)(2) as the catalyst in the presence of PhI(OAc)(2) and K(3)PO(4). The resulting products, dihydroimidazoles and tetrahydropyrimidines, could be converted into the corresponding diamines by hydride reduction. PMID:23252919

  10. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the potential of enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (TCE), cis-and trans-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), an...

  11. Oxidation of methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol with human alcohol dehydrogenases and the inhibition by ethanol and 4-methylpyrazole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Shih, Hsuan-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chou; Li, Yeung-Pin; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2011-05-30

    Human alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) include multiple isozymes with broad substrate specificity and ethnic distinct allozymes. ADH catalyzes the rate-limiting step in metabolism of various primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols. The oxidation of common toxic alcohols, that is, methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol by the human ADHs remains poorly understood. Kinetic studies were performed in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer, at pH 7.5 and 25°C, containing 0.5 mM NAD(+) and varied concentrations of substrate. K(M) values for ethanol with recombinant human class I ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1B3, ADH1C1, and ADH1C2, and class II ADH2 and class IV ADH4 were determined to be in the range of 0.12-57 mM, for methanol to be 2.0-3500 mM, for ethylene glycol to be 4.3-2600mM, and for isopropanol to be 0.73-3400 mM. ADH1B3 appeared to be inactive toward ethylene glycol, and ADH2 and ADH4, inactive with methanol. The variations for V(max) for the toxic alcohols were much less than that of the K(M) across the ADH family. 4-Methylpyrazole (4MP) was a competitive inhibitor with respect to ethanol for ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1C1 and ADH1C2, and a noncompetitive inhibitor for ADH1B3, ADH2 and ADH4, with the slope inhibition constants (K(is)) for the whole family being 0.062-960 μM and the intercept inhibition constants (K(ii)), 33-3000 μM. Computer simulation studies using inhibition equations in the presence of alternate substrate ethanol and of dead-end inhibitor 4MP with the determined corresponding kinetic parameters for ADH family, indicate that the oxidation of the toxic alcohols up to 50mM are largely inhibited by 20 mM ethanol or by 50 μM 4MP with some exceptions. The above findings provide an enzymological basis for clinical treatment of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning by 4MP or ethanol with pharmacogenetic perspectives. PMID:21167143

  12. Prevention of alcohol use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansen, W B

    1994-09-01

    The primary goal of educational alcohol prevention programs is to lower the overall prevalence of alcohol use and abuse among populations at risk for negative alcohol-related outcomes. Youth are primarily targeted for prevention since there is ample evidence that alcohol-related injuries constitute a major risk for this group in particular. Prevention includes a goal to delay the onset of regular consumption and decrease high-risk consumption among youth who do drink. No matter what definition of alcohol use or abuse is adopted, the goal of prevention is to lower the proportion of youth who engage in that type of use. Among those who already use or abuse alcohol by any definition, the goal of prevention is to reduce the average intensity of use and prevent the progression of consumption to more severe levels. Reducing high-risk consumption may include preventing drinking while driving as well as promoting "responsible" drinking. Prevention programs may include a focus on reducing or eliminating consumption among occasional users. Prevention is also targeted at adults, primarily focusing on reduction of alcohol-impaired driving, reduction of alcohol-related violence, and reduction of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:7845939

  13. Alcohol advertising and youth: a measured approach.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig

    2005-09-01

    Where alcohol industry self-regulation is the primary protection against youth exposure to alcohol advertising, independent, systematic monitoring of youth exposure can promote public awareness of and greater accountability in the industry's practices. Using commercially available databases, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth has combined occurrence and audience data to calculate youth (aged 12-20 years) and adult (above the United States legal drinking age of 21 years) exposure to alcohol advertising on television and radio, in magazines and on the Internet. This research in the United States shows that alcohol companies have placed significant amounts of advertising where youth are more likely per capita to be exposed to it than adults. Further analyses by the Center have demonstrated that much of this excess exposure of youth to alcohol advertising in the United States could be eliminated if alcohol companies would adopt a threshold of 15% (roughly the proportion of 12-20-years-old in the population 12 and above) as the maximum youth audience composition for their advertising. Although adoption of such a threshold would still leave much youth exposure to alcohol marketing in such "unmeasured" activities as sponsorships, on-premise promotions and campus marketing, it would assist alcohol companies in reaching their intended audiences more efficiently while reducing overall youth exposure to their advertising. PMID:16167559

  14. Pathogenesis and management of alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Haber, Paul S; Warner, Ross; Seth, Devanshi; Gorrell, Mark D; McCaughan, Geoffrey W

    2003-12-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is a potentially life-threatening complication of alcoholic abuse, typically presenting with symptoms and signs of hepatitis in the presence of an alcohol use disorder. The definitive diagnosis requires liver biopsy, but this is not generally required. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but relevant factors include metabolism of alcohol to toxic products, oxidant stress, acetaldehyde adducts, the action of endotoxin on Kupffer cells, and impaired hepatic regeneration. Mild alcoholic hepatitis recovers with abstinence and the long-term prognosis is determined by the underlying disorder of alcohol use. Severe alcoholic hepatitis is recognized by a Maddrey discriminant function >32 and is associated with a short-term mortality rate of almost 50%. Primary therapy is abstinence from alcohol and supportive care. Corticosteroids have been shown to be beneficial in a subset of severely ill patients with concomitant hepatic encephalopathy, but their use remains controversial. Pentoxifylline has been shown in one study to improve short-term survival rates. Other pharmacological interventions, including colchicine, propylthiouracil, calcium channel antagonists, and insulin with glucagon infusions, have not been proven to be beneficial. Nutritional supplementation with available high-calorie, high-protein diets is beneficial, but does not improve mortality. Orthotopic liver transplantation is not indicated for patients presenting with alcoholic hepatitis who have been drinking until the time of admission, but may be considered in those who achieve stable abstinence if liver function fails to recover. PMID:14675260

  15. Biodegradation of individual and multiple chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by methane-oxidizing cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H L; Alvarez-Cohen, L

    1996-01-01

    The microbial degradation of chlorinated and nonchlorinated methanes, ethanes, and ethanes by a mixed methane-oxidizing culture grown under chemostat and batch conditions is evaluated and compared with that by two pure methanotrophic strains: CAC1 (isolated from the mixed culture) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. With the exception of 1,1-dichloroethylene, the transformation capacity (Tc) for each chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon was generally found to be in inverse proportion to its chlorine content within each aliphatic group (i.e., methanes, ethanes, and ethenes), whereas similar trends were not observed for degradation rate constants. Tc trends were similar for all methane-oxidizing cultures tested. None of the cultures were able to degrade the fully chlorinated aliphatics such as perchloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. Of the four cultures tested, the chemostat-grown mixed culture exhibited the highest Tc for trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane, whereas the pure batch-grown OB3b culture exhibited the highest Tc for all other compounds tested. The product toxicity of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in a mixture containing multiple compounds was cumulative and predictable when using parameters measured from the degradation of individual compounds. The Tc for each chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon in a mixture (Tcmix) and the total Tc for the mixture (sigma Tcmix) are functions of the individual Tc, the initial substrate concentration (S0), and the first-order rate constant (k/Ks) of each compound in the mixture, indicating the importance of identifying the properties and compositions of all potentially degradable compounds in a contaminant mixture. PMID:8795228

  16. Characterization of the polymerization of furfuryl alcohol during roasting of coffee.

    PubMed

    Swasti, Yuliana Reni; Murkovic, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The polymerization of furfuryl alcohol contributes to the formation of the brown colour in heated foods, in addition to the Maillard and caramelization reactions. During the heating of food, furfuryl alcohol is formed via the degradation of quinic acid or 1,2-enediols. Furfuryl alcohol is a mutagenic compound. In acidic conditions it is able to polymerize and form aliphatic polymers that show a brown colour. Herein we show that furfuryl alcohol polymerizes in a model system by incubating it in 1 M HCl at room temperature. Some of the reaction products are dimers, trimers, tetramers, and pentamers with methylene linkages. The degree of polymerization and the amount of those furfuryl alcohol oligomers increased with increasing reaction time. The results of this model system were used to characterize the polymerization of furfuryl alcohol which is produced during roasting of coffee. The coffee was roasted at 210 °C for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 min with a home coffee roaster. Furfuryl alcohol and its dimer were found in roasted coffee after 2 and 3 min of roasting respectively, reaching a maximum amount after 4 min. Perhaps due to further reactions, the dimeric furfuryl alcohol concentration starts to decrease after 4 min. We propose that the polymers of furfuryl alcohol contribute to the brown colour of roasted foods. PMID:22785445

  17. The Resting Brain of Alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Jung, Young-Chul; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-11-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects multiple cognitive processes supported by far-reaching cerebral networks. To identify neurofunctional mechanisms underlying selective deficits, 27 sober alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity analysis assessed the default mode network (DMN); integrative executive control (EC), salience (SA), and attention (AT) networks; primary somatosensory, auditory, and visual (VI) input networks; and subcortical reward (RW) and emotion (EM) networks. The groups showed an extensive overlap of intrinsic connectivity in all brain networks examined, suggesting overall integrity of large-scale functional networks. Despite these similar patterns, connectivity analyses identified network-specific differences of weaker within-network connectivity and expanded connectivity to regions outside the main networks in alcoholics compared with controls. For AT and VI networks, better task performance was related to expanded connectivity in alcoholism, supporting the concept of network expansion as a neural mechanism for functional compensation. For default mode, SA, RW, and EC networks, both weaker within-network and expanded outside-network connectivity correlated with poorer performance and mood. Current smoking contributed to some of these abnormalities in connectivity. The observed pattern of resting-state connectivity might reflect neural vulnerability of intrinsic networking in alcoholics and suggests a mechanism to explain signature impairments in EM, RW evaluation, and EC ability. PMID:24935777

  18. Purification and Characterization of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoforms from the Periderm of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, S. W.; Boudet, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) isoforms were purified from the periderm (containing both suberized and lignified cell layers) of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook stems. Two isoforms (CAD 1P and CAD 2P) were initially characterized, and the major form, CAD 2P, was resolved into three further isoforms by ion-exchange chromatography. Crude extracts contained two aliphatic alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and one aromatic ADH, which was later resolved into two further isoforms. Aliphatic ADHs did not use hydroxycinnamyl alcohols as substrates, whereas both aromatic ADH isoforms used coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol as substrates but with a much lower specific activity when compared with benzyl alcohol. The minor form, CAD 1P, was a monomer with a molecular weight of 34,000 that did not co-elute with either aromatic or aliphatic ADH activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analysis demonstrated that this protein was very similar to another CAD isoform purified from Eucalyptus xylem tissue. CAD 2P had a native molecular weight of approximately 84,000 and was a dimer consisting of two heterogenous subunits (with molecular weights of 42,000 and 44,000). These subunits were differentially combined to give the heterodimer and two homodimers. SDS-PAGE, western blots, and nondenaturing PAGE indicated that the CAD 2P heterodimer was very similar to the main CAD isoform previously purified in our laboratory from differentiating xylem tissue of E. gunnii (D. Goffner, I. Joffroy, J. Grima-Pettenati, C. Halpin, M.E. Knight, W. Schuch, A.M. Boudet [1992] Planta 188: 48-53). Kinetic data indicated that the different CAD 2P isoforms may be implicated in the preferential production of different monolignols used in the synthesis of lignin and/or suberin. PMID:12232063

  19. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence

    PubMed Central

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  20. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence.

    PubMed

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-07-28

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  1. Countermeasures for Reducing Alcohol-Related Crashes.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B

    2000-01-01

    Programs to prevent alcohol-related crashes occur at several levels. Although most of the public thinks of drunk-driving prevention only in terms of the criminal justice system, much can be done to prevent alcohol-related highway deaths before the drinking-and-driving offender gets on the road. In recent years, the field of alcohol safety has merged with the area of public health concerned with preventing alcohol- and drug-related traumatic injury and death. This paper provides an overview of the status of road safety programs directed at reducing impaired driving. It covers ten topics falling into the three levels of prevention: primary programs to reduce alcohol consumption; secondary programs to prevent driving after drinking; and tertiary programs to prevent recidivism among convicted drinking drivers. PMID:26256029

  2. Effects of alcohol mixed with energy drink and alcohol alone on subjective intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Andrea; Hemberger, Sophie Helene; Loidl, Alexandra; Dufek, Stephanie; Pablik, Eleonore; Fodor, Sugarka; Herle, Marion; Aufricht, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that the combination of caffeine-containing drinks together with alcohol might reduce the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication-the so-called "masking effect". In this study, we aimed to review the effects of alcohol in combination with caffeine or energy drink with special focus on the "masking effect". Fifty-two healthy male volunteers were analysed concerning breath alcohol concentration and subjective sensations of intoxication using a 18 item Visual Analogue Scale in a randomised, double-blinded, controlled, four treatments cross-over trial after consumption of (A) placebo, (B) alcohol (vodka 37.5% at a dose of 46.5 g ethanol), (C) alcohol in combination with caffeine at a dose of 80 mg (equivalent to one 250 ml can of energy drink) and (D) alcohol in combination with energy drink at a dose of 250 ml (one can). Primary variables were headache, weakness, salivation and motor coordination. Out of four primary variables, weakness and motor coordination showed a statistically significant difference between alcohol and non-alcohol group, out of 14 secondary variables, five more variables (dizziness, alterations in sight, alterations in walking, agitation and alterations in speech) also showed significant differences due mainly to contrasts with the non-alcohol group. In none of these end points, could a statistically significant effect be found for the additional ingestion of energy drink or caffeine on the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication. This within-subjects study does not confirm the presence of a "masking effect" when combining caffeine or energy drink with alcohol. PMID:24178765

  3. Recyclable heterogeneous copper oxide on alumina catalyzed coupling of phenols and alcohols with aryl halides under ligand-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Swapna, Kokkirala; Murthy, Sabbavarapu Narayana; Jyothi, Mocharla Tarani; Nageswar, Yadavalli Venkata Durga

    2011-09-01

    An efficient alumina-supported CuO-catalyzed O-arylation of phenols and aliphatic alcohols with various aryl as well as heteroaryl halides under ligand-free conditions are reported. This protocol provides a variety of diaryl ether and bis-diaryl ether motifs by reacting different aryl/aliphatic halides with differently substituted phenols and saturated alcohols in the presence of a catalytic amount of CuO on alumina and KOH as a base at moderate temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. The described methodology is simple, straightforward and efficient to afford the cross-coupled products in high yields under ligand-free conditions. The explored catalyst is inexpensive, air-stable and recyclable up to three cycles. PMID:21695321

  4. Visual Recognition of Aliphatic and Aromatic Amines Using a Fluorescent Gel: Application of a Sonication-Triggered Organogel.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xuelei; Yu, Xudong; Lan, Haichuang; Ge, Xiaoting; Li, Yajuan; Zhen, Xiaoli; Yi, Tao

    2015-06-24

    A naphthalimide-based fluorescent gelator (N1) containing an alkenyl group has been designed and characterized. This material is able to gelate alcohols via a precipitate-to-gel transformation when triggered with ultrasound for less than 2 min (S-gel). The gelation process in n-propanol was studied by means of absorption, fluorescence, and IR spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and X-ray diffraction patterns. The fluorescence intensity of N1 decreased during the gelation process in a linear relationship with the sonication time. The S-gel of N1 could be used to sense aliphatic and aromatic amines by measuring the change in the signal output. For example, the addition of propylamine to the S-gel of N1 resulted in a dramatic enhancement of the fluorescence intensity, accompanied by a gel-to-sol transition. On the contrary, when the S-gel of N1 was treated with aromatic amines such as aniline, fluorescence was quenched and there was no gel collapse. The sensing mechanisms were studied by (1)H NMR, small-angle X-ray scattering, SEM and spectroscopic experiments. It is proposed that isomerization of the alkenyl group of N1 from the trans to cis form occurs when the S-gel is treated with propylamine, resulting in a gel-sol transition. However, the aromatic aniline molecules prefer to insert into the gel networks of N1 via hydrogen-bonding and charge-transfer interactions, maintaining the gel state. As potential applications, testing strips of N1 were prepared to detect aniline. PMID:26040296

  5. A reusable unsupported rhenium nanocrystalline catalyst for acceptorless dehydrogenation of alcohols through γ-C-H activation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jing; Miller, Jeffrey T; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y; Zhang, Ruihong; Dietrich, Paul J; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Suslov, Sergey; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2014-01-13

    Rhenium nanocrystalline particles (Re NPs), of 2 nm size, were prepared from NH4ReO4 under mild conditions in neat alcohol. The unsupported Re NPs convert secondary and benzylic alcohols to ketones and aldehydes, respectively, through catalytic acceptorless dehydrogenation (AD). The oxidant- and acceptor-free neat dehydrogenation of alcohols to obtain dihydrogen gas is a green and atom-economical process for making carbonyl compounds. Secondary aliphatic alcohols give quantitative conversion and yield. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Re K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data confirmed the characterization of the Re NPs as metallic rhenium with surface oxidation to rhenium(IV) oxide (ReO2). Isotope labeling experiments revealed a novel γ-CH activation mechanism for AD of alcohols. PMID:24282107

  6. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  7. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  8. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  9. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  10. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  11. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  12. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  13. Study of enrichment factors for six β-blockers in aliphatic alcohols by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Lian; Jing, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Lin; Ran, Cong-Cong; Du, Chao-Hui; Jiang, Ye

    2015-10-01

    The selectivity of a suitable organic solvent is key for extraction in liquid-phase microextraction experiments. Nevertheless, the screening process remains a daunting task. Our research aimed to study the relationship between extraction efficiency and extraction solvents, analytes, and finally select the appropriate extraction solvent. In the present article, β-blockers and six extraction solvents were chosen as the models and hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction was conducted. The relationship was built by statistical analysis on the data. Factors affecting extraction efficiency including the logarithms of the octanol/water partition coefficient (logPo/w ) of analytes, acid dissociation constants, the logarithms of the octanol/water partition coefficient of solvents and pH of the sample solution were investigated. The results showed that a low water solubility of extraction solvent is the foundation to ensure higher extraction efficiency. Moreover, when ΔlogPo/w > 0, a higher extraction efficiency is observed at lower ΔlogPo/w , on the contrary, when ΔlogPo/w < 0, extraction efficiency is higher as the absolute value of ΔlogPo/w becomes greater. Finally, the relationship between enrichment factor and extraction solvents, analytes was established and a helpful guidance was provided for the selection of an optimal solvent to obtain the best extraction efficiency by liquid-phase microextraction. PMID:26224511

  14. Fast Fourier Transform IR Characterization of Epoxy GY Systems Crosslinked with Aliphatic and Cycloaliphatic EH Polyamine Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Goran; Zlatkovic, Sasa; Cakic, Milorad; Cakic, Suzana; Lacnjevac, Caslav; Rajic, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    The use of fast FT-IR spectroscopy as a sensitive method to estimate a change of the crosslinking kinetics of epoxy resin with polyamine adducts is described in this study. A new epoxy formulation based on the use of polyamine adducts as the hardeners was analyzed. Crosslinking reactions of the different stoichiometric mixtures of the unmodified GY250 epoxy resin with the aliphatic EH606 and the cycloaliphatic EH637 polyamine adducts were studied using mid FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. As the crosslinking proceeded, the primary amine groups in polyamine adduct are converted to secondary and the tertiary amines. The decrease in the IR band intensity of epoxy groups at about 915 cm−1, as well as at about 3,056 cm−1, was observed due to process. Mid IR spectral analysis was used to calculate the content of the epoxy groups as a function of crosslinking time and the crosslinking degree of resin. The amount of all the epoxy species was estimated from IR spectra to changes during the crosslinking kinetics of epichlorhydrin. PMID:22315562

  15. Fatty Aldehyde and Fatty Alcohol Metabolism: Review and Importance for Epidermal Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize fatty alcohols as a component of the fatty alcohol:NAD oxidoreductase (FAO) enzyme complex. Genetic deficiency of FALDH/FAO in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes, fatty alcohols and related lipids (ether glycerolipids, wax esters) in cultured keratinocytes. These biochemical changes are associated with abnormalities in formation of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum and impaired delivery of their precursor membranes to the stratum corneum (SC). The defective extracellular SC membranes are responsible for a leaky epidermal water barrier and ichthyosis. Although lamellar bodies appear to be the pathogenic target for abnormal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism in SLS, the precise biochemical mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, studies in SLS highlight the critical importance of FALDH and normal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism for epidermal function. PMID:24036493

  16. Self-assembly of short peptides composed of only aliphatic amino acids and a combination of aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Subbalakshmi, Chilukuri; Manorama, Sunkara V; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2012-05-01

    The morphology of structures formed by the self-assembly of short N-terminal t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) and C-terminal methyl ester (OMe) protected and Boc-deprotected hydrophobic peptide esters was investigated. We have observed that Boc-protected peptide esters composed of either only aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids or aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids in combination with aromatic amino acids, formed highly organized structures, when dried from methanol solutions. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic images of the peptides Boc-Ile-Ile-OMe, Boc-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ile-Ile-OMe and Boc-Trp-Ile-Ile-OMe showed nanotubular structures. Removal of the Boc group resulted in disruption of the ability to form tubular structures though spherical aggregates were formed. Both Boc-Leu-Ile-Ile-OMe and H-Leu-Ile-Ile-OMe formed only spherical nanostructures. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that aggregates of varying dimensions were present in solution suggesting that self-assembly into ordered structures is facilitated by aggregation in solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy data show that although all four of the protected peptides adopt well-defined tertiary structures, upon removal of the Boc group, only H-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ile-Ile-OMe had the ability to adopt β-structure. Our results indicate that hydrophobic interaction is a very important determinant for self-assembly and presence of charged and aromatic amino acids in a peptide is not necessary for self-assembly. PMID:22431418

  17. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  18. Colorless triphenylamine-based aliphatic thermoset epoxy for multicolored and near-infrared electrochromic applications.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yen, Hung-Ju; Wu, Jia-Hao; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2014-03-12

    In this study, two novel colorless thermoset epoxy resins with anodically electrochromism were prepared from the thermal curing of two triphenylamine-based diamine monomers, 4,4'-diamino-4″-methoxytriphenylamine (1) and N,N'-bis(4-aminophenyl)-N,N'-di(4-methoxylphenyl)-1,4-phenylenediamine (2) with aliphatic epoxy triglycidyl isocyanurate, respectively. The resulting thermoset epoxy resins showed excellent softening temperature (Ts, 270 and 280 °C) due to the rigid structure and highly crosslinking density. In addition, novel colorless epoxy resin films revealed good reversible electrochemical oxidation and interesting multi-electrochromic behavior with high contrast ratio both in visible and near-infrared regions. The aliphatic thermoset epoxy resins also exhibited high transparency in visible region as colorless and great potential for practical electrochromic applications. PMID:24456516

  19. Synthesis and Bioactivity of 5-Substituted-2-furoyl Diacylhydazide Derivatives with Aliphatic Chain

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zining; Li, Xinghai; Tian, Fang; Yan, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    A series of 5-substituted-2-furoyl diacylhydazide derivatives with aliphatic chain were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The anti-tumor bioassay revealed that some title compounds exhibited promising activity against the selected cancer cell lines, especially against the human promyelocytic leukemic cells (HL-60). Their fungicidal tests indicated that most of the title compounds showed significant anti-fungal activity. The preliminary structure-activity relationship showed that the aliphatic chain length and differences in the R2 group had obvious effects on the anti-tumor and anti-fungal activities. The bioassay results demonstrated that the title compounds hold great promise as novel lead compounds for further drug discovery. PMID:24853128

  20. Determination of aliphatic organic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Gatta, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A new ion exclusion HPLC procedure accomplished with a pulsed electrochemical detection for the determination of several common aliphatic acids is described. A triple-step waveform of the applied potentials, based on the formation/inhibition of PtOH species on the electrode surface, is successfully used for sensitive detection of several aliphatic acids in flowing systems avoiding pre- or postcolumn derivatization and/or cleanup procedures. Under optimal chromatographic conditions (i.e., 50 mM HClO(4)) the proposed method allowed detection limits between 0.5 and 7 microM for all investigated acids, and the dynamic linear range spanned generally over 1 or 2 orders of magnitude. Determination of citric, malic, tartaric, lactic, formic, and acetic acids in several foods and beverages was performed, in approximately 15 min, without the necessity of any sample pretreatment. PMID:11754537

  1. Friction of iron lubricated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of oxygen and various organic molecules on the reduction of the friction of an iron (011) single crystal surface was investigated. A comparison was made between aliphatic and aromatic structures, all of which contained six carbon atoms, and among various halogen atoms. Results of the investigation indicate that hexane and benzene give similar friction coefficients over a range of loads except at very light loads. At light loads, the friction decreased with an increase in the load where the halogens fluorine and chlorine are incorporated into the benzene molecular structure; however, over the same load range when bromine and iodine were present, the friction was relatively unchanged. The aliphatic compound chlorohexane exhibited lower friction coefficients than the aromatic structure chlorobenzene at very light loads. With the brominated benzene structures, however, friction was essentially the same. Oxygen was more effective in reducing friction than were the simple hydrocarbons.

  2. Source apportionment of urban particulate aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, I G; Koutrakis, P; Tsapakis, M; Lagoudaki, E; Stephanou, E G; Von Baer, D; Oyola, P

    2001-06-01

    Samples of organic aerosol were collected in Santiago de Chile. An activated-charcoal diffusion denuder was used to strip out organic vapors prior to particle collection. Both polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Organic particle sources were resolved using both concentration diagnostic ratios and multivariate methods such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA). Four factors were identified based on the loadings of PAHs and n-alkanes and were attributed to the following sources: (1) high-temperature combustion of fuels; (2) fugitive emissions from oil residues; (3) biogenic sources; and (4) unburned fuels. Multilinear regression (MLR) analysis was used to determine emission profiles and contributions of the sources. The reconstructed concentrations of particle phase aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were in good agreement (R2 > 0.70) with those measured in Santiago de Chile. PMID:11414034

  3. Contribution of liver alcohol dehydrogenase to metabolism of alcohols in rats.

    PubMed

    Plapp, Bryce V; Leidal, Kevin G; Murch, Bruce P; Green, David W

    2015-06-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5-20 mmol/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmol/kgh. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5-10 mmol/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmol/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6±1 mmol/kg h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD(+) for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD(+) for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified. PMID:25641189

  4. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  5. TRANSFORMATIONS OF HALOGENATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS: OXIDATION, REDUCTION, SUBSTITUTION, AND DEHYDROHALOGENATION REACTIONS OCCUR ABIOTICALLY OR IN MICROBIAL AND MAMMALIAN SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current understanding of abiotic and biotic chemistry of halogenated aliphatic compounds is systematized and summarized. Knowledge of abiotic transformations can provide a conceptual framework for understanding biologically mediated transformations. Most abiotic transformatio...

  6. Unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly porous metal-organic framework made of extended aliphatic ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunhao; Lee, Jeongyong; Olson, David H; Emge, Thomas J; Bi, Wenhua; Eibling, Matthew J; Li, Jing

    2008-12-14

    High and unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly stable guest-free microporous metal-organic framework constructed on rigid aliphatic ligands, H(2)bodc and ted, is reported in this work. PMID:19082093

  7. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF MIXTURES OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS BY AN ACETATE-GROWN METHANOGENIC ENRICHMENT CULTURE. (R825549C053)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions has received considerable attention due to the prevalence of these compounds as groundwater contaminants. However, information concerning the impact of mixtures of chlorinated compounds on their...

  8. DETERMINATION OF ALIPHATIC AMINES IN WATER USING DERIVATIZATION WITH FLUORESCEIN ISOTHIOCYANATE AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE DETECTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection-oriented derivatization of aliphatic amines and amine functional groups in coumpounds of environmental interest was studied using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with separation/determination by capillary electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence. Determinative level...

  9. SPITZER'S VIEW ON AROMATIC AND ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN HERBIG Ae STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Acke, B.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Bouwman, J.; Juhasz, A.; Henning, Th.; Van den Ancker, M. E.; Meeus, G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2010-07-20

    The chemistry of astronomical hydrocarbons, responsible for the well-known infrared emission features detected in a wide variety of targets, remains enigmatic. Here we focus on the group of young intermediate-mass Herbig Ae stars. We have analyzed the aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in the infrared spectra of a sample of 53 Herbig Ae stars, obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We confirm that the PAH-to-stellar luminosity ratio is higher in targets with a flared dust disk. However, a few sources with a flattened dust disk still show relatively strong PAH emission. Since PAH molecules trace the gas disk, this indicates that gas disks may still be flared, while the dust disk has settled due to grain growth. There are indications that the strength of the 11.3 {mu}m feature also depends on dust disk structure, with flattened disks being less bright in this feature. We confirm that the CC bond features at 6.2 and 7.8 {mu}m shift to redder wavelengths with decreasing stellar effective temperature. Moreover, we show that this redshift is accompanied by a relative increase of aliphatic CH emission and a decrease of the aromatic 8.6 {mu}m CH feature strength. Cool stars in our sample are surrounded by hydrocarbons with a high aliphatic/aromatic CH ratio and a low aromatic CH/CC ratio, and vice versa for the hot stars. We conclude that, while the overall hydrocarbon emission strength depends on the dust disk's geometry, the relative differences seen in the IR emission features in disks around Herbig Ae stars are mainly due to chemical differences of the hydrocarbon molecules induced by the stellar UV field. Strong UV flux reduces the aliphatic component and emphasizes the spectral signature of the aromatic molecules in the IR spectra.

  10. Gas phase heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of alkanes to aliphatic ketones and/or other oxygenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Manhua; Wang, Xiang; Yeom, Younghoon

    2015-03-17

    A catalyst, its method of preparation and its use for producing aliphatic ketones by subjecting alkanes C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 to a gas phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen, and, optionally, steam and/or one or more diluting gases. The catalyst comprises a catalytically active mixed metal oxide phase and a suitable support material onto and/or into which the active catalytic phase id dispersed.

  11. Gas phase heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of alkanes to aliphatic ketones and/or other oxygenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Manhua; Wang, Xiang; Yeom, Younghoon

    2015-09-29

    A catalyst, its method of preparation and its use for producing aliphatic ketones by subjecting alkanes C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 to a gas phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen, and, optionally, steam and/or one or more diluting gases. The catalyst comprises a catalytically active mixed metal oxide phase and a suitable support material onto and/or into which the active catalytic phase is dispersed.

  12. Selective photometric method for the determination of aliphatic amines in air

    SciTech Connect

    Yarym-Agaeva, N.T.; Putilina, O.N.

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents a sensitive, selective, rapid and simple method to determine aliphatic amines in air that insures an operational analysis procedure. The authors used consecutive reactions with hypochlorite and iodide in the presence of starch, proposed for the determination of ethylamine and diethylamine in the liquid phase for the study of the kinetics of the hydrolysis of N-ethylmaleamic and N,N-diethylmaleamic acid. The method is selective in the presence of aromatic amines, isocyanates and ammonia.

  13. Ambient temperature catalyst-free light-induced preparation of macrocyclic aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Josse, Thomas; Altintas, Ozcan; Oehlenschlaeger, Kim K; Dubois, Philippe; Gerbaux, Pascal; Coulembier, Olivier; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2014-02-25

    The light induced, catalyst-free ambient temperature preparation of macrocyclic aliphatic polyesters is pioneered. Based on the photo-induced Diels-Alder reaction of orthoquinodimethane and acrylate moieties, cyclic polyesters of high purity are readily synthesized. Considering the high tolerance to functional groups and the orthogonality of the ligation, the reported protocol can be easily transferred to a large range of polymers, complex topologies (tadpole, sun-shaped, jellyfish, etc.) and applications. PMID:24413149

  14. Triphosgene-Pyridine Mediated Stereoselective Chlorination of Acyclic Aliphatic 1,3-Diols†

    PubMed Central

    Villalpando, Andrés; Saputra, Mirza A.; Tugwell, Thomas H.; Kartika, Rendy

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy to chlorinate stereocomplementary acyclic aliphatic 1,3-diols using a mixture of triphosgene and pyridine. While 1,3-anti diols readily led to 1,3-anti dichlorides, 1,3-syn diols must be converted to 1,3-syn diol monosilylethers to access the corresponding 1,3-syn dichlorides. These dichlorination protocols were operationally simple, very mild, and readily tolerated by advanced synthetic intermediates. PMID:26323232

  15. Joint Test Report For Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This joint Test Report (JTR) documents the results of the laboratory and field testing as well as any test modifications made during the execution of the testing. The technical stakeholders agreed upon test procedure modifications documented in this document. This JTR is made available as a reference for future pollution prevention endeavors by other NASA centers, the Department of Defense and commercial users to minimize duplication of effort. All coating system candidates were tested using approved NASA and AFSPC standard coating systems as experimental controls. This study looked at eight alternative coating systems and two control coating systems and was divided into Phase I Screening Tests, Phase II Tests, and Field Testing. The Phase I Screening Tests were preliminary tests performed on all the selected candidate coating systems. Candidate coating systems that did not meet the acceptance criteria of the screening tests were eliminated from further testing. Phase I Screening Tests included: Ease of Application, Surface Appearance, Dry-To-Touch (Sanding), Accelerated Storage Stability, Pot Life (Viscosity), Cure Time (Solvent Rubs), Cleanability, Knife Test, Tensile (pull-off) Adhesion, and X-Cut Adhesion by Wet

  16. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  17. Chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic VOC decomposition in air mixture by using electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Sun, Yong-Xia; Bułka, S.; Zimek, Z.

    2004-09-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, which are emitted from coal power station and waste incinerators, are very harmful to the environment and human health. Recent studies show that chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are suspected to be the precursors of dioxin's formation. Dioxin's emission into atmosphere will cause severe environmental problems by ecology contamination. l,4-dichlorobenzene(l,4-DCB) and cis-dichloroethylene( cis-DCE) were chosen as representative chlorinated aromatic and aliphatic compounds, respectively. Their decomposition was investigated by electron beam irradiation. The experiments were carried out "in batch" system. It is found that over 97% cis-DCE is decomposed having an initial concentration of 661 ppm. G-values of cis-DCE decomposition vary from 10 to 28 (molecules/100 eV) for initial concentration of 270-1530 ppm cis-DCE. The decomposition is mainly caused by secondary electron attachment and Cl addition reactions. Comparing with cis-DCE, 1,4-DCB decomposition needs higher absorbed dose. G-value of 1,4-DCB is below 4 molecules/100 eV.

  18. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  19. The influence of chemical composition of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters on their properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtczak, Malgorzata; Galeski, Andrzej; Piorkowska, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Slawomir

    2014-05-15

    The chain microstructure and properties of a series of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters in a range of compositions from 10 to 100% of aromatic components were studied by examining melting and crystallization behaviors, dynamic mechanical response, morphology, wide- (WAXS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and tensile deformation. Chain microstructure was analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR. The results indicate that most of copolyesters used in this study have essentially random distribution of comonomers. Copolyesters with more than 30 mol% of aromatic part crystallize with a crystal structure characteristic for homopolymer poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). However, some of the reflections from crystal planes are shifted towards lower diffraction angles as compared to butylene terephthalate homoplymer. The phase transition temperatures decrease with increasing aliphatic content. By means of polarized light microscopy (PLM), small-angle light scattering (SALS) and SAXS, crystallization behavior of a selected aliphatic-aromatic copolyester was further explored. Selected copolyester crystallizes in the form of thin fibrous crystals, few nanometers thick, which is the main factor influencing the depression of its melting temperature.

  20. New synthetic aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts as anticancer chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Doona; Yang, Jee Sun; Oh, Changmok; Cui, Shuolin; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Won, Misun; Lee, Jang-ik; Kim, Hwan Mook; Han, Gyoonhee

    2013-11-01

    RhoB is expressed during tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. In malignant progression, the expression levels of RhoB are commonly attenuated. RhoB is known to be linked to the regulation of the PI3K/Akt survival pathways. Based on aliphatic amido-quaternary ammonium salts that induce apoptosis via up-regulation of RhoB, we synthesized novel aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts. These new synthetic compounds were evaluated for their biological activities using an in vitro RhoB promoter assay in HeLa cells, and in a growth inhibition assay using human cancer cell lines including PC-3, NUGC-3, MDA-MB-231, ACHN, HCT-15, and NCI-H23. Compound 5b (ethyl-dimethyl-{3-[methyl-(tetradecane-1-sulfonyl)-amino]-propyl}-ammonium; iodide) was the most promising anticancer agent in the series, based upon the potency of growth inhibition and RhoB promotion. These new aliphatic sulfonamido-quaternary ammonium salts could be a valuable series for development of new anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24095759

  1. Exploring mild enzymatic sustainable routes for the synthesis of bio-degradable aromatic-aliphatic oligoesters.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Alessandro; Guarneri, Alice; Brandauer, Martin; Acero, Enrique Herrero; Peerlings, Henricus; Gardossi, Lucia; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-05-01

    The application of Candida antarctica lipase B in enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of aromatic-aliphatic oligoesters is here reported. The aim of the present study is to systematically investigate the most favorable conditions for the enzyme catalyzed synthesis of aromatic-aliphatic oligomers using commercially available monomers. Reaction conditions and enzyme selectivity for polymerization of various commercially available monomers were considered using different inactivated/activated aromatic monomers combined with linear polyols ranging from C2 to C12 . The effect of various reaction solvents in enzymatic polymerization was assessed and toluene allowed to achieve the highest conversions for the reaction of dimethyl isophthalate with 1,4-butanediol and with 1,10-decanediol (88 and 87% monomer conversion respectively). Mw as high as 1512 Da was obtained from the reaction of dimethyl isophthalate with 1,10-decanediol. The obtained oligomers have potential applications as raw materials in personal and home care formulations, for the production of aliphatic-aromatic block co-polymers or can be further functionalized with various moieties for a subsequent photo- or radical polymerization. PMID:26762794

  2. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of aliphatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casale, Mia T.; Richman, Aviva R.; Elrod, Matthew J.; Garland, Rebecca M.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    Field observations of atmospheric aerosols have established that organic compounds compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the physical/chemical pathway by which organic compounds are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols remains unclear. The potential role of acid-catalyzed reactions of organic compounds on acidic aerosols has been explored as a possible chemical pathway for the incorporation of organic material into aerosols. In the present study, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the kinetics of formation of the products of the acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reaction of a range of aliphatic aldehydes (C 2-C 8). The experiments were carried out at various sulfuric acid concentrations and a range of temperatures in order to estimate the rate constants of such reactions on sulfuric acid aerosols under tropospheric conditions. The rate constants were generally found to decrease as the chain length of the aliphatic aldehyde increased (except for acetaldehyde, which had an unusually small rate constant), increase as a function of sulfuric acid concentration as predicted by excess acidity theory, and showed normal Arrhenius behavior as a function of temperature. While the kinetic data are generally consistent with previous laboratory reports of aldehyde reactivity in various sulfuric acid media, the aldol condensation reactions involving aliphatic aldehydes do not appear fast enough to be responsible for significant transfer of organic material into atmospheric aerosols.

  3. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    PubMed

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  4. Self-assembled aliphatic chain extended polyurethane nanobiohybrids: emerging hemocompatible biomaterials for sustained drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhinay; Singh, Sunil K; Dash, Debabrata; Aswal, Vinod K; Maiti, Biswajit; Misra, Manjusri; Maiti, Pralay

    2014-05-01

    Novel polyurethanes (PUs) have been synthesized using an aliphatic diisocyanate and aliphatic chain extenders with varying chain length. Nanocomposites of PUs have been prepared by dispersing 2-D nanoclay in poly-ol followed by prepolymerization and subsequent chain extension using various chain extenders. Systematic improvement in toughness and adequate enhancement in stiffness in the presence of nanoclay has been observed for PUs with longer chain extenders, and these new classes of nanocomposites exhibit no toughness-stiffness trade-off. Bottom-up self-assembly starting from the molecular level to micron-scale crystallite has been revealed through electronic structure calculation, X-ray diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering, atomic force microscopy and optical images. The role of hydrogen bonding has been revealed for this type of supramolecular assembly, and in the presence of organically modified nanoclay hydrogen bonding contributes to the formation of bigger clusters of nanocomposites. Controlled biodegradation of PU and its nanocomposites has been investigated in enzymatic media. Biocompatibility of these novel nanocomposites has been extensively verified through platelet adhesion, aggregation and hemolysis assay. Sustained drug delivery by biocompatible pristine PU and its nanocomposites has been demonstrated either by controlling the crystallite size of the polyurethane through alteration of the aliphatic chain length of the extender or by incorporating disc-like nanoclay, creating a tortuous path that results in delayed diffusion. Hence, the developed nanohybrids are potential biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery. PMID:24374322

  5. Mechanisms and modeling of halogenated aliphatic contaminant adsorption by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Apul, Onur Guven; Zhou, Yang; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-09-15

    This paper examines the adsorption of environmentally relevant halogenated aliphatic compounds using single-walled (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), and the development of linear solvation-energy relationships (LSER) to examine those adsorption mechanisms. The poly-parameter LSER model was also compared to those previously generated for the adsorption of aromatic compounds by CNTs. The adsorption affinity of aliphatic compounds was greater on the SWCNT than MWCNT with similar oxygen contents. This was attributed to the pore-filling mechanism that was enhanced by higher micropore volume of the SWCNT bundles over the MWCNT bundles. LSER models showed that, at higher concentrations, B (the hydrogen bond accepting ability) was the most influential descriptor for both SWCNT and MWCNT. Other important descriptors were V followed by P, both of which exhibited a positive correlation with adsorption, indicating that their size and polarizability favors adsorption. The contribution of these descriptors to overall adsorption was 2-3 times less than the B. In comparison, V was the most important descriptor in the aromatic compound LSER models. This difference indicates that adsorbate hydrophobicity greatly affects the adsorption of aromatic compounds by CNTs, whereas, aliphatic compounds are affected by both the hydrophobic driving force and other interactions. PMID:25897695

  6. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided. PMID:26874310

  7. Fate of free and linear alcohol-ethoxylate-derived fatty alcohols in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Federle, Thomas W; Itrich, Nina R

    2006-05-01

    Pure homologues of [1-14C] C12, C14, and C16 alcohols and the linear alcohol ethoxylates, AE [1-14C alkyl] C13E9 and C16E9 were tested in a batch-activated sludge die-away system to assess their biodegradation kinetics and to predict levels of free alcohol derived from AE biodegradation in treated effluent. First-order rates for primary biodegradation were similar for all alcohols (86-113 h(-1)) and were used to predict removal under typical treatment conditions. Predicted removals of fatty alcohols ranged from 99.76% to 99.85%, consistent with published field data. During the biodegradation of the AE homologues, lower than expected levels of fatty alcohol based upon the assumption that biodegradation occurs through central fission were observed. Rather than fatty alcohols, the major metabolites were polar materials resulting from omega oxidation of the alkyl chain prior to or concurrent with central cleavage. The amounts of free fatty alcohols that were formed from AEs in influent and escape into effluent were negligible due both to their rapid degradation and to the finding that formation of free alcohol through central cleavage is only a minor degradation pathway in activated sludge. PMID:16026837

  8. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 have distinct functions in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sixue; Glawischnig, Erich; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Naur, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Hansen, Carsten H; Rasmussen, Hasse; Pickett, John A; Halkier, Barbara A

    2003-03-01

    Cytochromes P450 of the CYP79 family catalyze the conversion of amino acids to oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a group of natural plant products known to be involved in plant defense and as a source of flavor compounds, cancer-preventing agents and bioherbicides. We report a detailed biochemical analysis of the substrate specificity and kinetics of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, two cytochromes P450 involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using recombinant CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, we show that CYP79F1 metabolizes mono- to hexahomomethionine, resulting in both short- and long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. In contrast, CYP79F2 exclusively metabolizes long-chain elongated penta- and hexahomomethionines. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 are spatially and developmentally regulated, with different gene expression patterns. CYP79F2 is highly expressed in hypocotyl and roots, whereas CYP79F1 is strongly expressed in cotyledons, rosette leaves, stems, and siliques. A transposon-tagged CYP79F1 knockout mutant completely lacks short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, but has an increased level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, especially in leaves and seeds. The level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates in a transposon-tagged CYP79F2 knockout mutant is substantially reduced, whereas the level of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates is not affected. Biochemical characterization of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, and gene expression analysis, combined with glucosinolate profiling of knockout mutants demonstrate the functional role of these enzymes. This provides valuable insights into the metabolic network leading to the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, and into metabolic engineering of altered aliphatic glucosinolate profiles to improve nutritional value and pest resistance. PMID:12609033

  9. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  10. Gender-specific drinking styles in alcoholics and nonalcoholics.

    PubMed

    Olenick, N L; Chalmers, D K

    1991-07-01

    This study examined sex differences in drinking style when considering both alcoholics and nonalcoholics (controls). The Alcohol Use Inventory was employed as a descriptive instrument. Of the 16 primary scales two results of significant interaction were obtained indicating sex differences in problem drinking practices corrected, as it were, for sex differences in normal drinking practices. Female alcoholics used alcohol to alter their mood more than did the alcoholic men, whereas women in the control group used it less for this purpose than did the male controls. The second interaction effect indicated that female alcoholics drank in response to marital difficulties much more than did male alcoholics. The control women, by contrast, demonstrated less of a likelihood to drink for this reason than did male controls. PMID:1875705

  11. Alcohol, diabetes, and public health in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas; Rehm, Jurgen; Jernigan, David; Vaeth, Patrice; Monteiro, Maristela; Lehman, Hallie

    2012-08-01

    This article describes epidemiological evidence on the association between alcohol use and diabetes, and the implications for clinical management and public health policies in the Americas. Heavy alcohol use is a risk factor for both diabetes and poor treatment adherence, despite evidence that moderate drinking can protect against type 2 diabetes under some circumstances. The burden of disease from diabetes associated with excessive alcohol consumption warrants both clinical and public health measures. On the clinical level, research on early interventions to prevent hazardous drinking shows that new screening, brief intervention, and referral techniques are effective ways to manage hazardous drinking in primary care settings. On the population level, restrictions on alcohol marketing and other alcohol control policies reduce the frequency and intensity of alcohol consumption in at-risk populations. These policy actions are recommended within the context of the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23099877

  12. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Promiscuous drug, wanton effects

    PubMed Central

    Geil, Chelsea R.; Hayes, Dayna M.; McClain, Justin A.; Liput, Daniel J.; Marshall, S. Alex; Chen, Kevin Y.; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche. PMID:24842804

  13. The Alcohol Relapse Situation Appraisal Questionnaire: Development and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; MacKinnon, Selene M.; Johnson, Jennifer E.; Myers, Mark G.; Cook, Travis A. R.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of cognitive appraisal of the threat of alcohol relapse has received little attention. A previous instrument, the Relapse Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (RSAQ), was developed to assess cocaine users’ primary appraisal of the threat of situations posing a high risk for cocaine relapse. The purpose of the present study was to modify the RSAQ in order to measure primary appraisal in situations involving a high risk for alcohol relapse. Methods The development and psychometric properties of this instrument, the Alcohol Relapse Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (A-RSAQ), were examined with two samples of abstinent adults with alcohol abuse or dependence. Factor structure and validity were examined in Study 1 (N=104). Confirmation of the factor structure and predictive validity were assessed in Study 2 (N=161). Results Results demonstrated construct, discriminant and predictive validity and reliability of the A-RSAQ. Discussion Results support the important role of primary appraisal of degree of risk in alcohol relapse situations. PMID:21237586

  14. Illegal alcohol sales and use of alcohol control policies at community festivals.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Patrek, William; Fletcher, Linda A.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary goals of this study were to assess the propensity for alcohol sales to underage customers and obviously intoxicated customers at community festivals, and to assess the prevalence of alcohol control policies at these events. A secondary goal was to identify server and festival characteristics and festival policies related to the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. METHODS: We conducted pseudo-underage purchase attempts at 43 festivals and pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts at 50 festivals to assess the likelihood of illegal sales. Research staff made observations at festivals and contacted festival planners by telephone following each event to assess which alcohol policies were implemented. We conducted backwards stepwise multivariate analyses for each purchase attempt outcome to identify policies and characteristics related to likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. RESULTS: Pseudo-intoxicated buyers purchased beer in 89% of 95 attempts (standard deviation [SD]=0.31) and pseudo-underage buyers were able to purchase beer in 50% of 82 attempts (SD=0.50). All festival planners reported having at least two of the 10 alcohol policies we assessed, but no festival had implemented all 10 policies. Server characteristics were not related to either purchase attempt outcome. In the multivariate analyses, having more alcohol control policies was related to a greater likelihood of illegal sales to intoxicated customers; however, having more alcohol control policies was associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. Restricting the number of servings per person was also associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. CONCLUSIONS: Propensity for illegal alcohol sales at festivals is very high. Research is needed to identify interventions to prevent illegal alcohol sales at these events. PMID:15842118

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  16. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  17. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  18. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  19. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  20. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  1. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  2. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  3. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  4. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  5. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  6. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  8. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  9. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  10. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  11. Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Newton, MA.

    This brochure describes the mission, approach, and services of the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. The Center is the nation's primary resource center for assisting higher education institutions in the development, implementation, and evaluation of alcohol and drug violence prevention policies and programs that…

  12. Factors of Group Psychotherapy for Adult Alcoholics: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jonathan K.

    Research on therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy for adult alcoholics is reviewed. The research in this area has focused on determining whether or not group psychotherapy is an effective treatment modality for alcoholics. This review examines therapeutic factors in three phases of treatment: (1) preadmission, (2) primary intervention, and…

  13. Acceptorless Photocatalytic Dehydrogenation for Alcohol Decarbonylation and Imine Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Hung-An; Manna, Kuntal; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2012-07-29

    It has come to light: Renewed interest in conversions of highly oxygenated materials has motivated studies of the organometallic-catalyzed photocatalytic dehydrogenative decarbonylation of primary alcohols into alkanes, CO, and H2 (see scheme). Methanol, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, and cyclohexanemethanol are readily decarbonylated. The photocatalysts are also active for amine dehydrogenation to give N-alkyl aldimines and H2.

  14. Acceptorless photocatalytic dehydrogenation for alcohol decarbonylation and imine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung-An; Manna, Kuntal; Sadow, Aaron D

    2012-08-20

    It has come to light: Renewed interest in conversions of highly oxygenated materials has motivated studies of the organometallic-catalyzed photocatalytic dehydrogenative decarbonylation of primary alcohols into alkanes, CO, and H(2). Methanol, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, and cyclohexanemethanol are readily decarbonylated. The photocatalysts are also active for amine dehydrogenation to give N-alkyl aldimines and H(2). PMID:22847764

  15. Young Children of Alcoholics: Little People with Big Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Kathy

    Although clinicians have recently come to view children of alcoholics as primary patients who deserve treatment in their own right, such youngsters have little access to appropriate services. Experts estimate that less than five percent of children of alcoholic parents receive the help they need. Recent research indicates that the younger the…

  16. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  17. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  18. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Leslie A., Comp.

    This document reports on the relationship between alcohol abuse and battering. Several theories, e.g., the disinhibition, disavowal, and learned behavior theories concerning the relationship between alcohol abuse and family violence are discussed. Literature on the relationship between alcohol and family violence is reviewed. Five intervention and…

  19. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  20. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…