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Sample records for alk-positive anaplastic large-cell

  1. Analysis of gene expression profile of TPM3-ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma reveals overlapping and unique patterns with that of NPM-ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bohling, Sandra D; Jenson, Stephen D; Crockett, David K; Schumacher, Jonathan A; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Lim, Megan S

    2008-03-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) comprises a group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas characterized by the expression of the CD30/Ki-1 antigen. A subset of ALCL is characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene on chromosome 2. While the most common translocation is the t(2;5)(p23;q35) involving the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene on chromosome 5, up to 12 other translocations partners of the ALK gene have been identified. One of these is the t(1;2)(q25;p23) which results in the formation of the chimeric protein TPM3-ALK. While several of the signaling pathways induced by NPM-ALK have been elucidated, those involved in ALCLs harboring TPM3-ALK are largely unknown. In order to investigate the expression profiles of ALCLs carrying the NPM-ALK and TPM3-ALK fusions, we carried out cDNA microarray analysis of two ALCL tissue samples, one expressing the NPM-ALK fusion protein and the other the TPM3-ALK fusion protein. RNA was extracted from snap-frozen tissues, labeled with fluorescent dyes and analyzed using cDNAs microarray containing approximately 9,200 genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Quantitative fluorescence RT-PCR was performed to validate the cDNA microarray data on nine selected gene targets. Our results show a significant overlap of genes deregulated in the NPM-ALK and TPM-ALK positive lymphomas. These deregulated genes are involved in diverse cellular functions, such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and adhesion. Interestingly, a subset of the genes was distinct in their expression pattern in the two types of lymphomas. More importantly, many genes that were not previously associated with ALK positive lymphomas were identified. Our results demonstrate the overlapping and unique transcriptional patterns associated with the NPM-ALK and TPM3-ALK fusions in ALCL.

  2. Reactive oxygen species and lipoxygenases regulate the oncogenicity of NPM-ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Thornber, K; Colomba, A; Ceccato, L; Delsol, G; Payrastre, B; Gaits-Iacovoni, F

    2009-07-23

    The chimera nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), the tyrosine kinase activity of which is constitutively upregulated, is the causative agent of 75% of the anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs). We have demonstrated that NPM-ALK induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a pathway involving the arachidonic acid-metabolizing enzymes of the lipoxygenase (LOX) family. The use of the LOX inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and of the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) demonstrated that ROS are important in maintaining the ALK kinase active. Consistent with this, NDGA treatment resulted in the inhibition of key pathways, such as Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which are involved in NPM-ALK antiapoptotic and pro-mitogenic functions. Conversely, the stress-activated kinase p38, described in some instances as a mediator of apoptosis, was activated. Interestingly, 5-LOX, an isoform involved in many cancers, was found to be activated in NPM-ALK(+) cells. Functional studies have shown that transforming properties, namely proliferation and resistance to apoptosis, were abrogated by treatment with either NDGA or the 5-LOX inhibitor (N-(3-phenoxycinnamyl)-acetohydroxamic acid) (BW A4C). Together, these data point to the ROS/LOX pathway as a potential new target for therapy in NPM-ALK-positive tumors.

  3. Silibinin suppresses NPM-ALK, potently induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Molavi, Ommoleila; Samadi, Nasser; Wu, Chengsheng; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Lai, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), an oncogenic fusion protein carrying constitutively active tyrosine kinase, is known to be central to the pathogenesis of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL). Here, it is reported that silibinin, a non-toxic naturally-occurring compound, potently suppressed NPM-ALK and effectively inhibited the growth and soft agar colony formation of ALK+ALCL cells. By western blots, it was found that silibinin efficiently suppressed the phosphorylation/activation of NPM-ALK and its key substrates/downstream mediators (including STAT3, MEK/ERK and Akt) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Correlating with these observations, silibinin suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, survivin and JunB, all of which are found to be upregulated by NPM-ALK and pathogenetically important in ALK+ALCL. Lastly, silibinin augmented the chemosensitivity of ALK+ALCL cells to doxorubicin, particularly the small cell sub-set expressing the transcriptional activity of Sox2, an embryonic stem cell marker. To conclude, the findings suggest that silibinin might be useful in treating ALK+ALCL.

  4. Targeting autophagy enhances the anti-tumoral action of crizotinib in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Desquesnes, Aurore; Le Gonidec, Sophie; AlSaati, Talal; Beau, Isabelle; Lamant, Laurence; Meggetto, Fabienne; Espinos, Estelle; Codogno, Patrice; Brousset, Pierre; Giuriato, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas (ALK+ ALCL) occur predominantly in children and young adults. Their treatment, based on aggressive chemotherapy, is not optimal since ALCL patients can still expect a 30% 2-year relapse rate. Tumor relapses are very aggressive and their underlying mechanisms are unknown. Crizotinib is the most advanced ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is already used in clinics to treat ALK-associated cancers. However, crizotinib escape mechanisms have emerged, thus preventing its use in frontline ALCL therapy. The process of autophagy has been proposed as the next target for elimination of the resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In this study, we investigated whether autophagy is activated in ALCL cells submitted to ALK inactivation (using crizotinib or ALK-targeting siRNA). Classical autophagy read-outs such as autophagosome visualization/quantification by electron microscopy and LC3-B marker turn-over assays were used to demonstrate autophagy induction and flux activation upon ALK inactivation. This was demonstrated to have a cytoprotective role on cell viability and clonogenic assays following combined ALK and autophagy inhibition. Altogether, our results suggest that co-treatment with crizotinib and chloroquine (two drugs already used in clinics) could be beneficial for ALK-positive ALCL patients. PMID:26338968

  5. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma limited to the skin: clinical, histopathological and molecular analysis of 6 pediatric cases. A report from the ALCL99 study.

    PubMed

    Oschlies, Ilske; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Lamant, Laurence; Nakazawa, Atsuko; d'Amore, Emanuele S G; Hansson, Ulrika; Hebeda, Konnie; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Maldyk, Jadwiga; Müllauer, Leonhard; Tinguely, Marianne; Stücker, Markus; Ledeley, Marie-Cecile; Siebert, Reiner; Reiter, Alfred; Brugières, Laurence; Klapper, Wolfram; Woessmann, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas are peripheral T-cell lymphomas that are characterized by a proliferation of large anaplastic blasts expressing CD30. In children, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas often present at advanced clinical stage and harbor translocations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene leading to the expression of chimeric anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-fusion proteins. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is regarded as an ALK-negative variant confined to the skin and is part of the spectrum of primary cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Thirty-three of 487 pediatric patients registered within the Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma-99 trial (1999 to 2006) presented with a skin limited CD30-positive lympho-proliferative disorder. In 23 of the 33 patients, material for international histopathological review was available, and the cases were studied for histopathological, immunophenotypical and clinical features as well as for breaks within the ALK gene. Five of 23 cases and one additional case (identified after closure of the trial) expressed ALK-protein. Complete staging excluded any other organ involvement in all children. Expression of ALK proteins was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in all cases and the presence of breaks of the ALK gene was genetically confirmed in 5 evaluable cases. The histopathological and clinical picture of these skin-restricted ALK-positive lymphomas was indistinguishable from that of cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Five children presented with a single skin lesion that was completely resected in 4 and incompletely resected in one. Three of these patients received no further therapy, 2 additional local radiotherapy, and one chemotherapy. All children remain in complete remission with a median follow up of seven years (range 1-8 years). We present 6 pediatric cases of ALK-positive primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas. After thorough

  6. Early assessment of minimal residual disease identifies patients at very high relapse risk in NPM-ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Damm-Welk, Christine; Mussolin, Lara; Zimmermann, Martin; Pillon, Marta; Klapper, Wolfram; Oschlies, Ilske; d'Amore, Emanuele S G; Reiter, Alfred; Woessmann, Wilhelm; Rosolen, Angelo

    2014-01-16

    Detection of minimal disseminated disease (MDD) at diagnosis correlates with relapse risk in children with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). We investigated whether minimal residual disease (MRD) positivity by qualitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK during treatment identifies patients at the highest relapse risk. Blood and/or bone marrow of 180 patients with NPM-ALK-positive ALCL treated with Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster-type protocols were screened for NPM-ALK transcripts at diagnosis; 103 were found to be MDD-positive. MRD before the second therapy course could be evaluated in 52 MDD-positive patients. MRD positivity correlated with uncommon histology. The cumulative incidence of relapses (CIR) of 26 MDD-positive/MRD-positive patients (81% ± 8%) was significantly higher than the CIR of 26 MDD-positive/MRD-negative (31% ± 9%) and 77 MDD-negative patients (15% ± 5%) (P < .001). Five-year survival of MDD-negative and MDD-positive/MRD-negative patients was 91% ± 3% and 92% ± 5%, respectively, compared with 65% ± 9% of MDD-positive/MRD-positive patients (P < .001). Early evaluation of MRD in NPM-ALK-positive ALCL identifies patients with a very high relapse risk and inferior survival.

  7. Brain metastasis of ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma after a long-term disease free survival in an old adult

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cai-Xia; Wang, Hai; Li, Jie; Ma, Heng-Hui; Yu, Bo; Shi, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Shi, Qun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma composed of CD30-positive cells and now recognized as three different entities: primary cutaneous ALCL, primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive (ALK+) ALCL and primary ALK-negative (ALK-) ALCL. ALK+ ALCL is supposed to have a better prognosis than ALK- ALCL. It is rarely metastasized to other sites, especially to the central nervous system (CNS). Herein, we present a rare case of systemic ALK+ ALCL which metastasized to the brain after a long-term disease free survival in an adult. Neuroimaging revealed a well-enhanced mass in the left frontal lobe. And it was completely resected. The results of the pathological and immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the metastasized ALK+ ALCL. The clinical findings, pathologic characteristics and treatment are described. PMID:24696735

  8. Prognostic significance of NPM-ALK fusion transcript overexpression in ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Takino, Hisashi; Eimoto, Tadaaki; Ishida, Takashi; Inagaki, Atsushi; Ueda, Ryuzo; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Yoshino, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    In anaplastic large-cell lymphomas positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein, the ALK gene is most commonly fused to the NPM gene, and less commonly to TPM3, TFG, ATIC, and other rare genes. Although this lymphoma is generally associated with a favorable clinical outcome, 25% of the patients die of the disease within 5 years. In this study, we developed three assays, all of which can be used with archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues: (1) a sensitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for various X-ALK fusion genes, (2) a 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) assay to identify unknown fusion partners, and (3) a real-time RT-PCR assay to quantify the amount of the NPM-ALK fusion transcript. In 26 cases of ALK(+) anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, the RT-PCR assay showed that the ALK was fused to NPM in 21 cases, to TPM3 in three, and to TFG in one. The 5' RACE assay detected ATIC-ALK fusion in the remaining case. The real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay showed that the NPM-ALK transcript was over expressed in four of 20 quantifiable cases. Patients with NPM-ALK overexpression showed a significantly unfavorable overall survival compared with those with a low expression of this transcript. The RT-PCR and 5' RACE assays developed here may be useful for identification of known and unknown gene partners fused to the ALK gene. Overexpression of the NPM-ALK fusion transcript may be associated with a poor prognosis of the patients with ALK(+) anaplastic large-cell lymphomas.

  9. Identification of a novel crosstalk between casein kinase 2α and NPM-ALK in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Armanious, Hanan; Gelebart, Pascal; Anand, Mona; Lai, Raymond

    2013-02-01

    It was previously reported that β-catenin contributes to the tumorigenesis of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK(+)ALCL), and the oncogenic effects of β-catenin in these tumors are promoted by NPM-ALK, an abnormal fusion protein characteristic of ALK(+)ALCL. In this study, we hypothesized that NPM-ALK promotes the oncogenic activity of β-catenin via its functional interactions with the Wnt canonical pathway (WCP). To test this hypothesis, we examined if NPM-ALK modulates the gene expression of various members in the WCP. Using a Wnt pathway-specific oligonucleotide array and Western blots, we found that the expression of casein kinase 2α (CK2α) was substantially downregulated in ALK(+)ALCL cells in response to siRNA knockdown of NPM-ALK. CK2α is biologically important in ALK(+)ALCL, as its inhibition using 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole or siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth and a substantial decrease in the β-catenin protein level. Furthermore, CK2α co-immunoprecipitated with NPM-ALK and regulated its level of serine phosphorylation, a feature previously shown to correlate with the oncogenic potential of this fusion protein. To conclude, this study has revealed a novel crosstalk between NPM-ALK and CK2α, and our data supports the model that these two molecules work synergistically to promote the tumorigenicity of these lymphomas.

  10. STAT1 is phosphorylated and downregulated by the oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK in ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengsheng; Molavi, Ommoleila; Zhang, Haifeng; Gupta, Nidhi; Alshareef, Abdulraheem; Bone, Kathleen M; Gopal, Keshav; Wu, Fang; Lewis, Jamie T; Douglas, Donna N; Kneteman, Norman M; Lai, Raymond

    2015-07-16

    The tumorigenicity of most cases of ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL) is driven by the oncogenic fusion protein NPM-ALK in a STAT3-dependent manner. Because it has been shown that STAT3 can be inhibited by STAT1 in some experimental models, we hypothesized that the STAT1 signaling pathway is defective in ALK+ ALCL, thereby leaving the STAT3 signaling unchecked. Compared with normal T cells, ALK+ ALCL tumors consistently expressed a low level of STAT1. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway appreciably increased STAT1 expression in ALK+ ALCL cells. Furthermore, we found evidence that NPM-ALK binds to and phosphorylates STAT1, thereby promoting its proteasomal degradation in a STAT3-dependent manner. If restored, STAT1 is functionally intact in ALK+ ALCL cells, because it effectively upregulated interferon-γ, induced apoptosis/cell-cycle arrest, potentiated the inhibitory effects of doxorubicin, and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. STAT1 interfered with the STAT3 signaling by decreasing STAT3 transcriptional activity/DNA binding and its homodimerization. The importance of the STAT1/STAT3 functional interaction was further highlighted by the observation that short interfering RNA knockdown of STAT1 significantly decreased apoptosis induced by STAT3 inhibition. Thus, STAT1 is a tumor suppressor in ALK+ ALCL. Phosphorylation and downregulation of STAT1 by NPM-ALK represent other mechanisms by which this oncogenic tyrosine kinase promotes tumorigenesis.

  11. Three Years Sustained Complete Remission Achieved in a Primary Refractory ALK-Positive Anaplastic T Large Cell Lymphoma Treated with Crizotinib

    PubMed Central

    Mahuad, Carolina Valeria; Repáraz, María de los Ángeles Vicente; Zerga, Marta E.; Aizpurua, María Florencia; Casali, Claudia; Garate, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of the primary refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK+) anaplastic T large cell lymphoma is ominous. The identification of molecular targets with potential to drive oncogenesis remains a cornerstone for the designing of new selective cancer therapies. Crizotinib is a selective ATP-competitive inhibitor for ALK, approved for its use in lung cancer with rearrangements on ALK gene. The reported cases describe the use of crizotinib as a bridging strategy prior to allotransplantation; there are no reported prolonged survivals under monotherapy with Crizotinib. We report a case of a primary refractory ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma that sustains complete response after 3 years of crizotinib monotherapy. PMID:27441079

  12. Three Years Sustained Complete Remission Achieved in a Primary Refractory ALK-Positive Anaplastic T Large Cell Lymphoma Treated with Crizotinib.

    PubMed

    Mahuad, Carolina Valeria; Repáraz, María de Los Ángeles Vicente; Zerga, Marta E; Aizpurua, María Florencia; Casali, Claudia; Garate, Gonzalo

    2016-06-28

    The prognosis of the primary refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK+) anaplastic T large cell lymphoma is ominous. The identification of molecular targets with potential to drive oncogenesis remains a cornerstone for the designing of new selective cancer therapies. Crizotinib is a selective ATP-competitive inhibitor for ALK, approved for its use in lung cancer with rearrangements on ALK gene. The reported cases describe the use of crizotinib as a bridging strategy prior to allotransplantation; there are no reported prolonged survivals under monotherapy with Crizotinib. We report a case of a primary refractory ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma that sustains complete response after 3 years of crizotinib monotherapy. PMID:27441079

  13. NPM-ALK and the JunB transcription factor regulate the expression of cytotoxic molecules in ALK-positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Joel D; Lee, Jason K H; Bacani, Julinor T C; Lai, Raymond; Ingham, Robert J

    2011-01-30

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma of T/null immunophenotype that is most prevalent in children and young adults. The normal cellular counterpart of this malignancy is presumed to be the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and this presumption is partly based on the observation that these tumour cells often express cytotoxic granules containing Granzyme B (GzB) and Perforin. Chromosomal translocations involving the gene encoding for the ALK tyrosine kinase are also characteristic of ALK+ ALCL, and the resulting fusion proteins (e.g. NPM-ALK) initiate signalling events important in ALK+ ALCL pathogenesis. These events include the elevated expression of JunB; an AP-1 family transcription factor that promotes ALK+ ALCL proliferation. In this report we demonstrate that JunB is a direct transcriptional activator of GzB and that GzB transcription is also promoted by NPM-ALK. We found that Perforin expression was not regulated by JunB, but was promoted by NPM-ALK in some cell lines and inhibited by it in others. In conclusion, our study makes the novel observation that signalling through NPM-ALK and JunB affect the expression of cytotoxic molecules in ALK+ ALCL. Moreover, these findings demonstrate the expression of GzB and Perforin in this lymphoma is not solely due its presumed CTL origin, but that oncogenic signalling is actively influencing the expression of these proteins.

  14. Prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood as detected by qualitative and quantitative PCR in pediatric NPM-ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Damm-Welk, Christine; Busch, Kerstin; Burkhardt, Birgit; Schieferstein, Jutta; Viehmann, Susanne; Oschlies, Ilske; Klapper, Wolfram; Zimmermann, Martin; Harbott, Jochen; Reiter, Alfred; Woessmann, Willi

    2007-07-15

    Clinical and histopathological characteristics have limited prognostic value for children with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). We evaluated the presence, extent, and prognostic impact of circulating tumor cells in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) of children and adolescents with NPM-ALK-positive ALCL at diagnosis using qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for NPM-ALK. Numbers of NPM-ALK transcripts were normalized to 10(4) copies ABL (NCNs). BM was analyzed from 80 patients and PB from 52. BM was positive for NPM-ALK in 47.5% of patients, and positivity was significantly correlated with clinical stage, mediastinal or visceral involvement, microscopic BM involvement, and histologic subtype. Qualitative and quantitative PCR results in BM and PB strongly correlated. BM PCR was associated with the cumulative incidence of relapses (CI-Rs): CI-R was 50% +/- 10% for 38 PCR-positive and 15% +/- 7% for 42 PCR-negative patients (P < .001). Sixteen patients with more than 10 NCNs NPM-ALK in BM had a CI-R of 71% +/- 14% compared with a CI-R of 18% +/- 6% for 59 patients with 10 or fewer NCNs (P < .001). PB PCR results led to a similar grouping. Thus, quantitative PCR in BM or PB allows identification of 20% of patients experiencing 60% of all relapses with an event-free survival of 20%.

  15. AT13387 in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma, Mantle Cell Lymphoma, or Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-06

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma, ALK-Positive; Recurrent Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  16. Brigatinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, abrogates activity and growth in ALK-positive neuroblastoma cells, Drosophila and mice

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Kathrin; Rivera, Victor M.; Guan, Jikui; Palmer, Ruth H.; Hallberg, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase receptor which has been implicated in numerous solid and hematologic cancers. ALK mutations are reported in about 5-7% of neuroblastoma cases but the ALK-positive percentage increases significantly in the relapsed patient population. Crizotinib, the first clinically approved ALK inhibitor for the treatment of ALK-positive lung cancer has had less dramatic responses in neuroblastoma. Here we investigate the efficacy of a second-generation ALK inhibitor, brigatinib, in a neuroblastoma setting. Employing neuroblastoma cell lines, mouse xenograft and Drosophila melanogaster model systems expressing different constitutively active ALK variants, we show clear and efficient inhibition of ALK activity by brigatinib. Similar abrogation of ALK activity was observed in vitro employing a set of different constitutively active ALK variants in biochemical assays. These results suggest that brigatinib is an effective inhibitor of ALK kinase activity in ALK addicted neuroblastoma that should be considered as a potential future therapeutic option for ALK-positive neuroblastoma patients alone or in combination with other treatments. PMID:27049722

  17. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma in paediatric and young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Turner, Suzanne D; Lamant, Laurence; Kenner, Lukas; Brugières, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a heterogeneous disease of debateable origin that, in children, is largely anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive with aberrant ALK activity induced following the formation of chromosomal translocations. Whilst the survival rates for this disease are relatively high, a significant proportion (20-40%) of patients suffer disease relapse, in some cases on multiple occasions and therefore suffer the toxic side-effects of combination chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients are treated with a combination of agents although recent data from relapse patients have suggested that low risk patients might benefit from single agent vinblastine and, going forward, the addition of ALK inhibitors to the therapeutic regimen may have beneficial consequences. There are also a plethora of other drugs that might be advantageous to patients with ALCL and many of these have been identified through laboratory research although the decision as to which drugs to implement in trials will not be trivial. PMID:26913827

  18. ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a genetically heterogeneous disease with widely disparate clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Parrilla Castellar, Edgardo R.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Said, Jonathan W.; Swerdlow, Steven H.; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Knudson, Ryan A.; Sidhu, Jagmohan S.; Hsi, Eric D.; Karikehalli, Shridevi; Jiang, Liuyan; Vasmatzis, George; Gibson, Sarah E.; Ondrejka, Sarah; Nicolae, Alina; Grogg, Karen L.; Allmer, Cristine; Ristow, Kay M.; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Macon, William R.; Law, Mark E.; Cerhan, James R.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Dogan, Ahmet; Maurer, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a CD30-positive T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that morphologically resembles ALK-positive ALCL but lacks chromosomal rearrangements of the ALK gene. The genetic and clinical heterogeneity of ALK-negative ALCL has not been delineated. We performed immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization on 73 ALK-negative ALCLs and 32 ALK-positive ALCLs and evaluated the associations among pathology, genetics, and clinical outcome. Chromosomal rearrangements of DUSP22 and TP63 were identified in 30% and 8% of ALK-negative ALCLs, respectively. These rearrangements were mutually exclusive and were absent in ALK-positive ALCLs. Five-year overall survival rates were 85% for ALK-positive ALCLs, 90% for DUSP22-rearranged ALCLs, 17% for TP63-rearranged ALCLs, and 42% for cases lacking all 3 genetic markers (P < .0001). Hazard ratios for death in these 4 groups after adjusting for International Prognostic Index and age were 1.0 (reference group), 0.58, 8.63, and 4.16, respectively (P = 7.10 × 10−5). These results were similar when restricted to patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, as well as to patients not receiving stem cell transplantation. Thus, ALK-negative ALCL is a genetically heterogeneous disease with widely disparate outcomes following standard therapy. DUSP22 and TP63 rearrangements may serve as predictive biomarkers to help guide patient management. PMID:24894770

  19. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Simon; Beer, Ambros J; Geissinger, Eva; Rosenwald, Andreas; Peschel, Christian; Ringshausen, Ingo; Keller, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone) was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.

  20. Anti-ALK Antibodies in Patients with ALK-Positive Malignancies Not Expressing NPM-ALK.

    PubMed

    Damm-Welk, Christine; Siddiqi, Faraz; Fischer, Matthias; Hero, Barbara; Narayanan, Vignesh; Camidge, David Ross; Harris, Michael; Burke, Amos; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Pulford, Karen; Oschlies, Ilske; Siebert, Reiner; Turner, Suzanne; Woessmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Nucleophosmin (NPM)- Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) fusion positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma produce autoantibodies against ALK indicative of an immune response against epitopes of the chimeric fusion protein. We asked whether ALK-expression in other malignancies induces specific antibodies. Antibodies against ALK were detected in sera of one of 50 analysed ALK-expressing neuroblastoma patients, 13 of 21 ALK positive non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, 13 of 22 ALK translocation-positive, but NPM-ALK-negative lymphoma patients and one of one ALK-positive rhabdomyosarcoma patient, but not in 20 healthy adults. These data suggest that boosting a pre-existent anti-ALK immune response may be more feasible for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC, lymphomas and rhabdomyosarcomas than for tumours expressing wild-type ALK.

  1. Anti-ALK Antibodies in Patients with ALK-Positive Malignancies Not Expressing NPM-ALK

    PubMed Central

    Damm-Welk, Christine; Siddiqi, Faraz; Fischer, Matthias; Hero, Barbara; Narayanan, Vignesh; Camidge, David Ross; Harris, Michael; Burke, Amos; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Pulford, Karen; Oschlies, Ilske; Siebert, Reiner; Turner, Suzanne; Woessmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Nucleophosmin (NPM)- Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) fusion positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma produce autoantibodies against ALK indicative of an immune response against epitopes of the chimeric fusion protein. We asked whether ALK-expression in other malignancies induces specific antibodies. Antibodies against ALK were detected in sera of one of 50 analysed ALK-expressing neuroblastoma patients, 13 of 21 ALK positive non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, 13 of 22 ALK translocation-positive, but NPM-ALK-negative lymphoma patients and one of one ALK-positive rhabdomyosarcoma patient, but not in 20 healthy adults. These data suggest that boosting a pre-existent anti-ALK immune response may be more feasible for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC, lymphomas and rhabdomyosarcomas than for tumours expressing wild-type ALK. PMID:27471553

  2. Anti-ALK Antibodies in Patients with ALK-Positive Malignancies Not Expressing NPM-ALK.

    PubMed

    Damm-Welk, Christine; Siddiqi, Faraz; Fischer, Matthias; Hero, Barbara; Narayanan, Vignesh; Camidge, David Ross; Harris, Michael; Burke, Amos; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Pulford, Karen; Oschlies, Ilske; Siebert, Reiner; Turner, Suzanne; Woessmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Nucleophosmin (NPM)- Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) fusion positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma produce autoantibodies against ALK indicative of an immune response against epitopes of the chimeric fusion protein. We asked whether ALK-expression in other malignancies induces specific antibodies. Antibodies against ALK were detected in sera of one of 50 analysed ALK-expressing neuroblastoma patients, 13 of 21 ALK positive non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, 13 of 22 ALK translocation-positive, but NPM-ALK-negative lymphoma patients and one of one ALK-positive rhabdomyosarcoma patient, but not in 20 healthy adults. These data suggest that boosting a pre-existent anti-ALK immune response may be more feasible for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC, lymphomas and rhabdomyosarcomas than for tumours expressing wild-type ALK. PMID:27471553

  3. Expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins predict clinical outcome in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    ten Berge, Rosita L; Meijer, Chris J L M; Dukers, Danny F; Kummer, J Alain; Bladergroen, Bellinda A; Vos, Wim; Hack, C Erik; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; Oudejans, Joost J

    2002-06-15

    In vitro studies suggest that resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis might explain poor response to therapy in fatal cases. Actual execution of apoptosis depends on proper functioning of effector caspases, particularly caspase 3, and on the expression levels of apoptosis-regulating proteins, including Bcl-2 and the recently identified granzyme B- specific protease inhibitor 9 (PI9). Thus, high levels of caspase 3 activation should reflect proper functioning of the apoptosis pathways, resulting in chemotherapy-sensitive neoplastic cells and a favorable prognosis. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying numbers of tumor cells positive for active caspase 3, Bcl-2, and PI9, respectively, in pretreatment biopsies of systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) patients and by comparing these numbers with clinical outcome. Activation of caspase 3 in more than 5% of the tumor cells was strongly correlated with a highly favorable outcome. High numbers of Bcl-2- and PI9-positive tumor cells were found to predict unfavorable prognosis. This prognostic effect was strongly related to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) status: ALK-positive ALCL had significantly higher levels of active caspase 3, while high expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and PI9 was almost completely restricted to ALK-negative cases. In conclusion, high numbers of active caspase 3-positive tumor cells predict a highly favorable prognosis in systemic ALCL patients. Poor prognosis is strongly related to high numbers of Bcl-2- and PI9-positive neoplastic cells. These data support the notion that a favorable response to chemotherapy depends on an intact apoptosis cascade. Moreover, these data indicate that differences in prognosis between ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL might be explained by differences in expression of apoptosis-inhibiting proteins.

  4. Analysis of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)-reactive CD8(+) T cell responses in children with NPM-ALK(+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    K Singh, V; Werner, S; Hackstein, H; Lennerz, V; Reiter, A; Wölfel, T; Damm-Welk, C; Woessmann, W

    2016-10-01

    Cellular immune responses against the oncoantigen anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in patients with ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) have been detected using peptide-based approaches in individuals preselected for human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A*02:01. In this study, we aimed to evaluate nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in ALCL patients ensuring endogenous peptide processing of ALK antigens and avoiding HLA preselection. We also examined the HLA class I restriction of ALK-specific CD8(+) T cells. Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with in-vitro-transcribed RNA (IVT-RNA) encoding NPM-ALK were used as antigen-presenting cells for T cell stimulation. Responder T lymphocytes were tested in interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays with NPM-ALK-transfected autologous DCs as well as CV-1 in Origin with SV40 genes (COS-7) cells co-transfected with genes encoding the patients' HLA class I alleles and with NPM-ALK encoding cDNA to verify responses and define the HLA restrictions of specific T cell responses. NPM-ALK-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were detected in three of five ALK-positive ALCL patients tested between 1 and 13 years after diagnosis. The three patients had also maintained anti-ALK antibody responses. No reactivity was detected in samples from five healthy donors. The NPM-ALK-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were restricted by HLA-C-alleles (C*06:02 and C*12:02) in all three cases. This approach allowed for the detection of NPM-ALK-reactive T cells, irrespective of the individual HLA status, up to 9 years after ALCL diagnosis.

  5. microRNA expression profiling identifies molecular signatures associated with anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Shen, Yulei; Dabrowska, Magdalena Julia; Dybkaer, Karen; Lim, Megan S.; Piva, Roberto; Barreca, Antonella; Pellegrino, Elisa; Spaccarotella, Elisa; Lachel, Cynthia M.; Kucuk, Can; Jiang, Chun-Sun; Hu, Xiaozhou; Bhagavathi, Sharathkumar; Greiner, Timothy C.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Aoun, Patricia; Perkins, Sherrie L.; McKeithan, Timothy W.; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) encompass at least 2 systemic diseases distinguished by the presence or absence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression. We performed genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) profiling on 33 ALK-positive (ALK[+]) ALCLs, 25 ALK-negative (ALK[−]) ALCLs, 9 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, 11 peripheral T-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified (PTCLNOS), and normal T cells, and demonstrated that ALCLs express many of the miRNAs that are highly expressed in normal T cells with the prominent exception of miR-146a. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering demonstrated distinct clustering of ALCL, PTCL-NOS, and the AITL subtype of PTCL. Cases of ALK(+) ALCL and ALK(–) ALCL were interspersed in unsupervised analysis, suggesting a close relationship at the molecular level. We identified an miRNA signature of 7 miRNAs (5 upregulated: miR-512-3p, miR-886-5p, miR-886-3p, miR-708, miR-135b; 2 downregulated: miR-146a, miR-155) significantly associated with ALK(+) ALCL cases. In addition, we derived an 11-miRNA signature (4 upregulated: miR-210, miR-197, miR-191, miR-512-3p; 7 downregulated: miR-451, miR-146a, miR-22, miR-455-3p, miR-455-5p, miR-143, miR-494) that differentiates ALK(–) ALCL from other PTCLs. Our in vitro studies identified a set of 32 miRNAs associated with ALK expression. Of these, the miR-17∼92 cluster and its paralogues were also highly expressed in ALK(+) ALCL and may represent important downstream effectors of the ALK oncogenic pathway. PMID:23801630

  6. [Breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Jarjis, Reem Dina; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2015-11-23

    Breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a rare entity. Due to the lack of awareness of BIA-ALCL, patients with prior history of breast implants who present with non-specific implant-related complications might experience a delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this distinct condition. There are still no evidence-based guidelines on how this condition should be diagnosed, treated or followed because of the rarity of available data. We review current literature in order to raise awareness and discuss management options of this unique clinical entity. PMID:26617170

  7. Expression of p63 in anaplastic large cell lymphoma but not in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriela; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2008-10-01

    Immunohistochemical determination of p63 protein is frequently used in the pathologic diagnosis of nonhematological solid tumors. In malignant hematological disease, p63 expression has been reported in 22% of follicular lymphoma, about 35% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 23% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and in some cases of blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare disease that accounts for less than 5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There is little information concerning p63 expression in this specific type of lymphoma. In some cases, the morphological and phenotypic features between anaplastic large cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma are similar, making this differential diagnosis challenging. We studied p63 expression using a tissue microarray approach in 154 cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, including 38% anaplastic large cell kinase positive and 62% anaplastic large cell kinase negative, and 58 Hodgkin's lymphoma cases. Sixty-eight cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (44%) showed p63 nuclear positivity (41% of anaplastic large cell kinase positive and 47% of anaplastic large cell kinase negative). Of 130 cases of systemic-anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 42% showed p63 positivity. The neoplastic cells expressed p63 in 38% of the cases of CD45-negative/anaplastic large cell kinase-negative null cell-type anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a subgroup that offers the most difficulties in the differential diagnosis with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. In contrast, none of the cases of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma demonstrated any p63 expression. These results demonstrate that p63 protein expression is frequently expressed in a subset of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cases and may be used as a potential tool in the differential diagnosis between anaplastic large cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  8. A case of Primary Bone Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jung, Yun Hwa; Han, Chi Wha; Woo, In Sook; Son, Jong ho

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 52 Final Diagnosis: Primary bone anaplastic large cell lymphoma Symptoms: Bone pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a relatively rare subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Like other types of NHL, ALCL primarily involves the nodal area, and sometimes it can involve several extra-nodal sites such as skin, soft tissue, and lungs. However, extensive bone involvement in cases of ALCL is very rare whether it is primary or secondary. Without nodular involvement, ALCL can be misdiagnosed as bone tumor or metastatic carcinoma such as lung, breast, or prostate cancer, which frequently spread to bone. Case Report: A 52-year-old woman with generalized pain and 2 months of fever of unknown origin presented to our institution. After extensive evaluation, only multiple osteolytic bone lesions with periosteal soft tissue reaction were identified. Repeated core needle biopsy revealed only inflammatory cells with histiocytic reactions. After pathologic and chromosomal analysis of sufficient tissue, which was acquired from incisional biopsy, primary bone ALCL was confirmed. Conclusions: Clinicians should keep in mind that ALCL can present with extensive bone involvement without nodal involvement. PMID:27729639

  9. Primary anaplastic large-cell lymphoma associated with breast implants

    PubMed Central

    Popplewell, Leslie; Thomas, Sandra H.; Huang, Qin; Chang, Karen L.; Forman, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Primary T-cell anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the breast is a rare entity, which has been reported in association with breast implants. In a retrospective analysis of the City of Hope pathology database, we uncovered nine such patients, eight of whom had breast implants proximal to primary ALCL. The diagnosis of ALCL in the implant capsule occurred at a median of 7 years (range 5–30) following implant surgery, and median patient age was 45.5 years (range 32–62). Malignancy was effusion-associated in 2 cases and tissue-associated in 6. Seven patients were negative for anaplastic large-cell kinase (ALK) and one patient was positive. Treatment and follow-up data were available for four patients, all tissue-associated cases: two patients were lost to follow-up after failing to mobilize stem cells and two patients were in remission, 6 years and 7.5 years post autologous transplant. These cases represent 24% of reported primary ALCL cases associated with breast implants. Our review of these cases and the literature suggest that 1) there is a strong skew in primary breast lymphomas associated with implant capsules toward T-cell, ALCL ALK-, and 2) the disease course for tissue-associated cases is not always indolent, with four patients requiring multiple treatment regimens PMID:21699454

  10. Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Involving Anterior Segment of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Park, Choul Yong; Hwang, Sang Won; Kim, Do Yeun; Huh, Hee Jin

    2014-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman was diagnosed with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) by excisional biopsy of a left frontal skin lesion. During the first cycle of chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone), the patient complained of right ocular pain and inflammation. Cytologic examination using aqueous humor revealed atypical lymphocytes, suggesting intraocular ALCL involvement. Acute angle closure developed in the anterior chamber due to rapid progression of ALCL, causing pupillary block. Laser and surgical interventions were attempted but failed to relieve the pupillary block. Finally, radiation therapy resolved the pupillary block to restore the anterior chamber and normalize intraocular pressure. This is the first case in the English literature of ALCL involving the iris to cause acute secondary angle closure. PMID:24505208

  11. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cao, Can; Zeng, Kang; Wang, Menglei; Han, Kai; Peng, Yusheng; Xiong, Hao; Wang, Qi; Li, Qian; Wang, Qian; Li, Li

    2016-07-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is a part of the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative cutaneous processes. The characteristics include single or multifocal nodules that ulcerate as skin lesion, slow disease progression, autoregressive, and recurrent in few years. The present study report the case of a 16-year-old boy presenting PCALCL with single nodules, ulcer, keloid, and scab in his right-side face. He showed a good response to the treatment with systemic chemotherapy and dermatoplasty, and regained confidence after the appearance of recovery. There is no relapse of the primary lesion and organs involved till now. The chemotherapy combining with surgical excision and dermatoplasty is a good method for PCALCL, per the lesion biopsy and positron emission tomography-computed tomography before and after treatment. PMID:26970422

  12. Rapidly Progressive Acute Pustular Secondary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mordorski, Breanne; Friedman, Adam; Han, George

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon diagnosis that may either present as a primary cutaneous process or develop secondary to systemic disease. It is imperative to distinguish between these two entities due to differences in treatment recommendations and prognosis. Here, their salient features will be reviewed. It is also important that clinicians recognize atypical clinical morphologies of cutaneous ALCL, including pustular lesions, which may masquerade as infectious or other inflammatory conditions, thereby delaying the onset of treatment. In this report, we present a case of secondary cutaneous ALCL associated with an atypical pustular morphology and an aggressive, fatal course.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1132-1135. PMID:27602978

  13. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma arising in a patient with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Hee; Lee, Ji Hae; Kim, Miri; Cho, Baik Kee; Song, Chan Hee; Ock, Sun Myeong; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is defined as the appearance of intense skin reactive lesions and systemic symptoms subsequent to mosquito bites. Most cases of hypersensitivity to mosquito bites reported thus far have been associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection or natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma. In this study, we describe the case of an 18-year-old Korean boy who had hypersensitivity to mosquito bites associated with primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. After a mosquito bite, the patient developed a progressive cutaneous nodule on his left lower leg and regional lymphadenopathy in the left inguinal area. The histopathological and immunohistochemical findings suggested anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left T4 vertebrae, left external iliac lymph nodes, left inguinal lymph nodes, and lateral subcutaneous region of the left lower leg. According to the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings, as well as the imaging data, the patient was diagnosed with primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Consequently, the patient received a total of 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin + vincristine + prednisolone chemotherapy at 3-week intervals, after which the lesions regressed.

  14. The oncoprotein NPM-ALK of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma induces JUNB transcription via ERK1/2 and JunB translation via mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Staber, Philipp B; Vesely, Paul; Haq, Naznin; Ott, Rene G; Funato, Kotaro; Bambach, Isabella; Fuchs, Claudia; Schauer, Silvia; Linkesch, Werner; Hrzenjak, Andelko; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Sexl, Veronika; Bergler, Helmut; Kadin, Marshall E; Sternberg, David W; Kenner, Lukas; Hoefler, Gerald

    2007-11-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) are highly proliferating tumors that commonly express the AP-1 transcription factor JunB. ALK fusions occur in approximately 50% of ALCLs, and among these, 80% have the t(2;5) translocation with NPM-ALK expression. We report greater activity of JunB in NPM-ALK-positive than in NPM-ALK-negative ALCLs. Specific knockdown of JUNB mRNA using small interfering RNA and small hairpin RNA in NPM-ALK-expressing cells decreases cellular proliferation as evidenced by a reduced cell count in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Expression of NPM-ALK results in ERK1/2 activation and transcriptional up-regulation of JUNB. Both NPM-ALK-positive and -negative ALCL tumors demonstrate active ERK1/2 signaling. In contrast to NPM-ALK-negative ALCL, the mTOR pathway is active in NPM-ALK-positive lymphomas. Pharmacological inhibition of mTOR in NPM-ALK-positive cells down-regulates JunB protein levels by shifting JUNB mRNA translation from large polysomes to monosomes and ribonucleic particles (RNPs), and decreases cellular proliferation. Thus, JunB is a critical target of mTOR and is translationally regulated in NPM-ALK-positive lymphomas. This is the first study demonstrating translational control of AP-1 transcription factors in human neoplasia. In conjunction with NPM-ALK, JunB enhances cell cycle progression and may therefore represent a therapeutic target.

  15. Treatment outcome of Chinese children with anaplastic large cell lymphoma by using a modified B-NHL-BFM-90 protocol.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaofei; Zhen, Zijun; Lin, Suxia; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Juan; Lu, Suying; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Fei; Sun, Feifei; Li, Pengfei

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has rarely been reported in Chinese pediatric patients. This study evaluated the clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of Chinese pediatric patients with ALCL. Between October 2002 and October 2012, 39 untreated pediatric patients with ALCL were enrolled at a single institution. The patients were stratified into three groups (R1, R2, and R3) based on the stage of the disease, clinical risk factors, and chemotherapeutic response, and received different intensive chemotherapy regimens based on a modified B-NHL-BFM-90 protocol. Of the 39 patients, 22 were boys, and 17 were girls, with a median age at diagnosis of 10 years (range 2-16 years), 91.2% were anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive. The patient groups R1, R2, and R3 accounted for 12.8%, 30.4%, and 56.4% of the total, respectively. 87.2% of patients were stage III/IV. At a median follow-up period of 52 months (range 15-136 months), seven patients relapsed and three patients died of their disease. The 5-year event-free survival for all patients was 81.4% ± 6.4%, with 100%, 83.3% ± 10% and 75.3% ± 9.8% for groups R1, R2, and R3, respectively. The overall survival for all patients was 92.2% ± 4.3%. Our study demonstrates that a risk-stratified treatment with a modified B-NHL-BFM-90 protocol is efficacious for Chinese children with ALCL. PMID:25116372

  16. [Molecular pathogenesis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (1): angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified and anaplastic large cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Couronné, Lucile; Bastard, Christian; Gaulard, Philippe; Hermine, Olivier; Bernard, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) belong to the group of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and particularly that of mature T/NK cells lymphoproliferative neoplasms. The 2008 WHO classification describes different PTCL entities with varying prevalence. With the exception of the histological subtype "ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma", PTCL are characterized by a poor prognosis. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these lymphomas are not yet fully understood, but development of genomic high-throughput analysis techniques now allows to extensively identify the molecular abnormalities present in tumor cells. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge and recent advances about the molecular events occurring at the origin or during the natural history of main entities of PTCL. It will be published in two parts : the first is focused on the three more frequent entities, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The second (which will appear in the november issue) will describe other subtypes less frequent and of poor prognosis : extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. T or NK cell lymphoproliferative disorders with leukemic presentation, primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and very rare subtypes of PTCL whose prevalence is less than 5% (hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma) will not be discussed herein. PMID:26481023

  17. Downregulation of NPM-ALK by siRNA causes anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell growth inhibition and augments the anti cancer effects of chemotherapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Faye Yuan-yi; Zhao, Yi; Anderson, W French; Johnston, Patrick B

    2007-06-01

    The fusion protein, nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), results from the chromosome translocation t(2;5)(p23;q25) and is present in 50-70 percent of anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs). NPM-ALK is a constitutively activated kinase that transforms cells through stimulating several mitogenic signaling pathways. To examine if the NPM-ALK is a potential therapeutic target in ALCL, we used siRNA to specifically downregulate the expression of the NPM-ALK in ALCL cell lines. In this report, we demonstrated viability loss in t(2;5)-positive ALCL cell lines, SUDHL-1 and Karpas 299 cells, but not in lymphoma cell lines without the chromosome translocation, Jurkat and Granta 519 cells. Further study demonstrated that the downregulation of NPM-ALK resulted in decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis. When used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin, the inhibition of the NPM-ALK augments the chemosensitivity of the tumor cells. These results revealed the importance of continuous expression of NPM-ALK in maintaining the growth of ALCL cells. Our data also suggested that the repression of the fusion gene might be a potential novel therapeutic strategy for NPM-ALK positive ALCLs.

  18. Activation of Rac1 and the exchange factor Vav3 are involved in NPM-ALK signaling in anaplastic large cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Colomba, A; Courilleau, D; Ramel, D; Billadeau, D D; Espinos, E; Delsol, G; Payrastre, B; Gaits-Iacovoni, F

    2008-04-24

    The majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) express the nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) fusion protein, which is oncogenic due to its constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. Transformation by NPM-ALK not only increases proliferation, but also modifies cell shape and motility in both lymphoid and fibroblastic cells. We report that the Rac1 GTPase, a known cytoskeletal regulator, is activated by NPM-ALK in ALCL cell lines (Karpas 299 and Cost) and transfected cells (lymphoid Ba/F3 cells, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts). We have identified Vav3 as one of the exchange factors involved in Rac1 activation. Stimulation of Vav3 and Rac1 by NPM-ALK is under the control of Src kinases. It involves formation of a signaling complex between NPM-ALK, pp60(c-src), Lyn and Vav3, in which Vav3 associates with tyrosine 343 of NPM-ALK via its SH2 domain. Moreover, Vav3 is phosphorylated in NPM-ALK positive biopsies from patients suffering from ALCL, demonstrating the pathological relevance of this observation. The use of Vav3-specific shRNA and a dominant negative Rac1 mutant demonstrates the central role of GTPases in NPM-ALK elicited motility and invasion.

  19. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Narwal, Anjali; Yadav, Achla Bharti; Prakash, Sant; Gupta, Shally

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(−)) ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(−) ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:27041916

  20. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Anjali; Yadav, Achla Bharti; Prakash, Sant; Gupta, Shally

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(-)) ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(-) ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:27041916

  1. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Anjali; Yadav, Achla Bharti; Prakash, Sant; Gupta, Shally

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(-)) ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(-) ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  2. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma successfully treated with local thermotherapy using pocket hand warmers.

    PubMed

    Honma, Masaru; Hashimoto, Makoto; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Iinuma, Shin; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Iizuka, Hajime

    2008-11-01

    Apart from for cutaneous deep fungal or mycobacterial infections, thermotherapy has been used for various malignant tumors. We report a case of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which responded quite well to topical thermotherapy using chemical pocket hand warmers. The treatment resulted in an immediate tumor regression without recurrence. This method is simple and might be a useful tool against solitary cutaneous lymphoma, especially of elderly patients with poor performance status or with various systemic complications. PMID:19120772

  3. Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michele N; Turner, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a very rare T-cell lymphoma that has only recently been found to be associated with breast implants. It has been described in the literature mainly in the form of case reports. This article focuses on the imaging characteristics of this rare disease. We hope to increase awareness of breast imagers and referring physicians to improve early detection rates. Case Report We present the case of a 32-year-old female who presented with several weeks of pain and firmness in her right breast. MRI and ultrasound demonstrated a peri-implant fluid collection. Ultrasound-guided aspiration revealed anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with implant removal alone and has now been in remission for 3 years.  Conclusion Anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast is a very rare entity that has mainly been described in the literature as case reports. As in the case of our patient, imaging findings can be very non-specific, and it is important for surgeons, breast imagers, and oncologists to be aware of this rare disease to ensure prompt diagnosis. PMID:27158575

  4. The Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase controls cell shape and growth of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma through Cdc42 activation

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogio, Chiara; Voena, Claudia; Manazza, Andrea D.; Martinengo, Cinzia; Costa, Carlotta; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Hirsch, Emilio; Inghirami, Giorgio; Chiarle, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) is a Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) that originates from T cells and frequently expresses oncogenic fusion proteins derived from chromosomal translocations or inversions of the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) gene. Proliferation and survival of ALCL cells are determined by the ALK activity. Here we show that the kinase activity of the Nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion regulated the shape of ALCL cells and F-actin filaments assembly in a pattern similar to T-Cell Receptor (TCR) stimulated cells. NPM-ALK formed a complex with the Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) VAV1, enhancing its activation through phosphorylation. VAV1 increased Cdc42 activity and, in turn, Cdc42 regulated the shape and the migration of ALCL cells. In vitro knock-down of VAV1 or Cdc42 by sh-RNA, as well as pharmacological inhibition of Cdc42 activity by secramine, resulted in a cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of ALCL cells. Importantly, the concomitant inhibition of Cdc42 and NPM-ALK kinase acted synergistically to induce apoptosis of ALCL cells. Finally, Cdc42 was necessary for the growth as well as for the maintenance of already established lymphomas in vivo. Thus, our data open perspectives for new therapeutic strategies by revealing a mechanism of regulation of ALCL cells growth through Cdc42. PMID:18974134

  5. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Association with Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Aneesh; Padhi, Somanath; Nagarajan, Ramesh; Boopathy, Vinoth; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Iqbal, Nayyar

    2014-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has a well known association with lymphomas, especially of T cell origin. Prognosis of lymphoma associated HLH is very poor, especially in T cell lymphomas; and, therefore, early diagnosis might alter the outcome. Though association of HLH with systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is known, its occurrence in primary cutaneous ALCL (C-ALCL) is distinctly rare. We aim to describe a case of C-ALCL (anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)−) in an elderly male who succumbed to the complication of associated HLH, which was possibly triggered by coexistent virus infection. We briefly present the literatures on lymphoma associated HLH and discuss the histopathological differentials of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders. We do suggest that HLH may pose diagnostic challenges in the evaluation of an underlying lymphoma and hence warrants proper evaluation for the underlying etiologies and/or triggering factors. PMID:25405042

  6. Novel Technique for Sampling of Breast Implant–associated Seroma in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    T’Kindt, Johan; Mertens, Marianne; Colpaert, Steven D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We describe a novel technique for the sampling of breast implant–associated seroma. Using a blunt-tip lipofilling cannula, we have the freedom of movement to sample all fluid collections and prevent the misfortunes of damaging the implant. Also, we have demonstrated the inability of the Coleman style I lipofilling cannula to perforate a silicone breast implant. This practical and reliable technique will prove to be useful in managing the breast implant–associated seroma, especially with the rising incidence of the anaplastic large cell lymphoma, where the sampling of seroma is mandatory. PMID:27200250

  7. Cardiac Tamponade Associated with the Presentation of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma in a 2-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Mira-Perceval Juan, Gema; Alcalá Minagorre, Pedro J.; Huertas Sánchez, Ana M.; Segura Sánchez, Sheila; López Iniesta, Silvia; De León Marrero, Francisco J.; Costa Navarro, Estela; Niveiro de Jaime, María

    2015-01-01

    The anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare entity in pediatric patients. We present an unusual case of pericardial involvement, quite uncommon as extranodal presentation of this type of disorder, that provoked a life-risk situation requiring an urgent pericardiocentesis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a child with pericardial involvement without an associated cardiac mass secondary to anaplastic large cell lymphoma in pediatric age. We report the case of a 21-month-old Caucasian male infant with cardiac tamponade associated with the presentation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Initially, the child presented with 24-day prolonged fever syndrome, cutaneous lesions associated with hepatomegaly, inguinal adenopathies, and pneumonia. After a 21-day asymptomatic period, polypnea and tachycardia were detected in a clinical check-up. Chest X-ray revealed a remarkable increase of the cardiothoracic index. The anaplastic large cell lymphoma has a high incidence of extranodal involvement but myocardial or pericardial involvements are rare. For this reason, we recommend a close monitoring of patients with a differential diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. PMID:26435869

  8. Cardiac Tamponade Associated with the Presentation of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma in a 2-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Mira-Perceval Juan, Gema; Alcalá Minagorre, Pedro J; Huertas Sánchez, Ana M; Segura Sánchez, Sheila; López Iniesta, Silvia; De León Marrero, Francisco J; Costa Navarro, Estela; Niveiro de Jaime, María

    2015-01-01

    The anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare entity in pediatric patients. We present an unusual case of pericardial involvement, quite uncommon as extranodal presentation of this type of disorder, that provoked a life-risk situation requiring an urgent pericardiocentesis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a child with pericardial involvement without an associated cardiac mass secondary to anaplastic large cell lymphoma in pediatric age. We report the case of a 21-month-old Caucasian male infant with cardiac tamponade associated with the presentation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Initially, the child presented with 24-day prolonged fever syndrome, cutaneous lesions associated with hepatomegaly, inguinal adenopathies, and pneumonia. After a 21-day asymptomatic period, polypnea and tachycardia were detected in a clinical check-up. Chest X-ray revealed a remarkable increase of the cardiothoracic index. The anaplastic large cell lymphoma has a high incidence of extranodal involvement but myocardial or pericardial involvements are rare. For this reason, we recommend a close monitoring of patients with a differential diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. PMID:26435869

  9. A novel Patient Derived Tumorgraft model with TRAF1-ALK Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma translocation

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Francesco; Todaro, Maria; van der Krogt, Jo-Anne; Boi, Michela; Landra, Indira; Machiorlatti, Rodolfo; Tabbo’, Fabrizio; Messana, Katia; Barreca, Antonella; Novero, Domenico; Gaudiano, Marcello; Aliberti, Sabrina; Di Giacomo, Filomena; Tousseyn, Thomas; Lasorsa, Elena; Crescenzo, Ramona; Bessone, Luca; Ficarra, Elisa; Acquaviva, Andrea; Rinaldi, Andrea; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Longo, Dario Livio; Aime, Silvio; Cheng, Mangeng; Ruggeri, Bruce; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Pileri, Stefano; Tiacci, Enrico; Falini, Brunangelo; Pera-Gresely, Benet; Cerchietti, Leandro; Iqbal, Javeed; Chan, Wing C; Shultz, Leonard D.; Kwee, Ivo; Piva, Roberto; Wlodarska, Iwona; Rabadan, Raul; Bertoni, Francesco; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Although Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas (ALCL) carrying Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) have a relatively good prognosis, aggressive forms exist. We have identified a novel translocation, causing the fusion of the TRAF1 and ALK genes, in one patient who presented with a leukemic ALK+ ALCL (ALCL-11). To uncover the mechanisms leading to high-grade ALCL, we developed a human Patient Derived Tumorgraft (hPDT) line. Molecular characterization of primary and PDT cells demonstrated the activation of ALK and of NFkB pathways. Genomic studies of ALCL-11 showed the TP53 loss and the in vivo subclonal expansion of lymphoma cells lacking PRDM1/Blimp-1 and with c-MYC gene amplification. The treatment with proteasome inhibitors of TRAF1-ALK cells led to down-regulation of p50/p52 and lymphoma growth inhibition. Moreover a NFkB gene set classifier stratified ALCL in distinct subsets with different clinical outcome. Moreover, a selective ALK inhibitor (CEP28122) resulted in a significant clinical response of hPDT mice, but the disease could not be eradicated. These data indicate that the activation of NFkB signaling contributes to the neoplastic phenotype of TRAF1-ALK ALCL. ALCL hPDTs are invaluable to validate the role of druggable molecules, predict therapeutic responses and are helpful tools for the implementation of patient specific therapies. PMID:25533804

  10. Clinical features and treatment results in children with anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ataş, Erman; Kutluk, M Tezer; Akyüz, Canan; Kale, Gülsev; Varan, Ali; Yalçın, Bilgehan; Aydın, Burça; Büyükpamukçu, Münevver

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) tends to have frequent relapse and good response to salvage chemotherapy. The frequency of ALCL among 1486 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cases followed-up since 1972 was 1.5%, however, the percentage was 9.3% in cases diagnosed after 2000. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for 23 children were 32.2% and 72.8% at 3 years, respectively. Disseminated diseases, no response to first line treatment, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) negativity were found as significant predictors on survival of ALCL. The proper diagnosis and early referral is essential in these children for a better survival rate. The children with ALK negative status should be monitored carefully because of the poor prognostic factors, and treated differently. The survival rates in this study are need of further improvement since the survival rates with current protocols are achievable at a level more than 80%. This is mainly related with late referral of those children with advanced disease. PMID:27411412

  11. Paraneoplastic Dermatosis in a Patient with Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tagami, Travis; Alhalabi, Omar; Ward, Nicholas; Huang, James

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Paraneoplastic dermatoses are skin disorders that are associated with malignancy. Anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (ALTCL) has rarely been associated with paraneoplastic skin manifestations such as gangrenous foot ulcers and erythroderma. Methods We describe a case of ALTCL presenting as a large annular skin rash. The clinical picture, course, and treatment will be discussed along with current hypotheses on the mechanism of paraneoplastic syndromes. Results Skin manifestations in ALTCL most commonly arise in two distinct ways; either as primary cutaneous lymphoma manifestation or as systemic disease with secondary metastasis. Less commonly, systemic disease causes skin manifestations secondary to a paraneoplastic process without infiltration of malignant cells. This is thought to be mediated by an immunologic reaction to tumor antigen or the result of cytokines and other inflammatory markers produced by the tumor itself. Conclusion Paraneoplastic dermatoses could be the initial presentations of systemic lymphoma. Knowledge about their association with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma may help with timely diagnosis. In a patient with unexplained dermatosis associated with B symptoms who is unresponsive to topic treatment, an investigation for systemic lymphoma workup is warranted. PMID:27504444

  12. Synchronous Occurrence of Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jae Ho; Lim, Youngkyoung; Lee, You Jin

    2016-01-01

    CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) represent a spectrum of T-cell lymphoma including lymphomatoid papulosis and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Epidermis overlying cutaneous CD30+ LPD often shows epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, crusting, and ulceration and it is difficult to distinguish from carcinoma such as keratoacanthoma (KA) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Several cases of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia mimicking KA or SCC in CD30+ LPD have been reported. The relationship between CD30+ LPD and epithelial proliferations has not yet well understood. It was reported that a variety of mediators, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α and EGFR from CD30+ LPD could attribute to epidermal hyperplasia. However, separate and distinct SCC occurring in CD30+ LPD has rarely been reported. Herein, we present a rare case of coexistence of SCC and cutaneous ALCL located on the same region. PMID:27489433

  13. Chemotherapy-resistant breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Muralidharan; Orrell, Julian; Mortimer, Caroline; Ball, Liz

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented with a few weeks’ history of discomfort and swelling in her left breast. She had undergone bilateral breast augmentation 8 years previously. There were no risk factors for breast cancer. Clinical examination, mammography and breast ultrasound revealed a large left breast mass adjacent to the breast implant with enlarged axillary lymph nodes. Owing to diagnostic uncertainty, core biopsies were sent to a specialist unit which confirmed breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma with involved lymph nodes. Staging investigations confirmed no distant disease. The lymphoma multidisciplinary team recommended cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone chemotherapy, followed by implant removal and local radiotherapy. However, the patient's disease progressed on first-line, and then second-line chemotherapy. She therefore had a mastectomy and axillary node clearance followed by radiotherapy, with a planned delayed left breast reconstruction and removal of the right breast implant. PMID:24285813

  14. Personalized treatment in advanced ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer: from bench to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Antonio; Lazzari, Chiara; Karachaliou, Niki; Spitaleri, Gianluca; Pochesci, Alessia; Catania, Chiara; Rosell, Rafael; de Marinis, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements and the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) that target them have achieved unprecedented success in the management of patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite the high efficacy of crizotinib, the first oral ALK TKI approved for the treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC, almost all patients inevitably develop acquired resistance, showing disease progression in the brain or in other parenchymal sites. Second- or third-generation ALK TKIs have shown to be active in crizotinib-pretreated or crizotinib-naïve ALK-positive patients, even in those with brain metastases. In this review, the current knowledge regarding ALK-positive NSCLC, focusing on the biology of the disease and the available therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:27799783

  15. Novel therapeutic options in anaplastic large cell lymphoma: molecular targets and immunological tools.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Olaf; Hamacher, Frank; Sifft, Eveline; Kenner, Lukas; Greil, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a CD30-positive, aggressive T-cell lymphoma, and about half of the patients with this disease harbor the t(2;5)(p21;q35) translocation. This chromosomal aberration leads to fusion of the NPM gene with the ALK tyrosine kinase, leading to its constitutive activation. To date, treatment options include polychemotherapy (e.g., cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), which is sometimes combined with radiation in the case of bulky disease, leading to remission rates of ∼80%. However, the remaining patients do not respond to therapy, and some patients experience chemo-resistant relapses, making the identification of new and better treatments imperative. The recent discovery of deregulated ALK in common cancers such as non-small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma has reinvigorated industry interest in the development of ALK inhibitors. Moreover, it has been shown that the ALK protein is an ideal antigen for vaccination strategies due to its low expression in normal tissue. The characterization of microRNAs that are deregulated in ALCL will yield new insights into the biology of ALCL and open new avenues for therapeutic approaches in the future. Also, CD30 antibodies that have been tested in ALCL for quite a while will probably find a place in forthcoming treatment strategies.

  16. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma arises in thymocytes and requires transient TCR expression for thymic egress.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Tim I M; Villarese, Patrick; Fairbairn, Camilla J; Lamant, Laurence; Trinquand, Amélie; Hook, C Elizabeth; Burke, G A Amos; Brugières, Laurence; Hughes, Katherine; Payet, Dominique; Merkel, Olaf; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Ashankyty, Ibraheem; Mian, Shahid; Wasik, Mariusz; Turner, Martin; Kenner, Lukas; Asnafi, Vahid; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Turner, Suzanne D

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma presenting mostly in children and young adults. The natural progression of this disease is largely unknown as is the identity of its true cell of origin. Here we present a model of peripheral ALCL pathogenesis where the malignancy is initiated in early thymocytes, before T-cell receptor (TCR) β-rearrangement, which is bypassed in CD4/NPM-ALK transgenic mice following Notch1 expression. However, we find that a TCR is required for thymic egress and development of peripheral murine tumours, yet this TCR must be downregulated for T-cell lymphomagenesis. In keeping with this, clonal TCR rearrangements in human ALCL are predominantly in-frame, but often aberrant, with clonal TCRα but no comparable clonal TCRβ rearrangement, yielding events that would not normally be permissive for survival during thymic development. Children affected by ALCL may thus harbour thymic lymphoma-initiating cells capable of seeding relapse after chemotherapy. PMID:26753883

  17. Breast Implant Informed Consent Should Include the Risk of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Mark W; Miranda, Roberto N; Butler, Charles E

    2016-04-01

    Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T-cell lymphoma arising around breast implants. Public awareness has increased following a safety communication warning of the association of breast implant-associated ALCL by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2011. Difficulty with determining an accurate assessment of risk, including diagnosis, or standardized treatment regimen has led surgeons to commonly omit preoperative discussion of this rare and frequently misunderstood cancer. Risk disclosure is a form of respect for patient autonomy, and informed consent has positive practical and moral consequences for the practice of plastic surgery. A model of breast implant-associated ALCL informed consent implementation and health care provider education are reviewed with 1-year process follow-up at a tertiary cancer center. Breast implant-associated ALCL should be included during preoperative counseling on the risks of breast implantation when obtaining informed consent. Pertinent aspects of decision-making include disease awareness, presenting symptoms, and resources for concerned patients. Education of health care professionals and provision of patient-focused materials ensures effectiveness of the informed consent process.

  18. Large cell anaplastic medulloblastoma metastatic to the scalp: tumor and derived stem-like cells features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extraneural metastases (ENM) rarely occur in medulloblastoma (MBL) patients and only few cases of subcutaneous localizations have been described. ENM indicate an aggressive disease associated with a worse prognosis. The characterization of metastatic tumours might be useful to understand their pathogenesis and to identify the most appropriate therapeutic strategies. Case presentation We present the case of a child with Large Cell Anaplastic (LC/A) MBL, who developed multiple subcutaneous metastases in the scalp area after a ventriculo-peritoneal shunting procedure. The disease rapidly progressed and the child died despite chemotherapy and primary tumour surgical debulking. We molecularly classified the tumour as a group 3 MBL; in addition, we derived stem-like cells (SLC) from a metastatic lesion. Primary tumour, metastases and SLC were further analysed, particularly focusing on features linked to the cutaneous dissemination. Indeed, molecules involved in angiogenesis, cell invasion and epidermal growth factor signalling resulted highly expressed. Conclusions The present report describes a very rare case of subcutaneous metastatic MBL. The tumour, metastases and SLC have been clinically, pathologically and molecularly characterized. Our case is an example of multidisciplinary approach aiming to characterize MBL aggressive behaviour. PMID:24739212

  19. Twelve cases of Ki-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of skin.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, S S; Heald, J; Harris, M

    1991-01-01

    In seven of 12 cases of Ber-H2 (Ki-1) positive anaplastic large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Ki-1 ALCL) disease remained localised to skin, and in five there was extracutaneous spread. Four patients had histological evidence of pre-existing or coexisting mycosis fungoides, and three patients had a long standing history of eczema or ichthyosis. In two cases the presence of a T phenotype was shown in frozen sections, and in a further six cases a T phenotype was firmly established in paraffin wax sections. Four patients died less than one year after presentation (two with disseminated lymphoma; two from other causes); one died at five years with widespread lymphoma and the remaining seven cases were alive one to 14 1/2 years after presentation. Three of the four patients with associated mycosis fungoides had prolonged survival, contrary to the findings of previous reports which suggest secondary Ki-1 ALCL behaves aggressively. The recognition of these tumours is important because of their relatively good prognosis. The diagnosis can be readily substantiated immunohistochemically, using a simple panel of antibodies. Images PMID:1650796

  20. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma arises in thymocytes and requires transient TCR expression for thymic egress

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Tim I. M.; Villarese, Patrick; Fairbairn, Camilla J.; Lamant, Laurence; Trinquand, Amélie; Hook, C. Elizabeth; Burke, G. A. Amos; Brugières, Laurence; Hughes, Katherine; Payet, Dominique; Merkel, Olaf; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Ashankyty, Ibraheem; Mian, Shahid; Wasik, Mariusz; Turner, Martin; Kenner, Lukas; Asnafi, Vahid; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Turner, Suzanne D.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma presenting mostly in children and young adults. The natural progression of this disease is largely unknown as is the identity of its true cell of origin. Here we present a model of peripheral ALCL pathogenesis where the malignancy is initiated in early thymocytes, before T-cell receptor (TCR) β-rearrangement, which is bypassed in CD4/NPM–ALK transgenic mice following Notch1 expression. However, we find that a TCR is required for thymic egress and development of peripheral murine tumours, yet this TCR must be downregulated for T-cell lymphomagenesis. In keeping with this, clonal TCR rearrangements in human ALCL are predominantly in-frame, but often aberrant, with clonal TCRα but no comparable clonal TCRβ rearrangement, yielding events that would not normally be permissive for survival during thymic development. Children affected by ALCL may thus harbour thymic lymphoma-initiating cells capable of seeding relapse after chemotherapy. PMID:26753883

  1. Quantitative PCR detection of NPM/ALK fusion gene and CD30 gene expression in patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma--residual disease monitoring and a correlation with the disease status.

    PubMed

    Kalinova, Marketa; Krskova, Lenka; Brizova, Helena; Kabickova, Edita; Kepak, Tomas; Kodet, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) represents a heterogeneous group of malignant lymphoproliferative diseases with a consistent expression of the cytokine receptor CD30. ALCL is frequently associated with a NPM/ALK fusion gene which is found in up to 75% of pediatric ALCLs. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RQ-RT-PCR) of NPM/ALK and CD30 gene expression was employed to analyze minimal residual disease (MRD) in 10 patients with NPM/ALK positive ALCL in 79 follow-up bone marrow (BM) and/or peripheral blood (PB) samples. In all BM samples from relapses and/or closely before a relapse, BM samples revealed NPM/ALK and CD30 positivity in at least one of the iliac BM trephines. Five out of nine relapses were preceded or were accompanied by minimally half log increased NPM/ALK levels in the BM. We found that RQ-RT-PCR of the CD30 expression is not suitable for MRD detection--only two relapses were accompanied by an increase of the CD30 level above a level which was detected in BM/PB samples from healthy individuals. RQ-RT-PCR of NPM/ALK expression is a promising and rapid approach for monitoring MRD.

  2. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jee Yeon; Suh, Jin Kyung; Lee, Seong Wook; Koh, Kyung-Nam; Im, Ho Joon

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is uncommon in children, accounting for approximately 15% of all cases of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite many studies attempting new treatment strategies, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved, and the optimal treatment for pediatric ALCL has not been established. Methods The records of newly diagnosed ALCL patients at our institute between July 1998 and April 2013 were reviewed. We evaluated the general characteristics of the patients, chemotherapy regimens, overall survival (OS) rates, and event-free survival (EFS) rates. Results Twenty-eight ALCL patients were eligible. The median age at diagnosis was 10.8 years. Lymph node involvement was the most common presentation (79%). CCG-5941, a multi-agent T-cell lineage chemotherapy, was the predominant treatment regimen (57%). The five-year OS and EFS rates were 88% and 69%, respectively. Stage, the presence of B symptoms, lung involvement, and bone marrow involvement were significant prognostic factors for EFS (P=0.02, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). Eight patients relapsed, and three died during the study period. Four of the eight patients who relapsed were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT-ASCT). Two of the four who had undergone HDCT-ASCT developed secondary relapses and were subsequently treated with allogeneic SCT or brentuximab. Conclusion We found that treatment outcomes with multi-agent chemotherapy in children with ALCL were similar to those of previous reports, and that relapsed patients could be salvaged with HDCT-ASCT or allogeneic SCT. A prospective, larger cohort study is warranted to define the optimal treatment for pediatric ALCL. PMID:25548758

  3. Treatment of Primary Cutaneous CD30+ Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, James B.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lund, Molly W.; Wilson, Lynn D.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (CALCL) is a relatively rare and indolent variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). This report examines the response of localized disease to radiation alone. Methods: The Yale Cancer Center records were examined, and all patients with CTCL from January 1, 2001, to September 1, 2006, evaluated in the Department of Therapeutic Radiology were identified. Only those patients with localized or single CALCL lesions, no clinical evidence or history of lymphomatoid papulosis, no history of other CTCLs, no history of other skin disorders, lack of lymph node involvement, unambiguous pathology reports, and treatment with radiation alone were included. Results: Eight patients were identified. Median age was 67 years, and gender was split evenly. Patients received radiation ranging from 34 to 44 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Most patients (5 of 8) received 40 Gy, using 6 to 9 MeV electrons with 0.5 to 2 cm of bolus. All patients had a complete response. All patients were without evidence of disease at the most recent follow-up (median follow-up, 12 months). Radiation therapy was well tolerated, and the only recorded toxicity was Grade I to II dermatitis. Conclusions: Radiation therapy alone for localized CALCL is very well tolerated and clinical response is excellent. A dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions seems to be well tolerated and effective in inducing a complete response. Lower doses may be effective in achieving the same result, but data are not available. Longer follow-up is necessary before conclusions regarding durable disease-free survival can be made.

  4. Patient-reported outcomes of brentuximab vedotin in Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert; Allibone, Suzanne; Bartlett, Nancy L; Brice, Pauline; Chen, Andy; Pose, Katrina; Rich, Lynn; Bonthapally, Vijay; Garfin, Phillip M; Fanale, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or R/R systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (sALCL) treated with brentuximab vedotin (BV) experienced high remission rates in two Phase II trials. With increased response rates and survival times, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are becoming increasingly important and can help inform treatment decisions to enhance care of cancer patients. Objective The objective was to qualitatively assess HRQoL in long-term survivors treated with BV. Methods An eight-question survey assessing PRO-related aspects was developed and fielded to a subset of patients with HL or sALCL who remained in long-term follow-up after completing BV treatment in the two pivotal studies. Results The survey was completed by 25 of 38 patients (12 with HL, 13 with sALCL). The majority of patients reported that their energy level, outlook on life, difficulties with daily activities, ability to participate in physical activities, and overall HRQoL improved compared to those before BV treatment. Limitations Small sample size and lack of a baseline questionnaire or validated assessment instrument limit broad applicability of these findings to large populations of patients with HL or sALCL. Conclusion This is the first report of BV PRO data in R/R HL and sALCL. Given the patients’ poor prognostic outcomes before stem cell transplant, these encouraging results warrant formal evaluation of PRO end points in BV trials. PMID:27103829

  5. Breast Implant–associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Updated Results from a Structured Expert Consultation Process

    PubMed Central

    Predmore, Zachary S.; Mattke, Soeren; van Busum, Kristin; Gidengil, Courtney A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite increased cases published on breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), important clinical issues remain unanswered. We conducted a second structured expert consultation process to rate statements related to the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of this disease, based on their interpretation of published evidence. Methods: A multidisciplinary panel of 12 experts was selected based on nominations from national specialty societies, academic department heads, and recognized researchers in the United States. Results: Panelists agreed that (1) this disease should be called “BIA-ALCL”; (2) late seromas occurring >1 year after breast implantation should be evaluated via ultrasound, and if a seroma is present, the fluid should be aspirated and sent for culture, cytology, flow cytometry, and cell block to an experienced hematopathologist; (3) surgical removal of the affected implant and capsule (as completely as possible) should occur, which is sufficient to eradicate capsule-confined BIA-ALCL; (4) surveillance should consist of clinical follow-up at least every 6 months for at least 5 years and breast ultrasound yearly for at least 2 years; and (5) BIA-ALCL is generally a biologically indolent disease with a good prognosis, unless it extends beyond the capsule and/or presents as a mass. They firmly disagreed with statements that chemotherapy and radiation therapy should be given to all patients with BIA-ALCL. Conclusions: Our assessment yielded consistent results on a number of key, incompletely addressed issues regarding BIA-ALCL, but additional research is needed to support these statement ratings and enhance our understanding of the biology, treatment, and outcomes associated with this disease. PMID:25674377

  6. The emerging normal and disease-related roles of anaplastic lymphoma kinase.

    PubMed

    Pulford, K; Lamant, L; Espinos, E; Jiang, Q; Xue, L; Turturro, F; Delsol, G; Morris, S W

    2004-12-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase, the normal role of which remains to be completely elucidated. Although work carried out in mammals suggests a function in neural development, results from studies in Drosophila indicate an additional role in visceral muscle differentiation. The aberrant expression of full-length ALK receptor proteins has been reported in neuroblastomas and glioblastomas, while the occurrence of ALK fusion proteins in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has resulted in the identification of the new tumor entity, ALK-positive ALCL. ALK represents one of few examples of a receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in oncogenesis in both haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic tumors, given that ALK fusions also occur in the mesenchymal tumor known as inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). The study of ALK fusion proteins, besides demonstrating their importance in tumor development, has also raised the possibility of new therapeutic treatments for patients with ALK-positive malignancies.

  7. Involvement of Grb2 adaptor protein in nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)-mediated signaling and anaplastic large cell lymphoma growth.

    PubMed

    Riera, Ludovica; Lasorsa, Elena; Ambrogio, Chiara; Surrenti, Nadia; Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

    2010-08-20

    Most anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) express oncogenic fusion proteins derived from chromosomal translocations or inversions of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. Frequently ALCL carry the t(2;5) translocation, which fuses the ALK gene to the nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene. The transforming activity mediated by NPM-ALK fusion induces different pathways that control proliferation and survival of lymphoma cells. Grb2 is an adaptor protein thought to play an important role in ALK-mediated transformation, but its interaction with NPM-ALK, as well as its function in regulating ALCL signaling pathways and cell growth, has never been elucidated. Here we show that active NPM-ALK, but not a kinase-dead mutant, bound and induced Grb2 phosphorylation in tyrosine 160. An intact SH3 domain at the C terminus of Grb2 was required for Tyr(160) phosphorylation. Furthermore, Grb2 did not bind to a single region but rather to different regions of NPM-ALK, mainly Tyr(152-156), Tyr(567), and a proline-rich region, Pro(415-417). Finally, shRNA knockdown experiments showed that Grb2 regulates primarily the NPM-ALK-mediated phosphorylation of SHP2 and plays a key role in ALCL cell growth.

  8. Detection of an early adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma clone in lymph nodes with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma involvement.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Masahito; Yoshida, Noriaki; Nakano, Nobuaki; Kubota, Ayumu; Takeuchi, Shogo; Takatsuka, Yoshifusa; Seto, Masao; Utsunomiya, Atae

    2016-04-01

    A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with systemic lymphadenopathy and was diagnosed with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) by lymph node biopsy. Although he was a human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) carrier, Southern blot analysis of the lymph node did not show monoclonal integration of HTLV-1 provirus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). He achieved complete remission after chemotherapy and subsequently, autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) was performed. Fifteen months after the auto-PBSCT, abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood gradually increased. Southern blot analysis revealed monoclonal integration of HTLV-1 provirus DNA and monoclonal rearrangement of TRB. He was diagnosed with chronic type adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL), which immediately progressed to the acute type. He died of tumor progression despite intensive chemotherapy. We analyzed genomic alterations of the ALCL and ATL cells using array comparative genomic hybridization. We found that the genomic alteration pattern differed between the two diseases. T-cell receptor clonality analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that the T-cell clone of the ATL was present in the lymph nodes with ALCL involvement, but not in peripheral blood. This finding suggests that lymph nodes can serve as a niche for ATL development.

  9. Treating patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer: latest evidence and management strategy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Bin-Chi; Shih, Jin-Yuan; Yang, James Chih-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Rearrangements in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene were first described in a small portion of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2007. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is used as the diagnostic test for detecting an EML4–ALK rearrangement. Crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor, is effective in treating advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, and the US Food and Drug Administration approved it for treating ALK-positive NSCLC in 2011. Several mechanisms of acquired resistance to crizotinib have recently been reported. Second-generation ALK inhibitors were designed to overcome these resistance mechanisms. Two of them, ceritinib and alectinib, were approved in 2014 for advanced ALK-positive NSCLC in the US and Japan, respectively. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors also showed activity against ALK-positive NSCLC. Here we review the recent development of crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib and other second-generation ALK inhibitors as well as Hsp90 inhibitors. We also discuss management strategies for advanced ALK-positive NSCLC. PMID:26327925

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of the NPM-ALK Signalling Network Reveals Important Pathways for Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine; O’Hare, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A large subset of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) patients harbour a somatic aberration in which anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is fused to nucleophosmin (NPM) resulting in a constitutively active signalling fusion protein, NPM-ALK. We computationally simulated the signalling network which mediates pathological cell survival and proliferation through NPM-ALK to identify therapeutically targetable nodes through which it may be possible to regain control of the tumourigenic process. The simulations reveal the predominant role of the VAV1-CDC42 (cell division control protein 42) pathway in NPM-ALK-driven cellular proliferation and of the Ras / mitogen-activated ERK kinase (MEK) / extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade in controlling cell survival. Our results also highlight the importance of a group of interleukins together with the Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) / signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling in the development of NPM-ALK derived ALCL. Depending on the activity of JAK3 and STAT3, the system may also be sensitive to activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP1), which has an inhibitory effect on cell survival and proliferation. The identification of signalling pathways active in tumourigenic processes is of fundamental importance for effective therapies. The prediction of alternative pathways that circumvent classical therapeutic targets opens the way to preventive approaches for countering the emergence of cancer resistance. PMID:27669408

  11. Analysis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in CD25+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma in children.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriela; Chioato, Lucimara; Weiss, Lawrence M; Harrington, William J; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2009-07-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is recognized as 2 distinct diseases: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)+ ALCL and ALK- ALCL. ALK+ ALCL occurs in younger patients and has a better prognosis. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) is linked to the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), which frequently expresses CD25. CD25 is significantly expressed in childhood ALCL. In Brazil, HTLV-1 infection is endemic, and vertical transmission is responsible for spread to children. Of HTLV-1 carriers, 90% or more remain asymptomatic. Some cases of adult HTLV-1-related lymphomas have characteristics of ALCL but are considered CD30+ ATLL subtypes. No similar cases have been described in children. We analyzed 33 cases of pediatric ALCL, CD25+ and CD25-, for proviral HTLV-1 DNA. All cases corresponded to the common histologic ALCL type and were CD30+ in virtually all neoplastic cells. ALK expression was observed in 31 (94%) of 33 cases; CD25 was positive in 27 (82%), including 1 ALK- ALCL case. There was a strong positive correlation between ALK and CD25 expression. None of the cases showed proviral HTLV-1 DNA. ALCL in children has no relationship with HTLV-1; the frequent CD25 expression must be explained by a mechanism different from that in ATLL.

  12. NPM/ALK binds and phosphorylates the RNA/DNA-binding protein PSF in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Galietta, Annamaria; Gunby, Rosalind H; Redaelli, Sara; Stano, Paola; Carniti, Cristiana; Bachi, Angela; Tucker, Philip W; Tartari, Carmen J; Huang, Ching-Jung; Colombo, Emanuela; Pulford, Karen; Puttini, Miriam; Piazza, Rocco G; Ruchatz, Holger; Villa, Antonello; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Marin, Oriano; Perrotti, Danilo; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    The oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinase nucleophosmin/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM/ALK) induces cellular transformation in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) carrying the t(2;5) chromosomal translocation. Protein-protein interactions involving NPM/ALK are important for the activation of downstream signaling pathways. This study was aimed at identifying novel NPM/ALK-binding proteins that might contribute to its oncogenic transformation. Using a proteomic approach, several RNA/DNA-binding proteins were found to coimmunoprecipitate with NPM/ALK, including the multifunctional polypyrimidine tract binding proteinassociated splicing factor (PSF). The interaction between NPM/ALK and PSF was dependent on an active ALK kinase domain and PSF was found to be tyrosine-phosphorylated in NPM/ALK-expressing cell lines and in primary ALK(+) ALCL samples. Furthermore, PSF was shown to be a direct substrate of purified ALK kinase domain in vitro, and PSF Tyr293 was identified as the site of phosphorylation. Y293F PSF was not phosphorylated by NPM/ALK and was not delocalized in NPM/ALK(+) cells. The expression of ALK fusion proteins induced delocalization of PSF from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and forced overexpression of PSF-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in cells expressing NPM/ALK. PSF phosphorylation also increased its binding to RNA and decreased the PSF-mediated suppression of GAGE6 expression. These results identify PSF as a novel NPM/ALK-binding protein and substrate, and suggest that PSF function may be perturbed in NPM/ALK-transformed cells.

  13. NPM/ALK binds and phosphorylates the RNA/DNA-binding protein PSF in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gunby, Rosalind H.; Redaelli, Sara; Stano, Paola; Carniti, Cristiana; Bachi, Angela; Tucker, Philip W.; Tartari, Carmen J.; Huang, Ching-Jung; Colombo, Emanuela; Pulford, Karen; Puttini, Miriam; Piazza, Rocco G.; Ruchatz, Holger; Villa, Antonello; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Marin, Oriano; Perrotti, Danilo; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    The oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinase nucleophosmin/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM/ALK) induces cellular transformation in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) carrying the t(2;5) chromosomal translocation. Protein-protein interactions involving NPM/ALK are important for the activation of downstream signaling pathways. This study was aimed at identifying novel NPM/ALK-binding proteins that might contribute to its oncogenic transformation. Using a proteomic approach, several RNA/DNA-binding proteins were found to coimmunoprecipitate with NPM/ALK, including the multifunctional polypyrimidine tract binding proteinassociated splicing factor (PSF). The interaction between NPM/ALK and PSF was dependent on an active ALK kinase domain and PSF was found to be tyrosine-phosphorylated in NPM/ALK-expressing cell lines and in primary ALK+ ALCL samples. Furthermore, PSF was shown to be a direct substrate of purified ALK kinase domain in vitro, and PSF Tyr293 was identified as the site of phosphorylation. Y293F PSF was not phosphorylated by NPM/ALK and was not delocalized in NPM/ALK+ cells. The expression of ALK fusion proteins induced delocalization of PSF from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and forced overexpression of PSF-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in cells expressing NPM/ALK. PSF phosphorylation also increased its binding to RNA and decreased the PSF-mediated suppression of GAGE6 expression. These results identify PSF as a novel NPM/ALK-binding protein and substrate, and suggest that PSF function may be perturbed in NPM/ALK-transformed cells. PMID:17537995

  14. NPM/ALK binds and phosphorylates the RNA/DNA-binding protein PSF in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Galietta, Annamaria; Gunby, Rosalind H; Redaelli, Sara; Stano, Paola; Carniti, Cristiana; Bachi, Angela; Tucker, Philip W; Tartari, Carmen J; Huang, Ching-Jung; Colombo, Emanuela; Pulford, Karen; Puttini, Miriam; Piazza, Rocco G; Ruchatz, Holger; Villa, Antonello; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Marin, Oriano; Perrotti, Danilo; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    The oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinase nucleophosmin/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM/ALK) induces cellular transformation in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) carrying the t(2;5) chromosomal translocation. Protein-protein interactions involving NPM/ALK are important for the activation of downstream signaling pathways. This study was aimed at identifying novel NPM/ALK-binding proteins that might contribute to its oncogenic transformation. Using a proteomic approach, several RNA/DNA-binding proteins were found to coimmunoprecipitate with NPM/ALK, including the multifunctional polypyrimidine tract binding proteinassociated splicing factor (PSF). The interaction between NPM/ALK and PSF was dependent on an active ALK kinase domain and PSF was found to be tyrosine-phosphorylated in NPM/ALK-expressing cell lines and in primary ALK(+) ALCL samples. Furthermore, PSF was shown to be a direct substrate of purified ALK kinase domain in vitro, and PSF Tyr293 was identified as the site of phosphorylation. Y293F PSF was not phosphorylated by NPM/ALK and was not delocalized in NPM/ALK(+) cells. The expression of ALK fusion proteins induced delocalization of PSF from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and forced overexpression of PSF-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in cells expressing NPM/ALK. PSF phosphorylation also increased its binding to RNA and decreased the PSF-mediated suppression of GAGE6 expression. These results identify PSF as a novel NPM/ALK-binding protein and substrate, and suggest that PSF function may be perturbed in NPM/ALK-transformed cells. PMID:17537995

  15. Gene deregulation and spatial genome reorganization near breakpoints prior to formation of translocations in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathas, Stephan; Kreher, Stephan; Meaburn, Karen J.; Jöhrens, Korinna; Lamprecht, Björn; Assaf, Chalid; Sterry, Wolfram; Kadin, Marshall E.; Daibata, Masanori; Joos, Stefan; Hummel, Michael; Stein, Harald; Janz, Martin; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Schrock, Evelin; Misteli, Tom; Dörken, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Although the identification and characterization of translocations have rapidly increased, little is known about the mechanisms of how translocations occur in vivo. We used anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with and without the characteristic t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation to study the mechanisms of formation of translocations and of ALCL transformation. We report deregulation of several genes located near the ALCL translocation breakpoint, regardless of whether the tumor contains the t(2;5). The affected genes include the oncogenic transcription factor Fra2 (located on 2p23), the HLH protein Id2 (2p25), and the oncogenic tyrosine kinase CSF1-receptor (5q33.1). Their up-regulation promotes cell survival and repression of T cell-specific gene expression programs that are characteristic for ALCL. The deregulated genes are in spatial proximity within the nuclear space of t(2;5)-negative ALCL cells, facilitating their translocation on induction of double-strand breaks. These data suggest that deregulation of breakpoint-proximal genes occurs before the formation of translocations, and that aberrant transcriptional activity of genomic regions is linked to their propensity to undergo chromosomal translocations. Also, our data demonstrate that deregulation of breakpoint-proximal genes has a key role in ALCL. PMID:19321746

  16. Biomarkers Provide Clues to Early Events in the Pathogenesis of Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kadin, Marshall E; Deva, Anand; Xu, Haiying; Morgan, John; Khare, Pranay; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Van Natta, Bruce W; Adams, William P; Brody, Garry S; Epstein, Alan L

    2016-07-01

    Almost 200 women worldwide have been diagnosed with breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL). The unique location and specific lymphoma type strongly suggest an etio-pathologic link between breast implants and BIA-ALCL. It is postulated that chronic inflammation via bacterial infection may be an etiological factor. BIA-ALCL resembles primary cutaneous ALCL (pcALCL) in morphology, activated T-cell phenotype, and indolent clinical course. Gene expression array analysis, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to study pcALCL and BIA-ALCL cell lines. Clinical samples were also studied to characterize transcription factor and cytokine profiles of tumor cells and surrounding lymphocytes. BIA-ALCL and pcALCL were found to have common expression of transcription factors SOCS3, JunB, SATB1, and a cytokine profile suggestive of a Th1 phenotype. Similar patterns were observed in a CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The patterns of cytokine and transcription factor expression suggest that BIA-ALCL is likely to arise from chronic bacterial antigen stimulation of T-cells. Further analysis of cytokine and transcription factor profiles may allow early detection and treatment of BIA-ALCL leading to better prognosis and survival. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5: Risk. PMID:26979456

  17. Complete Surgical Excision Is Essential for the Management of Patients With Breast Implant–Associated Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Mark W.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Butler, Charles E.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Fanale, Michelle A.; Horwitz, Steven; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Liu, Jun; Morgan, Elizabeth A.; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Parkash, Vinita; Ning, Jing; Sohani, Aliyah R.; Ferry, Judith A.; Mehta-Shah, Neha; Dogan, Ahmed; Liu, Hui; Thormann, Nora; Di Napoli, Arianna; Lade, Stephen; Piccolini, Jorge; Reyes, Ruben; Williams, Travis; McCarthy, Colleen M.; Hanson, Summer E.; Nastoupil, Loretta J.; Gaur, Rakesh; Oki, Yasuhiro; Young, Ken H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Breast implant–associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) is a rare type of T-cell lymphoma that arises around breast implants. The optimal management of this disease has not been established. The goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of different therapies used in patients with BI-ALCL to determine an optimal treatment approach. Patients and Methods In this study, we applied strict criteria to pathologic findings, assessed therapies used, and conducted a clinical follow-up of 87 patients with BI-ALCL, including 50 previously reported in the literature and 37 unreported. A Prentice, Williams, and Peterson model was used to assess the rate of events for each therapeutic intervention. Results The median and mean follow-up times were 45 and 30 months, respectively (range, 3 to 217 months). The median overall survival (OS) time after diagnosis of BI-ALCL was 13 years, and the OS rate was 93% and 89% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Patients with lymphoma confined by the fibrous capsule surrounding the implant had better event-free survival (EFS) and OS than did patients with lymphoma that had spread beyond the capsule (P = .03). Patients who underwent a complete surgical excision that consisted of total capsulectomy with breast implant removal had better OS (P = .022) and EFS (P = .014) than did patients who received partial capsulectomy, systemic chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Conclusion Surgical management with complete surgical excision is essential to achieve optimal EFS in patients with BI-ALCL. PMID:26628470

  18. Breast Implant–Associated Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma: Long-Term Follow-Up of 60 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Roberto N.; Aladily, Tariq N.; Prince, H. Miles; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; de Jong, Daphne; Fayad, Luis E.; Amin, Mitual B.; Haideri, Nisreen; Bhagat, Govind; Brooks, Glen S.; Shifrin, David A.; O'Malley, Dennis P.; Cheah, Chan Y.; Bacchi, Carlos E.; Gualco, Gabriela; Li, Shiyong; Keech, John A.; Hochberg, Ephram P.; Carty, Matthew J.; Hanson, Summer E.; Mustafa, Eid; Sanchez, Steven; Manning, John T.; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y.; Miranda, Alonso R.; Fox, Patricia; Bassett, Roland L.; Castillo, Jorge J.; Beltran, Brady E.; de Boer, Jan Paul; Chakhachiro, Zaher; Ye, Dongjiu; Clark, Douglas; Young, Ken H.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Breast implant–associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a recently described clinicopathologic entity that usually presents as an effusion-associated fibrous capsule surrounding an implant. Less frequently, it presents as a mass. The natural history of this disease and long-term outcomes are unknown. Patients and Methods We reviewed the literature for all published cases of breast implant–associated ALCL from 1997 to December 2012 and contacted corresponding authors to update clinical follow-up. Results The median overall survival (OS) for 60 patients was 12 years (median follow-up, 2 years; range, 0-14 years). Capsulectomy and implant removal was performed on 56 of 60 patients (93%). Therapeutic data were available for 55 patients: 39 patients (78%) received systemic chemotherapy, and of the 16 patients (28%) who did not receive chemotherapy, 12 patients opted for watchful waiting and four patients received radiation therapy alone. Thirty-nine (93%) of 42 patients with disease confined by the fibrous capsule achieved complete remission, compared with complete remission in 13 (72%) of 18 patients with a tumor mass. Patients with a breast mass had worse OS and progression-free survival (PFS; P = .052 and P = .03, respectively). The OS or PFS were similar between patients who received and did not receive chemotherapy (P = .44 and P = .28, respectively). Conclusion Most patients with breast implant–associated ALCL who had disease confined within the fibrous capsule achieved complete remission. Proper management for these patients may be limited to capsulectomy and implant removal. Patients who present with a mass have a more aggressive clinical course that may be fatal, justifying cytotoxic chemotherapy in addition to removal of implants. PMID:24323027

  19. Breast implant-associated ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a case report and discussion of possible pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    George, Eva V; Pharm, John; Houston, Courtney; Al-Quran, Semar; Brian, Grey; Dong, Huijia; Hai, Wang; Reeves, Westley; Yang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a recently recognized clinical entity, with only 39 well-documented cases reported worldwide, including 3 fatalities. Because of its rarity, the clinical and pathologic features of this malignancy have yet to be fully defined. Moreover, the pathogenesis of ALCL in association with textured silicone gel breast implants is poorly understood. Here we report a case of BIA-ALCL arising in a 67-year-old woman with a mastectomy due to breast cancer followed by implantation of textured silicone gel breast prosthesis. The patient presented with breast enlargement and tenderness 8 years following reconstructive surgery. MRI revealed a fluid collection surrounding the affected breast implant. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of malignant ALCL T cells that were CD30+, CD8+, CD15+, HLA-DR+, CD25+ ALK- and p53. A diagnosis of indolent BIA-ALCL was made since tumor cells were not found outside of the capsule. Interestingly, an extensive mixed lymphocytic infiltrate and ectopic lymphoid tissue (lymphoid neogenesis) adjacent to the fibrous implant capsule were present. The patient was treated with capsulectomy and implantation of new breast prostheses. Six months later, the patient was found to have BIA-ALCL involvement of an axillary lymph node with cytogenetic evolutionof the tumor. To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case of aggressive BIA-ALCL. Unique features of this case include the association with lymphoid neogenesis and the in vivo cytogenetic progression of the tumor. This case provides insight into the potential role of chronic inflammation and genetic instability in the pathogenesis of BIA-ALCL. PMID:23923082

  20. Breast implant-associated ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a case report and discussion of possible pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    George, Eva V; Pharm, John; Houston, Courtney; Al-Quran, Semar; Brian, Grey; Dong, Huijia; Hai, Wang; Reeves, Westley; Yang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a recently recognized clinical entity, with only 39 well-documented cases reported worldwide, including 3 fatalities. Because of its rarity, the clinical and pathologic features of this malignancy have yet to be fully defined. Moreover, the pathogenesis of ALCL in association with textured silicone gel breast implants is poorly understood. Here we report a case of BIA-ALCL arising in a 67-year-old woman with a mastectomy due to breast cancer followed by implantation of textured silicone gel breast prosthesis. The patient presented with breast enlargement and tenderness 8 years following reconstructive surgery. MRI revealed a fluid collection surrounding the affected breast implant. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of malignant ALCL T cells that were CD30+, CD8+, CD15+, HLA-DR+, CD25+ ALK- and p53. A diagnosis of indolent BIA-ALCL was made since tumor cells were not found outside of the capsule. Interestingly, an extensive mixed lymphocytic infiltrate and ectopic lymphoid tissue (lymphoid neogenesis) adjacent to the fibrous implant capsule were present. The patient was treated with capsulectomy and implantation of new breast prostheses. Six months later, the patient was found to have BIA-ALCL involvement of an axillary lymph node with cytogenetic evolution of the tumor. To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case of aggressive BIA-ALCL. Unique features of this case include the association with lymphoid neogenesis and the in vivo cytogenetic progression of the tumor. This case provides insight into the potential role of chronic inflammation and genetic instability in the pathogenesis of BIA-ALCL. PMID:23923082

  1. [Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Case report of an undiagnosed form, management and reconstruction (ALCL)].

    PubMed

    Alhamad, S; Guerid, S; El Fakir, E H; Biron, P; Tourasse, C; Delay, E

    2016-06-01

    Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an extremely rare disease. Is a new nosologic entity with a multifactorial origin and a wide occurrence delay after breast implantation. This article reports the case of a 60 years old patient with a progressive swelling of the right breast after aesthetic breast implants. Diagnostic was delayed because first surgeon was not familiar with the disease. Patient was then referred to us for management. We performed an implant removal and a complete capsulectomy. Pathologic report confirms the diagnostic. After one year and normal ultrasound evaluation, we reconstructed the breast with lipomodeling and mastopexy. Contralateral implant was also removed at time of reconstruction. Vast majority of breast implant-associated ALCL occurs at a time lapse of 11 to 15 years after implant augmentation, with a mean age of 63 years. Among the worldwide 173 cases reported in March 2015, smooth implants seem not to be at risk but 80% of cases were associated with macrotexturized implants. Clinical presentation and diagnostic tools are more and more published but there is to date no recommendation concerning reconstruction delay after implant removal for this pathology. We advise the realization of a breast ultrasound every three months during the first year and wait for a one-year period before reconstruction. In case of aesthetic surgery, mastopexia can be done to allow for glandular shaping. Lipomodeling is an excellent technique to correct the lack of volume due to implant removal. In case of reconstructive setting, implant can be replaced by flap procedure with lipomodeling if needed or lipomodeling alone if recipient site is favorable and patient has enough fat tissue. Contralateral implant should be removed during reconstruction time. PMID:27107559

  2. Clinical Utility of Circulating Tumor Cells in ALK-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Faugeroux, Vincent; Pailler, Emma; Auger, Nathalie; Taylor, Melissa; Farace, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The advent of rationally targeted therapies such as small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has considerably transformed the therapeutic management of a subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring defined molecular abnormalities. When such genetic molecular alterations are detected the use of specific TKI has demonstrated better results (overall response rate, progression free survival) compared to systemic therapy. However, the detection of such molecular abnormalities is complicated by the difficulty in obtaining sufficient tumor material, in terms of quantity and quality, from a biopsy. Here, we described how circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can have a clinical utility in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive NSCLC patients to diagnose ALK-EML4 gene rearrangement and to guide therapeutic management of these patients. The ability to detect genetic abnormalities such ALK rearrangement in CTCs shows that these cells could offer new perspectives both for the diagnosis and the monitoring of ALK-positive patients eligible for treatment with ALK inhibitors. PMID:25414829

  3. Clinical Utility of Circulating Tumor Cells in ALK-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Faugeroux, Vincent; Pailler, Emma; Auger, Nathalie; Taylor, Melissa; Farace, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The advent of rationally targeted therapies such as small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has considerably transformed the therapeutic management of a subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring defined molecular abnormalities. When such genetic molecular alterations are detected the use of specific TKI has demonstrated better results (overall response rate, progression free survival) compared to systemic therapy. However, the detection of such molecular abnormalities is complicated by the difficulty in obtaining sufficient tumor material, in terms of quantity and quality, from a biopsy. Here, we described how circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can have a clinical utility in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive NSCLC patients to diagnose ALK-EML4 gene rearrangement and to guide therapeutic management of these patients. The ability to detect genetic abnormalities such ALK rearrangement in CTCs shows that these cells could offer new perspectives both for the diagnosis and the monitoring of ALK-positive patients eligible for treatment with ALK inhibitors. PMID:25414829

  4. Canadian consensus: inhibition of ALK-positive tumours in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, B.; Agulnik, J.; Albadine, R.; Banerji, S.; Bebb, D.G.; Bethune, D.; Blais, N.; Butts, C.; Cheema, P.; Cheung, P.; Cohen, V.; Deschenes, J.; Ionescu, D.N.; Juergens, R.; Kamel-Reid, S.; Laurie, S.A.; Liu, G.; Morzycki, W.; Tsao, M.S.; Xu, Z.; Hirsh, V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (alk) is an oncogenic driver in non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ALK gene occur in up to 4% of nonsquamous nsclc patients and lead to constitutive activation of the alk signalling pathway. ALK-positive nsclc is found in relatively young patients, with a median age of 50 years. Patients frequently have brain metastasis. Targeted inhibition of the alk pathway prolongs progression-free survival in patients with ALK-positive advanced nsclc. The results of several recent clinical trials confirm the efficacy and safety benefit of crizotinib and ceritinib in this population. Canadian oncologists support the following consensus statement: All patients with advanced nonsquamous nsclc (excluding pure neuroendocrine carcinoma) should be tested for the presence of an ALK rearrangement. If an ALK rearrangement is present, treatment with a targeted alk inhibitor in the first-line setting is recommended. As patients become resistant to first-generation alk inhibitors, other treatments, including second-generation alk inhibitors can be considered. PMID:27330348

  5. Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... called primary cutaneous ALCL and follows a less aggressive course. In almost all cases of primary cutaneous ... kinase (ALK). While both lymphomas are treated as aggressive lymphomas, the prognosis for ALCL depends on whether ...

  6. Central nervous system involvement in anaplastic large cell lymphoma in childhood: results from a multicentre European and Japanese study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Denise; Mori, Tetsuya; Reiter, Alfred; Woessman, Wilhelm; Rosolen, Angelo; Wrobel, Grazyna; Zsiros, Jozsef; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Marky, Ildiko; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Brugières, Laurence

    2013-10-01

    In an international study of systemic childhood ALCL, 12/463 patients had CNS involvement, three of which had isolated CNS disease. Comparative analysis of CNS positive and negative patients showed no difference in ALK positivity, immunophenotype, presence of B symptoms or other sites of disease. The lymphohistiocytic variant was over represented in the CNS positive group (36% vs. 5%). With multi-agent chemotherapy, including high dose methotrexate, Ara-C and intrathecal treatment, the event free and overall survival of the CNS positive group at 5 years were 50% (95%CI, 25-75%) and 74% (45-91%), respectively with a median follow up of 4.1 years. PMID:23720354

  7. Integrated phosphoproteomic and metabolomic profiling reveals NPM-ALK-mediated phosphorylation of PKM2 and metabolic reprogramming in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Scott R P; Hwang, Steven R; Rolland, Delphine; Murga-Zamalloa, Carlos; Basrur, Venkatesha; Conlon, Kevin P; Fermin, Damian; Wolfe, Thomas; Raskind, Alexander; Ruan, Chunhai; Jiang, Jian-Kang; Thomas, Craig J; Hogaboam, Cory M; Burant, Charles F; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Lim, Megan S

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the constitutively active tyrosine kinase nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) expressing anaplastic large cell lymphoma are not completely understood. Here we show using an integrated phosphoproteomic and metabolomic strategy that NPM-ALK induces a metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis, increased lactate production, and biomass production. The metabolic shift is mediated through the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) phosphorylation of the tumor-specific isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) at Y105, resulting in decreased enzymatic activity. Small molecule activation of PKM2 or expression of Y105F PKM2 mutant leads to reversal of the metabolic switch with increased oxidative phosphorylation and reduced lactate production coincident with increased cell death, decreased colony formation, and reduced tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft model. This study provides comprehensive profiling of the phosphoproteomic and metabolomic consequences of NPM-ALK expression and reveals a novel role of ALK in the regulation of multiple components of cellular metabolism. Our studies show that PKM2 is a novel substrate of ALK and plays a critical role in mediating the metabolic shift toward biomass production and tumorigenesis.

  8. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase and its signalling molecules as novel targets in lymphoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, A M L; Gunby, R H; Tartari, C J; Scapozza, L; Gambacorti-Passerini, C; Passoni, Lorena

    2005-06-01

    A crucial issue in the development of molecularly-targeted anticancer therapies is the identification of appropriate molecules whose targeting would result in tumour regression with a minimal level of systemic toxicity. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, normally expressed at low levels in the nervous system. As a consequence of chromosomal translocations involving the alk gene (2p23), ALK is also aberrantly expressed and constitutively activated in approximately 60% of CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). Due to the selective overexpression of ALK in tumour cells, its direct involvement in the process of malignant transformation and its frequent expression in ALCL patients, the authors recognise ALK as a suitable candidate for the development of molecularly targeted strategies for the therapeutic treatment of ALK-positive lymphomas. Strategies targeting ALK directly or indirectly via the inhibition of the protein networks responsible for ALK oncogenic signalling are discussed. PMID:15948671

  9. Timely topic: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) spreads its influence.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, W; Chan, J K

    2001-02-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is normally not expressed in human tissues except selected sites in the nervous system. Its expression and constitutive activation as a result of a chromosomal translocation involving 2p23 plays a pivotal role in the genesis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. ALK expression has been instrumental in defining a homogeneous subset from the category of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, characterised by occurrence in young patients, primary systemic presentation, favorable prognosis, a broad morphological spectrum, nuclear and/or cytoplasmic immunostaining for ALK protein, and a number of possible fusion partner genes such as NPM, ATIC, TFG, TPM3 and CLTCL. Recently ALK has been implicated in the genesis of another tumour type, the inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours. The ALK-positive examples occur in children and young adults, involving a variety of sites, such as the abdomen, mesentery, liver, bladder, mediastinum, lung and bone. The partner genes identified in some cases are TPM3 (tropomyosin 3) and TPM4 (tropomyosin 4). These molecular findings also further support the neoplastic nature of at least a subset of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours.

  10. EORTC, ISCL, and USCLC consensus recommendations for the treatment of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders: lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pfaltz, Katrin; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Cozzio, Antonio; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Bagot, Martine; Olsen, Elise; Kim, Youn H.; Dummer, Reinhard; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Whittaker, Sean; Hodak, Emmilia; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Berti, Emilio; Horwitz, Steve; Prince, H. Miles; Guitart, Joan; Estrach, Teresa; Sanches, José A.; Duvic, Madeleine; Ranki, Annamari; Dreno, Brigitte; Ostheeren-Michaelis, Sonja; Knobler, Robert; Wood, Gary; Willemze, Rein

    2011-01-01

    Primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30+ LPDs) are the second most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and include lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Despite the anaplastic cytomorphology of tumor cells that suggest an aggressive course, CD30+ LPDs are characterized by an excellent prognosis. Although a broad spectrum of therapeutic strategies has been reported, these have been limited mostly to small retrospective cohort series or case reports, and only very few prospective controlled or multicenter studies have been performed, which results in a low level of evidence for most therapies. The response rates to treatment, recurrence rates, and outcome have not been analyzed in a systematic review. Moreover, international guidelines for staging and treatment of CD30+ LPDs have not yet been presented. Based on a literature analysis and discussions, recommendations were elaborated by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas, and the United States Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium. The recommendations represent the state-of-the-art management of CD30+ LPDs and include definitions for clinical endpoints as well as response criteria for future clinical trials in CD30+ LPDs. PMID:21841159

  11. IGF-IR tyrosine kinase interacts with NPM-ALK oncogene to induce survival of T-cell ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Lai, Raymond; Lin, Quan; Iqbal, Abid S; Young, Leah C; Kwak, Larry W; Ford, Richard J; Amin, Hesham M

    2009-07-01

    Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) tyrosine kinase plays important roles in the pathogenesis of several malignancies. Although it promotes the growth of stimulated hematopoietic cells, a direct role of IGF-IR in malignant lymphoma has not been identified. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALK(+) ALCL) is a unique type of T-cell lymphoma. Approximately 85% of ALK(+) ALCL cases harbor the translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35), which generates the chimeric oncogene NPM-ALK. In the present study, we explored a possible role of IGF-IR in ALK(+) ALCL. Our results demonstrate that IGF-IR and IGF-I are widely expressed in ALK(+) ALCL cell lines and primary tumors. Importantly, we identified novel reciprocal functional interactions between IGF-IR and NPM-ALK. Antagonism of IGF-IR decreased the viability, induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, and decreased proliferation and colony formation of ALK(+) ALCL cell lines. These effects could be explained by alterations of cell survival regulatory proteins downstream of IGF-IR signaling. Our findings improve current understanding of the biology of IGF-IR and NPM-ALK and have significant therapeutic implications as they identify IGF-IR signaling as a potential therapeutic target in ALK(+) ALCL and possibly other types of malignant lymphoma.

  12. Crizotinib (PF-2341066) induces apoptosis due to downregulation of pSTAT3 and BCL-2 family proteins in NPM-ALK(+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hamedani, Farid Saei; Cinar, Munevver; Mo, Zhicheng; Cervania, Melissa A; Amin, Hesham M; Alkan, Serhan

    2014-04-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is an aberrant fusion gene product with tyrosine kinase activity and is expressed in substantial subset of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL). It has been shown that NPM-ALK binds to and activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Although NPM-ALK(+) ALCL overall shows a better prognosis, there is a sub-group of patients who relapses and is resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic regimens. NPM-ALK is a potential target for small molecule kinase inhibitors. Crizotinib (PF-2341066) is a small, orally bioavailable molecule that inhibits growth of tumors with ALK activity as shown in a subgroup of non-small lung cancer patients with EML4-ALK expression. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of Crizotinib in ALCL cell line with NPM-ALK fusion. Crizotinib induced marked downregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation, which was associated with significant apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis induction was attributed to caspase-3 cleavage and marked downregulation of the Bcl-2 family of proteins including MCL-1. These findings implicate that Crizotinib has excellent potential to treat patients with NPM-ALK(+) ALCL through induction of apoptotic cell death and downregulation of major oncogenic proteins in this aggressive lymphoma.

  13. IGF-IR tyrosine kinase interacts with NPM-ALK oncogene to induce survival of T-cell ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Lai, Raymond; Lin, Quan; Iqbal, Abid S.; Young, Leah C.; Kwak, Larry W.; Ford, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) tyrosine kinase plays important roles in the pathogenesis of several malignancies. Although it promotes the growth of stimulated hematopoietic cells, a direct role of IGF-IR in malignant lymphoma has not been identified. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL) is a unique type of T-cell lymphoma. Approximately 85% of ALK+ ALCL cases harbor the translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35), which generates the chimeric oncogene NPM-ALK. In the present study, we explored a possible role of IGF-IR in ALK+ ALCL. Our results demonstrate that IGF-IR and IGF-I are widely expressed in ALK+ ALCL cell lines and primary tumors. Importantly, we identified novel reciprocal functional interactions between IGF-IR and NPM-ALK. Antagonism of IGF-IR decreased the viability, induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, and decreased proliferation and colony formation of ALK+ ALCL cell lines. These effects could be explained by alterations of cell survival regulatory proteins downstream of IGF-IR signaling. Our findings improve current understanding of the biology of IGF-IR and NPM-ALK and have significant therapeutic implications as they identify IGF-IR signaling as a potential therapeutic target in ALK+ ALCL and possibly other types of malignant lymphoma. PMID:19423729

  14. Use of minimal disseminated disease and immunity to NPM-ALK antigen to stratify ALK-positive ALCL patients with different prognosis.

    PubMed

    Mussolin, L; Damm-Welk, C; Pillon, M; Zimmermann, M; Franceschetto, G; Pulford, K; Reiter, A; Rosolen, A; Woessmann, W

    2013-02-01

    We studied the prognostic value of minimal disseminated disease (MDD) and anti-ALK immune response in children with NPM-ALK-positive anaplastic-large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and evaluated their potential for risk stratification. NPM-ALK transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR in bone marrow/peripheral blood of 128 ALCL patients at diagnosis, whereas ALK antibody titers in plasma were assessed using an immunocytochemical approach. MDD was positive in 59% of patients and 96% showed an anti-ALK response. Using MDD and antibody titer results, patients could be divided into three biological risk groups (bRG) with different prognosis: high risk (bHR): MDD-positive and antibody titer ≤ 1/750, 26/128 (20%); low risk (bLR): MDD negative and antibody titer >1/750, 40/128 (31%); intermediate risk (bIR): all remaining patients, 62/128 (48%). Progression-free survival was 28% (s.e., 9%), 68% (s.e., 6%) and 93% (s.e., 4%) for bHR, bIR and bLR, respectively (P<0.0001). Survival was 71% (s.e., 9%), 83% (s.e., 5%) and 98% (s.e., 2%) for bHR, bIR and bLR (P=0.02). Only bHR and histology other than common type were predictive of higher risk of failure (hazard ratio 4.9 and 2.7, respectively) in multivariate analysis. Stratification of ALCL patients based on MDD and anti-ALK titer should be considered in future ALCL trials to optimize treatment.

  15. miR-135b mediates NPM-ALK-driven oncogenicity and renders IL-17-producing immunophenotype to anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Hironori; Suzuki, Hiroshi I; Nishimori, Hikaru; Noguchi, Masaaki; Yao, Takashi; Komatsu, Norio; Mano, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Koichi; Miyazono, Kohei

    2011-12-22

    Many transformed lymphoma cells show immune-phenotypes resembling the corresponding normal lymphocytes; thus, they provide a guide for proper diagnosis and present promising routes to improve their pathophysiologic understanding and to identify novel therapeutic targets. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of these aberrant immune-phenotypes is largely unknown. Here, we report that microRNA-135b (miR-135b) mediates nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)-driven oncogenicity and empowers IL-17-producing immunophenotype in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). NPM-ALK oncogene strongly promoted the expression of miR-135b and its host gene LEMD1 through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. In turn, elevated miR-135b targeted FOXO1 in ALCL cells. miR-135b introduction also decreased chemosensitivity in Jurkat cells, suggesting its contribution to oncogenic activities of NPM-ALK. Interestingly, miR-135b suppressed T-helper (Th) 2 master regulators STAT6 and GATA3, and miR-135b blockade attenuated IL-17 production and paracrine inflammatory response by ALCL cells, indicating that miR-135b-mediated Th2 suppression may lead to the skewing to ALCL immunophenotype overlapping with Th17 cells. Furthermore, antisense-based miR-135b inhibition reduced tumor angiogenesis and growth in vivo, demonstrating significance of this "Th17 mimic" pathway as a therapeutic target. These results collectively illuminated unique contribution of oncogenic kinase-linked microRNA to tumorigenesis through modulation of tumor immune-phenotype and microenvironment.

  16. NPM-ALK oncogenic kinase promotes cell-cycle progression through activation of JNK/cJun signaling in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Leventaki, Vasiliki; Drakos, Elias; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S; Claret, Francois X; Rassidakis, George Z

    2007-09-01

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) frequently carries the t(2;5)(p23;q35), resulting in aberrant expression of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK). We show that in 293T and Jurkat cells, forced expression of active NPM-ALK, but not kinase-dead mutant NPM-ALK (210K>R), induced JNK and cJun phosphorylation, and this was linked to a dramatic increase in AP-1 transcriptional activity. Conversely, inhibition of ALK activity in NPM-ALK(+) ALCL cells resulted in a concentration-dependent dephosphorylation of JNK and cJun and decreased AP-1 DNA-binding. In addition, JNK physically binds NPM-ALK and is highly activated in cultured and primary NPM-ALK(+) ALCL cells. cJun phosphorylation in NPM-ALK(+) ALCL cells is mediated by JNKs, as shown by selective knocking down of JNK1 and JNK2 genes using siRNA. Inhibition of JNK activity using SP600125 decreased cJun phosphorylation and AP-1 transcriptional activity and this was associated with decreased cell proliferation and G2/M cell-cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Silencing of the cJun gene by siRNA led to a decreased S-phase cell-cycle fraction associated with upregulation of p21 and downregulation of cyclin D3 and cyclin A. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel function of NPM-ALK, phosphorylation and activation of JNK and cJun, which may contribute to uncontrolled cell-cycle progression and oncogenesis.

  17. Sarcomatoid variant of ALK- anaplastic large cell lymphoma involving multiple lymph nodes and both lungs with production of proinflammatory cytokines: report of a case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu; Yan, Lin Li; Yang, Shou Jing

    2014-01-01

    Sarcomatoid variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is one of the rarest histologic variants of ALCL that consists of large, bizarre, often spindle-shaped, neoplastic cells resembling a soft tissue sarcoma. We report here such a case of ALCL with both pulmonary and multiple nodal involvement in a 47-year-old woman who initially presented with fever, cough, sputum, itching skin, and weight loss. The initial transbronchial lung biopsy showed discohesive pleomorphic malignant cells in a strong inflammatory milieu reminiscent of inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). Subsequent cervical lymph node biopsy revealed a spindle cell sarcoma predominantly composed of plump spindle and oval neoplastic cells in interweaving fascicles, with sparse inflammatory infiltrates, resembling pleomorphic-storiform type of MFH. However, these tumor cells in the lung and node lesions revealed essentially similar immunohistochemical features that were positive for CD30, EMA, TIA-1, granzyme B, and fascin, but negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and T- or B-lineage-specific marker. The spindled cells stains diffuse strong positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), along with vimentin. Further studies showed that the tumor produced large quantities of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, and IL-8, which we believe may contribute to the pathogenesis of sarcomatoid transformation of this tumor, and was associated with the patient’s inflammatory symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of sarcomatoid variant of ALK-negative ALCL with null cell phenotype and in situ production of proinflammatory cytokines presenting as multiple nodes and pulmonary involvement. PMID:25197351

  18. Galectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, invasion and cell death in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma: regulatory roles of cell surface glycans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-05-01

    Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic acid enhanced Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Helix pomatia (HPA) and Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA) lectin binding reactivity to cell surface of lymphoma cells suggesting that neuraminidase removes cell surface sialic acid. In cell adhesion and invasion assays treatment with neuraminidase markedly enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1 and decreased cell invasive capacity through galectin-1. α2,6-linked sialic acid may be involved in masking the effect of the interaction between galectin-1 and cell surface glycans. H-ALCL cells expressed the β-galactoside-α2,6-sialyltransferase ST6Gal1. On resialylation assay by recombinant ST6Gal1 with CMP-Neu5Ac, α2,6-resialylation of L-PHA reactive oligosaccharide by ST6Gal1 resulted in inhibition of H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-1 compared to the desialylated H-ALCL cells. On knockdown experiments, knockdown of ST6Gal1 dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1. N-glycosylation inhibitor swainsonine treatment resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin-1. In glycomic analysis using the lectin blocking assay treatment with PNA, Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Glycine max (SBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Vicia villosa (VVA), Ulex europaeus (UEA-1), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA), Phaseolus vulgaris-E4 (E-PHA), Datura stramonium (DSA) lectins resulted in modulation of lymphoma cell to galectin-1 suggesting that several types of glycans may regulate cell adhesion to galectin-1 by

  19. Galectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, invasion and cell death in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma: regulatory roles of cell surface glycans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-05-01

    Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic acid enhanced Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Helix pomatia (HPA) and Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA) lectin binding reactivity to cell surface of lymphoma cells suggesting that neuraminidase removes cell surface sialic acid. In cell adhesion and invasion assays treatment with neuraminidase markedly enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1 and decreased cell invasive capacity through galectin-1. α2,6-linked sialic acid may be involved in masking the effect of the interaction between galectin-1 and cell surface glycans. H-ALCL cells expressed the β-galactoside-α2,6-sialyltransferase ST6Gal1. On resialylation assay by recombinant ST6Gal1 with CMP-Neu5Ac, α2,6-resialylation of L-PHA reactive oligosaccharide by ST6Gal1 resulted in inhibition of H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-1 compared to the desialylated H-ALCL cells. On knockdown experiments, knockdown of ST6Gal1 dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1. N-glycosylation inhibitor swainsonine treatment resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin-1. In glycomic analysis using the lectin blocking assay treatment with PNA, Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Glycine max (SBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Vicia villosa (VVA), Ulex europaeus (UEA-1), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA), Phaseolus vulgaris-E4 (E-PHA), Datura stramonium (DSA) lectins resulted in modulation of lymphoma cell to galectin-1 suggesting that several types of glycans may regulate cell adhesion to galectin-1 by

  20. The ALK inhibitor ASP3026 eradicates NPM-ALK⁺ T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in vitro and in a systemic xenograft lymphoma model.

    PubMed

    George, Suraj Konnath; Vishwamitra, Deeksha; Manshouri, Roxsan; Shi, Ping; Amin, Hesham M

    2014-07-30

    NPM-ALK⁺ T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive type of cancer. Standard treatment of NPM-ALK⁺ ALCL is CHOP polychemotherapy. Although patients initially respond favorably to CHOP, resistance, relapse, and death frequently occur. Recently, selective targeting of ALK has emerged as an alternative therapeutic strategy. ASP3026 is a second-generation ALK inhibitor that can overcome crizotinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer, and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials of patients with ALK⁺ solid tumors. However, NPM-ALK⁺ ALCL patients are not included in these trials. We studied the effects of ASP3026 on NPM-ALK⁺ ALCL cell lines in vitro and on systemic lymphoma growth in vivo. ASP3026 decreased the viability, proliferation, and colony formation, as well as induced apoptotic cell death of NPM-ALK⁺ ALCL cells. In addition, ASP3026 significantly reduced the proliferation of 293T cells transfected with NPM-ALK mutants that are resistant to crizotinib and downregulated tyrosine phosphorylation of these mutants. Moreover, ASP3026 abrogated systemic NPM-ALK⁺ ALCL growth in mice. Importantly, the survival of ASP3026-treated mice was superior to that of control and CHOP-treated mice. Our data suggest that ASP3026 is an effective treatment for NPM-ALK⁺ ALCL, and support the enrollment of patients with this lymphoma in the ongoing clinical trials.

  1. Identification of C/EBPβ Target Genes in ALK+ Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) by Gene Expression Profiling and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation

    PubMed Central

    Bonzheim, Irina; Irmler, Martin; Klier-Richter, Margit; Steinhilber, Julia; Anastasov, Nataša; Schäfer, Sabine; Adam, Patrick; Beckers, Johannes; Raffeld, Mark; Fend, Falko; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    C/EBPβ (CCAAT enhancer binding protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in survival and transformation of ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The aim of this study was to identify the downstream targets of C/EBPβ responsible for ALK-mediated oncogenesis. C/EBPβ was knocked down in ALK+ ALCL cell lines with a C/EBPβ-shRNA, followed by gene expression profiling (GEP). GEP analysis revealed a reproducible signature of genes that were significantly regulated by C/EBPβ. Classification into biological categories revealed overrepresentation of genes involved in the immune response, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Transcriptional regulation by C/EBPβ was found in 6 of 11 (BCL2A1, G0S2, TRIB1, S100A9, DDX21 and DDIT4) genes investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We demonstrated that BCL2A1, G0S2 and DDX21 play a crucial role in survival and proliferation of ALK+ ALCL cells. DDX21, a gene involved in rRNA biogenesis, was found differentially overexpressed in primary ALK+ ALCL cases. All three candidate genes were validated in primary ALCL cases by either immunohistochemistry or RT-qPCR. In conclusion, we identified and validated several key C/EBPβ-regulated genes with major impact on survival and cell growth in ALK+ ALCL, supporting the central role of C/EBPβ in ALK-mediated oncogenesis. PMID:23741337

  2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval summary: brentuximab vedotin for the treatment of relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma or relapsed systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    de Claro, R Angelo; McGinn, Karen; Kwitkowski, Virginia; Bullock, Julie; Khandelwal, Aakanksha; Habtemariam, Bahru; Ouyang, Yanli; Saber, Haleh; Lee, Kyung; Koti, Kallappa; Rothmann, Mark; Shapiro, Marjorie; Borrego, Francisco; Clouse, Kathleen; Chen, Xiao Hong; Brown, Janice; Akinsanya, Lara; Kane, Robert; Kaminskas, Edvardas; Farrell, Ann; Pazdur, Richard

    2012-11-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) describes the accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin for patients with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and relapsed systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (sALCL). FDA analyzed the results of two single-arm trials, enrolling 102 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and 58 patients with sALCL. Both trials had primary endpoints of objective response rate (ORR) and key secondary endpoints of response duration and complete response (CR) rate. For patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, ORR was 73% (95% CI, 65-83%); median response duration was 6.7 months, and CR was 32% (95% CI, 23-42%). For patients with sALCL, ORR was 86% (95% CI, 77-95%), median response duration was 12.6 months, and CR was 57% (95% CI, 44-70%). The most common adverse reactions were neutropenia, peripheral sensory neuropathy, fatigue, nausea, anemia, upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, pyrexia, rash, thrombocytopenia, cough, and vomiting. FDA granted accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin for the treatment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma after failure of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or after failure of at least two prior multiagent chemotherapy regimens in patients who are not ASCT candidates, and for the treatment of patients with sALCL after failure of at least one prior multiagent chemotherapy regimen.

  3. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma in childhood: analysis of 72 patients treated on The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group chemotherapy regimens.

    PubMed

    Williams, Denise M; Hobson, Rachel; Imeson, John; Gerrard, Mary; McCarthy, Keith; Pinkerton, C Ross

    2002-06-01

    From June 1990 to June 1998, 72 patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) were treated with short intensive multi-agent regimens [non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) 9000 and 9602]. Diagnosis was based on morphological and immunophenotypic criteria. Treatment for stage I disease consisted of eight courses (2 x vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone; 2 x methotrexate; 2 x cytarabine, thioguanine; and 2 x methotrexate etoposide). For stage II, III and non-central nervous system (CNS) stage IV, two COPADM (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, prednisolone, methotrexate, vincristine), two CYM (cytarabine methotrexate) and a COPADM was given. For CNS-positive disease, treatment was intensified and contained methotrexate 8 g/m(2) and cytarabine 3 g/m(2). Fifty-nine patients (82%) achieved a remission. Thirteen of these relapsed, with a median time to relapse from the start of treatment of 5 months (range 3-14). Relapse included a new site in 9/13 patients. The probabilities of overall and event free survival at 5 years were 65% (53-76%) and 59% (47-70%), respectively, with a median follow up of 4.3 years. Mediastinal and visceral involvement at presentation were found to be predictive of an increased risk of failure. PMID:12060115

  4. Successful treatment of small cell variant anaplastic large cell lymphoma with allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Rie; Mouri, Fumihiko; Nomura, Kei; Nakamura, Takayuki; Oku, Eijiro; Morishige, Satoshi; Takata, Yuka; Seki, Ritsuko; Osaki, Koichi; Hashiguchi, Michitoshi; Yoshimoto, Koji; Ohshima, Koichi; Nagafuji, Koji; Okamura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The small cell variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) presents in a nearly identical manner to the more common ALK(+) primary ALCL, with the exception that it is more frequently associated with leukemic involvement, and the prognosis has been reported to be poor. We report a 40-year-old Japanese male who was diagnosed with small cell variant ALCL with peripheral blood involvement stage IVB, age-adjusted international prognostic index 3. Conventional cytogenetics of the bone marrow aspirate specimen showed abnormal metaphases with the following karyotype: 47, XY, +X, t(2;5)(p23;q35). The patient was treated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia-oriented intensive chemotherapy. He underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from his HLA-DR1 locus mismatch sister. Prior to transplant, the patient had residual lymphadenopathy considered to be in partial remission. As of August 2012, the patient has achieved 18 months of continuous complete remission (CCR), with a Karnofsky score of 100 %. We have identified a total of seven cases of small cell variant ALCL treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the literature. Of these, no relapse was reported, and four patients were CCR more than 1 year. Allogeneic HSCT appears to represent a promising treatment option for small cell variant ALCL. PMID:23264126

  5. Unusual Presentation of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma with Clinical Course Mimicking Fever of Unknown Origin and Sepsis: Autopsy Study of Five Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mosunjac, Marina B.; Sundstrom, J. Bruce; Mosunjac, Mario I.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To describe a subset of cases with the unusual clinical and histomorphological presentation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) mimicking fever of unknown origin (FUO) and sepsis. Methods A pathology database was searched using full term Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine codes for ALCL to identify 23ALCL cases from the period 1999-2006. Of those, five cases that did not have a correct premortem diagnosis were further analyzed to elucidate the reasons for delayed and incorrect pre-mortem diagnosis. The analyzed data included clinical presentation, duration of symptoms, duration of hospital stay, premortem presumed cause of death, white blood cell count, platelet count, anion gap and blood pH, liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase), lactate, coagulation tests (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, D-dimers), microbiology cultures, and radiology and surgical pathology reports. Autopsy reports were reviewed for description of major gross findings, initial clinical diagnosis, and cause of death. Results Five fatal and pre-mortem unrecognized ALCL cases were characterized by rapid decline, with histologic findings showing predominantly extranodal involvement, intravascular lymphomatosis, and hemophagocytosis. The cases were also characterized by unusual clinical manifestations including a FUO, sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation-like picture, lactic acidosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and absence of significant peripheral adenopathy. Conclusions There is a distinct group of ALCLs with unique and specific clinical, gross autopsy, and histopathologic findings. Recognition of this clinical variant may facilitate early detection and potentially timely diagnosis and therapy. PMID:18925700

  6. Case report: A unique pediatric case of a primary CD8 expressing ALK-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gaiser, Timo; Geissinger, Eva; Schattenberg, Torsten; Scharf, Hanns-Peter; Dürken, Matthias; Dinter, Dietmar; Rosenwald, Andreas; Marx, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Primary involvement of skeletal muscle is a very rare event in ALK-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). We describe a case of a 10-year old boy presenting with a three week history of pain and a palpable firm swelling at the dorsal aspect of the left thigh. Histological examination of the lesion revealed a tumoral and diffuse polymorphic infiltration of the muscle by large lymphoid cells. Tumor cells displayed eccentric, lobulated "horse shoe" or "kidney-shape" nuclei. The cells showed immunohistochemical positivity for CD30, ALK-1, CD2, CD3, CD7, CD8, and Perforin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a characteristic rearrangement of the ALK-1 gene in 2p23 leading to the diagnosis of ALK-1 positive ALCL. Chemotherapy according to the ALCL-99-NHL-BFM protocol was initiated and resulted in a complete remission after two cycles. This case illustrates the unusual presentation of a pediatric ALCL in soft tissue with a good response to chemotherapy.

  7. Primary Cutaneous CD8(+) CD30(+) Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: An Unusual Case with a High Ki-67 index-A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Nasit, Jitendra G; Patel, Smita C

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is a part of the spectrum of CD30(+) cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder, characterized by variable degrees of CD2, CD3, CD4 and CD5 expression by lymphoid cells. PCALCLs with an expression of cytotoxic phenotype (CD8(+)) and cytotoxic proteins are uncommon. Cutaneous CD8(+) CD30(+) lymphoproliferative lesions are difficult to classify, diagnose and may be the cause of misdiagnose. CD8(+) PCALCL must be distinguished from CD8(+) mycosis fungoides, lymphomatoid papulosis type D and primary cutaneous aggressive epidermotropic CD8(+) T-cell lymphoma. Usually CD8(+) PCALCL is an indolent disease with a favorable prognosis, except few cases can show poor outcomes. The high Ki-67 index points toward advanced PCALCL. Treatment modalities include surgical excision, radiotherapy and clinical monitoring. Chemotherapy is reserved for disseminated disease. We report a 59-year-old male presented with rapid development of multiple painful reddish-brown plaques and nodular ulcerative skin lesions over the left thigh region since 2 months. A diagnosis of CD8(+) PCALCL with a high Ki-67 index was made on the basis of histology and immunohistochemistry, in co-relation with clinical presentation. PMID:26288406

  8. ALK kinase domain mutations in primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma: consequences on NPM-ALK activity and sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lovisa, Federica; Cozza, Giorgio; Cristiani, Andrea; Cuzzolin, Alberto; Albiero, Alessandro; Mussolin, Lara; Pillon, Marta; Moro, Stefano; Basso, Giuseppe; Rosolen, Angelo; Bonvini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    ALK inhibitor crizotinib has shown potent antitumor activity in children with refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) and the opportunity to include ALK inhibitors in first-line therapies is oncoming. However, recent studies suggest that crizotinib-resistance mutations may emerge in ALCL patients. In the present study, we analyzed ALK kinase domain mutational status of 36 paediatric ALCL patients at diagnosis to identify point mutations and gene aberrations that could impact on NPM-ALK gene expression, activity and sensitivity to small-molecule inhibitors. Amplicon ultra-deep sequencing of ALK kinase domain detected 2 single point mutations, R335Q and R291Q, in 2 cases, 2 common deletions of exon 23 and 25 in all the patients, and 7 splicing-related INDELs in a variable number of them. The functional impact of missense mutations and INDELs was evaluated. Point mutations were shown to affect protein kinase activity, signalling output and drug sensitivity. INDELs, instead, generated kinase-dead variants with dominant negative effect on NPM-ALK kinase, in virtue of their capacity of forming non-functional heterocomplexes. Consistently, when co-expressed, INDELs increased crizotinib inhibitory activity on NPM-ALK signal processing, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of STAT3 phosphorylation. Functional changes in ALK kinase activity induced by both point mutations and structural rearrangements were resolved by molecular modelling and dynamic simulation analysis, providing novel insights into ALK kinase domain folding and regulation. Therefore, these data suggest that NPM-ALK pre-therapeutic mutations may be found at low frequency in ALCL patients. These mutations occur randomly within the ALK kinase domain and affect protein activity, while preserving responsiveness to crizotinib.

  9. Lobatin B inhibits NPM/ALK and NF-κB attenuating anaplastic-large-cell-lymphomagenesis and lymphendothelial tumour intravasation.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Izabella; Unger, Christine; Huu, Chi Nguyen; Atanasov, Atanas Georgiev; Kramer, Nina; Chatruphonprasert, Waranya; Brenner, Stefan; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Peschel, Andrea; Vasas, Andrea; Lajter, Ildiko; Kain, Renate; Saiko, Philipp; Szekeres, Thomas; Kenner, Lukas; Hassler, Melanie R; Diaz, Rene; Frisch, Richard; Dirsch, Verena M; Jäger, Walter; de Martin, Rainer; Bochkov, Valery N; Passreiter, Claus M; Peter-Vörösmarty, Barbara; Mader, Robert M; Grusch, Michael; Dolznig, Helmut; Kopp, Brigitte; Zupko, Istvan; Hohmann, Judit; Krupitza, Georg

    2015-01-28

    An apolar extract of the traditional medicinal plant Neurolaena lobata inhibited the expression of the NPM/ALK chimera, which is causal for the majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). Therefore, an active principle of the extract, the furanoheliangolide sesquiterpene lactone lobatin B, was isolated and tested regarding the inhibition of ALCL expansion and tumour cell intravasation through the lymphendothelium. ALCL cell lines, HL-60 cells and PBMCs were treated with plant compounds and the ALK inhibitor TAE-684 to measure mitochondrial activity, proliferation and cell cycle progression and to correlate the results with protein- and mRNA-expression of selected gene products. Several endpoints indicative for cell death were analysed after lobatin B treatment. Tumour cell intravasation through lymphendothelial monolayers was measured and potential causal mechanisms were investigated analysing NF-κB- and cytochrome P450 activity, and 12(S)-HETE production. Lobatin B inhibited the expression of NPM/ALK, JunB and PDGF-Rβ, and attenuated proliferation of ALCL cells by arresting them in late M phase. Mitochondrial activity remained largely unaffected upon lobatin B treatment. Nevertheless, caspase 3 became activated in ALCL cells. Also HL-60 cell proliferation was attenuated whereas PBMCs of healthy donors were not affected by lobatin B. Additionally, tumour cell intravasation, which partly depends on NF-κB, was significantly suppressed by lobatin B most likely due to its NF-κB-inhibitory property. Lobatin B, which was isolated from a plant used in ethnomedicine, targets malignant cells by at least two properties: I) inhibition of NPM/ALK, thereby providing high specificity in combating this most prevalent fusion protein occurring in ALCL; II) inhibition of NF-κB, thereby not affecting normal cells with low constitutive NF-κB activity. This property also inhibits tumour cell intravasation into the lymphatic system and may provide an option to manage this

  10. Alectinib's activity against CNS metastases from ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer: a single institution case series.

    PubMed

    Metro, Giulio; Lunardi, Gianluigi; Bennati, Chiara; Chiarini, Pietro; Sperduti, Isabella; Ricciuti, Biagio; Marcomigni, Luca; Costa, Cinzia; Crinò, Lucio; Floridi, Piero; Gori, Stefania; Chiari, Rita

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we assessed the activity of the next-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (-TKI) alectinib, in patients with ALK-postive, advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and central nervous system (CNS) metastases. NSCLCs with ALK-positive disease, as assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and CNS metastases were treated with alectinib 600 mg BID. Included patients were followed prospectively in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drug, with particular emphasis on activity in the CNS. Eleven consecutive patients were enrolled. The majority of them were pretreated with crizotinib (n = 10, 90.9 %), and cranial radiotherapy (n = 8, 72.7 %). Six of the seven patients with measurable CNS disease experienced a CNS response, including three patients who were naïve for cranial radiation. Median duration of response was 8 months. For the whole population, median CNS-progression-free survival (-PFS), systemic-PFS, overall-PFS, overall survival, and 1-year survival were 8, 11, 8, 13 months, and 31.1 %, respectively. Two patients experiencing a CNS response were assessed for alectinib's concentrations in serum and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), and showed a CSF-to-serum ratio ranging from 0.001 to 0.003 ng/mL. Alectinib is highly active against CNS metastases from ALK-positive NSCLCs, irrespective of prior treatment(s) with ALK-TKI(s) and/or cranial radiotherapy. The low CSF-to-serum ratio of alectinib suggests that measuring the concentrations of the drug in the CSF may not be a reliable surrogate of its distribution into the CNS. PMID:27324494

  11. A causal link from ALK to hexokinase II overexpression and hyperactive glycolysis in EML4-ALK-positive lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yibao; Yu, Chunrong; Mohamed, Esraa M.; Shao, Huanjie; Wang, Li; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Zweit, Jamal; Idowu, Michael; Fang, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    A high rate of aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of malignant transformation. Accumulating evidence suggests that diverse regulatory mechanisms mediate this cancer-associated metabolic change seen in a wide spectrum of cancer. The echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion protein is found in approximately 3-7% of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Molecular evidence and therapeutic effectiveness of FDA-approved ALK inhibitors indicated that EML4-ALK is a driving factor of lung tumorigenesis. A recent clinical study showed that NSCLC harboring EML4-ALK rearrangements displayed higher glucose metabolism compared to EML4-ALK-negative NSCLC. In the current work, we presented evidence that EML4-ALK is coupled to overexpression of hexokinase II (HK2), one of the rate-limiting enzymes of the glycolytic pathway. The link from EML4-ALK to HK2 upregulation is essential for a high rate of glycolysis and proliferation of EML4-ALK-rearranged NSCLC cells. We identified hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) as a key transcription factor to drive HK2 gene expression in normoxia in these cells. EML4-ALK induced hypoxia-independent but glucose-dependent accumulation of HIF1α protein via both transcriptional activation of HIF1α mRNA and the PI3K-AKT pathway to enhance HIF1α protein synthesis. The EML4-ALK-mediated upregulation of HIF1α, HK2 and glycolytic metabolism was also highly active in vivo as demonstrated by FDG-PET imaging of xenografts grown from EML4-ALK-positive NSCLC cells. Our data reveal a novel EML4-ALK-HIF1α-HK2 cascade to enhance glucose metabolism in EML4-ALK-positive NSCLC. PMID:27132509

  12. ALK positivity on pleuroscopic pleural biopsy in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Preyas J; Kate, Arvind H; Mehta, Deval; Dhabar, Boman N; Chhajed, Prashant N

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and around 75% to 80% of lung cancers are detected in advanced stage. Multiple genetic mutations are identified and reported in adenocarcinoma of the lung. Various pulmonary samples can be tested for molecular mutations in lung cancer. However, feasibility of molecular profiling of pleuroscopic pleural biopsies in lung adenocarcinoma is not reported. We describe a case of advanced adenocarcinoma of lung with positive anaplastic lymphoma tyrosine kinase mutation on pleuroscopic pleural biopsy and improved with oral crizotinib. The current case highlights the feasibility of pleuroscopy.-guided pleural biopsies in molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27461706

  13. A novel acquired ALK F1245C mutation confers resistance to crizotinib in ALK-positive NSCLC but is sensitive to ceritinib.

    PubMed

    Kodityal, Sandeep; Elvin, Julia A; Squillace, Rachel; Agarwal, Nikita; Miller, Vincent A; Ali, Siraj M; Klempner, Samuel J; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2016-02-01

    The emergence of acquired anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) resistant mutations is a common molecular mechanism underpinning disease progression during crizotinib treatment of ALK-positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Identifying acquired resistance mutations in ALK is paramount for tailoring future therapy with second generation ALK inhibitors and beyond. Comprehensive genomic profiling using hybrid-capture next generation sequencing has been successful in identifying acquired ALK resistance mutations. Here we described the emergence of an ALK F1245C mutation in an advanced ALK+ NSCLC patient (EML4-ALK variant 3a/b) who developed slow disease progression after a durable response to crizotinib. The patient was eventually switched to ceritinib with on-going clinical response. This is the first patient report that ALK F1245C is an acquired resistance mutation to crizotinib that can be overcome by ceritinib. PMID:26775591

  14. HOXC4, HOXC5, and HOXC6 expression in primary cutaneous lymphoid lesions. High expression of HOXC5 in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Bijl, J. J.; Rieger, E.; van Oostveen, J. W.; Walboomers, J. M.; Kreike, M.; Willemze, R.; Meijer, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Homeobox (HOX) genes are involved in the lineage-specific differentiation of bone marrow stem cells. Recently, we reported a largely similar expression pattern of HOXC4 and HOXC6 in normal and neoplastic cells of the lymphoid lineage. In contrast, HOXC5 was specifically expressed in a subset of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL) but not in normal lymphocytes or lymphoid leukemias. This might suggest a role for HOXC5 in the pathogenesis of these lymphomas. In the present study the expression of HOXC4, HOXC5, and HOXC6 in primary cutaneous lymphomas was investigated. Using RNA in situ hybridization (RISH) and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we found strong expression of HOXC4 and HOXC6 in all, except one, primary cutaneous lymphomas and all reactive cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. Interestingly, a strong expression of HOXC5 in primary anaplastic CD30+ large T-cell lymphomas was found. RISH was consistently negative for HOXC5 in all other types of primary cutaneous B- and T-cell lymphomas. However, by semiquantitative RT-PCR these lymphomas showed a weak expression of HOXC5 mRNA. Therefore, we concluded that these lymphomas express low constitutive levels of HOXC5 mRNA. Furthermore, HOXC5 expression was consistently absent in reactive cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates, hyperplastic tonsils and lymph nodes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes either unstimulated or stimulated by a cocktail of CD3 and CD28 antibodies. As a strong expression of HOXC5 in primary cutaneous lymphomas was observed only in anaplastic large T-cell lymphomas and reactive control tissues lacked HOXC5 expression, these data strongly support a role for HOXC5 in the genesis of anaplastic large-T-cell lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9327740

  15. Conditional TPM3-ALK and NPM-ALK transgenic mice develop reversible ALK-positive early B-cell lymphoma/leukemia.

    PubMed

    Giuriato, Sylvie; Foisseau, Marianne; Dejean, Emilie; Felsher, Dean W; Al Saati, Talal; Demur, Cécile; Ragab, Ashraf; Kruczynski, Anna; Schiff, Claudine; Delsol, Georges; Meggetto, Fabienne

    2010-05-20

    NPM-ALK (nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase) and TPM3-ALK (nonmuscular tropomyosin 3-anaplastic lymphoma kinase) are oncogenic tyrosine kinases implicated in the pathogenesis of human ALK-positive lymphoma. We report here the development of novel conditional mouse models for ALK-induced lymphomagenesis, with the use of the tetracycline regulatory system under the control of the EmuSRalpha enhancer/promoter. The expression of either oncogene resulted in the arrest of the differentiation of early B cells and lymphomagenesis. We also observed the development of skin keratoacanthoma lesions, probably because of aberrant ALK expression in keratinocytes. The inactivation of the ALK oncogene on doxycycline treatment was sufficient to induce sustained regression of both hematopoietic tumors and skin disease. Importantly, treatment with the specific ALK inhibitor (PF-2341066) also reversed the pathologic states, showing the value of these mouse models for the validation of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Thus, our results show (1) that NPM-ALK and TPM3-ALK oncogenes are sufficient for lymphoma/leukemia development and required for tumor maintenance, hence validating ALK as potentially effective therapeutic target; and (2) for the first time, in vivo, the equal tumorigenic potential of the NPM-ALK and TPM3-ALK oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Our models offer a new tool to investigate in vivo the molecular mechanisms associated with ALK-induced lymphoproliferative disorders.

  16. ALK Positive Lung Cancer: Clinical Profile, Practice and Outcomes in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Anuradha; Kane, Subhadha; Kumar, Rajiv; Mahajan, Abhishek; Janu, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the performance and treatment profile of advanced EML4—ALK positive Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in a developing country with potentially restricted access to Crizotinib. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of advanced ALK positive NSCLC patients who were treated from June 2012 to September 2015 was conducted. The primary goal was to evaluate outcomes of advanced ALK positive NSCLC in our practice and examine the logistic constraints in procuring Crizotinib. Results 94 patients were available for analysis. 21 (22.3%) patients were started on Crizotinib upfront, 60 (63.8%) on chemotherapy, 10 (10.6%) on Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (in view of poor PS) and 3 (3.2%) patients were offered best supportive care. Reasons for not starting Crizotinib upfront included symptomatic patients needing early initiation of therapy (23.3%), ALK not tested upfront (23.3%) and financial constraints (21.9%). 69 patients (73.4%) received Crizotinib at some stage during treatment. Dose interruptions (> 1 week) with Crizotinib were seen in 20 patients (29%), with drug toxicity being the commonest reason (85%). Median Progression free survival (PFS) on first line therapy for the entire cohort was 10 months, with a significant difference between patients receiving Crizotinib and those who did not ever receive Crizotinib (10 months vs. 2 months, p = 0.028). Median Overall Survival (OS) was not reached for the entire cohort, with 1 year survival being 81.2%. Patients with an ECOG Performance Status (PS) of >2 had a significantly reduced PFS compared to patients with PS < = 2 (1.5 months vs. 11 months, p< 0.001). 47 patients with financial constraints (68.1%) received Crizotinib completely free via various extramural support schemes. Conclusion A majority of our ALK positive NSCLC patients were exposed to Crizotinib through the help of various support mechanisms and these patients had similar outcomes to that reported from previously published

  17. Experience of brentuximab vedotin in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and relapsed/refractory systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in the Named Patient Program: Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zinzani, P L; Sasse, S; Radford, J; Shonukan, O; Bonthapally, V

    2015-09-01

    Brentuximab vedotin was made available via a Named Patient Program (NPP) to non-US/Canadian patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (sALCL) until approval in their respective countries. We re-evaluated the efficacy and safety NPP data in a pooled analysis. Through a systematic literature review, 21 NPP publications were identified describing 14 cohorts (N=245). Among patients with a specified diagnosis, 207 had HL, 28 had ALCL, and one had CD30+ T-cell lymphoma (not specified). In cohorts reporting response, overall response and complete remission rates were 67% and 26%, respectively, in R/R HL, and 75% and 74%, respectively, in R/R ALCL. Incidences of grade 3/4 neurologic and hematologic toxicities were 6% and 12%, respectively; 5% of patients discontinued because of toxicity. In real-world practice, response rates and tolerability to brentuximab vedotin are similar to those reported in the two pivotal phase 2 trials in these settings. PMID:25964164

  18. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive lung adenocarcinoma patient with development of sick sinus syndrome while on targeted treatment with crizotinib.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Li, Mei-Mei; Jin, Shu-Xian

    2015-03-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are younger and have never smoked, while pathologically are predominately adenocarcinomas. Crizotinib as an ALK inhibitor has been used in treating ALK positive NSCLC patients for several years and some adverse effects should be paid attention to. We now describe a case of ALK positive NSCLC patient with development of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) while on targeted treatment with crizotinib. A 46-year-old non-smoking woman with right hilar mass and underwent transesophageal endoscopic ultrasonography lymph node biopsy showed low differentiation adenocarcinoma, immunohistochemistry (IHC) of tumor samples revealed the ALK overexpression. The severe sinus bradycardia and RR interval prolongation were detected 3 months after crizotinib treatment, she underwent pacemaker implantation. Although the severe sinus bradycardia and RR interval prolongation were unusual adverse effects, physicians should be aware of these side effects when using crizotinib.

  19. The tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 interacts with NPM-ALK and regulates anaplastic lymphoma cell growth and migration.

    PubMed

    Voena, Claudia; Conte, Chiara; Ambrogio, Chiara; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Boccalatte, Francesco; Mohammed, Shabaz; Jensen, Ole N; Palestro, Giorgio; Inghirami, Giorgio; Chiarle, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are mainly characterized by the reciprocal translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) that involves the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene and generates the fusion protein NPM-ALK with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. NPM-ALK triggers several signaling cascades, leading to increased cell growth, resistance to apoptosis, and changes in morphology and migration of transformed cells. To search for new NPM-ALK interacting molecules, we developed a mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach in HEK293 cells expressing an inducible NPM-ALK and identified the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 as a candidate substrate. We found that NPM-ALK was able to bind Shp2 in coprecipitation experiments and to induce its phosphorylation in the tyrosine residues Y542 and Y580 both in HEK293 cells and ALCL cell lines. In primary lymphomas, antibodies against the phosphorylated tyrosine Y542 of Shp2 mainly stained ALK-positive cells. In ALCL cell lines, Shp2-constitutive phosphorylation was dependent on NPM-ALK, as it significantly decreased after short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated NPM-ALK knock down. In addition, only the constitutively active NPM-ALK, but not the kinase dead NPM-ALK(K210R), formed a complex with Shp2, Gab2, and growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2), where Grb2 bound to the phosphorylated Shp2 through its SH2 domain. Shp2 knock down by specific shRNA decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and of the tyrosine residue Y416 in the activation loop of Src, resulting in impaired ALCL cell proliferation and growth disadvantage. Finally, migration of ALCL cells was reduced by Shp2 shRNA. These findings show a direct involvement of Shp2 in NPM-ALK lymphomagenesis, highlighting its critical role in lymphoma cell proliferation and migration.

  20. Management of Brain Metastases in ALK-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rusthoven, Chad G; Doebele, Robert C

    2016-08-20

    The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice.A 54-year-old man with a former 15-pack-year smoking history presents with cough and dyspnea. Initial work-up with imaging demonstrates a right suprahilar mass measuring 4.7 cm as well as several enlarged hilar and ipsilateral mediastinal lymph nodes. Bronchoscopy with biopsy reveals adenocarcinoma consistent with a lung primary. Staging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) reidentifies the primary mass and lymph nodes and shows several PET-avid bone metastases. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates a 1.6-cm right parietal mass with mild vasogenic edema and four additional brain metastases measuring 4 to 9 mm in size. Molecular testing is positive for an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement using fluorescence in situ hybridization and negative for EGFR, ROS1, RET, BRAF, KRAS, and other oncogenes. The patient denies any neurologic symptoms and has no significant findings on neurologic exam. He is referred to you for management options for newly diagnosed stage IV (T2aN2M1b) lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27298405

  1. Total Body Metabolic Tumor Response in ALK Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with ALK Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Koole, Michel J. B.; Bongaerts, Alphons H. H.; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In ALK-positive advanced NSCLC, crizotinib has a high response rate and effectively increases quality of life and survival. CT measurement of the tumor may insufficiently reflect the actual tumor load changes during targeted therapy with crizotinib. We explored whether 18F-FDG PET measured metabolic changes are different from CT based changes and studied the impact of these changes on disease progression. Methods 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed prior to and after 6 weeks of crizotinib treatment. Tumor response on CT was classified with RECIST 1.1, while 18F-FDG PET response was assessed according to the 1999 EORTC recommendations and PERCIST criteria. Agreement was assessed using McNemars test. During follow-up, patients received additional PET/CT during crizotinib treatment and second generation ALK inhibition. We assessed whether PET was able to detect progression earlier then CT. Results In this exploratory study 15 patients were analyzed who were treated with crizotinib. There was a good agreement in the applicability of CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT using the EORTC recommendations. During first line crizotinib and subsequent second line ALK inhibitors, PET was able to detect progression earlier then CT in 10/22 (45%) events of progression and in the others disease progression was detected simultaneously. Conclusion In advanced ALK positive NSCLC PET was able to detect progressive disease earlier than with CT in nearly half of the assessments while both imaging tests performed similar in the others. PMID:27137772

  2. Alectinib-Induced Alopecia in a Patient with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Tomonobu; Fukushima, Toshirou; Gomi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Nodoka; Sakamoto, Akiyuki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Mamiya, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Alectinib, a novel alternative anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, is highly effective against ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is well tolerated. Molecular targeted agents generally have little contribution to alopecia. We encountered a case of alopecia that developed gradually over 2 months after initiation of alectinib administration for the treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC. The patient had no history of alopecia in previous treatments of cisplatin + pemetrexed and crizotinib. The present case indicates that alopecia should be taken into consideration as toxicity during alectinib treatment, which could adversely affect the psychological and emotional condition and quality of life even in patients treated with specific molecular targeted agents. PMID:27194980

  3. Diagnostic and therapeutic issues for patients with advanced non‑small cell lung cancer harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement: European vs. US perspective (review).

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Massimo; De Marinis, Filippo; Hirsch, Fred R; Gridelli, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The recent availability of crizotinib in clinical practice, for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) selected by the presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement, has relevant implications for both the diagnostic phase and the treatment choices. In the United States, crizotinib was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for patients with ALK positivity detected by FDA-approved companion diagnostic test. As of January, 2014, the only FDA-approved diagnostic test is Vysis ALK Break-Apart FISH Probe Kit. In Europe, European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved crizotinib for ALK-positive patients in 2012, without specifying the type of test used for determining the positivity. FISH remains the reference technique for ALK determination, but, if fully validated, immunohistochemistry could challenge the current ALK screening practice. Given the robust evidence of activity of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients both pretreated and chemotherapy-naïve, and the favourable tolerability profile of the drug, many oncologists would prefer to administer the drug as early as possible. This is technically feasible in the United States, where crizotinib was approved well before the availability of the results of the randomized phase III trial comparing the drug with standard second-line chemotherapy, and the use of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients is not restricted to a specific line of treatment. On the contrary, in Europe, differently from the FDA decision, crizotinib cannot be used in chemotherapy-naïve patients. In both realities, a deeper knowledge of mechanisms of resistance, the role of repeated biopsies, the treatment strategy for patients experiencing disease progression with crizotinib, the choice of the best chemotherapy regimen are challenging topics for the management of ALK-positive patients in clinical practice.

  4. A Study Of Oral PF-02341066, A C-Met/Hepatocyte Growth Factor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, In Patients With Advanced Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-31

    Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ALK-positive); Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (c-Met Dependent); Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (ROS Marker Positive); Systemic Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma; Advanced Malignancies (Except Leukemia)

  5. Purely Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Flávio Ramalho; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Ducati, Luis Gustavo; Vital, Roberto Bezerra; de Lima Neto, Newton Moreira; Gabarra, Roberto Colichio

    2012-01-01

    Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma. PMID:23119204

  6. Purely cortical anaplastic ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Romero, Flávio Ramalho; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Ducati, Luis Gustavo; Vital, Roberto Bezerra; de Lima Neto, Newton Moreira; Gabarra, Roberto Colichio

    2012-01-01

    Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma.

  7. Successful Management of Crizotinib-Induced Neutropenia in a Patient with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Osugi, Jun; Owada, Yuki; Yamaura, Takumi; Muto, Satoshi; Okabe, Naoyuki; Matsumura, Yuki; Higuchi, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Crizotinib, the first clinically available inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement, is generally well tolerated. In contrast, neutropenia induced by crizotinib is a commonly reported grade 3 or 4 adverse event. In such cases, interruption and dose reduction of crizotinib might be necessary for some patients with severe neutropenia. However, information concerning clinical experience and management of severe neutropenia is currently limited. In this report, the successful management of crizotinib-induced neutropenia by dose reduction of crizotinib in a patient with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer is described. PMID:26933419

  8. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting in nasal cavity: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Feng, Xiaoli; Dong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) with distinct morphologic and immunohistochemical features. We reported a 57-year-old female with ALK-positive DLBCL in her left nasal cavity. Histologically, the tumor cells were characterized by plasmablastic morphology and tested positive for ALK in a cytoplasmic granular staining pattern. The neoplastic cells were positive for CD38, CD4, MUM1, CD138 and Vimentin. However, they failed to express CD56, CD30, as well as mature B cells markers, such as CD79a, CD20 and T cells markers such as CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7 and CD8. The patient achieved complete response after four cycles of CHOEP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and etoposide) treatment. Then she received radiotherapy of the originally involved area. This case represented a rare ALK-positive DLBCL in the nasal region. PMID:25973114

  9. Relation of CD30 expression to survival and morphology in large cell B cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Noorduyn, L A; de Bruin, P C; van Heerde, P; van de Sandt, M M; Ossenkoppele, G J; Meijer, C J

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate whether CD30 expression is correlated with anaplastic morphology, and whether this correlated with a better survival in large cell B cell lymphomas, as has been described for T cell lymphomas. METHODS--CD30 expression was investigated using frozen sections in a series of 146 large cell B cell lymphomas. Clinical data and follow up information were collected from 25 lymphomas with strong CD30 expression, 30 lymphomas with partial CD30 expression, and a control group of 25 lymphomas which did not express CD30. RESULTS--Morphological distinction between anaplastic and non-anaplastic tumours was difficult. Of the cases with an anaplastic morphology, 50% were CD30 positive, as were 24% of the polymorphic centroblastic B cell lymphomas. Only 65% of the morphologically non-anaplastic tumours were completely CD30 negative. There was no difference in survival among patients with lymphomas expressing CD30 and those that did not. Patients with morphologically anaplastic B cell lymphomas did not differ in their survivals from those with other high grade B cell lymphomas. Clinical stage at presentation was the only variable that was significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS--CD30 expression occurs frequently in large cell B cell lymphomas and is poorly related to anaplastic morphology. Morphological distinction between anaplastic and non-anaplastic tumours is difficult. In contrast to T cell lymphomas, CD30 positive B cell lymphomas do not show a relatively favourable clinical course. The results presented here raise serious doubts as to whether large cell B cell lymphoma, based on the expression of CD30 or anaplastic morphology, can really be termed a separate entity. Images PMID:8132806

  10. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  11. Concordance of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements between circulating tumor cells and tumor in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chye Ling; Lim, Tse Hui; Lim, Tony Kh; Tan, Daniel Shao-Weng; Chua, Yong Wei; Ang, Mei Kim; Pang, Brendan; Lim, Chwee Teck; Takano, Angela; Lim, Alvin Soon-Tiong; Leong, Man Chun; Lim, Wan-Teck

    2016-04-26

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is routinely evaluated by fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) testing on biopsy tissues. Testing can be challenging however, when suitable tissue samples are unavailable. We examined the relevance of circulating tumor cells (CTC) as a surrogate for biopsy-based FISH testing. We assessed paired tumor and CTC samples from patients with ALK rearranged lung cancer (n = 14), ALK-negative lung cancer (n = 12), and healthy controls (n = 5) to derive discriminant CTC counts, and to compare ALK rearrangement patterns. Blood samples were enriched for CTCs to be used for ALK FISH testing. ALK-positive CTCs counts were higher in ALK-positive NSCLC patients (3-15 cells/1.88 mL of blood) compared with ALK-negative NSCLC patients and healthy donors (0-2 cells/1.88 mL of blood). The latter range was validated as the 'false positive' cutoff for ALK FISH testing of CTCs. ALK FISH signal patterns observed on tumor biopsies were recapitulated in CTCs in all cases. Sequential CTC counts in an index case of lung cancer with no evaluable tumor tissue treated with crizotinib showed six, three and eleven ALK-positive CTCs per 1.88 mL blood at baseline, partial response and post-progression time points, respectively. Furthermore, ALK FISH rearrangement suggestive of gene copy number increase was observed in CTCs following progression. Recapitulation of ALK rearrangement patterns in the tumor on CTCs, suggested that CTCs might be used to complement tissue-based ALK testing in NSCLC to guide ALK-targeted therapy when suitable tissue biopsy samples are unavailable for testing. PMID:26993609

  12. Concordance of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements between circulating tumor cells and tumor in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tony KH; Tan, Daniel Shao-Weng; Chua, Yong Wei; Ang, Mei Kim; Pang, Brendan; Lim, Chwee Teck; Takano, Angela; Lim, Alvin Soon-Tiong; Leong, Man Chun; Lim, Wan-Teck

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is routinely evaluated by fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) testing on biopsy tissues. Testing can be challenging however, when suitable tissue samples are unavailable. We examined the relevance of circulating tumor cells (CTC) as a surrogate for biopsy-based FISH testing. We assessed paired tumor and CTC samples from patients with ALK rearranged lung cancer (n = 14), ALK-negative lung cancer (n = 12), and healthy controls (n = 5) to derive discriminant CTC counts, and to compare ALK rearrangement patterns. Blood samples were enriched for CTCs to be used for ALK FISH testing. ALK-positive CTCs counts were higher in ALK-positive NSCLC patients (3–15 cells/1.88 mL of blood) compared with ALK-negative NSCLC patients and healthy donors (0–2 cells/1.88 mL of blood). The latter range was validated as the ‘false positive’ cutoff for ALK FISH testing of CTCs. ALK FISH signal patterns observed on tumor biopsies were recapitulated in CTCs in all cases. Sequential CTC counts in an index case of lung cancer with no evaluable tumor tissue treated with crizotinib showed six, three and eleven ALK-positive CTCs per 1.88 mL blood at baseline, partial response and post-progression time points, respectively. Furthermore, ALK FISH rearrangement suggestive of gene copy number increase was observed in CTCs following progression. Recapitulation of ALK rearrangement patterns in the tumor on CTCs, suggested that CTCs might be used to complement tissue-based ALK testing in NSCLC to guide ALK-targeted therapy when suitable tissue biopsy samples are unavailable for testing. PMID:26993609

  13. Successful oral desensitization against skin rash induced by alectinib in a patient with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive lung adenocarcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Masayuki; Kubotaa, Masaru; Harada, Shinya; Niwa, Hideyuki; Kusuhara, Seiichiro; Kasajima, Masashi; Hiyoshi, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Mikiko; Igawa, Satoshi; Masuda, Noriyuki

    2016-09-01

    Alectinib has been approved for the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer. In terms of adverse effects, the occurrence of a severe skin rash induced by alectinib is reportedly rare, compared with the occurrence of skin rash induced by epithelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). In the present case report, a 76-year-old woman with ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma experienced disease progression after undergoing first-line chemotherapy. Subsequently, alectinib was administered as a second-line therapy. However, she discontinued alectinib therapy after 11days because of the occurrence of an alectinib-induced skin rash. Since the skin rash improved within one week, we attempted to perform oral desensitization to alectinib. The patient has not shown any recurrence of the rash or disease progression for 7 months since the successful oral desensitization to alectinib. Here, we describe the first case of successful oral desensitization against a skin rash induced by alectinib in a patient with ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma. Desensitization to overcome adverse effects and to enable sustained treatment with alectinib should be considered in patients who develop alectinib sensitivities. PMID:27565916

  14. Differential expression of aurora-A kinase in T-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Lehman, Norman L; O’Donnell, James P; Lim, Megan S; Schultz, Daniel S; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Inamdar, Kedar V

    2016-01-01

    Aurora-A is a mitotic kinase implicated in oncogenesis and is known to be overexpressed in B-cell lymphomas and plasma cell myeloma. The expression of Aurora-A kinase (henceforth referred to as Aurora-A) in T-cell lymphomas is not well characterized. In this study, we assessed Aurora-A expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 100 lymphomas encompassing a variety of T-cell lymphomas as categorized in the World Health Organization classification. Aurora-A expression was highest in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas and variably expressed in other types of T-cell lymphomas. In addition, the pattern of Aurora-A expression was predominantly cytoplasmic in ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and was nuclear in ALK-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and other T-cell lymphomas, suggesting altered biochemical mechanisms of Aurora-A nuclear transport in ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that Aurora-A is more highly expressed in ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma than in ALK-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, and is relatively lower in peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Using western blot analysis and the DEL cell line (derived from ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma), we showed that Aurora-A expression is decreased after treatment with either MYC or MEK inhibitors, consistent with the MYC and MAP kinase signaling pathways being involved in driving Aurora-A expression; the greatest decrease was observed after MYC inhibition. These findings provide insights into the possible importance of Aurora-A overexpression in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma pathogenesis, and also suggest that Aurora-A inhibition could be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. PMID:23411487

  15. Antibody targeting of anaplastic lymphoma kinase induces cytotoxicity of human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, E L; Haglund, E A; Mace, E M; Deng, D; Martinez, D; Wood, A C; Chow, A K; Weiser, D A; Belcastro, L T; Winter, C; Bresler, S C; Vigny, M; Mazot, P; Asgharzadeh, S; Seeger, R C; Zhao, H; Guo, R; Christensen, J G; Orange, J S; Pawel, B R; Lemmon, M A; Mossé, Y P

    2012-11-15

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in neuroblastoma, a devastating pediatric cancer of the sympathetic nervous system. Germline and somatically acquired ALK aberrations induce increased autophosphorylation, constitutive ALK activation and increased downstream signaling. Thus, ALK is a tractable therapeutic target in neuroblastoma, likely to be susceptible to both small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and therapeutic antibodies-as has been shown for other receptor tyrosine kinases in malignancies such as breast and lung cancer. Small-molecule inhibitors of ALK are currently being studied in the clinic, but common ALK mutations in neuroblastoma appear to show de novo insensitivity, arguing that complementary therapeutic approaches must be developed. We therefore hypothesized that antibody targeting of ALK may be a relevant strategy for the majority of neuroblastoma patients likely to have ALK-positive tumors. We show here that an antagonistic ALK antibody inhibits cell growth and induces in vitro antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of human neuroblastoma-derived cell lines. Cytotoxicity was induced in cell lines harboring either wild type or mutated forms of ALK. Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with the dual Met/ALK inhibitor crizotinib sensitized cells to antibody-induced growth inhibition by promoting cell surface accumulation of ALK and thus increasing the accessibility of antigen for antibody binding. These data support the concept of ALK-targeted immunotherapy as a highly promising therapeutic strategy for neuroblastomas with mutated or wild-type ALK.

  16. Combination Chemotherapy and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Peripheral T-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-30

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma, ALK-Negative; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma, ALK-Positive; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage II Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Stage II Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Stage III Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma

  17. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma, Version 2.2015

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Robert I.; Lydiatt, William M.; Ball, Douglas W.; Busaidy, Naifa Lamki; Byrd, David; Callender, Glenda; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P.; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M.; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D.; Ridge, John A.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Scheri, Randall P.; Shah, Jatin P.; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sturgeon, Cord; Wang, Thomas N.; Wirth, Lori J.; Hoffmann, Karin G.; Hughes, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Thyroid Carcinoma focuses on anaplastic carcinoma because substantial changes were made to the systemic therapy recommendations for the 2015 update. Dosages and frequency of administration are now provided, docetaxel/doxorubicin regimens were added, and single-agent cisplatin was deleted because it is not recommended for patients with advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:26358798

  18. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  19. Bevacizumab and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumor, Lymphoma, Intracranial Glioblastoma, Gliosarcoma or Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-14

    Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV

  20. An unusual case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive large B-cell lymphoma in an elderly patient: A case report and discussion

    PubMed Central

    XIONG, HANZHEN; LIU, SHAO-YAN; YANG, YUE-XIN; TAN, XUE-XIAN; LUO, QIU-PING; PENG, JUAN; XIONG, ZHONG-TANG; CHEN, HUI; CHEN, JUAN; LI, ZHI; JIANG, QING-PING

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive large B-cell lymphoma, with rapid clinical progression, which occurred in a 90-year-old male patient. The patient presented with numerous enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and mediastinum. Histopathological analysis of a single lymph node detected diffuse large immunoblastic- or plasmablastic-like tumor cells, which were strongly immunoreactive for ALK in a granular cytoplasmic distribution, but negative for the expression of CD20 and CD79a. In addition, polymerase chain reaction assays were unable to detect clonal rearrangements of the T cell receptor-γ and immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the tumor lesion, and in situ hybridization tested negative for infection with Epstein-Barr virus. The patient underwent a single cycle of chemotherapy using the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and etoposide (E-CHOP) regimen; however, the patient developed pleural effusions with respiratory distress, associated with clinical deterioration. The patient succumbed to the disease within 4 months of initial presentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the eldest patient with this type of lymphoma to be reported in the literature. PMID:27168806

  1. Transformation of Sézary syndrome into CD30+ anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma after alemtuzumab therapy with evidence of clonal unity.

    PubMed

    Nevet, Mariela Judith; Zuckerman, Tsila; Sahar, Dvora; Bergman, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a humanized mouse antibody targeting the CD52 cell surface, which has been effective in patients with advanced stage mycosis fungoides (MF) including erythrodermic MF and Sézary syndrome. There are a few descriptions of large cell transformation after its administration. A young patient with an acute onset of Sézary syndrome treated initially unsuccessfully with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide and later on successfully with alemtuzumab has been described. Three weeks after the beginning of therapy, however, she developed transformed T-cell lymphoma indistinguishable from CD30 anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. After bone marrow transplantation, the transformed CD30 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma recurred as a transformed CD30 plaque MF. All 3 types of lesions showed the same T-cell receptor clonal gene rearrangement, which supports the notion that Sézary syndrome, CD30 anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, and MF are interrelated.

  2. Unique substrate specificity of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK): development of phosphoacceptor peptides for the assay of ALK activity.

    PubMed

    Donella-Deana, Arianna; Marin, Oriano; Cesaro, Luca; Gunby, Rosalind H; Ferrarese, Anna; Coluccia, Addolorata M L; Tartari, Carmen J; Mologni, Luca; Scapozza, Leonardo; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2005-06-14

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), whose constitutively active fusion proteins are responsible for 5-10% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, shares with the other members of the insulin receptor kinase (IRK) subfamily an activation loop (A-loop) with the triple tyrosine motif Y-x-x-x-Y-Y. However, the amino acid sequence of the ALK A-loop differs significantly from the sequences of both the IRK A-loop and the consensus A-loop for this kinase subfamily. A major difference is the presence of a unique "RAS" triplet between the first and second tyrosines of the ALK A-loop, which in IRK is replaced by "ETD". Here we show that a peptide reproducing the A-loop of ALK is readily phosphorylated by ALK, while a homologous IRK A-loop peptide is not unless its "ETD" triplet is substituted by "RAS". Phosphorylation occurs almost exclusively at the first tyrosine of the Y-x-x-x-Y-Y motif, as judged by Edman analysis of the phosphoradiolabeled product. Consequently, a peptide in which the first tyrosine had been replaced by phenylalanine (FYY) was almost unaffected by ALK. In contrast, a peptide in which the second and third tyrosines had been replaced by phenylalanine (YFF) was phosphorylated more rapidly than the parent peptide (YYY). A number of substitutions in the YFF peptide outlined the importance of Ile and Arg at positions n - 1 and n + 6 in addition to the central triplet, to ensure efficient phosphorylation by ALK. Such a peculiar substrate specificity allows the specific monitoring of ALK activity in crude extracts of NPM-ALK positive cells, using the YFF peptide, which is only marginally phosphorylated by a number of other tyrosine kinases. PMID:15938644

  3. Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Tarun; Alekshun, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Case: A 63-year-old male presented with unintentional weight loss of 20 pounds over a 4-month duration. He reported loss of appetite, intermittent post-prandial nausea, bloating and early satiety. He also complained of dyspepsia and had been treated for reflux during the previous 2 years. He denied vomiting, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, melena, hematochezia, or alterations in bowel habits. Additionally, he denied fevers, night sweats, cough, or dyspnea. He quit smoking 25 years ago, and denied alcohol use. His past medical history was significant for basal cell carcinoma treated with local curative therapy and he was without recurrence on surveillance. Pertinent family history included a paternal uncle with lung cancer at the age of 74. Physical examination was unremarkable except for occult heme-positive stools. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated liver enzymes (ALT-112, AST-81, AlkPhos-364). CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed diffuse heterogeneous liver with extensive nodularity, raising the concern for metastases. Serum tumor-markers: PSA, CEA, CA 19-9, and AFP were all within normal limits. Screening colonoscopy was normal, but esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a malignant-appearing ulcerative lesion involving the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric cardia. Pathology confirmed an invasive gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a hepatic lesion revealed malignant cells with cytologic features consistent with large-cell type carcinoma and positive immunostaining for synaptophysin favoring neuroendocrine differentiation. A PET-CT demonstrated intense diffuse FDG uptake of the liver, suggesting diffuse hepatic parenchymal infiltration by tumor. There were multiple foci of intense osseous FDG uptake with corresponding osteolytic lesions seen on CT scan. The remaining intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic structures were unremarkable. The patient will receive palliative systemic therapy

  4. Primary Central Nervous System Anaplastic Large T-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Splavski, Bruno; Muzevic, Dario; Ladenhauser-Palijan, Tatjana; Jr, Brano Splavski

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) of T-cell origin is an exceptionally rare, highly malignant intracranial neoplasm. Although such a tumor typically presents with a focal mass lesion. Case report: Past medical history of a 26-year-old male patient with a PCNS lymphoma of T-cell origin was not suggestive of intracranial pathology or any disorder of other organs and organic systems. To achieve a gross total tumor resection, surgery was performed via osteoplastic craniotomy using the left frontal transcortical transventricular approach. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tissue removed described tumor as anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T-cells (T-ALCL). Postoperative and neurological recovery was complete, while control imaging of the brain showed no signs of residual tumor at a six-month follow-up. The patient, who did not appear immunocompromized, was referred to a hematologist and an oncologist where corticosteroids, the particular chemotherapeutic protocol and irradiation therapy were applied. Conclusion: Since PCNS lymphoma is a potentially curable brain tumor, we believe that proper selection of the management options, including early radical tumor resection for solitary PCNS lymphoma, may be proposed as a major treatment of such a tumor in selected patients, resulting in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:27703297

  5. Anaplastic meningioma with extremely rapid recurrence.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yosuke; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Watanabe, Takuya; Tamase, Akira; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Uchiyama, Naoyuki; Nitta, Hisashi; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with an uncommon case of anaplastic meningioma manifesting as recent memory disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass located in the right temporal lobe. She became unconscious because of uncal herniation and underwent urgent surgery. The tumor was completely resected, except for a lesion tightly attached to arteries. Histological examination indicated the presence of anaplastic meningioma with an extremely high MIB-1 labeling index (70%). After 43 days, the patient developed local recurrence and dissemination in the left temporal lobe. The exceptionally high MIB-1 labeling index corresponded with a short tumor doubling time (8.2 days). Whole-brain irradiation and linear accelerator surgery for disseminated lesions were performed, and the tumor growth halted. Although meningiomas rarely show malignant behavior, corresponding to World Health Organization grade III, it is necessary to consider malignant behavior when treating meningiomas. PMID:21613768

  6. Youngest case of third ventricular anaplastic neurocytoma.

    PubMed

    Shravan Kumar, Chinnikatti; Sharma, D N; Sharma, Kuldeep; Haresh, K P; Rath, G K

    2010-04-01

    A 6-year-old child presented to us with on and off headache and vomiting for 4 months. On examination, there was bilateral papilledema with mild intracranial hypertension but with no neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed third ventricular mass with obstructive hydrocephalus with possibility of glioma. The patient underwent gross tumor excision and histopathology confirmed anaplastic neurocytoma. The postoperative MRI showed residual disease. The patient treated with adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolamide chemotherapy. PMID:21209769

  7. Youngest case of third ventricular anaplastic neurocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Shravan Kumar, Chinnikatti; Sharma, D. N.; Sharma, Kuldeep; Haresh, K. P.; Rath, G. K.

    2010-01-01

    A 6-year-old child presented to us with on and off headache and vomiting for 4 months. On examination, there was bilateral papilledema with mild intracranial hypertension but with no neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed third ventricular mass with obstructive hydrocephalus with possibility of glioma. The patient underwent gross tumor excision and histopathology confirmed anaplastic neurocytoma. The postoperative MRI showed residual disease. The patient treated with adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolamide chemotherapy. PMID:21209769

  8. Radiotherapy and temozolomide for anaplastic astrocytic gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Lakshmi; Panageas, Katherine S.; Reiner, Anne S.; Huse, Jason T.; Pentsova, Elena; Braunthal, Stephanie G.; Abrey, Lauren E.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported results of a phase II non-comparative trial that randomized patients with glioblastoma following radiotherapy to one of two different temozolomide schedules, followed by 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA) maintenance. Here we report the results of an exploratory cohort of patients accrued with anaplastic astrocytic tumors. Patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or anaplastic oligo-astrocytoma (AOA) were treated with concurrent radiotherapy (60 Gy over 6 weeks) and temozolomide (75 mg/m2), and six adjuvant 28-day cycles of either dose-dense (150 mg/m2, days 1–7, 15–21) or metronomic (50 mg/m2, days 1–28) temozolomide. Subsequently, maintenance RA (100 mg/m2, days 1–21/28) was administered until disease progression. All outcome measures were descriptive without intention to compare between treatment arms. Survival was measured by the Kaplan–Meier method. There were 31 patients (21 men, 10 women) with median age 48 years (range 28–74), median KPS 90 (range 60–100). Extent of resection was gross-total in 35 %, subtotal 23 %, and biopsy 42 %. Histology was AA in 90 %, and AOA in 10 %. MGMT promoter methylation was methylated in 20 %, unmethylated in 50 %, and uninformative in 30 % of 30 tested. Median progression-free survival was 2.1 years (95 % CI 0.95–Not Reached), and overall survival 2.9 years (95 % CI 2.0–Not Reached). We report outcomes among a homogeneously treated population with anaplastic astrocytic tumors. Survival was unexpectedly short compared to other reports. These data may be useful as a contemporary historic control for other ongoing or future randomized trials. PMID:25920709

  9. Radiotherapy and temozolomide for anaplastic astrocytic gliomas.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Lakshmi; Panageas, Katherine S; Reiner, Anne S; Huse, Jason T; Pentsova, Elena; Braunthal, Stephanie G; Abrey, Lauren E; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Lassman, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported results of a phase II non-comparative trial that randomized patients with glioblastoma following radiotherapy to one of two different temozolomide schedules, followed by 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA) maintenance. Here we report the results of an exploratory cohort of patients accrued with anaplastic astrocytic tumors. Patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or anaplastic oligo-astrocytoma (AOA) were treated with concurrent radiotherapy (60 Gy over 6 weeks) and temozolomide (75 mg/m(2)), and six adjuvant 28-day cycles of either dose-dense (150 mg/m(2), days 1-7, 15-21) or metronomic (50 mg/m(2), days 1-28) temozolomide. Subsequently, maintenance RA (100 mg/m(2), days 1-21/28) was administered until disease progression. All outcome measures were descriptive without intention to compare between treatment arms. Survival was measured by the Kaplan-Meier method. There were 31 patients (21 men, 10 women) with median age 48 years (range 28-74), median KPS 90 (range 60-100). Extent of resection was gross-total in 35%, subtotal 23%, and biopsy 42%. Histology was AA in 90%, and AOA in 10%. MGMT promoter methylation was methylated in 20%, unmethylated in 50%, and uninformative in 30% of 30 tested. Median progression-free survival was 2.1 years (95% CI 0.95-Not Reached), and overall survival 2.9 years (95 % CI 2.0-Not Reached). We report outcomes among a homogeneously treated population with anaplastic astrocytic tumors. Survival was unexpectedly short compared to other reports. These data may be useful as a contemporary historic control for other ongoing or future randomized trials. PMID:25920709

  10. Anaplastic extramedullary cervical ependymoma with leptomeningeal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Pomeraniec, I J; Dallapiazza, R F; Sumner, H M; Lopes, M B; Shaffrey, C I; Smith, J S

    2015-12-01

    We present a rare extramedullary ependymoma with diffuse spinal metastatic disease, and review the previous reports of extramedullary spinal ependymomas. Ependymomas are the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumor in adults. These tumors rarely present as extramedullary masses. We treated a 23-year-old man with a history of progressive neck, shoulder and arm pain, with sensory and motor symptoms in the C7 dermatome. MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated a ventral contrast-enhancing lesion with evidence of enhancement along the dura and spinal cord of the upper cervical spine, thoracic spine, and cauda equina. He underwent a tumor debulking procedure without complications. Following surgery, he received craniospinal radiation to treat the remaining tumor and diffuse leptomeningeal disease. The final pathology of the tumor revealed that is was a World Health Organization Grade III anaplastic ependymoma. At the 1 year follow-up, the patient had stable imaging and had returned to his preoperative functional status. Of the 19 reported patients with primary intradural, extramedullary spinal ependymomas, two had extradural components and seven had anaplastic grades. Only one tumor with an anaplastic grade resulted in metastatic disease, but without spinal recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intradural, extramedullary spinal ependymoma with an anaplastic grade, presenting with concomitant diffuse, nodular leptomeningeal metastasis involving the upper cervical spine, thoracic spine, conus medullaris, and cauda equina. Similar to the treatment of intramedullary ependymomas with metastasis, this patient underwent an aggressive debulking procedure followed by radiation therapy to the entire neuroaxis. PMID:26601808

  11. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase: role in cancer pathogenesis and small-molecule inhibitor development for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Thomas R; Slavish, Jake; George, Rani E; Look, A Thomas; Xue, Liquan; Jiang, Qin; Cui, Xiaoli; Rentrop, Walter B; Morris, Stephan W

    2009-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a receptor tyrosine kinase in the insulin receptor superfamily, was initially identified in constitutively activated oncogenic fusion forms – the most common being nucleophosmin-ALK – in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas, and subsequent studies have identified ALK fusions in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, systemic histiocytosis, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and non-small-cell lung carcinomas. More recently, genomic DNA amplification and protein overexpression, as well as activating point mutations, of ALK have been described in neuroblastomas. In addition to those cancers for which a causative role for aberrant ALK activity is well validated, more circumstantial links implicate the full-length, normal ALK receptor in the genesis of other malignancies – including glioblastoma and breast cancer – via a mechanism of receptor activation involving autocrine and/or paracrine growth loops with the reported ALK ligands, pleiotrophin and midkine. This review summarizes normal ALK biology, the confirmed and putative roles of ALK in the development of human cancers and efforts to target ALK using small-molecule kinase inhibitors. PMID:19275511

  12. Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a systematic review of the literature and mini-meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Philip A; Prince, H Miles

    2013-09-01

    Breast implant-associated ALCL (BIA-ALCL) is a rare, but likely under-reported entity, which most commonly presents with an effusion developing between the breast implant and the host fibrous capsule that surrounds it. It has been described in association with breast implants used for post-cancer reconstructive surgery and when implanted for purely cosmetic reasons. Two different presentations are seen; presentation with an effusion alone +/- co-existing capsular contracture, without an associated mass, and presentation with a mass lesion +/- an effusion. These two presentations are associated with very different outcomes, with women presenting with effusion alone having an excellent long-term survival, even in the absence of specific therapy other than implant removal. In these women, no further therapy other than implant removal is likely necessary. In contrast, women presenting with a mass lesion have a higher rate of relapse and may require more aggressive therapy. PMID:23765424

  13. Novel Approaches in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kun-Tai; Yu, Xiao-Min; Audhya, Anjon W.; Jaume, Juan C.; Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Miyamoto, Shigeki; Prolla, Tomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), accounting for less than 2% of all thyroid cancer, is responsible for the majority of death from all thyroid malignancies and has a median survival of 6 months. The resistance of ATC to conventional thyroid cancer therapies, including radioiodine and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression, contributes to the very poor prognosis of this malignancy. This review will cover several cellular signaling pathways and mechanisms, including RET/PTC, RAS, BRAF, Notch, p53, and histone deacetylase, which are identified to play roles in the transformation and dedifferentiation process, and therapies that target these pathways. Lastly, novel approaches and agents involving the Notch1 pathway, nuclear factor κB, Trk-fused gene, cancer stem-like cells, mitochondrial mutation, and tumor immune microenvironment are discussed. With a better understanding of the biological process and treatment modality, the hope is to improve ATC outcome in the future. PMID:25260367

  14. Anaplastic small cell neoplasms of the thyroid: an immunoperoxidase study.

    PubMed

    Mambo, N C; Irwin, S M

    1984-01-01

    The cell origins of ten anaplastic small cell neoplasms of the thyroid gland were investigated using the immunoperoxidase technique. Sections of the neoplasms were examined for immunostaining for the tissue markers of B lymphocytes, thyroid follicular cells, and C cells by incubation with antisera to the lambda and kappa light chains, human thyroxine and human calcitonin, respectively. Six neoplasms were identified as malignant lymphomas, and two were identified as anaplastic small cell follicular carcinomas. The cell origins of the remaining two neoplasms could not be determined. The prognosis for patients with malignant lymphoma was favorable compared with the prognoses for patients in the other two groups. The prognosis for patients with anaplastic small cell follicular carcinomas was better than for those with small cell malignancies of undetermined cell origins. These findings suggest an important role for the immunoperoxidase technique in the precise classification of anaplastic small cell neoplasms of the thyroid.

  15. Large cell lymphoma stage IA/IAE.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, H; Koo, C; Kagan, A R; Rao, A; Ryoo, M C

    1991-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with large cell lymphoma stage IA/IAE were retrospectively reviewed for the purpose of evaluation of treatment methods. All pathology slides were reviewed by one pathologist with a special interest in lymphoma. There were 24 patients at stage IA and 28 at stage IAE. Twenty-six patients were treated with radiation alone (10 IA, 16 IAE) and 26 patients were treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy (13 IA, 13 IAE). Patients treated with radiation therapy alone and those with combined modality therapy (CMT) have similar survival curves with p values greater than 0.05. Recurrence patterns are similar for either method of treatment. While the majority of the literature recommends CMT for large cell lymphoma, our study of 52 patients reveals no difference in survival or recurrence patterns for these patients by either method of treatment. We recommend radiation therapy alone for stage IA/IAE large cell lymphoma, with chemotherapy held in reserve for failure.

  16. Anaplastic Carcinoma Possibly Arising from a Heterotopic Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yasushi; Mita, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hideaki; Akino, Kimishige; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Endo, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic carcinoma is a rare pancreatic cancer, and the malignant transformation of a heterotopic pancreas is also rare. We herein report a case of an elderly woman with a mass of unknown origin in the abdominal cavity. Computed tomography identified the extent of the tumor but not the organ of origin. The abdominal tumor eventually metastasized to the liver and lung. An autopsy and immunohistochemical examination revealed an anaplastic carcinoma possibly originating in an ectopic pancreas.

  17. Anaplastic ependymoma simulating glioblastoma in the cerebrum of an adult.

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    A case of anaplastic ependymoma of the cerebral hemisphere in which the histopathological features closely simulated those of glioblastoma is reported. The patient was a 72-year-old woman with a large, well-demarcated tumor in the left temporal lobe. The tumor was totally extirpated, but recurred 18 months later, and the patient died after 4 months. The extirpated tumor was well circumscribed from the surrounding brain tissue and consisted of a sheet-like, dense proliferation of atypical, short spindle or polygonal cells. Extensive geographic necrosis with nuclear pseudopalisading was seen. Although perivascular pseudorosettes were observed in many areas, true ependymal rosettes were absent. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein and epithelial membrane antigen and ultrastructural study confirmed the ependymal nature of tumor cells. The histopathological spectrum of anaplastic ependymoma is very wide and reflects the basically dual characteristics of ependymal cells: epithelial and glial phenotypes. The present case indicates that some anaplastic ependymomas strongly express the glial phenotype and also show remarkable anaplastic cytological features, thus closely simulating glioblastoma. The diagnostic criteria for anaplastic ependymoma, and the nosological position of highly anaplastic ependymoma and its possible clinical implications, are briefly discussed.

  18. Low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma.

    PubMed

    Van Den Bent, Martin J; Bromberg, Jacolien E C; Buckner, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas have long attracted interest because of their sensitivity to chemotherapy, in particular in the subset of 1p/19q co-deleted tumors. Recent molecular studies have shown that all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors have IDH mutations and most of them also have TERT mutations. Because of the presence of similar typical genetic alterations in astrocytoma and glioblastoma, the current trend is to diagnose these tumors on the basis of their molecular profile. Further long-term follow-up analysis of both EORTC and RTOG randomized studies on (neo)adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy have shown that adjuvant chemotherapy indeed improves outcome, and this is now standard of care. It is also equally clear that benefit to PCV chemotherapy is not limited to the 1p/19q co-deleted cases; potential other predictive factors are IDH mutations and MGMT promoter methylation. Moreover, a recent RTOG study on low-grade glioma also noted an improved outcome after adjuvant PCV chemotherapy, thus making (PCV) chemotherapy now standard of care for all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors regardless of grade. It remains unclear whether temozolomide provides the same survival benefit, as no data from well-designed clinical trials on adjuvant temozolomide in this tumor type are available. Another question that remains is whether one can safely leave out radiotherapy as part of initial treatment to avoid cognitive side-effects of radiotherapy. The current data suggest that delaying radiotherapy and treatment with chemotherapy only may be detrimental for overall survival.

  19. Characterization of some molecular mechanisms governing autoactivation of the catalytic domain of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase.

    PubMed

    Tartari, Carmen J; Gunby, Rosalind H; Coluccia, Addolorata M L; Sottocornola, Roberta; Cimbro, Barbara; Scapozza, Leonardo; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2008-02-15

    NPM/ALK is an oncogenic fusion protein expressed in approximately 50% of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cases. It derives from the t(2;5)(p23;q35) chromosomal translocation that fuses the catalytic domain of the tyrosine kinase, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), with the dimerization domain of the ubiquitously expressed nucleophosmin (NPM) protein. Dimerization of the ALK kinase domain leads to its autophosphorylation and constitutive activation. Activated NPM/ALK stimulates downstream survival and proliferation signaling pathways leading to malignant transformation. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of autoactivation of the catalytic domain of ALK. Because kinases are typically regulated by autophosphorylation of their activation loops, we systematically mutated (Tyr --> Phe) three potential autophosphorylation sites contained in the "YXXXYY" motif of the ALK activation loop, and determined the effect of these mutations on the catalytic activity and biological function of NPM/ALK. We observed that mutation of both the second and third tyrosine residues (YFF mutant) did not affect the kinase activity or transforming ability of NPM/ALK. In contrast, mutation of the first and second (FFY), first and third (FYF), or all three (FFF) tyrosine residues impaired both kinase activity and transforming ability of NPM/ALK. Furthermore, a DFF mutant, in which the aspartic residue introduces a negative charge similar to a phosphorylated tyrosine, possessed catalytic activity similar to the YFF mutant. Together, our findings indicate that phosphorylation of the first tyrosine of the YXXXYY motif is necessary for the autoactivation of the ALK kinase domain and the transforming activity of NPM/ALK. PMID:18070884

  20. Pediatric infratentorial ependymoma: prognostic significance of anaplastic histology.

    PubMed

    Phi, Ji Hoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il Han; Kim, In-One; Park, Kyung Duk; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Son, Young-Je; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2012-02-01

    Pediatric infratentorial ependymomas are difficult to cure. Despite the availability of advanced therapeutic modalities for brain tumors, total surgical resection remains the most important prognostic factor. Recently, histological grade emerged as an independent prognostic factor for intracranial ependymoma. We retrospectively reviewed the treatment outcome of 33 pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated and relevant prognostic factors were analyzed. Fourteen patients (42%) were under the age of 3 at diagnosis. Gross total resection was achieved in 16 patients (49%). Anaplastic histology was found in 13 patients (39%). Adjuvant therapies were delayed until progression in 12 patients (36%). Actuarial PFS rates were 64% in the first year and 29% in the fifth year. Actuarial OS rates were 91% in the first year and 71% in the fifth year. On univariate analysis, brainstem invasion (P = 0.047), anaplastic histology (P = 0.004), higher mitotic count (P = 0.001), and higher Ki-67 index (P = 0.004) were significantly related to a shorter PFS. Gross total resection (P = 0.029) and a greater age at diagnosis (P = 0.033) were significantly related to a longer PFS. On multivariate analysis, anaplastic histology alone was significantly related to a shorter PFS (P = 0.023). Gross total resection (P = 0.039) was significantly related to a longer overall survival (OS) on multivariate analysis. Anaplastic histology and gross total resection were the most important clinical factors affecting PFS and OS, respectively. Anaplastic histology, mitotic count, and Ki-67 index can be used as universal and easily available prognostic parameters in infratentorial ependymomas.

  1. Pulmonary Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Morena; Della Corte, Carminia Maria; Papaccio, Federica; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Lung neuroendocrine tumors are a heterogeneous subtype of pulmonary cancers representing approximately 20% of all lung cancers, including small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). The frequency appears to be approximately 3% for LCNEC. Diagnosis of LCNEC requires attention to neuroendocrine features by light microscopy and confirmation by immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers. Both SCLC and pulmonary LCNEC are high-grade and poor-prognosis tumors, with higher incidence in males and smokers and peripheral localization. LCNEC is very rare, and the precise diagnosis on small specimens is very difficult, so we have still too few data to define a standard of treatment for pulmonary LCNECs. Data of literature, most based on retrospective analysis, indicated a poor 5-year overall survival, with a high incidence of recurrence after surgery, even in stage I disease. Primary surgery should be the first option in all operable patients because there is no validate therapeutic approach for LCNEC due to lack of clinical trials in this setting. Neoadjuvant platinum-based regimens remain only an option for potentially resectable tumors. In advanced stages, SCLC-like chemotherapy seems the best option of treatment, with a good response rate but a poor overall survival (from 8 to 16 months in different case series). New agents are under clinical investigation to improve LCNEC patients’ outcome. We reviewed all data on treatment options feasible for pulmonary LCNEC, both for localized and extensive disease. PMID:26039012

  2. Non-anaplastic peripheral T-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents--a retrospective analysis of the NHL-BFM study group.

    PubMed

    Kontny, Udo; Oschlies, Ilske; Woessmann, Willi; Burkhardt, Birgit; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Salzburg, Janina; Janda, Ales; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Martin; Reiter, Alfred; Klapper, Wolfram

    2015-03-01

    Mature (peripheral) T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) other than anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of diseases and exceedingly rare in children and adolescents. Survival rates range between 46% and 85%. This study reports the disease characteristics, treatment and outcome of all patients with the diagnosis of mature TCL registered in the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster non-Hodgkin lymphoma database between 1986 and 2012. All diagnoses were centrally reviewed and revised by clinico-pathological correlation according to the criteria of the current World Health Organization classification. Of the 69 patients originally registered as having PTCL, the diagnosis was confirmed in 38 of them. Most patients were treated with an anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL)-like therapy regimen. Patients with PTCL-not otherwise specified comprised the largest group and showed a 5-year event-free survival rate of 61 ± 11%. Patients suffering from Natural Killer/T-cell- and hepatosplenic TCL had the poorest outcome. Our results suggest that the outcomes of children with mature TCL other than ALCL depend on the subtype and are worse than in all other paediatric lymphomas. The clinical experience presented in this largest study on paediatric mature TCL may serve as basis for future collaborative international prospective clinical trials.

  3. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma in an adolescent with Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heath, John A; Ng, Jessica; Beshay, Victoria; Coleman, Lee; Lo, Patrick; Amor, David J

    2013-06-01

    Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer; HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome with high penetrance. It is caused by heterozygous germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Carriers are at high-risk for developing colorectal carcinomas, as well as various extracolonic malignancies. This case report describes a 15 year-old male with a confirmed germline mutation of MSH2 and early onset anaplastic oligodendroglioma. The patient's tumor showed loss of expression of MSH2 and MSH6 proteins with normal microsatellite stability. The immunohistochemical staining pattern provided strong evidence to support the inclusion of anaplastic oligodendroglioma as part of the spectrum of tumors found in Lynch syndrome.

  4. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  5. Congenital Anaplastic Rhabdomyosarcoma Presenting As Abdominal Wall Mass.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Krishnendu; Mandal, Rupali

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma encompasses a group of malignant myogenic neoplasms expressing a multitude of clinical and pathological diversities. It is the commonest soft tissue sarcoma of childhood but neonates are rarely affected. Embryonal subtype is the most frequent. Head-neck and genitourinary tracts are predominant sites, while trunk is considered among the unusual sites of rhabdomyosarcoma. Herein we report a case of anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma in a newborn girl presenting, at the Pediatric Surgery Outpatient Department of North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, India in 2013 with a large tumor mass in the left flank region, arising from abdominal wall muscles. PMID:26870149

  6. Anaplastic mandibular carcinoma in a meerkat (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Dadone, Liza I; Garner, Michael M; Klaphake, Eric; Johnston, Matthew S; Han, Sushan

    2014-06-01

    An 8-yr-old female slender-tailed meerkat (Suricata suricatta) presented with a necrotic sublingual mass and osteolysis of the mandible. After 1 mo of palliative care, the meerkat was euthanized. The mass was diagnosed histologically as an anaplastic carcinoma with extensive rostral mandibular destruction. Immunohistochemistry for vimentin and cytokeratin was validated in this nontypical species and showed that neoplastic cells expressed both mesenchymal and epithelial characteristics, suggestive of a primitive and poorly differentiated tumor. A review of 150 adult slender-tailed meerkat histopathology reports showed a 2% prevalence of orofacial neoplasia, suggesting that oral neoplasms are uncommon in meerkats.

  7. Anaplastic mandibular carcinoma in a meerkat (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Dadone, Liza I; Garner, Michael M; Klaphake, Eric; Johnston, Matthew S; Han, Sushan

    2014-06-01

    An 8-yr-old female slender-tailed meerkat (Suricata suricatta) presented with a necrotic sublingual mass and osteolysis of the mandible. After 1 mo of palliative care, the meerkat was euthanized. The mass was diagnosed histologically as an anaplastic carcinoma with extensive rostral mandibular destruction. Immunohistochemistry for vimentin and cytokeratin was validated in this nontypical species and showed that neoplastic cells expressed both mesenchymal and epithelial characteristics, suggestive of a primitive and poorly differentiated tumor. A review of 150 adult slender-tailed meerkat histopathology reports showed a 2% prevalence of orofacial neoplasia, suggesting that oral neoplasms are uncommon in meerkats. PMID:25000710

  8. Approach to the Patient with Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the least common but most lethal of thyroid cancers. All patients are classified as stage IV, with the primary lesion restricted to the thyroid gland in stage IVA; locoregional lymph nodes may exist in IVA/IVB; and IVC disease is defined by distant metastases. Prognosis is highly dependent on disease extent at presentation, and staging and establishing a plan of care must be accomplished quickly. Although almost all studies are biased due to their retrospective nature, the most important factors associated with longer survival are completeness of surgical resection (achievable in only a minority of patients) and high-dose (>40 Gy) external beam radiotherapy (preferably intensity modulated radiation therapy). Recent reports suggest that a multimodal approach (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy) is beneficial. Given the high lethality even with apparent local disease, combination systemic therapy (cytotoxics and/or targeted agents) may improve outcomes in stage IVA/IVB patients. Newer, more effective drug combinations are urgently needed for IVC patients who want aggressive therapy. A candid discussion of the prognosis and management options, including palliative care/hospice, should be held with the patient and caregiver as soon as possible after diagnosis to clarify the patient's preference and expectations. Prospective multicenter clinical trials, incorporating molecular analyses of tumors, are required if we are to improve survival in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. PMID:22869844

  9. Large anaplastic spinal B-cell lymphoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Flatland, Bente; Fry, Michael M; Newman, Shelley J; Moore, Peter F; Smith, Joanne R; Thomas, William B; Casimir, Roslyn H

    2008-12-01

    A 5-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of tetraparesis. The neurologic lesion was localized to the cervical spinal segment (C1-C6). A left axillary mass was identified, and the results of fine needle aspiration cytology indicated malignant round cell neoplasia of possible histiocytic origin. The cells were large, had marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, occasional bi- and multinucleation, and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Euthanasia was performed due to the poor prognosis associated with severe, progressive neurologic signs and a malignant neoplasm. Postmortem examination revealed spinal cord compression and an extradural mass at the C1-C2 spinal segment, with neoplastic cells in the adjacent vertebral bodies, surrounding skeletal muscle, left axillary lymph node, and bone marrow from the right femur. The initial histologic diagnosis was anaplastic sarcoma, but immunohistochemical results indicated the cells were CD20+ and CD45R+ and CD3-, compatible with a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. CD79a staining was nonspecific and uninterpretable. Weak to moderate CD18 positivity and E-cadherin positivity were also observed. Clonality of the B-cell population could not be demonstrated using PCR testing for antigen receptor gene rearrangement. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a feline spinal anaplastic B-cell lymphoma exhibiting bi- and multinucleated cells. The prognostic significance of this cell morphology and immunophenotype is unknown.

  10. Use of vemurafenib in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Marten, Kristen A; Gudena, Vinay K

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare, poorly differentiated type of thyroid cancer occurring in less than 5% of all thyroid cancers. Patients typically have a poor prognosis with very few options for treatment.2 With current therapy of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, median survival is only 6 months from the time of diagnosis. Several mutations in cell cycle regulation have been discovered in ATC that contribute to its undifferentiated state, one of which is the BRAF kinase mutation. This mutation results in activation of the MAPK pathway and uncontrolled cell proliferation. In this case report, a 51 y old male presented with a 2-week history of hoarseness and was diagnosed with ATC. Genetic analysis revealed a mutation in BRAF kinase; the patient subsequently began therapy with vemurafenib, a BRAF kinase inhibitor indicated for melanoma. After an initial response, the patient quickly declined and consequently died from his disease. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a deadly cancer without an effective treatment. Inhibiting mutated enzymes that drive the development of this cancer is a potential drug target that may improve outcomes in patients with ATC. PMID:26176686

  11. Use of vemurafenib in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Marten, Kristen A; Gudena, Vinay K

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare, poorly differentiated type of thyroid cancer occurring in less than 5% of all thyroid cancers. Patients typically have a poor prognosis with very few options for treatment. (2) With current therapy of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, median survival is only 6 months from the time of diagnosis. Several mutations in cell cycle regulation have been discovered in ATC that contribute to its undifferentiated state, one of which is the BRAF kinase mutation. This mutation results in activation of the MAPK pathway and uncontrolled cell proliferation. In this case report, a 51 y old male presented with a 2-week history of hoarseness and was diagnosed with ATC. Genetic analysis revealed a mutation in BRAF kinase; the patient subsequently began therapy with vemurafenib, a BRAF kinase inhibitor indicated for melanoma. After an initial response, the patient quickly declined and consequently died from his disease. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a deadly cancer without an effective treatment. Inhibiting mutated enzymes that drive the development of this cancer is a potential drug target that may improve outcomes in patients with ATC.

  12. Large anaplastic spinal B-cell lymphoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Flatland, Bente; Fry, Michael M; Newman, Shelley J; Moore, Peter F; Smith, Joanne R; Thomas, William B; Casimir, Roslyn H

    2008-12-01

    A 5-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of tetraparesis. The neurologic lesion was localized to the cervical spinal segment (C1-C6). A left axillary mass was identified, and the results of fine needle aspiration cytology indicated malignant round cell neoplasia of possible histiocytic origin. The cells were large, had marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, occasional bi- and multinucleation, and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Euthanasia was performed due to the poor prognosis associated with severe, progressive neurologic signs and a malignant neoplasm. Postmortem examination revealed spinal cord compression and an extradural mass at the C1-C2 spinal segment, with neoplastic cells in the adjacent vertebral bodies, surrounding skeletal muscle, left axillary lymph node, and bone marrow from the right femur. The initial histologic diagnosis was anaplastic sarcoma, but immunohistochemical results indicated the cells were CD20+ and CD45R+ and CD3-, compatible with a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. CD79a staining was nonspecific and uninterpretable. Weak to moderate CD18 positivity and E-cadherin positivity were also observed. Clonality of the B-cell population could not be demonstrated using PCR testing for antigen receptor gene rearrangement. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a feline spinal anaplastic B-cell lymphoma exhibiting bi- and multinucleated cells. The prognostic significance of this cell morphology and immunophenotype is unknown. PMID:19055573

  13. Response of differentiated but not anaplastic teratoma to interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Rustin, G. J.; Kaye, S. B.; Williams, C. J.; Newlands, E. S.; Bagshawe, K. D.; Toy, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A Phase 2 trial was conducted using intramuscular lymphoblastoid interferon (IFN, Wellcome Research Laboratories), 4 MU per day, in 10 patients with chemotherapy-resistant teratomas. There was stabilisation of disease in 2 patients both of whom were in retrospect considered to have had differentiated teratoma at the time of IFN administration. There was progression of presumed active anaplastic germ cell tumour in 8 patients. One of these patients, a 15-year-old boy with biopsy proven differentiated teratoma has received 2 courses of lymphoblastoid IFN and 1 course of recombinant leukocyte A IFN (Roche Products Ltd.) lasting 5 1/2, 8 and 8+ months respectively. He has had a mixed response in his differentiated tumour which on each occasion has been maintained for the duration that he received IFN. Rising HCG levels during his second course of interferon required additional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Lymphoblastoid IFN does not appear to be active against anaplastic germ cell tumours but both lymphoblastoid and recombinant leukocyte A IFN may be useful in the treatment of unresectable differentiated teratoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6498061

  14. Temozolomide Treatment for Pediatric Refractory Anaplastic Ependymoma with Low MGMT Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazutoshi; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Miyairi, Yosuke; Sakashita, Kazuo; Shiohara, Masaaki; Fujihara, Ikuko; Morita, Daisuke; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Ogiso, Yoshifumi; Sano, Kenji; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Fukuoka, Kohei; Ichimura, Koichi; Shigeta, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The benefit of postoperative chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymoma remains unknown. We report two pediatric patients with refractory anaplastic ependymoma treated with temozolomide (TMZ). We did not detect O(6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in tumor samples; however, MGMT protein expression was low. With TMZ treatment, one patient had a 7-month complete remission; the other, stable disease for 15 months. Three other patients did not respond to TMZ; two had high and one low MGMT expression, and two showed no MGMT promoter methylation. These findings suggest that TMZ may be effective for pediatric refractory anaplastic ependymoma with low MGMT protein expression. PMID:26305586

  15. Controversies on Hodgkin's disease and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Hematopathology Study Group of the Società Italiana di Anatomia Patologica.

    PubMed

    Pileri, S

    1994-01-01

    Just one year ago the Italian Society of Pathology (S.I.A.P.) created a Study Group which included members of the most active Italian hematopathology teams. Prof. Pasquale Calapso was asked to chair the Group and Prof. Stefano Pileri to take care of secretarial duties. The aim of the Group is to spread hematopathologic knowledge among young pathologists and to promote activities that can contribute to updating Italian pathologists on topics of both speculative and diagnostic interest. The first Workshop of the S.I.A.P. Hematopathology Group was held at the Palazzo dei Congressi in Bologna, November 20, 1993. About 150 pathologists from all over Italy took part in the meeting, which consisted of two sections devoted to: a) discussion of the boundaries between Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and b) a case seminar illustrating the impact of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of bone-marrow biopsy. The first section included 5 presentations and a Round Table chaired by Prof. Luciano Fiore-Donati. Below, the contributors to this section summarize the content of their presentations, which were aimed at answering specific questions the Organizers had put to them.

  16. Riedel's Thyroiditis Mimicking as Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Unusual Presentation.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, Arsheed Hussain; Chandramathyamma, Sreerenjini Kaithaparambil; Hakeem, Imtiyaz Hussain; Wani, Fozia Jeelani; Gomez, Ramesh

    2016-09-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare inflammatory process which not only involves thyroid gland but also the surrounding vital structures. It may also be associated with various forms of systemic fibrotic disorders. The exact etiology is not known, but currently most favored view is that of a localized form of systemic fibrotic process. We report a case of Riedel's thyroiditis in a patient, highlighting a rare presentation mimicking anaplastic carcinoma. Clinical awareness of such presentation of Riedel's thyroiditis would enhance our ability to make this diagnosis promptly. Apart from avoiding or minimizing aggressive surgical intervention, awareness of such clinical entity may avoid complications and hence morbidity. Our case also highlights the difficulty in histological diagnosis which is very important to rule out malignancy and avoiding any major surgical intervention fraught with complications. Good response to high dose steroids as seen in our case is the current accepted treatment of choice. PMID:27651702

  17. Genomic Landscape of poorly Differentiated and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Ghossein, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) are aggressive thyroid tumors associated with a high mortality rate of 38-57 % and almost 100 % respectively. Several recent studies utilizing next generation sequencing techniques have shed lights on the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, providing evidence to support a stepwise tumoral progression from well-differentiated to poorly differentiated, and finally to anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. While BRAF (V600E) and RAS mutations remain the main drivers in aggressive thyroid carcinoma, PDTC and ATC gains additional mutations, e.g., TERT promoter mutation, TP53 mutation, as well as frequent alterations in PIK3CA-PTEN-AKT-mTOR pathway, SWI-SNF complex, histomethyltransferases, and mismatch repair genes. RAS-mutated PDTCs are commonly associated with a histologic phenotype defined by Turin proposal, high frequency of distant metastasis, high thyroid differentiation score, and a RAS-like gene expression profile, whereas BRAF-mutated PDTCs are usually defined solely by the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) criteria with a propensity for nodal metastasis and are less differentiated with a BRAF-like expression signature. Such demarcation is largely lost in ATC which is characterized by genomic complexity, heavy mutation burden, and profound undifferentiation. Additionally, several molecular events, e.g., EIF1AX mutation, mutation burden, and chromosome 1q gain in PDTCs, as well as EIF1AX mutation, chromosome 13q loss, and 20q gains in ATCs, may serve as adverse prognostic markers predicting poor clinical outcome. PMID:27372303

  18. Carfilzomib potentiates CUDC-101-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lisa; Boufraqech, Myriem; Lake, Ross; Kebebew, Electron

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies, with no effective treatment currently available. Previously, we identified agents active against ATC cells, both in vitro and in vivo, using quantitative high-throughput screening of 3282 clinically approved drugs and small molecules. Here, we report that combining two of these active agents, carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, and CUDC-101, a histone deacetylase and multi-kinase inhibitor, results in increased, synergistic activity in ATC cells. The combination of carfilzomib and CUDC-101 synergistically inhibited cellular proliferation and caused cell death in multiple ATC cell lines harboring various driver mutations observed in human ATC tumors. This increased anti-ATC effect was associated with a synergistically enhanced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased caspase 3/7 activity induced by the drug combination. Mechanistically, treatment with carfilzomib and CUDC-101 increased p21 expression and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein cleavage. Our results suggest that combining carfilzomib and CUDC-101 would offer an effective therapeutic strategy to treat ATC. PMID:26934320

  19. A New Aurora in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Enke; D'Armiento, Massimino

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC) are among the most aggressive human neoplasms with a dire prognosis and a median survival time of few months from the diagnosis. The complete absence of effective therapies for ATC renders the identification of novel therapeutic approaches sorely needed. Chromosomal instability, a feature of all human cancers, is thought to represent a major driving force in thyroid cancer progression and a number of mitotic kinases showing a deregulated expression in malignant thyroid tissues are now held responsible for thyroid tumor aneuploidy. These include the three members of the Aurora family (Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C), serine/threonine kinases that regulate multiple aspects of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Over the last few years, several small molecule inhibitors targeting Aurora kinases were developed, which showed promising antitumor effects against a variety of human cancers, including ATC, in preclinical studies. Several of these molecules are now being evaluated in phase I/II clinical trials against advanced solid and hematological malignancies. In the present review we will describe the structure, expression, and mitotic functions of the Aurora kinases, their implications in human cancer progression, with particular regard to ATC, and the effects of their functional inhibition on malignant cell proliferation. PMID:25097550

  20. The proteomic signature of NPM/ALK reveals deregulation of multiple cellular pathways.

    PubMed

    Lim, Megan S; Carlson, Mary L; Crockett, David K; Fillmore, G Chris; Abbott, David R; Elenitoba-Johnson, Olaotan F; Tripp, Sheryl R; Rassidakis, George Z; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Szankasi, Philippe; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J

    2009-08-20

    Constitutive expression of the chimeric NPM/ALK fusion protein encoded by the t(2;5)(p32;q35) is a key oncogenic event in the pathogenesis of most anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). The proteomic network alterations produced by this aberration remain largely uncharacterized. Using a mass spectrometry (MS)-driven approach to identify changes in protein expression caused by the NPM/ALK fusion, we identified diverse NPM/ALK-induced changes affecting cell proliferation, ribosome synthesis, survival, apoptosis evasion, angiogenesis, and cytoarchitectural organization. MS-based findings were confirmed using Western blotting and/or immunostaining of NPM/ALK-transfected cells and ALK-deregulated lymphomas. A subset of the proteins distinguished NPM/ALK-positive ALCLs from NPM/ALK-negative ALCLs and Hodgkin lymphoma. The multiple NPM/ALK-deregulated pathways identified by MS analysis also predicted novel biologic effects of NPM/ALK expression. In this regard, we showed loss of cell adhesion as a consequence of NPM/ALK expression in a kinase-dependent manner, and sensitivity of NPM/ALK-positive ALCLs to inhibition of the RAS, p42/44ERK, and FRAP/mTOR signaling pathways. These findings reveal that the NPM/ALK alteration affects diverse cellular pathways, and provide novel insights into NPM/ALK-positive ALCL pathobiology. Our studies carry important implications for the use of MS-driven approaches for the elucidation of neoplastic pathobiology, the identification of novel diagnostic biomarkers, and pathogenetically relevant therapeutic targets.

  1. Nonconventional papillary thyroid carcinomas with pleomorphic tumor giant cells: a diagnostic pitfall with anaplastic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hommell-Fontaine, Juliette; Borda, Angela; Ragage, Florence; Berger, Nicole; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam

    2010-06-01

    The presence of pleomorphic tumor giant cells in thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin is always worrisome for the pathologist as they first of all refer to anaplastic carcinoma, one of the most aggressive human malignancies. However, non-anaplastic pleomorphic giant cells are well described in other thyroid diseases, most often benign. In this paper, we describe four cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma displaying pleomorphic tumor giant cells with features that differ from those of anaplastic carcinoma. Pleomorphic giant cells were admixed with the underlying thyroid carcinoma and constituted from 5% to 25% of the tumor. Cytologically, they had an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with large and irregular nuclei. Compared to pleomorphic giant cells of anaplastic carcinoma, they reproduced the growth pattern of the underlying carcinoma, had a low mitotic index without necrosis or inflammation, and were reactive with thyroglobulin and thyroid-specific transcription factor-1 and strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. After 16-84 months of follow-up, patients are relapse-free and still alive. These cases show that pleomorphic tumor giant cells arising in papillary thyroid carcinomas do not always represent dedifferentiation and progression to anaplastic carcinoma. Distinction among these processes is critical as their treatment and prognosis are very different.

  2. Inhibition of Rac controls NPM-ALK-dependent lymphoma development and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Colomba, A; Giuriato, S; Dejean, E; Thornber, K; Delsol, G; Tronchère, H; Meggetto, F; Payrastre, B; Gaits-Iacovoni, F

    2011-06-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is a tyrosine kinase oncogene responsible for the pathogenesis of the majority of human ALK-positive lymphomas. We recently reported that it activated the Rac1 GTPase in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), leading to Rac-dependent formation of active invadopodia required for invasiveness. Herein, we went further into the study of this pathway and used the inhibitor of Rac, NSC23766, to validate its potential as a molecular target in ALCL in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model and in a conditional model of NPM-ALK transgenic mice. Our data demonstrate that Rac regulates important effectors of NPM-ALK-induced transformation such as Erk1/2, p38 and Akt. Moreover, inhibition of Rac signaling abrogates NPM-ALK-elicited disease progression and metastasis in mice, highlighting the potential of small GTPases and their regulators as additional therapic targets in lymphomas.

  3. Incidentally Detected Kaposi Sarcoma of Adrenal Gland with Anaplastic Features in an HIV Negative Patient

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Murat; Sen, Erdem; Cebeci, Hakan; Ata, Ozlem; Yavas, Cagdas

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), is a systemic disease that can present with cutaneous lesions with or without visceral involvement. Very few cases of KS, most of which were associated with AIDS, have been reported in the adrenal gland. Anaplastic transformation of KS is a rare clinical presentation known as an aggressive disease with local recurrence and metastatic potential. We report here a 47-year-old HIV negative male presented with extra-adrenal symptoms and had an incidentally detected anaplastic adrenal KS exhibited aggressive clinical course. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of anaplastic primary adrenal KS without mucocutaneous involvement but subsequently developed other side adrenal metastases in an HIV negative patient. PMID:27747121

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma: A report of 11 cases

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xi; Tan, Xin; Zhang, Chi; Lin, Huan; Qiu, Shijun

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic ependymomas are rare malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Few studies are available regarding their neuroradiological characteristics. The present study aimed to retrospectively review a series of patients with extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma and to analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics to distinguish anaplastic ependymoma from other intracranial tumors. The clinical and pathological images of 11 patients who presented with histologically proven anaplastic ependymoma at Nanfang Hospital (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) between September 2004 and March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. MRI scans were obtained in all 11 cases. Computed tomography scans were obtained in only 3 cases. In total, 8 tumors were located at the supratentorial parenchyma, and 3 tumors were derived from the cerebellar hemisphere. Images displayed quasi-circular (4/11), irregularly-lobulated (7/11) variable-intensity masses. The masses presented with cysts or necrosis (8/11), hemorrhage (7/11), marked (9/11) or mild (2/11) enhancement, and moderate (4/11), mild (3/11) or absent (4/11) peritumoral edema. The tumors were also frequently closely associated with the lateral ventricle (6/11). Tumors appeared isointense to hypointense on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and heterogeneously hyperintense or hypointense on T2WI, demonstrating wreath-like and ring-like characteristics, with intratumoral nodules (3/11) or marked flake-like inhomogeneous (6/11) enhancement on post-contrast MRI. Only 2 solid lesions showed mild enhancement (2/11). Although the MRI features of the extraventricular anaplastic ependymomas varied and were non-specific, these characteristic MRI findings, combined with the locations of the lesions, the age of onset and the short disease course, could be useful in differentiating anaplastic ependymomas from other intracranial neoplasms in the future.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma: A report of 11 cases

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xi; Tan, Xin; Zhang, Chi; Lin, Huan; Qiu, Shijun

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic ependymomas are rare malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Few studies are available regarding their neuroradiological characteristics. The present study aimed to retrospectively review a series of patients with extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma and to analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics to distinguish anaplastic ependymoma from other intracranial tumors. The clinical and pathological images of 11 patients who presented with histologically proven anaplastic ependymoma at Nanfang Hospital (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) between September 2004 and March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. MRI scans were obtained in all 11 cases. Computed tomography scans were obtained in only 3 cases. In total, 8 tumors were located at the supratentorial parenchyma, and 3 tumors were derived from the cerebellar hemisphere. Images displayed quasi-circular (4/11), irregularly-lobulated (7/11) variable-intensity masses. The masses presented with cysts or necrosis (8/11), hemorrhage (7/11), marked (9/11) or mild (2/11) enhancement, and moderate (4/11), mild (3/11) or absent (4/11) peritumoral edema. The tumors were also frequently closely associated with the lateral ventricle (6/11). Tumors appeared isointense to hypointense on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and heterogeneously hyperintense or hypointense on T2WI, demonstrating wreath-like and ring-like characteristics, with intratumoral nodules (3/11) or marked flake-like inhomogeneous (6/11) enhancement on post-contrast MRI. Only 2 solid lesions showed mild enhancement (2/11). Although the MRI features of the extraventricular anaplastic ependymomas varied and were non-specific, these characteristic MRI findings, combined with the locations of the lesions, the age of onset and the short disease course, could be useful in differentiating anaplastic ependymomas from other intracranial neoplasms in the future. PMID:27602137

  6. Metastatic anaplastic adenocarcinoma suspected to be of mammary origin in an intact male rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Summa, Noémie M.; Eshar, David; Snyman, Heindrich N.; Lillie, Brandon N.

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old, intact male, pet dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented for a ventral abdominal subcutaneous mass. Histolopathology of the resected mass was suggestive of a mammary adenocarcinoma. Six months later, the rabbit died from severe dyspnea. Necropsy showed recurrence of the original mass with hepatic and pulmonary metastasis of the anaplastic adenocarcinoma, suspected to be of mammary origin. PMID:24790235

  7. Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Multifocal Synchronous Transformation to Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a common malignancy to affect the thyroid and is typified by a nonaggressive nature and low rates of mortality. In contrast, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most aggressive thyroid malignancy with a mortality rate of nearly 90% and survival typically of only six months after the diagnosis is made. The transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is well documented in the literature but is uncommon and in most instances is reported as a case report or small series only. Transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma usually takes place in the thyroid itself or in the adjacent lymph nodes. Only on rare occasions does a transformation occur in a papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis outside of these locations. In the present case report and subsequent discussion we highlight an unusual case of PTC with transformation to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is shown to involve numerous locations to include near total lung parenchyma obliteration. We also discuss the differential diagnostic challenges when faced with a thyroid malignancy that is negative for thyroglobulin. PMID:27774331

  8. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to screen for inhibitors of the oncogenic anaplastic lymphoma kinase.

    PubMed

    Gunby, Rosalind Helen; Tartari, Carmen Julia; Porchia, Francesca; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Scapozza, Leonardo; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2005-07-01

    The discovery of novel anti-cancer drugs targeting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), an oncogenic tyrosine kinase, raises the need for in vitro assays suitable for screening compounds for ALK inhibition. To this aim we have developed and optimized an ALK-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that employs a novel ALK peptide substrate and purified ALK kinase domain. PMID:15996942

  9. A visual latent semantic approach for automatic analysis and interpretation of anaplastic medulloblastoma virtual slides.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; González, Fabio; Galaro, Joseph; Judkins, Alexander R; Ellison, David; Baccon, Jennifer; Madabhushi, Anant; Romero, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A method for automatic analysis and interpretation of histopathology images is presented. The method uses a representation of the image data set based on bag of features histograms built from visual dictionary of Haar-based patches and a novel visual latent semantic strategy for characterizing the visual content of a set of images. One important contribution of the method is the provision of an interpretability layer, which is able to explain a particular classification by visually mapping the most important visual patterns associated with such classification. The method was evaluated on a challenging problem involving automated discrimination of medulloblastoma tumors based on image derived attributes from whole slide images as anaplastic or non-anaplastic. The data set comprised 10 labeled histopathological patient studies, 5 for anaplastic and 5 for non-anaplastic, where 750 square images cropped randomly from cancerous region from whole slide per study. The experimental results show that the new method is competitive in terms of classification accuracy achieving 0.87 in average.

  10. A rare case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Diwei; Tan, Amanda Jia Hui; De Sousa, Agnelo Francis; Singh-Rai, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    We present a very rare case of de novo large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the prostate in an 84-year-old man on a background of high grade, superficially invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Pure LCNEC of the prostate is extremely rare. Most LCNEC of the prostate are thought to originate by clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy and refractory to long-term hormonal treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. De novo LCNEC is only described in case reports and is thought to develop via direct malignant transformation. Limited data in the English literature makes it difficult to accurately predict the prognosis of LCNEC of the prostate. However, current evidence suggesting that increasing neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma is associated with a higher stage, high-grade disease and a worse prognosis. PMID:25331150

  11. Large-cell Monte Carlo renormalization of irreversible growth processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, H.; Family, F.

    1985-01-01

    Monte Carlo sampling is applied to a recently formulated direct-cell renormalization method for irreversible, disorderly growth processes. Large-cell Monte Carlo renormalization is carried out for various nonequilibrium problems based on the formulation dealing with relative probabilities. Specifically, the method is demonstrated by application to the 'true' self-avoiding walk and the Eden model of growing animals for d = 2, 3, and 4 and to the invasion percolation problem for d = 2 and 3. The results are asymptotically in agreement with expectations; however, unexpected complications arise, suggesting the possibility of crossovers, and in any case, demonstrating the danger of using small cells alone, because of the very slow convergence as the cell size b is extrapolated to infinity. The difficulty of applying the present method to the diffusion-limited-aggregation model, is commented on.

  12. Anaplastic Transformation in Mandibular Metastases of Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ambelil, Manju; Sultana, Sadia; Roy, Suvra; Gonzalez, Maria M

    2016-09-01

    Anaplastic transformation of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas at distant metastatic sites is a rare condition. Most cases described in the literature have occurred in the thyroid or regional lymph nodes. We report a case of anaplastic transformation of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in mandibular metastases. A 76-year-old female presented with a painful and enlarging mandibular mass. She had been treated in the past for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. A palliative hemi-mandibulectomy was performed. Histology revealed a metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant, with an unusual finding of solid pleomorphic epithelioid and spindle cell areas, consistent with anaplastic transformation. PMID:27650625

  13. Primary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the scrotum.

    PubMed

    Maricić, Anton; Katunarić, Miljenko; Sutalo, Nikica; Tomic, Snjezana; Jurisic, Davor; Petkovic, Marija; Zamolo, Gordana

    2010-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) mostly develop from the neural crest cells but a few arise from neuroectoderm. They are common in the lungs and gastrointestinal tract but rare in the genitourinary tract. A 78-year-old man with no family history of malignant or hereditary diseases presented with a 3-month history of a rapidly growing asymptomatic scrotal nodule and swelling in the groin. He had a negative history of sexually transmitted disease and of trauma, fungal infection or chronic irritation in the scrotal area; there was no history of radiotherapy or exposure to chemicals or arsenic. Both the scrotal and groin lesions were excised with a minimum of 1.2 cm of normal skin. Examination of the specimen revealed a confined poorly differentiated large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with a metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes. Three months after the excision we found a local recurrence. The recurrent tumor revealed tumor tissue concurrent with the primary lesion. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previously published case reports on neuroendocrine tumor of the scrotum.

  14. Mediastinal large-cell lymphoma with sclerosis (MLCLS).

    PubMed Central

    Rohatiner, A. Z.; Whelan, J. S.; Ganjoo, R. K.; Norton, A. J.; Wilson, A.; Lister, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis encompassing a 14 year period (1978-92), 22 patients (age range 19-71, median 30 years) were identified as having mediastinal large-cell lymphoma with sclerosis on the basis of clinical and pathological features. At presentation, 15/22 had 'bulky' disease and 11/22 had evidence of superior vena caval obstruction. Thirteen patients had stage II disease (6,II; 7,IIE), nine presented with stage IV disease. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in only 4/22 patients with the initial adriamycin-containing regimen. 'Good partial remission' (no clinical evidence of disease, minimal abnormalities of uncertain significance on radiological investigation) was achieved in a further seven patients and 'poor partial remission' (a reduction in measurable disease > 50%) in four, giving an overall response rate of 15/22 (68%). One patient died within 48 h of arrival at the hospital; 16 of the 17 remaining patients in whom anything less than CR was achieved subsequently received additional, alternative treatment (one chemotherapy, six mediastinal radiotherapy, nine both treatment modalities) but in only 2/16 did this result in any further degree of response. With a median follow-up of 5 1/2 years, 10/22 patients remain well without progression between 6 months and 14 years (5/6 in whom CR was eventually achieved and 5/11 in whom only partial remission was ever documented). The seven patients in whom the initial treatment demonstrably failed have all died. These results suggest that a proportion of patients with this rare subtype of high-grade B-cell lymphoma may be cured by chemotherapy alone and that the presence of a residual mediastinal mass after treatment does not necessarily imply treatment failure. However, patients in whom the initial chemotherapy fails have a very grave prognosis. PMID:8123496

  15. Angiotrophic large cell lymphoma mimicking multiple sclerosis associated transverse myelitis.

    PubMed

    Ormsby; Prayson; Heard

    1999-09-01

    Angiotrophic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare disease characterized by a proliferation of malignant lymphoid cells, usually of B-cell origin, within the lumina of small vessels and frequently involving the central nervous system (CNS). ALCL generally follows a rapidly fatal course and is rarely diagnosed prior to autopsy. Tumour cells are rarely present on examination of peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or bone marrow, therefore, an early diagnosis is heavily dependent on recognition of neurological manifestations which are present in over 80% of cases. A pre-mortem diagnosis of ALCL can be made in cases where brain biopsy has been performed. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman demonstrating clinical and laboratory features suggestive of multiple sclerosis associated transverse myelitis (MSA-TM) in whom ALCL was unexpectedly discovered at autopsy. Microscopic examination revealed diffuse CNS vascular involvement by neoplastic cells and prominent myelopathy of the upper thoracic spinal cord associated with ascending and descending tract degeneration of the spinal motor and sensory tracts. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for B-cell lymphoid markers. The present case is the first to demonstrate neoplastic B-cell clonality in ALCL using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect abnormal V-D-J immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. ALCL should be considered in the differential diagnosis whenever a transverse myelitis is present in association with global encephalopathy and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase. The neurological manifestations of ALCL with particular reference to its presentation as MSA-TM is discussed. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID:10844781

  16. Effect of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent anaplastic meningioma: an autopsy case report.

    PubMed

    Kawaji, Hiroshi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Shinmura, Kazuya; Kawabata, Shinji; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman died of systemic metastasis from anaplastic meningioma and underwent autopsy. The patient underwent twice total removal of the right sphenoid ridge meningioma 2 years ago. The tumor recurred 3 times, and then stereotactic radiotherapy was employed. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was performed for the fourth local recurrence and an additional new lesion. Proliferative activity of the newly developed meningioma, which had been treated with BNCT only, was significantly lower than that of untreated metastatic liver tumor, as well as that of the meningioma specimen obtained at the second surgery. Our pathological findings demonstrated, for the first time, the therapeutic effect of BNCT on anaplastic meningioma at an early stage (2.5 months).

  17. Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas arising in an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: A case report

    PubMed Central

    FUJII, KENSUKE; NITTA, TOSHIKATSU; KAWASAKI, HIROSHI; KATAOKA, JUN; TOMINAGA, TOMO; INOUE, YOSHIHIRO; KADOTA, EIJI; ISHIBASHI, TAKASHI; UCHIYAMA, KAZUHISA

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas arising in an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). A 68-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of fatigue. Computed tomography revealed an irregular mass in the pancreatic head, which displayed high-signal intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histopathological findings revealed intraductal papillary proliferative changes involving the main and branch ducts of the pancreatic head. Based on the immunohistochemistry results, the intraductal lesion was diagnosed as IPMN. The pathological diagnosis for the invasive carcinoma was anaplastic giant-cell carcinoma of the pancreas (ACP), and the focus of IPMN dedifferentiation to ACP was found to be located at the periphery of the IPMN. At 18 months postoperatively, the patient remains disease-free. PMID:26870354

  18. Autopsy of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Haruna; Eguchi, Noriaki; Sumimoto, Kyoku; Matsumoto, Kenta; Azakami, Takahiro; Sumida, Tomonori; Tamura, Tadamasa; Sumii, Masaharu; Uraoka, Naohiro; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2016-08-01

    A 50-year-old man presented to a nearby hospital with high fever and anorexia. An abdominal tumor was detected, and he was referred to our hospital. A pancreatic tumor was detected by computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography. He had high fever, leukocytosis, and high serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We performed a tumor biopsy and histological examination revealed anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas. Based on the diagnosis, we initiated chemotherapy using gemcitabine plus S-1. However, the tumor rapidly progressed and he deteriorated and died 123 days after admission. As immunohistochemical study showed positive staining for G-CSF in the tumor cell, we diagnosed the tumor producing G-CSF during autopsy. Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas producing G-CSF is very rare, with 10 cases, including ours, reported in the literature. PMID:27498938

  19. [Anaplastic tumor of the bladder with neurosecretory granules and benign courses].

    PubMed

    Vera-Román, J M; Arrufat Boix, J M

    1989-06-01

    We report on a 59-year-old female patient with a bladder tumor that was initially classified as anaplastic (undifferentiated) tumor. Posteriorly, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses of the specimen revealed a neuroendocrine tumor distinct from a paraganglioma. The origin and prognosis of bladder carcinoids and small cell undifferentiated carcinomas are discussed. The authors indicate that the level of bladder wall infiltration is the most important prognostic parameter in these type of tumors.

  20. A phase II trial of single-agent bevacizumab in patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma

    PubMed Central

    Kreisl, Teri N.; Zhang, Weiting; Odia, Yazmin; Shih, Joanna H.; Butman, John A.; Hammoud, Dima; Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Sul, Joohee; Fine, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of single-agent bevacizumab in patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma and assess correlative advanced imaging parameters. Patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma were treated with bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Complete patient evaluations were repeated every 4 weeks. Correlative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR and 18fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging studies were obtained to evaluate physiologic changes in tumor and tumor vasculature at time points including baseline, 96 h after the first dose, and after the first 4 weeks of therapy. Median overall survival was 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.08–22.8). Median progression-free survival was 2.93 months (95% CI: 2.01–4.93), and 6-month progression-free survival was 20.9% (95% CI: 10.3%–42.5%). Thirteen (43%) patients achieved a partial response. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related toxicities were hypertension, hypophosphatemia, and thromboembolism. Single-agent bevacizumab produces significant radiographic response in patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma but did not meet the 6-month progression-free survival endpoint. Early change in enhancing tumor volume at 4 days after start of therapy was the most significant prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival. PMID:21865400

  1. Low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas: differences in tumour microvascular permeability evaluated with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhongzheng; Geng, Daoying; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xingrong; Zhang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively assess the microvascular permeability of oligodendroglioma using the volume transfer constant (K(trans)) and the volume of the extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (V(e)) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of K(trans) and V(e) in distinguishing between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma. The maximal values of K(trans) and V(e) for 65 patients with oligodendroglioma (27 grade II, 38 grade III) were obtained. Differences in K(trans) and V(e) between the two groups were analysed using the Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the cut-off values for the K(trans) and Ve that could differentiate between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Values for K(trans) and Ve in low-grade oligodendrogliomas were significantly lower than those in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). ROC curve analysis showed that cut-off values of the K(trans) (0.037 min(-1)) and Ve (0.079) could be used to distinguish between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in a statistically significant manner. Our results suggest that DCE-MRI can distinguish the differences in microvascular permeability between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.

  2. Phase II Trial of Pre-Irradiation and Concurrent Temozolomide in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas and Mixed Anaplastic Oligoastrocytomas: Long Term Results of RTOG BR0131

    PubMed Central

    Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Hu, Chen; Peereboom, David M.; Macdonald, David R.; Giannini, Caterina; Suh, John H.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Laack, Nadia N.; Brachman, David G.; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Souhami, Luis; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We report on the long-term results of a phase II study of pre-irradiation temozolomide followed by concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (MOA). METHODS Pre-RT temozolomide was given for up to 6 cycles. RT with concurrent temozolomide was administered to patients with less than a complete radiographic response. RESULTS Forty eligible patients were entered and 32 completed protocol treatment. With a median follow-up time of 8.7 years (range: 1.1 to 10.1), median progression-free survival (PFS) is 5.8 years (95% C.I. 2.0, NR) and median overall survival (OS) has not been reached (5.9, NR). 1p/19q data are available in 37 cases; 23 tumors had codeletion while 14 tumors had no loss or loss of only 1p or 19q (non-codeleted). In codeleted patients, 9 patients have progressed and 4 have died; neither median PFS nor OS have been reached and two patients who received only pre-RT temozolomide and no RT have remained progression-free for over 7 years. 3-year PFS and 6-year OS are 78% (95% CI: 61-95%) and 83% (95% CI: 67-98%), respectively. Codeleted patients show a trend towards improved 6-year survival when compared to the codeleted procarbazine/CCNU/vincristrine (PCV) and RT cohort in RTOG 9402 (67%, 95% CI:55-79%). For non-codeleted patients, median PFS and OS are 1.3 and 5.8 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These updated results suggest that the regimen of dose intense, pre-RT temozolomide followed by concurrent RT/temozolomide has significant activity, particularly in patients with 1p/19q codeleted AOs and MAOs. PMID:26088460

  3. Meningiomas with Rhabdoid or Papillary Components : Prognosis and Comparison with Anaplastic Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Kwon; Jung, Shin; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Seul-Kee; Lee, Eun Jung

    2016-01-01

    Papillary and rhabdoid meningiomas are pathologically World Health Organization (WHO) grade III. Any correlation between clinical prognosis and pathologic component is not clear. We analyzed the prognoses of patients with meningiomas with a rhabdoid or papillary component compared to those of patients with anaplastic meningiomas. From 1994 to June 2013, 14 anaplastic meningiomas, 6 meningiomas with a rhabdoid component, and 5 meningiomas with papillary component were pathologically diagnosed. We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, extent of removal, adjuvant treatment, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and pathologic features of 14 anaplastic meningiomas (group A), 5 meningiomas with a predominant (≥50%) papillary or rhabdoid component (group B1), and 6 meningiomas without a predominant (<50%) rhabdoid or papillary component (group B2). Homogeneous enhancement on MRI was associated with improved PFS compared to heterogeneous enhancement (p=0.025). Depending on pathology, the mean PFS was 134.9±31.6 months for group A, 46.6±13.4 months for group B1, and 118.7±19.2 months for group B2. The mean OS was 138.5±24.6 months for group A and 59.7±16.8 months for group B1. All recurrent tumors were of the previously diagnosed pathology, except for one tumor from group B1, which recurred as an atypical meningioma without a papillary component. Group B1 tumors showed a more aggressive behavior than group B2 tumors. In group B2 cases, the pathologic findings of non-rhabdoid/papillary portion could be considered for further adjuvant treatment. PMID:27446516

  4. Identification of a 7-cM region of frequent allelic loss on chromosome band 16p13.3 that is specifically associated with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kadota, M; Tamaki, Y; Sakita, I; Komoike, Y; Miyazaki, M; Ooka, M; Masuda, N; Fujiwara, Y; Ohnishi, T; Tomita, N; Sekimoto, M; Ohue, M; Ikeda, T; Kobayashi, T; Horii, A; Monden, M

    2000-01-01

    A total of 17 primary thyroid cancer specimens including seven anaplastic cancers, two papillary cancers adjacent to the anaplastic cancers, and eight papillary cancers were analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome arm 16p. All tumors of anaplastic cancer showed LOHs at one or more loci, and a 7-cM region of the smallest deleted region was found on 16p13.3 between D16S423 and D16S406. This LOH was specifically found in the anaplastic cancer and not in the papillary thyroid cancer. Our present results suggest localization of the putative tumor suppressor gene on 16p13.3, which is likely to play an important role in the anaplastic transformation of thyroid cancer.

  5. Ollier disease with anaplastic astrocytoma: A review of the literature and a unique case

    PubMed Central

    Gajavelli, Srikanth; Nakhla, Jonathan; Nasser, Rani; Yassari, Reza; Weidenheim, Karen M.; Graber, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ollier disease is a rare, nonfamilial disorder that primary affects the long bones and cartilage of joints with multiple enchondromas. It is associated with a higher risk of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies; although the incidence is unknown. Case Description: Here, we present the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed an anaplastic astrocytoma with a known diagnosis of Ollier disease with a survival time of over 3 years. Conclusion: This report draws attention to the rarity of this disease and the paucity of information regarding CNS involvement in Ollier disease, as well as reviews the current literature.

  6. Ollier disease with anaplastic astrocytoma: A review of the literature and a unique case

    PubMed Central

    Gajavelli, Srikanth; Nakhla, Jonathan; Nasser, Rani; Yassari, Reza; Weidenheim, Karen M.; Graber, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ollier disease is a rare, nonfamilial disorder that primary affects the long bones and cartilage of joints with multiple enchondromas. It is associated with a higher risk of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies; although the incidence is unknown. Case Description: Here, we present the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed an anaplastic astrocytoma with a known diagnosis of Ollier disease with a survival time of over 3 years. Conclusion: This report draws attention to the rarity of this disease and the paucity of information regarding CNS involvement in Ollier disease, as well as reviews the current literature. PMID:27656320

  7. ALK-positive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the abdomen with widespread microscopic multifocality.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Luisa; Cigognetti, Marta; Medicina, Daniela; Pellegrini, Vilma; Balzarini, Piera; Cestari, Renzo; Facchetti, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a locally aggressive neoplasm, most frequently occurring in the abdominal cavity as multiple recurrent nodules. We report a case of IMT in a 24-year-old male presenting as multiple nodules involving the omentum, the liver, and the colon. Spindle tumor cells expressed ALK with a cytoplasmic granular distribution, the CLTC-ALK fusion gene was demonstrated by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for the ALK gene showed a pathological pattern (single red signal associated with 1/2 normal fused signals) highly suggestive for combined gene fusion and deletion. To reduce the surgically unresectable liver mass, the patient was treated with crizotinib, and after 4 months of treatment the disease was defined stable according to RECIST criteria. Interestingly, ALK and FISH/FICTION analysis revealed that tumor cells were widely dispersed as multiple microscopic foci or as single cells beneath the omental mesothelium. These findings indicate that IMT multifocality might result either from dissemination from the main tumor mass or development of multiple independent neoplastic foci; furthermore, they underline the need of omentectomy in abdominal IMT to obtain surgical radicality.

  8. Anaplastic ganglioglioma: a report of three cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, John Thomas; Huang, Andrew Jonathan; Mott, Ryan T.; Lesser, Glenn J.; Tatter, Stephen Bradley; Chan, Michael David

    2015-01-01

    Gangliogliomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system that are thought to arise from a glioneuronal precursor and consist of both neuronal and glial elements. Grade III, or anaplastic ganglioglioma (AGG), most commonly affects children and young adults, generally arises in a supratentorial location, is highly epileptogenic, and often results in diffuse local and distant failure within the craniospinal axis. Pathologically, these tumors are graded by the degree of malignancy in their glial portion and radiologic diagnosis is difficult due to the wide variation in its degree of solid and cystic components, contrast uptake, and calcification patterns. This report presents three cases of AGG, with initial treatment including subtotal resection followed by conformal radio-therapy. In the case where the AGG developed in the setting of an existent low-grade astrocytoma, the patient received no chemotherapy. Both of the other de novo cases were managed with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide. Recurrence occurred at 6, 16, and 20 months following therapy. Two of the three patients experienced symptomatic decline at recurrence, but experienced Karnofsky performance status (KPS) improvement after salvage therapy, including the reduction of cranial neuropathy and balance. All patients had a significant reduction in presenting symptoms following salvage therapy. Patients died at 23, 20, and 22 months following initial surgical management, respectively. A review of anaplastic and malignant gangliogliomas is presented in the context of these three cases. PMID:25862009

  9. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 sensitizes anaplastic thyroid cancer to standard chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Francipane, Maria Giovanna; Eterno, Vincenzo; Spina, Valentina; Bini, Miriam; Scerrino, Gregorio; Buscemi, Giuseppe; Gulotta, Gaspare; Todaro, Matilde; Dieli, Francesco; De Maria, Ruggero; Stassi, Giorgio

    2009-08-01

    We previously showed that cancer cells from papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas produce interleukin-4 and interleukin-10, which counteract the cytotoxic activity of conventional chemotherapy through the up-regulation of antiapoptotic molecules. Here, we identify Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT as the down-stream pathways through which these cytokines confer resistance to cell death in thyroid cancer. We found that the absence of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) molecules allows the propagation of the survival signaling. Exogenous expression of SOCS1, SOCS3, and SOCS5 in the highly aggressive anaplastic thyroid cancer cells reduces or abolishes STAT3 and 6 phosphorylation and PI3K/Akt pathway activation resulting in alteration in the balance of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic molecules and sensitization to chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. Likewise, exogenous expression of SOCS3 significantly reduces tumor growth and potently enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy in vivo. Our results indicate that SOCS3 regulation of cytokines-prosurvival programs might represent a new strategy to overcome the resistance to chemotherapy-induced cell death of thyroid cancer.

  10. UbcH10 overexpression may represent a marker of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Pallante, P; Berlingieri, M T; Troncone, G; Kruhoffer, M; Orntoft, T F; Viglietto, G; Caleo, A; Migliaccio, I; Decaussin-Petrucci, M; Santoro, M; Palombini, L; Fusco, A

    2005-01-01

    The hybridisation of an Affymetrix HG_U95Av2 oligonucleotide array with RNAs extracted from six human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and a normal human thyroid primary cell culture led us to the identification of the UbcH10 gene that was upregulated by 150-fold in all of the carcinoma cell lines in comparison to the primary culture cells of human normal thyroid origin. Immunohistochemical studies performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections showed abundant UbcH10 levels in thyroid anaplastic carcinoma samples, whereas no detectable UbcH10 expression was observed in normal thyroid tissues, in adenomas and goiters. Papillary and follicular carcinomas were only weakly positive. These results were further confirmed by RT–PCR and Western blot analyses. The block of UbcH10 protein synthesis induced by RNA interference significantly reduced the growth rate of thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Taken together, these results would indicate that UbcH10 overexpression is involved in thyroid cell proliferation, and may represent a marker of thyroid anaplastic carcinomas. PMID:16106252

  11. A comparative evaluation of supervised and unsupervised representation learning approaches for anaplastic medulloblastoma differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Arevalo, John; Basavanhally, Ajay; Madabhushi, Anant; González, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Learning data representations directly from the data itself is an approach that has shown great success in different pattern recognition problems, outperforming state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes for different tasks in computer vision, speech recognition and natural language processing. Representation learning applies unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods to large amounts of data to find building-blocks that better represent the information in it. Digitized histopathology images represents a very good testbed for representation learning since it involves large amounts of high complex, visual data. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of different supervised and unsupervised representation learning architectures to specifically address open questions on what type of learning architectures (deep or shallow), type of learning (unsupervised or supervised) is optimal. In this paper we limit ourselves to addressing these questions in the context of distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas from routine haematoxylin and eosin stained images. The unsupervised approaches evaluated were sparse autoencoders and topographic reconstruct independent component analysis, and the supervised approach was convolutional neural networks. Experimental results show that shallow architectures with more neurons are better than deeper architectures without taking into account local space invariances and that topographic constraints provide useful invariant features in scale and rotations for efficient tumor differentiation.

  12. Non-autocrine, constitutive activation of Met in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, J D; Hermansson, A; Ståhl, T Diaz de; Heldin, N-E

    1999-01-01

    Activation of Met by its ligand HGF has been shown to elicit both mitogenic and motogenic responses in thyrocytes in vitro. In the present study we have investigated the expression of Met in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in culture. There was a variation in expression level and size of Met in the different cell lines; high Met expression was found in four cell lines, compared to non-neoplastic human thyrocytes. Treatment with glucoproteinase F showed that the size differences observed were due to variances in the degree of glycosylation. Interestingly, in cell lines with high expression of Met, the receptor proteins were found to be constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated. None of these cell lines expressed HGF mRNA, and addition of suramin did not affect the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of Met in unstimulated cells, suggesting the absence of autocrine stimulatory pathways. Furthermore, we did not observe MET gene amplification, activating mutations or phosphatase defects. The tyrosine phosphorylated receptors appeared functionally active since the receptors associated with the adaptor molecule Shc. In summary, we have found ligand-independent constitutively activated Met in four out of six anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10360640

  13. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression.

  14. Disseminated intravascular large-cell lymphoma with initial presentation mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qin Li; Pytel, Peter; Rowin, Julie

    2010-07-01

    We report a patient with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma who initially presented with acute ascending weakness and sensory changes. Electrodiagnostic testing and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) studies were initially suggestive of a demyelinating polyneuropathy. Further clinical evaluation and testing were consistent with mononeuropathy multiplex. Autopsy revealed disseminated intravascular large-cell lymphoma. Intravascular large-cell lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a rapidly evolving neuropathy associated with other organ involvement.

  15. Brain Tumor in an In Vitro Fertilization–Facilitated Pregnancy: Fourth Ventricle Anaplastic Ependymoma in the Second Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Ryskeldiyev, Nurzhan; Olenbay, Gabit; Auezova, Raushan; Killeen, Tim; Aldiyarova, Nurgul; Akhmetzhanova, Zauresh; Cesnulis, Evaldas; Akshulakov, Serik

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of fourth ventricle anaplastic ependymoma in a pregnancy which was the first result of three rounds of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. Whether hormonal treatment can directly or indirectly precipitate brain tumors to develop or become symptomatic is unclear. PMID:27330925

  16. Brain Tumor in an In Vitro Fertilization-Facilitated Pregnancy: Fourth Ventricle Anaplastic Ependymoma in the Second Trimester.

    PubMed

    Ryskeldiyev, Nurzhan; Olenbay, Gabit; Auezova, Raushan; Killeen, Tim; Aldiyarova, Nurgul; Akhmetzhanova, Zauresh; Cesnulis, Evaldas; Akshulakov, Serik

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of fourth ventricle anaplastic ependymoma in a pregnancy which was the first result of three rounds of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. Whether hormonal treatment can directly or indirectly precipitate brain tumors to develop or become symptomatic is unclear. PMID:27330925

  17. Ovarian mucinous cystic tumor with sarcoma-like mural nodules and multifocal anaplastic carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinfeng; Geng, Ming; Li, Peifeng; Li, Yi; Cao, Yongcheng

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented with left abdominal pain and fullness. Computed tomography scan revealed a multicystic mass with multifocal mural nodules. Histologic examination showed a mucinous cystic tumor with cystadenoma, borderline malignant cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma, which were associated with sarcoma-like mural nodules (SLMNs) and multifocal anaplastic carcinoma. Mural nodules showed a positive reaction for CD56 and vimentin, but were negative for cytokeratin 7 and SMA. She underwent postoperative chemotherapy and is currently under follow-up; no recurrence or metastases were found in the first year of follow-up. Ovarian mucinous cystic tumor with SLMNs and foci of anaplastic carcinoma is extremely rare. To our knowledge, this case reports the most complex neoplastic and reactive components. Our findings shed some light on the pathogenesis of this rather rare carcinoma. We think that the formation of SLMNs may be the result of the reactive proliferation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, while the anaplastic carcinoma may be derived from mucinous epithelium. Moreover, because of difficulties encountered in their differential diagnosis, we think that the existence of foci of anaplastic carcinoma along with SLMNs necessitates careful histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of mural nodules for the determination of treatment and prognosis.

  18. Molecular analysis of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors in a prospective randomized study: A report from EORTC study 26951.

    PubMed

    Kouwenhoven, Mathilde C M; Gorlia, Thierry; Kros, Johan M; Ibdaih, Ahmed; Brandes, Alba A; Bromberg, Jacolien E C; Mokhtari, Karima; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Teepen, Johannes L; Wesseling, Pieter; Vandenbos, Fanny; Grisold, Wolfgang; Sipos, László; Mirimanoff, Rene; Vecht, Charles J; Allgeier, Anouk; Lacombe, Denis; van den Bent, Martin J

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the clinical outcome of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors is variable, but also that the histological diagnosis is subject to interobserver variation. We investigated whether the assessment of 1p/19q codeletion, polysomy of chromosome 7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification (EGFR(amp)), and loss of chromosome 10 or 10q offers additional prognostic information to the histological diagnosis and would allow molecular subtyping. For this study, we used the clinical data and tumor samples of the patients included in multicenter prospective phase III European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study 26951 on the effects of adjuvant procarbazine, chloroethyl cyclohexylnitrosourea (lomustine), and vincristine chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to assess copy number aberrations of chromosome 1p, 19q, 7, 10, and 10q and EGFR. Three different analyses were performed: on all included patients based on local pathology diagnosis, on the patients with confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors on central pathology review, and on this latter group but after excluding anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) with necrosis. As a reference set for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), patients from the prospective randomized phase III study on GBM (EORTC 26981) were used as a benchmark. In 257 of 368 patients, central pathology review confirmed the presence of an anaplastic oligodendroglial tumor. Tumors with combined 1p and 19q loss (1p(loss)19q(loss)) were histopathologically diagnosed as anaplastic oligodendroglioma, were more frequently located in the frontal lobe, and had a better outcome. Anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors with EGFR(amp) were more frequently AOA, were more often localized outside the frontal lobe, and had a survival similar to that for GBM. Survival of patients with AOA harboring necrosis was in a similar range as for GBM, while patients

  19. Molecular analysis of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors in a prospective randomized study: A report from EORTC study 26951

    PubMed Central

    Kouwenhoven, Mathilde C.M.; Gorlia, Thierry; Kros, Johan M.; Ibdaih, Ahmed; Brandes, Alba A.; Bromberg, Jacolien E.C.; Mokhtari, Karima; van Duinen, Sjoerd G.; Teepen, Johannes L.; Wesseling, Pieter; Vandenbos, Fanny; Grisold, Wolfgang; Sipos, László; Mirimanoff, Rene; Vecht, Charles J.; Allgeier, Anouk; Lacombe, Denis; van den Bent, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the clinical outcome of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors is variable, but also that the histological diagnosis is subject to interobserver variation. We investigated whether the assessment of 1p/19q codeletion, polysomy of chromosome 7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification (EGFRamp), and loss of chromosome 10 or 10q offers additional prognostic information to the histological diagnosis and would allow molecular subtyping. For this study, we used the clinical data and tumor samples of the patients included in multicenter prospective phase III European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study 26951 on the effects of adjuvant procarbazine, chloroethyl cyclohexylnitrosourea (lomustine), and vincristine chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to assess copy number aberrations of chromosome 1p, 19q, 7, 10, and 10q and EGFR. Three different analyses were performed: on all included patients based on local pathology diagnosis, on the patients with confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors on central pathology review, and on this latter group but after excluding anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) with necrosis. As a reference set for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), patients from the prospective randomized phase III study on GBM (EORTC 26981) were used as a benchmark. In 257 of 368 patients, central pathology review confirmed the presence of an anaplastic oligodendroglial tumor. Tumors with combined 1p and 19q loss (1ploss19qloss) were histopathologically diagnosed as anaplastic oligodendroglioma, were more frequently located in the frontal lobe, and had a better outcome. Anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors with EGFRamp were more frequently AOA, were more often localized outside the frontal lobe, and had a survival similar to that for GBM. Survival of patients with AOA harboring necrosis was in a similar range as for GBM, while patients with

  20. Prediction of anaplastic transformation in low-grade oligodendrogliomas based on magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 1p/19q codeletion status.

    PubMed

    Bourdillon, Pierre; Hlaihel, Chadi; Guyotat, Jacques; Guillotton, Laurent; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François; Cotton, François

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether combining multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the determination of the 1p/19q codeletion status could improve the ability to predict anaplastic transformation in low-grade oligodendrogliomas. Twenty patients with grade II oligodendrogliomas were followed-up using multimodal MR [proton MR spectroscopy (MRS), perfusion, and conventional MR imaging]. All patients diagnoses were histologically proven, and 1p/19q codeletion status was analyzed for all patients. Median follow-up was 30.5 ± 11.4 months. Anaplastic transformation was observed in six patients. The only MRI feature that was associated with anaplastic transformation was an elevation of the choline/creatine ratio >2.4 which was observed in 4 out of 6 patients with anaplastic transformation versus 1 out of 14 patients without anaplastic transformation. In patients without 1p/19q codeletion, an elevation of the choline/creatine ratio >2.4 was associated with the occurrence of anaplastic transformation in all cases (4 out of 4 patients), with a mean time of 12 months. In contrast, in patients with a 1p/19q codeletion, no anaplastic transformation was observed in the patient who had an elevation of >2.4 of the choline/creatine ratio and two patients demonstrated an anaplastic transformation without any elevation of this ratio.Prospective validation in a larger series is needed, yet the present study suggests that combining data from in vivo proton MRS and genetic analysis could be a promising strategy to predict time to anaplastic transformation at the individual level in patients with low-grade oligodendrogliomas and may help deciding when chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should be initiated in these tumors.

  1. SHP1 tyrosine phosphatase negatively regulates NPM-ALK tyrosine kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Honorat, Jean-François; Ragab, Ashraf; Lamant, Laurence; Delsol, Georges; Ragab-Thomas, Jeannie

    2006-05-15

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is frequently associated with the 2;5 translocation and expresses the NPM-ALK fusion protein, which possesses a constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. We analyzed SHP1 tyrosine phosphatase expression and activity in 3 ALK-positive ALCL cell lines (Karpas 299, Cost, and SU-DHL1) and in lymph node biopsies (n = 40). We found an inverse correlation between the level of NPM-ALK phosphorylation and SHP1 phosphatase activity. Pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a SHP1/NPM-ALK association. Furthermore, confocal microscopy performed on ALCL cell lines and biopsy specimens showed the colocalization of the 2 proteins in cytoplasmic bodies containing Y664-phosphorylated NPM-ALK. Dephosphorylation of NPM-ALK by SHP1 demonstrated that NPM-ALK was a SHP1 substrate. Downregulation of SHP1 expression by RNAi in Karpas cells led to hyperphosphorylation of NPM-ALK, STAT3 activation, and increase in cell proliferation. Furthermore, SHP1 overexpression in 3T3 fibroblasts stably expressing NPM-ALK led to the decrease of NPM-ALK phosphorylation, lower cell proliferation, and tumor progression in nude mice. These findings show that SHP1 is a negative regulator of NPM-ALK signaling. The use of tissue microarrays revealed that 50% of ALK-positive ALCLs were positive for SHP1. Our results suggest that SHP1 could be a critical enzyme in ALCL biology and a potential therapeutic target.

  2. Impact of 1p/19q Codeletion and Histology on Outcomes of Anaplastic Gliomas Treated With Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide

    SciTech Connect

    Speirs, Christina K.; Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G.; DeWees, Todd A.; Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Chicoine, Michael R.; Dacey, Ralph G.; Rich, Keith M.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Kim, Albert H.; Huang, Jiayi

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Anaplastic gliomas represent a heterogeneous group of primary high-grade brain tumors, and the optimal postoperative treatment remains controversial. In this report, we present our institutional data on the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) plus temozolomide (RT + TMZ) for anaplastic gliomas, stratified by histology and 1p/19q codeletion. Methods and Materials: A single-institution retrospective review was conducted of patients with supratentorial anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA), and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). After surgery, RT was delivered at a median total dose of 60 Gy (range, 31.6-63 Gy) in daily fractions. All patients received standard concurrent TMZ, with or without adjuvant TMZ. Histological/molecular subtypes were defined as codeleted AO/AOA, non-codeleted AO/AOA, and AA. Results: From 2000 to 2012, 111 cases met study criteria and were evaluable. Codeleted AO/AOA had superior overall survival (OS) to non-codeleted AO/AOA (91% vs 68% at 5 years, respectively, P=.02), whereas progression-free survival (PFS) was not significantly different (70% vs 46% at 5 years, respectively, P=.10). AA had inferior OS to non-codeleted AO/AOA (37% vs 68% at 5 years, respectively, P=.007) and inferior PFS (27% vs 46%, respectively, P=.03). On multivariate analysis, age, performance status, and histological or molecular subtype were independent predictors for both PFS and OS. Compared to historical controls, RT + TMZ provided comparable OS to RT with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (RT + PCV) for codeleted AO/AOA, superior OS to RT alone for non-codeleted AO/AOA, and similar OS to RT alone for AA. Conclusions: RT + TMZ may be a promising treatment for both codeleted and non-codeleted AO/AOA, but its role for AA remains unclear.

  3. FAM150A and FAM150B are activating ligands for anaplastic lymphoma kinase.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jikui; Umapathy, Ganesh; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Wolfstetter, Georg; Mendoza, Patricia; Pfeifer, Kathrin; Mohammed, Ateequrrahman; Hugosson, Fredrik; Zhang, Hongbing; Hsu, Amy W; Halenbeck, Robert; Hallberg, Bengt; Palmer, Ruth H

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been described in a range of human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma (Hallberg and Palmer, 2013). Vertebrate ALK has been considered to be an orphan receptor and the identity of the ALK ligand(s) is a critical issue. Here we show that FAM150A and FAM150B are potent ligands for human ALK that bind to the extracellular domain of ALK and in addition to activation of wild-type ALK are able to drive 'superactivation' of activated ALK mutants from neuroblastoma. In conclusion, our data show that ALK is robustly activated by the FAM150A/B ligands and provide an opportunity to develop ALK-targeted therapies in situations where ALK is overexpressed/activated or mutated in the context of the full length receptor.

  4. Feline anaplastic oligodendroglioma: long-term remission through radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Ochi, Naoko; Fujita, Michio

    2013-12-01

    A 10-year-old spayed female Abyssinian cat was presented with cluster limbic focal seizures with secondary generalisation. From magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, the cat was diagnosed clinically as having a glioma in the left piriform lobe, and hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) was performed using a linear accelerator. Although the tumour size had reduced significantly at 4 months after RT, recurrence was observed at 11 months after RT. Additional RT was performed and was effective; however, recurrence was observed at 11 months after the additional RT. Chemotherapy was started using nimustine (ACNU; 30 mg/m(2), every 6 weeks). Tumour regression was confirmed by follow-up MRIs from 2 to 5 months after starting chemotherapy. Four years and 2 months after the first presentation the cat died as a result of tumour lysis syndrome following treatment of a high-grade lymphoma. Histopathological diagnosis of the brain tumour confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglioma. PMID:23651604

  5. Long-term survival in a dog with anaplastic oligodendroglioma treated with radiation therapy and CCNU.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Yayoshi, Naoko; Fujita, Michio

    2012-11-01

    A 9 year-old, neutered, male French Bulldog showing cluster seizures was diagnosed with a glioma in the right piriform cortex by MRI. Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) was performed using a linear accelerator. Although the lesion had involuted significantly at 2 months after RT, recurrence was observed at 4 months after RT. Chemotherapy was started using CCNU (60 mg/m(2) every 6-9 weeks) and was continued for one year. Follow-up MRI revealed involution of the lesion and the intervals of CCNU were increased to every 9-14 weeks. Two years after the first presentation, the dog suffered status epilepticus, followed by deficits of left sided postural reaction with cognitive dysfunction. The dog died on day 910, and histopathological diagnosis confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglioma. PMID:22785244

  6. Acute Hydrocephalus due to Secondary Leptomeningeal Dissemination of an Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Andreas M.; Hugo, Heinz-Herrmann; Mehdorn, H. Maximilian; Knerlich-Lukoschus, Friederike

    2009-01-01

    Secondary leptomeningeal dissemination of oligodendroglioma is very rare. We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian male who presented with acute hydrocephalus. 8 months before, the patient had undergone craniotomy for right frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma, WHO grade III. By that time, there was no evidence of tumor dissemination. MRI now ruled out local tumor progression but revealed meningeal contrast enhancement along the medulla, the myelon, and the cauda equina. Repeated lumbar puncture revealed increased cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) pressure and protein content. Malignant cells were not detectable. Surgical treatment consisted in (1) placement of an ommaya reservoir for daily CSF puncture, (2) Spinal dural biopsy confirming leptomeningeal oligodendroglioma metastasis, and (3) ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement after CSF protein has decreased to 1500–2000 mg/l. PMID:20052406

  7. Imaging findings of anaplastic astrocytoma in a child with maple syrup urine disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aw-Zoretic, Jessie; Wadhwani, Nitin R; Lulla, Rishi R; Rishi, Lulla R; Ryan, Maura E

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which usually presents in childhood with encephalopathy due to cerebral edema and dysmyelination. Even with treatment, metabolic stressors may precipitate later episodes of acute decompensation. Changes related to cerebral and white matter edema have been described by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging can aid in both initial diagnosis and evaluation of decompensation. To date, there are no published known reports of cancer in patients with MSUD. Here, we present the first case report of an anaplastic astrocytoma in a teenager with MSUD, with a discussion of imaging findings and the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to help distinguish between tumor and metabolic changes. PMID:26084772

  8. An extraneural primary anaplastic ependymoma at the subcutaneous inguinal region: Report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Hamide; Ersen, Ayca; Kurtul, Neslihan; Yazar, Mehmet Fatih; Balakan, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Ependymomas commonly arise in the central nervous system. Extraneural presentation is quite rare. Herein, we describe a primary extraneural ependymoma in a young female. The mass was located in the right inguinal area. The cut surface of the 7.5 mm × 6.5 mm × 4.5 mm sized tumor was brownish-yellow in color. Histologically, it was hypercellular exhibiting pseudorosette or rosette formations and some papillary structures. Mitosis was counted as high as 10 per 10 high power fields. Neither necrosis nor vascular endothelial proliferation within the tumor was observed. Tumor cells showed strong glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity. On epithelial membrane antigen, intracytoplasmic dot-like immunostaining was observed. This is the first report presenting a primary extraneural anaplastic ependymoma arising in the inguinal subcutaneous region. PMID:26549094

  9. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Acts in the Drosophila Mushroom Body to Negatively Regulate Sleep.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lei; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-11-01

    Though evidence is mounting that a major function of sleep is to maintain brain plasticity and consolidate memory, little is known about the molecular pathways by which learning and sleep processes intercept. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk), the gene encoding a tyrosine receptor kinase whose inadvertent activation is the cause of many cancers, is implicated in synapse formation and cognitive functions. In particular, Alk genetically interacts with Neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) to regulate growth and associative learning in flies. We show that Alk mutants have increased sleep. Using a targeted RNAi screen we localized the negative effects of Alk on sleep to the mushroom body, a structure important for both sleep and memory. We also report that mutations in Nf1 produce a sexually dimorphic short sleep phenotype, and suppress the long sleep phenotype of Alk. Thus Alk and Nf1 interact in both learning and sleep regulation, highlighting a common pathway in these two processes. PMID:26536237

  10. Metronomic Chemotherapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A Potentially Feasible Alternative to Therapeutic Nihilism

    PubMed Central

    Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Madabhavi, Irappa; Bodh, Anita; Thakur, Priyanka; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies and prognostic outlook remains very dismal. Treatment most often is palliative in intent attempting to relieve the patients from local compressive symptoms in the neck. Radical surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy have not been tested in large prospective trials, and current evidence from retrospective series and small trials indicate only marginal survival benefits. Given the poor prognostic and therapeutic outlook, patients must be encouraged to be actively involved in the decision making process. We report the case of an elderly patient who had no response to palliative RT, and was treated with oral metronomic chemotherapy. The response to oral metronomic chemotherapy was dramatic, and the patient has enjoyed complete freedom from symptoms as well as radiologically exhibits a complete regression. Thus, we document the first ever use of a simple, cost-effective, and convenient oral metronomic chemotherapeutic regimen delivering a remarkable response in an elderly patient with ATC. PMID:26009682

  11. Metronomic chemotherapy in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a potentially feasible alternative to therapeutic nihilism.

    PubMed

    Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Madabhavi, Irappa; Bodh, Anita; Thakur, Priyanka; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies and prognostic outlook remains very dismal. Treatment most often is palliative in intent attempting to relieve the patients from local compressive symptoms in the neck. Radical surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy have not been tested in large prospective trials, and current evidence from retrospective series and small trials indicate only marginal survival benefits. Given the poor prognostic and therapeutic outlook, patients must be encouraged to be actively involved in the decision making process. We report the case of an elderly patient who had no response to palliative RT, and was treated with oral metronomic chemotherapy. The response to oral metronomic chemotherapy was dramatic, and the patient has enjoyed complete freedom from symptoms as well as radiologically exhibits a complete regression. Thus, we document the first ever use of a simple, cost-effective, and convenient oral metronomic chemotherapeutic regimen delivering a remarkable response in an elderly patient with ATC. PMID:26009682

  12. Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas: Case report and literature review of reported cases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hoshimoto, Sojun; Matsui, Junichi; Miyata, Ryohei; Takigawa, Yutaka; Miyauchi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 64-year-old woman with anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas (ACP) with cyst formation and review 60 ACP cases reported in Japan. In 20% of cases, laboratory tests revealed severe anemia (hemoglobin level < 10.0 g/dL) and elevated leucocyte counts (> 12000/mm3), which were likely attributable to rapid tumor growth, intratumoral hemorrhage, and necrosis. Elevated serum CA19-9 levels were observed in 55% of cases. Cyst-like structures were observed on imaging in 47% of cases, and this finding appears to reflect subsequent cystic degeneration in the lesion. Macroscopically, hemorrhagic necrosis was observed in 77% of cases, and cyst formation was observed in 33% of cases. ACP should be considered when diagnosing pancreatic tumors with a cyst-like appearance, especially in the presence of severe anemia, elevated leucocyte counts, or elevated serum CA19-9 levels. PMID:27784976

  13. A rare intracranial tumor consisting of malignant anaplastic and papillary meningioma subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Kochanski, Ryan B.; Byrne, Nika; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Bhabad, Sudeep; Byrne, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracranial tumors with heterogeneous histopathology are a well-described pathologic entity. Pathologically, distinct tumors in direct contact with one another, also known as collision tumors are exceptionally rare, and collision between meningioma subtypes has not been previously described in the literature. Case Description: A 79-year-old female with a history of breast carcinoma presenting with visual and motor deficits and imaging/intraoperative findings consistent with separate, distinct lesions. Histopathologic findings provided evidence for a collision between World Health Organization Grade III anaplastic and papillary meningioma. Conclusion: We report a possible collision tumor between two separate meningioma subtypes based on the unique radiologic, intraoperative, and histopathologic findings. Submission of multiple pathologic specimens during surgical resection is key for accurate histopathologic diagnosis. PMID:26981322

  14. Acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis mimicking anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: A complicated case.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Hiroaki; Konno, Wataru; Fukami, Satoru; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    The fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis is uncommon, accounting for approximately 10% of all cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of this variant that behaved like a malignant neoplasm. The patient was a 69-year-old man who presented with a right-sided anterior neck mass that had been rapidly growing for 2 weeks. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed clusters of large multinucleated cells suggestive of an anaplastic carcinoma. A week after presentation, we ruled out that possibility when the mass had shrunk slightly. Instead, we diagnosed the patient with an acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis on the basis of laboratory findings. We performed a right thyroid lobectomy, including removal of the isthmus, to clarify the pathology and alleviate pressure symptoms. The final diagnosis was the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis, with no evidence of malignant changes. Physicians should keep in mind that on rare occasions, Hashimoto thyroiditis mimics a malignant neoplasm.

  15. Combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with surgery, chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated accelerated external radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    De Crevoisier, Renaud . E-mail: rdecrevo@mdanderson.org; Baudin, Eric; Bachelot, Anne; Leboulleux, Sophie; Travagli, Jean-Paul; Caillou, Bernard; Schlumberger, Martin

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze a prospective protocol combining surgery, chemotherapy (CT), and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Methods and materials: Thirty anaplastic thyroid carcinoma patients (mean age, 59 years) were treated during 1990-2000. Tumor extended beyond the capsule gland in 26 patients, with tracheal extension in 8. Lymph node metastases were present in 18 patients and lung metastases in 6. Surgery was performed before RT-CT in 20 patients and afterwards in 4. Two cycles of doxorubicin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) and cisplatin (120 mg/m{sup 2}) were delivered before RT and four cycles after RT. RT consisted of two daily fractions of 1.25 Gy, 5 days per week to a total dose of 40 Gy to the cervical lymph node areas and the superior mediastinum. Results: Acute toxicity (World Health Organization criteria) was Grade 3 or 4 pharyngoesophagitis in 10 patients; Grade 4 neutropenia in 21, with infection in 13; and Grade 3 or 4 anemia and thrombopenia in 8 and 4, respectively. At the end of the treatment, a complete local response was observed in 19 patients. With a median follow-up of 45 months (range, 12-78 months), 7 patients were alive in complete remission, of whom 6 had initially received a complete tumor resection. Overall survival rate at 3 years was 27% (95% confidence interval 10-44%) and median survival 10 months. In multivariate analysis, tracheal extension and macroscopic complete tumor resection were significant factors in overall survival. Death was related to local progression in 5% of patients, to distant metastases in 68%, and to both in 27%. Conclusions: Main toxicity was hematologic. High long-term survival was obtained when RT-CT was given after complete surgery. This protocol avoided local tumor progression, and death was mainly caused by distant metastases.

  16. Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix complicating pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Li, William W H; Yau, T N; Leung, Carmen W L; Pong, W M; Chan, May Y M

    2009-02-01

    Large-cell neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma is a rare and aggressive cancer that tends to spread and recur early despite intensive multimodal treatment. The optimal mode of therapy is still controversial and management during pregnancy is challenging because foetal well-being must also be considered. We report a patient with clinically stage IIB large-cell neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma who presented with a cervical polyp and vaginal bleeding at 18 weeks of pregnancy. The patient received concurrent chemotherapy and radiation after termination of pregnancy and remained in complete remission 21 months after completion of treatment.

  17. Microfocus of Anaplastic Carcinoma Arising in Mural Nodule of Ovarian Mucinous Borderline Tumor With Very Rapid and Fatal Outcome.

    PubMed

    Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Ramzan, Amin; Walia, Saloni; Pham, Huyen Q; Yessaian, Annie

    2016-07-01

    A 36-yr-old woman presented with abdominal discomfort. A computed tomography scan revealed a large left cystic and solid pelvic mass without evidence of metastatic disease. Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and tumor staging was performed. Grossly, the ovarian mass measured 20×18 cm and the cut surface was multiloculated with 1 single mural nodule measuring 2×1.5 cm. The histologic diagnosis of ovarian mucinous borderline tumor with a microfocus of anaplastic carcinoma arising in sarcoma-like mural nodule, FIGO Stage IA was rendered. After 3 mo, the patient returned with symptomatic anemia. A computed tomography scan showed enlarged retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes. Image-guided biopsy of the pelvic lymph node showed a metastatic anaplastic carcinoma from her primary ovarian carcinoma. Chemotherapy was initiated, but the patient developed fulminant disseminated intravascular coagulation within <1 wk of her presentation which was fatal.

  18. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy features of a large cell acanthoma: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Neda; Grant-Kels, Jane M.; Rabinovitz, Harold S.; Oliviero, Margaret; Scope, Alon

    2016-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an FDA approved noninvasive optical imaging technique that acquires cellular level-resolution skin images in vivo. Herein, we report a case of histopathologically proven large cell acanthoma (LCA) whose RCM features simulate those of squamous cell carcinoma in situ. PMID:27648388

  19. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy features of a large cell acanthoma: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Neda; Grant-Kels, Jane M.; Rabinovitz, Harold S.; Oliviero, Margaret; Scope, Alon

    2016-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an FDA approved noninvasive optical imaging technique that acquires cellular level-resolution skin images in vivo. Herein, we report a case of histopathologically proven large cell acanthoma (LCA) whose RCM features simulate those of squamous cell carcinoma in situ.

  20. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy features of a large cell acanthoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Neda; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Scope, Alon

    2016-07-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an FDA approved noninvasive optical imaging technique that acquires cellular level-resolution skin images in vivo. Herein, we report a case of histopathologically proven large cell acanthoma (LCA) whose RCM features simulate those of squamous cell carcinoma in situ. PMID:27648388

  1. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy features of a large cell acanthoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Neda; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Scope, Alon

    2016-07-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an FDA approved noninvasive optical imaging technique that acquires cellular level-resolution skin images in vivo. Herein, we report a case of histopathologically proven large cell acanthoma (LCA) whose RCM features simulate those of squamous cell carcinoma in situ.

  2. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features: A rare case report and review of literature with reference to current management

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, M. R.; Nayak, Madhukar; Purohit, A. K.; Thotakura, Amit Kumar; Uppin, Megha; Challa, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon tumor constitutes less than 1% of all astrocytic glial neoplasms was first reported in 1979. PXA commonly occurs in young patients and manifests itself first as seizures followed by focal neurological deficits. The role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not yet been established because of the relative infrequency of this disease. PXA is classified as grade II tumor in the WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. In literature 9 to 20 % PXA may undergo malignant change at recurrence or may display at the time of initial presentation. Malignant transformation is mainly associated with high mitotic activity and necrosis. The criteria for PXA with anaplastic features was five or more mitotic activity per 10 high power fields, necrosis, microvascular proliferation, marked cellular anaplasia, and high Ki-67 labeling indices. PXA with anaplastic features management is highly controversial as very sparse literature is available. We are reporting a case of PXA with anaplastic features with atypical radiology and tried to review the up to date literature regarding this rare tumor. PMID:27366280

  3. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features: A rare case report and review of literature with reference to current management.

    PubMed

    Patibandla, M R; Nayak, Madhukar; Purohit, A K; Thotakura, Amit Kumar; Uppin, Megha; Challa, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon tumor constitutes less than 1% of all astrocytic glial neoplasms was first reported in 1979. PXA commonly occurs in young patients and manifests itself first as seizures followed by focal neurological deficits. The role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not yet been established because of the relative infrequency of this disease. PXA is classified as grade II tumor in the WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. In literature 9 to 20 % PXA may undergo malignant change at recurrence or may display at the time of initial presentation. Malignant transformation is mainly associated with high mitotic activity and necrosis. The criteria for PXA with anaplastic features was five or more mitotic activity per 10 high power fields, necrosis, microvascular proliferation, marked cellular anaplasia, and high Ki-67 labeling indices. PXA with anaplastic features management is highly controversial as very sparse literature is available. We are reporting a case of PXA with anaplastic features with atypical radiology and tried to review the up to date literature regarding this rare tumor. PMID:27366280

  4. Ovarian mucinous cystic tumor of borderline malignancy with a mural nodule of anaplastic spindle cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hitoshi; Matsuzawa, Akiyo; Shoda, Takashi; Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Kyushima, Noriyuki

    2013-12-05

    Ovarian cystic tumors with a mural nodule are a rare entity. We report a case of a mural nodule of anaplastic spindle cell carcinoma in an ovarian mucinous cystic tumor of borderline malignancy. The patient was a 45-years-old Japanese woman who presented with an ovarian cyst. She suffered from mature cystic teratoma of both ovaries 9 years before the present history. Image analysis and laboratory data showing a high serum CA19-9 level suggested ovarian malignancy. She underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with hysterectomy and omentectomy. There was a mural nodule in the ovarian mucinous cystic lesion. Microscopically, the nodule was composed of spindle-shaped cells with severe nuclear atypia. Immunohistochemical analysis allowed the cells to be categorized as anaplastic spindle cell carcinoma. Fifteen months after the operation the patient is alive without any clinical findings of tumor recurrence. To the best of our knowledge in the English literature, this is the first report of a mural nodule of an anaplastic spindle cell carcinoma within an ovarian mucinous cystic borderline tumor harboring previously confirmed cystic teratoma.

  5. Phase III Trial of Chemoradiotherapy for Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma: Long-Term Results of RTOG 9402

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Gregory; Wang, Meihua; Shaw, Edward; Jenkins, Robert; Brachman, David; Buckner, Jan; Fink, Karen; Souhami, Luis; Laperriere, Normand; Curran, Walter; Mehta, Minesh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, pure (AO) and mixed (anaplastic oligoastrocytoma [AOA]), are chemosensitive, especially if codeleted for 1p/19q, but whether patients live longer after chemoradiotherapy is unknown. Patients and Methods Eligible patients with AO/AOA were randomly assigned to procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) plus radiotherapy (RT) versus RT alone. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Results Two hundred ninety-one eligible patients were randomly assigned: 148 to PCV plus RT and 143 to RT. For the entire cohort, there was no difference in median survival by treatment (4.6 years for PCV plus RT v 4.7 years for RT; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.04; P = .1). Patients with codeleted tumors lived longer than those with noncodeleted tumors (PCV plus RT: 14.7 v 2.6 years, HR = 0.36, 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.57, P < .001; RT: 7.3 v 2.7 years, HR = 0.40, 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.60, P < .001), and the median survival of those with codeleted tumors treated with PCV plus RT was twice that of patients receiving RT (14.7 v 7.3 years; HR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.95; P = .03). For those with noncodeleted tumors, there was no difference in median survival by treatment arm (2.6 v 2.7 years; HR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.23; P = .39). In Cox models that included codeletion status, the adjusted OS for all patients was prolonged by PCV plus RT (HR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.91; P = .01). Conclusion For the subset of patients with 1p/19q codeleted AO/AOA, PCV plus RT may be an especially effective treatment, although this observation was derived from an unplanned analysis. PMID:23071247

  6. [Molecular pathogenesis of peripheral T cell lymphoma (2): extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Couronné, Lucile; Bastard, Christian; Gaulard, Philippe; Hermine, Olivier; Bernard, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) belong to the group of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and particularly that of mature T /NK cells lymphoproliferative neoplasms. The 2008 WHO classification describes different PTCL entities with varying prevalence. With the exception of histologic subtype "ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma", PTCL are characterized by a poor prognosis. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these lymphomas are not yet fully understood, but development of genomic high-throughput analysis techniques now allows to extensively identify the molecular abnormalities present in tumor cells. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge and recent advances about the molecular events occurring at the origin or during the natural history of main entities of PTCL. The first part published in the October issue was focused on the three more frequent entities, i.e. angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The second part presented herein will describe other subtypes less frequent and of poor prognosis : extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. PMID:26576610

  7. Activity of second-generation ALK inhibitors against crizotinib-resistant mutants in an NPM-ALK model compared to EML4-ALK.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Diletta; Ceccon, Monica; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Mologni, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in both solid and hematological tumors. About 80% of ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) cases are characterized by the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation, encoding for the aberrant fusion protein nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK, whereas 5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carry the inv(2)(p21;p23) rearrangement, encoding for the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion. The ALK/c-MET/ROS inhibitor crizotinib successfully improved the treatment of ALK-driven diseases. However, several cases of resistance appeared in NSCLC patients, and ALK amino acid substitutions were identified as a leading cause of resistance to crizotinib. Second-generation ALK inhibitors have been developed in order to overcome crizotinib resistance. In this work, we profiled in vitro the activity of crizotinib, AP26113, ASP3026, alectinib, and ceritinib against six mutated forms of ALK associated with clinical resistance to crizotinib (C1156Y, L1196M, L1152R, G1202R, G1269A, and S1206Y) and provide a classification of mutants according to their level of sensitivity/resistance to the drugs. Since the biological activity of ALK mutations extends beyond the specific type of fusion, both NPM-ALK- and EML4-ALK-positive cellular models were used. Our data revealed that most mutants may be targeted by using different inhibitors. One relevant exception is represented by the G1202R substitution, which was highly resistant to all drugs (>10-fold increased IC50 compared to wild type) and may represent the most challenging mutation to overcome. These results provide a prediction of cross-resistance of known crizotinib-resistant mutations against all second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) clinically available, and therefore could be a useful tool to help clinicians in the management of crizotinib-resistance cases.

  8. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 negatively regulates anaplastic lymphoma kinase in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Shunpei; Takatori, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsushi; Kohashi, Kenichi; Souzaki, Ryota; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Hossain, Md Shamim; Ohira, Miki; Nakamura, Yohko; Nakagawara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    In neuroblastoma (NB), one of the most common paediatric solid tumours, activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is often associated with poor outcomes. Although genetic studies have identified copy number alteration and nonsynonymous mutations of ALK, the regulatory mechanism of ALK signalling at protein levels is largely elusive. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 (NLRR1) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in unfavourable NB and potentially influences receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Here, we showed that NLRR1 and ALK exhibited a mutually exclusive expression pattern in primary NB tissues by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, dorsal root ganglia of Nlrr1+/+ and Nlrr1-/- mice displayed the opposite expression patterns of Nlrr1 and Alk. Of interest, NLRR1 physically interacted with ALK in vitro through its extracellular region. Notably, the NLRR1 ectodomain impaired ALK phosphorylation and proliferation of ALK-mutated NB cells. A newly identified cleavage of the NLRR1 ectodomain also supported NLRR1-mediated ALK signal regulation in trans. Thus, we conclude that NLRR1 appears to be an extracellular negative regulator of ALK signalling in NB and neuronal development. Our findings may be beneficial to comprehend NB heterogeneity and to develop a novel therapy against unfavourable NB.

  9. mRNA Expression in Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Molecular Anatomy of a Killing Switch

    PubMed Central

    Hébrant, Aline; Dom, Geneviève; Dewaele, Michael; Andry, Guy; Trésallet, Christophe; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Dumont, Jacques E.; Maenhaut, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most lethal form of thyroid neoplasia and represents the end stage of thyroid tumor progression. No effective treatment exists so far. ATC frequently derive from papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), which have a good prognosis. In this study, we analyzed the mRNA expression profiles of 59 thyroid tumors (11 ATC and 48 PTC) by microarrays. ATC and PTC showed largely overlapping mRNA expression profiles with most genes regulated in all ATC being also regulated in several PTC. 43% of the probes regulated in all the PTC are similarly regulated in all ATC. Many genes modulations observed in PTC are amplified in ATC. This illustrates the fact that ATC mostly derived from PTC. A molecular signature of aggressiveness composed of 9 genes clearly separates the two tumors. Moreover, this study demonstrates gene regulations corresponding to the ATC or PTC phenotypes like inflammatory reaction, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion, high proliferation rate, dedifferentiation, calcification and fibrosis processes, high glucose metabolism and glycolysis, lactate generation and chemoresistance. The main qualitative differences between the two tumor types bear on the much stronger EMT, dedifferentiation and glycolytic phenotypes showed by the ATC. PMID:23115614

  10. Ethanol activates midkine and anaplastic lymphoma kinase signaling in neuroblastoma cells and in the brain.

    PubMed

    He, Donghong; Chen, Hu; Muramatsu, Hisako; Lasek, Amy W

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol engages signaling pathways in the brain. Midkine (MDK) is a neurotrophic factor that is over-expressed in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics. MDK and one of its receptors, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), also regulate behavioral responses to ethanol in mice. The goal of this study was to determine whether MDK and ALK expression and signaling are activated by ethanol. We found that ethanol treatment of neuroblastoma cells increased MDK and ALK expression. We also assessed activation of ALK by ethanol in cells and found that ALK and ALK-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation increased rapidly with ethanol exposure. Similarly, treatment of cells with recombinant MDK protein increased ALK, ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation, suggesting that ethanol may utilize MDK to activate ALK signaling. In support of this, transfection of cells with MDK siRNAs attenuated ALK signaling in response to ethanol. Ethanol also activates ERK signaling in the brain. We found that inhibition of ALK or knockout of MDK attenuated ethanol-induced ERK phosphorylation in mouse amygdala. These results demonstrate that ethanol engages MDK and ALK signaling, which has important consequences for alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and the regulation of behaviors related to alcohol abuse.

  11. Rapid increase in cystic volume of an anaplastic astrocytoma misdiagnosed as neurocysticercosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Jiang; Han, Hong-Xiu; Feng, Dong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Reports describing a rapid increase in the cystic volume of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a short time frame are rare. The present study reports the case of a 68-year-old male who was admitted to the No. 9 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (Shanghai, China), with a small cystic brain lesion and positive immunological testing for cysticercosis. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cystic lesion, 6 mm in diameter, in the left frontal lobe. Neurocysticercosis was suspected and the patient was treated with a clinical trial of albendazole and steroids. A period of 25 days later, the patient's condition had deteriorated, and MRI revealed a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe; thereafter, the cystic lesion was removed and a diagnosis of AA was established. The tumor was soft, ivory white and gelatinous due to myxoid degeneration. In this case, tumor-related angiogenesis and microvascular extravasation (blood-brain barrier disruption) may have been the main cause of the rapid increase in the cystic volume in such a short time frame. The similarity of the glioma and cysticercus antigens may have been the cause of the positive reactions in the cystic fluid. The present study reports the rare occurrence of a rapid increase of cystic volume and potential diagnostic difficulties.

  12. Pleiotrophin signaling through anaplastic lymphoma kinase is rate-limiting for glioblastoma growth.

    PubMed

    Powers, Ciaran; Aigner, Achim; Stoica, Gerald E; McDonnell, Kevin; Wellstein, Anton

    2002-04-19

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common highly aggressive human brain cancer, and receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the progression of this malignancy. We have recently identified anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) as a tyrosine kinase receptor for pleiotrophin, a secreted growth factor that is highly expressed during embryonic brain development and in tumors of the central nervous system. Here we report on the contribution of pleiotrophin-ALK signaling to glioblastoma growth. We found ALK overexpressed in human glioblastoma relative to normal brain and detected ALK mRNA in glioblastoma cell lines. We reduced the endogenous ALK in glioblastoma cells by ribozyme targeting and demonstrated that this prevents pleiotrophin-stimulated phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein Akt. Furthermore, this depletion of ALK reduced tumor growth of xenografts in athymic nude mice and prolonged survival of the animals because of increased apoptosis in the tumors. These findings directly implicate ALK signaling as a rate-limiting factor in the growth of glioblastoma multiforme and suggest potential utility of therapeutic targeting of ALK.

  13. Rapid increase in cystic volume of an anaplastic astrocytoma misdiagnosed as neurocysticercosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Jiang; Han, Hong-Xiu; Feng, Dong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Reports describing a rapid increase in the cystic volume of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a short time frame are rare. The present study reports the case of a 68-year-old male who was admitted to the No. 9 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (Shanghai, China), with a small cystic brain lesion and positive immunological testing for cysticercosis. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cystic lesion, 6 mm in diameter, in the left frontal lobe. Neurocysticercosis was suspected and the patient was treated with a clinical trial of albendazole and steroids. A period of 25 days later, the patient's condition had deteriorated, and MRI revealed a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe; thereafter, the cystic lesion was removed and a diagnosis of AA was established. The tumor was soft, ivory white and gelatinous due to myxoid degeneration. In this case, tumor-related angiogenesis and microvascular extravasation (blood-brain barrier disruption) may have been the main cause of the rapid increase in the cystic volume in such a short time frame. The similarity of the glioma and cysticercus antigens may have been the cause of the positive reactions in the cystic fluid. The present study reports the rare occurrence of a rapid increase of cystic volume and potential diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27698865

  14. Molecular characterization of WDCP, a novel fusion partner for the anaplastic lymphoma tyrosine kinase ALK

    PubMed Central

    YOKOYAMA, NORIKO; MILLER, W. TODD

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily. The ALK gene is a site of frequent mutation and chromosomal rearrangement in various types of human cancers. A novel chromosomal translocation was recently identified in human colorectal cancer between the ALK gene and chromosome 2, open reading frame 44 (C2orf44), a gene of unknown function. As a first step in understanding the oncogenic properties of this fusion protein, C2orf44 cDNA was cloned and the encoded protein was characterized, which was designated as WD repeat and coiled coil containing protein (WDCP). A C-terminal proline-rich segment in WDCP was shown to mediate binding to the Src homology 3 domain of the Src family kinase hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck). Co-expression with Hck lead to tyrosine phosphorylation of WDCP. Chromatographic fractionation of WDCP-containing lysates indicates that the protein exists as an oligomer in mammalian cells. These results suggest that, in the context of the ALK-C2orf44 gene fusion, WDCP imposes an oligomeric structure on ALK that results in constitutive kinase activation and signaling. PMID:25469238

  15. Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (HART) for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Toxicity and Survival Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dandekar, Prasad; Rhys-Evans, Peter; Harrington, Kevin; Nutting, Christopher; Newbold, Kate

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive cancers, and the current protocol of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy was initiated to improve survival while limiting toxicities. Methods and Materials: All patients with ATC from 1991 to 2002 were accrued and received megavoltage radiotherapy from the mastoid processes to the carina up to 60 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.8 and 2 Gy, 6 hours apart. Results: Thirty-one patients were accrued with a median age of 69 years, and 55% were women. Debulking was performed in 26%, and total thyroidectomy, in 6%, whereas 68% received radical radiotherapy alone. Local control data were available for 27 patients: 22% had a complete response, 26% had a partial response, 15% showed progressive disease, and 37% showed static disease. Median overall survival for all 31 patients was 70 days (95% confidence interval, 40-99). There was no significant difference in median survival between patients younger (70 days) and older than 70 years (42 days), between men (70 days) and women (49days), and between patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy (77 days) and radical radiotherapy alone (35 days). Grade III or higher skin erythema was seen in 56% patients; desquamation in 21%; dysphagia in 74%; and esophagitis in 79%. Conclusion: The current protocol failed to offer a significant survival benefit, was associated with severe toxicities, and thus was discontinued. There is a suggestion that younger patients with operable disease have longer survival, but this would require a larger study to confirm it.

  16. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 negatively regulates anaplastic lymphoma kinase in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Shunpei; Takatori, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsushi; Kohashi, Kenichi; Souzaki, Ryota; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Hossain, Md. Shamim; Ohira, Miki; Nakamura, Yohko; Nakagawara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    In neuroblastoma (NB), one of the most common paediatric solid tumours, activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is often associated with poor outcomes. Although genetic studies have identified copy number alteration and nonsynonymous mutations of ALK, the regulatory mechanism of ALK signalling at protein levels is largely elusive. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 (NLRR1) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in unfavourable NB and potentially influences receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Here, we showed that NLRR1 and ALK exhibited a mutually exclusive expression pattern in primary NB tissues by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, dorsal root ganglia of Nlrr1+/+ and Nlrr1−/− mice displayed the opposite expression patterns of Nlrr1 and Alk. Of interest, NLRR1 physically interacted with ALK in vitro through its extracellular region. Notably, the NLRR1 ectodomain impaired ALK phosphorylation and proliferation of ALK-mutated NB cells. A newly identified cleavage of the NLRR1 ectodomain also supported NLRR1-mediated ALK signal regulation in trans. Thus, we conclude that NLRR1 appears to be an extracellular negative regulator of ALK signalling in NB and neuronal development. Our findings may be beneficial to comprehend NB heterogeneity and to develop a novel therapy against unfavourable NB. PMID:27604320

  17. Flavonoid Fraction of Citrus reticulata Juice Reduces Proliferation and Migration of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; De Rose, Roberta Francesca; Bulotta, Stefania; Maiuolo, Jessica; Navarra, Michele; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Effects of flavonoids extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice on proliferation and migration of 3 human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines were evaluated. Flavonoid components of Mandarin juice extract (MJe) were analyzed by uHPLC. Proliferation of CAL-62, C-643, and 8505C cells, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, was significantly reduced by MJe in a concentration- and time-dependent way, with maximal effect elicited at 0.5 mg/ml concentration after 48 h. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by low cell mortality owed to autophagic death. The extract caused also a reduction of cell migration, associated with decreased activity of the metalloproteinase MMP-2. These findings demonstrate that the flavonoid fraction of mandarin juice exerts in vitro antiproliferative effects on ATC cells, associated with a reduction of migration, suggesting for such a functional food a potential use as adjuvant in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  18. Mutation-Independent Activation of the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Regairaz, Marie; Munier, Fabienne; Sartelet, Hervé; Castaing, Marine; Marty, Virginie; Renauleaud, Céline; Doux, Camille; Delbé, Jean; Courty, José; Fabre, Monique; Ohta, Shigeru; Viehl, Philippe; Michiels, Stefan; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Vassal, Gilles

    2016-02-01

    Activating mutations of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have been identified as important players in neuroblastoma development. Our goal was to evaluate the significance of overall ALK activation in neuroblastoma. Expression of phosphorylated ALK, ALK, and its putative ligands, pleiotrophin and midkine, was screened in 289 neuroblastomas and 56 paired normal tissues. ALK was expressed in 99% of tumors and phosphorylated in 48% of cases. Pleiotrophin and midkine were expressed in 58% and 79% of tumors, respectively. ALK activation was significantly higher in tumors than in paired normal tissues, together with ALK and midkine expression. ALK activation was largely independent of mutations and correlated with midkine expression in tumors. ALK activation in tumors was associated with favorable features, including a younger age at diagnosis, hyperdiploidy, and detection by mass screening. Antitumor activity of the ALK inhibitor TAE684 was evaluated in wild-type or mutated ALK neuroblastoma cell lines and xenografts. TAE684 was cytotoxic in vitro in all cell lines, especially those harboring an ALK mutation. TAE684 efficiently inhibited ALK phosphorylation in vivo in both F1174I and R1275Q xenografts but demonstrated antitumor activity only against the R1275Q xenograft. In conclusion, ALK activation occurs frequently during neuroblastoma oncogenesis, mainly through mutation-independent mechanisms. However, ALK activation is not associated with a poor outcome and is not always a driver of cell proliferation and/or survival in neuroblastoma. PMID:26687816

  19. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 negatively regulates anaplastic lymphoma kinase in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Shunpei; Takatori, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsushi; Kohashi, Kenichi; Souzaki, Ryota; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Hossain, Md Shamim; Ohira, Miki; Nakamura, Yohko; Nakagawara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    In neuroblastoma (NB), one of the most common paediatric solid tumours, activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is often associated with poor outcomes. Although genetic studies have identified copy number alteration and nonsynonymous mutations of ALK, the regulatory mechanism of ALK signalling at protein levels is largely elusive. Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 1 (NLRR1) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in unfavourable NB and potentially influences receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Here, we showed that NLRR1 and ALK exhibited a mutually exclusive expression pattern in primary NB tissues by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, dorsal root ganglia of Nlrr1+/+ and Nlrr1-/- mice displayed the opposite expression patterns of Nlrr1 and Alk. Of interest, NLRR1 physically interacted with ALK in vitro through its extracellular region. Notably, the NLRR1 ectodomain impaired ALK phosphorylation and proliferation of ALK-mutated NB cells. A newly identified cleavage of the NLRR1 ectodomain also supported NLRR1-mediated ALK signal regulation in trans. Thus, we conclude that NLRR1 appears to be an extracellular negative regulator of ALK signalling in NB and neuronal development. Our findings may be beneficial to comprehend NB heterogeneity and to develop a novel therapy against unfavourable NB. PMID:27604320

  20. Flavonoid Fraction of Citrus reticulata Juice Reduces Proliferation and Migration of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; De Rose, Roberta Francesca; Bulotta, Stefania; Maiuolo, Jessica; Navarra, Michele; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Effects of flavonoids extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice on proliferation and migration of 3 human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines were evaluated. Flavonoid components of Mandarin juice extract (MJe) were analyzed by uHPLC. Proliferation of CAL-62, C-643, and 8505C cells, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, was significantly reduced by MJe in a concentration- and time-dependent way, with maximal effect elicited at 0.5 mg/ml concentration after 48 h. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by low cell mortality owed to autophagic death. The extract caused also a reduction of cell migration, associated with decreased activity of the metalloproteinase MMP-2. These findings demonstrate that the flavonoid fraction of mandarin juice exerts in vitro antiproliferative effects on ATC cells, associated with a reduction of migration, suggesting for such a functional food a potential use as adjuvant in the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26365817

  1. Radiation-induced anaplastic ependymoma mimicking a skull base meningioma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SPALLONE, ALDO; MARCHIONE, PASQUALE; DI CAPUA, MARIO; BELVISI, DANIELE

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with headache, dizziness and vomiting due to a an ovoid mass in the left pre-bulbar cistern, apparently arising from the lower clivus and the foramen magnum. The clinical history revealed the subtotal removal of a right cerebellar low-grade glioma 15 years previously and subsequent conventional 60-Gy radiotherapy. Notably, following gross total resection, histopathological examination showed microscopic features that resulted in a diagnosis of anaplastic ependymoma. The patient underwent surgery to remove the mass and post-operative chemotherapy with temozolomide. A progressive improvement of neurological signs and symptoms was observed during the postoperative course. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient was free from clinical and radiological recurrence. The unusual features of this rare secondary brain tumor were the extrassial location in the posterior fossa, the unusual age-associated location of the histological subtype and the fact that it closely mimicked a skull-base meningioma. PMID:26893630

  2. Chemosensitivity of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Based on a Histoculture Drug Response Assay

    PubMed Central

    Uruno, Takashi; Masaki, Chie; Akaishi, Junko; Matsuzu, Kenichi; Suzuki, Akifumi; Ohkuwa, Keiko; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nagahama, Mitsuji; Sugino, Kiminori; Ito, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    The chemosensitivity of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) to some cytotoxic agents was investigated by the histoculture drug response assay (HDRA). Thirty specimens from 22 patients with ATC were obtained from surgically resected subjects. The drugs tested were paclitaxel (PTX), docetaxel (DOC), adriamycin (ADM), nedaplatin (254-S), cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin (CBDCA), etoposide (VP-16), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), mitomycin C (MMC), and cyclophosphamide (CPA). PTX was the most effective agent, and 25 of 29 cases (86.2%) had high inhibition rates (IRs; over 70%), while DOC, another taxane, had lower IRs (median, 32.6%). 254-S had the second highest IR (median 68.1%), higher than other platins, CDDP (median 47.3%) and CBDCA (median 27.4%). The IR of 50% dose PTX (20 μg/mL, median 30.6%) was markedly decreased, while that of 50% dose 254-S (10 μg/mL, median 63.3%) still retained its inhibition effect compared to 100% dose. Most recurrent samples had higher IRs than primary lesions, but the IRs of different drugs differed between primary and recurrent lesions, even with samples from the same patients. PTX has a higher IR to ATC tissues in the HDRA, which suggests that it may be a key drug for the treatment of patients with ATC. PMID:25866510

  3. Chemosensitivity of anaplastic thyroid cancer based on a histoculture drug response assay.

    PubMed

    Uruno, Takashi; Masaki, Chie; Akaishi, Junko; Matsuzu, Kenichi; Suzuki, Akifumi; Ohkuwa, Keiko; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nagahama, Mitsuji; Sugino, Kiminori; Ito, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    The chemosensitivity of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) to some cytotoxic agents was investigated by the histoculture drug response assay (HDRA). Thirty specimens from 22 patients with ATC were obtained from surgically resected subjects. The drugs tested were paclitaxel (PTX), docetaxel (DOC), adriamycin (ADM), nedaplatin (254-S), cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin (CBDCA), etoposide (VP-16), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), mitomycin C (MMC), and cyclophosphamide (CPA). PTX was the most effective agent, and 25 of 29 cases (86.2%) had high inhibition rates (IRs; over 70%), while DOC, another taxane, had lower IRs (median, 32.6%). 254-S had the second highest IR (median 68.1%), higher than other platins, CDDP (median 47.3%) and CBDCA (median 27.4%). The IR of 50% dose PTX (20 μg/mL, median 30.6%) was markedly decreased, while that of 50% dose 254-S (10 μg/mL, median 63.3%) still retained its inhibition effect compared to 100% dose. Most recurrent samples had higher IRs than primary lesions, but the IRs of different drugs differed between primary and recurrent lesions, even with samples from the same patients. PTX has a higher IR to ATC tissues in the HDRA, which suggests that it may be a key drug for the treatment of patients with ATC. PMID:25866510

  4. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the parotid gland: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Casas, Pablo; Bernáldez, Ricardo; Patrón, Mercedes; López-Ferrer, Pilar; García-Cabezas, Miguel A

    2005-03-01

    A 74-year-old male presented with a large polinodular mass in the neck. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed an undifferentiated large cell carcinoma. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large parotid mass with multiple satelite nodules. The remaining radiological studies were normal. Radical parotidectomy was performed. The tumor was a large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine features and positive immunostain for neuroendocrine markers. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy and was free of tumor eight months later. Only four cases of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the salivary gland have been communicated. All of them have involved the parotid gland. This tumor presents in elderly patients as a large infiltrating parotid mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology serves to recognize the carcinoma, but it fails in recognizing the neuroendocrine features of the tumor. The histopathological features of this tumor are the same as in other organs. Chromogranin and synaptophysin are useful immunohistochemical markers. A primary location of the tumor in another organ, specially the lung, should be ruled out. Surgery is the main treatment modality and can be complemented with postoperative radiotherapy. The prognosis seems to be poor. More studies are needed to better define the therapeutical alternatives and prognostic factors of these rare tumors.

  5. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ileocecal junction with well differentiation adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuming; Li, Yan; Feng, Hua; Wang, Chengxin; Chen, Jiaxun; Liu, Lijiang

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are unique and rare tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells. Large cell neuroendocrine tumors have been found in almost every organ such as gastrointestinal tract, bronchopulmonary, pancreas, uterine cervix, urinary bladder and salivary gland, but primary sites in gastrointestinal tract and lung are the most frequent. These neoplasms show neuroendocrine differentiation in organizational structure, which requires further confirmation with immunohistochemistry or electron microscope. In immunohistochemistry staining, pure neuroendocrine areas are diffusely stained positive for synaptophysin (Syn), chromogranin (CgA) and CD56.At least two neuroendocrine markers (Syn, CgA or CD56) must be diffusely stained positive to establish a diagnosis for large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. We studied a rare case of large cell neuroendocrine tumor that was originated from the ileocecal junction and showed CgA, Syn and CD56 triple-negative. The tumor, however, showed typical morphologic and immunohistochemical features of neuroendocrine differentiation; it also exhibited well differentiation and a significant peritumoral lymphoid reaction. Furthermore, we also found the intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules through the electron micrograph examination.

  6. SNP array analysis reveals novel genomic abnormalities including copy neutral loss of heterozygosity in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.

    PubMed

    Idbaih, Ahmed; Ducray, François; Dehais, Caroline; Courdy, Célia; Carpentier, Catherine; de Bernard, Simon; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Mokhtari, Karima; Jouvet, Anne; Honnorat, Jérôme; Chinot, Olivier; Ramirez, Carole; Beauchesne, Patrick; Benouaich-Amiel, Alexandra; Godard, Joël; Eimer, Sandrine; Parker, Fabrice; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Colin, Philippe; Loussouarn, Delphine; Faillot, Thierry; Dam-Hieu, Phong; Elouadhani-Hamdi, Selma; Bauchet, Luc; Langlois, Olivier; Le Guerinel, Caroline; Fontaine, Denys; Vauleon, Elodie; Menei, Philippe; Fotso, Marie Janette Motsuo; Desenclos, Christine; Verrelle, Pierre; Verelle, Pierre; Ghiringhelli, François; Noel, Georges; Labrousse, François; Carpentier, Antoine; Dhermain, Frédéric; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOD) are rare glial tumors in adults with relative homogeneous clinical, radiological and histological features at the time of diagnosis but dramatically various clinical courses. Studies have identified several molecular abnormalities with clinical or biological relevance to AOD (e.g. t(1;19)(q10;p10), IDH1, IDH2, CIC and FUBP1 mutations).To better characterize the clinical and biological behavior of this tumor type, the creation of a national multicentric network, named "Prise en charge des OLigodendrogliomes Anaplasiques (POLA)," has been supported by the Institut National du Cancer (InCA). Newly diagnosed and centrally validated AOD patients and their related biological material (tumor and blood samples) were prospectively included in the POLA clinical database and tissue bank, respectively.At the molecular level, we have conducted a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, which included 83 patients. Despite a careful central pathological review, AOD have been found to exhibit heterogeneous genomic features. A total of 82% of the tumors exhibited a 1p/19q-co-deletion, while 18% harbor a distinct chromosome pattern. Novel focal abnormalities, including homozygously deleted, amplified and disrupted regions, have been identified. Recurring copy neutral losses of heterozygosity (CNLOH) inducing the modulation of gene expression have also been discovered. CNLOH in the CDKN2A locus was associated with protein silencing in 1/3 of the cases. In addition, FUBP1 homozygous deletion was detected in one case suggesting a putative tumor suppressor role of FUBP1 in AOD.Our study showed that the genomic and pathological analyses of AOD are synergistic in detecting relevant clinical and biological subgroups of AOD. PMID:23071531

  7. SNP Array Analysis Reveals Novel Genomic Abnormalities Including Copy Neutral Loss of Heterozygosity in Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas

    PubMed Central

    Idbaih, Ahmed; Ducray, François; Dehais, Caroline; Courdy, Célia; Carpentier, Catherine; de Bernard, Simon; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Mokhtari, Karima; Jouvet, Anne; Honnorat, Jérôme; Chinot, Olivier; Ramirez, Carole; Beauchesne, Patrick; Benouaich-Amiel, Alexandra; Godard, Joël; Eimer, Sandrine; Parker, Fabrice; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Colin, Philippe; Loussouarn, Delphine; Faillot, Thierry; Dam-Hieu, Phong; Elouadhani-Hamdi, Selma; Bauchet, Luc; Langlois, Olivier; Le Guerinel, Caroline; Fontaine, Denys; Vauleon, Elodie; Menei, Philippe; Fotso, Marie Janette Motsuo; Desenclos, Christine; Verelle, Pierre; Ghiringhelli, François; Noel, Georges; Labrousse, François; Carpentier, Antoine; Dhermain, Frédéric; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOD) are rare glial tumors in adults with relative homogeneous clinical, radiological and histological features at the time of diagnosis but dramatically various clinical courses. Studies have identified several molecular abnormalities with clinical or biological relevance to AOD (e.g. t(1;19)(q10;p10), IDH1, IDH2, CIC and FUBP1 mutations). To better characterize the clinical and biological behavior of this tumor type, the creation of a national multicentric network, named “Prise en charge des OLigodendrogliomes Anaplasiques (POLA),” has been supported by the Institut National du Cancer (InCA). Newly diagnosed and centrally validated AOD patients and their related biological material (tumor and blood samples) were prospectively included in the POLA clinical database and tissue bank, respectively. At the molecular level, we have conducted a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, which included 83 patients. Despite a careful central pathological review, AOD have been found to exhibit heterogeneous genomic features. A total of 82% of the tumors exhibited a 1p/19q-co-deletion, while 18% harbor a distinct chromosome pattern. Novel focal abnormalities, including homozygously deleted, amplified and disrupted regions, have been identified. Recurring copy neutral losses of heterozygosity (CNLOH) inducing the modulation of gene expression have also been discovered. CNLOH in the CDKN2A locus was associated with protein silencing in 1/3 of the cases. In addition, FUBP1 homozygous deletion was detected in one case suggesting a putative tumor suppressor role of FUBP1 in AOD. Our study showed that the genomic and pathological analyses of AOD are synergistic in detecting relevant clinical and biological subgroups of AOD. PMID:23071531

  8. Role of pulmonary macrophages in initiation of lung metastasis in anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu Juan; Gangadaran, Prakash; Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Oh, Ji Min; Zhu, Liya; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-12-01

    Several clinical studies have demonstrated that increased macrophage infiltration into tumors confers metastatic potential and poor prognosis in cancer. Preclinical studies are needed to develop new strategies for countering metastasis. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of pulmonary macrophages on lung metastasis of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). ATC (CAL-62) and macrophage (Raw264.7) were transfected with the effluc (CAL-62/effluc, Raw264.7/effluc). Coculture and migration assays were used to assess the effect of Raw264.7 or THP1 (human macrophage) (or conditioned medium) on the proliferation and/or migration of CAL-62/effluc cells in vitro. The effect of clodro-lipo or PBS-lipo on macrophage depletion was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. CAL-62/effluc cells (1 × 10(6) ) were intravenously injected into nude mice 24 h after clodro-lipo or PBS-lipo administration. Effect of clodro-lipo on the lung metastasis of CAL-62/effluc was assessed by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and histology. BLI signals of CAL-62/effluc and Raw264.7/effluc increased to cell number. Raw264.7 cells and THP1 cells promoted CAL-62/effluc proliferation, and conditioned medium of Raw264.7 cells promoted CAL-62/effluc migration. Clodro-lipo significantly depleted pulmonary macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Intensity of BLI signals in ATC lung metastasis was weaker in the clodro-lipo group than PBS-lipo control. Micro-CT imaging and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed smaller tumor masses in the clodro-lipo group than PBS-lipo control. Our findings indicate that pulmonary macrophages have an important role in initiation of lung metastasis of ATC. New therapeutic strategies that preclude initiation of pulmonary metastasis could potentially be developed by targeting pulmonary macrophages. PMID:27537102

  9. Single agent nanoparticle for radiotherapy and radio-photothermal therapy in anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Chen, Yunyun; Adachi, Makoto; Wen, Xiaoxia; Erwin, Bill; Mawlawi, Osama; Lai, Stephen Y; Li, Chun

    2015-07-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies. The aggressive behavior of ATC and its resistance to traditional treatment limit the efficacy of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. The purpose of this study is aimed at enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) combined with photothermal therapy (PTT) in murine orthotopic model of ATC, based on our developed single radioactive copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticle platform. We prepare a new dual-modality therapy for ATC consisting of a single-compartment nanoplatform, polyethylene glycol-coated [(64)Cu]CuS NPs, in which the radiotherapeutic property of (64)Cu is combined with the plasmonic properties of CuS NPs. Mice with Hth83 ATC were treated with PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NPs and/or near infrared laser. Antitumor effects were assessed by tumor growth and animal survival. We found that in mice bearing orthotopic human Hth83 ATC tumors, micro-PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies showed that about 50% of the injected dose of PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NPs was retained in tumor 48 h after intratumoral injection. Human absorbed doses were calculated from biodistribution data. In antitumor experiments, tumor growth was delayed by PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NP-mediated RT, PTT, and combined RT/PTT, with combined RT/PTT being most effective. In addition, combined RT/PTT significantly prolonged the survival of Hth83 tumor-bearing mice compared to no treatment, laser treatment alone, or NP treatment alone without producing acute toxic effects. These findings indicate that this single-compartment multifunctional NPs platform merits further development as a novel therapeutic agent for ATC.

  10. Identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase as a receptor for the growth factor pleiotrophin.

    PubMed

    Stoica, G E; Kuo, A; Aigner, A; Sunitha, I; Souttou, B; Malerczyk, C; Caughey, D J; Wen, D; Karavanov, A; Riegel, A T; Wellstein, A

    2001-05-18

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted growth factor that induces neurite outgrowth and is mitogenic for fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells. During tumor growth PTN can serve as an angiogenic factor and drive tumor invasion and metastasis. To identify a receptor for PTN, we panned a phage display human cDNA library against immobilized PTN protein as a bait. From this we isolated a phage insert that was homologous to an amino acid sequence stretch in the extracellular domain (ECD) of the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). In parallel with PTN, ALK is highly expressed during perinatal development of the nervous system and down-modulated in the adult. Here we show in cell-free assays as well as in radioligand receptor binding studies in intact cells that PTN binds to the ALK ECD with an apparent Kd of 32 +/- 9 pm. This receptor binding is inhibited by an excess of PTN, by the ALK ECD, and by anti-PTN and anti-ECD antibodies. PTN added to ALK-expressing cells induces phosphorylation of both ALK and of the downstream effector molecules IRS-1, Shc, phospholipase C-gamma, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Furthermore, the growth stimulatory effect of PTN on different cell lines in culture coincides with the endogenous expression of ALK mRNA, and the effect of PTN is enhanced by ALK overexpression. From this we conclude that ALK is a receptor that transduces PTN-mediated signals and propose that the PTN-ALK axis can play a significant role during development and during disease processes.

  11. Anti-apoptotic signaling of pleiotrophin through its receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Emma T; Stoica, Gerald E; Wellstein, Anton

    2002-09-27

    The secreted growth factor pleiotrophin (PTN) can induce mitogenesis in cells that express the receptor for this growth factor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Here we examine the ability of PTN to produce anti-apoptotic signals. We demonstrate that PTN is a survival factor for SW-13 epithelial cells and show that ribozyme-mediated depletion of ALK from SW-13 cells abolishes this effect of PTN. Furthermore, in serum-starved NIH3T3 fibroblasts PTN prevents apoptosis (measured by annexin V staining) with an EC(50) of 0.2 ng/ml and induces cell growth at higher concentrations of PTN. A polyclonal antibody against the PTN ligand-binding domain of the ALK receptor (alpha-LBD) was a partial agonist for ALK in NIH3T3 cells. This alpha-LBD antibody showed high agonist activity for anti-apoptosis (56 +/- 9% relative to PTN), low agonist activity for cell growth (21 +/- 1% relative to PTN), and was an antagonist of PTN-induced cell growth (61 +/- 2% inhibition). Both MAP kinase and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase cascades in NIH3T3 cells were activated by PTN, and this effect persisted for up to 3 h. Surprisingly, the anti-apoptotic effect of PTN was completely blocked by the MAP kinase inhibitor UO126, but was not affected by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. In contrast, PTN-dependent cell growth required both MAPK and PI 3-kinase activity. We conclude that anti-apoptotic signaling of PTN through ALK in NIH3T3 fibroblasts is via the MAP kinase pathway.

  12. Single Agent Nanoparticle for Radiotherapy and Radio-Photothermal Therapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Min; Chen, Yunyun; Adachi, Makoto; Wen, Xiaoxia; Erwin, Bill; Mawlawi, Osama; Lai, Stephen Y.; Li, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies. The aggressive behavior of ATC and its resistance to traditional treatment limit the efficacy of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. The purpose of this study is aimed at enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) combined with photothermal therapy (PTT) in murine orthotopic model of ATC, based on our developed single radioactive copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticle platform. We prepare a new dual-modality therapy for ATC consisting of a single-compartment nanoplatform, polyethylene glycol-coated [64Cu]CuS NPs, in which the radiotherapeutic property of 64Cu is combined with the plasmonic properties of CuS NPs. Mice with Hth83 ATC were treated with PEG[64Cu]CuS NPs and/or near infrared laser. Antitumor effects were assessed by tumor growth and animal survival. We found that in mice bearing orthotopic human Hth83 ATC tumors, micro-PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies showed that about 50% of the injected dose of PEG-[64Cu]CuS NPs was retained in tumor 48 h after intratumoral injection. Human absorbed doses were calculated from biodistribution data. In antitumor experiments, tumor growth was delayed by PEG-[64Cu]CuS NP-mediated RT, PTT, and combined RT/PTT, with combined RT/PTT being most effective. In addition, combined RT/PTT significantly prolonged the survival of Hth83 tumor-bearing mice compared to no treatment, laser treatment alone, or NP treatment alone without producing acute toxic effects. These findings indicate that this single-compartment multifunctional NPs platform merits further development as a novel therapeutic agent for ATC. PMID:25913249

  13. An integrative analysis of treatment, outcomes and prognostic factors for primary spinal anaplastic ependymomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiqin; Sui, Mingxing; Ye, Jingliang; Wan, Zhiping; Chen, Feng; Luo, Chun

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of treatment modalities in primary spinal anaplastic ependymomas (PSAE) and identify promising prognostic factors. PSAE are rare tumors of the central nervous system with poorly understood clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. We reviewed the literature in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases to identify patients with PSAE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis and univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed on the PSAE patients and overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed to evaluate the clinical outcomes. Of the 40 patients with PSAE, the tumors were mostly intramedullary (n=19; 47.5%) and frequently involved the thoracic cord (n=25; 62.5%). Eighteen patients suffered recurrence during the follow-up with a median PFS of 24 months. The 1, 2, and 5year OS rates of the PSAE patients were 91.5%, 82.1%, and 63.1%, respectively. Gross total resection (GTR) was independently associated with prolonged PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.11; p=0.004) and OS (HR 0.11; p=0.003) in the multivariate analysis. Adjuvant radiotherapy also conferred improved PFS (HR 0.15; p=0.008) and OS (HR 0.16; p=0.022). Age, sex, tumor location and chemotherapy did not influence the outcomes in this group. The results of our study suggest that GTR and adjuvant radiotherapy are strong prognostic indicators in patients with PSAE and the role of chemotherapy is yet to be defined. PMID:25769252

  14. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Rearrangement in Digestive Tract Cancer: Implication for Targeted Therapy in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Guo, Lei; Qiu, Tian; Ling, Yun; Shan, Ling; Zhou, Haitao; Zhao, Dongbing; Wang, Jian; Liang, Jianwei; Zhao, Jianjun; Jiao, Yuchen; Lu, Ning; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements define a subgroup of lung cancer which is eligible to targeted kinase inhibition. The aim of this study is to observe the incidence rate of ALK fusion in a large cohort of Chinese digestive tract cancer patients. Patients and Methods Tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed from 808 digestive tract cancer cases, including 169 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 182 gastric cancer and 457 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. We tested all cases for ALK expression via a fully automated immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. The IHC-positive cases were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), target gene enrichment and sequencing for confirmation of ALK gene rearrangement and discovery of novel fusion partner. Results Among the tested cases, 2 (0.44%) CRC cases showed positive both by IHC and FISH. By qRT-PCR, EML4–ALK fusion was found in one IHC-positive CRC case. In another IHC-positive CRC case, target gene enrichment and sequencing revealed ALK was fused to a novel partner, spectrin beta non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1). One gastric cancer case showed partially positive IHC result, but no fusion was found by FISH and gene sequencing. Conclusions The incidence rate of ALK gene fusion in Chinese CRC patients was 0.44%,but not detectable in gastric and esophageal cancers. The novel SPTBN1 -ALK fusion, together with other ALK fusion genes, may become a potential target for anti-ALK therapy. PMID:26678488

  15. Treatment and Prognosis of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A Clinical Study of 50 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Long, Zhen; Wei, Fan-Qin; Zhuang, Shi-Min; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Liang-En; Mu, Jia-Sheng; Zhang, Guan-Ping; Fan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is rare, it is one of the most aggressive human cancers. The optimal multimodal therapy policy of ATC is still debated, and a standardized treatment strategy remains to be established. This study aimed to evaluate the management aspect and prognosis of ATC. Materials and Methods The data were analyzed retrospectively for 50 patients with ATC to evaluate the clinical characters, management and factors influencing survival. Survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Merier method and log-rank test, and multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard model. Results The 1-year and 2-year overall survival rates (OS) were 48.0% and 26.0% respectively in all patients, with the 2-year OS of 40.0% and 31.0% and 6.3% for stage IVA, IVB and IVC respectively (P <0.05). In stage IVA and IVB patients, combined surgery with radiotherapy improved overall survival, and the 2-year OS were 50.0% and 35.7% respectively in the group with combined surgery with radiotherapy and the group with surgery with only (P <0.05). Postoperative radiotherapy improved local control rate in stage IVA and IVB patients (P <0.05). However, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy could not improve the survival of stage IVC patients. Multivariate analysis showed that distant metastases, surgery, radiotherapy and tumor residue could predict the prognosis. Conclusion Combined surgery and radiotherapy could improve overall survival in stage IVA and IVB patients. Patients with ATC have a bad prognosis. Distant metastases, surgery, radiotherapy and tumor residue are the most important factors affecting the prognosis. PMID:27760217

  16. Spanish consensus for the management of patients with anaplastic cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gómez Sáez, José Manuel; Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Santamaría Sandi, Javier; Capdevila Castillón, Jaume; Navarro González, Elena; Zafón Llopis, Carles; Ramón Y Cajal Asensio, Teresa; Riesco Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Grande Pulido, Enrique; Galofré Ferrater, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive solid tumour known and is a rare but highly lethal form of thyroid cancer that requires a multidisciplinary team approach. No Spanish consensus exists for management of patients with ATC. The Thyroid Cancer Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and the GETHI (Grupo Español de Enfermedades Huérfanas e Infrecuentes) of the Spanish Society of Oncology, in agreement with the Boards of these Societies, commissioned an independent task force to develop a wide consensus on ATC. The relevant literature was reviewed, including serial PubMed searches supplemented with additional articles. The consensus includes the characteristics, diagnosis, initial evaluation, establishment of treatment goals, approaches to locoregional disease (surgery, radiotherapy, systemic therapy, supportive care during active treatment), approaches to advanced/metastatic disease, palliative care options, monitoring, and long-term follow-up of ATC. For operable disease, a combination of radical surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, using agents such as doxorubicin, cisplatin and paclitaxel, is the best treatment strategy. Cytotoxic drugs are poorly effective for advanced/metastatic ATC. On the other hand, targeted agents may represent a viable therapeutic option. Patients with stage IVA/IVB resectable disease have the best prognosis, particularly if a multimodal approach is used, and some stage IVB unresectable patients may respond to aggressive therapy. Patients with stage IVC disease should be considered for clinical trials or for hospice/palliative care depending on their preference. This is the first Spanish consensus for ATC, and provides recommendations for management of this extremely aggressive malignancy. Novel systemic therapies are being tested, and more effective combinations are needed to improve patient outcomes. Although more aggressive radiotherapy has reduced locoregional recurrence, mean

  17. Obatoclax kills anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by inducing lysosome neutralization and necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Champa, Devora; Orlacchio, Arturo; Patel, Bindi; Ranieri, Michela; Shemetov, Anton A; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Di Cristofano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are very aggressive, almost invariably lethal neoplasms for which no effective treatment exists. These tumors are intrinsically resistant to cell death, even when their driver oncogenic signaling pathways are inhibited. We have undertaken a detailed analysis, in mouse and human thyroid cancer cells, of the mechanism through which Obatoclax, a pan-inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic proteins of the BCL2 family, effectively reduces tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that Obatoclax does not induce apoptosis, but rather necrosis of thyroid cancer cells, and that non-transformed thyroid cells are significantly less affected by this compound. Surprisingly, we show that Obatoclax rapidly localizes to the lysosomes and induces loss of acidification, block of lysosomal fusion with autophagic vacuoles, and subsequent lysosomal permeabilization. Notably, prior lysosome neutralization using different V-ATPase inhibitors partially protects cancer cells from the toxic effects of Obatoclax. Although inhibition of autophagy does not affect Obatoclax-induced cell death, selective down-regulation of ATG7, but not of ATG5, partially impairs Obatoclax effects, suggesting the existence of autophagy-independent functions for ATG7. Strikingly, Obatoclax killing activity depends only on its accumulation in the lysosomes, and not on its interaction with BCL2 family members. Finally, we show that also other lysosome-targeting compounds, Mefloquine and LLOMe, readily induce necrosis in thyroid cancer cells, and that Mefloquine significantly impairs tumor growth in vivo, highlighting a clear vulnerability of these aggressive, apoptosis-resistant tumors that can be therapeutically exploited. PMID:27144341

  18. Changes in Immunohistochemical Protein Levels in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-positive Lung Adenocarcinoma Possibly due to Chemo-radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Takaya; Soda, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Yuichi; Kitazaki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    To detect the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene in non-small cell lung cancer, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are the standard methods. However, there are discrepancies between them. We herein report a 40-year-old woman with ALK fusion-positive adenocarcinoma that changed from positive to negative in IHC due to chemo-radiotherapy. Recurrence of the disease restored the IHC expression, whereas FISH was positive throughout the entire clinical course. Our experience suggests that we should therefore carefully evaluate samples after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PMID:27374682

  19. Poor response to gefitinib in lung adenocarcinoma with concomitant epidermal growth factor receptor mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianya; Zheng, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Sheng, Yihong; Ding, Wei; Zhou, Jianying

    2015-03-01

    A patient presenting with concomitant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation is rare. We report a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient with concomitant ALK rearrangement and exon 19 (E746-A750del) EGFR mutation. The ALK rearrangement was confirmed not only in the primary tumor biopsy specimen, but also in the pleural effusion cell block by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Ventana ALK immunohistochemistry assay, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. No clinical benefit using chemotherapy or EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib was obtained in this case.

  20. Retroperitoneal primary mucinous adenocarcinoma with a mural nodule of anaplastic tumor: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Mikio; Tei, Chisei; Takehara, Kyoko; Komiyama, Shinichi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Hirose, Takanori

    2003-04-01

    A 38-year-old female presented with a lower abdominal mass. During the operation the mass was found to be retroperitoneal and was excised. Gross examination revealed a mucin-containing cystic lesion with a mural nodule. On microscopic examination, the cystic areas were lined by an invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma and the nodule was composed of an anaplastic sarcomatoid tumor that was immunoreactive for cytokeratin. This present case is the 21st example of a retroperitoneal primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and the fourth with a mural nodule. Three of four cases with a mural nodule, including our case, had a rapidly fatal outcome.

  1. Anaplastic Ependymoma in a Child With Sickle Cell Anemia: A Case Report Highlighting Treatment Challenges for Young Children With Central Nervous System Tumors and Underlying Vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Erin E; Meier, Emily R; Wells, Elizabeth M; Hwang, Eugene I; Packer, Roger J

    2016-03-01

    A 3-year-old boy with sickle cell anemia (SCA) presented with progressive daily emesis and was found to have an anaplastic ependymoma. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are usually employed after subtotal resections of anaplastic ependymomas, although the benefits from chemotherapy are unclear. To mitigate the risks of adjuvant treatment in this patient at risk for SCA-associated vasculopathy, renal impairment, and other end-organ damage, proton beam irradiation without chemotherapy was chosen. Scheduled packed red blood cell transfusions were instituted to maintain sickle hemoglobin levels less than 30%. This case highlights treatment complexities for malignant brain tumors in patients predisposed to treatment-related adverse effects.

  2. Anaplastic Ependymoma in a Child With Sickle Cell Anemia: A Case Report Highlighting Treatment Challenges for Young Children With Central Nervous System Tumors and Underlying Vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Erin E; Meier, Emily R; Wells, Elizabeth M; Hwang, Eugene I; Packer, Roger J

    2016-03-01

    A 3-year-old boy with sickle cell anemia (SCA) presented with progressive daily emesis and was found to have an anaplastic ependymoma. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are usually employed after subtotal resections of anaplastic ependymomas, although the benefits from chemotherapy are unclear. To mitigate the risks of adjuvant treatment in this patient at risk for SCA-associated vasculopathy, renal impairment, and other end-organ damage, proton beam irradiation without chemotherapy was chosen. Scheduled packed red blood cell transfusions were instituted to maintain sickle hemoglobin levels less than 30%. This case highlights treatment complexities for malignant brain tumors in patients predisposed to treatment-related adverse effects. PMID:26488903

  3. A retrospective analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics of large cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, RUI; CHEN, TIAN-XING; WANG, ZHI-QIANG; JIN, KE-WEI; ZHANG, LIAN-YU; YAN, QING-NA; ZHANG, HUI-HUA; WANG, WAN-PU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze and summarize the clinicopathological characteristics of large-cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) of the lung, in order to improve the definite diagnosis rate of LCLC. Clinicopathological data of 174 patients with LCLC, confirmed pathologically, were retrospectively reviewed. The 174 cases of LCLC accounted for 5.7% of the total lung cancer cases during the corresponding time period at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University (Tianjin, China), among which there were 131 males and 43 females with an average age of 61.4 years. The postoperative pathological diagnosis of the 174 cases showed 80 cases of classic LCLC, 64 cases of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), six cases of combined LCNEC, 19 cases of basaloid carcinoma, three cases of clear cell carcinoma and two cases of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma. Of the total 174 LCLC cases, 96 patients exhibited lymph node metastasis. LCLC is a highly aggressive malignancy with a high tendency of invasion and metastasis, although the incidence rate is low. A definite diagnosis of LCLC primarily relies on the pathological diagnosis. Each subtype of LCLC has its own pathomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. PMID:25452802

  4. Folliculotropic mycosis fungoides with large-cell transformation presenting as dissecting cellulitis of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, A C; Lessin, S R; Wilson, D M; Salhany, K E

    1997-03-01

    Follicular mycosis fungoides (MF) is a rare variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in which malignant lymphocytes preferentially infiltrate hair follicles. This report describes a patient with follicular mycosis fungoides presenting in a manner similar to dissecting cellulitis of the scalp with nonhealing, draining nodular lesions. Follicular mucinosis associated with folliculotropic mycosis fungoides resulted in follicular disruption and deep dissecting cellulitis. Large-cell transformation of CTCL was present in the initial diagnostic scalp and axillary lymph node specimens. The patient died from progressive CTCL 9 months following initial diagnosis despite electron beam radiation, topical mechlorethamine, interferon-alpha, and systemic chemotherapy. This case indicates that large-cell transformation of folliculotropic mycosis fungoides is an aggressive form of CTCL, and that folliculotropic mycosis fungoides can give rise to lesions which resemble dissecting cellulitis of the scalp. Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on follicular epithelium adjacent to lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1)-positive folliculotropic lymphoma cells in this report provides insight into lymphocyte homing mechanisms in folliculotropic MF. PMID:9085153

  5. A North American brain tumor consortium phase II study of Poly-ICLC for adult patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Butowski, Nicholas; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Lee, Bee L; Prados, Michael D.; Cloughesy, Timothy; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Abrey, Lauren; Fink, Karen; Lieberman, Frank; Mehta, Minesh; Robins, H. Ian; Junck, Larry; Salazar, Andres M.; Chang, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II study was designed to determine the objective response rate and 6-month progression free survival of adult patients with recurrent supratentorial anaplastic glioma when treated with the immune modulator, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with polylysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC). Methods and Materials This was an open-labeled, single arm phase II study. Patients were treated with poly-ICLC alone. Patients may have had treatment for no more than two prior relapses. Treatment with poly-ICLC continued until tumor progression. Results 55 patients were enrolled in the study. 10 were ineligible after central review of pathology. 11% of patients (5 of 45) had a radiographic response. Time to progression was known for 39 patients and 6 remain on treatment. The estimated 6-month progression free survival was 24%. The median survival time was 43 weeks. Conclusions Poly-ICLC was well tolerated, but there was no improvement in 6-month progression free survival compared to historical database nor was there an encouraging objective radiographic response rate. Based on this study, poly-ICLC does not improve 6moPFS in patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas but may be worth further study in combination with agents such as temozolomide. PMID:18850068

  6. Genomic and transcriptomic hallmarks of poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahimpasic, Tihana; Boucai, Laura; Shah, Ronak H.; Dogan, Snjezana; Ricarte-Filho, Julio C.; Krishnamoorthy, Gnana P.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Berger, Michael F.; Sander, Chris; Taylor, Barry S.; Ghossein, Ronald; Ganly, Ian; Fagin, James A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) are rare and frequently lethal tumors that so far have not been subjected to comprehensive genetic characterization. METHODS. We performed next-generation sequencing of 341 cancer genes from 117 patient-derived PDTCs and ATCs and analyzed the transcriptome of a representative subset of 37 tumors. Results were analyzed in the context of The Cancer Genome Atlas study (TCGA study) of papillary thyroid cancers (PTC). RESULTS. Compared to PDTCs, ATCs had a greater mutation burden, including a higher frequency of mutations in TP53, TERT promoter, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway effectors, SWI/SNF subunits, and histone methyltransferases. BRAF and RAS were the predominant drivers and dictated distinct tropism for nodal versus distant metastases in PDTC. RAS and BRAF sharply distinguished between PDTCs defined by the Turin (PDTC-Turin) versus MSKCC (PDTC-MSK) criteria, respectively. Mutations of EIF1AX, a component of the translational preinitiation complex, were markedly enriched in PDTCs and ATCs and had a striking pattern of co-occurrence with RAS mutations. While TERT promoter mutations were rare and subclonal in PTCs, they were clonal and highly prevalent in advanced cancers. Application of the TCGA-derived BRAF-RAS score (a measure of MAPK transcriptional output) revealed a preserved relationship with BRAF/RAS mutation in PDTCs, whereas ATCs were BRAF-like irrespective of driver mutation. CONCLUSIONS. These data support a model of tumorigenesis whereby PDTCs and ATCs arise from well-differentiated tumors through the accumulation of key additional genetic abnormalities, many of which have prognostic and possible therapeutic relevance. The widespread genomic disruptions in ATC compared with PDTC underscore their greater virulence and higher mortality. FUNDING. This work was supported in part by NIH grants CA50706, CA72597, P50-CA72012, P30-CA008748, and 5T32-CA160001; the Lefkovsky Family

  7. Therapeutic options in peripheral T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; Xu, Wei; Liu, Hong; Li, Jianyong

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a rare and heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with a very poor prognosis. The standard first-line treatments have resulted in unsatisfactory patient outcomes. With the exception of low-risk anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), the majority of patients relapse rapidly; the current 5-year overall survival rates are only 10-30%. Novel targeted therapies and combination chemotherapies are required for the treatment of patients with PTCL. In recent years, some retrospective and prospective studies have been performed concerning PTCL. Consequently, a number of novel agents and their relevant combination therapies have been identified, including histone deacetylase inhibitors, immunoconjugates, antifolates, monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulatory agents, nucleoside analogs, proteasome inhibitors, kinase inhibitors, bendamustine, L-asparaginase, and other targeted agents. It is hoped that these innovative approaches will finally improve outcomes in patients with PTCL. This review summarizes the currently available approaches for the treatment of PTCL with an emphasis on potential new agents, including the role of stem cell transplantation. PMID:27071634

  8. The enzymatic activity of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase is enhanced by NPM-ALK: new insights in ALK-mediated pathogenesis and the treatment of ALCL

    PubMed Central

    Boccalatte, Francesco E.; Voena, Claudia; Riganti, Chiara; Bosia, Amalia; D'Amico, Lucia; Riera, Ludovica; Cheng, Mangeng; Ruggeri, Bruce; Jensen, Ole N.; Goss, Valerie L.; Lee, Kimberly; Nardone, Julie; Rush, John; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Comb, Michael J.; Chiarle, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma represents a subset of neoplasms caused by translocations that juxtapose the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) to dimerization partners. The constitutive activation of ALK fusion proteins leads to cellular transformation through a complex signaling network. To elucidate the ALK pathways sustaining lymphomagenesis and tumor maintenance, we analyzed the tyrosine-kinase protein profiles of ALK-positive cell lines using 2 complementary proteomic-based approaches, taking advantage of a specific ALK RNA interference (RNAi) or cell-permeable inhibitors. A well-defined set of ALK-associated tyrosine phosphopeptides, including metabolic enzymes, kinases, ribosomal and cytoskeletal proteins, was identified. Validation studies confirmed that vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (ATIC) associated with nucleophosmin (NPM)–ALK, and their phosphorylation required ALK activity. ATIC phosphorylation was documented in cell lines and primary tumors carrying ALK proteins and other tyrosine kinases, including TPR-Met and wild type c-Met. Functional analyses revealed that ALK-mediated ATIC phosphorylation enhanced its enzymatic activity, dampening the methotrexate-mediated transformylase activity inhibition. These findings demonstrate that proteomic approaches in well-controlled experimental settings allow the definition of informative proteomic profiles and the discovery of novel ALK downstream players that contribute to the maintenance of the neoplastic phenotype. Prediction of tumor responses to methotrexate may justify specific molecular-based chemotherapy. PMID:18845790

  9. [Gene expression profiling by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH): a example for its application to the study of lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Villalva, C; Trempat, P; Zenou, R C; Delsol, G; Brousset, P

    2001-03-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to isolate genes that were differentially expressed in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive and ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma. In addition, this approach was applied to Hodgkin's disease cases with different clinical outcomes. SSH combines a normalization step that equalizes the abundance of cDNAs within the sequences to be tested and a subtraction step that excludes the common sequences between the target and the control. In a model system, the SSH technique enriches for rare sequences up to 5,000-fold in one round. We have isolated several genes whose expression varied significantly with regard to the tumour subtypes. There were different genes with known or unknown functions. We aim to compare the results of the SSH approach with those obtained with high density filters. In a near future, we would like to design DNA chips specific of each pathology that could be used for clinical purposes (evaluation of prognosis and therapeutic response).

  10. Three different histological subtypes of Epstein-Barr virus-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mikiko; Asano, Naoko; Fukushima, Mana; Honda, Takayuki

    2014-09-01

    We report a rare case in which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative polymorphic B-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and EBV-negative monomorphic T-cell PTLD [anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL)] were observed simultaneously in the same cervical lymph node, 34 months after liver transplantation for hepatitis C liver cirrhosis. Although hepatitis C recurred after 2 months, he had no other complications until PTLD occurred 34 months post-transplantation. The patient underwent reduction of the immunosuppressive drug and rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy, and he was considered to have achieved complete remission. However, PTLD recurred, and he died 6 months after the initial diagnosis. Autopsy revealed only EBV-negative monomorphic T-cell PTLD (ALK-negative ALCL) that involved the liver, spleen, bilateral kidneys, stomach, bladder, heart, bone marrow, right ureter, and pons. Thus, recurrent PTLD may show a different histological type from the primary disorder, as PTLD has a multiclonal potentiality that causes various types of lymphomas. Therefore, it may be difficult to predict PTLD-related prognosis from the initial PTLD histological identification.

  11. Identification of a new subclass of ALK-negative ALCL expressing aberrant levels of ERBB4 transcripts.

    PubMed

    Scarfò, Irene; Pellegrino, Elisa; Mereu, Elisabetta; Kwee, Ivo; Agnelli, Luca; Bergaggio, Elisa; Garaffo, Giulia; Vitale, Nicoletta; Caputo, Manuel; Machiorlatti, Rodolfo; Circosta, Paola; Abate, Francesco; Barreca, Antonella; Novero, Domenico; Mathew, Susan; Rinaldi, Andrea; Tiacci, Enrico; Serra, Sara; Deaglio, Silvia; Neri, Antonino; Falini, Brunangelo; Rabadan, Raul; Bertoni, Francesco; Inghirami, Giorgio; Piva, Roberto

    2016-01-14

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a clinical and biological heterogeneous disease that includes systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive and ALK-negative entities. To discover biomarkers and/or genes involved in ALK-negative ALCL pathogenesis, we applied the cancer outlier profile analysis algorithm to a gene expression profiling data set including 249 cases of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and normal T cells. Ectopic coexpression of ERBB4 and COL29A1 genes was detected in 24% of ALK-negative ALCL patients. RNA sequencing and 5' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends identified 2 novel ERBB4-truncated transcripts displaying intronic transcription start sites. By luciferase assays, we defined that the expression of ERBB4-aberrant transcripts is promoted by endogenous intronic long terminal repeats. ERBB4 expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Lastly, we demonstrated that ERBB4-truncated forms show oncogenic potentials and that ERBB4 pharmacologic inhibition partially controls ALCL cell growth and disease progression in an ERBB4-positive patient-derived tumorgraft model. In conclusion, we identified a new subclass of ALK-negative ALCL characterized by aberrant expression of ERBB4-truncated transcripts carrying intronic 5' untranslated regions. PMID:26463425

  12. SGN-35 in CD30-positive Lymphoproliferative Disorders (ALCL), Mycosis Fungoides (MF), and Extensive Lymphomatoid Papulosis (LyP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-11

    CD-30 Positive Anaplastic Large T-cell Cutaneous Lymphoma; Lymphoma, Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell; Lymphomatoid Papulosis; Mycosis Fungoides; Skin Lymphoma; Cutaneous Lymphomas; Lymphoma; Hematologic Disorder

  13. Prevalence of a hobnail pattern in papillary, poorly differentiated, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a possible manifestation of high-grade transformation.

    PubMed

    Amacher, Anne Marie; Goyal, Bella; Lewis, James S; El-Mofty, Samir K; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2015-02-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid carcinoma and has a generally favorable prognosis. There are several well-characterized variants, some of which are associated with more aggressive clinical behavior. Hobnail is a recently described rare variant that appears to behave more aggressively. Initial reports characterizing this variant focused on primary tumors and excluded other recognized variants, as well as poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, from analysis. Here, we evaluate the frequency of hobnail features in both primary and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas, including in association with other known variants, and also in poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Primary and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas from a 5-year period (2007 to 2011) and all available anaplastic and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas from a 22-year period (1989 to 2011) were retrieved from the files. Tumors from 478 papillary, 26 anaplastic, and 18 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas were reviewed for hobnail features present in >10% of each tumor. Hobnail features were most commonly observed in association with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (4 of 18 cases, 22%) and were seen in only 1.3% of papillary thyroid carcinoma patients (6 of 478). One of 26 anaplastic carcinomas had hobnail features (3.8%). Among the papillary thyroid carcinomas, hobnail features were often associated with other histologic variants that are known to be more clinically aggressive, had increased mitotic activity, and/or necrosis and lymph node metastases at presentation. These findings suggest that hobnail features may be a manifestation of higher-grade transformation.

  14. Occipital anaplastic oligodendroglioma with multiple organ metastases after a short clinical course: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is generally believed that malignant gliomas never metastasize outside the central nervous system (CNS). However, the notion that oligodendrogliomas (OGDs) cells cannot spread outside CNS is being challenged. Methods We described in detail the clinical story of one patient with anaplastic OGD, which metastasized to lymph nodes, bone marrowand bones Genetic analyses included detection of 1p and 19q chromosomal arms, methylation status of MGMT promoter, and PTEN exon mutations. A search of worldwide literature was conducted for reports of metastatic OGDs using NCBI-PubMed, with the keywords “extracranial”, “extraneural”, “oligodendroglioma”, “oligodendrogliomas”, “metastatic”, “metastasis”, and “metastases”, in different combinations. Results An open biopsy of the infiltrated bones in our patient revealed that malignant cells had replaced the patient’s marrow. Moreover, the diagnosis of multiple-organ metastases of anaplastic OGD was confirmed based on immunohistochemical staining. Genetic analyses showed that the tumors originated from previously resected brain lesions. None of the lesions had 1p and 19q deletions, but hypermethylation of MGMT promoter, and the G → A transversion at codon 234 of PTEN exon 2 were detected. Literatures review yielded 60 reports of metastatic OGDs from 1951 to the present, which with our patient makes 61 cases. Concerning these 61 patients, there were 110 infiltrated sites correlated closely with primary OGDs. The most frequent metastatic sites were bone and bone marrow (n = 47; 42.7%), lymph nodes (n = 22; 20.0%), liver (n = 7; 6.4%), scalp (n = 6; 5.5%), lung (n = 6; 5.5%), pleura (n = 4; 3.6%), chest wall (n = 3; 2.7%), iliopsoas muscle (n = 2; 1.8%), soft tissue (n = 2; 1.8%), and parotid gland (n = 2; 1.8%). Conclusions Extracranial metastases in anaplastic OGD are very rare but they do occur; bone and bone marrow may be the most common sites. Detection of certain molecular markers

  15. Successful palliative approach with high-intensity focused ultrasound in a patient with metastatic anaplastic pancreatic carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ungaro, Antonio; Orsi, Franco; Casadio, Chiara; Galdy, Salvatore; Spada, Francesca; Cella, Chiara Alessandra; Tonno, Clementina Di; Bonomo, Guido; Vigna, Paolo Della; Murgioni, Sabina; Frezza, Anna Maria; Fazio, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 74-year-old man with a metastatic anaplastic pancreatic carcinoma (APC). After an early tumour progression on first-line chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine, even though it was badly tolerated, he was treated with a combination of systemic modified FOLFIRI and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on the pancreatic mass. A tumour showing partial response with a clinical benefit was obtained. HIFU was preferred to radiotherapy because of its shorter course and minimal side effects, in order to improve the patient’s clinical conditions. The patient is currently on chemotherapy, asymptomatic with a good performance status. In referral centres, with specific expertise, HIFU could be safely and successfully combined with systemic chemotherapy for treatment of metastatic pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27170835

  16. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: topic review and a unique case of metastasis to the mandible.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Keith M; Martinez, Alan Y; Guglielmi, Marcello

    2015-03-01

    There are few reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) metastasis to the head and neck region, and no cases reporting LCNEC from lung metastasizing to the mandible. LCNEC is not well reported in the literature due to recent changes in the criteria for diagnosis, revised in 2004 by the world health organization, due to its propensity for rapid growth and low 5 year prognosis. We present a 61 year old female diagnosed with LCNEC of the lung in October, 2007 treated with radiation and chemotherapy. Our patient had a PET scan performed in March, 2009 revealing no sign of metastasis. In July, 2009 she was seen for suspected sialadenitis by another department and referred to our oral and maxillofacial surgery clinic. Her signs and symptoms were consistent with metastatic disease to the mandible confirmed by histologic and immunohistochemical examination which revealed an invasive poorly differentiated non-small cell carcinoma. Palliative care was offered. Our patient died 2 years after initial diagnosis of lung cancer and 3 months after initial finding of metastatic disease. The rapid growth and spread of this cancer was surprising and knowledge of this cancer should be included in a differential diagnosis of expanding mandibular jaw lesions.

  17. Hypermutation of multiple proto-oncogenes in B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Pasqualucci, L; Neumeister, P; Goossens, T; Nanjangud, G; Chaganti, R S; Küppers, R; Dalla-Favera, R

    2001-07-19

    Genomic instability promotes tumorigenesis and can occur through various mechanisms, including defective segregation of chromosomes or inactivation of DNA mismatch repair. Although B-cell lymphomas are associated with chromosomal translocations that deregulate oncogene expression, a mechanism for genome-wide instability during lymphomagenesis has not been described. During B-cell development, the immunoglobulin variable (V) region genes are subject to somatic hypermutation in germinal-centre B cells. Here we report that an aberrant hypermutation activity targets multiple loci, including the proto-oncogenes PIM1, MYC, RhoH/TTF (ARHH) and PAX5, in more than 50% of diffuse large-cell lymphomas (DLCLs), which are tumours derived from germinal centres. Mutations are distributed in the 5' untranslated or coding sequences, are independent of chromosomal translocations, and share features typical of V-region-associated somatic hypermutation. In contrast to mutations in V regions, however, these mutations are not detectable in normal germinal-centre B cells or in other germinal-centre-derived lymphomas, suggesting a DLCL-associated malfunction of somatic hypermutation. Intriguingly, the four hypermutable genes are susceptible to chromosomal translocations in the same region, consistent with a role for hypermutation in generating translocations by DNA double-strand breaks. By mutating multiple genes, and possibly by favouring chromosomal translocations, aberrant hypermutation may represent the major contributor to lymphomagenesis.

  18. Cell proliferation as a long-term prognostic factor in diffuse large-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, R; Costa, A; Boracchi, P; Giardini, R; Rilke, F

    1993-05-01

    The relevance of cell proliferation rate--defined as the 3H-thymidine labeling index (3H-dT LI)--in predicting response to treatment (complete remission, CR), freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in 86 patients with diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL). The biologic variable was not associated with most of the established clinical factors, such as gender and age of the patient, performance status, B symptoms, tumor bulk, or extranodal disease, but was directly related to stage. 3H-dT LI significantly predicted short- and long-term clinical outcome. In fact, more patients with slowly proliferating DLCL reached CR and had longer median FFP and OS than patients with rapidly proliferating DLCL. Multiple-regression analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of the different biologic and clinical variables in predicting CR, FFP and OS showed that 3H-dT LI and Ann Arbor stage were the only 2 stable factors, which retained their prognostic significance even in the presence of other conventional factors, and that 3H-dT LI was the most powerful as an indicator of risk of death in DLCL patients.

  19. Deterministic lateral displacement as a means to enrich large cells for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Green, James V; Radisic, Milica; Murthy, Shashi K

    2009-11-01

    The enrichment or isolation of selected cell types from heterogeneous suspensions is required in the area of tissue engineering. State of the art techniques utilized for this separation include preplating and sieve-based approaches that have limited ranges of purity and variable yield. Here, we present a deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) microfluidic device that is capable of separating large epithelial cells (17.3 +/- 2.7 in diameter) from smaller fibroblast cells (13.7 +/- 3.0 microm in diameter) as a potential alternative approach. The mixed suspension examined is intended to represent the content of digested rat cardiac tissue, which contains equal proportions of cardiomyocyte (17.0 +/- 4.0 microm diameter) and nonmyocyte populations (12.0 +/- 3.0 microm diameter). High purity separation (>97%) of the larger cell type is achieved with 90% yield in a rapid and single-pass process. The significance of this work lies in the recognition that DLD design principles can be applied for the microfluidic enrichment of large cells, up to the 40 microm diameter level examined in this work.

  20. CNS intravascular large cell lymphoma in a patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, Sanda; Orengo, James P; Toossi, Shahed; Perry, Arie; Treseler, Patrick; Hess, Christopher; Margeta, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Intravascular large cell lymphoma (IVLCL) is a rare disease characterized by proliferation of malignant lymphocytes within the small blood vessel lumens. The association of IVLCL with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) has been described in a single case report, but the true prevalence of this co-occurrence is not known because of declining autopsy rates. Here, we report a case of a 41-year-old woman who carried a diagnosis of AIHA for 2 years, with repeated hemolytic episodes that were initially well controlled with immunomodulatory treatment. At her last presentation, the patient developed rapidly progressive neurologic symptoms and leukoencephalopathy on MRI; she died 4 weeks later with a clinical impression of thrombotic microangiopathy, a known complication of AIHA. At autopsy, the brain showed widespread platelet thrombi and intraparenchymal hemorrhages characteristic of this disorder. In addition, there was evidence of a clinically unsuspected IVLCL, most likely of B-cell lineage. This case illustrates a potential association between IVLCL and AIHA, highlights the need for broad differential diagnosis in cases with atypical disease presentation or progression, and underlines the importance of autopsy in establishing the full cause of morbidity and mortality.

  1. Maintenance therapy with interferon alfa 2b in patients with diffuse large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Díaz-Maqueo, J C; García, E L; Talavera, A; Guzmán, R

    1992-11-01

    Forty-eight consecutive patients with diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) in complete remission (CR) after conventional chemotherapy were enrolled in a prospective clinical trial. The maintenance therapy was a random either nothing or interferon alfa 2b (IFN) 5.0 MU three times a week for one year. The median duration of CR in the patients treated with IFN has not been reached. After five years 60% of patients remain in CR compared to the control group who had a median CR of 40 months (p < 0.001). Actuarial five-years survival in the IFN treated patients was 88% compared to 42% in the control group (p < 0.001). Maintenance therapy with IFN has been beneficial in patients with DLCL with improvement of duration of CR and survival without the excessive toxicity of most common third generation regimen chemotherapy. We felt that IFN could be explored in most controlled clinical trials in patients with DLCL in CR after conventional chemotherapy. PMID:1487412

  2. Large-scale arrays of picolitre chambers for single-cell analysis of large cell populations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Chul; Rigante, Sara; Pisano, Albert P; Kuypers, Frans A

    2010-11-01

    We present a new method to analyze the cytoplasmic contents of single cells in large cell populations. This new method consists of an array of microchambers in which individual cells are collected, enclosed, and lysed to create a reaction mixture of the cytoplasm with extracellular detection agents. This approach was tested for the analysis of red blood cells in 10,000 microchambers in parallel. Single cells were routinely collected in more than 60% of microchambers, the collected cells were robustly (up to 99%) lysed by electric fields, and the cytoplasm enclosed in each microchamber was analyzed with fluorescence microscopy. Using a heterogeneous cell mixture, we verified that the new method could distinguish individual cells by cytoplasmic composition and the analysis compared well with conventional flow-cytometric evaluation of mixed cell populations. In contrast to flow-cytometry, the new method monitored single cells over time, thus characterizing the distributions of caspase activities of 5000 individual cells. This approach should be interesting for a variety of applications that would benefit from the ability to measure the distribution of cytoplasmic compounds in complex cell populations, including hematology, oncology, and immunology.

  3. Heat Shield Employing Cured Thermal Protection Material Blocks Bonded in a Large-Cell Honeycomb Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A document describes a new way to integrate thermal protection materials on external surfaces of vehicles that experience the severe heating environments of atmospheric entry from space. Cured blocks of thermal protection materials are bonded into a compatible, large-cell honeycomb matrix that can be applied on the external surfaces of the vehicles. The honeycomb matrix cell size, and corresponding thermal protection material block size, is envisioned to be between 1 and 4 in. (.2.5 and 10 cm) on a side, with a depth required to protect the vehicle. The cell wall thickness is thin, between 0.01 and 0.10 in. (.0.025 and 0.25 cm). A key feature is that the honeycomb matrix is attached to the vehicle fs unprotected external surface prior to insertion of the thermal protection material blocks. The attachment integrity of the honeycomb can then be confirmed over the full range of temperature and loads that the vehicle will experience. Another key feature of the innovation is the use of uniform-sized thermal protection material blocks. This feature allows for the mass production of these blocks at a size that is convenient for quality control inspection. The honeycomb that receives the blocks must have cells with a compatible set of internal dimensions. The innovation involves the use of a faceted subsurface under the honeycomb. This provides a predictable surface with perpendicular cell walls for the majority of the blocks. Some cells will have positive tapers to accommodate mitered joints between honeycomb panels on each facet of the subsurface. These tapered cells have dimensions that may fall within the boundaries of the uniform-sized blocks.

  4. Mycosis fungoides with large cell transformation: clinicopathological features and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Pulitzer, Melissa; Myskowski, Patricia L.; Horwitz, Steven M.; Querfeld, Christiane; Connolly, Brian; Li, Janet; Murali, Rajmohan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Large cell transformation of mycosis fungoides (MF-LCT) occurs in 20–50% of advanced MF, and is generally associated with poor prognosis, although some patients have indolent disease. We sought to identify clinicopathological prognostic factors in a large number of patients with MF-LCT. We identified patients with MF-LCT treated between 1991 and 2012 at a referral centre for cutaneous lymphoma. Clinical and pathological records, and histopathological slides were reviewed. Associations of clinicopathological variables with disease-specific survival were analysed. In 51 patients with MF-LCT, factors significantly associated with shorter survival were: age >60 years (25 versus 61 months, p = 0.01), stage III/IV (25 versus 44 months, p = 0.049), high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; 24 versus 53 months, p = 0.007), absent papillary dermal involvement (8 versus 30 months, p = 0.008); follicular mucin at transformation (24 versus 42 months, p = 0.007); and the absence of fibrosis at transformation (21 versus 42 months, p = 0.03). Patients presenting with transformation at diagnosis had better survival than those who started with a small cell phenotype (p = 0.02). Age >60 years was independently associated with poorer survival (HR 5.61, 95%CI 1.17–26.8, p = 0.03), and the presence of fibrosis at transformation was independently associated with improved survival (HR 0.30, 95%CI 0.09–0.97, p = 0.045). In patients with MF-LCT, clinical features (age, stage, serum LDH) are important in assessing prognosis. Additional clinical and pathological features identified in this study may also assist in prognostic stratification. Studies of larger cohorts should be performed to validate the prognostic significance of these features. PMID:25393251

  5. Intussusception of small intestine due to metastasis of large cell carcinoma of the lung with a rhabdoid phenotype.

    PubMed

    Otera, H; Ikeda, F; Nakagawa, S; Kono, Y; Sakurai, T; Tada, K; Hashimoto, K; Ikeda, A

    2010-09-01

    Large cell carcinoma of the lung with a rhabdoid phenotype is a rare type of lung cancer, and does not commonly metastasize to the small intestine. Herein we describe a 63-yr-old Japanese male with ileus resulting from small intestinal metastasis from lung cancer. Tumour enlargement was rapid and could not be treated with chemotherapy.

  6. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase is Dynamically Expressed on Subsets of Motor Neurons and in the Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Shawn P.; Clary, Douglas O.; Copié, Valérie; Lefcort, Frances

    2008-01-01

    During embryonic development, complex events such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival, and guidance of axons are orchestrated and regulated by a variety of extracellular signals. Receptor tyrosine kinases mediate many of these events with several playing critical roles in neuronal survival and axonal guidance. It is evident that not all the receptor tyrosine kinases that play key roles in regulating neuronal development have been identified. In this study, we have characterized the spatial-temporal expression profile of a recently identified receptor tyrosine kinase, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), in embryonic chick by means of whole mount in situ hybridization in conjunction with immunohistochemistry. Our findings reveal that Alk is expressed in sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia as early as stage 19. In addition, mRNA is expressed from stage 23/24 (E4) until stage 39 (E13) in discrete motor neuron subsets of chick spinal cord along with a select group of muscles that are innervated by one of these particular motor neuron clusters. Interestingly, expression within the spinal cord is coincident with the onset and duration of motor neuron programmed cell death and during the period of musculature innervation and synapse formation. Hence, the data presented here identify ALK as a novel candidate receptor for regulating critical events in the development of neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous system. PMID:16435287

  7. Dysphasia and Phantosmia as First Presentation of Multifocal Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytomas: Case Report and Review of the Literatures

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shuai; Lu, Zhaohui; Wu, Huanwen; Mao, Xinxin; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jun; Guan, Jian; Yang, Yi; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Multifocal cerebral gliomas (MCGs) represent approximately 10% of gliomas and are frequently mistaken as metastases of an unknown primary cancer site. Most MCGs are glioblastomas with <4 lesions supratentorially, and are lack of typical symptoms and special detections. Through a rare MCG case, we aim to present this rarity and emphasize the need to correctly diagnose multiple intracranial lesions using a variety of diagnostic modalities to ensure that the patient receives proper treatment. We present a case of multifocal cerebral anaplastic astrocytomas with a total of 8 lesions located in the left frontal lobe and invading the lateral ventricle, presenting with dysphasia and phantosmia. The disease course, including diagnosis and treatment, is presented and analyzed in detail. The pertinent literature is reviewed regarding this uncommon entity. After an initial impression of brain metastasis from lung cancer because of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) resemblance and history of chronic bronchitis, we were able to use positron emission tomography (PET) and excisional biopsy to get the final diagnosis. After 10 months, the patient's overall condition deteriorated and succumbed to his disease. MCGs are easy to be misdiagnosed as metastatic diseases. In addition to MRI, PET adds more biochemical and molecular information and is helpful in the differentiation. Although uncommon, if multiple lesions are present in various locations in the hemispheres, MCG should be kept in mind. PMID:25997068

  8. Dysphasia and phantosmia as first presentation of multifocal cerebral anaplastic astrocytomas: case report and review of the literatures.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shuai; Lu, Zhaohui; Wu, Huanwen; Mao, Xinxin; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jun; Guan, Jian; Yang, Yi; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi

    2015-05-01

    Multifocal cerebral gliomas (MCGs) represent approximately 10% of gliomas and are frequently mistaken as metastases of an unknown primary cancer site. Most MCGs are glioblastomas with <4 lesions supratentorially, and are lack of typical symptoms and special detections.Through a rare MCG case, we aim to present this rarity and emphasize the need to correctly diagnose multiple intracranial lesions using a variety of diagnostic modalities to ensure that the patient receives proper treatment.We present a case of multifocal cerebral anaplastic astrocytomas with a total of 8 lesions located in the left frontal lobe and invading the lateral ventricle, presenting with dysphasia and phantosmia. The disease course, including diagnosis and treatment, is presented and analyzed in detail. The pertinent literature is reviewed regarding this uncommon entity.After an initial impression of brain metastasis from lung cancer because of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) resemblance and history of chronic bronchitis, we were able to use positron emission tomography (PET) and excisional biopsy to get the final diagnosis. After 10 months, the patient's overall condition deteriorated and succumbed to his disease.MCGs are easy to be misdiagnosed as metastatic diseases. In addition to MRI, PET adds more biochemical and molecular information and is helpful in the differentiation. Although uncommon, if multiple lesions are present in various locations in the hemispheres, MCG should be kept in mind. PMID:25997068

  9. Immediate disappearance of hemifacial spasm after partial removal of ponto-medullary junction anaplastic astrocytoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, Melina; Broggi, Morgan; Cordella, Roberto; Acerbi, Francesco; Ferroli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is generally caused by a neurovascular conflict (NC) at the root exit zone (REZ) of the facial nerve at the brainstem. Although a direct compression to the seventh cranial nerve (CN) by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is generally the most frequent cause, secondary HFS may be related to other pathological conditions. HFS due to an intracranial mass lesion is exceptionally rare and it has been reported in very few cases. The online database was searched for English-language articles reporting cases of HFS due to brainstem mass lesions and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in its genesis. A 47-year-old man affected by an anaplastic astrocytoma of the brainstem at the level of the ponto-medullary junction developed right HFS. He underwent a subtotal surgical removal of the tumor with complete resolution of the HFS. This is the ninth reported case of HFS caused by an intrinsic brainstem tumor. The exceptional rarity of the relationship between intra-axial tumors and peripheral HFS was analyzed. PMID:25382264

  10. Activation and inhibition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase receptor tyrosine kinase by monoclonal antibodies and absence of agonist activity of pleiotrophin.

    PubMed

    Moog-Lutz, Christel; Degoutin, Joffrey; Gouzi, Jean Y; Frobert, Yvelyne; Brunet-de Carvalho, Nicole; Bureau, Jocelyne; Créminon, Christophe; Vigny, Marc

    2005-07-15

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is transiently expressed in specific regions of the central and peripheral nervous systems, suggesting a role in its normal development and function. The nature of the cognate ligands of ALK in vertebrate is still a matter of debate. We produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the extracellular domain of the human receptor. Two major species of ALK (220 and 140 kDa) were identified in transfected cells, and the use of our mAbs established that the 140-kDa species results from a cleavage of the 220-kDa form. Two mAbs, in the nm range, induced the differentiation of PC12 cells transiently transfected with ALK. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing ALK, these two mAbs strongly activated the receptor and subsequently the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We further showed for the first time that activation of ALK also resulted in a specific activation of STAT3. In contrast, other mAbs presented the characteristics of blocking antibodies. Finally, in these cell systems, a mitogenic form of pleiotrophin, a proposed ligand of ALK, failed to activate this receptor. Thus, in the absence of clearly established ligand(s) in vertebrates, the availability of mAbs allowing the activation or the inhibition of the receptor will be essential for a better understanding of the biological roles of ALK.

  11. Allelic loss of 9p21.3 is a prognostic factor in 1p/19q codeleted anaplastic gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Alentorn, Agustí; Dehais, Caroline; Ducray, François; Carpentier, Catherine; Mokhtari, Karima; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Chinot, Olivier; Cohen-Moyal, Elisabeth; Ramirez, Carole; Loiseau, Hugues; Elouahdani-Hamdi, Selma; Beauchesne, Patrick; Langlois, Olivier; Desenclos, Christine; Guillamo, Jean-Sébastien; Dam-Hieu, Phong; Ghiringhelli, François; Colin, Philippe; Godard, Joel; Parker, Fabrice; Dhermain, Frédéric; Carpentier, Antoine F.; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Menei, Philippe; Bauchet, Luc; Faillot, Thierry; Fesneau, Mélanie; Fontaine, Denys; Motuo-Fotso, Marie-Jeannette; Vauleon, Elodie; Gaultier, Claude; Le Guerinel, Caroline; Gueye, Edouard-Marcel; Noel, Georges; Desse, Nicolas; Durando, Xavier; Barrascout, Eduardo; Wager, Michel; Ricard, Damien; Carpiuc, Ioana; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to study the potential clinical relevance of 9p allelic loss, with or without copy number variation, in 1p/19q codeleted anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors (AOTs). Methods: This study enrolled 216 patients with 1p/19q codeleted AOT. The prognostic value of 9p allelic loss was investigated using a French nation-wide prospective registry, POLA (prise en charge des tumeurs oligodendrogliales anaplasiques) and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. We validated our results using the Repository of Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) dataset. Results: The minimal common region of allelic loss in chromosome arm 9p was 9p21.3. Allelic loss of 9p21.3, detected in 41.7% of tumors, was associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival rates in univariate (p = 0.008 and p < 0.001, respectively) and multivariate analyses (p = 0.009 and p = 0.009, respectively). This finding was validated in the REMBRANDT dataset in univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Our study highlights a novel potential prognostic biomarker in 1p/19q codeleted AOT. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate our finding. PMID:26385879

  12. miR-4295 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma via CDKN1A

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Mingchen; Geng, Yiwei; Lu, Peng; Xi, Ying; Wei, Sidong; Wang, Liuxing; Fan, Qingxia; Ma, Wang

    2015-09-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), has remained elusive. Here, we identified that miR-4295 promotes ATC cell proliferation by negatively regulates its target gene CDKN1A. In ATC cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-4295, while miR-4295 inhibitor significantly inhibited the cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-4295 mimics significantly promoted the migration and invasion of ATC cells, whereas miR-4295 inhibitors significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-4295 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of CDKN1A, and western blotting showed that miR-4295 suppressed the expression of CDKN1A at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A and promotes proliferation and invasion of ATC cell lines. Thus, miR-4295 may represent a potential therapeutic target for ATC intervention. - Highlights: • miR-4295 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 targets 3′UTR of CDKN1A in ATC cells. • miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A in ATC cells.

  13. Primary CNS T-cell Lymphomas: A Clinical, Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Analysis.

    PubMed

    Menon, Madhu P; Nicolae, Alina; Meeker, Hillary; Raffeld, Mark; Xi, Liqiang; Jegalian, Armin G; Miller, Douglas C; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas are relatively rare with the most common subtype being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Primary CNS T-cell lymphomas (PCNSTL) account for <5% of CNS lymphomas. We report the clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular characteristics of 18 PCNSTLs. Fifteen cases were classified as peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, 2 of which were of γδ T-cell derivation and 1 was TCR silent; there was 1 anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive and 2 anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-negative. Median age was 58.5 years (range, 21 to 81 y), with an M:F ratio of 11:7. Imaging results showed that 15 patients had supratentorial lesions. Regardless of subtype, necrosis and perivascular cuffing of tumor cells were frequently observed (11/18 cases). CD3 was positive in all cases but 1; 10/17 were CD8-positive, and 5/17 were CD4-positive. Most cases studied had a cytotoxic phenotype with expression of TIA1 (13/15) and granzyme-B (9/13). Polymerase chain reaction analysis of T-cell receptor γ rearrangement confirmed a T-cell clone in 14 cases with adequate DNA quality. Next-generation sequencing showed somatic mutations in 36% of cases studied; 2 had >1 mutation, and none showed overlapping mutations. These included mutations in DNMT3A, KRAS, JAK3, STAT3, STAT5B, GNB1, and TET2 genes, genes implicated previously in other T-cell neoplasms. The outcome was heterogenous; 2 patients are alive without disease, 4 are alive with disease, and 6 died of disease. In conclusion, PCNSTLs are histologically and genomically heterogenous with frequent phenotypic aberrancy and a cytotoxic phenotype in most cases. PMID:26379152

  14. Detection of novel and potentially actionable anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement in colorectal adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry screening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Kim, Sun Young; Jang, Jiryeon; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Ho Yeong; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Young Suk; Lee, Jiyun; Lee, Woo Yong; Park, Yoon Ah; Huh, Jung Wook; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Do, In-Gu; Kim, Seok Hyung; Balasubramanian, Sohail; Stephens, Philip J.; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Li, Gang Gary; Hornby, Zachary; Ali, Siraj M.; Miller, Vincent A.; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement has been detected in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) using advanced molecular diagnostics tests including exon scanning, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and next generation sequencing (NGS). We investigated if immunohistochemistry (IHC) can be used to detect ALK rearrangement in gastrointestinal malignancies. Experimental designs Tissue microarrays (TMAs) from consecutive gastric carcinoma (GC) and CRC patients who underwent surgical resection at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea were screened by IHC using ALK monoclonal antibody 5A4. IHC positive cases were confirmed by FISH, nCounter assays, and NGS-based comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP). ALK IHC was further applied to CRC patients enrolled in a pathway-directed therapeutic trial. Results Four hundred thirty-two GC and 172 CRC cases were screened by IHC. No GC sample was ALK IHC positive. One CRC (0.6%) was ALK IHC positive (3+) that was confirmed by ALK FISH and a novel CAD-ALK (C35; A20) fusion variant that resulted from a paracentric inversion event inv(2)(p22–21p23) was identified by CGP. One out of 50 CRC patients enrolled in a pathway-directed therapeutic trial was ALK IHC positive (3+) confirmed by ALK FISH and found to harbor the EML4-ALK (E21, A20) fusion variant by CGP. Growth of a tumor cell line derived from this EML4-ALK CRC patient was inhibited by ALK inhibitors crizotinib and entrectinib. Conclusions ALK IHC is a viable screening strategy for identifying ALK rearrangement in CRC. ALK rearrangement is a potential actionable driver mutation in CRC based on survival inhibition of patient tumor-derived cell line by potent ALK inhibitors. PMID:26172300

  15. Aberrant Lipid Metabolism in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Reveals Stearoyl CoA Desaturase 1 as a Novel Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    von Roemeling, Christina A.; Marlow, Laura A.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Crist, Angela; Miller, James; Tun, Han W.; Smallridge, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Currently there are no efficacious therapies for patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) that result in long-term disease stabilization or regression. Objective: We sought to identify pathways critical for ATC cell progression and viability in an effort to develop new therapeutic strategies. We investigated the effects of targeted inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a constituent of fatty acid metabolism overexpressed in ATC. Design: A gene array of ATC and normal thyroid tissue was performed to identify gene transcripts demonstrating altered expression in tumor samples. Effects of pharmacological and the genetic inhibition of SCD1 on tumor cell viability as well as cell signaling responses to therapy were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models of this rare, lethal malignancy. Results: The gene array analysis revealed consistent distortion of fatty acid metabolism and overexpression of SCD1 in ATC and well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. SCD1 is critical for ATC cell survival and proliferation, the inhibition of which induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, activation of the unfolded protein response, and apoptosis. Combined suppression of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, a prosurvival component of the unfolded protein response, using proteasome inhibitors resulted in a synergistic decrease in tumor cell proliferation and increased cell death. Conclusions: SCD1 is a novel oncogenic factor specifically required for tumor cell viability in ATC. Furthermore, the expression of SCD1 appears to be correlated with thyroid tumor aggressiveness and may serve as a prognostic biomarker. These findings substantiate SCD1 as a novel tumor-specific target for therapy in patients with ATC and should be further investigated in a clinical setting. PMID:25675381

  16. p21 participates in the regulation of anaplastic thyroid cancer cell proliferation by miR-146b

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyang; Chen, Yangjing; Bai, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) originates from completely undifferentiated cells, and is the most lethal type of thyroid-derived tumor. Numerous microRNAs have significant roles in tumorigenesis by targeting relevant genes. The role of microRNA 146b (miR-146b) in ATC remains to be elucidated. In order to characterize the role of miR-146b in ATC, overexpression or interference of miR-146b was induced in ATC cell lines, and cell proliferation and migration were evaluated. The potential targets of miR-146b were searched in the Gene Expression Omnibus database for ATC and matched non-tumor control samples. The expression level of potential targets was detected following overexpression or interference of miR-146b in ATC cell lines. In the present study, cell proliferation was promoted when overexpression of miR-146b was induced in ATC, and inhibited when interference of miR-146b was induced, which indicated that miR-146b affects the proliferation of ATC cells in vitro. In addition, cell migration of ATC was also affected by miR-146b. During the search for potential targets of miR-146b in ATC, p21 (also known as p21Waf1/Cip1 or CDKN1A) was noted for its role in cell cycle progression and tumor pathogenesis. The expression level of p21 was influenced by the level of miR-146b, and the results of the present study demonstrated that the level of p21 was increased when FRO cells were transformed with miR-146b mimic, and p21 was downregulated when FRO cells transformed with anti-miR-146b. In conclusion, p21 may participate in the regulation of ATC cell proliferation by miR-146b. PMID:27602131

  17. A study of loss of heterozygosity at 70 loci in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme with implications for tumor evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, E. C.; Fults, D.; Duggirala, R.; Williams, K.; Kyritsis, A. P.; Bondy, M. L.; Levin, V. A.; O'Connell, P.

    1999-01-01

    Cancers that arise from astrocytes in the adult CNS present as either anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) or as more aggressive glioblastomas multiforme (GBMs). GBMs either form de novo or progress from AAs. We proposed to examine the molecular genetic relationship between these CNS tumors by conducting a genome-wide allelic imbalance analysis that included 70 loci on examples of AA and GBM. We found significant loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 13 discrete chromosomal loci in both AAs and GBMs. Loss was significant in both AAs and GBMs at 9 of these loci. AAs show the highest rates of LOH at chromosomes 1p, 4q, 6p, 9p, 11p, 11q, 13q, 14q, 15p, 17p, 17q, and 19q. GBMs showed the greatest losses at 1p, 6q, 8p, 9p, 10p, 10q, 11p, 13q, 17p, 17q, 18p, 18q, and 19q. GBMs also demonstrated significant amplification at the epidermal growth factor receptor locus (7p12). These data suggest that there are three classes of loci involved in glioma evolution. First are loci that are likely involved in early events in the evolution of both AAs and GBMs. The second class consists of AA-specific loci, typified by higher LOH frequency than observed in GBMs (4q, 6p, 17p, 17q, 19q). The third class consists of GBM-specific loci (6q, 8p, 10, 18q). Damage at these loci may either lead to de novo GBMs or permit existing AAs to progress to GBMs. Glioma-related LOH profiles may have prognostic implications that could lead to better diagnosis and treatment of brain cancer patients. PMID:11550311

  18. Identification of high versus lower risk clinical subgroups in a group of adult patients with supratentorial anaplastic astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Decaestecker, C; Salmon, I; Camby, I; Dewitte, O; Pasteels, J L; Brotchi, J; Van Ham, P; Kiss, R

    1995-05-01

    The present work investigates whether computer-assisted techniques can contribute any significant information to the characterization of astrocytic tumor aggressiveness. Two complementary computer-assisted methods were used. The first method made use of the digital image analysis of Feulgen-stained nuclei, making it possible to compute 15 morphonuclear and 8 nuclear DNA content-related (ploidy level) parameters. The second method enabled the most discriminatory parameters to be determined. This second method is the Decision Tree technique, which forms part of the Supervised Learning Algorithms. These two techniques were applied to a series of 250 supratentorial astrocytic tumors of the adult. This series included 39 low-grade (astrocytomas, AST) and 211 high-grade (47 anaplastic astrocytomas, ANA, and 164 glioblastomas, GBM) astrocytic tumors. The results show that some AST, ANA and GBM did not fit within simple logical rules. These "complex" cases were labeled NC-AST, NC-ANA and NC-GBM because they were "non-classical" (NC) with respect to their cytological features. An analysis of survival data revealed that the patients with NC-GBM had the same survival period as patients with GBM. In sharp contrast, patients with ANA survived significantly longer than patients with NC-ANA. In fact, the patients with ANA had the same survival period as patients who died from AST, while the patients with NC-ANA had a survival period similar to those with GBM. All these data show that the computer-assisted techniques used in this study can actually provide the pathologist with significant information on the characterization of astrocytic tumor aggressiveness. PMID:7745436

  19. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Gregory N.; Weickhardt, Andrew J.; Scheier, Benjamin; Doebele, Robert C.; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Camidge, D. Ross

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival.

  20. Long-term stabilization by radiosurgery of a secondary focal anaplastic transformation in a surgically treated WHO grade II oligodendroglioma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Y N; Rodriguez-Arribas, M-A; Duffau, H

    2015-02-01

    We report on a young woman with a left temporal diffuse low-grade glioma treated initially by a subtotal resection. A focal anaplastic area appeared 5years later and was treated by radiosurgery. A long-time stabilization was therefore obtained and lasted even after pregnancy, which is a known factor of faster tumour progression. This report shows that radiosurgery could be an option in the multimodal treatment of a selected group of patients with focal malignant transformation of diffuse low-grade glioma. It could permit long-term stabilization of the tumour without any other adjuvant treatment and without compromising the quality of life.

  1. Use of molecular studies for treatment of metastatic pleomorphic large cell pancreatic cancers-a novel strategy.

    PubMed

    Padhi, Parikshit; Narula, Arshjyot; Balog, Anna; Christou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    Pleomorphic large cell pancreatic cancer is a rare and more aggressive variant with no proven treatment in the metastatic setting. It constitutes about 1% of the total pancreatic cancer cases. In the absence of any standard of care, we aim to increase awareness amongst clinical practitioners that molecular level testing, using immunohistochemistry, next-generation sequencing and chromogenic in-situ hybridization can help in making chemotherapeutic decisions for this variant of pancreatic cancer. We present a 50-year-old male who presented to our hospital complaining of persistent abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a pancreatic tail mass that was invading the splenic flexure causing high-grade obstruction. There was evidence of peritoneal studding. He underwent exploratory laparotomy with biopsy of the pancreatic mass and omentum which revealed metastatic undifferentiated pleomorphic large cell pancreatic cancer. Since there is no proven treatment for this particular entity, his specimen was sent for molecular testing. The molecular studies revealed positive mutations of TLE3 gene, EGFR, KRAS, PD1 gene, TP53 and TOP2A gene. The tumor was found to be sensitive to gemcitabine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, temozolamide, dacarbazine and doxorubicin. He was initiated on gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel. The patient was treated based on these recommendations. The patient completed 5 cycles of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel. Treatment had to be held because of gemcitabine induced hemolytic uremic syndrome. Serial CT scans have shown stable disease and currently it has been 10 months since his diagnosis. Molecular level testing can be an important instrument in not only diagnosing but also be an important aid in deciding about the chemotherapeutic agents to be used in cases of metastatic pleomorphic large cell pancreatic cancer. Availability a knowledge of the novel tools like immunohistochemistry, next-generation sequencing and chromogenic in-situ hybridization can be prudent and

  2. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples.

    PubMed

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375.

  3. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples

    PubMed Central

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375. PMID:27054153

  4. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples.

    PubMed

    Tanca, Alessandro; Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Abbondio, Marcello; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Eccher, Albino; Rindi, Guido; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Uzzau, Sergio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs). Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375. PMID:27054153

  5. Rearranged Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Gene in Adult-Onset Papillary Thyroid Cancer Amongst Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously noted that among atomic bomb survivors (ABS), the relative frequency of cases of adult papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC) was significantly greater in those with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. In contrast, the frequency of PTC cases with point mutations (mainly BRAFV600E) was significantly lower in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. We also found that among ABS, the frequency of PTC cases with no detectable gene alterations in RET, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1), BRAF, or RAS was significantly higher in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. However, in ABS with PTC, the relationship between the presence of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fused with other gene partners and radiation exposure has received little study. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the relative frequency of rearranged ALK in ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, would be greater in those having relatively higher radiation exposures. Methods The 105 subjects in the study were drawn from the Life Span Study cohort of ABS of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were diagnosed with PTC between 1956 and 1993. Seventy-nine were exposed (>0 mGy), and 26 were not exposed to A-bomb radiation. In the 25 ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, we examined archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PTC specimens for rearrangement of ALK using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′ RACE). Results We found rearranged ALK in 10 of 19 radiation-exposed PTC cases, but none among 6 patients with PTC with no radiation exposure. In addition, solid/trabecular-like architecture in PTC was closely associated with ALK

  6. Fusion tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK Deregulates MSH2 and suppresses DNA mismatch repair function novel insights into a potent oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Young, Leah C; Bone, Kathleen M; Wang, Peng; Wu, Fang; Adam, Benjamin A; Hegazy, Samar; Gelebart, Pascal; Holovati, Jelena; Li, Liang; Andrew, Susan E; Lai, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    The fusion tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK is central to the pathogenesis of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK(+)ALCL). We recently identified that MSH2, a key DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein integral to the suppression of tumorigenesis, is an NPM-ALK-interacting protein. In this study, we found in vitro evidence that enforced expression of NPM-ALK in HEK293 cells suppressed MMR function. Correlating with these findings, six of nine ALK(+)ALCL tumors displayed evidence of microsatellite instability, as opposed to none of the eight normal DNA control samples (P = 0.007, Student's t-test). Using co-immunoprecipitation, we found that increasing levels of NPM-ALK expression in HEK293 cells resulted in decreased levels of MSH6 bound to MSH2, whereas MSH2·NPM-ALK binding was increased. The NPM-ALK·MSH2 interaction was dependent on the activation/autophosphorylation of NPM-ALK, and the Y191 residue of NPM-ALK was a crucial site for this interaction and NPM-ALK-mediated MMR suppression. MSH2 was found to be tyrosine phosphorylated in the presence of NPM-ALK. Finally, NPM-ALK impeded the expected DNA damage-induced translocation of MSH2 out of the cytoplasm. To conclude, our data support a model in which the suppression of MMR by NPM-ALK is attributed to its ability to interfere with normal MSH2 biochemistry and function.

  7. ALK-rearrangements and testing methods in non-small cell lung cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, Rodney E.; Vora, Moiz; Mayhall, Kim; Cotelingam, James

    2014-01-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma tyrosine kinase (ALK) gene was first described as a driver mutation in anaplastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Dysregulated ALK expression is now an identified driver mutation in nearly twenty different human malignancies, including 4-9% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). The tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib is more effective than standard chemotherapeutic agents in treating ALK positive NSCLC, making molecular diagnostic testing for dysregulated ALK expression a necessary step in identifying optimal treatment modalities. Here we review ALKmediated signal transduction pathways and compare the molecular protocols used to identify dysregulated ALK expression in NSCLC. We also discuss the use of crizotinib and second generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of ALK positive NSCLC, and the known mechanisms of crizotinib resistance in NSCLC. PMID:24955213

  8. High-resolution genomic profiling reveals clonal evolution and competition in gastrointestinal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and its large cell variant.

    PubMed

    Flossbach, Lucia; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Mattfeldt, Torsten; Buck, Michaela; Lanz, Karin; Held, Michael; Möller, Peter; Barth, Thomas F E

    2013-02-01

    We studied marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract including seven small cell lymphomas, eight large cell areas of composite lymphomas and 13 large cell variants using SNP array profiling. We found an increase of genomic complexity with lymphoma progression from small to large cytology, and identified gains of prominent (proto) oncogenes such as REL, BCL11A, ETS1, PTPN1, PTEN and KRAS which were found exclusively in the large cell variants. Copy numbers of ADAM3A, SCAPER and SIRPB1 were varying between the three different modes of presentation, hence suggestive for aberrations associated with progression from small to large cell lymphoma. The number of aberrations was slightly higher in the large cell part of composite lymphomas than in large cell lymphomas, suggesting that clonal selection takes place and that composite lymphomas are in a transition state. To further investigate this, we comparatively analyzed samples of two morphologically different regions of the same small cell tumor with a BIRC3-MALT1 translocation, as well as material acquired at two different time points from one composite lymphoma. We found genomic heterogeneity in both cases, supporting the theory of competing subclones in the evolution and progression of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma.

  9. [Morpho-functional status of large-cell hypothalamic nuclei following chronic exposure to wide-range electromagnetic impulses].

    PubMed

    Popov, S S; Dolzhanov, A Ia; Zuev, V G

    2001-01-01

    In a experiment with white nubilous male rats the morphofuntional state of secretory neurons (SN) of the large-cell hypothalamic nuclei (LCHN) was evaluated with the morphological, morphometric and statistical methods following electromagnetic exposure (500, 100 and 50 impulses once a week) inducing in the animal body the averaged current densities of 1.5 kA/m2. It was stated that 100 EMI a week called forth opposite LCHN reactions, that is suppression of synthesis and elimination of SN neuro-secret in supraoptic nuclei and their activation in the paraventricular nuclei. LCHN reaction to the other frequencies of EM impulses was uniform and included rearrangement of both neurosecretory centers for a lower functional activity. Decrease in the number of effectively functioning SN due to the EM exposure may point to a dead-aptive effect of this factor.

  10. O-GlcNAcylation enhances the invasion of thyroid anaplastic cancer cells partially by PI3K/Akt1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chunli; Ma, Tao; You, Shengyi

    2015-01-01

    Background The PI3K family participates in multiple signaling pathways to regulate cellular functions. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays an important role in tumorigenesis and development. O-GlcNAcylation, a posttranslational modification, is thought to modulate a wide range of biological processes, such as transcription, cell growth, signal transduction, and cell motility. O-GlcNAcylation is catalyzed by the nucleocytoplasmic enzymes, OGT and OGA, which adds or removes O-GlcNAc moieties, respectively. Abnormal O-GlcNAcylation has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. However, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer is still under-investigated. Understanding the O-GlcNAc-associated molecular mechanism might be significant for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Methods Human thyroid anaplastic cancer 8305C cells were used to evaluate the role of O-GlcNAcylation in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer. The global O-GlcNAc level of intracellular proteins was up-regulated by OGA inhibitor Thiamet-G treatment or OGT over-expression. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Invasion in vitro was determined by Transwell assay, and phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473 was assessed by Western blot for activity of Akt1. PI3K-specific inhibitor LY294002 and RNA interference of Akt1 were used to investigate the impact of PI3K/Akt signaling on the regulation of O-GlcNAcylation during tumor progression. Results Cell models with remarkably up-regulated O-GlcNAcylation were constructed, and then cell proliferation and invasion were determined. The results indicated that the proliferation was not affected by OGA inhibition or OGT overexpression, while the invasion of 8305C cells with OGA inhibition or OGT overexpression was obviously increased. Akt1 activity was stimulated by elevated O-GlcNAcylation by mediating phosphorylation at Ser473. The enhanced invasion of thyroid cancer cells by Thiamet-G treatment or OGT overexpression was

  11. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... may show a tumor growing from the thyroid gland. A thyroid biopsy makes the diagnosis. An examination of the ... be cured by surgery. Complete removal of the thyroid gland does not prolong the lives of people who ...

  12. The pathobiology of the oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK: a brief update.

    PubMed

    Lai, Raymond; Ingham, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Extensive research has been carried out in the past two decades to study the pathobiology of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), which is an oncogenic fusion protein found exclusively in a specific type of T-cell lymphoid malignancy, namely ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Results from these studies have provided highly useful insights into the mechanisms by which a constitutively tyrosine kinase, such as NPM-ALK, promotes tumorigenesis. Several previous publications have comprehensively summarized the advances in this field. In this review, we provide readers with a brief update on specific areas of NPM-ALK pathobiology. In the first part, the NPM-ALK/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling axis is discussed, with an emphasis on the existence of multiple biochemical defects that have been shown to amplify the oncogenic effects of this signaling axis. Specifically, findings regarding JAK3, SHP1 and the stimulatory effects of several cytokines including interleukin (IL)-9, IL-21 and IL-22 are summarized. New concepts stemming from recent observations regarding the functional interactions among the NPM-ALK/STAT3 axis, β catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3β will be postulated. Lastly, new mechanisms by which the NPM-ALK/STAT3 axis promotes tumorigenesis, such as its modulations of Twist1, hypoxia-induced factor 1α, CD274, will be described. In the second part, we summarize recent data generated by mass spectrometry studies of NPM-ALK, and use MSH2 and heat shock proteins as examples to illustrate the use of mass spectrometry data in stimulating new research in this field. In the third part, the evolving field of microRNA in the context of NPM-ALK biology is discussed.

  13. Energy and protein intake and nutritional status in non-surgically treated patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Enig, B; Winther, E; Hessov, I

    1986-01-01

    The spontaneous food intake and nutritional status was assessed in 23 patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung before and two times during a treatment period of 6 weeks. Radiation therapy was given for 2 weeks followed by a course of chemotherapy and another 2 weeks of radiation therapy. The energy intake decreased during the treatment from 146 to 130 per cent of basal metabolic rate (p greater than 0.10). The protein intake remained unchanged (mean 0.9 g/kg body weight). There were insignificant and small losses of weight, body fat, free body mass and arm muscle circumference, and no changes were seen in serum albumin and serum transferrin. However, 6 patients suffered a weight loss of 5 per cent or more. No correlation existed between the nutritional parameters measured before treatment and the changes during treatment. Patients who suffered a loss of body weight could therefore not be singled out before the treatment.

  14. Targeting TGF-β1 inhibits invasion of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell through SMAD2-dependent S100A4-MMP-2/9 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kejun; Liu, Xiaoli; Hao, Fengyun; Dong, Anbing; Chen, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most lethal human malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms of ATC invasion are poorly understood. The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a critical role in promoting tumor metastasis. TGF-β1 was found to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). We therefore tested our hypothesis that targeted down-regulation of TGF-β1 inhibits invasion of ATC cells. Methods: Effects of TGF-β1 stimulation or TGF-β1 sliencing by small interfering RNA (TGF-β1 siRNA) on invasion in 8505C and SW1736 cells in vitro was detected. Using siRNAs and inhibitors to examine the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. Results: TGF-β1 siRNA inhibits cell migration and invasion in vitro, followed by inactivation of pSMAD2, S100A4 and MMP-2/9. TGF-β stimulation activated pSMAD2-dependent S100A4 and MMP-2/9 expression, and increased cell migration and invasion. The depletion of pSMAD2 or S100A4 or MMP-2/9 expression inhibited TGF-β signaling pathway. Moreover, it significantly weakened the proinvasive effects of TGF-β on ATC cells. Conclusions: Therapies targeting the TGF-β1 inhibits invasion of ATC cells by impeding the SMAD2-dependent S100A4-MMP-2/9 signalling in vitro. PMID:27347327

  15. [A case of large cell carcinoma of the lung associated with a sarcoid-like reaction inside the tumor].

    PubMed

    Kudo, Keita; Sakamoto, Susumu; Miyamoto, Atushi; Kono, Tadasu; Motoi, Noriko; Yoshimura, Kunihiko

    2008-11-01

    A sarcoid-like reaction may occur inside a malignant tumor, in regional lymph-nodes or in adjacent tissues. An 83 year-old man who was found to have a mass in his left lower lung field on a chest radiograph. Transbronchial biopsy was performed and a non-caseating granulomatous lesion caused by a possible infectious disease was diagnosed. However, the size of the mass increased after 6 months. The patient was referred to our hospital, and lung biopsy under video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was performed. Since the initial intraoperative pathologic examination showed the presence of non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas, only partial resection was conducted. However, detailed postoperative histopathological evaluation led to a diagnosis of large cell carcinoma of the lung associated with an internal sarcoid-like reaction. The patient then received another VATS for left lower lobectomy. Formation of epithelioid cell granulomas within a tumor is quite rare. In cases in which the pathological findings of TBLB specimens do not agree with the clinical course, more thorough approaches such as biopsy under VATS may be required.

  16. Use of Aromatase Inhibitors in Large Cell Calcifying Sertoli Cell Tumors: Effects on Gynecomastia, Growth Velocity, and Bone Age

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Gourgari, Evgenia; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors (LCCSCT) present in isolation or, especially in children, in association with Carney Complex (CNC) or Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). These tumors overexpress aromatase (CYP19A1), which leads to increased conversion of delta-4-androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. Prepubertal boys may present with growth acceleration, advanced bone age, and gynecomastia. Objective: To investigate the outcomes of aromatase inhibitor therapy (AIT) in prepubertal boys with LCCSCTs. Design: Case series of a very rare tumor and chart review of cases treated at other institutions. Setting: Tertiary care and referral center. Patients: Six boys, five with PJS and one with CNC, were referred to the National Institutes of Health for treatment of LCCSCT. All patients had gynecomastia, testicular enlargement, and advanced bone ages, and were being treated by their referring physicians with AIT. Interventions: Patients were treated for a total of 6–60 months on AIT. Main Outcome Measures: Height, breast tissue mass, and testicular size were all followed; physical examination, scrotal ultrasounds, and bone ages were obtained, and hormonal concentrations and tumor markers were measured. Results: Tumor markers were negative. All patients had decreases in breast tissue while on therapy. Height percentiles declined, and predicted adult height moved closer to midparental height as bone age advancement slowed. Testicular enlargement stabilized until entry into central puberty. Only one patient required unilateral orchiectomy. Conclusions: Patients with LCCSCT benefit from AIT with reduction and/or elimination of gynecomastia and slowing of linear growth and bone age advancement. Further study of long-term outcomes and safety monitoring are needed but these preliminary data suggest that mammoplasty and/or orchiectomy may be foregone in light of the availability of medical therapy. PMID:25226294

  17. Efficacy and patient-reported outcomes with dose-intense temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed pure and mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma: a phase II multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Manmeet S; Xie, Hao; Dahiya, Saurabh; Hashemi-Sadraei, Nooshin; Schiff, David; Fisher, Paul G; Chamberlain, Marc C; Pannullo, Susan; Newton, Herbert B; Brewer, Cathy; Wood, Laura; Prayson, Richard; Elson, Paul; Peereboom, David M

    2015-03-01

    Standard initial therapy for patients with pure and mixed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO/MAO) includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q co-deletion are more responsive to chemotherapy. There is concern for potential long-term CNS toxicity of radiation. Hence an approach using chemotherapy initially and reserving radiation for progressive disease is attractive. This multicenter phase II trial included patients with newly diagnosed AO/MAO with central pathology review and 1p/19q assay. Temozolomide was given 150 mg/m(2) days 1-7 and 15-21, every 28 days for 8 cycles. The primary endpoint was progression free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included response rate, overall survival (OS), treatment toxicity and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Data from 62 patients enrolled between December 2001 and April 2007 at seven centers were analyzed. Among patients with measurable disease, 8 % achieved complete remission, 56 % had stable disease and 36 % had progression. The median PFS and OS were 27.2 months (95 % CI 11.9-36.3) and 105.8 months (95 % CI 51.5-N/A), respectively. Both 1p loss and 1p/19q co-deletion were positive prognostic factors for PFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p < 0.001); and there was some suggestion that 1p/19q co-deletion also predicted better response to chemotherapy (p = 0.007). Grade 3/4 toxicities were mainly hematological. Significantly improved HRQL in the future uncertainty domain of the brain cancer module was seen after cycle 4 (p < 0.001). This trial achieved outcomes similar to those reported previously. Toxicities from dose-intense temozolomide were manageable. Improvement in at least one HRQL domain increased over time. This trial supports the further study of first-line temozolomide monotherapy as an alternative to radiation therapy for patients with newly diagnosed AO/MAO with 1p 19q co-deleted tumors.

  18. Severe acute interstitial lung disease in a patient with anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement-positive non-small cell lung cancer treated with alectinib.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuzo; Okamoto, Isamu; Otsubo, Kohei; Iwama, Eiji; Hamada, Naoki; Harada, Taishi; Takayama, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2015-10-01

    Alectinib, the second generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, has significant potency in patients with ALK rearrangement positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and its toxicity is generally well tolerable. We report a patient who developed severe acute interstitial lung disease after alectinib treatment. An 86-year-old woman with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma positive for rearrangement of ALK gene was treated with alectinib. On the 215th day after initiation of alectinib administration, she was admitted to our hospital with the symptom of progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography (CT) revealed diffuse ground glass opacities and consolidations in both lungs, and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed pronounced lymphocytosis. There was no evidence of infection or other specific causes of her condition, and she was therefore diagnosed with interstitial lung disease induced by alectinib. Her CT findings and respiratory condition improved after steroid pulse therapy. As far as we are aware, this is the first reported case of alectinib-induced severe interstitial lung disease (ILD). We should be aware of the possibility of such a severe adverse event and should therefore carefully monitor patients treated with this drug.

  19. Additive effect by combination of Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, and PDGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin AG 1296, in suppressing anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell viability and motility

    PubMed Central

    Che, Huan-yong; Guo, Hang-yuan; Si, Xu-wei; You, Qiao-ying; Lou, Wei-ying

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway and receptor tyrosine kinases regulate many tumorigenesis related cellular processes including cell metabolism, cell survival, cell motility, and angiogenesis. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare type of thyroid cancer with no effective systemic therapy. It has been shown that Akt activation is associated with tumor progression in ATC. Here we observed the additive effect between an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) and a novel platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor (tyrphostin AG 1296) in ATC therapy. We found an additive effect between MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 in suppressing ATC cell viability. The combination of MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 induces additive apoptosis, additive suppression of the Akt signaling pathway, as well as additive inhibition of cell migration and invasion of ATC cells. Furthermore, the combination of MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 induced additive suppression of ATC tumor growth in vivo. In summary, our studies suggest that the combination of Akt and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be an efficient therapeutic strategy for ATC treatment, which might shed new light on ATC therapy. PMID:24665203

  20. In contrast to agonist monoclonal antibodies, both C-terminal truncated form and full length form of Pleiotrophin failed to activate vertebrate ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)?

    PubMed

    Mathivet, Thomas; Mazot, Pierre; Vigny, Marc

    2007-12-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase essentially and transiently expressed during development in specific regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. ALK expression persists at a lower level in the adult brain. Thus, it might play an important role in both the normal development and function of the nervous system. The nature of the cognate ligand of this receptor in vertebrates is still a matter of debate. Pleiotrophin and midkine have been proposed as ligands of ALK but several independent studies do not confirm this hypothesis. Interestingly, a recent study proposed that a C-terminal truncated form of Pleiotrophin (Pleiotrophin.15) and not the full length form (Pleiotrophin.18) promotes glioblastoma proliferation in an ALK-dependent fashion. These data were obviously a strong basis to conciliate the conflicting results so far reported in the literature. In the present study, we first purified to homogeneity the two forms of Pleiotrophin secreted by HEK 293 cells. In contrast to agonist monoclonal antibodies, both Pleiotrophin.15 and Pleiotrophin.18 failed to activate ALK in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells expressing this receptor. Thus, for our point of view, ALK is still an orphan receptor in vertebrates.

  1. Structural insights into the ATP binding pocket of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase by site-directed mutagenesis, inhibitor binding analysis, and homology modeling.

    PubMed

    Gunby, Rosalind H; Ahmed, Shaheen; Sottocornola, Roberta; Gasser, Marc; Redaelli, Sara; Mologni, Luca; Tartari, Carmen J; Belloni, Valentina; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Scapozza, Leonardo

    2006-09-21

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a valid target for anticancer therapy; however, potent ALK inhibitors suitable for clinical use are lacking. Because the majority of described kinase inhibitors bind in the ATP pocket of the kinase domain, we have characterized this pocket in ALK using site-directed mutagenesis, inhibition studies, and molecular modeling. Mutation of the gatekeeper residue, a key structural determinant influencing inhibitor binding, rendered the fusion protein, NPM/ALK, sensitive to inhibition by SKI-606 in the nanomolar range, while PD173955 inhibited the NPM/ALK mutant at micromolar concentrations. In contrast, both wild type and mutant NPM/ALK were insensitive to imatinib. Computer modeling indicated that docking solutions obtained with a homology model representing the intermediate conformation of the ALK kinase domain reflected closely experimental data. The good agreement between experimental and virtual results indicate that the ALK molecular models described here are useful tools for the rational design of ALK selective inhibitors. In addition, 4-phenylamino-quinoline compounds may have potential as templates for ALK inhibitors. PMID:16970400

  2. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A ceRNA Analysis Pointed to a Crosstalk between SOX2, TP53, and microRNA Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carina, Valeria; Tomasello, Laura; Pitrone, Maria; Baiamonte, Concetta; Amato, Marco Calogero

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that cancer stem cells (CSC) may play a central role in oncogenesis, especially in undifferentiated tumours. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has characteristics suggestive of a tumour enriched in CSC. Previous studies suggested that the stem cell factor SOX2 has a preeminent hierarchical role in determining the characteristics of stem cells in SW1736 ATC cell line. In detail, silencing SOX2 in SW1736 is able to suppress the expression of the stem markers analysed, strongly sensitizing the line to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, in order to further investigate the role of SOX2 in ATC, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) analysis was conducted in order to isolate new functional partners of SOX2. Among the interactors, of particular interest are genes involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs (DICER1, RNASEN, and EIF2C2), in the control cell cycle (TP53, CCND1), and in mitochondrial activity (COX8A). The data suggest that stemness, microRNA biogenesis and functions, p53 regulatory network, cyclin D1, and cell cycle control, together with mitochondrial activity, might be coregulated. PMID:25705224

  3. Valproic Acid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in Combination with Paclitaxel for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Phase II/III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, Mariateresa; Gallo, Marco; Brignardello, Enrico; Milla, Paola; Orlandi, Fabio; Limone, Paolo Piero; Arvat, Emanuela; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe; Piovesan, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) has a median survival less than 5 months and, to date, no effective therapy exists. Taxanes have recently been stated as the main drug treatment for ATC, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid efficiently potentiates the effects of paclitaxel in vitro. Based on these data, this trial assessed the efficacy and safety of the combination of paclitaxel and valproic acid for the treatment of ATC. This was a randomized, controlled phase II/III trial, performed on 25 ATC patients across 5 centers in northwest Italy. The experimental arm received the combination of paclitaxel (80 mg/m2/weekly) and valproic acid (1,000 mg/day); the control arm received paclitaxel alone. Overall survival and disease progression, evaluated in terms of progression-free survival, were the primary outcomes. The secondary outcome was the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. The coadministration of valproic acid did not influence the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. Neither median survival nor median time to progression was statistically different in the two arms. Median survival of operated-on patients was significantly better than that of patients who were not operated on. The present trial demonstrates that the addition of valproic acid to paclitaxel has no effect on overall survival and disease progression of ATC patients. This trial is registered with EudraCT 2008-005221-11. PMID:27766105

  4. Detection of t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in CD30-positive primary cutaneous lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis.

    PubMed Central

    Beylot-Barry, M.; Lamant, L.; Vergier, B.; de Muret, A.; Fraitag, S.; Delord, B.; Dubus, P.; Vaillant, L.; Delaunay, M.; MacGrogan, G.; Beylot, C.; de Mascarel, A.; Delsol, G.; Merlio, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The t(2;5) generates a chimeric NPM-ALK transcript encoded by the nucleophosmin NPM gene fused to the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene ALK. Using a reverse transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction assay we have detected NPM-ALK transcripts within CD30+ primary cutaneous lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis (LP). The t(2;5) was identified in 4 out of 9 CD30+ anaplastic lymphomas and in 1 out of 4 CD30+ pleomorphic lymphomas. Moreover, the t(2;5) was detected in 3 out of 10 LPs. All NPM-ALK-positive lymphomas and 1 NPM-ALK-positive LP exhibited a clonal rearrangement of the T cell receptor gamma-chain gene. The t(2;5) was detected in 2 cases of LP without other evidence for a clonal lymphoid population. To identify cells carrying the t(2;5) translocation, we used immunohistochemistry to detect the ALK-encoded p80 protein and in situ hybridization for the specific detection of NPM-ALK transcripts. Both p80 protein and NPM-ALK transcripts were expressed by anaplastic or large CD30+ lymphoma cells with positive NPM-ALK amplification. The presence of t(2;5) in a subset of CD30+ cutaneous lymphoma and LP may indicate a common pathogenesis with a subset of anaplastic nodal lymphoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8701987

  5. Poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma of the colon with an unusual phenotypic profile mimicking high grade large cell lymphoma – a unique case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Johnny; Coppola, Domenico; Shan, Yuan; Zhang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma (MC) of the colon and rectum is a rare entity, accounting for less than 0.1% of colonic adenocarcinoma that poses a diagnostic challenge for the practicing pathologist. Poorly differentiated or undifferentiated MC with an unusual histological appearance and immunoprofile in addition to heavy lymphoid infiltrate could make it problematic when differentiating it from a high grade lymphoma, in particular anaplastic large B- or T-cell lymphoma, plasmablastic lymphoma, and other undifferentiated neoplasms. Here we reported a unique case of an 81 y/o woman presenting with a 7.0 cm colon mass detected by computed tomography (CT) scan. A partial transverse and ileum resection with appendectomy were performed. Microscopic examination revealed sheets of large, pleomorphic, mitotically-active cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and multiple prominent nucleoli, growing with a pushing border and poor glandular formation in a background of intratumoral lymphocytes. The neoplastic cells were only focally positive for keratins (<10%); diffusely and strongly positive for vimentin and CD10 with high proliferative index (Ki-67, 90%). The tumor cells were also aberrantly positive for CD30, CD79a and CD43 (diffusely or focally), resulting in a diagnostic dilemma between colonic MC and high grade lymphoma. Careful examination and additional immunohistochemical stains performed proved there was no evidence of T or B-cell lymphoma, melanoma, or other types of primary colon or metastatic carcinomas. This case highlights the difficulty in distinguishing a high grade lymphoma and poorly differentiated colonic MC, and, also the aberrant expression of CD10 and a significant loss of pancytokeratin could result in a diagnostic pitfall. PMID:24551312

  6. Mitotic index, microvascular proliferation, and necrosis define 3 groups of 1p/19q codeleted anaplastic oligodendrogliomas associated with different genomic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Mokhtari, Karima; Dehais, Caroline; Jouvet, Anne; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Colin, Carole; Carpentier, Catherine; Forest, Fabien; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Polivka, Marc; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Eimer, Sandrine; Viennet, Gabriel; Quintin-Roué, Isabelle; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Loussouarn, Delphine; Lacroix, Catherine; Rigau, Valérie; Laquerrière, Annie; Vandenbos, Fanny; Michalak, Sophie; Sevestre, Henri; Peoch, Michel; Labrousse, François; Christov, Christo; Kemeny, Jean-Louis; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Chiforeanu, Danchristian; Ducray, François; Idbaih, Ahmed; Desenclos, Christine; Menei, Philippe; Al Nader, Edmond; Godard, Joel; Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie; Carpentier, Antoine; Loiseau, Hugues; Dam-Hieu, Phong; Guillamo, Jean Sebastien; Emery, Evelyne; Verelle, Pierre; Durando, Xavier; Faillot, Thierry; Le Guerinel, Caroline; Ghiringhelli, François; Parker, Fabrice; Adam, Clovis; Dubois, François; Ramirez, Carole; Gueye, Edouard Marcel; Honnorat, Jerome; Chinot, Olivier; Bauchet, Luc; Beauchesne, Patrick; Campone, Mario; Frenel, Jean Sébastien; Fontaine, Denys; Campello, Chantal; Roger, Pascal; Heitzmann, Anne; Fesneau, Mélanie; Delattre, Jean Yves; Elouadhani-Hamdi, Selma; Ricard, Damien; Colin, Philippe; Vauléon, Elodie; Langlois, Olivier; Fotso, Marie Janette Motsuo; Andraud, Marie; Mouton, Servane; Noel, Georges; Desse, Nicolas; Soulard, Raoulin; Cohen-Moyal, Elisabeth; Lubrano, Vincent; Dhermain, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to correlate histological features and molecular characteristics in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs). Methods The histological characteristics of 203 AO patients, enrolled in the French national network POLA, were analyzed. The genomic profiles of 191 cases were studied using genomic arrays. IDH mutational status was assessed by immunohistochemistry and direct sequencing. Results 1p/19q codeletion was present in 79% of cases and was associated with alpha-internexin expression (P < 10−4), IDH1/2 mutation (P < 10−4), chromosome 4 loss (P < 10−3), and better overall survival (P < 10−4). Based on mitotic index, microvascular proliferation (MVP), and necrosis, 3 groups of 1p/19q codeleted AOs were identified: (group 1) AO with more than 5 mitoses per 10-HPF, no MVP, and no necrosis; (group 2) AO with MVP and no necrosis; and (group 3) AO with MVP and necrosis. Compared with group 1, groups 2 and 3 AOs had a higher mean Ki-67 proliferation index and a higher rate of 9p and 9q losses. Compared with group 2, group 3 AOs had a higher number of chromosomal alterations including chromosome 4 loss. In the subgroup of 157 1p/19q codeleted AOs, chromosomal instability was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P = .024) and shorter overall survival (P = .023). Conclusions The present study shows that oligodendrogliomas with classic histological features remain a molecularly heterogeneous entity and should be stratified according to 1p/19q status because of its major prognostic relevance. Moreover, 1p/19q codeleted AOs are also heterogeneous. Interestingly, mitotic index, MVP, and necrosis help to classify them into 3 groups associated with distinct genomic alterations. PMID:24723566

  7. Contrast enhancement in 1p/19q-codeleted anaplastic oligodendrogliomas is associated with 9p loss, genomic instability, and angiogenic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Botero, German; Dehais, Caroline; Idbaih, Ahmed; Martin-Duverneuil, Nadine; Lahutte, Marion; Carpentier, Catherine; Letouzé, Eric; Chinot, Olivier; Loiseau, Hugues; Honnorat, Jerome; Ramirez, Carole; Moyal, Elisabeth; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Ducray, François; Desenclos, Christine; Sevestre, Henri; Menei, Philippe; Michalak, Sophie; Al Nader, Edmond; Godard, Joel; Viennet, Gabriel; Carpentier, Antoine; Eimer, Sandrine; Dam-Hieu, Phong; Quintin-Roué, Isabelle; Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Kemeny, Jean-Louis; Verrelle, Pierre; Faillot, Thierry; Gaultier, Claude; Tortel, Marie Christine; Christov, Christo; Le Guerinel, Caroline; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Ghiringhelli, Francois; Berger, François; Lacroix, Catherine; Parker, Fabrice; Dubois, François; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Gueye, Edouard-Marcel; Labrousse, Francois; Jouvet, Anne; Bauchet, Luc; Rigau, Valérie; Beauchesne, Patrick; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Campone, Mario; Loussouarn, Delphine; Fontaine, Denys; Vandenbos, Fanny; Campello, Chantal; Roger, Pascal; Fesneau, Melanie; Heitzmann, Anne; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Elouadhani, Selma; Mokhtari, Karima; Polivka, Marc; Ricard, Damien; Levillain, Pierre-Marie; Wager, Michel; Colin, Philippe; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Chiforeanu, Dan; Vauleon, Elodie; Langlois, Olivier; Laquerriere, Annie; Motsuo Fotso, Marie Janette; Peoc'h, Michel; Andraud, Marie; Mouton, Servane; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Noel, Georges; Desse, Nicolas; Soulard, Raoulin; Amiel-Benouaich, Alexandra; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Dhermain, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to correlate MRI features and molecular characteristics in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs). Methods The MRI characteristics of 50 AO patients enrolled in the French national network for high-grade oligodendroglial tumors were analyzed. The genomic profiles and IDH mutational statuses were assessed using high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays and direct sequencing, respectively. The gene expression profiles of 25 1p/19q-codeleted AOs were studied on Affymetrix expression arrays. Results Most of the cases were frontal lobe contrast-enhanced tumors (52%), but the radiological presentations of these cases were heterogeneous, ranging from low-grade glioma-like aspects (26%) to glioblastoma-like aspects (22%). The 1p/19q codeletion (n = 39) was associated with locations in the frontal lobe (P = .001), with heterogeneous intratumoral signal intensities (P = .003) and with no or nonmeasurable contrast enhancements (P = .01). The IDH wild-type AOs (n = 7) more frequently displayed ringlike contrast enhancements (P = .03) and were more frequently located outside of the frontal lobe (P = .01). However, no specific imaging pattern could be identified for the 1p/19q-codeleted AO or the IDH-mutated AO. Within the 1p/19q-codeleted AO, the contrast enhancement was associated with larger tumor volumes (P = .001), chromosome 9p loss and CDKN2A loss (P = .006), genomic instability (P = .03), and angiogenesis-related gene expression (P < .001), particularly for vascular endothelial growth factor A and angiopoietin 2. Conclusion In AOs, the 1p/19q codeletion and the IDH mutation are associated with preferential (but not with specific) imaging characteristics. Within 1p/19q-codeleted AO, imaging heterogeneity is related to additional molecular alterations, especially chromosome 9p loss, which is associated with contrast enhancement and larger tumor volume. PMID:24353325

  8. Efficacy of bronchoscopic biopsy for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pei; Pan, Qingqing; Wang, Mengzhao; Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the efficacy of bronchoscopic biopsy for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods All patients with bronchoscopic biopsy-proven lung adenocarcinoma at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to November 2011 were enrolled. Scorpion amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) was used to detect EGFR gene mutations and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect ALK rearrangement. The correlation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) results with standard methods for EGFR mutation status and ALK rearrangement were checked. Results Bronchoscopic specimens were successfully used to detect EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement with success rates of 85.2% and 71.3%, respectively, in non-small cell lung cancer patients. EGFR analysis by ARMS yielded a positive result in 35.8% (33/92) and positive ALK rearrangement was detected by FISH in 7.8% (6/77) of cases. It was more likely to be unsuccessful in patients with tumor cells less than 100/high power field and the ratio tumor numbers in 0–10%. In EGFR-IHC, the sensitivity and specificity of E746-A750 deletions were 73.3% (11/15) and 93.3% (70/75), respectively, and those of L858R were 93.3% (14/15) and 93.2% (69/74), respectively. In ALK-IHC, the sensitivity and specificity were 50% (3/6) and 100% (71/71), respectively. Conclusions Small bronchoscopic specimens could achieve higher successful detection rates via EGFR mutation and ALK gene rearrangement. PMID:26557908

  9. Late intervention with anti-BRAF(V600E) therapy induces tumor regression in an orthotopic mouse model of human anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Nehs, Matthew A; Nucera, Carmelo; Nagarkatti, Sushruta S; Sadow, Peter M; Morales-Garcia, Dieter; Hodin, Richard A; Parangi, Sareh

    2012-02-01

    Human anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a lethal disease with an advanced clinical presentation and median survival of 3 months. The BRAF(V600E) oncoprotein is a potent transforming factor that causes human thyroid cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo; therefore, we sought to target this oncoprotein in a late intervention model of ATC in vivo. We used the human ATC cell line 8505c, which harbors the BRAF(V600E) and TP53(R248G) mutations. Immunocompromised mice were randomized to receive the selective anti-BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, PLX4720, or vehicle by oral gavage 28 d after tumor implantation, 1 wk before all animals typically die due to widespread metastatic lung disease and neck compressive symptoms in this model. Mice were euthanized weekly to evaluate tumor volume and metastases. Control mice showed progressive tumor growth and lung metastases by 35 d after tumor implantation. At that time, all control mice had large tumors, were cachectic, and were euthanized due to their tumor-related weight loss. PLX4720-treated mice, however, showed a significant decrease in tumor volume and lung metastases in addition to a reversal of tumor-related weight loss. Mouse survival was extended to 49 d in PLX4720-treated animals. PLX4720 treatment inhibited cell cycle progression from 28 d to 49 d in vivo. PLX4720 induces striking tumor regression and reversal of cachexia in an in vivo model of advanced thyroid cancer that harbors the BRAF(V600E) mutation.

  10. The tyrosine 343 residue of nucleophosmin (NPM)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is important for its interaction with SHP1, a cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase with tumor suppressor functions.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Samar A; Wang, Peng; Anand, Mona; Ingham, Robert J; Gelebart, Pascal; Lai, Raymond

    2010-06-25

    The cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 has been shown to inhibit the oncogenic fusion protein nucleophosmin (NPM)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and loss of SHP1 contributes to NPM-ALK-mediated tumorigenesis. In this study, we aimed to further understand how SHP1 interacts and regulates NPM-ALK. We employed an in vitro model in which GP293 cells were transfected with various combinations of NPM-ALK (or mutants) and SHP1 (or mutants) expression vectors. We found that SHP1 co-immunoprecipitated with NPM-ALK, but not the enzymatically inactive NPM-ALK(K210R) mutant, or the mutant in which all three functionally important tyrosine residues (namely, Tyr(338), Tyr(342), and Tyr(343)) in the kinase activation loop (KAL) of ALK were mutated. Interestingly, whereas mutation of Tyr(338) or Tyr(342) did not result in any substantial change in the NPM-ALK/SHP1 binding (assessed by co-immunoprecipitation), mutation of Tyr(343) abrogated this interaction. Furthermore, the NPM-ALK/SHP1 binding was readily detectable when each of the remaining 8 tyrosine residues known to be phosphorylated were mutated. Although the expression of SHP1 effectively reduced the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of NPM-ALK, it did not affect that of the NPM-ALK(Y343F) mutant. In soft agar clonogenic assay, SHP1 expression significantly reduced the tumorigenicity of NPM-ALK but not that of NPM-ALK(Y343F). In conclusion, we identified Tyr(343) of NPM-ALK as the crucial site for mediating the NPM-ALK/SHP1 interaction. Our results also support the notion that the tumor suppressor effects of SHP1 on NPM-ALK are dependent on its ability to bind to this oncogenic protein.

  11. Clinical effect of pemetrexed as the first‐line treatment in Chinese patients with advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase‐positive non‐small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Di; Hao, Xuezhi; Wang, Yan; Xing, Puyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of pemetrexed‐based first‐line chemotherapy in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)‐positive non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been demonstrated in several studies; however, there is a lack of data from Chinese populations. Methods The clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of 52 patients with ALK‐positive advanced NSCLC who received pemetrexed as first‐line chemotherapy at the Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were retrospectively reviewed. The primary end points were response rate and progression‐free survival (PFS). Results The gender proportion was balanced and the median age was 51 years (range 26–76). Of the 52 patients, 46 (88.5%) had stage IV disease, predominantly adenocarcinoma (98.1%). Sixteen patients were current/former smokers and 36 were never/light smokers. The most common sites of metastasis were the pleura (36.5%), bone (30.8%), lung (26.9%), and brain (17.3%). The median PFS was 9.5 months (95% confidence interval 7.454–11.536). At the time of analysis, partial remission was achieved in 18 (34.6%) patients, stable disease in 26 (50.0%), and progressive disease in eight (15.4%); none of the patients achieved complete remission. The objective response rate was 34.6% and the disease control rate was 84.6%. Common adverse events with pemetrexed were neutropenia (53.8%), nausea and vomiting (51.9%), leukopenia (32.7%), and fatigue (25.0%), mainly at grades 1 or 2. Conclusions Pemetrexed is efficient and tolerated as first‐line treatment for ALK‐positive NSCLC in a cohort of Chinese patients and may prove to be an alternative option for the treatment of ALK‐positive NSCLC. PMID:27385988

  12. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Debus, Juergen; Deimling, Andreas von; Hartmann, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the

  13. Destaining of Diff-Quik stained cytologic smears is not necessary for the detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weisheng; Khurana, Kamal K; Tull, Jamie; Maciak, Charlene; Zhang, Shengle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is one of the standard molecular tests for targeted therapy of lung adenocarcinoma. However, insufficient cell block cellularity may impede molecular testing. A recent study showed that Diff-Quik (DQ) stained cytology smear is suitable for ALK by FISH. Aims: The aim of our study was to observe the impact of destaining intervals on the quality of FISH signals and determine if DQ smears without destaining would allow FISH analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five DQ smears from 27 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed for ALK gene rearrangement by FISH. Twenty three DQ smears were destained for different intervals, including 30 s (13 cases), 1 min (6 cases), or 2 min (4 cases). Twelve DQ smears were not subjected to destaining. For further validation, FISH signals in 8 smears and 6 cell blocks were compared with the paired destained DQ smears. The signal quality was semi-quantified and analyzed with Chi-squared test. Results: Of the total 27 selected cases, three (11%) were positive for ALK gene rearrangement, whereas 24 (89%) were negative. FISH signal was satisfactory in all DQ smears. There was no significant difference in the quality of signal among smears with different destaining intervals (P = 0.55) or between smears with and without destaining (P = 0.41). DQ smears without destaining showed identical FISH results and similar or better signals as compared with paired destained smears and cell blocks in all cases. Conclusions: Duration of destaining intervals does not impact the quality of FISH signal on DQ smears. Destaining of DQ smears is not necessary for ALK by FISH. PMID:27756989

  14. Altered expression of mir-222 and mir-25 influences diverse gene expression changes in transformed normal and anaplastic thyroid cells, and impacts on MEK and TRAIL protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, Sinéad T.; Smyth, Paul; Freeley, Michael; Smith, Leila; Spillane, Cathy; O'leary, John; Sheils, Orla

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer-related deaths each year. Our group and others have previously demonstrated dysfunctional microRNA (miRNA or miR) expression in the context of thyroid cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of synthetic manipulation of expression of miR-25 and miR-222 in benign and malignant thyroid cells. miR-25 and miR-222 expression was upregulated in 8505C (an anaplastic thyroid cell line) and Nthy-ori (a SV40-immortalised thyroid cell line) cells, respectively. A transcriptomics-based approach was utilised to identify targets of the two miRNAs and real-time PCR and western blotting were used to validate a subset of the targets. Almost 100 mRNAs of diverse functions were found to be either directly or indirectly targeted by both miR-222 and miR-25 [fold change ≥2, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05]. Gene ontology analysis showed the miR-25 gene target list to be significantly enriched for genes involved in cell adhesion. Fluidigm real-time PCR technologies were used to validate the downregulation of 23 and 22 genes in response to miR-25 and miR-222 overexpression, respectively. The reduction of the expression of two miR-25 protein targets, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MEK4), was also validated. Manipulating the expression of both miR-222 and miR-25 influenced diverse gene expression changes in thyroid cells. Increased expression of miR-25 reduced MEK4 and TRAIL protein expression, and cell adhesion and apoptosis are important aspects of miR-25 functioning in thyroid cells. PMID:27353001

  15. The oncolytic virus dl922-947 reduces IL-8/CXCL8 and MCP-1/CCL2 expression and impairs angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vastolo, Viviana; Di Somma, Sarah; Scamardella, Eloise; Gigantino, Vincenzo; Franco, Renato; Marone, Gianni; Portella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human solid tumor and current treatments are ineffective in increasing patients' survival. Thus, the development of new therapeutic approaches for ATC is needed. We have previously shown that the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947 induces ATC cell death in vitro and tumor regression in vivo. However, the impact of dl922-947 on the pro-tumorigenic ATC microenvironment is still unknown. Since viruses are able to regulate cytokine and chemokine production from infected cells, we sought to investigate whether dl922-947 virotherapy has such effect on ATC cells, thereby modulating ATC microenvironment. dl922-947 decreased IL-8/CXCL8 and MCP-1/CCL2 production by the ATC cell lines 8505-c and BHT101-5. These results correlated with dl922-947-mediated reduction of NF-κB p65 binding to IL8 promoter in 8505-c and BHT101-5 cells and CCL2 promoter in 8505-c cells. IL-8 stimulates cancer cell proliferation, survival and invasion, and also angiogenesis. dl922-947-mediated reduction of IL-8 impaired ATC cell motility in vitro and ATC-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We also show that dl922-947-mediated reduction of the monocyte-attracting chemokine CCL2 decreased monocyte chemotaxis in vitro and tumor macrophage density in vivo. Interestingly, dl922-947 treatment induced the switch of tumor macrophages toward a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype, likely by increasing the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ. Altogether, we demonstrate that dl922-947 treatment re-shape the pro-tumorigenic ATC microenvironment by modulating cancer-cell intrinsic factors and the immune response. An in-depth knowledge of dl922-947-mediated effects on ATC microenvironment may help to refine ATC virotherapy in the context of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26625205

  16. Lovastatin inhibits proliferation of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells through up-regulation of p27 by interfering with the Rho/ROCK-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wen-Bin; Hsu, Sung-Po; Ho, Pei-Yin; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chang, Tien-Chun; Lee, Wen-Sen

    2011-12-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that lovastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, induced apoptosis, differentiation, and inhibition of invasiveness of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (ATCs). Here, we further examined the effect of lovastatin on the growth of ARO cells. Lovastatin (0-20μM) concentration-dependently decreased cell number in cultured ATC and arrested the cell at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Western blot analysis revealed that lovastatin caused an increase of the protein level of p27 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 and a decrease of the protein level of cyclin A2, cyclin D3, and phosphorylated Rb (pRb), but did not significantly change the protein levels of p21, cyclins D1 and E, and CDK2, in ARO cells. The formation of the CDK2-p27 complex was increased and the CDK2 activity was decreased in the lovastatin-treated ARO cells. Pretreatment of ARO cells with a p27, but not p21, antisense oligonucleotide prevented the lovastatin-induced G0/G1 arrest in ARO cells. The lovastatin-induced growth inhibition and translocation of RhoA and Rac1 in ARO cells were completely prevented by mevalonate and partially by geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Treatment of ARO cells with Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase, abolished the GGPP-mediated prevention of lovastatin-induced anti-proliferation and up-regulation and prolonged degradation of p27. Taken together, these data suggest that lovastatin treatment caused a reduction of Rho geranylgeranylation, which in turn increased the expression and stability of p27, and then inhibited ARO cell proliferation. These data suggest that lovastatin merits further investigation as multipotent therapy for treatment ATC.

  17. Targeting Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 (TGF-β1) Inhibits Tumorigenesis of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Through ERK1/2-NFκkB-PUMA Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qiang; Liu, Shan; Dong, Anbing; Mi, Xiufang; Hao, Fengyun; Zhang, Kejun

    2016-06-30

    BACKGROUND The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a critical role in promoting tumor growth. TGF-β1was found to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). We therefore tested our hypothesis that targeting TGF-β1 inhibits tumorigenesis of ATC cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS Effects of TGF-β1 stimulation or TGF-β1 inhibition by small interfering RNA (TGF-β1siRNA) on proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro was detected using siRNAs and inhibitors to examine the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. A subcutaneously implanted tumor model of 8505C cells in nude mice was used to assess the effects of TGF-β1 inhibition on tumorigenesis development. RESULTS TGF-β1siRNAs decreased proliferation and colony formation, and increased apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. TGF-β1siRNA inhibited phosphorylation ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and increased p65-dependant PUMA mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of p65 or PUMA by siRNA reduced TGF-β1siRNA-induced apoptosis, as well as caspase-3 and PARP activation. Upregulation of p65 or PUMA expression by TGF-β1siRNA requires pERK1/2 inhibition. TGF-β1 shRNA inhibited tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS Therapies targeting the TGF-β1 pathway may be more effective to prevent primary tumor formation. The ability of this therapy to decrease tumorigenesis may be related to ERK1/2/NF-κB/PUMA signaling.

  18. Cognition and Quality of Life After Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT for Pure and Mixed Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Meihua; Cairncross, Gregory; Shaw, Edward

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9402 compared procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (PCV + RT) vs. RT alone for anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Here we report longitudinal changes in cognition and quality of life, effects of patient factors and treatments on cognition, quality of life and survival, and prognostic implications of cognition and quality of life. Methods and Materials: Cognition was assessed by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and quality of life by Brain-Quality of Life (B-QOL). Scores were analyzed for survivors and within 5 years of death. Shared parameter models evaluated MMSE/B-QOL with survival. Results: For survivors, MMSE and B-QOL scores were similar longitudinally and between treatments. For those who died, MMSE scores remained stable initially, whereas B-QOL slowly declined; both declined rapidly in the last year of life and similarly between arms. In the aggregate, scores decreased over time (p = 0.0413 for MMSE; p = 0.0016 for B-QOL) and were superior with age <50 years (p < 0.001 for MMSE; p = 0.0554 for B-QOL) and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) 80-100 (p < 0.001). Younger age and higher KPS were associated with longer survival. After adjusting for patient factors and drop-out, survival was longer after PCV + RT (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.9, p = 0.0084; HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.01, p = 0.0592) in models with MMSE and B-QOL. In addition, there were no differences in MMSE and B-QOL scores between arms (p = 0.4752 and p = 0.2767, respectively); higher scores predicted longer survival. Conclusion: MMSE and B-QOL scores held steady in the upper range in both arms for survivors. Younger, fitter patients had better MMSE and B-QOL and longer survival.

  19. Targeting Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 (TGF-β1) Inhibits Tumorigenesis of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Through ERK1/2-NFκkB-PUMA Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qiang; Liu, Shan; Dong, Anbing; Mi, Xiufang; Hao, Fengyun; Zhang, Kejun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a critical role in promoting tumor growth. TGF-β1was found to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). We therefore tested our hypothesis that targeting TGF-β1 inhibits tumorigenesis of ATC cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS Effects of TGF-β1 stimulation or TGF-β1 inhibition by small interfering RNA (TGF-β1siRNA) on proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro was detected using siRNAs and inhibitors to examine the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. A subcutaneously implanted tumor model of 8505C cells in nude mice was used to assess the effects of TGF-β1 inhibition on tumorigenesis development. RESULTS TGF-β1siRNAs decreased proliferation and colony formation, and increased apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. TGF-β1siRNA inhibited phosphorylation ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and increased p65-dependant PUMA mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of p65 or PUMA by siRNA reduced TGF-β1siRNA-induced apoptosis, as well as caspase-3 and PARP activation. Upregulation of p65 or PUMA expression by TGF-β1siRNA requires pERK1/2 inhibition. TGF-β1 shRNA inhibited tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS Therapies targeting the TGF-β1 pathway may be more effective to prevent primary tumor formation. The ability of this therapy to decrease tumorigenesis may be related to ERK1/2/NF-κB/PUMA signaling. PMID:27356491

  20. Basal cell (monomorphic) and minimally pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands. Distinction from the solid (anaplastic) type of adenoid cystic carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Stanley, M W; Horwitz, C A; Rollins, S D; Powers, C N; Bardales, R H; Korourain, S; Stern, S J

    1996-07-01

    Cytologic features of the cell-stroma interface are useful in distinguishing between monomorphic adenomas of the basal cell type and adenoid cystic carcinoma. In basal cell adenomas, the collagenous stroma interdigitates with adjacent cells, whereas in adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two are separated by a sharp smooth border. Furthermore, the stroma of basal cell adenomas can contain rare spindle cells or capillaries, but the cylinders of adenoid cystic carcinoma are acellular. The authors review their experience with five cases of basal cell adenoma, and three cases that were designated "minimally pleomorphic adenomas." The latter group showed the small blue cell pattern of basal cell adenoma at the time of fine-needle aspiration, and histology revealed only small foci of typical pleomorphic adenoma. With the exception of one cystic case, the cell-stroma interface of basal cell adenoma was observed in all eight cases. These cases are contrasted with three adenoid cystic carcinomas with extensive solid (anaplastic) areas. All showed the small blue cell pattern and cell-stroma interface features of basal cell adenoma. Neither showed the smooth-bordered cylinders of adenoid cystic carcinoma. Two of these three were incorrectly interpreted as benign at the time of fine-needle aspiration. The authors suggest that the stroma aspirated from solid adenoid cystic carcinoma represents desmoplastic tumor stroma that mimics the pattern of basal cell adenoma in smear material. Distinction between basal cell adenoma and the solid type of adenoid cystic carcinoma at the time of fine-needle aspiration remains a very difficult problem.

  1. Homozygous deletion of TNFRSF4, TP73, PPAP2B and DPYD at 1p and PDCD5 at 19q identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis in pediatric anaplastic glioma with questionable oligodendroglial component

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric oligodendrogliomas are rare and appear to show a different molecular profile from adult tumors. Some gliomas display allelic losses at 1p/19q in pediatric patients, although less frequently than in adult patients, but this is rare in tumors with an oligodendroglial component. The molecular basis of this genomic abnormality is unknown in pediatric gliomas, but it represents a relatively common finding in pediatric oligodendroglioma-like neoplasms with leptomeningeal dissemination. Results Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis using SALSA P088-B1 for the analysis of the 1p/19q allelic constitution in a pediatric anaplastic (oligodendro)-glioma showed homozygous co-deletion for markers: TNFRSF4 (located at 1p36.33), TP73 (1p36.32), PPAP2B (1pter-p22.1), DPYD (1p21.3), and PDCD5 (19q13.12), and hemizygous deletion of BAX (19q13.3-q13.4). No sequence changes for R132 and R172 of the IDH1/2 genes were identified. Conclusions The molecular findings in this pediatric anaplastic glioma do not allow for a clearly definitive pathological diagnosis. However, the findings provide data on a number of 1p/19q genomic regions that, because of homozygotic deletion, might be the location of genes that are important for the development and clinical evolution of some malignant gliomas in children. PMID:24387276

  2. Expanding the spectrum of malignant progression in solitary fibrous tumors: a study of 8 cases with a discrete anaplastic component--is this dedifferentiated SFT?

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2009-09-01

    Dedifferentiation is a well recognized, if sometimes controversial, form of tumor progression in certain types of soft tissue and bone sarcoma, and confers a worse prognosis when compared with the low-grade counterpart. To date, dedifferentiation has not been described in solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Among 948 cases of both intrathoracic and extrathoracic SFTs in our files accessioned between 1988 and 2008, we identified 8 cases of conventional SFT with a discrete anaplastic component, which we believe represents dedifferentiation. These occurred in 3 men and 5 women, 40 to 76 years old (median 60 y), and measured 3.4 to 20.0 cm (median 8.5 cm). Two cases were intrathoracic, 2 were located in the deep soft tissue of thigh, and single cases were located in the omentum, scalp, retroperitoneum, and abdominal wall. In addition to typical features of benign-appearing SFT there was an abrupt transition to nondistinctive high-grade sarcoma in all cases. The latter included epithelioid, round cell, and/or spindle cell components with increased mitotic activity, necrosis, and cystic degeneration. By immunohistochemistry, 7 of 8 cases were CD34 positive in the usual SFT areas, whereas 5 showed loss of CD34 in the poorly differentiated component. Six of 7 cases stained for p53 and p16 showed either negative or scattered positive cells in well-differentiated SFT areas, in contrast to positive or stronger and more diffuse staining in the high-grade component. Follow-up information available in 7 patients ranged from 1 to 58 months (mean 24 mo). Three patients with the largest tumors (9.0, 17.0, and 20.0 cm) died of disease, whereas 3 patients whose tumors measured 8.0 cm or less were treated by surgical excision only, and show no evidence of disease but with only limited follow-up. One patient with an 11.5 cm intrathoracic tumor is alive with disease at 58 months after recurrence and metastasis. We describe, apparently for the first time, what seems, at least in our view, to

  3. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Clinicopathologic Series of 10 Cases With an Emphasis on HPV Status.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elizabeth D; Stelow, Edward B; Mills, Stacey E; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

    2016-04-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm first described in the lung and subsequently well documented in many other anatomic sites. It has only recently been recognized that LCNEC can also occasionally arise in the head and neck. The role of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is associated with some small cell carcinomas of the head and neck, has not been investigated for LCNEC. We sought to further characterize the histologic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features of LCNEC and also investigate the role of HPV in this newly described group of tumors. The surgical pathology archives of 2 large academic institutions were searched for cases of LCNEC arising in the head and neck. p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridization were performed, and clinical information was obtained from electronic medical records. Ten cases of head and neck LCNEC were identified. The tumors arose in 6 men and 4 women ranging in age from 14 to 70 years (median, 63.5 y). The primary tumor sites were the oropharynx (n=4), the sinonasal tract (n=3), and the larynx (n=3). The LCNECs consisted of nests and trabeculae of medium-large cells with abundant cytoplasm, coarse chromatin, and prominent nucleoli with very high mitotic rates. The tumor nests were often associated with necrosis, peripheral palisading, and rosette formations. The LCNECs were positive for pan-cytokeratin and at least 1 neuroendocrine marker (most often synaptophysin) and were largely negative for p63 (focal staining in 2/10) and CK5/6 (staining in 1/10). The LCNECs demonstrated aggressive clinical behavior: 8 of 10 presented with advanced disease, 5 of 10 died, with 4 more living but with persistent tumor. Three of 10 LCNECs were HPV-related (HPV-LCNEC); they arose in the oropharynx (n=2) and sinonasal tract (n=1). The HPV-LCNECs did not differ from the HPV-negative tumors in histologic appearance or behavior: 2 patients with HPV-LCNEC have died because of their disease

  4. Differential DNA sequence deletions from chromosomes 3, 11, 13, and 17 in squamous-cell carcinoma, large-cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the human lung

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.; Willey, J.C.; Modali, R.; Sugimura, H.; McDowell, E.M.; Resau, J.; Light, B.; Haugen, A.; Mann, D.L.; Trump, B.F.; Harris, C.C. )

    1989-07-01

    Activation of protooncogens and inactivation of putative tumor suppressor genes are genetic lesions considered to be important in lung carcinogenesis. Fifty-four cases of non-small-cell lung cancer (23 adenocarcinomas, 23 squamous-cell carcinomas, and 8 large-cell carcinomas) were examined for loss of DNA sequences at 13 polymorphic genetic loci. Loss of heterozygosity was seen more frequently in squamous-cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma. The loss of DNA sequences from the short arm of chromosome 17 (D17S1 locus) was detected in 8 of 9 heterozygous cases of squamous-cell carcinoma and in only 2 of 11 heterozygous cases of adenocarcinomas. Loss of DNA sequences from chromosome 3 was seen in 16 of 31 cases where the constitutive DNA was heterozygous-i.e., informative. Loss of heterozygosity at the chromosome 13q locus, D13S3, was seen in 9 of 21 informative cases, and in 2 cases, both adenocarcinomas, duplication of the intact DNA sequences suggested the possibility that mitotic recombination had occurred. Frequent DNA sequence deletions, including those from chromosome 17, in squamous-cell carcinomas may reflect the extensive mutagenic and clastogenic effects of tobacco smoke that may lead to inactivation of putative tumor-suppressor genes.

  5. Improved survival of poor prognosis diffuse histiocytic (large cell) lymphoma managed with sequential induction chemotherapy, "boost" radiation therapy, and autologous bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chadha, M; Shank, B; Fuks, Z; Clarkson, B D; Bonfiglio, P; Gnecco, C; Gulati, S

    1988-03-01

    From 1981 to 1985, 33 patients with the diagnosis of diffuse histiocytic (large cell) lymphoma (DHL) with a poor prognosis received induction multi-drug chemotherapy followed by autologous marrow cryopreservation. Thirty patients who had residual disease after chemotherapy were given "boost" irradiation to these sites, followed immediately by hyperfractionated total body irradiation, 1320 to 1375 cGy in 11 fractions over 4 days, then cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/d) for 2 days. All patients received an autologous bone marrow transplant (ABMT), with 15 patients receiving marrow purged with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. Patients were transplanted either as part of a planned induction-transplant approach (Group I), or as salvage after relapse on the same induction regimen (Group II), or other conventional chemotherapy regimens (Group III). In the entire group, 16 of 33 patients (48%) are alive free of lymphoma with a median follow-up of 32 months (11 to 53 mo). Actuarial (Kaplan-Meier) survival is 51% at 2 years and 46% at 3 years, with only 1 patient dying after 2 years out of 11 at risk. Eight patients (24%) succumbed to early treatment related complications. Nine patients (27%) died from relapse. Patients receiving ABMT as planned sequential therapy post-induction (Group I) did significantly better than patients given ABMT as salvage therapy after relapse on prior chemotherapy (Groups II and III) and better than the historical group of patients treated with chemotherapy alone. At 2 years, the survival in Group I is 79% versus 0% for Group II versus 48% for Group III. Historically, this group of high risk patients had a 2-year disease-free survival of 20% or less with chemotherapy alone. PMID:3277931

  6. Umbelliprenin is cytotoxic against QU-DB large cell lung cancer cell line but anti-proliferative against A549 adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Umbelliprenin is a natural compound, belonging to the class of sesquiterpene coumarins. Recently, umbelliprenin has attracted the researchers' attention for its antitumor activities against skin tumors. Its effect on lung cancer is largely unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of this natural compound, which is expected to have low adverse effects, on lung cancer. Methods The QU-DB large cell and A549 adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell lines were treated with umbelliprenin. IC50 values were estimated using methyl thiazolely diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, in which a decrease in MTT reduction can occur as a result of cell death or cell proliferation inhibition. To quantify the rate of cell death at IC50 values, flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC (for apoptotic cells), and propidium iodide (for necrotic cells) dyes were employed. Results Data from three independent MTT experiments in triplicate revealed that IC50 values for QU-DB and A549 were 47 ± 5.3 μM and 52 ± 1.97 μM, respectively. Annexin V/PI staining demonstrated that umbelliprenin treatment at IC50 induced 50% cell death in QU-DB cells, but produced no significant death in A549 cells until increasing the umbelliprenin concentration to IC80. The pattern of cell death was predominantly apoptosis in both cell lines. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 50 μM and less concentrations of umbelliprenin, no suppressive effect was observed. Conclusions We found cytotoxic/anti-proliferative effects of umbelliprenin against two different types of lung cancer cell lines. PMID:23351548

  7. Frequent loss of the expression of multiple subunits of the SWI/SNF complex in large cell carcinoma and pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Taichiro; Matsubara, Daisuke; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Tomoko; Endo, Shunsuke; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Niki, Toshiro

    2015-11-01

    The switch/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) complex has recently emerged as a novel tumor suppressor in various human cancers. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of multiple SWI/SNF subunits in primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 133 NSCLC, consisting of 25 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 70 adenocarcinomas (AD), 16 large cell carcinomas (LC), and 22 pleomorphic carcinomas (PL), were immunohistochemically examined for the expression of BRG1, BRM, BAF47, ARID1A, and ARID1B. The frequency at which reductions in the expression of BRG1 were observed was significantly higher in the LC-PL group (13/38, 34.2%) than in the SCC-AD group (7/95, 7.4%). Similarly, the frequency at which reductions in the expression of BRM were observed was significantly higher in the LC-PL group (17/38, 44.7%) than in the SCC-AD group (14/95, 14.7%). The loss of the expression of ARID1A, ARID1B, and BAF47 was observed only in a fraction of NSCLC cases. Furthermore, the frequency at which the concurrent loss of multiple subunits of the SWI/SNF complex was observed was significantly higher in the LC-PL group (10/38, 26.3%) than in the SCC-AD group (8/95, 8.4%). Collectively, these results indicate that the loss of the SWI/SNF complex was related to dedifferentiation in NSCLC. PMID:26345631

  8. Next-Generation Sequencing of Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Reveals Small Cell Carcinoma–like and Non–Small Cell Carcinoma–like Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Rekhtman, Natasha; Pietanza, Maria C.; Hellmann, Matthew D.; Naidoo, Jarushka; Arora, Arshi; Won, Helen; Halpenny, Darragh F.; Wang, Hangjun; Tian, Shaozhou K.; Litvak, Anya M.; Paik, Paul K.; Drilon, Alexander E.; Socci, Nicholas; Poirier, John T.; Shen, Ronglai; Berger, Michael F.; Moreira, Andre L.; Travis, William D.; Rudin, Charles M.; Ladanyi, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, whose biologic relationship to small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) versus non-SCLC (NSCLC) remains unclear, contributing to uncertainty regarding optimal clinical management. To clarify these relationships, we analyzed genomic alterations in LCNEC compared with other major lung carcinoma types. Experimental Design LCNEC (n = 45) tumor/normal pairs underwent targeted next-generation sequencing of 241 cancer genes by Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT) platform and comprehensive histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical analysis. Genomic data were compared with MSK-IMPACT analysis of other lung carcinoma histologies (n = 242). Results Commonly altered genes in LCNEC included TP53 (78%), RB1 (38%), STK11 (33%), KEAP1 (31%), and KRAS (22%). Genomic profiles segregated LCNEC into 2 major and 1 minor subsets: SCLC-like (n = 18), characterized by TP53+RB1 co-mutation/loss and other SCLC-type alterations, including MYCL amplification; NSCLC-like (n = 25), characterized by the lack of coaltered TP53+RB1 and nearly universal occurrence of NSCLC-type mutations (STK11, KRAS, and KEAP1); and carcinoid-like (n = 2), characterized by MEN1 mutations and low mutation burden. SCLC-like and NSCLC-like subsets revealed several clinicopathologic differences, including higher proliferative activity in SCLC-like tumors (P < 0.0001) and exclusive adenocarcinoma-type differentiation marker expression in NSCLC-like tumors (P = 0.005). While exhibiting predominant similarity with lung adenocarcinoma, NSCLC-like LCNEC harbored several distinctive genomic alterations, including more frequent mutations in NOTCH family genes (28%), implicated as key regulators of neuroendocrine differentiation. Conclusions LCNEC is a biologically heterogeneous group of tumors, comprising distinct subsets with genomic signatures of SCLC, NSCLC (predominantly

  9. Frequent loss of the expression of multiple subunits of the SWI/SNF complex in large cell carcinoma and pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Taichiro; Matsubara, Daisuke; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Tomoko; Endo, Shunsuke; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Niki, Toshiro

    2015-11-01

    The switch/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) complex has recently emerged as a novel tumor suppressor in various human cancers. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of multiple SWI/SNF subunits in primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 133 NSCLC, consisting of 25 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 70 adenocarcinomas (AD), 16 large cell carcinomas (LC), and 22 pleomorphic carcinomas (PL), were immunohistochemically examined for the expression of BRG1, BRM, BAF47, ARID1A, and ARID1B. The frequency at which reductions in the expression of BRG1 were observed was significantly higher in the LC-PL group (13/38, 34.2%) than in the SCC-AD group (7/95, 7.4%). Similarly, the frequency at which reductions in the expression of BRM were observed was significantly higher in the LC-PL group (17/38, 44.7%) than in the SCC-AD group (14/95, 14.7%). The loss of the expression of ARID1A, ARID1B, and BAF47 was observed only in a fraction of NSCLC cases. Furthermore, the frequency at which the concurrent loss of multiple subunits of the SWI/SNF complex was observed was significantly higher in the LC-PL group (10/38, 26.3%) than in the SCC-AD group (8/95, 8.4%). Collectively, these results indicate that the loss of the SWI/SNF complex was related to dedifferentiation in NSCLC.

  10. The role of the ALK receptor in cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, B; Palmer, R H

    2016-09-01

    A vast array of oncogenic variants has been identified for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Therefore, there is a need to better understand the role of ALK in cancer biology in order to optimise treatment strategies. This review summarises the latest research on the receptor tyrosine kinase ALK, and how this information can guide the management of patients with cancer that is ALK-positive. A variety of ALK gene alterations have been described across a range of tumour types, including point mutations, deletions and rearrangements. A wide variety of ALK fusions, in which the kinase domain of ALK and the amino-terminal portion of various protein partners are fused, occur in cancer, with echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK being the most prevalent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Different ALK fusion proteins can mediate different signalling outputs, depending on properties such as subcellular localisation and protein stability. The ALK fusions found in tumours lack spatial and temporal regulation, which can also affect dimerisation and substrate specificity. Two ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), crizotinib and ceritinib, are currently approved in Europe for use in ALK-positive NSCLC and several others are in development. These ALK TKIs bind slightly differently within the ATP-binding pocket of the ALK kinase domain and are associated with the emergence of different resistance mutation patterns during therapy. This emphasises the need to tailor the sequence of ALK TKIs according to the ALK signature of each patient. Research into the oncogenic functions of ALK, and fast paced development of ALK inhibitors, has substantially improved outcomes for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. Limited data are available surrounding the physiological ligand-stimulated activation of ALK signalling and further research is needed. Understanding the role of ALK in tumour biology is key to further optimising therapeutic strategies for ALK-positive

  11. IL-2R common gamma-chain is epigenetically silenced by nucleophosphin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) and acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting NPM-ALK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hong Yi; Liu, Xiaobin; Bhutani, Gauri; Kantekure, Kanchan; Wasik, Mariusz

    2011-07-19

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), physiologically expressed only by certain neural cells, becomes highly oncogenic, when aberrantly expressed in nonneural tissues as a fusion protein with nucleophosphin (NPM) and other partners. The reason why NPM-ALK succeeds in transforming specifically CD4(+) T lymphocytes remains unknown. The IL-2R common γ-chain (IL-2Rγ) is shared by receptors for several cytokines that play key roles in the maturation and growth of normal CD4(+) T lymphocytes and other immune cells. We show that IL-2Rγ expression is inhibited in T-cell lymphoma cells expressing NPM-ALK kinase as a result of DNA methylation of the IL-2Rγ gene promoter. IL-2Rγ promoter methylation is induced in malignant T cells by NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK acts through STAT3, a transcription factor that binds to the IL-2Rγ gene promoter and enhances binding of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) to the promoter. In addition, STAT3 suppresses expression of miR-21, which selectively inhibits DNMT1 mRNA expression. Reconstitution of IL-2Rγ expression leads to loss of the NPM-ALK protein and, consequently, apoptotic cell death of the lymphoma cells. These results demonstrate that the oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces epigenetic silencing of the IL-2Rγ gene and that IL-2Rγ acts as a tumor suppressor by reciprocally inhibiting expression of NPM-ALK.

  12. Role of Evaluating MGMT Status and 1p36 Deletion in Radiosurgery-Induced Anaplastic Ependymoma That Rapidly and Completely Resolved by Temozolomide Alone: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Seiichiro; Iwadate, Yasuo; Kambe, Michiyo; Hiwasa, Takaki; Takiguchi, Masaki; Nakatani, Yukio; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2015-07-01

    Stereotactic gamma knife surgery (GKS)-induced brain tumors are extremely rare, and no ependymal tumors induced by GKS have been reported. Therefore, little is known about their clinical, pathologic, and genetic features. In addition, a regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymoma (AE) has not been established. A 77-year-old man presented with a gait disturbance and left-side cerebellar ataxia more than 19 years after GKS performed for a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation. Imaging studies demonstrated an enhancing mass in the irradiated field with signs of intraventricular dissemination. Surgical resection confirmed the diagnosis of AE. Temozolomide (TMZ) was administrated postoperatively because the methylated promoter region of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and 1p36 deletion were observed. Surprisingly, images 16 days after TMZ initiation demonstrated a complete resolution of the residual tumor that was maintained after three cycles of TMZ. This first case report of GKS-induced AE emphasizes the importance of genetic evaluation of MGMT and chromosomal deletion of 1p36 that are not commonly performed in primary ependymal tumors. In addition, it is speculated that a GKS-induced tumor may have a different genetic background compared with the primary tumor because the pathogenesis of the tumors differed.

  13. Targeting Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 (TGF-β1) Inhibits Tumorigenesis of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Through ERK1/2-NF-κB-PUMA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qiang; Liu, Shan; Dong, Anbing; Mi, Xiufang; Hao, Fengyun; Zhang, Kejun

    2016-01-01

    Background The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a critical role in promoting tumor growth. TGF-β1was found to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). We therefore tested our hypothesis that targeting TGF-β1 inhibits tumorigenesis of ATC cells. Material/Methods Effects of TGF-β1 stimulation or TGF-β1 inhibition by small interfering RNA (TGF-β1siRNA) on proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro was detected using siRNAs and inhibitors to examine the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. A subcutaneously implanted tumor model of 8505C cells in nude mice was used to assess the effects of TGF-β1 inhibition on tumorigenesis development. Results TGF-β1siRNAs decreased proliferation and colony formation, and increased apoptosis in 8505C cells in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. TGF-β1siRNA inhibited phosphorylation ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and increased p65-dependant PUMA mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of p65 or PUMA by siRNA reduced TGF-β1siRNA-induced apoptosis, as well as caspase-3 and PARP activation. Upregulation of p65 or PUMA expression by TGF-β1siRNA requires pERK1/2 inhibition. TGF-β1 shRNA inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions Therapies targeting the TGF-β1 pathway may be more effective to prevent primary tumor formation. The ability of this therapy to decrease tumorigenesis may be related to ERK1/2/NF-κB/PUMA signaling. PMID:27356491

  14. Cholecalciferol in Improving Survival in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Cancer With Vitamin D Insufficiency

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T-Cell Lymphoma

  15. The role of temozolomide in the management of patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma: a comparison of survival in the era prior to and following the availability of temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Abuali, Inas; Ye, Xiaobu; Lu, Yao; Grossman, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Adding temozolomide (TMZ) to radiation for patients with newly-diagnosed anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) is common clinical practice despite the lack of prospective studies demonstrating a survival advantage. Two retrospective studies, each with methodologic limitations, provide conflicting advice regarding treatment. This single-institution retrospective study was conducted to determine survival trends in patients with AA. All patients ≥18 years with newly-diagnosed AA treated at Johns Hopkins from 1995 to 2012 were included. As we incorporated TMZ into high-grade glioma treatment regimens in 2004, patients were divided into pre-2004 and post-2004 groups for analysis. Clinical, radiographic, and pathologic data were collected. Median overall survival (OS) was calculated using Kaplan–Meier estimates. A total of 196 patients were identified; 74 pre-2004 and 122 post-2004; mean age 47 ± 15 years; 57 % male; 87 % white, 69 % surgical debulking. Mean RT dose 5676 + 746 cGy; duration of concurrent chemoradiation 5.8 ± 0.8 weeks; and mean adjuvant chemotherapy 4.3 + 2.8 cycles. Baseline prognostic factors did not differ between groups. Chemotherapy was administered to 12 % of patients pre-2004 (TMZ = 1, procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine = 2, carmustine wafer = 6) and 94 % post-2004 (TMZ in all, p < 0.001). Median OS was 32 months (95 % CI 23–43). Survival was longer in the post-2004 cohort (37 mo, 24–64) than pre-2004 (27 mo, 19–40; HR 0.75, 0.53–1.06, p = 0.11). Multivariate analysis controlling for age, Karnofsky performance status, and extent of resection revealed a 36 % reduced risk of death (HR 0.64, 0.44–0.91, p = 0.015) in patients treated post-2004. This retrospective review found survival in newly diagnosed patients with AA improved with the addition of temozolomide to standard radiation. Until prospective randomized phase III data are available, these data support the practice of incorporating TMZ in the management of newly-diagnosed AA

  16. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Aggressive Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-05

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  17. Diffuse anaplastic leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis mimicking neurosarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Zabad, Rana K; Aksamit, Allen J; Morris, Jonathan M; Meyer, Fredric B; Thorell, William E; Parisi, Joseph E; Giannini, Caterina

    2013-06-01

    Diffuse leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis is a rare, frequently fatal CNS malignancy that most often affects children.(1) Although potentially treatable with chemotherapy and radiation, the radiologic findings are nonspecific and pathologic confirmation of the diagnosis is difficult. We describe an adult patient whose initial presentation mimicked neurosarcoidosis. Despite extensive imaging abnormalities, 3 biopsies were required before the diagnosis of diffuse leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis was confirmed. PMID:23914328

  18. CEOP/IVE/GDP Compared With CEOP as the First-line Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Adult Patients With PTCL

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-18

    Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphoma; ALK-negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy Associated T Cell Lymphoma; Subcutaneous Panniculitis Like T Cell Lymphoma; Acute Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

  19. CTOP/ITE/MTX Compared With CHOP as the First-line Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Young Patients With T Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-24

    ALK-negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Peripherial T Cell Lymphoma,Not Otherwise Specified; Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy Associated T Cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T Cell Lymphoma; Subcutaneous Panniculitis Like T Cell Lymphoma

  20. Emerging Paradigms in the Development of Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gainor, Justin F.; Shaw, Alice T.

    2013-01-01

    The success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in select patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has transformed management of the disease, placing new emphasis on understanding the molecular characteristics of tumor specimens. It is now recognized that genetic alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) define two unique subtypes of NSCLC that are highly responsive to genotype-directed TKIs. Despite this initial sensitivity, however, the long-term effectiveness of such therapies is universally limited by the development of resistance. Identifying the mechanisms underlying this resistance is an area of intense, ongoing investigation. In this review, we provide an overview of recent experience in the field, focusing on results from preclinical resistance models and studies of patient-derived, TKI-resistant tumor specimens. Although diverse TKI resistance mechanisms have been identified within EGFR-mutant and ALK-positive patients, we highlight common principles of resistance shared between these groups. These include the development of secondary mutations in the kinase target, gene amplification of the primary oncogene, and upregulation of bypass signaling tracts. In EGFR-mutant and ALK-positive patients alike, acquired resistance may also be a dynamic and multifactorial process that may necessitate the use of treatment combinations. We believe that insights into the mechanisms of TKI resistance in patients with EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements may inform the development of novel treatment strategies in NSCLC, which may also be generalizable to other kinase-driven malignancies. PMID:24101047

  1. Insight into drug resistance mechanisms and discovery of potential inhibitors against wild-type and L1196M mutant ALK from FDA-approved drugs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzong; Liu, Wei; Luo, Hao; Bao, Jinku

    2016-09-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) plays a crucial role in multiple malignant cancers. It is known as a well-established target for the treatment of ALK-dependent cancers. Even though substantial efforts have been made to develop ALK inhibitors, only crizotinib, ceritinib, and alectinib had been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The secondary mutations with drug-resistance bring up difficulties to develop effective drugs for ALK-positive cancers. To give a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanism underlying inhibitor response to ALK tyrosine kinase mutations, we established an accurate assessment for the extensive profile of drug against ALK mutations by means of computational approaches. The molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) method based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out to calculate relative binding free energies for receptor-drug systems. In addition, the structure-based virtual screening was utilized to screen effective inhibitors targeting wild-type ALK and the gatekeeper mutation L1196M from 3180 approved drugs. Finally, the mechanism of drug resistance was discussed, several novel potential wild-type and L1196M mutant ALK inhibitors were successfully identified. PMID:27585676

  2. Alectinib induced CNS radiation necrosis in an ALK+NSCLC patient with a remote (7 years) history of brain radiation.

    PubMed

    Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Weitz, Michael; Jalas, John R; Kelly, Daniel F; Wong, Vanessa; Azada, Michele C; Quines, Oliver; Klempner, Samuel J

    2016-06-01

    Alectinib is a second generation ALK inhibitor that has significant clinical activity in central nervous system (CNS) metastases in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pseudoprogression (PsP) due to radiation necrosis during alecitnib treatment of central nervous system (CNS) metastases from ALK-rearranged NSCLC as been reported. Hence, distinguishing radiation-related PsP from alectinib-induced radiographic changes is important to avoid erroneous early trial discontinuation and abandonment of an effective treatment. However, it remains difficult to assess casuality of radiation necrosis is related to recent direct radiation or induced by alectinib treatment or both. It is also unknown how long from previous radiation can alectinib still induce radiation necrosis. Here we reported a crizotinib-refractory ALK-positive NSCLC patient who develop radiation necrosis in one of his metastatic CNS lesions after approximately 12 months of alectinib treatment who otherwise had on-going CNS response on alectinib. His most recent radiation to his CNS metastases was 7 years prior to the start of alectinib. This case illustrates that in the setting of pror CNS radiation, given the significant clinical activity of alectinib in CNS metastases in ALK-positive NSCLC patients the risk of CNS radiation necrosis remains long after previous radiation to the CNS metastases has been completed and can occur after durable response of treatment. PMID:27133743

  3. MicroRNA 25, microRNA 145, and microRNA 210 as biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of maintenance treatment with pemetrexed in lung adenocarcinoma patients who are negative for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-Bin; Wang, Meng; Tian, Jing; Li, Rui; Chang, Chun-Xiao; Qi, Jie-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers for use in predicting the efficacy of maintenance therapy with pemetrexed in patients with stage IIIb or IV lung adenocarcinoma and who had already received first-line treatment with pemetrexed plus platinum. Patients who were negative for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations were assigned to a pemetrexed group and an observation group. Patients in the pemetrexed group (n = 76) received maintenance treatment with pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2), once every 21 days) plus best supportive care. Patients in the observation group (n = 72) agreed to receive only best supportive care until disease progression. Blood samples were collected from all patients in both groups before treatment and were used to detect expression levels of various miRNAs in serum by the Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. The expression levels of miR-25, miR-145, and miR-210 were significantly different in the 2 groups of patients. Furthermore, the median progression-free survival (PFS) times for patients in the pemetrexed and observation groups were 4.5 and 2.9 months, respectively. The PFS times among patients in the pemetrexed group varied significantly and were related to patient expression levels of miR-25, miR-145, and miR-210, whereas patients in the observation group showed no differences in PFS time. Our data suggest miR-25, miR-145, and miR-210 as predictors for the efficacy of maintenance treatment with pemetrexed in lung adenocarcinoma patients who were negative for EGFR mutations or ALK translocations.

  4. Primary nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas: diagnosis and therapeutic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Luis Alberto de Pádua Covas; Cabral, Tamara Carvalho dos Santos; Costa, Renata de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Marianne de Castro; Levy, Debora; Zerbini, Maria Cláudia Nogueira; Pereira, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a rare group of neoplasms derived from post-thymic and activated T lymphocytes. A review of scientific articles listed in PubMed, Lilacs, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed using the term “peripheral T-cell lymphomas”. According to the World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic tissue tumors, this group of neoplasms consists of peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALCL-ALK+), and a provisional entity called anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative (ALCL-ALK−). Because the treatment and prognoses of these neoplasms involve different principles, it is essential to distinguish each one by its clinical, immunophenotypic, genetic, and molecular features. Except for anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive, which has no adverse international prognostic index, the prognosis of nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas is worse than that of aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Chemotherapy based on anthracyclines provides poor outcomes because these neoplasms frequently have multidrug-resistant phenotypes. Based on this, the current tendency is to use intensified cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone (CHOP) regimens with the addition of new drugs, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This paper describes the clinical features and diagnostic methods, and proposes a therapeutic algorithm for nodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients. PMID:26190436

  5. Brentuximab vedotin in refractory CD30+ lymphomas: a bridge to allogeneic transplantation in approximately one quarter of patients treated on a Named Patient Programme at a single UK center

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Adam; Jones, Craig; Bloor, Adrian; Kulkarni, Samar; Illidge, Tim; Linton, Kim; Radford, John

    2013-01-01

    The CD30-targeted agent brentuximab vedotin has shown impressive activity in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma in phase II studies. We have treated 24 patients with relapsed/refratory disease enrolled onto a Named Patient Programme during 2010-11 at a single UK center. Overall response rate across all histologies was 67% (Hodgkin 72%; anaplastic large cell 60%), complete response rate 25% (Hodgkin 17%; anaplastic large cell 60%), median progression-free survival 5.1 months, and toxicity mild to moderate in the majority of cases. Six patients proceeded to allogeneic transplantation and one patient awaits this procedure. These results are similar to phase II data and show that brentuximab vedotin provides a bridge to allogeneic transplantation in approximately one quarter of patients refractory to conventional salvage therapies. Best response was seen after four doses, so consideration of allogeneic transplantation should be made early and scheduled following the first assessment indicating response. PMID:23065511

  6. Primary Cutaneous Lymphoma-Associated Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia Masquerading as Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mahsa; Azmoodeh Ardalan, Farid; Najafi, Masoumeh; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Ghanadan, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a T-cell malignancy with atypical CD30 positive lymphocytes. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an uncommon finding in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and may mimic squamous cell carcinoma as pseudomalignancy. Careful attention of a pathologist to correct diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and its underlying causes will help physicians to avoid inappropriate management. Here, we present a 22-year-old man referred to our hospital with a solitary nodule persistent on his forearm which was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma in the first biopsy. The lesion recurred after two months and histopathologic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed anaplastic large cell lymphoma with florid pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia which masquerading as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia must guide the pathologist to search for underlying causes, such as primary cutaneous lymphoma. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia may mimic squamous cell carcinoma and this can result in inappropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26749237

  7. Fast-growing large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Lukina, Olga; Gorbunkov, Stanislav; Dvorakovskaja, Ivetta; Varlamov, Vladimir; Akopov, Andrey

    2011-05-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinomas combine a heterogeneous group of tumors occurring in lungs on a rare occasion, and in some cases, they appear to have extraordinary quick growth and extrapulmonary localization. In this case we present a 42-year-old patient who underwent a right upper lobectomy for emphysema, and 6 months later, the tumor developed again into a giant neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mediastinum. PMID:21524479

  8. Update in large cell lymphoma: understanding the pathology report.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse aggressive large B-cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of B-cell malignancies. Although many are readily recognized due to characteristic clinical and pathologic features, several problematic areas still exist in diagnosis of these lymphomas due to a variety of reasons that include imprecise or difficult-to-apply diagnostic criteria, gaps in our understanding of lymphoma biology, and limitations in technologies available in the clinical laboratory compared to the research laboratory. This may result in some degree of confusion in the pathology report, particularly if the issues are not clearly explained, leading to frustration or misinterpretation on the part of the reader. In this review, I will discuss the pathologic features of a subset of the WHO 2008 classification diffuse aggressive large B-cell lymphomas, focusing on areas in which difficulties exist in diagnosis and/or biomarker marker assessment. A deeper understanding of the issues and areas of uncertainty due to limitations in our knowledge about the biology of these diseases should lead to better communication between pathologists and clinicians.

  9. Glioblastoma with oligodendroglial components: glioblastoma or anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Tetsuya; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kodera, Toshiaki; Arishima, Hidetaka; Tsunetoshi, Kenzo; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Sato, Kazufumi; Imamura, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toshihiko; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro

    2012-07-01

    There have been some recent reports about glioblastoma with oligodendroglial (OG) components and malignant glioma with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)-like components. We investigated whether the presence and extent of OG components and PNET-like components influenced the prognosis in patients with glioblastoma. Eighty-six patients with glioblastoma were divided into an OG group (28 %), which revealed areas with a honeycomb appearance, and a non-OG group (72 %) without a honeycomb appearance. Patients with glioblastoma were also divided into a PNET group (27 %), which revealed areas with PNET-like features defined as neoplastic cells with high N/C ratios and hyperchromatic oval-carrot-shaped nuclei, and lacked the typical honeycomb appearance, and a non-PNET group (73 %) without PNET features. There were no significant differences in overall survival among the OG, the non-OG, the PNET, and the non-PNET groups. Two patients who survived longer than 36 months had both OG and PNET components with 1p or 19q loss of heterozygosity. Perinuclear halo, which is a characteristic feature of oligodendrogliomas, is an artifact of tissue fixation. Therefore, we should not readily use the term glioblastoma with OG components. PNET-like components, which are considered rare in malignant gliomas, may be frequently identified in glioblastomas. PMID:22527749

  10. An Uncommon Presentation of Breast Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Watson, David I.; Dean, Nicola R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Late periprosthetic seroma has lately been concerning for breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The authors present an uncommon presentation of breast implant rupture with a seroma and skin rash forming 2 years after insertion of the implant. PMID:27579243

  11. Study of Bortezomib and Panobinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma or NK/T-cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-26

    Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma (Not Otherwise Specified); Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma Nasal Type; Enteropathy- Type T-cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) (ALK-1 Negative); Relapsed ALCL (ALK-1 Positive) Post Autologous Transplant

  12. Alisertib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

  13. Oral Clofarabine for Relapsed/Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-16

    Follicular Lymphoma; Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Low Grade B-cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large-cell Lymphoma

  14. Basket Study of Entrectinib (RXDX-101) for the Treatment of Patients With Solid Tumors Harboring NTRK 1/2/3 (Trk A/B/C), ROS1, or ALK Gene Rearrangements (Fusions)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-24

    Breast Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma; Colorectal Cancer; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic; Melanoma; Neuroendocrine Tumors; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Primary Brain Tumors; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Sarcomas; Salivary Gland Cancers; Adult Solid Tumor

  15. Lenalidomide Therapy for Patients With Relapsed and/or Refractory, Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-18

    Peripheral T-cell Lymphomas; Adult T-cell Leukemia; Adult T-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Unspecified; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; T/Null Cell Systemic Type; Cutaneous t-Cell Lymphoma With Nodal/Visceral Disease

  16. An Uncommon Presentation of Breast Implant Rupture.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eugene; Watson, David I; Dean, Nicola R

    2016-05-01

    Late periprosthetic seroma has lately been concerning for breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The authors present an uncommon presentation of breast implant rupture with a seroma and skin rash forming 2 years after insertion of the implant. PMID:27579243

  17. Phase II Pediatric Study With Dabrafenib in HGG Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-09

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Glioblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Choroid Plexus Carcinoma; Anaplastic Ganglioglioma; Pineal Parenchymal Tumor; Pineoblastoma; Medulloblastoma; PNET; Rhabdoid Tumor; Perineurioma; MPNST; Malignant Meningloma; Anaplastic Hemangiopericytoma

  18. Novel CAD-ALK gene rearrangement is drugable by entrectinib in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amatu, Alessio; Somaschini, Alessio; Cerea, Giulio; Bosotti, Roberta; Valtorta, Emanuele; Buonandi, Pasquale; Marrapese, Giovanna; Veronese, Silvio; Luo, David; Hornby, Zachary; Multani, Pratik; Murphy, Danielle; Shoemaker, Robert; Lauricella, Calogero; Giannetta, Laura; Maiolani, Martina; Vanzulli, Angelo; Ardini, Elena; Galvani, Arturo; Isacchi, Antonella; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Siena, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusions are recurrent events in a small fraction of colorectal cancers (CRCs), although these events have not yet been exploited as in other malignancies. Methods: We detected ALK protein expression by immunohistochemistry and gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridisation in the ALKA-372-001 phase I study of the pan-Trk, ROS1, and ALK inhibitor entrectinib. One out of 487 CRCs showed ALK positivity with a peculiar pattern that prompted further characterisation by targeted sequencing using anchored multiplex PCR. Results: A novel ALK fusion with the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD) gene (CAD-ALK fusion gene) was identified. It resulted from inversion within chromosome 2 and the fusion of exons 1–35 of CAD with exons 20–29 of ALK. After failure of previous standard therapies, treatment of this patient with the ALK inhibitor entrectinib resulted in a durable objective tumour response. Conclusions: We describe the novel CAD-ALK rearrangement as an oncogene and provide the first evidence of its drugability as a new molecular target in CRC. PMID:26633560

  19. Alemtuzumab, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation Before Donor Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Hematological Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-05

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute

  20. Iodine I 131 Tositumomab, Etoposide and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-04

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  1. MORAb-004 in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  2. Fusion Protein Cytokine Therapy After Rituximab in Treating Patients With B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  3. Bortezomib and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory T-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-02

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Small Intestine Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  4. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is not a single and separate entity. Images PMID:4031101

  5. Study of MLN8237 in Patients With Advanced Hematological Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-22

    B-cell Follicular Lymphoma; B-cell Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Mantle Cell Lymphoma; B-cell Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (SLL); B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (B-CLL); Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia; Noncutaneous Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Not Otherwise Specified (PTCL-NOS); Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma (AITL); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy Associated T-cell Lymphoma (EATCL); NK Lymphoma (NKL)

  6. Granulocytic sarcoma with expression of CD30.

    PubMed Central

    Fickers, M; Theunissen, P

    1996-01-01

    A case of a young man with a spinal epidural tumour, initially diagnosed as large cell anaplastic malignant lymphoma, is reported. The tumour consisted of poorly differentiated cells showing immunoreactivity with antibodies directed against CD30 and CD45. Ten months later the patient developed acute myeloid leukaemia. The histological slides of the epidural tumour were reviewed, including additional enzymochemical and immunochemical stains. As the tumour showed immunoreactivity for myeloperoxidase and chloroacetate esterase, it was reclassified as a granulocytic sarcoma. Images PMID:9038763

  7. The potent oncogene NPM-ALK mediates malignant transformation of normal human CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wei, Fang; Wang, Hong Yi; Liu, Xiaobin; Roy, Darshan; Xiong, Qun-Bin; Jiang, Shuguang; Medvec, Andrew; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn; Watt, Christopher; Tomczak, Ewa; Kalos, Michael; Riley, James L; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2013-12-01

    With this study we have demonstrated that in vitro transduction of normal human CD4(+) T lymphocytes with NPM-ALK results in their malignant transformation. The transformed cells become immortalized and display morphology and immunophenotype characteristic of patient-derived anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. These unique features, which are strictly dependent on NPM-ALK activity and expression, include perpetual cell growth, proliferation, and survival; activation of the key signal transduction pathways STAT3 and mTORC1; and expression of CD30 (the hallmark of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma) and of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and cell-surface protein PD-L1/CD274. Implantation of NPM-ALK-transformed CD4(+) T lymphocytes into immunodeficient mice resulted in formation of tumors indistinguishable from patients' anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. Our findings demonstrate that the key aspects of human carcinogenesis closely recapitulating the features of the native tumors can be faithfully reproduced in vitro when an appropriate oncogene is used to transform its natural target cells; this in turn points to the fundamental role in malignant cell transformation of potent oncogenes expressed in the relevant target cells. Such transformed cells should permit study of the early stages of carcinogenesis, and in particular the initial oncogene-host cell interactions. This experimental design could also be useful for studies of the effects of early therapeutic intervention and likely also the mechanisms of malignant progression.

  8. Salvia Hispanica Seed in Reducing Risk of Disease Recurrence in Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-26

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; B Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Burkitt Leukemia; Central Nervous System Lymphoma; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Mycosis Fungoides; Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Primary Effusion Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T-Cell Lymphoma; Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; T Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma; Transformed Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  9. Panobinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-18

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  10. Everolimus and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-18

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  11. Obatoclax Mesylate, Vincristine Sulfate, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Dexrazoxane Hydrochloride in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, Lymphoma, or Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-30

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  12. Oxaliplatin, Ifosfamide and Etoposide in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-21

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the ALK gene in 2,045 non-small cell lung cancer patients from North-Western Spain (Galicia)

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ares, María; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José M.; Vázquez-Estévez, Sergio; Lázaro-Quintela, Martín; Vázquez-Boquete, Ángel; Afonso-Afonso, Francisco J.; Casal-Rubio, Joaquín; González-Piñeiro, Ana L.; Rico-Rodríguez, Yolanda; Fírvida-Pérez, José L.; Ruíz-Bañobre, Juan; Couso, Elena; Santomé, Lucía; Pérez-Becerra, Raquel; García-Campelo, Rosario; Amenedo, Margarita; Azpitarte-Raposeiras, Cristina; Antúnez, José; Abdulkader, Ihab

    2016-01-01

    Identification of anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements is a standard diagnostic test in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The current study describes the experience of ALK rearrangement detection of a referral center in the public health care system of Galicia in North-Western Spain. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns of the ALK gene and the clinical and pathological features of these patients are reported. This study is also of interest for comparative purposes due to the relative geographical isolation of the area, which could have contributed to particular genetic features. A total of 2,045 tissue samples from NSCLC patients were collected between October 2010 and July 2015 and tested for ALK rearrangements by FISH. Examination of 1,686 paraffin-embedded tissue specimens and 395 cytological samples (306 cell block preparations and 53 cytological smears) was conducted, and any associations between the FISH results and clinicopathological features were assessed. The rate of successful evaluation was marginally higher in tissue samples than in cytological samples (92.9% vs. 84.1%); this difference was not significant. ALK rearrangements were identified in 82 patients(4%): 65 (79.3%) in tissue specimens, 15 (18.3%) in cell block samples and 2 (2.4%) in cytological smears. This genetic translocation appeared to be associated with a non-smoking history, younger age, female gender, stage IV and adenocarcinoma histological type. The findings demonstrate that ALK evaluation by FISH is feasible in tissue and cytological samples. The clinical and pathological features of the ALK-positive series of patients are similar to those previously reported in the literature. PMID:27446444

  14. CLUSTERING OF LARGE CELL POPULATIONS: METHOD AND APPLICATION TO THE BASAL FOREBRAIN CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Nadasdy, Zoltan; Varsanyi, Peter; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Functionally related groups of neurons spatially cluster together in the brain. To detect groups of functionally related neurons from 3D histological data, we developed an objective clustering method that provides a description of detected cell clusters that is quantitative and amenable to visual exploration. This method is based on bubble clustering (Gupta and Gosh, 2008). Our implementation consists of three steps: (i) an initial data exploration for scanning the clustering parameter space; (ii) determination of the optimal clustering parameters; (iii) final clustering. We designed this algorithm to flexibly detect clusters without assumptions about the underlying cell distribution within a cluster or the number and sizes of clusters. We implemented the clustering function as an integral part of the neuroanatomical data visualization software Virtual RatBrain (http://www.virtualratbrain.org). We applied this algorithm to the basal forebrain cholinergic system, which consists of a diffuse but inhomogeneous population of neurons (Zaborszky, 1992). With this clustering method, we confirmed the inhomogeneity in this system, defined cell clusters, quantified and localized them, and determined the cell density within clusters. Furthermore, by applying the clustering method to multiple specimens from both rat and monkey, we found that cholinergic clusters display remarkable cross-species preservation of cell density within clusters. This method is efficient not only for clustering cell body distributions but may also be used to study other distributed neuronal structural elements, including synapses, receptors, dendritic spines and molecular markers. PMID:20398701

  15. Using a Module-Based Laboratory to Incorporate Inquiry into a Large Cell Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Because cell biology has rapidly increased in breadth and depth, instructors are challenged not only to provide undergraduate science students with a strong, up-to-date foundation of knowledge, but also to engage them in the scientific process. To these ends, revision of the Cell Biology Lab course at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse was…

  16. A nuclear F-actin scaffold stabilizes ribonucleoprotein droplets against gravity in large cells.

    PubMed

    Feric, Marina; Brangwynne, Clifford P

    2013-10-01

    The size of a typical eukaryotic cell is of the order of ∼10 μm. However, some cell types grow to very large sizes, including oocytes (immature eggs) of organisms from humans to starfish. For example, oocytes of the frog Xenopus laevis grow to a diameter ≥1 mm. They have a correspondingly large nucleus (germinal vesicle) of ∼450 μm in diameter, which is similar to smaller somatic nuclei, but contains a significantly higher concentration of actin. The form and structure of this nuclear actin remain controversial, and its potential mechanical role within these large nuclei is unknown. Here, we use a microrheology and quantitative imaging approach to show that germinal vesicles contain an elastic F-actin scaffold that mechanically stabilizes these large nuclei against gravitational forces, which are usually considered negligible within cells. We find that on actin disruption, ribonucleoprotein droplets, including nucleoli and histone locus bodies, undergo gravitational sedimentation and fusion. We develop a model that reveals how gravity becomes an increasingly potent force as cells and their nuclei grow larger than ∼10 μm, explaining the requirement for a stabilizing nuclear F-actin scaffold in large Xenopus oocytes. All life forms are subject to gravity, and our results may have broad implications for cell growth and size control.

  17. Microtubule nucleation remote from centrosomes may explain how asters span large cells.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Keisuke; Nguyen, Phuong A; Groen, Aaron C; Field, Christine M; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-12-16

    A major challenge in cell biology is to understand how nanometer-sized molecules can organize micrometer-sized cells in space and time. One solution in many animal cells is a radial array of microtubules called an aster, which is nucleated by a central organizing center and spans the entire cytoplasm. Frog (here Xenopus laevis) embryos are more than 1 mm in diameter and divide with a defined geometry every 30 min. Like smaller cells, they are organized by asters, which grow, interact, and move to precisely position the cleavage planes. It has been unclear whether asters grow to fill the enormous egg by the same mechanism used in smaller somatic cells, or whether special mechanisms are required. We addressed this question by imaging growing asters in a cell-free system derived from eggs, where asters grew to hundreds of microns in diameter. By tracking marks on the lattice, we found that microtubules could slide outward, but this was not essential for rapid aster growth. Polymer treadmilling did not occur. By measuring the number and positions of microtubule ends over time, we found that most microtubules were nucleated away from the centrosome and that interphase egg cytoplasm supported spontaneous nucleation after a time lag. We propose that aster growth is initiated by centrosomes but that asters grow by propagating a wave of microtubule nucleation stimulated by the presence of preexisting microtubules. PMID:25468969

  18. Dose Monitoring of Busulfan and Combination Chemotherapy in Hodgkin or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Undergoing Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-12

    Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult

  19. Mycophenolate Mofetil and Cyclosporine in Reducing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies or Metastatic Kidney Cancer Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Renal Cell Carcinoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell

  20. Intracoelomic anaplastic sarcoma in an intersex Madagascar tree boa (Sanzinia madagascariensis).

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Sam; Lamm, Catherine G; Killick, Rowena

    2013-01-01

    An adult Madagascar tree boa (Sanzinia madagascariensis) underwent coeliotomy for investigation of a coelomic mass. At surgery, a large mass originating from the peri-pancreatic adipose tissue and involving the gall bladder was removed. The snake did not recover from general anesthesia. A complete postmortem was performed, and samples were submitted to the University of Glasgow for histopathology. On histological examination, the mass was composed of adipose tissue infiltrated with a poorly demarcated spindle cell neoplasm. The neoplastic cells were highly pleomorphic with abundant cytoplasm and frequent clear cytoplasmic vacuoles, suggestive of adipocyte origin. Immunohistochemical characterization of the mass was inconclusive. Metastatic neoplastic cells were present within vessels in the liver, lungs, and brain. As an incidental finding, the gonads contained both maturing ovarian follicles and seminiferous tubules with intact germinal epithelium and evidence of spermatogenesis, along with other features of male and female gonad anatomy. The current report describes a rare neoplasm in snakes within an intersex Madagascar tree boa.

  1. Calcitonin-negative neuroendocrine tumor of thyroid gland mimicking anaplastic carcinoma: an unusual entity

    PubMed Central

    Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Berkesoglu, Mustafa; Dag, Ahmet; Sezer, Emel; Bal, Kemal Koray; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer is the neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of thyroid with mostly both secreting calcitonin and immunohistochemically showing calcitonin positivity. Occasionally; NETs of thyroid may have little or no calcitonin expression. We present a case of serum calcitonin negative and immunohistochemically calcitonin-negative staining tumor with positive reaction to neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranin-A. The patient’s right vocal cord was paralytic and thyroid mass was huge with descending to thorax till hilar region. We discussed diagnostic difficulties and way of treatment about NETs of thyroid with the light of current literature with this case. PMID:26312221

  2. Massage Therapy Given by Caregiver in Treating Quality of Life of Young Patients Undergoing Treatment for Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extramedullary Plasmacytoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Isolated Plasmacytoma of Bone; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Meningeal Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Myelofibrosis; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell

  3. Phase I Study of Cellular Immunotherapy for Recurrent/Refractory Malignant Glioma Using Intratumoral Infusions of GRm13Z40-2, An Allogeneic CD8+ Cytolitic T-Cell Line Genetically Modified to Express the IL 13-Zetakine and HyTK and to be Resistant to Glucocorticoids, in Combination With Interleukin-2

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Anaplastic Meningioma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brain Stem Glioma; Ependymoblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Grade III Meningioma; Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Mixed Glioma; Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Brain Tumor

  4. Bafetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent High-Grade Glioma or Brain Metastases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-18

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma

  5. Fludarabine Phosphate, Low-Dose Total-Body Irradiation, and Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Cyclosporine, Mycophenolate Mofetil, Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in Treating Patients With Hematopoietic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-01

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

  6. Alemtuzumab, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-13

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T

  7. Bendamustine Hydrochloride, Etoposide, Dexamethasone, and Filgrastim For Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Treating Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Lymphoma or Multiple Myeloma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-08

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  8. Blood Sample Markers of Reproductive Hormones in Assessing Ovarian Reserve in Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-06

    Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone

  9. Pediatric Extranodal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ellen M; Pavio, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Lymphoma is the third most common pediatric neoplasm. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounts for nearly half of cases and commonly involves extranodal sites. Compared with adults, this histologic spectrum of pediatric NHL is very narrow and consists of aggressive tumors. Patients typically present with widespread disease. Generally, NHL occurring in children includes Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Staging and assessment of therapeutic response are usually based on FDG-PET/CT. Due to the increased susceptibility of young patients to the effects of ionizing radiation, alternative methods of imaging are being explored.

  10. CPI-613 and Bendamustine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  11. 506U78 in Treating Patients With Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IV Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome

  12. Pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma in a four-month-old dog.

    PubMed

    Saegusa, S; Yamamura, H; Morita, T; Hasegawa, A

    1994-11-01

    A 4-month-old male Siberian Husky dog had a history of coughing, high fever and anorexia. Thoracic radiographs revealed increased radiographic density in the cranial and middle lobes of the right lung, with pleural effusion. Cytological examination of the pleural fluid suggested carcinomatous pleuritis. Right-side thoracotomy and resection of the cranial and middle lobes were performed. Histopathological examination of the resected tissue revealed an anaplastic large cell carcinoma. The tumour cells were positive for neuron specific enolase and also contained neuroendocrine granules. A particularly unusual feature of this case of pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma was the young age of the affected animal.

  13. A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Co-Infusion of Ex Vivo Expanded Cord Blood Cells With an Unmanipulated Cord Blood Unit in Patients Undergoing Cord Blood Transplant for Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-10

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma

  14. Anti-Yo Associated Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration in a Man with Large Cell Cancer of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James; Wang, Bonnie H.; Yekkirala, Lalitha

    2013-01-01

    Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody type 1 (PCA-1), or anti-Yo, is the most frequently detected autoantibody in paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD). The vast majority of cases of anti-Yo PCD, however, occur in females over 60 years old and are associated with gynecologic tumors. Only 10 cases have been reported in males, and only 2 were associated with cancer of the lung. Here we describe the youngest known case of PCA-1 positive PCD in a male, whose lung tumor was undetectable even on FDG-PET. PMID:24167748

  15. Just another abdominal pain? Psoas abscess-like metastasis in large cell lung cancer with adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Vera; Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Dias, João Lopes; Bento, Luís

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 69-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and previous pulmonary tuberculosis, who presented to the emergency department with abdominal and low back pain, anorexia and weight loss, rapidly evolving into shock. An initial CT scan revealed pulmonary condensation with associated cavitation and an iliopsoas mass suggestive of a psoas abscess. He was admitted in an intensive care unit unit; after a careful examination and laboratory assessment, the aetiology was yet undisclosed. MRI showed multiple retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies, bulky nodular adrenal lesions and bilateral iliac lytic lesions. Hypocortisolism was detected and treated with steroids. A CT-guided biopsy to the psoas mass and lytic lesions identified infiltration of non-small lung carcinoma. The patient died within days. Psoas metastases and adrenal insufficiency as initial manifestations of malignancy are rare and can be misdiagnosed, particularly in the absence of a known primary tumour. PMID:26063108

  16. Primary mediastinal large cell lymphoma (PMBL): frontline treatment with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The GEL-TAMO experience.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José; Conde, Eulogio; Gutiérrez, Antonio; García, Juan Carlos; Lahuerta, Juan José; Varela, María Rosario; Pérez, Catalina; Albo, Carmen; Caballero, María Dolores

    2008-09-01

    Given the excellent results obtained with present new induction regimens in PMBL, the role of frontline ASCT is controversial. We present 71 patients with PMBL receiving induction chemotherapy, followed by ASCT as frontline therapy from the GEL-TAMO registry. Most patients presented with high-risk clinical features. At transplant, 49% of patients were in CR, 32% in PR and 18% failed induction therapy; 53% received radiotherapy. After the transplant 75% of patients achieved CR. With a median follow-up of 52.5 months, the OS, PFS and DFS at 4 years from diagnosis were, respectively, 84%, 81% and 81% for the first CR patients and 49%, 42% and 82% for the induction failure (PR and refractory) patients. Disease progression was the main cause of death (79%). By multivariate survival analysis the tumour score, refractory disease at transplant and radiotherapy were independent variables associated with OS and PFS. Our experience, with a prolonged follow-up, shows that patients with PMBL presenting at diagnosis with high-risk features or PR response to induction therapy have an encouraging survival with frontline ASCT. However, patients who received the transplant after failing the induction regimen have a very poor prognosis and should be tested with other innovative approaches. Finally, only a randomized trial could prove the value of ASCT as frontline therapy and also must be considered that addition to Rituximab to induction treatments could make ASCT unnecessary. PMID:18432630

  17. Maintenance therapy with interferon-alpha 2b, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone in aggressive diffuse large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Agustin; Neri, Natividad; Nambo, M Jesús; Castañeda, Claudia; Talavera, Alejandra; Huerta-Guzmán, Judith; Murillo, Edgar

    2004-04-01

    Maintenance therapy in patients with aggressive malignant lymphoma using biological modifiers remains uncertain. We conducted a controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of interferon-alpha 2b, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone as maintenance therapy in patients with aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphomas in complete remission after aggressive chemotherapy. In an intent-to-treat analysis, 169 patients were eligible for this study; the end points were event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). With a median follow-up of 49.3 months, no statistical differences were observed and actuarial curves at 5 years showed that EFS was 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63-79%) for patients who received maintenance compared to 63% (95% CI, 59-71%) for patients in control group (p = 0.05). No statistical differences were observed in OS between maintenance arm: 84% (95% CI, 78-89%) and control group 83% (95% CI, 77-88%) in control group (p = 0.2). All patients received the maintenance therapy as planned and in time, thus dose intensity was considered 1.0 in all cases. Acute toxicity was mild, and no delay or suspension of treatment was necessary. Late toxicity was not evident until now. We conclude that use of maintenance therapy combining interferon-alpha 2b, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone is not useful in patients with aggressive lymphoma if they had been treated with aggressive combined chemotherapy. PMID:15186737

  18. Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Who Have Undergone Total-Body Irradiation With or Without Fludarabine Phosphate Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-25

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous

  19. Genetically Modified Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-06

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; HIV-associated Hodgkin Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage II AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage III AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage IV AIDS-related Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  20. Panobinostat and Everolimus in Treating Patients With Recurrent Multiple Myeloma, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  1. Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoma or Multiple Myeloma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  2. Practical Management of CD30⁺ Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Lauren C

    2015-10-01

    Primary cutaneous CD30⁺ lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) account for approximately 25% of cutaneous lymphomas. Although these LPDs are clinically heterogeneous, they can be indistinguishable histologically. Lymphomatoid papulosis rarely requires systemic treatment; however, multifocal primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell cutaneous lymphoma and large cell transformation of mycosis fungoides are typically treated systemically. As CD30⁺ LPDs are rare, there is little published evidence to support a specific treatment algorithm. Most studies are case reports, small case series, or retrospective reviews. This article discusses various treatment choices for each of the CD30⁺ disorders and offers practical pearls to aid in choosing an appropriate regimen. PMID:26433852

  3. Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil With or Without Sirolimus in Preventing Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-14

    II Grade 3 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Immunoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell

  4. [Radiological trap and oncological precautions in a patient who has undergone a permanent withdrawal of PIP breast implants].

    PubMed

    Koutsomanis, A; Bruant-Rodier, C; Roedlich, M-N; Bretz-Grenier, M-F; Perrot, P; Bodin, F

    2015-12-01

    We report the case of a 57-year-old patient who presented radiological images similar to ruptured breast implants one year after the supposed withdrawal of the latter. This woman had benefited for the first time from cosmetic PIP breast implants in 2000. Early in 2014, she requested the removal of the implants without renewal because she was feeling pain and functional discomfort. A few months after the operation, she consulted for breast swelling in the upper pole of the breast. Radiological assessment showed liquid formations compatible with the presence of implants. At our request, the rereading of the MRI by the radiologist definitively concluded on a bilateral seroma within the persistent fibrous capsule. In the absence of symptoms, clinical monitoring had been decided. But at the recrudescence of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cases associated with breast implants, a cytological sampling was intended. In case of cytological abnormality or recurrence of the seroma, a surgical procedure should be performed. In conclusion, the removal of a breast implant without capsulectomy may result in the formation of a seroma whose images resemble those of an implant. It is always worthwhile to provide precise clinical data to the radiologist in order to help him to make informed interpretations. Every serous effusion in a breast lodge having contained a silicone implant must evoke the diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. PMID:26232069

  5. Primary and secondary T-cell lymphomas of the breast: clinico-pathologic features of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriela; Chioato, Lucimara; Harrington, William J; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2009-07-01

    Breast involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphomas is rare, and exceptional for T-cell lymphomas; we studied the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features of 11 patients with T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas involving the breast. Four cases fulfilled the definition criteria for primary breast lymphomas, 3 females and 1 male, with a median age of 51 years. One primary breast lymphomas was T-cell lymphoma unspecified, other was subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, and 2 cases were anaplastic large cell lymphomas. One of the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cases was found surrounding a silicone breast implant and presented as clinically as mastitis; whereas the other case occurred in a man. T-cell lymphoma secondarily involved the breast in 7 patients, all women and 1 bilateral, with a median age of 29 years. These secondary breast lymphomas occurred as part of widespread nodal or leukemic disease. Three patients had adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, including the patient with bilateral lesions, 3 others had precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia, and the other presented with a peripheral-T-cell lymphoma non otherwise specified type. Breast T-cell lymphomas are very infrequent and are morphologically and clinically heterogeneous.

  6. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-02

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  7. Use of EF5 to Measure the Oxygen Level in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  8. Fludarabine Phosphate, Melphalan, and Low-Dose Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Aplastic Anemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell

  9. Cyclophosphamide for Prevention of Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Hematological Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell

  10. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Radiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant and Immunosuppression in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T

  11. Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non

  12. Donor T Cells After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood

  13. Cilengitide (EMD 121974) in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Primary CNS Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2

  14. Lenalidomide as Maintenance Therapy After Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Rituximab and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma That is Resistant to Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-02

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  15. New treatment options for ALK+ advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: critical appraisal of ceritinib

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Sacha I

    2016-01-01

    Rearrangements in ALK gene and EML4 gene were first described in 2007. This genomic aberration is found in about 2%–8% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Crizotinib was the first ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor licensed for the treatment of metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC based on a randomized Phase III trial. Despite the initial treatment response of crizotinib, disease progression inevitably develops after approximately 10 months of therapy. Different resistance mechanisms have recently been described. One relevant mechanism of resistance is the development of mutations in ALK. Novel ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed to overcome these mutations. Ceritinib is an oral second-generation ALK inhibitor showing clinical activity not only in crizotinib-resistant ALK-positive NSCLC but also in treatment-naïve ALK-positive disease. In this paper, preclinical and clinical data of ceritinib are reviewed, and its role in the clinical setting is put into perspective. PMID:27217763

  16. Vorinostat and Radiation Therapy Followed by Maintenance Therapy With Vorinostat in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-02

    Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma

  17. Temsirolimus and Perifosine in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-06

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm

  18. WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 and Local Radiation Therapy in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-07

    Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma

  19. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Isotretinoin in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  20. p28 in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Central Nervous System Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-21

    Teratoid Tumor, Atypical; Choroid Plexus Neoplasms; Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brainstem Tumors; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Medulloblastoma; Neuroectodermal Tumor, Primitive

  1. Fludarabine and Total-Body Irradiation Followed By Donor Stem Cell Transplant and Cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Treating HIV-Positive Patients With or Without Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-28

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Aggressive NK-cell Leukemia; AIDS-related Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Primary CNS Lymphoma; AIDS-related Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2

  2. Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  3. MK2206 in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-28

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Aggressive NK-cell Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Central Nervous System Hodgkin Lymphoma; Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood

  4. Fludarabine Phosphate, Melphalan, Total-Body Irradiation, Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer or Bone Marrow Failure Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-05

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Aplastic Anemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Fanconi Anemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  5. Evidence Suggesting That Discontinuous Dosing of ALK Kinase Inhibitors May Prolong Control of ALK+ Tumors.

    PubMed

    Amin, Amit Dipak; Rajan, Soumya S; Liang, Winnie S; Pongtornpipat, Praechompoo; Groysman, Matthew J; Tapia, Edgar O; Peters, Tara L; Cuyugan, Lori; Adkins, Jonathan; Rimsza, Lisa M; Lussier, Yves A; Puvvada, Soham D; Schatz, Jonathan H

    2015-07-15

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is chromosomally rearranged in a subset of certain cancers, including 2% to 7% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and ∼70% of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL). The ALK kinase inhibitors crizotinib and ceritinib are approved for relapsed ALK(+) NSCLC, but acquired resistance to these drugs limits median progression-free survival on average to ∼10 months. Kinase domain mutations are detectable in 25% to 37% of resistant NSCLC samples, with activation of bypass signaling pathways detected frequently with or without concurrent ALK mutations. Here we report that, in contrast to NSCLC cells, drug-resistant ALCL cells show no evidence of bypassing ALK by activating alternate signaling pathways. Instead, drug resistance selected in this setting reflects upregulation of ALK itself. Notably, in the absence of crizotinib or ceritinib, we found that increased ALK signaling rapidly arrested or killed cells, allowing a prolonged control of drug-resistant tumors in vivo with the administration of discontinuous rather than continuous regimens of drug dosing. Furthermore, even when drug resistance mutations were detected in the kinase domain, overexpression of the mutant ALK was toxic to tumor cells. We confirmed these findings derived from human ALCL cells in murine pro-B cells that were transformed to cytokine independence by ectopic expression of an activated NPM-ALK fusion oncoprotein. In summary, our results show how ALK activation functions as a double-edged sword for tumor cell viability, with potential therapeutic implications. PMID:26018086

  6. Evidence Suggesting that Discontinuous Dosing of ALK Kinase Inhibitors May Prolong Control of ALK+ Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Amit Dipak; Rajan, Soumya S.; Liang, Winnie S.; Pongtornpipat, Praechompoo; Groysman, Matthew J.; Tapia, Edgar O.; Peters, Tara L.; Cuyugan, Lori; Adkins, Jonathan; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Lussier, Yves A.; Puvvada, Soham D.; Schatz, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase ALK is chromosomally rearranged in a subset of certain cancers, including 2–7% non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and ~70% of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL). The ALK kinase inhibitors crizotinib and ceritinib are approved for relapsed ALK+ NSCLC, but acquired resistance to these drugs limits median progression-free survival on average to ~10 months. Kinase domain mutations are detectable in 25–37% of resistant NSCLC samples, with activation of bypass signaling pathways detected frequently with or without concurrent ALK mutations. Here we report that, in contrast to NSCLC cells, drug resistant ALCL cells show no evidence of bypassing ALK by activating alternate signaling pathways. Instead, drug resistance selected in this setting reflects upregulation of ALK itself. Notably, in the absence of crizotinib or ceritinib, we found that increased ALK signaling rapidly arrested or killed cells, allowing a prolonged control of drug-resistant tumors in vivo with the administration of discontinuous rather than continuous regimens of drug dosing. Furthermore, even when drug resistance mutations were detected in the kinase domain, overexpression of the mutant ALK was toxic to tumor cells. We confirmed these findings derived from human ALCL cells in murine pro-B cells that were transformed to cytokine independence by ectopic expression of an activated NPM-ALK fusion oncoprotein. In summary, our results show how ALK activation functions as a double-edged sword for tumor cell viability, with potential therapeutic implications. PMID:26018086

  7. Determining the contribution of NPM1 heterozygosity to NPM-ALK-induced lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Mduff, Fiona K E; Hook, C Elizabeth; Tooze, Reuben M; Huntly, Brian J; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Turner, Suzanne D

    2011-09-01

    Heterozygous expression of Nucleophosmin (NPM1) predisposes to hematological malignancies in the mouse and cooperates with Myc in lymphomagenesis. NPM1 is therefore regarded as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Heterozygous loss of NPM1 occurs as a result of the t(2;5), which generates the oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinase, NPM-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a molecule underlying the pathogenesis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Given the aforementioned role of NPM1 as a tumor suppressor, we hypothesized that NPM1 heterozygosity would cooperate with NPM-ALK in lymphomagenesis. In the event, we observed no difference in tumor latency, incidence or phenotype in NPM-ALK-transgenic mice heterozygous for NPM1 relative to transgenic mice expressing both NPM1 alleles. We propose that although the t(2;5) simultaneously reduces NPM1 allelic dosage and creates the NPM-ALK fusion protein, the two events do not cooperate in the pathogenesis of ALCL in our mouse model. These data indicate that a tumor-suppressive role for NPM1 may depend on cellular and/or genetic context.

  8. The NPM-ALK tyrosine kinase mimics TCR signalling pathways, inducing NFAT and AP-1 by RAS-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Turner, Suzanne D; Yeung, Debra; Hadfield, Kathryn; Cook, Simon J; Alexander, Denis R

    2007-04-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) expression is associated with the lymphoid malignancy anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and results from a t(2;5) chromosomal translocation. We show that NPM-ALK induces Ras activation and phosphorylation of the ERK MAP Kinase consistent with activation of the Ras-MAP Kinase pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activation of Ras is necessary for inducing transcription via NFAT/AP-1 composite transcriptional binding sites. This activity is dependent on NPM-ALK forming complexes with proteins that bind to autophosphorylated tyrosine residues at positions 156, 567 and 664, associated with binding to IRS-1, Shc and PLCgamma, respectively. Specifically, NPM-ALK activates transcription from the TRE promoter element, an AP-1 binding region, an activity dependent on both Ras and Shc activity. Our results show that NPM-ALK mimics activated T-cell receptor signalling by inducing pathways associated with the activation of NFAT/AP-1 transcription factors that bind to promoter elements found in a broad array of cytokine genes.

  9. A "liaison dangereuse" between AUF1/hnRNPD and the oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK.

    PubMed

    Fawal, Mohamad; Armstrong, Florence; Ollier, Severine; Dupont, Henri; Touriol, Christian; Monsarrat, Bernard; Delsol, Georges; Payrastre, Bernard; Morello, Dominique

    2006-10-15

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is a chimeric protein expressed in a subset of cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) for which constitutive expression represents a key oncogenic event. The ALK signaling pathway is complex and probably involves functional redundancy between various signaling substrates of ALK. Despite numerous studies on signaling mediators, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the distinct oncogenic features of NPM-ALK remain incompletely understood. The search for additional interacting partners of NPM-ALK led to the discovery of AUF1/hnRNPD, a protein implicated in AU-rich element (ARE)-directed mRNA decay. AUF1 was immunoprecipitated with ALK both in ALCL-derived cells and in NIH3T3 cells stably expressing NPM-ALK or other X-ALK fusion proteins. AUF1 and NPM-ALK were found concentrated in the same cytoplasmic foci, whose formation required NPM-ALK tyrosine kinase activity. AUF1 was phosphorylated by ALK in vitro and was hyperphosphorylated in NPM-ALK-expressing cells. Its hyperphosphorylation was correlated with increased stability of several AUF1 target mRNAs encoding key regulators of cell proliferation and with increased cell survival after transcriptional arrest. Thus, AUF1 could function in a novel pathway mediating the oncogenic effects of NPM-ALK. Our data establish an important link between oncogenic kinases and mRNA turnover, which could constitute a critical aspect of tumorigenesis.

  10. Proteome-wide identification of novel binding partners to the oncogenic fusion gene protein, NPM-ALK, using tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Wang, Peng; Young, Leah C; Lai, Raymond; Li, Liang

    2009-02-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), an oncogenic fusion gene protein that is characteristically found in a subset of anaplastic large cell lymphomas, promotes tumorigenesis through its functional and physical interactions with various biologically important proteins. The identification of these interacting proteins has proven to be useful to further our understanding of NPM-ALK-mediated tumorigenesis. For the first time, we performed a proteome-wide identification of NPM-ALK-binding proteins using tandem affinity purification and a highly sensitive mass spectrometric technique. Tandem affinity purification is a recently developed method that carries a lower background and higher sensitivity compared with the conventional immunoprecipitation-based protein purification protocols. The NPM-ALK gene was cloned into an HB-tagged vector and expressed in GP293 cells. Three independent experiments were performed and the reproducibility of the data was 68%. The vast majority of the previously reported NPM-ALK-binding proteins were detected. We also identified proteins that are involved in various cellular processes that were not previously described in association with NPM-ALK, such as MCM6 and MSH2 (DNA repair), Nup98 and importin 8 (subcellular protein transport), Stim1 (calcium signaling), 82Fip (RNA regulation), and BAG2 (proteosome degradation). We believe that these data highlight the functional diversity of NPM-ALK and provide new research directions for the study of the biology of this oncoprotein.

  11. Cleavage of the JunB transcription factor by caspases generates a carboxyl-terminal fragment that inhibits activator protein-1 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason K H; Pearson, Joel D; Maser, Brandon E; Ingham, Robert J

    2013-07-26

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) family transcription factor, JunB, is an important regulator of proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and the immune response. In this report, we show that JunB is cleaved in a caspase-dependent manner in apoptotic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell lines and that ectopically expressed JunB is cleaved in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells treated with the NALP1b inflammasome activator, anthrax lethal toxin. In both cases, we identify aspartic acid 137 as the caspase cleavage site and demonstrate that JunB can be directly cleaved in vitro by multiple caspases at this site. Cleavage of JunB at aspartic acid 137 separates the N-terminal transactivation domain from the C-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains, and we show that the C-terminal cleavage fragment retains both DNA binding activity and the ability to interact with AP-1 family transcription factors. Furthermore, this fragment interferes with the binding of full-length JunB to AP-1 sites and inhibits AP-1-dependent transcription. In summary, we have identified and characterized a novel mechanism of JunB post-translational modification and demonstrate that the C-terminal JunB caspase cleavage product functions as a potent inhibitor of AP-1-dependent transcription.

  12. Challenging perspectives on the cellular origins of lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Tim I. M.; Hodson, Daniel J.; Macintyre, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Both B and T lymphocytes have signature traits that set them apart from other cell types. They actively and repeatedly rearrange their DNA in order to produce a unique and functional antigen receptor, they have potential for massive clonal expansion upon encountering antigen via this receptor or its precursor, and they have the capacity to be extremely long lived as ‘memory’ cells. All three of these traits are fundamental to their ability to function as the adaptive immune response to infectious agents, but concurrently render these cells vulnerable to transformation. Thus, it is classically considered that lymphomas arise at a relatively late stage in a lymphocyte's development during the process of modifying diversity within antigen receptors, and when the cell is capable of responding to stimulus via its receptor. Attempts to understand the aetiology of lymphoma have reinforced this notion, as the most notable advances to date have shown chronic stimulation of the antigen receptor by infectious agents or self-antigens to be key drivers of these diseases. Despite this, there is still uncertainty about the cell of origin in some lymphomas, and increasing evidence that a subset arises in a more immature cell. Specifically, a recent study indicates that T-cell lymphoma, in particular nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase-driven anaplastic large cell lymphoma, may originate in T-cell progenitors in the thymus. PMID:27683157

  13. Real-world data on prognostic factors and treatment in peripheral T-cell lymphomas: a study from the Swedish Lymphoma Registry.

    PubMed

    Ellin, Fredrik; Landström, Jenny; Jerkeman, Mats; Relander, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are rare lymphomas with mostly poor outcome with current treatment. The addition of etoposide to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) and upfront consolidation with autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) have shown promising results but have never been tested in randomized trials. As a complement to retrospective analyses of clinical trials, we aimed at analyzing prognostic factors and outcome in an unselected, population-based cohort. Through the Swedish Lymphoma Registry, we identified 755 PTCL patients diagnosed during a 10-year period. In addition to International Prognostic Index factors, male gender was associated with an adverse overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.28; P = .011) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 1.26; P = .014). In an intention-to-treat analysis in 252 nodal PTCL and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma patients (excluding anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), upfront auto-SCT was associated with a superior OS (HR, 0.58; P = .004) and PFS (HR, 0.56; P = .002) compared with patients treated without auto-SCT. The addition of etoposide to CHOP resulted in superior PFS in patients ≤60 years (HR, 0.49; P = .008). This study is the largest population-based PTCL cohort reported so far and provides important information on outcome in PTCL outside the setting of clinical trials.

  14. TKI sensitivity patterns of novel kinase-domain mutations suggest therapeutic opportunities for patients with resistant ALK+ tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Soumya S.; Gokhale, Vijay; Groysman, Matthew J.; Pongtornpipat, Praechompoo; Tapia, Edgar O.; Wang, Mengdie; Schatz, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein drives tumorigenesis in subsets of several tumors through chromosomal rearrangements that express and activate its C-terminal kinase domain. In addition, germline predisposition alleles and acquired mutations are found in the full-length protein in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma. ALK-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become important new drugs for ALK-driven lung cancer, but acquired resistance via multiple mechanisms including kinase-domain mutations eventually develops, limiting median progression-free survival to less than a year. Here we assess the impact of several kinase-domain mutations that arose during TKI resistance selections of ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell lines. These include novel variants with respect to ALK-fusion cancers, R1192P and T1151M, and with respect to ALCL, F1174L and I1171S. We assess the effects of these mutations on the activity of six clinical inhibitors in independent systems engineered to depend on either the ALCL fusion kinase NPM-ALK or the lung-cancer fusion kinase EML4-ALK. Our results inform treatment strategies with a likelihood of bypassing mutations when detected in resistant patient samples and highlight differences between the effects of particular mutations on the two ALK fusions. PMID:27009859

  15. Transfection of shRNA-encoding Minivector DNA of a few hundred base pairs to regulate gene expression in lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, N; Fogg, J M; Zechiedrich, L; Zu, Y

    2011-01-01

    This work illustrates the utility of Minivector DNA, a non-viral, supercoiled gene therapy vector incorporating short hairpin RNA from an H1 promoter. Minivector DNA is superior to both plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA (siRNA) in that it has improved biostability while maintaining high cell transfection efficiency and gene silencing capacity. Minivector DNAs were stable for over 48 h in human serum, as compared with only 0.5 and 2 h for siRNA and plasmid, respectively. Although all three nucleic acids exhibited similar transfection efficiencies in easily transfected adhesion fibroblasts cells, only Minivector DNAs and siRNA were capable of transfecting difficult-to-transfect suspension lymphoma cells. Minivector DNA and siRNA were capable of silencing the gene encoding anaplastic lymphoma kinase, a key pathogenic factor of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and this silencing caused inhibition of the lymphoma cells. Based on these results, Minivector DNAs are a promising new gene therapy tool. PMID:20962872

  16. PDGFR blockade is a rational and effective therapy for NPM-ALK-driven lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Laimer, Daniela; Dolznig, Helmut; Kollmann, Karoline; Vesely, Paul W; Schlederer, Michaela; Merkel, Olaf; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Hassler, Melanie R; Heider, Susi; Amenitsch, Lena; Thallinger, Christiane; Staber, Philipp B; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Artaker, Matthias; Lagger, Sabine; Turner, Suzanne D; Pileri, Stefano; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Valent, Peter; Messana, Katia; Landra, Indira; Weichhart, Thomas; Knapp, Sylvia; Shehata, Medhat; Todaro, Maria; Sexl, Veronika; Höfler, Gerald; Piva, Roberto; Medico, Enzo; Ruggeri, Bruce A; Cheng, Mangeng; Eferl, Robert; Egger, Gerda; Penninger, Josef M; Jaeger, Ulrich; Moriggl, Richard; Inghirami, Giorgio; Kenner, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma found in children and young adults. ALCLs frequently carry a chromosomal translocation that results in expression of the oncoprotein nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK). The key molecular downstream events required for NPM-ALK-triggered lymphoma growth have been only partly unveiled. Here we show that the activator protein 1 family members JUN and JUNB promote lymphoma development and tumor dissemination through transcriptional regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRB) in a mouse model of NPM-ALK-triggered lymphomagenesis. Therapeutic inhibition of PDGFRB markedly prolonged survival of NPM-ALK transgenic mice and increased the efficacy of an ALK-specific inhibitor in transplanted NPM-ALK tumors. Notably, inhibition of PDGFRA and PDGFRB in a patient with refractory late-stage NPM-ALK(+) ALCL resulted in rapid, complete and sustained remission. Together, our data identify PDGFRB as a previously unknown JUN and JUNB target that could be a highly effective therapy for ALCL.

  17. Imaging Characteristics of Driver Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and ALK among Treatment-Naïve Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jangchul; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Urayama, Kevin Y.; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hida, Toyoaki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the computed tomography characteristics of treatment-naïve patients with lung adenocarcinoma and known driver mutations in EGFR, KRAS, or ALK. Patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma (stage IIIB–IV) and known mutations in EGFR, KRAS, or ALK were assessed. The radiological findings for the main tumor and intra-thoracic status were retrospectively analyzed in each group, and the groups’ characteristics were compared. We identified 265 treatment-naïve patients with non-small-cell carcinoma, who had EGFR mutations (n = 159), KRAS mutations (n = 55), or ALK rearrangements (n = 51). Among the three groups, we evaluated only patients with stage IIIB–IV lung adenocarcinoma who had EGFR mutations (n = 126), KRAS mutations (n = 35), or ALK rearrangements (n = 47). We found that ground-glass opacity at the main tumor was significantly more common among EGFR-positive patients, compared to ALK-positive patients (p = 0.009). Lymphadenopathy was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients (p = 0.003). Extranodal invasion was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients and KRAS-positive patients (p = 0.001 and p = 0.049, respectively). Lymphangitis was significantly more common among ALK-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients (p = 0.049). Pleural effusion was significantly less common among KRAS-positive patients, compared to EGFR-positive patients and ALK-positive patients (p = 0.046 and p = 0.026, respectively). Lung metastases were significantly more common among EGFR-positive patients, compared to KRAS-positive patients and ALK-positive patients (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). In conclusion, EGFR mutations were associated with ground-glass opacity, KRAS-positive tumors were generally solid and less likely to metastasize to the lung and pleura, and ALK-positive tumors tended to present with lymphadenopathy, extranodal

  18. Strikingly high false positivity of surveillance FDG-PET/CT scanning among patients with diffuse large cell lymphoma in the rituximab era.

    PubMed

    Avivi, Irit; Zilberlicht, Ariel; Dann, Eldad J; Leiba, Ronit; Faibish, Tal; Rowe, Jacob M; Bar-Shalom, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    Predictive value (PV) of surveillance fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with chemotherapy-rituximab (R) versus chemotherapy only, remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to compare the performance of surveillance PET in DLBCL patients receiving CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine, and prednisone) alone versus CHOP-R. Institutional database was retrospectively searched for adults with newly diagnosed DLBCL, receiving CHOP or CHOP-R, who achieved complete remission and underwent surveillance PETs. Follow-up (FU) PET was considered positive for recurrence in case of an uptake unrelated to physiological or known benign process. Results were confirmed by biopsy, imaging and clinical FU. One hundred nineteen patients, 35 receiving CHOP and 84 CHOP-R, who underwent 422 FU-PETs, were analyzed. At a median PET-FU of 3.4 years, 31 patients relapsed (17 vs. 14, respectively; P = 0.02). PET detected all relapses, with no false-negative studies. Specificity and positive PV (PPV) were significantly lower for patients receiving CHOP-R vs. CHOP (84% vs. 87%, P = 0.023; 23% vs. 74%, P < 0.0001), reflecting a higher false-positive (FP) rate in subjects receiving CHOP-R (77% vs. 26%, P < 0.001). In the latter group, FP-rate remained persistently high up to 3 years post-therapy. Multivariate analysis confirmed rituximab to be the most significant predictor for FP-PET. In conclusion, routine surveillance FDG-PET is not recommended in DLBCL treated with rituximab; strict criteria identifying patients in whom FU-PET is beneficial are required. PMID:23423884

  19. Vorinostat and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-12-08

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  20. Lenalidomide With or Without Rituximab in Treating Patients With Progressive or Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Prolymphocytic Leukemia, or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Previously Treated With Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-03

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  1. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  2. Ipilimumab and Local Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Melanoma, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Colon, or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-19

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  3. Study of Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Patients With Relapsed Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-09

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  4. Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in Treating Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Multiple Myeloma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-24

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  5. Vorinostat, Rituximab, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoma or Previously Untreated T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-02

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IV Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  6. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Dexamethasone, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-25

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  7. Etoposide, Filgrastim, and Plerixafor in Improving Stem Cell Mobilization in Treating Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Grade III