Science.gov

Sample records for alkali blue 6b

  1. The antinociceptive effects of intracerebroventricular administration of Chicago sky blue 6B, a vesicular glutamate transporter inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gang; Yi, Shoupu; Wang, Meiliang; Yan, Hui; Yan, Lingdi; Su, Ruibin; Gong, Zehui

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), which control the storage and release of glutamate, may play a role in pain processing. Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), which is structurally related to glutamate, is a competitive VGLUT inhibitor without affecting plasma membrane transporters. The present study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of CSB6B in a number of pain models. The hot-plate test was used as an acute thermal pain test. Inflammatory pain was evaluated using acetic acid writhing, formalin, and complete Freund's adjuvant tests. Intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B did not affect acute thermal pain responses in 50 or 55°C hot plate tests. However, CSB6B attenuated acetic acid-induced writhing in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In addition, CSB6B reduced licking/biting behavior during the second phase, but not during the first phase, following an intraplantar injection of formalin. In the complete Freund's adjuvant test, a significant attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia was also observed in CSB6B-treated mice. At antinociceptive doses, CSB6B did not affect mice spontaneous locomotor activity. The present study shows that pharmacological inhibition of VGLUT activity was sufficient to attenuate experimental inflammatory pain and suggests that regulation of VGLUTs might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain. PMID:24128751

  2. Control of the alkali cation alignment in Prussian blue framework.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Kim, Jungeun; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    We found that the alignments of the alkali cations can be controlled by a distortion of Prussian blue framework; the rubidium ions form a rod structure in a distorted framework of Rb(0.85)Cu[Fe(CN)(6)](0.95)·1.3H(2)O, while the cesium ions are isolated dot structures in a non-distorted framework of Cs(0.97)Cu[Fe(CN)(6)](0.99)·1.1H(2)O. The Madelung energy calculations revealed that the novel rod structure is stabilized by the alternating rotations of the [Fe(CN)(6)] units within the three-dimensional coordination polymer framework. PMID:22466815

  3. Blue satellites of absorption spectrum study of sodium based excimer-pumped alkali vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shu; Gai, Baodong; Guo, Jingwei; Tan, Yannan; Liu, Jinbo; Li, Hui; Cai, Xianglong; Shi, Zhe; Liu, Wanfa; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    Sodium based excimer-pump alkali laser (Na-XPAL) is expected to be an efficient method to generate sodium beacon light, but the information about the spectroscopic characters of Na-XPAL remains sparse so far. In this work, we utilized the relative fluorescence intensity to study the absorption spectrum of blue satellites of complexes of sodium with different collision partners. The yellow fluorescence of Na D1 and D2 line was clearly visible. After processing the fluorescence intensity and the input pumping laser relative intensity, we obtained the Na-CH4 system's blue satellites was from 553nm to 556nm. Meanwhile, we experimentally demonstrated the Na-Ar and Na-Xe system's wavelength range of blue satellites. Also, it was observed that the Na-Xe system's absorption was stronger than the other two systems.

  4. Exfoliation of Egyptian Blue and Han Blue, Two Alkali Earth Copper Silicate-based Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Salguero, Tina T.

    2014-01-01

    In a visualized example of the ancient past connecting with modern times, we describe the preparation and exfoliation of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10, the colored components of the historic Egyptian blue and Han blue pigments. The bulk forms of these materials are synthesized by both melt flux and solid-state routes, which provide some control over the crystallite size of the product. The melt flux process is time intensive, but it produces relatively large crystals at lower reaction temperatures. In comparison, the solid-state method is quicker yet requires higher reaction temperatures and yields smaller crystallites. Upon stirring in hot water, CaCuSi4O10 spontaneously exfoliates into monolayer nanosheets, which are characterized by TEM and PXRD. BaCuSi4O10 on the other hand requires ultrasonication in organic solvents to achieve exfoliation. Near infrared imaging illustrates that both the bulk and nanosheet forms of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 are strong near infrared emitters. Aqueous CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 nanosheet dispersions are useful because they provide a new way to handle, characterize, and process these materials in colloidal form. PMID:24796494

  5. A Novel Contrast Stain for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pityriasis Versicolor: A Comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B Stain, Potassium Hydroxide Mount and Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lodha, Nikita; Poojary, Shital Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB) is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain) with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1) KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2) culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen's Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement) among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%), 92 (92%) and 56 (56%) patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%). Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001). Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001) as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107). Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount. PMID:26288400

  6. Alkali Bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alkali bee, Nomia melanderi, is native to deserts and semi-arid desert basins of the western United States. It is a very effective and manageable pollinator for the production of seed in alfalfa (=lucerne) and some other crops, such as onion. It is the world’s only intensively managed ground-n...

  7. Functional diversity and mutational analysis of Agrobacterium 6B oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Helfer, A; Pien, S; Otten, L

    2002-07-01

    Many Agrobacterium T-DNA genes belong to a diverse family of T-DNA genes, the rolB family. These genes cause various growth abnormalities but their modes of action remain largely unknown. So far, none of the RolB-like proteins has been subjected to mutational analysis. The RolB-like oncoprotein 6B, which induces tumours on species such as Nicotiana glauca and Kalanchoe tubiflora, was chosen to investigate the role of the most conserved amino acid residues within the RolB family. We first determined which of the natural 6B variants had the strongest oncogenic activity; to this end, six 6b coding sequences (A- 6b, AB- 6b, C- 6b, CG- 6b, S- 6b and T- 6b) were placed under the control of the strong constitutive 2x35S promoter and compared for tumour induction on N. glauca, N. tabacum and K. daigremontiana. Oncogenicity increased in the order C- 6b/CG- 6b, A- 6b/AB- 6b, and S- 6b/T- 6b. The most conserved amino acid residues in the strongly oncogenic T-6B protein were mutated and shown to be required for oncogenicity and accumulation of the T-6B protein in planta but not in bacteria. Hybrids between T-6B and the weakly oncogenic A-6B protein revealed an additional oncogenic determinant required for the formation of large tumours. PMID:12172796

  8. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  9. Milk-alkali syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  10. Novel mutations in PDE6B causing human retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lu-Lu; Han, Ru-Yi; Yang, Fa-Yu; Yu, Xin-Ping; Xu, Jin-Ling; Min, Qing-Jie; Tian, Jie; Ge, Xiang-Lian; Zheng, Si-Si; Lin, Ye-Wen; Zheng, Yi-Han; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify the genetic defects of a Chinese patient with sporadic retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS Ophthalmologic examinations were performed on the sporadic RP patient, 144 genes associated with retinal diseases were scanned with capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) approach. Two heterozygous mutations in PDE6B were confirmed in the pedigree by Sanger sequencing subsequently. The carrier frequency of PDE6B mutations of reported PDE6B mutations based on the available two public exome databases (1000 Genomes Project and ESP6500 Genomes Project) and one in-house exome database was investigated. RESULTS We identified compound heterozygosity of two novel nonsense mutations c.1133G>A (p.W378X) and c.2395C>T (p.R799X) in PDE6B, one reported causative gene for RP. Neither of the two mutations in our study was presented in three exome databases. Two mutations (p.R74C and p.T604I) in PDE6B have relatively high frequencies in the ESP6500 and in-house databases, respectively, while no common dominant mutation in each of the database or across all databases. CONCLUSION We demonstrates that compound heterozygosity of two novel nonsense mutations in PDE6B could lead to RP. These results collectively point to enormous potential of next-generation sequencing in determining the genetic etiology of RP and how various mutations in PDE6B contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of RP. PMID:27588261

  11. 6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 3.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. A ground-based optical transmission spectrum of WASP-6b

    SciTech Connect

    Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Rabus, Markus; Eyheramendy, Susana; Sing, David K.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; López-Morales, Mercedes; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present a ground-based optical transmission spectrum of the inflated sub-Jupiter-mass planet WASP-6b. The spectrum was measured in 20 spectral channels from 480 nm to 860 nm using a series of 91 spectra over a complete transit event. The observations were carried out using multi-object differential spectrophotometry with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We model systematic effects on the observed light curves using principal component analysis on the comparison stars and allow for the presence of short and long memory correlation structure in our Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis of the transit light curves for WASP-6. The measured transmission spectrum presents a general trend of decreasing apparent planetary size with wavelength and lacks evidence for broad spectral features of Na and K predicted by clear atmosphere models. The spectrum is consistent with that expected for scattering that is more efficient in the blue, as could be caused by hazes or condensates in the atmosphere of WASP-6b. WASP-6b therefore appears to be yet another massive exoplanet with evidence for a mostly featureless transmission spectrum, underscoring the importance that hazes and condensates can have in determining the transmission spectra of exoplanets.

  13. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  14. Apparatus enables accurate determination of alkali oxides in alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.; Gahn, R. F.; Graab, J. W.; Maple, W. E.; Rosenblum, L.

    1966-01-01

    Evacuated apparatus determines the alkali oxide content of an alkali metal by separating the metal from the oxide by amalgamation with mercury. The apparatus prevents oxygen and moisture from inadvertently entering the system during the sampling and analytical procedure.

  15. Alkalis and Skin.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John E; Tan, Jin Lin; Ming, Justin Choong Tzen; Abell, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to provide an overview of the chemical interactions occurring in the skin of our patients on contact with alkaline agents. Strongly basic alkali is highly aggressive and will readily hydrolyze (or cleave) key biological molecules such as lipids and proteins. This phenomenon is known as saponification in the case of lipids and liquefactive denaturation for peptides and proteins. A short section on current first-aid concepts is included. A better understanding of the basic science behind alkali burns will make us better teachers and provide an insight into the urgency needed in treating these common and dangerous chemical injuries. PMID:26182072

  16. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  17. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  18. Chlor-Alkali Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, S.; Tilak, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    Chlor-alkali technology is one of the largest electrochemical industries in the world, the main products being chlorine and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) generated simultaneously by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. This technology is reviewed in terms of electrochemical principles and manufacturing processes involved. (Author/JN)

  19. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  20. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  1. Cathodoluminescence Characterization of Maskelynite and Alkali Feldspar in Shergottite (Dhofar 019)

    SciTech Connect

    Kayama, M.; Nakazato, T.; Nishido, H.; Ninagawa, K.; Gucsik, A.

    2009-08-17

    Dhofar 019 is classified as an olivine-bearing basaltic shergottite and consists of subhedral grains of pyroxene, olivine, feldspar mostly converted to maskelynite and minor alkali feldspar. The CL spectrum of its maskelynite exhibits an emission band at around 380 nm. Similar UV-blue emission has been observed in the plagioclase experimentally shocked at 30 and 40 GPa, but not in terrestrial plagioclase. This UV-blue emission is a notable characteristic of maskelynite. CL spectrum of alkali feldspar in Dhofar 019 has an emission bands at around 420 nm with no red emission. Terrestrial alkali feldspar actually consists of blue and red emission at 420 and 710 nm assigned to Al-O{sup -}-Al and Fe{sup 3+} centers, respectively. Maskelynite shows weak and broad Raman spectral peaks at around 500 and 580 cm{sup -1}. The Raman spectrum of alkali feldspar has a weak peak at 520 cm{sup -1}, whereas terrestrial counterpart shows the emission bands at 280, 400, 470, 520 and 1120 cm{sup -1}. Shock pressure on this meteorite transformed plagioclase and alkali feldspar into maskelynite and almost glass phase, respectively. It eliminates their luminescence centers, responsible for disappearance of yellow and/or red emission in CL of maskelynite and alkali feldspar. The absence of the red emission band in alkali feldspar can also be due to the lack of Fe{sup 3+} in the feldspar as it was reported for some lunar feldspars.

  2. Human Herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7.

    PubMed

    Agut, Henri; Bonnafous, Pascale; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2016-06-01

    Human roseoloviruses include three different species, human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7 (HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7), genetically related to human cytomegalovirus. They exhibit a wide cell tropism in vivo and, like other herpesviruses, induce a lifelong latent infection in humans. In about 1% of the general population, HHV-6 DNA is covalently integrated into the subtelomeric region of cell chromosomes (ciHHV-6). Many active infections, corresponding to primary infections, reactivations, or exogenous reinfections, are asymptomatic. They also may cause serious diseases, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, including hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) and solid-organ transplant recipients, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. This opportunistic pathogenic role is formally established for HHV-6 infection and less clear for HHV-7. It mainly concerns the central-nervous system, bone marrow, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and liver. As the best example, HHV-6 causes both exanthema subitum, a benign disease associated with primary infection, and severe encephalitis associated with virus reactivations in HSCT recipients. Diagnosis using serologic and direct antigen-detection methods currently exhibits limitations. The most prominent technique is the quantification of viral DNA in blood, other body fluids, and organs by means of real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR). The antiviral compounds ganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir are effective against active infections, but there is currently no consensus regarding the indications of treatment or specifics of drug administration. Numerous questions about HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7 are still pending, concerning in particular clinical impact and therapeutic options in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27337451

  3. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  4. Characterization of the Inductively Heated Plasma Source IPG6-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2014-10-01

    In close collaboration between the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER) at Baylor University, Texas, and the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, two plasma facilities have been established using the Inductively heated Plasma Generator 6 (IPG6). The facility at Baylor University (IPG6-B) works at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and a maximum power of 15 kW. A vacuum pump of 160 m3/h in combination with a butterfly valve allows pressure control over a wide range. Intended fields of research include basic investigation into thermo-chemistry and plasma radiation, space plasma environments and high heat fluxes e.g. those found in fusion devices or during atmospheric re-entry of spacecraft. After moving the IPG6-B facility to the Baylor Research and Innovation Collaborative (BRIC) it was placed back into operation during the summer of 2014. Initial characterization in the new lab, using a heat flux probe, Pitot probe and cavity calorimeter, has been conducted for Air, Argon and Helium. The results of this characterization are presented.

  5. Simple model potential and model wave functions for (H-alkali)+ and (alkali-alkali)+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, S. H.; Tang, K. T.

    2000-07-01

    A simple model potential is proposed to describe the interaction of a valence electron with the alkali core, which incorporates the correct asymptotic behavior in terms of dipolar polarizabilities, and the short-range exchange effects in terms of a hard core adjusted to give the correct energy for the valence electron. Based on this potential, simple wave functions are developed to describe the (H-alkali)+ and (alkali-alkali)+ ions. These wave functions exhibit some important structures of the ions, and provide a universal description of the properties of all (H-alkali)+ and (alkali-alkali)+ ions, in particular, the equilibrium separations of the nuclei and the corresponding dissociation energies. They also allow us to calculate the dipolar polarizabilities of Li2+, Na2+, K2+, Rb2+, and Cs2+.

  6. Alkali-vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Komashko, A.; Krupke, W. F.

    2010-02-01

    We report on the results from several of our alkali laser systems. We show highly efficient performance from an alexandrite-pumped rubidium laser. Using a laser diode stack as a pump source, we demonstrate up to 145 W of average power from a CW system. We present a design for a transversely pumped demonstration system that will show all of the required laser physics for a high power system.

  7. Multi-photon processes in alkali metal vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Baodong; Hu, Shu; Li, Hui; Shi, Zhe; Cai, Xianglong; Guo, Jingwei; Tan, Yannan; Liu, Wanfa; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    Achieving population inversion through multi-photon cascade pumping is almost always difficult, and most laser medium work under 1-photon excitation mechanism. But for alkali atoms such as cesium, relatively large absorption cross sections of several low, cascading energy levels enable them properties such as up conversion. Here we carried out research on two-photon excitation alkali fluorescence. Two photons of near infrared region are used to excite alkali atoms to n 2 D5/2, n 2 D3/2 or higher energy levels, then the blue fluorescence of (n+1) 2 P3/2,(n+1) 2 P1/2-->n 2 S1/2 are observed. Different pumping paths are tried and by the recorded spectra, transition routes of cesium are deducted and concluded. Finally the possibility of two-photon style DPALs (diode pumped alkali laser) are discussed, such alkali lasers can give output wavelengths in the shorter end of visual spectroscopy (400-460 nm) and are expected to get application in underwater communication and material laser processing.

  8. Adsorption on Alkali Halides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzua Duran, Gilberto Antonio

    1995-01-01

    Using a variety of interionic potentials, I have computed the configurations of adsorbed alkali halides monomers on the (001) surface of selected alkali halides crystals. In the majority of cases studied it is found that the monomer adsorbs perpendicular to the surface with the cation sitting nearly on top of the surface anion. In about ten percent of the cases though the monomer adsorbs tilted from the vertical. In these cases the ion that is closer to the surface can be the cation or the anion. The effect of polarization forces is found to be important. In order to discuss the effects of surface retaxation with adsorbates, I have evaluated the surface relaxation of the alkali halide crystals, using a shell model for the interionic forces. It is found that surface relaxation and rumpling are generally small, especially when the van der Waals forces are included. A theory of the effect of substrate vibrations on the binding of an adsorbed atom is developed. At T = 0 the binding energy is D_0-E, where D_0 is the surface well depth (classical binding energy) and E is the quantum correction. For several simple models, it is found that E is surprisingly model-independent. We compare D _0-E with the binding energies to a rigid substrate, D_0-E_{rs}, and to a vibrationally averaged substrate, D _0-E_{va}. We prove that E_{va}>=q E>=q E_ {rs} and that similar relations hold at finite temperature for the free energy of binding. In most cases E_{rs} is better than E_{va} as an approximation to E.

  9. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  10. Preparation of alkali metal dispersions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Landel, R. F. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for producing alkali metal dispersions of high purity. The dispersions are prepared by varying the equilibrium solubility of the alkali metal in a suitable organic solvent in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The equilibrium variation is produced by temperature change. The size of the particles is controlled by controlling the rate of temperature change.

  11. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  12. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today. PMID:8065194

  13. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  14. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  15. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  16. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  17. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  18. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the...

  19. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  20. Human herpesvirus 6B reactivation and delirium are frequent and associated events after cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hill, J A; Boeckh, M; Leisenring, W M; Xie, H; Adler, A L; Huang, M-L; Fann, J R; Delaney, C; Zerr, D M

    2015-10-01

    Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) frequently reactivates after cord blood transplantation (CBT). We previously reported an association between HHV-6B reactivation and delirium after hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this prospective study, 35 CBT recipients underwent twice-weekly plasma PCR testing for HHV-6 and thrice-weekly delirium assessment until day 84. There was a quantitative association between HHV-6B reactivation and delirium in univariable (odds ratio, 2.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-8.59) and bivariable models. In addition, intensified prophylaxis with high-dose valacyclovir mitigated HHV-6B reactivation (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.14-1.08). Larger trials are needed to explore the utility of HHV-6B prophylaxis after CBT. PMID:26121112

  1. Classification of HHV-6A and HHV-6B as distinct viruses

    PubMed Central

    Agut, Henri; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Clark, Duncan A.; Dewhurst, Stephen; DiLuca, Dario; Flamand, Louis; Frenkel, Niza; Gallo, Robert; Gompels, Ursula A.; Höllsberg, Per; Jacobson, Steven; Luppi, Mario; Lusso, Paolo; Malnati, Mauro; Medveczky, Peter; Mori, Yasuko; Pellett, Philip E.; Pritchett, Joshua C.; Yamanishi, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), two distinct variants, HHV-6A and HHV-6B, were identified. In 2012, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classified HHV-6A and HHV-6B as separate viruses. This review outlines several of the documented epidemiological, biological, and immunological distinctions between HHV-6A and HHV-6B, which support the ICTV classification. The utilization of virus-specific clinical and laboratory assays for distinguishing HHV-6A and HHV-6B is now required for further classification. For clarity in biological and clinical distinctions between HHV-6A and HHV-6B, scientists and physicians are herein urged, where possible, to differentiate carefully between HHV-6A and HHV-6B in all future publications. PMID:24193951

  2. Cadherin-6B undergoes macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis during cranial neural crest cell EMT

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Rangarajan; Taneyhill, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for the formation of migratory neural crest cells during development and is co-opted in human diseases such as cancer metastasis. Chick premigratory cranial neural crest cells lose intercellular contacts, mediated in part by Cadherin-6B (Cad6B), migrate extensively, and later form a variety of adult derivatives. Importantly, modulation of Cad6B is crucial for proper neural crest cell EMT. Although Cad6B possesses a long half-life, it is rapidly lost from premigratory neural crest cell membranes, suggesting the existence of post-translational mechanisms during EMT. We have identified a motif in the Cad6B cytoplasmic tail that enhances Cad6B internalization and reduces the stability of Cad6B upon its mutation. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Cad6B is removed from premigratory neural crest cells through cell surface internalization events that include clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Both of these processes are dependent upon the function of dynamin, and inhibition of Cad6B internalization abrogates neural crest cell EMT and migration. Collectively, our findings reveal the significance of post-translational events in controlling cadherins during neural crest cell EMT and migration. PMID:25795298

  3. Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Eakman, James M.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.

    1979-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

  4. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  5. Absence of human herpesvirus 6B detection in association with illness in children undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Johanna; Borges, Nirica; Gowans, Laura K; Kohn, Debra; Worley, Sarah; Li, Liang; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Lach, Donna; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Yee-Guardino, Stephanie; Trunick, Charles; Pellett, Philip E

    2016-08-01

    The lymphotropic herpesviruses, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) can reactivate and cause disease in organ transplant recipients; the contributions of HHV-6A and HHV-7 to disease are less certain. Less is known about their pathogenic roles in children undergoing treatment for malignancies. Children with newly diagnosed cancer were followed for 24 months. Clinical information and blood samples were collected during routine visits and during acute visits for fever or possible viral infections. Lymphotropic herpesvirus DNA in blood was measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although HHV-6B DNA was detected at least once in about half of the patients; the other viruses were seldom detected. There was no association between HHV-6B detection and individual acute clinical events, however, HHV-6B detection was more common in children who experienced more frequent acute clinical events. In children being treated for various malignancies, HHV-6B detection was common, but was not associated with individual events of acute illness. Thus, if HHV-6B is not assessed longitudinally, clinical events may be misattributed to the virus. The elevated frequency of detection of HHV-6B in sicker children is consistent with prior reports of its detection during apparently unrelated acute clinical events. J. Med. Virol. 88:1427-1437, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26815906

  6. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Strain Pantoea sp. OXWO6B1

    PubMed Central

    Town, Jennifer; Audy, Patrice; Boyetchko, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea sp. strain OXWO6B1 inhibits the growth of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. We determined the 5.2-Mbp genome sequence of this strain, which featured at least 3 confirmed plasmids of up to 250 kbp. The genome sequence of OXWO6B1 is different from that of all previously sequenced strains of Pantoea. PMID:27340064

  7. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  8. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    DOEpatents

    Joshi, Ashok V.; Balagopal, Shekar; Pendelton, Justin

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  9. The calcium-alkali syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Mariangeli; Fenves, Andrew Z; Emmett, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The milk-alkali syndrome was a common cause of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal failure in the early 20th century. It was caused by the ingestion of large quantities of milk and absorbable alkali to treat peptic ulcer disease. The syndrome virtually vanished after introduction of histamine-2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors. More recently, a similar condition called the calcium-alkali syndrome has emerged as a common cause of hypercalcemia and alkalosis. It is usually caused by the ingestion of large amounts of calcium carbonate salts to prevent or treat osteoporosis and dyspepsia. We describe a 78-year-old woman who presented with weakness, malaise, and confusion. She was found to have hypercalcemia, acute renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis. Upon further questioning, she reported use of large amounts of calcium carbonate tablets to treat recent heartburn symptoms. Calcium supplements were discontinued, and she was treated with intravenous normal saline. After 5 days, the calcium and bicarbonate levels normalized and renal function returned to baseline. In this article, we review the pathogenesis of the calcium-alkali syndrome as well as the differences between the traditional and modern syndromes. PMID:23543983

  10. Molecular insights into plant cell proliferation disturbance by Agrobacterium protein 6b

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meimei; Soyano, Takashi; Machida, Satoru; Yang, Jun-Yi; Jung, Choonkyun; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yuan, Y. Adam

    2011-01-01

    The Agrobacterium Ti plasmid (T-DNA) 6b proteins interact with many different host proteins implicated in plant cell proliferation. Here, we show that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing 6b display microRNA (miRNA) deficiency by directly targeting SERRATE and AGO1 via a specific loop fragment (residues 40–55). In addition, we report the crystal structures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens AK6b at 2.1 Å, Agrobacterium vitis AB6b at 1.65 Å, and Arabidopsis ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) at 1.8 Å. The 6b structure adopts an ADP-ribosylating toxin fold closely related to cholera toxin. In vitro ADP ribosylation analysis demonstrates that 6b represents a new toxin family, with Tyr 66, Thr 93, and Tyr 153 as the ADP ribosylation catalytic residues in the presence of Arabidopsis ARF and GTP. Our work provides molecular insights, suggesting that 6b regulates plant cell growth by the disturbance of the miRNA pathway through its ADP ribosylation activity. PMID:21156810

  11. Progress in Understanding Alkali-Alkali Spin Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Christopher J.; Happer, William; Chann, Bien; Kadlecek, Stephen; Anderson, L. W.; Walker, Thad G.

    2000-06-01

    In extensive experiments we have shown that a spin interaction with a relatively long correlation time causes much of the spin relaxation in very dense alkali-metal vapors. The spin relaxation is affected by the pressure of the helium or nitrogen buffer gas, although there is little dependence at pressures above one atmosphere. There are substantial differences in the relaxation rates for different isotopes of the same element, for example ^87Rb and ^85Rb. We have completed extensive modeling of how singlet and triplet dimers and doublet trimers of the alkali-metal atoms could cause spin relaxation in dense alkali-metal vapors. In the case of doublet trimers or triplet dimers, we assume the main coupling to the nuclear spins is through the Fermi Contact interaction with the unpaired electrons. Spin loss to the rotation of the molecule is assumed to occur through the electronic spin-rotation and spin-axis (dipole-dipole) interactions for the triplet dimers. For the singlet dimers, we assume that the nuclear spins couple directly to the rotational angular momentum of the molecule through the electric quadrupole interaction. We account for all of the total nuclear spin states that occur for the dimers and trimers. We have also considered the possibility that the collisional breakup and formation rates of the dimers or trimers could saturate with increasing buffer gas pressure. Such saturation occurs in many other unimolecular reactions and is often ascribed to breakup through activated states.

  12. 17. A southward view of buildings #6B and #6 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. A southward view of buildings #6-B and #6 in the left background and buildings #5 (center) and #3 (right of center). - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  13. Positron-alkali atom scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  14. Adsorption properties of carbon materials produced by thermolysis of brown coal in the presence of alkali metal hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Tamarkina, Y.V.; Maslova, L.A.; Khabarova, T.V.; Kucherenko, V.A.

    2008-07-15

    Activated carbons produced by thermolysis of brown coal impregnated with an alkali metal hydroxide MOH (M = Li, Na, K) at an MOH/coal ratio R-MOH = 80 mol kg{sup -1} were studied. Dependences of the adsorption capacities for iodine and Methylene Blue dye, specific surface area, and yield of activated carbons on the ratio R-MOH were obtained.

  15. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  16. Superconductivity in alkali metal fullerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D. W.; Rosseinsky, M. J.; Haddon, R. C.; Ramirez, A. P.; Hebard, A. F.; Tycko, R.; Fleming, R. M.; Dabbagh, G.

    1991-12-01

    The recent synthesis of macroscopic quantities of spherical molecular carbon compounds, commonly called fullerenes, has stimulated a wide variety of studies of the chemical and physical properties of this novel class of compounds. We discovered that the smallest of the known fullerenes, C 60, could be made conducting and superconducting by reaction with alkali metals. In this paper, an overview of the motivation for these discoveries and some recent results are presented.

  17. Alkali metal sources for OLED devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Lorena; Longoni, Giorgio; Bonucci, Antonio; Tominetti, Stefano

    2005-07-01

    In OLED organic layers electron injection is improved by using alkali metals as cathodes, to lower work function or, as dopants of organic layer at cathode interface. The creation of an alkali metal layer can be accomplished through conventional physical vapor deposition from a heated dispenser. However alkali metals are very reactive and must be handled in inert atmosphere all through the entire process. If a contamination takes place, it reduces the lithium deposition rate and also the lithium total yield in a not controlled way. An innovative alkali metal dispensing technology has been developed to overcome these problems and ensure OLED alkali metal cathode reliability. The alkali Metal dispenser, called Alkamax, will be able to release up to a few grams of alkali metals (in particular Li and Cs) throughout the adoption of a very stable form of the alkali metal. Lithium, for example, can be evaporated "on demand": the evaporation could be stopped and re-activated without losing alkali metal yield because the metal not yet consumed remains in its stable form. A full characterization of dispensing material, dispenser configuration and dispensing process has been carried out in order to optimize the evaporation and deposition dynamics of alkali metals layers. The study has been performed applying also inside developed simulations tools.

  18. Molecular Description of Eye Defects in the Zebrafish Pax6b Mutant, sunrise, Reveals a Pax6b-Dependent Genetic Network in the Developing Anterior Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Takamiya, Masanari; Weger, Benjamin D.; Schindler, Simone; Beil, Tanja; Yang, Lixin; Armant, Olivier; Ferg, Marco; Schlunck, Günther; Reinhard, Thomas; Dickmeis, Thomas; Rastegar, Sepand; Strähle, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is a central component of the camera eye of vertebrates and even slight corneal disturbances severely affect vision. The transcription factor PAX6 is required for normal eye development, namely the proper separation of the lens from the developing cornea and the formation of the iris and anterior chamber. Human PAX6 mutations are associated with severe ocular disorders such as aniridia, Peters anomaly and chronic limbal stem cell insufficiency. To develop the zebrafish as a model for corneal disease, we first performed transcriptome and in situ expression analysis to identify marker genes to characterise the cornea in normal and pathological conditions. We show that, at 7 days post fertilisation (dpf), the zebrafish cornea expresses the majority of marker genes (67/84 tested genes) found also expressed in the cornea of juvenile and adult stages. We also characterised homozygous pax6b mutants. Mutant embryos have a thick cornea, iris hypoplasia, a shallow anterior chamber and a small lens. Ultrastructure analysis revealed a disrupted corneal endothelium. pax6b mutants show loss of corneal epithelial gene expression including regulatory genes (sox3, tfap2a, foxc1a and pitx2). In contrast, several genes (pitx2, ctnnb2, dcn and fabp7a) were ectopically expressed in the malformed corneal endothelium. Lack of pax6b function leads to severe disturbance of the corneal gene regulatory programme. PMID:25692557

  19. BCL6B expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and its efficacy in the inhibition of liver damage and fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Panyisha; Kong, Rong; Xu, Jiang; Zhang, Lufei; Yang, Qifan; Xie, Qingsong; Zhang, Linshi; Zhou, Xiaohu; Chen, Linghui; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    B cell CLL/lymphoma 6 member B (BCL6B) is expressed in many normal tissues but expressed at very low levels in cancer tissues. It was reported that BCL6B inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastases, but the exact role of BCL6B in HCC remains to be investigated. BCL6B expression was significantly decreased in HCC tissues compared with paired non-cancer tissues. Low BCL6B expression in tumors was correlated with shorter overall survival in patients, and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that BCL6B expression was an independent prognostic factor for human HCC patients. Moreover, a positive correlation between BCL6B expression and hepatic cirrhosis was found in an analysis of HCC clinicopathological characteristics. BCL6B expression was increased in rat fibrotic liver samples in response to liver injury. BCL6B transgenic rats were less susceptible to hepatocellular damage, inflammation and fibrosis. In vitro studies demonstrated that BCL6B inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells though upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor. In addition, transcriptomic microarray analysis was performed to explore the mechanisms in which BCL6B confers protection from tumorigenesis. In conclusion, BCL6B plays a pivotal role as a prognostic biomarker for HCC, and the restoration of BCL6B may be a novel strategy as an anti-fibrogenic therapy for human HCC. PMID:25970780

  20. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  1. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  2. Chronic and recurrent benign lymphadenopathy without constitutional symptoms associated with human herpesvirus-6B reactivation.

    PubMed

    Forghieri, Fabio; Luppi, Mario; Barozzi, Patrizia; Riva, Giovanni; Morselli, Monica; Bigliardi, Sara; Quadrelli, Chiara; Vallerini, Daniela; Maccaferri, Monica; Coluccio, Valeria; Paolini, Ambra; Colaci, Elisabetta; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Maiorana, Antonino; Tagliazucchi, Sara; Rumpianesi, Fabio; Mattioli, Francesco; Presutti, Livio; Gelmini, Roberta; Cermelli, Claudio; Rossi, Giulio; Comoli, Patrizia; Marasca, Roberto; Narni, Franco; Potenza, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    Chronic/recurrent behaviour may be encountered in some distinct atypical or malignant lymphoproliferations, while recurrences are not generally observed in reactive/benign lymphadenopathies. We retrospectively analysed a consecutive series of 486 human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults, who underwent lymphadenectomy. Neoplastic and benign/reactive histopathological pictures were documented in 299 (61·5%) and 187 (38·5%) cases, respectively. Of note, seven of the 111 (6·3%) patients with benign lymphadenopathy without well-defined aetiology, showed chronic/recurrent behaviour, without constitutional symptoms. Enlarged lymph nodes were round in shape and hypoechoic, mimicking lymphoma. Reactive follicular hyperplasia and paracortical expansion were observed. Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6B positive staining in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) was documented in all seven patients. Serological, molecular and immunological examinations suggested HHV-6B reactivation. Among the remaining 104 cases with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the absence of well-known aetiology and without recurrences, positivity for HHV-6B on FDCs was found in three cases, whereas in seven further patients, a scanty positivity was documented in rare, scattered cells in inter-follicular regions. Immunohistochemistry for HHV-6A and HHV-6B was invariably negative on 134 lymph nodes, with either benign pictures with known aetiology or malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, tested as further controls. Future studies are warranted to investigate a potential association between HHV-6B reactivation and chronic/recurrent benign lymphadenopathy. PMID:26684692

  3. Multiple splice isoforms of proteolipid M6B in neurons and oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Dimou, L; Klugmann, M; Pfeiffer, S; Nave, K A

    2001-12-01

    Proteolipids are abundant integral membrane proteins, initially described as structural proteins of CNS myelin. More recently, two neuronal proteins related to proteolipid protein (PLP), termed M6A and M6B, were identified, suggesting a common function of proteolipids in oligodendrocytes and neurons. We have analyzed the X-linked M6B gene and discovered an unexpected complexity of protein isoforms. Two promoters and alternative exons yield at least eight M6B proteins and polypeptides, differentially expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes. Six isoforms are tetraspan membrane proteins that differ by highly conserved amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, termed alpha, beta, psi, and omega. In MDCK cells, the beta-domain of M6B stabilizes tetraspan proteolipids at the cell surface, whereas non-beta isoforms are more abundant in intracellular compartments. Cotransfection experiments suggest a physical interaction of M6B and mutant PLP, when retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, that may also contribute to oligodendrocyte dysfunction in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. PMID:11749036

  4. Mutations in KAT6B, Encoding a Histone Acetyltransferase, Cause Genitopatellar Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Campeau, Philippe M.; Kim, Jaeseung C.; Lu, James T.; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Schlaubitz, Silke; Murdock, David M.; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lammer, Edward J.; Enns, Gregory M.; Rhead, William J.; Rowland, Jon; Robertson, Stephen P.; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Gibbs, Richard A.; Rosenblatt, David S.; Majewski, Jacek; Lee, Brendan H.

    2012-01-01

    Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) is a skeletal dysplasia with cerebral and genital anomalies for which the molecular basis has not yet been determined. By exome sequencing, we found de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B, formerly known as MYST4 and MORF) in three subjects; then by Sanger sequencing of KAT6B, we found similar mutations in three additional subjects. The mutant transcripts do not undergo nonsense-mediated decay in cells from subjects with GPS. In addition, human pathological analyses and mouse expression studies point to systemic roles of KAT6B in controlling organismal growth and development. Myst4 (the mouse orthologous gene) is expressed in mouse tissues corresponding to those affected by GPS. Phenotypic differences and similarities between GPS, the Say-Barber-Biesecker variant of Ohdo syndrome (caused by different mutations of KAT6B), and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (caused by mutations in other histone acetyltransferases) are discussed. Together, the data support an epigenetic dysregulation of the limb, brain, and genital developmental programs. PMID:22265014

  5. Non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and central nervous HHV-6B reactivation: Causality or coincidence?

    PubMed

    Niehusmann, Pitt; Widman, Guido; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Greschus, Susanne; Robens, Barbara K; Grote, Alexander; Becker, Albert J

    2016-08-01

    Autoantibody-related encephalopathies represent an important differential diagnosis in adult onset epilepsy. Here, we report the case of a 25-year-old patient with new-onset epilepsy and psychotic syndrome, who underwent biopsy resection for etiological classification. MRI analysis and neuropathological examination showed a T-lymphocytic dominated encephalitis with involvement of the limbic system. An indirect immunohistochemistry approach identified autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in cerebral spinal fluid and serum, which were confirmed by affinity purification / mass spectrometry analysis. Further examinations revealed evidence of chromosomally integrated human herpes virus type 6B (HHV-6B). However, astrocytic expression of HHV-6 lytic protein was detected by double immunofluorescence analysis. The cerebral expression of HHV-6 antigen, a clinical improvement under antiviral therapy as well as an initial finding of HHV-6 IgM antibodies strongly argue for an additional active HHV-6B infection. Review of the literature reveals singular reports of patients with GAD antibody-positive limbic encephalitis and central nervous system infections with HHV-6B. Since herpes simplex virus encephalitis has been recently reported as a trigger of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis, it is tempting to speculate that HHV-6B infections may trigger a non-paraneoplastic form of limbic encephalitis in a parallel cascade. PMID:27431532

  6. Mutations in KAT6B, encoding a histone acetyltransferase, cause Genitopatellar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Philippe M; Kim, Jaeseung C; Lu, James T; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Schlaubitz, Silke; Murdock, David M; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lammer, Edward J; Enns, Gregory M; Rhead, William J; Rowland, Jon; Robertson, Stephen P; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Gibbs, Richard A; Rosenblatt, David S; Majewski, Jacek; Lee, Brendan H

    2012-02-10

    Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) is a skeletal dysplasia with cerebral and genital anomalies for which the molecular basis has not yet been determined. By exome sequencing, we found de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B, formerly known as MYST4 and MORF) in three subjects; then by Sanger sequencing of KAT6B, we found similar mutations in three additional subjects. The mutant transcripts do not undergo nonsense-mediated decay in cells from subjects with GPS. In addition, human pathological analyses and mouse expression studies point to systemic roles of KAT6B in controlling organismal growth and development. Myst4 (the mouse orthologous gene) is expressed in mouse tissues corresponding to those affected by GPS. Phenotypic differences and similarities between GPS, the Say-Barber-Biesecker variant of Ohdo syndrome (caused by different mutations of KAT6B), and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (caused by mutations in other histone acetyltransferases) are discussed. Together, the data support an epigenetic dysregulation of the limb, brain, and genital developmental programs. PMID:22265014

  7. Processivity, Synergism, and Substrate Specificity of Thermobifida fusca Cel6B

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Thu V.; Wilson, David B.

    2009-01-01

    A relationship between processivity and synergism has not been reported for cellulases, although both characteristics are very important for hydrolysis of insoluble substrates. Mutation of two residues located in the active site tunnel of Thermobifida fusca exocellulase Cel6B increased processivity on filter paper. Surprisingly, mixtures of the Cel6B mutant enzymes and T. fusca endocellulase Cel5A did not show increased synergism or processivity, and the mutant enzyme which had the highest processivity gave the poorest synergism. This study suggests that improving exocellulase processivity might be not an effective strategy for producing improved cellulase mixtures for biomass conversion. The inverse relationship between the activities of many of the mutant enzymes with bacterial microcrystalline cellulose and their activities with carboxymethyl cellulose indicated that there are differences in the mechanisms of hydrolysis for these substrates, supporting the possibility of engineering Cel6B to target selected substrates. PMID:19734341

  8. Alkali-Metal Spin Maser.

    PubMed

    Chalupczak, W; Josephs-Franks, P

    2015-07-17

    Quantum measurement is a combination of a read-out and a perturbation of the quantum system. We explore the nonlinear spin dynamics generated by a linearly polarized probe beam in a continuous measurement of the collective spin state in a thermal alkali-metal atomic sample. We demonstrate that the probe-beam-driven perturbation leads, in the presence of indirect pumping, to complete polarization of the sample and macroscopic coherent spin oscillations. As a consequence of the former we report observation of spectral profiles free from collisional broadening. Nonlinear dynamics is studied through exploring its effect on radio frequency as well as spin noise spectra. PMID:26230788

  9. Further delineation of the KAT6B molecular and phenotypic spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Tamsin; Perveen, Rahat; Schlecht, Hélene; Ramsden, Simon; Anderson, Beverley; Kerr, Bronwyn; Day, Ruth; Banka, Siddharth; Suri, Mohnish; Berland, Siren; Gabbett, Michael; Ma, Alan; Lyonnet, Stan; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Yilmaz, Rüstem; Borck, Guntram; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Smithson, Sarah; Vogt, Julie; Moore-Barton, Heather; Simsek-Kiper, Pelin Ozlem; Maystadt, Isabelle; Destrée, Anne; Bucher, Jessica; Angle, Brad; Mohammed, Shehla; Wakeling, Emma; Price, Sue; Singer, Amihood; Sznajer, Yves; Toutain, Annick; Haye, Damien; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Fradin, Melanie; McGaughran, Julie; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Tein, Mark; Bouman, Katelijne; Dabir, Tabib; Van den Ende, Jenneke; Luk, Ho Ming; Pilz, Daniela T; Eason, Jacqueline; Davies, Sally; Reardon, Willie; Garavelli, Livia; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Devriendt, Koen; Armstrong, Ruth; Johnson, Diana; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Bijlsma, Emilia; Unger, Sheila; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Lo, Ivan FM; Smith, Janine; Clayton-Smith, Jill

    2015-01-01

    KAT6B sequence variants have been identified previously in both patients with the Say-Barber-Biesecker type of blepharophimosis mental retardation syndromes (SBBS) and in the more severe genitopatellar syndrome (GPS). We report on the findings in a previously unreported group of 57 individuals with suggestive features of SBBS or GPS. Likely causative variants have been identified in 34/57 patients and were commonly located in the terminal exons of KAT6B. Of those where parental samples could be tested, all occurred de novo. Thirty out of thirty-four had truncating variants, one had a missense variant and the remaining three had the same synonymous change predicted to affect splicing. Variants in GPS tended to occur more proximally to those in SBBS patients, and genotype/phenotype analysis demonstrated significant clinical overlap between SBBS and GPS. The de novo synonymous change seen in three patients with features of SBBS occurred more proximally in exon 16. Statistical analysis of clinical features demonstrated that KAT6B variant-positive patients were more likely to display hypotonia, feeding difficulties, long thumbs/great toes and dental, thyroid and patella abnormalities than KAT6B variant-negative patients. The few reported patients with KAT6B haploinsufficiency had a much milder phenotype, though with some features overlapping those of SBBS. We report the findings in a previously unreported patient with a deletion of the KAT6B gene to further delineate the haploinsufficiency phenotype. The molecular mechanisms giving rise to the SBBS and GPS phenotypes are discussed. PMID:25424711

  10. Further delineation of the KAT6B molecular and phenotypic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Tamsin; Perveen, Rahat; Schlecht, Hélene; Ramsden, Simon; Anderson, Beverley; Kerr, Bronwyn; Day, Ruth; Banka, Siddharth; Suri, Mohnish; Berland, Siren; Gabbett, Michael; Ma, Alan; Lyonnet, Stan; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Yilmaz, Rüstem; Borck, Guntram; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Smithson, Sarah; Vogt, Julie; Moore-Barton, Heather; Simsek-Kiper, Pelin Ozlem; Maystadt, Isabelle; Destrée, Anne; Bucher, Jessica; Angle, Brad; Mohammed, Shehla; Wakeling, Emma; Price, Sue; Singer, Amihood; Sznajer, Yves; Toutain, Annick; Haye, Damien; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Fradin, Melanie; McGaughran, Julie; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Tein, Mark; Bouman, Katelijne; Dabir, Tabib; Van den Ende, Jenneke; Luk, Ho Ming; Pilz, Daniela T; Eason, Jacqueline; Davies, Sally; Reardon, Willie; Garavelli, Livia; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Devriendt, Koen; Armstrong, Ruth; Johnson, Diana; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Bijlsma, Emilia; Unger, Sheila; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Lo, Ivan F M; Smith, Janine; Clayton-Smith, Jill

    2015-09-01

    KAT6B sequence variants have been identified previously in both patients with the Say-Barber-Biesecker type of blepharophimosis mental retardation syndromes (SBBS) and in the more severe genitopatellar syndrome (GPS). We report on the findings in a previously unreported group of 57 individuals with suggestive features of SBBS or GPS. Likely causative variants have been identified in 34/57 patients and were commonly located in the terminal exons of KAT6B. Of those where parental samples could be tested, all occurred de novo. Thirty out of thirty-four had truncating variants, one had a missense variant and the remaining three had the same synonymous change predicted to affect splicing. Variants in GPS tended to occur more proximally to those in SBBS patients, and genotype/phenotype analysis demonstrated significant clinical overlap between SBBS and GPS. The de novo synonymous change seen in three patients with features of SBBS occurred more proximally in exon 16. Statistical analysis of clinical features demonstrated that KAT6B variant-positive patients were more likely to display hypotonia, feeding difficulties, long thumbs/great toes and dental, thyroid and patella abnormalities than KAT6B variant-negative patients. The few reported patients with KAT6B haploinsufficiency had a much milder phenotype, though with some features overlapping those of SBBS. We report the findings in a previously unreported patient with a deletion of the KAT6B gene to further delineate the haploinsufficiency phenotype. The molecular mechanisms giving rise to the SBBS and GPS phenotypes are discussed. PMID:25424711

  11. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that ...

  12. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  13. The Blue Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, J. Joel

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the advantages of an elementary science activity in which students discover that blowing through a straw into a bromthymol blue solution changes the color to yellow. Directions are provided for preparing the bromthymol blue solution. (JR)

  14. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... is found in the blue nightshade ( Solanum dulcamara ) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  15. Gospel and Blues Improvisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The similarities and differences between blues and gospel music are identified and the author suggests that both blues and gospel music have inherent improvisational qualities. Methods of capitalizing on these qualities are presented. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  16. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you ...

  17. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level.

  18. The alkali metals: 200 years of surprises.

    PubMed

    Dye, James L

    2015-03-13

    Alkali metal compounds have been known since antiquity. In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy surprised everyone by electrolytically preparing (and naming) potassium and sodium metals. In 1808, he noted their interaction with ammonia, which, 100 years later, was attributed to solvated electrons. After 1960, pulse radiolysis of nearly any solvent produced solvated electrons, which became one of the most studied species in chemistry. In 1968, alkali metal solutions in amines and ethers were shown to contain alkali metal anions in addition to solvated electrons. The advent of crown ethers and cryptands as complexants for alkali cations greatly enhanced alkali metal solubilities. This permitted us to prepare a crystalline salt of Na(-) in 1974, followed by 30 other alkalides with Na(-), K(-), Rb(-) and Cs(-) anions. This firmly established the -1 oxidation state of alkali metals. The synthesis of alkalides led to the crystallization of electrides, with trapped electrons as the anions. Electrides have a variety of electronic and magnetic properties, depending on the geometries and connectivities of the trapping sites. In 2009, the final surprise was the experimental demonstration that alkali metals under high pressure lose their metallic character as the electrons are localized in voids between the alkali cations to become high-pressure electrides! PMID:25666067

  19. 29 CFR 1990.151 - Model standard pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model standard pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act. 1990.151 Section 1990.151 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, AND REGULATION OF POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Model Standards...

  20. WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, SIXROOM RESIDENCE TYPE 6B. ELEVATIONS, PLAN, SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WELLTON GOVERNMENT CAMP, SIX-ROOM RESIDENCE TYPE 6B. ELEVATIONS, PLAN, SECTION, DETAILS. Drawing 50-308-4546, dated July 8, 1949. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma, Arizona - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 2 (House), 30611 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  1. DNA sequence and genome organization of genital human papillomavirus type 6b.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, E; Dürst, M; Demankowski, C; Lattermann, O; Zech, R; Wolfsperger, E; Suhai, S; zur Hausen, H

    1983-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the circular double-stranded DNA of the genital human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV6b) comprising 7902 bp was determined and compared with the DNA sequences of human papillomavirus type 1a (HPV1a) and bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1). All major open reading frames are located on one DNA strand only. Their arrangement reveals that the genomic organization of HPV6b is similar to that of HPV1a and BPV1. The putative early region includes two large open reading frames E1 and E2 with marked amino acid sequence homologies to HPV1a and BPV1 which are flanked by several smaller frames. The internal part of E2 completely overlaps with another open reading frame E4. The putative late region contains two large open reading frames L1 and L2. The L1 amino acid sequences are highly conserved among analyzed papillomavirus types. By sequence comparison, potential promoter, splicing and polyadenylation signals can be localized in HPV6b DNA suggesting possible mechanisms of genital papillomavirus gene expression. PMID:6321162

  2. Crystal Structure of Human Herpesvirus 6B Tegument Protein U14

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Huamin; Kawabata, Akiko; Mahmoud, Nora F.; Khanlari, Zahra; Hamada, Daizo; Tsuruta, Hiroki; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    The tegument protein U14 of human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) constitutes the viral virion structure and is essential for viral growth. To define the characteristics and functions of U14, we determined the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of HHV-6B U14 (U14-NTD) at 1.85 Å resolution. U14-NTD forms an elongated helix-rich fold with a protruding β hairpin. U14-NTD exists as a dimer exhibiting broad electrostatic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds. This is first report of the crystal structure and dimerization of HHV-6B U14. The surface of the U14-NTD dimer reveals multiple clusters of negatively- and positively-charged residues that coincide with potential functional sites of U14. Three successive residues, L424, E425 and V426, which relate to viral growth, reside on the β hairpin close to the dimer's two-fold axis. The hydrophobic side-chains of L424 and V426 that constitute a part of a hydrophobic patch are solvent-exposed, indicating the possibility that the β hairpin region is a key functional site of HHV-6 U14. Structure-based sequence comparison suggests that U14-NTD corresponds to the core fold conserved among U14 homologs, human herpesvirus 7 U14, and human cytomegalovirus UL25 and UL35, although dimerization appears to be a specific feature of the U14 group. PMID:27152739

  3. Crystal Structure of Human Herpesvirus 6B Tegument Protein U14.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bochao; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Tang, Huamin; Kawabata, Akiko; Mahmoud, Nora F; Khanlari, Zahra; Hamada, Daizo; Tsuruta, Hiroki; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-05-01

    The tegument protein U14 of human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) constitutes the viral virion structure and is essential for viral growth. To define the characteristics and functions of U14, we determined the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of HHV-6B U14 (U14-NTD) at 1.85 Å resolution. U14-NTD forms an elongated helix-rich fold with a protruding β hairpin. U14-NTD exists as a dimer exhibiting broad electrostatic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds. This is first report of the crystal structure and dimerization of HHV-6B U14. The surface of the U14-NTD dimer reveals multiple clusters of negatively- and positively-charged residues that coincide with potential functional sites of U14. Three successive residues, L424, E425 and V426, which relate to viral growth, reside on the β hairpin close to the dimer's two-fold axis. The hydrophobic side-chains of L424 and V426 that constitute a part of a hydrophobic patch are solvent-exposed, indicating the possibility that the β hairpin region is a key functional site of HHV-6 U14. Structure-based sequence comparison suggests that U14-NTD corresponds to the core fold conserved among U14 homologs, human herpesvirus 7 U14, and human cytomegalovirus UL25 and UL35, although dimerization appears to be a specific feature of the U14 group. PMID:27152739

  4. 77 FR 61513 - Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1101 Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act CFR..., on page 147, in Sec. 1101.25 (a) and (b), the words ``5 working'' are corrected to read...

  5. 29 CFR 1905.10 - Variances and other relief under section 6(b)(6)(A).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Variances and other relief under section 6(b)(6)(A). 1905... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE FOR VARIANCES, LIMITATIONS, VARIATIONS, TOLERANCES, AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Applications for...

  6. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, Raymond D.; McPheeters, Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  7. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  8. OSL studies of alkali fluoroperovskite single crystals for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, D. Joseph; Raja, A.; Madhusoodanan, U.; Annalakshmi, O.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of alkali fluoroperovskite single crystals for radiation dosimetry. The perovskite-like KMgF3, NaMgF3 and LiBaF3 polycrystalline compounds doped with rare earths (Eu2+ and Ce3+) were synthesized by standard solid state reaction technique. Phase purity of the synthesized compounds was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction technique. Single crystals of these compounds have been grown from melt by using vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method. The Linearly Modulated OSL and Continuous Wave OSL measurements were performed in these alkali fluorides using blue light stimulation. Thermal bleaching experiments have shown that OSL signals originate from traps which are unstable near 200 °C, thus proving the suitability of the signals for dosimetric purposes. Optical bleaching measurements were also performed for these fluoride samples. OSL dose response was studied as a function of dose which was found to increase with beta dose.

  9. Local reactivity descriptors to predict the strength of Lewis acid sites in alkali cation-exchanged zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Ramesh Ch.; Kinkar Roy, Ram; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2004-05-01

    Lewis acidity of alkali cation-exchanged zeolite is studied using local reactivity descriptors based on hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concept. The local softness for nucleophilic attack ( sx+), local softness for electrophilic attack ( sx-) and their ratio, which is called `relative electrophilicity' ( sx+/ sx-), are calculated for the exchanged cations and Lewis acidity of the cations is found to decrease in the order: Li + > Na + > K + > Rb + > Cs +. Calculated blue shift of CO vibrational frequency (Δ ν) and interaction energy of CO molecule with alkali cation-exchanged zeolite clusters vary linearly with sx+/ sx- values.

  10. Detection of Human Herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) Reactivation in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients with Inherited Chromosomally Integrated HHV-6A by Droplet Digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, Ruth Hall; Hill, Joshua A; Nguyen, Thuy; Cho, Michelle; Levin, Greg; Cook, Linda; Huang, Meei-Li; Flamand, Louis; Zerr, Danielle M; Boeckh, Michael; Jerome, Keith R

    2016-05-01

    The presence of inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (ciHHV-6) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) donors or recipients confounds molecular testing for HHV-6 reactivation, which occurs in 30 to 50% of transplants. Here we describe a multiplex droplet digital PCR clinical diagnostic assay that concurrently distinguishes between HHV-6 species (A or B) and identifies inherited ciHHV-6. By applying this assay to recipient post-HCT plasma and serum samples, we demonstrated reactivation of HHV-6B in 25% (4/16 recipients) of HCT recipients with donor- or recipient-derived inherited ciHHV-6A, underscoring the need for diagnostic testing for HHV-6 infection even in the presence of ciHHV-6. PMID:26888901

  11. Alkali burns from wet cement.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    When water is added to the dry materials of Portland cement calcium hydroxide is formed; the wet cement is caustic (with a pH as high as 12.9) and can produce third-degree alkali burns after 2 hours of contact. Unlike professional cement workers, amateurs are usually not aware of any danger and may stand or kneel in the cement for long periods. As illustrated in a case report, general physicians may recognize neither the seriousness of the injury in its early stages nor the significance of a history of prolonged contact with wet cement. All people working with cement should be warned about its dangers and advised to immediately wash and dry the skin if contact does occur. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6561052

  12. Integrating Sphere Alkali-Metal Vapor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuyer, Bart; Ben-Kish, Amit; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2010-03-01

    An integrating sphere is an optical multi-pass cavity that uses diffuse reflection to increase the optical path length. Typically applied in photometry and radiometry, integrating spheres have previously been used to detect trace gases and to cool and trap alkali-metal atoms. Here, we investigate the potential for integrating spheres to enhance optical absorption in optically thin alkali-metal vapor cells. In particular, we consider the importance of dielectric effects due to a glass container for the alkali-metal vapor. Potential applications include miniature atomic clocks and magnetometers, where multi-passing could reduce the operating temperature and power consumption.

  13. Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

    1964-01-01

    The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

  14. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  15. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  16. Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz, Greg A.; Stalnaker, Donald M.; Guild, Eric M.; Oliker, Benjamin Q.; Moran, Paul J.; Townsend, Steven W.; Hostutler, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple variants of the Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) have recently been demonstrated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Highlights of this ongoing research effort include: a) a 571W rubidium (Rb) based Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) with a gain (2α) of 0.48 cm-1, b) a rubidium-cesium (Cs) Multi-Alkali Multi-Line (MAML) laser that simultaneously lases at both 795 nm and 895 nm, and c) a 1.5 kW resonantly pumped potassium (K) DPAL with a slope efficiency of 50%. The common factor among these experiments is the use of a flowing alkali test bed.

  17. 16. A southward view of buildings #6B, #6, #6A, #7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. A southward view of buildings #6-B, #6, #6-A, #7, #8-A, and #8. The water tower is situated directly behind building #8. To the right ia the eastern wall of the five-storied building #5. In the center background is part of the north face of building #9. All structures to the north of building #9 are to be demolished. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  18. Reprogramming of plant cells induced by 6b oncoproteins from the plant pathogen Agrobacterium.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masaki; Machida, Yasunori

    2015-05-01

    Reprogramming of plant cells is an event characterized by dedifferentiation, reacquisition of totipotency, and enhanced cell proliferation, and is typically observed during formation of the callus, which is dependent on plant hormones. The callus-like cell mass, called a crown gall tumor, is induced at the sites of infection by Agrobacterium species through the expression of hormone-synthesizing genes encoded in the T-DNA region, which probably involves a similar reprogramming process. One of the T-DNA genes, 6b, can also by itself induce reprogramming of differentiated cells to generate tumors and is therefore recognized as an oncogene acting in plant cells. The 6b genes belong to a group of Agrobacterium T-DNA genes, which include rolB, rolC, and orf13. These genes encode proteins with weakly conserved sequences and may be derived from a common evolutionary origin. Most of these members can modify plant growth and morphogenesis in various ways, in most cases without affecting the levels of plant hormones. Recent studies have suggested that the molecular function of 6b might be to modify the patterns of transcription in the host nuclei, particularly by directly targeting the host transcription factors or by changing the epigenetic status of the host chromatin through intrinsic histone chaperone activity. In light of the recent findings on zygotic resetting of nucleosomal histone variants in Arabidopsis thaliana, one attractive idea is that acquisition of totipotency might be facilitated by global changes of epigenetic status, which might be induced by replacement of histone variants in the zygote after fertilization and in differentiated cells upon stimulation by plant hormones as well as by expression of the 6b gene. PMID:25694001

  19. Intensity of the hydrogen peroxide v6/b/ band around 1266 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Goorvitch, D.; Boese, R. W.; Bonomo, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory spectra of the V6(b) band of H2O2 at 1266/cm have been obtained at a resolution of 0.06/cm and at temperatures ranging from 278 to 294 K. A total band intensity of 375 + or - 17 per sq cm per amagat is determined from the spectra. Special techniques to handle the H2O2 samples in a way that minimizes abundance determination errors are discussed.

  20. Kdm6b and Pmepa1 as Targets of Bioelectrically and Behaviorally Induced Activin A Signaling.

    PubMed

    Link, Andrea S; Kurinna, Svitlana; Havlicek, Steven; Lehnert, Sandra; Reichel, Martin; Kornhuber, Johannes; Winner, Beate; Huth, Tobias; Zheng, Fang; Werner, Sabine; Alzheimer, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member activin A exerts multiple neurotrophic and protective effects in the brain. Activin also modulates cognitive functions and affective behavior and is a presumed target of antidepressant therapy. Despite its important role in the injured and intact brain, the mechanisms underlying activin effects in the CNS are still largely unknown. Our goal was to identify the first target genes of activin signaling in the hippocampus in vivo. Electroconvulsive seizures, a rodent model of electroconvulsive therapy in humans, were applied to C57BL/6J mice to elicit a strong increase in activin A signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments with hippocampal lysates subsequently revealed that binding of SMAD2/3, the intracellular effectors of activin signaling, was significantly enriched at the Pmepa1 gene, which encodes a negative feedback regulator of TGF-β signaling in cancer cells, and at the Kdm6b gene, which encodes an epigenetic regulator promoting transcriptional plasticity. Underlining the significance of these findings, activin treatment also induced PMEPA1 and KDM6B expression in human forebrain neurons generated from embryonic stem cells suggesting interspecies conservation of activin effects in mammalian neurons. Importantly, physiological stimuli such as provided by environmental enrichment proved already sufficient to engender a rapid and significant induction of activin signaling concomitant with an upregulation of Pmepa1 and Kdm6b expression. Taken together, our study identified the first target genes of activin signaling in the brain. With the induction of Kdm6b expression, activin is likely to gain impact on a presumed epigenetic regulator of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity. PMID:26215835

  1. Complexities in human herpesvirus-6A and -6B binding to host cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, Simon Metz; Hoellsberg, Per . E-mail: ph@microbiology.au.dk

    2006-12-20

    Human herpesvirus-6A and -6B uses the cellular receptor CD46 for fusion and infection of the host cell. The viral glycoprotein complex gH-gL from HHV-6A binds to the short consensus repeat 2 and 3 in CD46. Although all the major isoforms of CD46 bind the virus, certain isoforms may have higher affinity than others for the virus. Within recent years, elucidation of the viral complex has identified additional HHV-6A and -6B specific glycoproteins. Thus, gH-gL associates with a gQ1-gQ2 dimer to form a heterotetrameric complex. In addition, a novel complex consisting of gH-gL-gO has been described that does not bind CD46. Accumulating evidence suggests that an additional HHV-6A and -6B receptor exists. The previous simple picture of HHV-6A/B-host cell contact therefore includes more layers of complexities on both the viral and the host cell side of the interaction.

  2. Mutations in the PDE6B gene in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Danciger, M.; Blaney, J.; Gao, Y.Q.; Zhao, D.Y.

    1995-11-01

    We have studied 24 small families with presumed autosomal recessive inheritance of retinitis pigmentosa by a combination of haplotype analysis and exon screening. Initial analysis of the families was made with a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism adjacent to the gene for rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE6B). This was followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and single-strand conformation polymorphism electrophoresis (SSCPE) of the 22 exons and a portion of the 5{prime} untranslated region of the PDE6B gene in the probands of each family in which the PDE6B locus could not be ruled out from segregating with disease. Two probands were found with compound heterozygous mutations: Gly576Asp and His620(1-bp del) mutations were present in one proband, and a Lys706X null mutation and an AG to AT splice acceptor site mutation in intron 2 were present in the other. Only the affecteds of each of the two families carried both corresponding mutations. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Growth process of Cu2Al6B4O17 whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengcai; Nai, Xueying; Zhu, Donghai; Guo, Fengqin; Zhang, Yongxing; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The reactions occurred and growth process in the preparation of copper aluminum borate (Cu2Al6B4O17) whiskers based on flux method (Al2(SO4)3/CuSO4/H3BO3 as raw materials, K2SO4 as flux) were investigated. The thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG-DSC), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrum analysis (ICP-AES) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) results of reactants mixture quenched at various temperatures and phase diagrams of K2SO4-Al2(SO4)3 system and B2O3-Al2O3 system showed that the reaction process proceeds through three steps: the formation and decomposition of two different kinds of potassium aluminum sulfate (K3Al(SO4)3 and KAl(SO4)2); the formation of aluminum borate (Al4B2O9) and decomposition of copper sulfate (CuSO4) and boric acid (H3BO3); growth and formation of copper aluminum borate (Cu2Al6B4O17) whiskers. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis results indicated that morphology in growth of Cu2Al6B4O17 whiskers develops through three stages: nanoparticles, fan-shaped whiskers and agminate-needlelike whiskers.

  4. Optimum production and characterization of an acid protease from marine yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii W6b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Peng, Ying; Wang, Xianghong; Chi, Zhenming

    2010-12-01

    The marine yeast strain W6b isolated from sediment of the South China Sea was found to produce a cell-bound acid protease. The crude acid protease produced by this marine yeast showed the highest activity at pH 3.5 and 40 °C. The optimal pH and temperature for the crude acid protease were in agreement with those for acid protease produced by the terrestrial yeasts. The optimal medium of the acid protease production was seawater containing 1.0% glucose, 1.5% casein, and 0.5% yeast extract, and the optimal cultivation conditions of the acid protease production were pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and a shaking speed of 140 rmin-1. Under the optimal conditions, 72.5 UmL-1 of acid protease activity could be obtained in cell suspension within 48 h of fermentation at shake flask level. The acid protease production was induced by high-molecular-weight nitrogen sources and repressed by low-molecular-weight nitrogen sources. Skimmed-milk-clotting test showed that the crude acid protease from the cell suspension of the yeast W6b had high skimmed milk coagulability. The acid protease produced by M. reukaufii W6b may have highly potential applications in cheese, food and fermentation industries.

  5. Alkali metal for ultraviolet band-pass filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick (Inventor); Fraschetti, George A. (Inventor); Mccann, Timothy A. (Inventor); Mayall, Sherwood D. (Inventor); Dunn, Donald E. (Inventor); Trauger, John T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal filter having a layer of metallic bismuth deposited onto the alkali metal is provided. The metallic bismuth acts to stabilize the surface of the alkali metal to prevent substantial surface migration from occurring on the alkali metal, which may degrade optical characteristics of the filter. To this end, a layer of metallic bismuth is deposited by vapor deposition over the alkali metal to a depth of approximately 5 to 10 A. A complete alkali metal filter is described along with a method for fabricating the alkali metal filter.

  6. Human papillomavirus type 6b DNA required for initiation but not maintenance of transformation of C127 mouse cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D; Pecoraro, G; Rosenberg, I; Defendi, V

    1990-01-01

    We describe the transformation of C127 mouse fibroblasts with human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV-6b) DNA, which is associated primarily with benign tumors of the human genital tract. The major transformed phenotype of the HPV-6b-transfected cells lines, which had been G418 selected, pooled, and maintained without subsequent selection, was tumorigenicity in nude mice. We found that, unlike that reported for other HPVs or papovaviruses, the transformed phenotype was expressed after a delay, in which the cells had undergone extensive culture passages (about 20 passages or 100 generations). Interestingly, the HPV-6b DNA had become reduced or nondetectable in copy number in the cells by the time the transformed phenotype was expressed and in most of the tumors induced by the cells in nude mice, indicating that high levels of HPV-6b DNA were not required for maintenance of the transformed phenotype. Clonal cell lines gave similar results. When continued G418 selection was used to maintain high-copy-number HPV-6b DNA, the cells were tumorigenic, indicating that high levels of HPV-6b DNA did not suppress tumorigenesis. These studies suggest that HPV-6b DNA initiates transformation of C127 cells but is dispensable for expression or maintenance of the transformed phenotype. Transformation by HPV-6b DNA in vitro may provide insights into the HPV type-specific association with benign versus malignant lesions in vivo and may elucidate some of the oncogenic processes involved in tumor progression. Images PMID:2154622

  7. Alkali Metal Handling Practices at NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvail, Patrick G.; Carter, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is NASA s principle propulsion development center. Research and development is coordinated and carried out on not only the existing transportation systems, but also those that may be flown in the near future. Heat pipe cooled fast fission cores are among several concepts being considered for the Nuclear Systems Initiative. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a capability to handle high-purity alkali metals for use in heat pipes or liquid metal heat transfer loops. This capability is a low budget prototype of an alkali metal handling system that would allow the production of flight qualified heat pipe modules or alkali metal loops. The processing approach used to introduce pure alkali metal into heat pipe modules and other test articles are described in this paper.

  8. Alkali-metal intercalation in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béguin, F.; Duclaux, L.; Méténier, K.; Frackowiak, E.; Salvetat, J. P.; Conard, J.; Bonnamy, S.; Lauginie, P.

    1999-09-01

    We report on successful intercalation of multiwall (MWNT) and single wall (SWNT) carbon nanotubes with alkali metals by electrochemical and vapor phase reactions. A LiC10 compound was produced by full electrochemical reduction of MWNT. KC8 and CsC8-MWNT first stage derivatives were synthesized in conditions of alkali vapor saturation. Their identity periods and the 2×2 R 0° alkali superlattice are comparable to their parent graphite compounds. The dysonian shape of KC8 EPR line and the temperature-independent Pauli susceptibility are both characteristic of a metallic behavior, which was confirmed by 13C NMR anisotropic shifts. Exposure of SWNT bundles to alkali vapor led to an increase of the pristine triangular lattice from 1.67 nm to 1.85 nm and 1.87 nm for potassium and rubidium, respectively.

  9. Alkali metal intercalates of molybdenum disulfide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Study of some of the physicochemical properties of compounds obtained by subjecting natural molybdenite and single crystals of molybdenum disulfide grown by chemical vapor transport to intercalation with the alkali group of metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) by means of the liquid ammonia technique. Reported data and results include: (1) the intercalation of the entire alkali metal group, (2) stoichiometries and X-ray data on all of the compounds, and (3) superconductivity data for all the intercalation compounds.

  10. Superconductivity in alkali-doped C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Arthur P.

    2015-07-01

    Superconductivity in alkali-doped C60 (A3C60, A = an alkali atom) is well described by an s-wave state produced by phonon mediated pairing. Moderate coupling of electrons to high-frequency shape-changing intra-molecular vibrational modes produces transition temperatures (Tc) up to 33 K in single-phase material. The good understanding of pairing in A3C60 offers a paradigm for the development of new superconducting materials.

  11. Desulfurizing Coal With an Alkali Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental coal-desulfurization process uses alkalies and steam in fluidized-bed reactor. With highly volatile, high-sulfur bituminous coal, process removed 98 percent of pyritic sulfur and 47 percent of organic sulfur. Used in coal liquefaction and in production of clean solid fuels and synthetic liquid fuels. Nitrogen or steam flows through bed of coal in reactor. Alkalies react with sulfur, removing it from coal. Nitrogen flow fluidizes bed while heating or cooling; steam is fluidizing medium during reaction.

  12. Templated blue phases.

    PubMed

    Ravnik, Miha; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2015-11-21

    Cholesteric blue phases of a chiral liquid crystal are interesting examples of self-organised three-dimensional nanostructures formed by soft matter. Recently it was demonstrated that a polymer matrix introduced by photopolymerization inside a bulk blue phase not only stabilises the host blue phase significantly, but also serves as a template for blue phase ordering. We show with numerical modelling that the transfer of the orientational order of the blue phase to the surfaces of the polymer matrix, together with the resulting surface anchoring, can account for the templating behaviour of the polymer matrix inducing the blue phase ordering of an achiral nematic liquid crystal. Furthermore, tailoring the anchoring conditions of the polymer matrix surfaces can bring about orientational ordering different from those of bulk blue phases, including an intertwined complex of the polymer matrix and topological line defects of orientational order. Optical Kerr response of templated blue phases is explored, finding large Kerr constants in the range of K = 2-10 × 10(-9) m V(-2) and notable dependence on the surface anchoring strength. More generally, the presented numerical approach is aimed to clarify the role and actions of templating polymer matrices in complex chiral nematic fluids, and further to help design novel template-based materials from chiral liquid crystals. PMID:26412643

  13. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  14. Introducing the Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of the blues and presents a list of resources that are designed to introduce the blues, both as a feeling and as an influential part of American music and culture. Includes picture books and nonfiction for young readers, nonfiction for older readers, Web sites, and compact disks. (LRW)

  15. Alkali metal crystalline polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuhong; Gamble, Stephen; Ainsworth, David; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Andreev, Yuri G; Bruce, Peter G

    2009-07-01

    Polymer electrolytes have been studied extensively because uniquely they combine ionic conductivity with solid yet flexible mechanical properties, rendering them important for all-solid-state devices including batteries, electrochromic displays and smart windows. For some 30 years, ionic conductivity in polymers was considered to occur only in the amorphous state above Tg. Crystalline polymers were believed to be insulators. This changed with the discovery of Li(+) conductivity in crystalline poly(ethylene oxide)(6):LiAsF(6). However, new crystalline polymer electrolytes have proved elusive, questioning whether the 6:1 complex has particular structural features making it a unique exception to the rule that only amorphous polymers conduct. Here, we demonstrate that ionic conductivity in crystalline polymers is not unique to the 6:1 complex by reporting several new crystalline polymer electrolytes containing different alkali metal salts (Na(+), K(+) and Rb(+)), including the best conductor poly(ethylene oxide)(8):NaAsF(6) discovered so far, with a conductivity 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than poly(ethylene oxide)(6):LiAsF(6). These are the first crystalline polymer electrolytes with a different composition and structures to that of the 6:1 Li(+) complex. PMID:19543313

  16. Diode-Pumped Alkali Atom Lasers 03-LW-024 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R H; Beach, R J

    2005-02-16

    The recent work at LLNL on alkali-atom lasers has been remarkably successful and productive. Three main phases (so far) can be identified. First, the concept and demonstration of red lasers using (Ti:sapphire pumping) took place; during this time, Rubidium and Cesium resonance-line lasers were tested, and theoretical models were developed and shown to describe experimental results very reliably. Work done during this first phase has been well documented, and the models from that period are still in use for their predictions and for designing power-scaled lasers. [1 - 3] Second, attempts were made to produce a blue alkali-vapor laser using sequentially-resonant two-step pumping (again, using Ti:sapphire lasers.) Although a blue laser did not result, the physical limitations of our approach are now better-defined. Third, diode-pumped operation of a red laser (Rubidium) was attempted, and we eventually succeeded in demonstrating the world's first diode-pumped gas laser. [4] Because we have a defensible concept for producing an efficient, compact, lightweight, power-scaled laser (tens of kW,) we are in a position to secure outside funding, and would like to find a sponsor. For descriptions of work done during the ''first phase,'' see References [1 - 3] ''Phase two'' work is briefly described in the section ''Blue laser,'' and ''phase three'' work is presented in the section entitled ''Diode-pumped red laser.''

  17. Epigenetic influence of KAT6B and HDAC4 in the development of skeletal malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Ahrin; Horton, Michael J.; Cuenco, Karen T.; Raoul, Gwenael; Rowlerson, Anthea M.; Ferri, Joel; Sciote, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Genetic influences on the development of malocclusion include heritable effects on both masticatory muscles and jaw skeletal morphology. Beyond genetic variations, however, the characteristics of muscle and bone are also influenced by epigenetic mechanisms that produce differences in gene expression. We studied 2 enzymes known to change gene expressions through histone modifications, chromatin-modifying histone acetyltransferase KAT6B and deacetylase HDAC4, to determine their associations with musculoskeletal variations in jaw deformation malocclusions. Methods Samples of masseter muscle were obtained from subjects undergoing orthognathic surgery from 6 malocclusion classes based on skeletal sagittal and vertical dysplasia. The muscles were characterized for fiber type properties by immunohistochemistry, and their total RNA was isolated for gene expression studies by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Gene expressions for fast isoforms of myosins and contractile regulatory proteins and for KAT6B and HDAC4 were severalfold greater in masseter muscles from a patient with a deepbite compared with one with an open bite, and genes related to exercise and activity did not differ substantially. In the total population, expressions of HDAC4 (P = 0.03) and KAT6B (P = 0.004) were significantly greater in subjects with sagittal Class III than in Class II malocclusion, whereas HDAC4 tended to correlate negatively with slow myosin type I and positively with fast myosin gene, especially type IIX. Conclusions These data support other published reports of epigenetic regulation in the determination of skeletal muscle fiber phenotypes and bone growth. Further investigations are needed to elucidate how this regulatory model might apply to musculoskeletal development and malocclusion. PMID:24075665

  18. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  19. HST hot-Jupiter transmission spectral survey: haze in the atmosphere of WASP-6b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, N.; Sing, D. K.; Burrows, A. S.; Fortney, J. J.; Henry, G. W.; Pont, F.; Ballester, G. E.; Aigrain, S.; Wilson, P. A.; Huitson, C. M.; Gibson, N. P.; Désert, J.-M.; Etangs, A. Lecavelier des; Showman, A. P.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Wakeford, H. R.; Zahnle, K.

    2015-02-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope optical to near-infrared transmission spectroscopy of the hot-Jupiter WASP-6b, measured with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Spitzer's InfraRed Array Camera. The resulting spectrum covers the range 0.29-4.5 μm. We find evidence for modest stellar activity of WASP-6 and take it into account in the transmission spectrum. The overall main characteristic of the spectrum is an increasing radius as a function of decreasing wavelength corresponding to a change of Δ (Rp / R*) = 0.0071 from 0.33 to 4.5 μm. The spectrum suggests an effective extinction cross-section with a power law of index consistent with Rayleigh scattering, with temperatures of 973 ± 144 K at the planetary terminator. We compare the transmission spectrum with hot-Jupiter atmospheric models including condensate-free and aerosol-dominated models incorporating Mie theory. While none of the clear-atmosphere models is found to be in good agreement with the data, we find that the complete spectrum can be described by models that include significant opacity from aerosols including Fe-poor Mg2SiO4, MgSiO3, KCl and Na2S dust condensates. WASP-6b is the second planet after HD 189733b which has equilibrium temperatures near ˜1200 K and shows prominent atmospheric scattering in the optical.

  20. Isolation of mouse transferrin using salting-out chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B.

    PubMed

    Sawatzki, G; Anselstetter, V; Kubanek, B

    1981-01-30

    A new method for the isolation of considerable quantities of mouse transferrin is described. This technique employs salting-out chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B, a new step in the preparation of plasma proteins. This step is followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200. The isolated mouse transferrin was shown to be pure by immunoelectrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by the 465 nm/410 nm ratio of absorbances being 1.41. The molecular weight was determined to be about 77 500. The advantages of this procedure are that it is reproducible, gives a high recovery, and can be extended to a larger scale. The advantage over other protein purification techniques is its general utility, due to the fact that there is no need for species-specific antibodies. The application of this method offers a rapid purification of sufficient quantities of mouse transferrin essential for the elucidation of biological functions of this protein and investigations of its molecular structure. PMID:7213791

  1. Comparative analysis ofCas6b processing and CRISPR RNA stability.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hagen; Lange, Sita J; Backofen, Rolf; Randau, Lennart

    2013-05-01

    The prokaryotic antiviral defense systems CRISP R (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISP Rassociated) employs short crRNAs (CRISP R RNAs) to target invading viral nucleic acids. A short spacer sequence of these crRNAs can be derived from a viral genome and recognizes a reoccurring attack of a virus via base complementarity. We analyzed the effect of spacer sequences on the maturation of crRNAs of the subtype I-B Methanococcus maripaludis C5 CRISP R cluster. The responsible endonuclease, termed Cas6b, bound non-hydrolyzable repeat RNA as a dimer and mature crRNA as a monomer. Comparative analysis of Cas6b processing of individual spacer-repeat-spacer RNA substrates and crRNA stability revealed the potential influence of spacer sequence and length on these parameters. Correlation of these observations with the variable abundance of crRNAs visualized by deep-sequencing analyses is discussed. Finally, insertion of spacer and repeat sequences with archaeal poly-T termination signals is suggested to be prevented in archaeal CRISP R/Cas systems. PMID:23392318

  2. Comparative analysis of Cas6b processing and CRISPR RNA stability

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Hagen; Lange, Sita J.; Backofen, Rolf; Randau, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic antiviral defense systems CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) employs short crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) to target invading viral nucleic acids. A short spacer sequence of these crRNAs can be derived from a viral genome and recognizes a reoccurring attack of a virus via base complementarity. We analyzed the effect of spacer sequences on the maturation of crRNAs of the subtype I-B Methanococcus maripaludis C5 CRISPR cluster. The responsible endonuclease, termed Cas6b, bound non-hydrolyzable repeat RNA as a dimer and mature crRNA as a monomer. Comparative analysis of Cas6b processing of individual spacer-repeat-spacer RNA substrates and crRNA stability revealed the potential influence of spacer sequence and length on these parameters. Correlation of these observations with the variable abundance of crRNAs visualized by deep-sequencing analyses is discussed. Finally, insertion of spacer and repeat sequences with archaeal poly-T termination signals is suggested to be prevented in archaeal CRISPR/Cas systems. PMID:23392318

  3. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises. This can raise a question about possible child abuse. It is important to recognize that Mongolian blue ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 11. Read More Benign Child abuse - physical Rashes Update Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  4. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  5. Methylene blue unresponsive methemoglobinemia

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Sibabratta; Natarajan, Manivachagan Muthappa; James, Ebor Jacob; Ebenezer, Kala

    2014-01-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon blood disorder induced by exposure to certain oxidizing agents and drugs. Although parents may not give any history of toxin ingestion; with the aid of pulse-oximetry and blood gas analysis, we can diagnose methemoglobinemia. Prompt recognition of this condition is required in emergency situations to institute early methylene blue therapy. We report an unusual case of severe toxic methemoglobinemia, which did not respond to methylene blue, but was successfully managed with exchange transfusion. PMID:24872659

  6. Alkali metal adsorption on Al(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. N.; Lundgren, E.; Nyholm, R.; Qvarford, M.

    1993-06-01

    The submonolayer adsorption of Na, K, Rb, and Cs on the Al(111) surface at 100 K and at room temperature is investigated by high resolution core level spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. It is found that the first alkali atoms on the surface adsorb at surface defects. At higher coverages, up to approximately one third of the maximum submonolayer coverage, alkali atoms adsorbed at defects coexist with a dispersed phase. At higher coverages island formation is found to occur for the majority of the systems. It is argued that all of the ordered structures formed at room temperature involve a disruption of the Al(111) surface in contrast to the situation at 100 K where the alkali atoms adsorb as adatoms.

  7. SAFE Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Alkali metal heat pipes are among the best understood and tested of components for first generation space fission reactors. A flight reactor will require production of a hundred or more heat pipes with assured reliability over a number of years. To date, alkali metal heat pipes have been built mostly in low budget development environments with little formal quality assurance. Despite this, heat pipe test samples suggest that high reliability can be achieved with the care justified for space flight qualification. Fabrication procedures have been established that, if consistently applied, ensure long-term trouble-free heat pipe operation. Alkali metal heat pipes have been successfully flight tested in micro gravity and also have been shown capable of multi-year operation with no evidence of sensitivity to fast neutron fluence up to 1023 n/cm2. This represents 50 times the fluence of the proposed Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE-100) heat pipe reactor core.

  8. Recent Developments in Animal Models for Human Herpesvirus 6A and 6B

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Branka; Berges, Bradford K.; Lusso, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Progress in the identification of suitable animal models for human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A and HHV-6B infections has been slow. Recently, new models have been established, mainly for HHV-6A, which reproduce some pathological features seen in humans. Neuroinflammatory signs were observed in infected marmosets and CD46-transgenic mice; although viral replication was not prominent, persistence of viral DNA and specific immunologic responses were detected, suggesting an immune-mediated pathogenic mechanism. Pig-tailed macaques showed robust viral replication concomitant with acute-phase symptoms, and provided a model to study the effects of HHV-6A on AIDS progression. In humanized mice, viral replication was less evident, but infection led to T-cell alterations. Altogether, these recent developments have opened new perspectives for studying the pathogenic role of HHV-6A in humans. PMID:25462440

  9. KEPLER-6b: A TRANSITING HOT JUPITER ORBITING A METAL-RICH STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Edward W.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Latham, David W.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Fischer, Debra; Gautier, Thomas N.; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B.; Kjeldsen, Hans

    2010-04-20

    We announce the discovery of Kepler-6b, a transiting hot Jupiter orbiting a star with unusually high metallicity, [Fe/H]= +0.34{+-}0.04. The planet's mass is about 2/3 that of Jupiter, M {sub P} = 0.67 M {sub J}, and the radius is 30% larger than that of Jupiter, R {sub P} = 1.32 R {sub J}, resulting in a density of {rho}{sub P} = 0.35 g cm{sup -3}, a fairly typical value for such a planet. The orbital period is P = 3.235 days. The host star is both more massive than the Sun, M {sub *} = 1.21 M {sub sun}, and larger than the Sun, R {sub *} = 1.39 R {sub sun}.

  10. Magnetic properties of double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni or Co) nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Yuanbing; Parsons, Jason; McCloy, John S.

    2013-03-31

    Double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni and Co) nanoparticles with average particle size of ~50 nm were synthesized using a facile, environmentally friendly, scalable molten-salt reaction at 700 °C in air. Their structural and morphological properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were evaluated using dc magnetic M-T and M-H, and ac magnetic susceptibility versus frequency, temperature, and field. The magnetization curve shows a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition at TC ~275 and 220 K for La2NiMnO6 (LNMO) and La2CoMnO6 (LCMO) nanoparticles, respectively. ac susceptibility revealed that the LCMO had a single magnetic transition indicative of Co2+-O2--Mn4+ ordering, whereas the LNMO showed more complex magnetic behavior suggesting a re-entrant spin glass.

  11. High-angle-of-attack stability and control improvements for the EA-6B Prowler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Frank L.; Hahne, David E.; Masiello, Matthew F.; Gato, William

    1987-01-01

    The factors involved in high-angle-of-attack directional divergence phenomena for the EA-6B ECM aircraft have been investigated in NASA-Langley wind tunnel facilities in order to evaluate airframe modifications which would eliminate or delay such divergence to angles-of-attack farther removed from the operational flight envelope of the aircraft. The results obtained indicate that an adverse sidewash at the aft fuselage and vertical tail location is responsible for the directional stability loss, and that the sidewash is due to a vortex system generated by the fuselage-wing juncture. Modifications encompassing a wing inboard leading edge droop, a wing glove strake, and a vertical fin extension, have significantly alleviated the stability problem.

  12. CO2 permeation through poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide)-nanosilica membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovineh, Shirin Gh.; Asghari, Morteza; Khanbabaei, Ghader

    2014-11-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrids of poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide) (PEBA) and silica utilizing aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as precursor was prepared via sol-gel process and was compared with neat PEBA. The nanodispersed inorganic network produced in the organic matrix was structurally characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) that revealed the existence of different chemical groups corresponding to the silica precursors. The single gas permeability was carried out for neat PEBA and PEBA-nano silica (10 wt.% precursor) membranes. CO2 permeability for the neat polymer membrane was higher than the nano-composite membrane and increased with pressure. Adding 10 wt.% of nanosilica filler into the polymeric matrix caused CO2 permeability to decrease.

  13. Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectra of Diborane(6): B2H6 and B2D6.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2016-07-21

    We recorded absorption spectra of diborane(6), B2H6 and B2D6, dispersed in solid neon near 4 K in both mid-infrared and ultraviolet regions. For gaseous B2H6 from 105 to 300 nm, we report quantitative absolute cross sections; for solid B2H6 and for B2H6 dispersed in solid neon, we measured ultraviolet absorbance with relative intensities over a wide range. To assign the mid-infrared spectra to specific isotopic variants, we applied the abundance of (11)B and (10)B in natural proportions; we undertook quantum-chemical calculations of wavenumbers associated with anharmonic vibrational modes and the intensities of the harmonic vibrational modes. To aid an interpretation of the ultraviolet spectra, we calculated the energies of electronically excited singlet and triplet states and oscillator strengths for electronic transitions from the electronic ground state. PMID:27351464

  14. Diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupke, William F.

    2008-05-01

    The concept of power-scalable, high beam-quality diode pumped alkali lasers was introduced in 2003 [Krupke, US Patent No. 6,643,311; Opt. Letters, 28, 2336 (2003)]. Since then several laboratory DPAL devices have been reported on, confirming many of the spectroscopic, kinetic, and laser characteristics projected from literature data. This talk will present an overview of the DPAL concept, summarize key relevant properties of the cesium, rubidium, and potassium alkali vapor gain media so-far examined, outline power scaling considerations, and highlight results of published DPAL laboratory experiments.

  15. Alkali metal vapors - Laser spectroscopy and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stwalley, W. C.; Koch, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the rapidly expanding use of lasers for spectroscopic studies of alkali metal vapors. Since the alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium) are theoretically simple ('visible hydrogen'), readily ionized, and strongly interacting with laser light, they represent ideal systems for quantitative understanding of microscopic interconversion mechanisms between photon (e.g., solar or laser), chemical, electrical and thermal energy. The possible implications of such understanding for a wide variety of practical applications (sodium lamps, thermionic converters, magnetohydrodynamic devices, new lasers, 'lithium waterfall' inertial confinement fusion reactors, etc.) are also discussed.

  16. Na 6B 13O 22.5, a new noncentrosymmetric sodium borate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penin, N.; Touboul, M.; Nowogrocki, G.

    2005-03-01

    Na 6B 13O 22.5 (B/Na=2.17) single crystals were obtained by heating, melting and appropriately cooling borax, Na 2[B 4O 5(OH) 4]·8H 2O. Its formula has been determined by the resolution of the structure from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic Iba2 space group, with the following unit cell parameters: a=33.359(11) Å, b=9.554(3) Å, c=10.644(4) Å; V=3392.4(19) Å 3; Z=8. The crystal structure was solved from 3226 reflections until R1=0.0385. It exhibits a three-dimensional framework built up from BO 3 triangles (Δ) and BO 4 tetrahedra (T). Two kinds of borate groups can be considered forming two different double B 3O 3 rings: two B 4O 9 (linkage by two boron atoms) and one B 5O 11 (linkage by one boron atom); the shorthand notation of the new fundamental building block (FBB) existing in this compound is: 13: ∞3 [(5: 3Δ+2T)+2(4: 2Δ+2T)]. The discovery of this new borate questions the real number of Na 2B 4O 7 varieties. The existence of Na 6B 13O 22.5 (B/Na=2.17) and of another recently discovered borate, Na 3B 7O 12 (B/Na=2.33; FBB 7: ∞3 [(3: 2Δ+T)+(3: Δ+2T)+(1: Δ)], with a composition close to the long-known borate α-Na 2B 4O 7 (B/Na=2; FBB 8: ∞3 [(5: 3Δ+2T)+(3: 2Δ+T)], may explain the very complex equilibria reported in the Na 2O-B 2O 3 phase diagram, especially in this range of composition.

  17. Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete containing high-alkali cement and granite aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Owsiak, Z

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses results of the research into the influence of high-alkali Portland cement on granite aggregate. The deformation of the concrete structure occurred after 18 months. The research was carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope equipped with a high-energy dispersive X-ray analyzer that allowed observation of unpolished sections of concrete bars exhibiting the cracking pattern typical of the alkali-silica reaction. Both the microscopic observation and the X-ray elemental analysis confirm the presence of alkali-silica gel and secondary ettringite in the cracks.

  18. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, W.Y.

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased, preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  19. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  20. Faraday rotation density measurements of optically thick alkali metal vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliegen, E.; Kadlecek, S.; Anderson, L. W.; Walker, T. G.; Erickson, C. J.; Happer, William

    2001-03-01

    We investigate the measurement of alkali number densities using the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light. We find that the alkali number density may be reliably extracted even in regimes of very high buffer gas pressure, and very high alkali number density. We have directly verified our results in potassium using absorption spectroscopy on the second resonance (4 2S→5 2P).

  1. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  17. Identification of novel CD8+ T cell epitopes in human herpesvirus 6B U11 and U90

    PubMed Central

    Halawi, Mustafa; Khan, Naeem; Blake, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV6B) infects over 90% of the population, and normally establishes a latent infection, where episodes of reactivation are asymptomatic. However, in immunocompromised patients HHV6B reactivation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Cellular immunotherapy has been utilised against other herpesvirus in immunocompromised settings. However, limited information on the immune response against HHV6B has hampered the development of immunotherapy for HHV6B-driven disease. In this study, we have analysed the cellular immune response against four HHV6B antigens in a panel of 30 healthy donors. We show that the base-line level of T cell reactivity in peripheral blood is very low to undetectable. A short-term reactivation step enabled expansion of T cell responses, and all donors responded to at least 1 antigen, but more commonly 3 or 4. A hierarchy of immunogenicity was determined with antigens U90 and U54 being co-dominant, followed by U11 and U39. Putative CD8+ T cell epitopes were mapped to U90 and U11, predicted to be presented in the context of HLA-A1, A29, B39 and C6. T cells reactive against these novel epitopes were able to recognise virus-infected cells. Our data is supportive of the application and on-going development of T cell immunotherapy against HHVB-driven disease in the immunocompromised host. PMID:26029371

  18. Mice Lacking the ITIM-Containing Receptor G6b-B Exhibit Macrothrombocytopenia and Aberrant Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Jun; Bem, Danai; Finney, Brenda; Heising, Silke; Gissen, Paul; White, James G.; Berndt, Michael C.; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Douglas, Michael R.; Campbell, Robert D.; Watson, Steve P.; Senis, Yotis A.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are highly reactive cell fragments that adhere to exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) and prevent excessive blood loss by forming clots. Paradoxically, megakaryocytes, which produce platelets in the bone marrow, remain relatively refractory to the ECM-rich environment of the bone marrow despite having the same repertoire of receptors as platelets. These include the ITAM (immunoreceptor tyrosine–based activation motif)–containing collagen receptor complex, which consists of glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and the Fc receptor γ-chain, and the ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine–based inhibition motif)–containing receptor G6b-B. We showed that mice lacking G6b-B exhibited macrothrombocytopenia (reduced platelet numbers and the presence of enlarged platelets) and a susceptibility to bleeding as a result of aberrant platelet production and function. Platelet numbers were markedly reduced in G6b-B–deficient mice compared to those in wild-type mice because of increased platelet turnover. Furthermore, megakaryocytes in G6b-B–deficient mice showed enhanced metalloproteinase production, which led to increased shedding of cell-surface receptors, including GPVI and GPIba. In addition, G6b-B–deficient megakaryocytes exhibited reduced integrin-mediated functions and defective formation of proplatelets, the long filamentous projections from which platelets bud off. Together, these findings establish G6b-B as a major inhibitory receptor regulating megakaryocyte activation, function, and platelet production. PMID:23112346

  19. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that aremore » currently of the most commercial interest.« less

  20. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  1. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-05-12

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization.

  2. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  3. Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Wigglesworth, J S; Keith, I H; Girling, D J; Slade, S A

    1976-01-01

    The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22/1000 and of HMD 4-44/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the incidence of IVH in babies weighing 1001-1500 g was three times as great as that reported in the 1658 British Perinatal Mortality Survey. Most IVH deaths were in babies with HMD, but the higher frequency of IVH was not associated with any prolongation of survival time of babies who died with HMD as compared with the 1958 survey. IVH was seen frequently at gestations of up to 36 weeks in babies with HMD but was rare above 30 weeks' gestation in babies without HMD. This indicated that factors associated with HMD must cause most cases of IVH seen at gestations above 30 weeks. Comparison of clinical details in infants with HMD who died with or without IVH (at gestations of 30-37 weeks) showed no significant differences between the groups other than a high incidence of fits and greater use of alkali therapy in the babies with IVH. During the 12 hours when most alkali therapy was given, babies dying with IVD received a mean total alkali dosage of 10-21 mmol/kg and those dying without IVH 6-34 mmol/kg (P less than 0-001).There was no difference in severity of hypoxia or of metabolic acidosis between the 2 groups. Babies who died with HMD and germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) without IVH had received significantly more alkali than those who died with HMD alone, whereas survivors of severe respiratory distress syndrome had received lower alkali doses than other groups. It is suggested that the greatly increased death rate from IVH in babies with HMD indicates some alteration of management of HMD (since 1958) as a causative factor. Liberal use of hypertonic alkali solutions is the common factor

  4. Physics and chemistry of alkali-silica reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S.; Barneyback, R.S. Jr.; Struble, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The philosophy underlying recent research on alkali-silica reactions is reviewed and illustrations of recent results are provided. It has been possible to follow the kinetics of the chemical reaction between dissolved alkalis and opal in mortars by monitoring the rate at which alkalis are removed from the pore solutions of reacting mortars. Studies of the expansion behavior of synthetic alkali silica gels under controlled conditions were carried out and show no obvious correlation to chemical composition. The alkali reaction in mortars was found to produce changes in the appearance of opal grains documentable by the use of a scanning electron microscope.

  5. Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ami M.; Adeseun, Gbemisola A.; Goldfarb, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now better described as the calcium-alkali syndrome. The calcium-alkali syndrome is an important cause of morbidity that may be on the rise, an unintended consequence of shifts in calcium and vitamin D intake in segments of the population. We review the pathophysiology of the calcium-alkali syndrome. PMID:24288027

  6. Prediction of above 20 K superconductivity of blue phosphorus bilayer with metal intercalations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Dong, Shuai

    2016-09-01

    First-principles calculations predicted monolayer blue phosphorus to be an alternative two-dimensional allotrope of phosphorus, like the recently discovered monolayer black phosphorus. Due to its unique crystalline and electronic structure, blue phosphorus may be a promising candidate as a BCS-superconductor after proper intercalation. In this study, using first-principles calculations, the favorable intercalation sites for some alkali metals and alkaline earths have been identified for Blue-P bilayer and the stacking configuration of bilayer is changed. Then the blue phosphorus bilayer transforms from a semiconductor to a metal due to the charge transfer from metal to phosphorus. Own to the strong electron–phonon coupling, isotropic superconducting state is induced and the calculated transition temperatures are 20.4, 20.1, and 14.4 K for Li-, Na-, and Mg-intercaltion, respectively, which is superior to other predicted or experimentally observed two-dimensional BCS-superconductors.

  7. XO-6b: A transiting hot Jupiter around a fast rotating star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, Nicolas Michael; McCullough, Peter; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Ribas, Ignasi; Bourrier, Vincent; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Hebrard, Guillaume; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Herrero, Enrique; Vilardell, Francesc; Foote, Jerry; Gary, Bruce; Benni, Paul; Conjat, Matthieu; Deleuil, Magali; Akhenak, Laetitia; Garlitz, Joe; Long, Doug

    2015-12-01

    Orbital properties of hot Jupiters depend on the temperature and rotation rate of their host stars. These observed correlations provide some of the very few constraints on their dynamical evolution. However, almost all the objects available to such studies orbit around relatively slow rotators, with stellar rotation periods usually several times larger than the orbital periods. Because of the apparent dearth of hot Jupiters around fast rotators, the dynamical evolution of these systems is largely unconstrained. Here, we report the discovery of XO-6b, a hot Jupiter orbiting a fast rotating and bright F5 star (Teff = 6605 K, Vsini = 45 km/s, V = 10.25). This transiting hot Jupiter system is one of the very few with a stellar rotation period smaller than the planet orbital period (Prot < 1.41 d, Porb = 3.77 d), and adds to the sample of hot Jupiters around hot stars with a measured obliquity. We present the system parameters extracted from photometric follow-up and Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements. This system provides an additional constraint to dynamical and tidal models in their promising attempt of explaining the dynamical evolution of close-in giant planets, and will allow to extend the emerging picture to planets orbiting fast rotating stars.

  8. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.; Gorbaty, Martin L.; Tsou, Joe M.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  9. Alkali element background reduction in laser ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, C. W., Jr.; Norris, C. A.

    2014-11-01

    Alkali backgrounds in laser ablation ICP-MS analyses can be enhanced by electron-induced ionization of alkali contamination on the skimmer cone, reducing effective detection limits for these elements. Traditionally, this problem is addressed by isolating analyses of high alkali materials onto a designated cone set, or by operating the ICP-MS in a "soft extraction" mode, which reduces the energy of electrons repelled into the potentially contaminated sampling cone by the extraction field. Here we present a novel approach, where we replace the traditional alkali glass tuning standards with synthetic low-alkali glass reference materials. Using this vitreous tuning solution, we find that this approach reduces the amount of alkali contamination produced, halving backgrounds for the heavy alkali elements without any change to analytical procedures. Using segregated cones is still the most effective method for reducing lithium backgrounds, but since the procedures are complimentary both can easily be applied to the routine operations of an analytical lab.

  10. Alkali element background reduction in laser ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, C. W., Jr.; Norris, C. A.

    2015-03-01

    Alkali backgrounds in laser ablation ICP-MS analyses can be enhanced by electron-induced ionisation of alkali contamination on the skimmer cone, reducing effective detection limits for these elements. Traditionally, this problem is addressed by isolating analyses of high-alkali materials onto a designated cone set, or by operating the ICP-MS in a "soft extraction" mode, which reduces the energy of electrons repelled into the potentially contaminated sampling cone by the extraction field. Here we present a novel approach, where we replace the traditional alkali glass tuning standards with synthetic low-alkali glass reference materials. Using this vitreous tuning solution, we find that this approach reduces the amount of alkali contamination produced, halving backgrounds for the heavy alkali elements without any change to analytical procedures. Using segregated cones is still the most effective method for reducing lithium backgrounds, but since the procedures are complimentary, both can easily be applied to the routine operations of an analytical lab.

  11. Blue honeysuckle list 47

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript summarizes descriptions for two newly released Lonicera caerulea L., blue honeysuckle, cultivars released for northern production. This fruit is popular in Russia and in Japan, particularly Hokkaido. It has possibility as a new fruit cultivar for North America. The University of Sask...

  12. Organic/Inorganic Complex Pigments: Ancient Colors Maya Blue

    SciTech Connect

    Polette-Niewold, L.A.; Manciu, F.S.; Torres, B.; Alvarado, M.; Jr.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2009-06-04

    Maya Blue is an ancient blue pigment composed of palygorskite clay and indigo. It was used by the ancient Maya and provides a dramatic background for some of the most impressive murals throughout Mesoamerica. Despite exposure to acids, alkalis, and chemical solvents, the color of the Maya Blue pigment remains unaltered. The chemical interaction between palygorskite and indigo form an organic/inorganic complex with the carbonyl oxygen of the indigo bound to a surface Al{sup 3+} in the Si-O lattice. In addition indigo will undergo an oxidation to dehydroindigo during preparation. The dehydro-indigo molecule forms a similar but stronger complex with the Al{sup 3+}. Thus, Maya Blue varies in color due to the mixed indigo/dehydroindigo complex. The above conclusions are the result of application of multiple techniques (X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermal gravimetric analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy) to the characterization of the organic/inorganic complex. A picture of the bonding of the organic molecule to the palygorskite surface forming a surface complex is developed and supported by the results of density functional theory calculations. We also report that other organic molecules such as thioindigo form similar organic/inorganic complexes thus, opening an entirely new class of complex materials for future applications.

  13. Developments in alkali-metal atomic magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzer, Scott Jeffrey

    Alkali-metal magnetometers use the coherent precession of polarized atomic spins to detect and measure magnetic fields. Recent advances have enabled magnetometers to become competitive with SQUIDs as the most sensitive magnetic field detectors, and they now find use in a variety of areas ranging from medicine and NMR to explosives detection and fundamental physics research. In this thesis we discuss several developments in alkali-metal atomic magnetometry for both practical and fundamental applications. We present a new method of polarizing the alkali atoms by modulating the optical pumping rate at both the linear and quadratic Zeeman resonance frequencies. We demonstrate experimentally that this method enhances the sensitivity of a potassium magnetometer operating in the Earth's field by a factor of 4, and we calculate that it can reduce the orientation-dependent heading error to less than 0.1 nT. We discuss a radio-frequency magnetometer for detection of oscillating magnetic fields with sensitivity better than 0.2 fT/ Hz , which we apply to the observation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from polarized water, as well as nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from ammonium nitrate. We demonstrate that a spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer can measure all three vector components of the magnetic field in an unshielded environment with comparable sensitivity to other devices. We find that octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) acts as an anti-relaxation coating for alkali atoms at temperatures below 170°C, allowing them to collide with a glass surface up to 2,000 times before depolarizing, and we present the first demonstration of high-temperature magnetometry with a coated cell. We also describe a reusable alkali vapor cell intended for the study of interactions between alkali atoms and surface coatings. Finally, we explore the use of a cesium-xenon SERF comagnetometer for a proposed measurement of the permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs

  14. Protein encoded by oncogene 6b from Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a reprogramming potential and histone chaperone-like activity

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Nanako; Kitakura, Saeko; Terakura, Shinji; Machida, Chiyoko; Machida, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Crown gall tumors are formed mainly by actions of a group of genes in the T-DNA that is transferred from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and integrated into the nuclear DNA of host plants. These genes encode enzymes for biosynthesis of auxin and cytokinin in plant cells. Gene 6b in the T-DNA affects tumor morphology and this gene alone is able to induce small tumors on certain plant species. In addition, unorganized calli are induced from leaf disks of tobacco that are incubated on phytohormone-free media; shooty teratomas, and morphologically abnormal plants, which might be due to enhanced competence of cell division and meristematic states, are regenerated from the calli. Thus, the 6b gene appears to stimulate a reprogramming process in plants. To uncover mechanisms behind this process, various approaches including the yeast-two-hybrid system have been exploited and histone H3 was identified as one of the proteins that interact with 6b. It has been also demonstrated that 6b acts as a histone H3 chaperon in vitro and affects the expression of various genes related to cell division competence and the maintenance of meristematic states. We discuss current views on a role of 6b protein in tumorigenesis and reprogramming in plants. PMID:25389429

  15. Effects of Hypocretin/Orexin and Major Transmitters of Arousal on Fast Spiking Neurons in Mouse Cortical Layer 6B

    PubMed Central

    Wenger Combremont, Anne-Laure; Bayer, Laurence; Dupré, Anouk; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Fast spiking (FS) GABAergic neurons are thought to be involved in the generation of high-frequency cortical rhythms during the waking state. We previously showed that cortical layer 6b (L6b) was a specific target for the wake-promoting transmitter, hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx). Here, we have investigated whether L6b FS cells were sensitive to hcrt/orx and other transmitters associated with cortical activation. Recordings were thus made from L6b FS cells in either wild-type mice or in transgenic mice in which GFP-positive GABAergic cells are parvalbumin positive. Whereas in a control condition hcrt/orx induced a strong increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of spontaneous synaptic currents, in the presence of TTX, it had no effect at all on miniature synaptic currents. Hcrt/orx effect was thus presynaptic although not by an action on glutamatergic terminals but rather on neighboring cells. In contrast, noradrenaline and acetylcholine depolarized and excited these cells through a direct postsynaptic action. Neurotensin, which is colocalized in hcrt/orx neurons, also depolarized and excited these cells but the effect was indirect. Morphologically, these cells exhibited basket-like features. These results suggest that hcrt/orx, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and neurotensin could contribute to high-frequency cortical activity through an action on L6b GABAergic FS cells. PMID:27235100

  16. The effects of acid and alkali modification on the adsorption performance of fuller's earth for basic dye.

    PubMed

    Hisarli, G

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare modified adsorbents from fuller's earth (FE) by acid and alkali treatment for enhancement cationic dye adsorption. Toluidine blue (TB) was selected as adsorbate for evaluating the adsorption performance of fuller's earth samples, which was affected significantly by acid and alkali modification. The adsorption of TB was studied by visible spectra. The absorption band of the monomer at low loading of TB in FE suspension with respect to its maximum in aqueous solution is red-shifted, which is related to accessibility of dye interlamellar space in the presence of positively charged surface sites. Since all surfaces are negatively charged under experimental conditions, this effect has not been observed in acid- and alkali-treated FE suspensions. It was seen that the adsorption capacity of alkali-treated surface (FEAl) for TB was higher than these of acid-treated adsorbent (FEAc) and FE. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) spectra were applied to analyze the structure of the raw and modified FE samples. Absence of any identifiable amount of a crystalline compound in the solid reaction products after acid treatment was confirmed by XRD and SEM, whereas the crystalline form of FEAl was preserved. Experimental data for high-concentration regions were well described by Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption equations. The thermodynamic parameters were estimated for FE, FEAc, and FEAl by using temperature dependence of adsorption equilibrium constants. PMID:15567375

  17. Effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights from alkali pretreated rice straw hydrolyzate on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Wan, Yinhua

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Different alkali lignins fractions, which were obtained from cascade ultrafiltration, were added into the dilute acid pretreated (DAP) and alkali pretreated (AP) rice straws respectively during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the addition of alkali lignins enhanced the hydrolysis and the enhancement for hydrolysis increased with increasing molecular weights of alkali lignins, with maximum enhancement being 28.69% for DAP and 20.05% for AP, respectively. The enhancement was partly attributed to the improved cellulase activity, and filter paper activity increased by 18.03% when adding lignin with highest molecular weight. It was found that the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was correlated with the adsorption affinity of cellulase on alkali lignins, and the difference in surface charge and hydrophobicity of alkali lignins were responsible for the difference in affinity between cellulase and lignins. PMID:26496216

  18. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    BREHM, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  19. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  20. Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

  1. Quantum magnetism of alkali Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, Svetlana; Liu, Gengyuan

    2016-05-01

    We discuss a method to control dynamics in many-body spin states of 87Rb Rydberg atoms. The method permits excitation of cold gases and form ordered structures of alkali atoms. It makes use of a two-photon excitation scheme with circularly polarized and linearly chirped pulses. The method aims for controlled quantum state preparation in large ensembles. It is actual for experiments studding the spin hopping dynamics and realization of quantum random walks.

  2. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    One approach to space fission power system design is predicated on the use of alkali metal heat pipes, either as radiator elements, thermal management components, or as part of the core primary heat-transfer system. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where more detailed information can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstrational purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Project Prometheus point designs.

  3. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Ballif, J.L.; Yuan, W.W.

    1980-09-16

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium are described. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  4. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Ballif, III, John L.; Yuan, Wei W.

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  5. Study of superconducting state parameters of alkali alkali binary alloys by a pseudopotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2006-12-01

    A detailed study of the superconducting state parameters (SSP) viz. electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ∗, transition temperature TC, isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength N OV of ten alkali-alkali binary alloys i.e. Li 1- xNa x, Li 1- xK x, Li 1- xRb x, Li 1- xCs x, Na 1- xK x, Na 1- xRb x, Na 1- xCs x, K 1- xRb x, K 1- xCs x and Rb 1- xCs x are made within the framework of the model potential formalism and employing the pseudo-alloy-atom (PAA) model for the first time. We use the Ashcroft’s empty core (EMC) model potential for evaluating the superconducting properties of alkali alloys. Five different forms of local field correction functions viz. Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F) and Sarkar et al. (S) are used to incorporate the exchange and correlation effects. A considerable influence of various exchange and correlation functions on λ and μ∗ is found from the present study. Reasonable agreement with the theoretical values of the SSP of pure components is found (corresponding to the concentration x = 0 or 1). It is also concluded that nature of the SSP strongly depends on the value of the atomic volume Ω0 of alkali-alkali binary alloys.

  6. Site-preferential design of itinerant ferromagnetic borides: experimental and theoretical investigation of MRh6B3 (M = Fe, Co).

    PubMed

    Misse, Patrick R N; Gillessen, Michael; Fokwa, Boniface P T

    2011-10-17

    Single-phase polycrystalline samples of the compounds MRh(6)B(3) (M = Fe, Co) as well as single crystals of CoRh(6)B(3) have been synthesized by arc-melting the elements under a purified argon atmosphere in a water-cooled copper crucible. The characterization of the new phases was achieved by using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction as well as EDX measurements. The two phases are isotypic and crystallize in the hexagonal Th(7)Fe(3) structure type (space group P6(3)mc, no. 186, Z = 2). In this structure, the magnetically active atoms (Fe, Co) are preferentially found on only one of the three available rhodium sites, and together with rhodium they build a three-dimensional network of interconnected (Rh/M)(3) triangles. Magnetic properties investigations show that both phases order ferromagnetically below Curie temperatures of 240 K (for FeRh(6)B(3)) and 150 K (for CoRh(6)B(3)). First-principles DFT calculations correctly reproduce not only the lattice parameters but also the ground state magnetic ordering in the two phases. These calculations also show that the long-range magnetic ordering in both phases occurs via indirect ferromagnetic coupling between the iron atoms mediated by rhodium. This magnetic structural model also predicts the saturation magnetizations to be 4.02 μ(B) for FeRh(6)B(3) (3.60 μ(B) found experimentally) and 2.75 μ(B) for CoRh(6)B(3). Furthermore, both phases are predicted to be metallic conductors as expected for these intermetallic borides. PMID:21905755

  7. Transport properties of alkali metal doped fullerides

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Daluram Yadav, Nishchhal

    2015-07-31

    We have studied the intercage interactions between the adjacent C{sub 60} cages and expansion of lattice due to the intercalation of alkali atoms based on the spring model to estimate phonon frequencies from the dynamical matrix for the intermolecular alkali-C{sub 60} phonons. We considered a two-peak model for the phonon density of states to investigate the nature of electron pairing mechanism for superconducting state in fullerides. Coulomb repulsive parameter and the electron phonon coupling strength are obtained within the random phase approximation. Transition temperature, T{sub c}, is obtained in a situation when the free electrons in lowest molecular orbital are coupled with alkali-C{sub 60} phonons as 5 K, which is much lower as compared to reported T{sub c} (20 K). The superconducting pairing is mainly driven by the high frequency intramolecular phonons and their effects enhance it to 22 K. The importance of the present study, the pressure effect and normal state transport properties are calculated within the same model leading superconductivity.

  8. Transport properties of alkali metal doped fullerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Daluram; Yadav, Nishchhal

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the intercage interactions between the adjacent C60 cages and expansion of lattice due to the intercalation of alkali atoms based on the spring model to estimate phonon frequencies from the dynamical matrix for the intermolecular alkali-C60 phonons. We considered a two-peak model for the phonon density of states to investigate the nature of electron pairing mechanism for superconducting state in fullerides. Coulomb repulsive parameter and the electron phonon coupling strength are obtained within the random phase approximation. Transition temperature, Tc, is obtained in a situation when the free electrons in lowest molecular orbital are coupled with alkali-C60 phonons as 5 K, which is much lower as compared to reported Tc (20 K). The superconducting pairing is mainly driven by the high frequency intramolecular phonons and their effects enhance it to 22 K. The importance of the present study, the pressure effect and normal state transport properties are calculated within the same model leading superconductivity.

  9. Ion Pairing in Alkali Nitrate Electrolyte Solutions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Yi Qin

    2016-03-10

    In this study, we investigate the thermodynamics of alkali nitrate salt solutions, especially the formation of contact ion pairs between alkali cation and nitrate anion. The ion-pairing propensity shows an order of LiNO3 < NaNO3 < KNO3. Such results explain the salt activity coefficients and suggest that the empirical "law of matching water affinity" is followed by these alkali nitrate salt solutions. The spatial patterns of contact ion pairs are different in the three salt solutions studied here: Li(+) forms the contact ion pair with only one oxygen of the nitrate while Na(+) and K(+) can also be shared by two oxygens of the nitrate. In reproducing the salt activity coefficient using Kirkwood-Buff theory, we find that it is essential to include electronic polarization for Li(+) which has a high charge density. The electronic continuum correction for nonpolarizable force field significantly improves the agreement between the calculated activity coefficients and their experimental values. This approach also improves the performance of the force field on salt solubility. From these two aspects, this study suggests that electronic continuum correction can be a promising approach to force-field development for ions with high charge densities. PMID:26901167

  10. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  11. Prostatic blue nevus.

    PubMed

    Anderco, Denisa; Lazăr, Elena; Tăban, Sorina; Miclea, Fl; Dema, Alis

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old patient with no significant personal urological history. The clinical and ultrasound examination revealed a prostatic gland with increased volume and homogenous appearance. After transurethral resection, multiples gray-brown-blackish prostatic chips were obtained, which could be confused with a malignant melanoma. The histological routine examination in conjunction with the histochemical (Fontana-Masson) and immunohistochemical (S100, HMB45) reactions established the diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus. The presence of melanin in prostatic tissue is an unusual aspect, being encountered three distinct lesions: blue nevus, melanosis and malignant melanoma. Recognition and correct classification of each of these three entities is fundamental, concerning the clinical and prognosis implications. PMID:20809037

  12. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  13. Contributions to the mixed-alkali effect in molecular dynamics simulations of alkali silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammert, Heiko; Heuer, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    The mixed-alkali effect in the cation dynamics in silicate glasses is analyzed via molecular dynamics simulations. Observations suggest a description of the dynamics in terms of stable sites mostly specific to one ionic species. As main contributions to the mixed-alkali slow down longer residence times and an increased probability of correlated backjumps are identified. The slow down is related to the limited accessibility of foreign sites. The mismatch experienced in a foreign site is stronger and more retarding for the larger ions, the smaller ions can be temporarily accommodated. Also correlations between unlike as well as like cations are demonstrated that support cooperative behavior.

  14. Method for the safe disposal of alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry R.

    1977-01-01

    Alkali metals such as those employed in liquid metal coolant systems can be safely reacted to form hydroxides by first dissolving the alkali metal in relatively inert metals such as lead or bismuth. The alloy thus formed is contacted with a molten salt including the alkali metal hydroxide and possibly the alkali metal carbonate in the presence of oxygen. This oxidizes the alkali metal to an oxide which is soluble within the molten salt. The salt is separated and contacted with steam or steam-CO.sub.2 mixture to convert the alkali metal oxide to the hydroxide. These reactions can be conducted with minimal hydrogen evolution and with the heat of reaction distributed between the several reaction steps.

  15. Light curve analysis for eclipsing systems with exoplanets. The systems Kepler-5b, Kepler-6b, and Kepler-7b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostev, N. Yu.

    2011-07-01

    High-accuracy light curves for the binaries with exoplanets Kepler-5b, Kepler-6b, and Kepler-7b have been analyzed. The radii of the stars and the planets and the orbital inclinations of the binaries are derived. Reliable estimates of the linear and quadratic limb-darkening coefficients and their confidence intervals (uncertainties) are presented.

  16. A recurrent synonymous KAT6B mutation causes Say-Barber-Biesecker/Young-Simpson syndrome by inducing aberrant splicing.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Rüstem; Beleza-Meireles, Ana; Price, Susan; Oliveira, Renata; Kubisch, Christian; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Szakszon, Katalin; Borck, Guntram

    2015-12-01

    Mutations of the histone acetyltransferase-encoding KAT6B gene cause the Say-Barber-Biesecker/Young-Simpson (SBBYS) type of blepharophimosis-"mental retardation" syndromes and the more severe genitopatellar syndrome. The SBBYS syndrome-causing mutations are clustered in the large exon 18 of KAT6B and almost exclusively lead to predicted protein truncation. An atypical KAT6B mutation, a de novo synonymous variant located in exon 16 (c.3147G>A, p.(Pro1049Pro)) was previously identified in three unrelated patients. This exonic mutation was predicted in silico to cause protein truncation through aberrant splicing. Here, we report three additional unrelated children with typical SBBYS syndrome and the KAT6B c.3147G>A mutation. We show on RNA derived from patient blood that the mutation indeed induces aberrant splicing through the use of a cryptic exonic splice acceptor site created by the sequence variant. Our results thus identify the synonymous variant c.3147G>A as a splice site mutation and a mutational hot spot in SBBYS syndrome. PMID:26334766

  17. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  18. mglur6b:EGFP Transgenic zebrafish suggest novel functions of metabotropic glutamate signaling in retina and other brain regions.

    PubMed

    Glasauer, Stella M K; Wäger, Robert; Gesemann, Matthias; Neuhauss, Stephan C F

    2016-08-15

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are mainly known for regulating excitability of neurons. However, mGluR6 at the photoreceptor-ON bipolar cell synapse mediates sign inversion through glutamatergic inhibition. Although this is currently the only confirmed function of mGluR6, other functions have been suggested. Here we present Tg(mglur6b:EGFP)zh1, a new transgenic zebrafish line recapitulating endogenous expression of one of the two mglur6 paralogs in zebrafish. Investigating transgene as well as endogenous mglur6b expression within the zebrafish retina indicates that EGFP and mglur6b mRNA are not only expressed in bipolar cells, but also in a subset of ganglion and amacrine cells. The amacrine cells labeled in Tg(mglur6b:EGFP)zh1 constitute a novel cholinergic, non-GABAergic, non-starburst amacrine cell type described for the first time in teleost fishes. Apart from the retina, we found transgene expression in subsets of periventricular neurons of the hypothalamus, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, various cell types of the optic tectum, and mitral/ruffed cells of the olfactory bulb. These findings suggest novel functions of mGluR6 besides sign inversion at ON bipolar cell dendrites, opening up the possibility that inhibitory glutamatergic signaling may be more prevalent than currently thought. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2363-2378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27121676

  19. Determination of the common and rare alkalies in mineral analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.; Stevens, R.E.

    1934-01-01

    Methods are described which afford a determination of each member of the alkali group and are successful in dealing with the quantities of the rare alkalies found in rocks and minerals. The procedures are relatively rapid and based chiefly on the use of chloroplatinic acid, absolute alcohol and ether, and ammonium sulfate. The percentages of all the alkalies found in a number of minerals are given.

  20. Environmental mercury contamination around a chlor-alkali plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lodenius, M.; Tulisalo, E.

    1984-04-01

    The chlor-alkali industry is one of the most important emitters of mercury. This metal is effectively spread from chlor-alkali plants into the atmosphere and it has been reported that only a few percent of the mercury emissions are deposited locally the major part spreading over very large areas. The purpose of this investigation was to study the spreading of mercury up to 100 km from a chlor-alkali plant using three different biological indicators.

  1. Growth process of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Chengcai; Nai Xueying; Zhu Donghai; Guo Fengqin; Zhang Yongxing; Li Wu

    2013-01-15

    The reactions occurred and growth process in the preparation of copper aluminum borate (Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17}) whiskers based on flux method (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}/CuSO{sub 4}/H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as raw materials, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as flux) were investigated. The thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG-DSC), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrum analysis (ICP-AES) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) results of reactants mixture quenched at various temperatures and phase diagrams of K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} system and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system showed that the reaction process proceeds through three steps: the formation and decomposition of two different kinds of potassium aluminum sulfate (K{sub 3}Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and KAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}); the formation of aluminum borate (Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9}) and decomposition of copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) and boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}); growth and formation of copper aluminum borate (Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17}) whiskers. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis results indicated that morphology in growth of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} whiskers develops through three stages: nanoparticles, fan-shaped whiskers and agminate-needlelike whiskers. - Graphical abstract: The morphology in growth of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} whiskers develops through three stages: nanoparticles, fan-shaped whiskers and agminate-needlelike whiskers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reaction process in the preparation of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} whiskers was researched systematically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal growth mechanism of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} whiskers was proposed by theory and experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties of Cu{sub 2}Al{sub 6}B{sub 4}O{sub 17} were analyzed by instruments, such as TG-DSC, ICP-AES, XRD and SEM.

  2. The prototoxin LYPD6B modulates heteromeric α3β4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, but not α7 homomers.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Vanessa; George, Andrew A; Nishi, Rae; Whiteaker, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Prototoxins are a diverse family of membrane-tethered molecules expressed in the nervous system that modulate nicotinic cholinergic signaling, but their functions and specificity have yet to be completely explored. We tested the selectivity and efficacy of leukocyte antigen, PLAUR (plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor) domain-containing (LYPD)-6B on α3β4-, α3α5β4-, and α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To constrain stoichiometry, fusion proteins encoding concatemers of human α3, β4, and α5 (D and N variants) subunits were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and tested with or without LYPD6B. We used the 2-electrode voltage-clamp method to quantify responses to acetylcholine (ACh): agonist sensitivity (EC50), maximal agonist-induced current (Imax), and time constant (τ) of desensitization. For β4-α3-α3-β4-α3 and β4-α3-β4-α3-α3, LYPD6B decreased EC50 from 631 to 79 μM, reduced Imax by at least 59%, and decreased τ. For β4-α3-α5D-β4-α3 and β4-α3-β4-α-α5D, LYPD6B decreased Imax by 63 and 32%, respectively. Thus, LYPD6B acted only on (α3)3(β4)2 and (α3)2(α5D)(β4)2 and did not affect the properties of (α3)2(β4)3, α7, or (α3)2(α5N)(β4)2 nAChRs. Therefore, LYPD6B acts as a mixed modulator that enhances the sensitivity of (α3)3(β4)2 nAChRs to ACh while reducing ACh-induced whole-cell currents. LYPD6B also negatively modulates α3β4 nAChRs that include the α5D common human variant, but not the N variant associated with nicotine dependence. PMID:26586467

  3. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, D.C.; Mailhe, C.C.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1985-07-10

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  4. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, David C.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  5. Slow Bursting Neurons of Mouse Cortical Layer 6b Are Depolarized by Hypocretin/Orexin and Major Transmitters of Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Wenger Combremont, Anne-Laure; Bayer, Laurence; Dupré, Anouk; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Neurons firing spontaneously in bursts in the absence of synaptic transmission have been previously recorded in different layers of cortical brain slices. It has been suggested that such neurons could contribute to the generation of alternating UP and DOWN states, a pattern of activity seen during slow-wave sleep. Here, we show that in layer 6b (L6b), known from our previous studies to contain neurons highly responsive to the wake-promoting transmitter hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx), there is a set of neurons, endowed with distinct intrinsic properties, which displayed a strong propensity to fire spontaneously in rhythmic bursts. In response to small depolarizing steps, they responded with a delayed firing of action potentials which, upon higher depolarizing steps, invariably inactivated and were followed by a depolarized plateau potential and a depolarizing afterpotential. These cells also displayed a strong hyperpolarization-activated rectification compatible with the presence of an Ih current. Most L6b neurons with such properties were able to fire spontaneously in bursts. Their bursting activity was of intrinsic origin as it persisted not only in presence of blockers of ionotropic glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors but also in a condition of complete synaptic blockade. However, a small number of these neurons displayed a mix of intrinsic bursting and synaptically driven recurrent UP and DOWN states. Most of the bursting L6b neurons were depolarized and excited by hcrt/orx through a direct postsynaptic mechanism that led to tonic firing and eventually inactivation. Similarly, they were directly excited by noradrenaline, histamine, dopamine, and neurotensin. Finally, the intracellular injection of these cells with dye and their subsequent Neurolucida reconstruction indicated that they were spiny non-pyramidal neurons. These results lead us to suggest that the propensity for slow rhythmic bursting of this set of L6b neurons could be directly impeded by hcrt

  6. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  7. Electrodes For Alkali-Metal Thermoelectric Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Wheeler, Bob L.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Lamb, James L.; Bankston, C. Perry; Cole, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Combination of thin, porous electrode and overlying collector grid reduces internal resistance of alkali-metal thermoelectric converter cell. Low resistance of new electrode and grid boosts power density nearly to 1 W/cm2 of electrode area at typical operating temperatures of 1,000 to 1,300 K. Conductive grid encircles electrode film on alumina tube. Bus wire runs along tube to collect electrical current from grid. Such converters used to transform solar, nuclear, and waste heat into electric power.

  8. High power diode pumped alkali vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Krupke, B.

    2008-05-01

    Diode pumped alkali lasers have developed rapidly since their first demonstration. These lasers offer a path to convert highly efficient, but relatively low brightness, laser diodes into a single high power, high brightness beam. General Atomics has been engaged in the development of DPALs with scalable architectures. We have examined different species and pump characteristics. We show that high absorption can be achieved even when the pump source bandwidth is several times the absorption bandwidth. In addition, we present experimental results for both potassium and rubidium systems pumped with a 0.2 nm bandwidth alexandrite laser. These data show slope efficiencies of 67% and 72% respectively.

  9. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  10. Elucidation of transport mechanism and enhanced alkali ion transference numbers in mixed alkali metal-organic ionic molten salts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Forsyth, Maria

    2016-07-28

    Mixed salts of Ionic Liquids (ILs) and alkali metal salts, developed as electrolytes for lithium and sodium batteries, have shown a remarkable ability to facilitate high rate capability for lithium and sodium electrochemical cycling. It has been suggested that this may be due to a high alkali metal ion transference number at concentrations approaching 50 mol% Li(+) or Na(+), relative to lower concentrations. Computational investigations for two IL systems illustrate the formation of extended alkali-anion aggregates as the alkali metal ion concentration increases. This tends to favor the diffusion of alkali metal ions compared with other ionic species in electrolyte solutions; behavior that has recently been reported for Li(+) in a phosphonium ionic liquid, thus an increasing alkali transference number. The mechanism of alkali metal ion diffusion via this extended coordination environment present at high concentrations is explained and compared to the dynamics at lower concentrations. Heterogeneous alkali metal ion dynamics are also evident and, somewhat counter-intuitively, it appears that the faster ions are those that are generally found clustered with the anions. Furthermore these fast alkali metal ions appear to correlate with fastest ionic liquid solvent ions. PMID:27375042

  11. (abstract) Fundamental Mechanisms of Electrode Kinetics and Alkali Metal Atom Transport at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrode kinetics and mass transport of alkali metal oxidation and alkali metal cation reduction at the solid electrolyte/porous electrode boundary as well as alkali metal transport through porous metal electrodes has important applications in optimizing device performance in alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) cells which are high temperature, high current density electrochemical cells. Basic studies of these processes also affords the opportunity to investigate a very basic electrochemical reaction over a wide range of conditions; and a variety of mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. The temperature range of these investigations covers 700K to 1240K; the alkali metal vapor pressures range from about 10(sup -2) to 10(sup 2) Pa; and electrodes studied have included Mo, W, Mo/Na(sub 2)MoO(sub 4), W/Na(sub 2)WO(sub 4), WPt(sub x), and WRh(sub x) (1.0 < x < 6.0 ) with Na at Na-beta'-alumina, and Mo with K at K-beta'-alumina. Both liquid metal/solid electrolyte/alkali metal vapor and alkali metal vapor/solid electrolyte/vapor cells have been used to characterize the reaction and transport processes. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes.

  12. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  13. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  14. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides.

    PubMed

    Krzton-Maziopa, A; Svitlyk, V; Pomjakushina, E; Puzniak, R; Conder, K

    2016-07-27

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2-y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations. PMID:27248118

  15. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  16. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Svitlyk, V.; Pomjakushina, E.; Puzniak, R.; Conder, K.

    2016-07-01

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2‑y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations.

  17. Unconventional Superconductivity of Alkali-doped Fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potocnik, Anton; Krajnc, Andraz; Jeglic, Peter; Prassides, Kosmas; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.; Arcon, Denis

    2014-03-01

    The superconductivity of the alkali-doped fullerenes (A3C60, A = alkali metal) has been so far discussed within the standard theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Shrieffer (BCS), even thought, they exhibit relatively high critical temperatures (up to Tc = 32 K). However, after our recent high-pressure measurements on Cs3C60 such description became questionable. We have shown that the superconducting phase of A3C60, in fact, borders the antiferromagnetic insulating phase (AFI), commonly observed for high-temperature superconductors like cuprates or pnictides. In addition, we also increased the maximal Tc to 38 K. To investigate this peculiar superconductivity close to the border with AFI state we employed nuclear magnetic resonance technique on Cs3-xRbxC60 and on Cs3C60 at various high pressures. Our results could not be correctly explained either by the standard BCS or the extended BCS that includes electron-electron repulsion interaction - the Migdal-Eliashberg theory. Far better agreement is obtained by the Dynamical Mean Field Theory. Due to similarity with other unconventional superconductors these results could also be relevant to other unconventional high-temperature superconductors.

  18. Decalcification resistance of alkali-activated slag.

    PubMed

    Komljenović, Miroslav M; Baščarević, Zvezdana; Marjanović, Nataša; Nikolić, Violeta

    2012-09-30

    This paper analyses the effects of decalcification in concentrated 6M NH(4)NO(3) solution on mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated slag (AAS). Portland-slag cement (CEM II/A-S 42.5 N) was used as a benchmark material. Decalcification process led to a decrease in strength, both in AAS and in CEM II, and this effect was more pronounced in CEM II. The decrease in strength was explicitly related to the decrease in Ca/Si atomic ratio of C-S-H gel. A very low ratio of Ca/Si ~0.3 in AAS was the consequence of coexistence of C-S-H(I) gel and silica gel. During decalcification of AAS almost complete leaching of sodium and tetrahedral aluminum from C-S-H(I) gel also took place. AAS showed significantly higher resistance to decalcification in relation to the benchmark CEM II due to the absence of portlandite, high level of polymerization of silicate chains, low level of aluminum for silicon substitution in the structure of C-S-H(I), and the formation of protective layer of polymerized silica gel during decalcification process. In stabilization/solidification processes alkali-activated slag represents a more promising solution than Portland-slag cement due to significantly higher resistance to decalcification. PMID:22818592

  19. Dynamics of reactive ultracold alkali polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John; Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2011-05-01

    Recently, ultracold polar molecules of KRb have been created. These molecules are chemically reactive and their lifetime in a trap is limited. However, their lifetime increases when they are loaded into a 1D optical lattice in the presence of an electric field. These results naturally raise the question of manipulating ultracold collisions of other species of alkali dimer molecules, with an eye toward both novel stereochemistry, as well as suppressing unwanted reactions, to enable condensed matter applications. In this talk, we report on a comparative study between the bi-alkali polar molecules of LiNa, LiK, LiRb, LiCs which have been predicted to be reactive. We compute the isotropic C6 coefficients of these systems and we predict the elastic and reactive rate coefficients when an electric field is applied in a 1D optical lattice. We will discuss the efficacy of evaporative cooling for each species. This work was supported by a MURI-AFOSR grant.

  20. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical..., chemical destruction and carbon adsorption. (iv) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90...

  1. Formation of lysinoalanine in egg white under alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the formation mechanism of lysinoalanine (LAL) in eggs during the alkali treatment process, NaOH was used for the direct alkali treatment of egg white, ovalbumin, and amino acids; in addition, the amount of LAL formed during the alkali treatment process was measured. The results showed that the alkali treatment resulted in the formation of LAL in the egg white. The LAL content increased with increasing pH and temperature, with the LAL content first increasing and then leveling off with increasing time. The amount of LAL formed in the ovalbumin under the alkali treatment condition accounted for approximately 50.51% to 58.68% of the amount of LAL formed in the egg white. Thus, the LAL formed in the ovalbumin was the main source for the LAL in the egg white during the alkali treatment process. Under the alkali treatment condition, free L-serine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine reacted with L-lysine to form LAL; therefore, they are the precursor amino acids of LAL formed in eggs during the alkali treatment process. PMID:26772660

  2. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, Wen Y.

    1984-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them (46, 53, 61, 69) with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide (63) to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased (81), preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated (84) to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process (86, 18, 17) where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  3. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  7. Self-discharge in bimetallic cells containing alkali metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of thermally regenerative bimetallic cells with alkali metal anodes shows a relation between the current drawn and the rate of discharge under open-circuit conditions. The self-discharge rate of the cell is due to the dissolution and ionization of alkali metal atoms in the fused-salt electrolyte

  8. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  9. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl...

  11. Characterization of human papillomavirus 6b L1 virus-like particles isolated from silkworms using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hahne, Thomas; Palaniyandi, Muthukutty; Kato, Tatsuya; Fleischmann, Peter; Wätzig, Hermann; Park, Enoch Y

    2014-09-01

    Human papillomavirus 6b L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) were successfully expressed using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid expression system and rapidly purified using size exclusion chromatography after ultracentrifugation procedure and characterized by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The average capillary electrophoresis migration time was 11 min with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.3% of human papillomavirus 6b L1 VLPs. After this threefold fractionation, the CZE samples were still further investigated by dynamic light scattering and immuno blotting. The versatile technique, CZE not only proved to be a valuable tool for VLP characterization, but was also found to be reliable and precise. Thus CZE will also be an important option for the quality control of VLPs in pharmaceutical research level. PMID:24694399

  12. [Diagnosis and practice of virological monitoring of infections by the human herpesviruses 6A and 6B].

    PubMed

    Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès; Bonnafous, Pascale; Agut, Henri

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of the infection by the human herpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A, HHV-6B) is based on a direct and an indirect approaches. Serological methods are mainly used to ask primary infection diagnosis and carry out epidemiological studies. However, limitations are numerous with, in particular, the existence of cross-reactivity with other herpesviruses, and the inability to differentiate the two kinds of HHV-6. Initially based on virus isolation in cell culture, direct diagnosis evolved with the development of gene amplification methods that provide sensitivity and specificity, and allow viral quantitation in many biological systems and the identification of present species. Its main current indications are the identification of active infection, the identification of the integrated form of HHV-6 (iciHHV-6, inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6) and the monitoring of the effectiveness of antiviral treatment. PMID:27029721

  13. G6b-B inhibits constitutive and agonist-induced signaling by glycoprotein VI and CLEC-2.

    PubMed

    Mori, Jun; Pearce, Andrew C; Spalton, Jennifer C; Grygielska, Beata; Eble, Johannes A; Tomlinson, Michael G; Senis, Yotis A; Watson, Steve P

    2008-12-19

    Platelets play an essential role in wound healing by forming thrombi that plug holes in the walls of damaged blood vessels. To achieve this, platelets express a diverse array of cell surface receptors and signaling proteins that induce rapid platelet activation. In this study we show that two platelet glycoprotein receptors that signal via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) or an ITAM-like domain, namely the collagen receptor complex glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-FcR gamma-chain and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), respectively, support constitutive (i.e. agonist-independent) signaling in a cell line model using a nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcriptional reporter assay that can detect low level activation of phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma). Constitutive and agonist signaling by both receptors is dependent on Src and Syk family kinases, and is inhibited by G6b-B, a platelet immunoglobulin receptor that has two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in its cytosolic tail. Mutation of the conserved tyrosines in the two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs prevents the inhibitory action of G6b-B. Interestingly, the inhibitory activity of G6b-B is independent of the Src homology 2 (SH2)-domain containing tyrosine phosphatases, SHP1 and SHP2, and the inositol 5'-phosphatase, SHIP. Constitutive signaling via Src and Syk tyrosine kinases is observed in platelets and is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of GPVI-FcR gamma-chain and CLEC-2. We speculate that inhibition of constitutive signaling through Src and Syk tyrosine kinases by G6b-B may help to prevent unwanted platelet activation. PMID:18955485

  14. Intragenomic linear amplification of human herpesvirus 6B oriLyt suggests acquisition of oriLyt by transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Stamey, F R; Dominguez, G; Black, J B; Dambaugh, T R; Pellett, P E

    1995-01-01

    We identified some passage lineages of human herpesvirus 6 variant B (HHV-6B) strain Z29 that contain as many as 12 tandem copies of a genomic segment that corresponds almost precisely to a previously identified minimal efficient origin of lytic replication (oriLyt). Analysis of nucleotide sequences in the vicinity of the amplified segment suggests that the amplification occurred as a two-step process, with the first step being a rare sequence duplication mediated through directly repeated sequences located near the termini of the amplified segment and the second step occurring via homologous recombination through the duplicated sequence. These results demonstrate that oriLyt has been amplified in some virus stocks and indicate that (i) origin amplification confers a growth advantage on the virus in cell culture and (ii) laboratory-passaged HHV-6B genomes can accommodate additional nucleotide sequences and thus may be useful gene transfer vectors. The structures of the amplified segment and its adjacent sequences together suggest that HHV-6B or a progenitor virus acquired oriLyt by transposition from an unknown source. PMID:7983761

  15. A novel multiple joint dislocation syndrome associated with a homozygous nonsense variant in the EXOC6B gene.

    PubMed

    Girisha, Katta Mohan; Kortüm, Fanny; Shah, Hitesh; Alawi, Malik; Dalal, Ashwin; Bhavani, Gandham SriLakshmi; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2016-08-01

    We report two brothers from a consanguineous couple with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD), multiple joint dislocations at birth, severe joint laxity, scoliosis, gracile metacarpals and metatarsals, delayed bone age and poorly ossified carpal and tarsal bones, probably representing a yet uncharacterized SEMD with laxity and dislocations. This condition has clinical overlap with autosomal dominantly inherited SEMD with joint laxity, leptodactylic type caused by recurrent missense variants in the kinesin family member 22 gene (KIF22). Single-nucleotide polymorphism array analysis and whole-exome sequencing in the two affected siblings revealed a shared homozygous nonsense variant [c.906T>A/p.(Tyr302*)] in EXOC6B as the most likely cause. EXOC6B encodes a component of the exocyst complex required for tethering secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane. As transport of vesicles from the golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane occurs through kinesin motor proteins along microtubule tracks, the function of EXOC6B is linked to KIF22 suggesting a common pathogenic mechanism in skeletal dysplasias with joint laxity and dislocations. PMID:26669664

  16. Effects of alkali treatments on Ag nanowire transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Kang, Jun-gu; Eom, Tae-yil; Moon, Bongjin; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we employ various alkali materials (alkali metals with different base strengths, and ammonia gas and solution) to improve the conductivity of silver nanowire (Ag NW)-networked films. The alkali treatment appears to remove the surface oxide and improve the conductivity. When applied with TiO2 nanoparticles, the treatment appears more effective as the alkalis gather around wire junctions and help them weld to each other via heat emitted from the reduction reaction. The ammonia solution treatment is found to be quick and aggressive, damaging the wires severely in the case of excessive treatment. On the other hand, the ammonia gas treatment seems much less aggressive and does not damage the wires even after a long exposure. The results of this study highlight the effectiveness of the alkali treatment in improving of the conductivity of Ag NW-networked transparent conductive films.

  17. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  18. Origin of alkali-feldspar granites: An example from the Poimena Granite, northeastern Tasmania, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, D.E.; Black, L.P.; Sun, Shensu )

    1988-10-01

    The Lottah Granite is a composite pluton of tin mineralized strongly peraluminous alkali-feldspar granite which intrudes the Poimena Granite, a major component of the mid-Devonian Blue Tier Batholith of northeastern Tasmania. Earlier workers interpreted the Lottah Granite as a metasomatised differentiate of the Poimena Granite. The Poimena Granite is a slightly peraluminous, felsic, I-type biotite granite which contains restite minerals and shows linear trends on Harker plots, both consistent with restite separation. The mineralogy, chemical variation, and isotopic characteristics of the Lottah Granite are consistent with origin as a magma genetically unrelated to the host granite. The Lottah Granite contains sanidine, albite, topaz, zinnwaldite and other minerals consistent with crystallization from a melt. Furthermore, Rb-Sr isotopic dating indicates that the Lottah Granite was emplaced about 10 Ma after the Poimena Granite, and initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicate that the Lottah Granite was derived from a higher-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, higher-{epsilon}Nd source composition. Chemical and mineralogical evolution of the Lottah Granite conform to the experimental behavior of Li-F-rich melts, and indicate a possible crystallization temperature range as extreme as 750-430{degree}C. Many other examples of alkali-feldspar granite, and much of the associated mineralization, are probably also of essentially primary magmatic origin rather than of metasomatic or hydrothermal origin as commonly interpreted. They may also be genetically unrelated to granites with which they are associated.

  19. 76 FR 34014 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-215-1A10, CL-215-6B11 (CL-215T Variant), and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or.... Model CL-215-1A10, CL- 215-6B11 (CL-215T Variant), and CL-215-6B11 (CL-415 Variant) Airplanes AGENCY.... Model CL-215-1A10 airplanes, serial numbers 1051 through 1125 inclusive; Model CL-215- 6B11...

  20. Diversity and Mechanisms of Alkali Tolerance in Lactobacilli▿

    PubMed Central

    Sawatari, Yuki; Yokota, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    We determined the maximum pH that allows growth (pHmax) for 34 strains of lactobacilli. High alkali tolerance was exhibited by strains of Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei subsp. tolerans, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. curvatus, L. pentosus, and L. plantarum that originated from plant material, with pHmax values between 8.5 and 8.9. Among these, L. casei NRIC 1917 and L. paracasei subsp. tolerans NRIC 1940 showed the highest pHmax, at 8.9. Digestive tract isolates of L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, L. reuteri, L. salivarius subsp. salicinius, and L. salivarius subsp. salivarius exhibited moderate alkali tolerance, with pHmax values between 8.1 and 8.5. Dairy isolates of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and L. helveticus exhibited no alkali tolerance, with pHmax values between 6.7 and 7.1. Measurement of the internal pH of representative strains revealed the formation of transmembrane proton gradients (ΔpH) in a reversed direction (i.e., acidic interior) at alkaline external-pH ranges, regardless of their degrees of alkali tolerance. Thus, the reversed ΔpH did not determine alkali tolerance diversity. However, the ΔpH contributed to alkali tolerance, as the pHmax values of several strains decreased with the addition of nigericin, which dissipates ΔpH. Although neutral external-pH values resulted in the highest glycolysis activity in the presence of nigericin regardless of alkali tolerance, substantial glucose utilization was still detected in the alkali-tolerant strains, even in a pH range of between 8.0 and 8.5, at which the remaining strains lost most activity. Therefore, the alkali tolerance of glycolysis reactions contributes greatly to the determination of alkali tolerance diversity. PMID:17449704

  1. Pluto’s Blue Haze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The sky on Pluto is blue! Kind of. This is Pluto in an Minute. So it’s not exactly the case that the sky on Pluto is blue, rather, what the New Horizons science team has found in recent images do...

  2. Elastic properties of alkali-feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeselmann, N.; Brown, J.; Angel, R. J.; Ross, N.; Kaminsky, W.

    2013-12-01

    New measurements of single crystal elastic moduli for a suite of the alkali feldspars are reported. In order to interpret Earth's seismic structure, knowledge of the elastic properties of constituent minerals is essential. The elasticity of feldspar minerals, despite being the most abundant phase in Earth's crust (estimated to be more than 60%), were previously poorly characterized. All prior seismic and petrologic studies have utilized 50-year-old results, of questionable quality, based on 1-bar measurements on pseudo-single crystals. Alkali-feldspars present a large experimental challenge associated with their structural complexity. In the K-end member (KAlSi3O8) the symmetry is governed by Al/Si ordering, in the Na-end member (NaAlSi3O8) the symmetry is governed by whether or not there is a displacive collapse of the framework independent of the Al/Si ordering. K-feldspars exhibit monoclinic (C2/m) symmetry (necessitating determination of 13 elastic moduli) if disordered and triclinic (C-1) symmetry (21 elastic moduli) if ordered. Exsolution of Na-rich and K-rich phases is ubiquitous in natural samples, making it difficult to find suitable single phase and untwinned samples for study. The small single domain samples selected for this study were previously characterized by x-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis to ensure adequate sample quality. Surface wave velocities were measured on oriented surfaces of natural and synthetic single crystals using impulsively stimulated light scattering. A surface corrugation with a spacing of about 2 microns was impulsively created by the overlap of 100 ps infrared light pulses. The time evolution of the stimulated standing elastic waves was detected by measuring the intensity of diffraction from the surface corrugation of a variably delayed probe pulse. This method allows accurate (better than 0.2%) determination of velocities on samples smaller than 100 microns. The combination of measured surface wave velocities and

  3. Solvent-averaged potentials for alkali-, earth alkali-, and alkylammonium halide aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Berk; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.

    2007-12-01

    We derive effective, solvent-free ion-ion potentials for alkali-, earth alkali-, and alkylammonium halide aqueous solutions. The implicit solvent potentials are parametrized to reproduce experimental osmotic coefficients. The modeling approach minimizes the amount of input required from atomistic (force field) models, which usually predict large variations in the effective ion-ion potentials at short distances. For the smaller ion species, the reported potentials are composed of a Coulomb and a Weeks-Chandler-Andersen term. For larger ions, we find that an additional, attractive potential is required at the contact minimum, which is related to solvent degrees of freedom that are usually not accounted for in standard electrostatics models. The reported potentials provide a simple and accurate force field for use in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of (poly-)electrolyte systems.

  4. Alkali oxide-tantalum oxide and alkali oxide-niobium oxide ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. S.; Parker, H. S.; Brower, W. S.; Minor, D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for new cationic conducting phases in alkali-tantalate and niobate systems. The phase equilibrium diagrams were constructed for the six binary systems Nb2O5-LiNbO3, Nb2O5-NaNbO3, Nb2O5-KNbO3, Ta2O5-NaTaO3, Ta2O5-LiTaO3, and Ta2O5-KTaO3. Various other binary and ternary systems were also examined. Pellets of nineteen phases were evaluated (by the sponsoring agency) by dielectric loss measurements. Attempts were made to grow large crystals of eight different phases. The system Ta2O5-KTaO3 contains at least three phases which showed peaks in dielectric loss vs. temperature. All three contain structures related to the tungsten bronzes with alkali ions in non-stoichiometric crystallographic positions.

  5. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  6. Alkali differentiation in LL-chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlotzka, F.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Wanke, H.; Fredriksson, K.; Noonan, A. F.

    1983-04-01

    The Kraehenberg and Bhola LL-group chondrites are heterogeneous agglomerates which contain a variety of lithic fragments and chondrules as well as crystal fragments. Both meteorites contain large, cm-sized fragments with high K enrichments. The K-rich inclusions are fragments of larger rock bodies which crystallized from melts of chondritic parent material that had previously been enriched in K and in heavier alkalies,while also being depleted in Na and metal. It is suggested that the K enrichment occurred as an exchange for Na in feldspars via a vapor phase, whose presence on the chondrite parent body (or bodies) is supported by the recent finding of fluid inclusions in chondritic silicates. Cooling rate considerations indicate that the K-rich rock units could not have been very large, implying that the K-rich materials were locally molten by, for example, impact.

  7. Heat pipes containing alkali metal working fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A technique for improving high temperature evaporation-condensation heat-transfer devices which have important and unique advantage in terrestrial and space energy processing is described. The device is in the form of a heat pipe comprising a sealed container or envelope which contains a capillary wick. The temperature of one end of the heat pipe is raised by the input of heat from an external heat source which is extremely hot and corrosive. A working fluid of a corrosive alkali metal, such as lithium, sodium, or potassium transfers this heat to a heat receiver remote from the heat source. The container and wick are fabricated from a superalloy containing a small percentage of a corrosion inhibiting or gettering element. Lanthanum, scandium, yttrium, thorium, and hafnium are utilized as the alloying metal.

  8. Comparative alkali washing of simulated radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, G.A.; Ensor, D.D.; Egan, B.Z.

    1996-10-01

    The treatment of large volumes of radioactive sludge generated from uranium and plutonium recovery processes is a pressing problem in the environmental restoration currently planned at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. This sludge, commonly stored in underground tanks, is mainly in the form of metal oxides or precipitated metal hydroxides and the bulk of this material is nonradioactive. One method being developed to pretreat this waste takes advantage of the amphoteric character of aluminum and other nonradioactive elements. Previous studies have reported on the dissolution of eleven elements from simulated sludge using NaOH solutions up to 6M. This work provides a comparative study using KOH. The effectiveness of the alkali washing as a treatment method to reduce the bulk of radioactive sludge requiring long term isolation will be discussed.

  9. Solid state cell with alkali metal halo-alkali thiocyanate electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B. M.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1980-02-26

    A novel electrochemical cell is disclosed utilizing: (A) an anode which contains an alkali metal as an anode-active material; (B) a cathode and (C) an electrolyte comprising an electrolytically effective amount of one or more compounds having the formula: (Ax)ma'scn wherein a is an alkali metal, X is a halogen, a' is an alkali metal and 0.1 < or = N < or = 10. Preferred systems include lithium-containing anodes, lithium-containing electrolytes and cathodes which contain cathode-active material selected from the group consisting of cathode-active sulfurs, halogens, halides, chromates, phosphates, oxides and chalcogenides, especially those chalcogenides of the empirical formula mzm wherein M is one or more metals selected from the group consisting of iron, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum and vanadium, Z is one or more chalcogens selected from the group consisting of oxygen, sulfur, selenium and tellurium, and M is a numerical value between about 1.8 and about 3.2.

  10. Ionic alkali halide XUV laser feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.T.; Gylys, V.T.; Bower, R.D.; Harris, D.G.; Blauer, J.A.; Turner, C.E.; Hindy, R.N.

    1989-11-10

    The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of a select set of ionic alkali halide XUV laser concepts by obtaining the relevant kinetic and spectroscopic parameters required for a proof-of-principle and conceptual design. The proposed lasers operate in the 80--200 nm spectral region and do not require input from outside radiation sources for their operation. Frequency up-conversion and frequency mixing techniques and therefore not considered in the work to be described. An experimental and theoretical study of a new type of laser operating in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region has been conducted. The lasing species are singly ionized alkali halide molecules such as Rb{sup 2+}F{sub {minus}}, Rb{sup 2+}Br{sup {minus}} and Cs{sup 2+}F{sup {minus}}. These species are similar in electronic structure to the rare gas halide excimers, such as XeF and Krf, except that the ionic molecules emit at wavelengths of 80--200 nm, much shorter than the conventional rare-gas halide excimer laser. The radiative lifetime of these molecules are typically near 1 ns, which is about an order of magnitude shorter than that for rare-gas halide systems. The values of the cross section for stimulated emission are on the order of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}cm{sup 2}. Because of the fundamental similarity to existing UV lasers, these systems show promise as a high power, efficient XUV lasers. 55 refs., 50 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

    2012-09-11

    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  12. Ultrasonic coal washing to leach alkali elements from coals.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, S; Reddy, V Midhun; Nagarajan, R

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of fly ash particles onto heat-transfer surfaces is often one of the reasons for unscheduled shut-downs of coal-fired boilers. Fouling deposits encountered in convective sections of a boiler are characterized by arrival of ash particles in solidified (solid) state. Fouling is most frequently caused by condensation and chemical reaction of alkali vapors with the deposited ash particles creating a wet surface conducive to collect impacting ash particles. Hence, the amount of alkali elements present in coals, which, in turn, is available in the flue gas as condensable vapors, determines the formation and growth of fouling deposits. In this context, removal of alkali elements becomes vital when inferior coals having high-ash content are utilized for power generation. With the concept of reducing alkali elements present in a coal entering the combustor, whereby the fouling deposits can either be minimized or be weakened due to absence of alkali gluing effect, the ultrasonic leaching of alkali elements from coals is investigated in this study. Ultrasonic water-washing and chemical-washing, in comparison with agitation, are studied in order to estimate the intensification of the alkali removal process by sonication. PMID:26186840

  13. Alkali elemental and potassium isotopic compositions of Semarkona chondrules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of K isotope ratios in 28 Semarkona chondrules with a wide range of petrologic types and bulk compositions as well as the compositions of CPX-mesostasis pairs in 17 type I Semarkona chondrules, including two chondrules with radial alkali zonation and 19 type II chondrules. Despite the wide range in K/Al ratios, no systematic variations in K isotopic compositions were found. Semarkona chondrules do not record a simple history of Rayleigh-type loss of K. Experimentally determined evaporation rates suggest that considerable alkali evaporation would have occurred during chondrule formation. Nevertheless, based on Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients, the alkali contents of the cores of most chondrules in Semarkona were probably established at the time of final crystallization. However, Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients also show that alkali zonation in type I Semarkona chondrules was produced by entry of alkalis after solidification, probably during parent body alteration. This alkali metasomatism may have gone to completion in some chondrules. Our preferred explanation for the lack of systematic isotopic enrichments, even in alkali depleted type I chondrule cores, is that they exchanged with the ambient gas as they cooled. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2005.

  14. Blue ellipticals in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    1990-01-01

    By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

  15. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation. PMID:24663457

  16. Blue upconversion thulium laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.; Weber, M.E.; Dulick, M.

    1990-01-01

    Upconversion has been an active area of research for at least two decades, mainly because of its wide ranging applications from infrared quantum counters, visible-emitting phosphors, to upconversion lasers. The upconversion lasers have recently become attractive with the advent of semiconductor laser diodes as the pump source. In an upconversion laser, the laser active ion is excited by internal upconversion of near-ir or red light via multiphoton excitation or cooperative processes and emits anti-Stokes visible light. Since the laser diode output wavelength can be composition turned to match the upconversion laser ion absorption lines, a substantial fraction of the ions can be driven into higher energy levels, thus enhancing the upconversion process. These upconversion solid-state lasers offer a potentially simple and compact source of visible coherent light with semiconductor laser diode excitation. We recently reported a novel upconversion thulium laser that emits blue light at 77 K. In this paper additional data on this 77 K upconversion laser as well as preliminary results on the room temperature upconversion laser are presented. In these demonstrations, dye lasers were used instead of diode lasers because they were more readily available than high power semiconductor laser diodes and their wavelengths could be adjusted easily. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.K.

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  18. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  19. A genetic screen for mutants defective in IAA1-LUC degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals an important requirement for TOPOISOMERASE6B in auxin physiology

    PubMed Central

    Gilkerson, Jonathan; Callis, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Many plant growth and developmental processes are modulated by the hormone auxin. Auxin-modulated proteolysis of Aux/IAAs, a family of transcriptional repressors, represents a major mode of auxin action. Auxin facilitates the interaction of Aux/IAAs with TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, promoting their ubiquitination by the SCFTIR1/AFB ubiquitin E3 ligase leading to subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To identify new genes regulating Aux/IAA proteolysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, we took a genetic approach, identifying individuals with altered degradation of an IAA1-luciferase fusion protein (IAA1-LUC). A mutant with 2-fold slower IAA1-LUC degradation rate compared with wild-type was isolated. Positional cloning identified the mutant as an allele of TOPOISOMERASE6B, named top6b-7. TOP6B encodes a subunit of a plant and archea-specific enzyme regulating endoreduplication, DNA damage repair and transcription in plants. T-DNA insertion alleles (top6b-8 and top6b-9) were also analyzed. top6b-7 seedlings are less sensitive to exogenous auxin than wild-type siblings in primary root growth assays, and experiments with DR5:GUS. Additionally, top6b-7 seedlings have a 40% reduction in the amount of endogenous IAA. These data suggest that increased IAA1-LUC half-life in top6b-7 probably results from a combination of both lower endogenous IAA levels and reduced sensitivity to auxin. PMID:25482814

  20. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  1. Microscopy and Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy Characterization of Quartz Exhibiting Different Alkali-Silica Reaction Potential.

    PubMed

    Kuchařová, Aneta; Götze, Jens; Šachlová, Šárka; Pertold, Zdeněk; Přikryl, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Different quartz types from several localities in the Czech Republic and Sweden were examined by polarizing microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy, spectroscopy, and petrographic image analysis, and tested by use of an accelerated mortar bar test (following ASTM C1260). The highest alkali-silica reaction potential was indicated by very fine-grained chert, containing significant amounts of fine-grained to cryptocrystalline matrix. The chert exhibited a dark red CL emission band at ~640 nm with a low intensity. Fine-grained orthoquartzites, as well as fine-grained metamorphic vein quartz, separated from phyllite exhibited medium expansion values. The orthoquartzites showed various CL of quartz grains, from blue through violet, red, and brown. Two CL spectral bands at ~450 and ~630 nm, with various intensities, were detected. The quartz from phyllite displayed an inhomogeneous dark red CL with two CL spectral bands of low intensities at ~460 and ~640 nm. The massive coarse-grained pegmatite quartz from pegmatite was assessed to be nonreactive and displayed a typical short-lived blue CL (~480 nm). The higher reactivity of the fine-grained hydrothermal quartz may be connected with high concentrations of defect centers, and probably with amorphized micro-regions in the quartz, respectively; indicated by a yellow CL emission (~570 nm). PMID:26790877

  2. Isomer-specific analysis and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in soil, sediment, and biota collected near the site of a former chlor-alkali plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, K.; Blankenship, A.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Imagawa, T.

    1998-09-01

    Concentrations and composition of polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners were determined in soil, sediments, blue crab, striped mullet, and boat-tailed grackle collected near a chlor-alkali plant to determine their congener profile, bioaccumulation properties, and toxic potential. Concentrations of total PCNs as high as 23 {micro}g/g, dry wt, were found in sediments collected at the marsh contaminated by disposal of wastes from the chlor-alkali process. The spatial distribution of sediment-PCN concentrations was not related with those observed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The PCN congener profile did not resemble those of any technical mixtures. Hepta- and octa-chloronaphthalenes were the most abundant congeners accounting for greater than 50% of the total PCN concentrations in soil and sediments. A characteristic profile of PCNs in samples collected at the chlor-alkali site suggests the formation of chloronaphthalene congeners during chlor-alkali process, as has been suggested for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Concentrations of total PCNs in biota were 3--5 orders of magnitude less than in sediments. The profile of PCN congeners in biota was predominated by tetra- or penta-chloronaphthalenes, while hepta- and octa-chloronaphthalenes were not detected.

  3. Hazards of solar blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

  4. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R.; Jain, H.

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  5. The 4843 Alkali Metal Storage Facility Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The 4843 AMSF has been used primarily to provide a centralized building to receive and store dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste, including sodium and lithium, which has been generated at the Fast Flux Test Facility and at various other Hanford Site operations that used alkali metals. Most of the dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste received consists of retired equipment from liquid sodium processes. The unit continues to store material. In general, only solid alkali metal waste that is water reactive is stored at the 4843 AMSF. The 4843 AMSF will be closed in a manner consistent with Ecology guidelines and regulations (WAC 173-303-610). The general closure procedure is detailed as follows.

  6. Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1995-08-22

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  8. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1995-01-01

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  9. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H.; Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R.

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  10. Effect of cavitation on removal of alkali elements from coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivalli, H.; Nirmal, L.; Nagarajan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The main impurities in coal are sulphur, ash and alkali. On combustion, the volatile forms of these impurities are either condensed on the boilers, or emitted in the form of potentially hazardous gases. The alkali elements present in coal help the fly ash particles adhere to boiler surfaces by providing a wet surface on which collection of these particles can take place. Use of ultrasonic techniques in cleaning of coal has stirred interest among researchers in recent times. Extraction of alkali elements by cavitation effect using low-frequency ultrasound, in the presence of reagents (HNO3 and H2O2) is reported in this paper. Powdered coal was dissolved with the reagent and exposed to ultrasonic fields of various frequencies at different time intervals. The treated solution is filtered and tested for alkali levels.

  11. X-ray Photochemistry of Prussian Blue Cellulosic Materials: Evidence for a Substrate-Mediated Redox Process.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Claire; Languille, Marie-Angélique; Moretti, Giulia; Réguer, Solenn

    2015-07-28

    Beside its promising applications in the design of multifunctional materials, batteries and biosensors, the pigment Prussian blue is still studied in heritage science because of its capricious fading behavior due to a complex light-induced redox mechanism. We studied model heritage materials composed of Prussian blue embedded into a cellulosic fiber substrate by means of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Significant X-ray radiation damage was observed and characterized. X-ray radiation induced first a reduction of Prussian blue, in a similar way to what visible light does, followed by a complete degradation of the pigment and the formation of iron(III) oxyhydroxide. We took advantage of this X-ray photochemistry to investigate in depth the redox behavior of Prussian blue. We could particularly demonstrate that the rate, extent, and quality of Prussian blue photoreduction can be tuned by modifying the pH and alkali cation content of the cellulosic substrate. The present study represents a step further in the understanding of Prussian blue heritage materials from an electrochemical viewpoint and provides evidence of substrate-mediated photochemistry applicable to a wider class of Prussian blue composite materials. PMID:26125282

  12. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  13. Rock Degradation by Alkali Metals: A Possible Lunar Erosion Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Naughton, J J; Barnes, I L; Hammond, D A

    1965-08-01

    When rocks melt under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, their alkali components volatilize as metals. These metal vapors act to comminute polycrystalline rocks to their component minerals. The resultant powder is porous and loosely packed and its characteristics may be compatible with the lunar surface as revealed by the Ranger photographs. If meteorite impact or lunar volcanism has produced vaporization or areas of molten lava, alkali erosion may have given dust of this character in adjacent solid areas. PMID:17747570

  14. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOEpatents

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  15. Alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide double alkoxide precursors to alkali metal yttrium oxide nanomaterials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Neville, Michael L.; Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Cramer, Roger

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a series of alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide ([AY(ONep)4]) compounds were developed as precursors to alkali yttrium oxide (AYO2) nanomaterials. The reaction of yttrium amide ([Y(NR2)3] where R=Si(CH3)3) with four equivalents of H-ONep followed by addition of [A(NR2)] (A=Li, Na, K) or Ao (Ao=Rb, Cs) led to the formation of a complex series of AnY(ONep)3+n species, crystallographically identified as [Y2Li3(μ3-ONep)(μ3-HONep)(μ-ONep)5(ONep)3(HONep)2] (1), [YNa2(μ3-ONep)4(ONep)]2 (2), {[Y2K3(μ3-ONep)3(μ-ONep)4(ONep)2(ηξ-tol)2][Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4]•ηx-tol]} (3), [Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4] (3a), [Y2Rb3(μ4-ONep)3(μ-ONep)6] (4), and [Y2Cs4(μ6-O)(μ3-ONep)6(μ3-HONep)2(ONep)2(ηx-tol)4]•tol (5). Compounds 1–5 were investigated as single source precursors to AYOx nanomaterials following solvothermal routes (pyridine, 185 °C for 24h). The final products after thermal processing weremore » found by powder X-ray diffraction experiments to be Y2O3 with variable sized particles based on transmission electron diffraction. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies indicated that the heavier alkali metal species were present in the isolated nanomaterials.« less

  16. Alkali-slag cements for the immobilization of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, C.; Day, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Alkali-slag cements consist of glassy slag and an alkaline activator and can show both higher early and later strengths than Type III Portland cement, if a proper alkaline activator is used. An examination of microstructure of hardened alkali-slag cement pastes with the help of XRD and SEM with EDAX shows that the main hydration product is C-S-H (B) with low C/S ratio and no crystalline substances exist such as Ca(OH){sub 2}, Al (OH){sub 3} and sulphoaluminates. Mercury intrusion tests indicate that hardened alkali-slag cement pastes have a lower porosity than ordinary Portland cement, and contain mainly gel pores. The fine pore structure of hardened alkali-slag cement pastes will restrict the ingress of deleterious substances and the leaching of harmful species such as radionuclides. The leachability of Cs{sup + } from hardened alkali-slag cement pastes is only half of that from hardened Portland cement. From all these aspects, it is concluded that alkali-slag cements are a better solidification matrix than Portland cement for radioactive wastes.

  17. Temperature dependence of elastic properties in alkali borate binary glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Mitsuru; Matsuda, Yu; Kojima, Seiji

    2011-05-01

    The elastic properties of alkali borate glasses, xM 2O·(100 - x)B 2O 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, x = 14, 28), have been investigated by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy from room temperature up to 1100 °C. Above the glass transition temperature, Tg, the longitudinal sound velocity, VL, decreases markedly on heating. Such significant changes of the elastic properties result from the breakdown of the glass network above Tg. Alkali borate family with the same x shows the similar behavior in the temperature variations of VL up to around Tg. The absorption coefficient, αL, increases gradually above Tg. With the increase of the size of an alkali ion, the slope of VL just above Tg decreases. Since the fragility is related to the slope, the present results suggest that the fragility of alkali borate glasses increases as the size of alkali ion decreases. Such an alkali dependence of the fragility is discussed on the basis of the fluctuation of the boron coordination number.

  18. Two-phase alkali-metal experiments in reduced gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-06-01

    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. A literature search of relevant experiments in reduced gravity is reported on here, and reveals a paucity of data for such correlations. The few ongoing experiments in reduced gravity are noted. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. A similar situation exists regarding two-phase alkali-metal flow and heat transfer, even in normal gravity. Existing data are conflicting and indequate for the task of modeling a space reactor using a two-phase alkali-metal coolant. The major features of past experiments are described here. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from the two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Analyses undertaken here give every expectation that the correlations developed from this data base will provide a valid representation of alkali-metal heat transfer and pressure drop in reduced gravity.

  19. Reduction of phosphorus and alkali levels in coking coals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoare, I.C.; Waugh, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    A number of coals, though exhibiting desirable coking properties, can have undesirable levels of alkalis and phosphorus. All the phosphorus in the coal will report to the coke, eventually to the iron and thence to the steel, with adverse effects on its metallurgical properties. Alkalis have damaging effects on the blast furnace operation and can be responsible for loss of heat, loss of production, efficiency loss and reduced furnace life. Buyers of coking coal commonly specify such parameters as phosphorus in coal and alkalis in ash, with penalties and rejection over certain limits. With the introduction of new direct reduction technologies such as COREX and HISMELT, and others such as PCI, it is anticipated that coal producers will have even tighter phosphorus and alkali specifications imposed on their products. Phosphorus is predominantly inorganic in origin occurring in a wide variety of minerals in coal, but its main source is apatite. It can be found mainly in the lower density fractions of the coal and intimately bound, so that conventional physical beneficiation techniques are relatively ineffective. CSIRO has developed a cost effective, selective chemical demineralization treatment, which can be applied to the problem of high alkali, high phosphorus coals. This particular technique makes use of unrefined organic acid, which also has the advantage of being low in cost and environmentally benign. In this paper, the effectiveness of acid demineralization of a number of coals is discussed, within the context of their phosphorus and alkali distributions throughout various size/density fractions.

  20. Alkali-metal azides interacting with metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Armata, Nerina; Cortese, Remedios; Duca, Dario; Triolo, Roberto

    2013-01-14

    Interactions between alkali-metal azides and metal-organic framework (MOF) derivatives, namely, the first and third members of the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) family, IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-3, are studied within the density functional theory (DFT) paradigm. The investigations take into account different models of the selected IRMOFs. The mutual influence between the alkali-metal azides and the π rings or Zn centers of the involved MOF derivatives are studied by considering the interactions both of the alkali-metal cations with model aromatic centers and of the alkali-metal azides with distinct sites of differently sized models of IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-3. Several exchange and correlation functionals are employed to calculate the corresponding interaction energies. Remarkably, it is found that, with increasing alkali-metal atom size, the latter decrease for cations interacting with the π-ring systems and increase for the azides interacting with the MOF fragments. The opposite behavior is explained by stabilization effects on the azide moieties and determined by the Zn atoms, which constitute the inorganic vertices of the IRMOF species. Larger cations can, in fact, coordinate more efficiently to both the aromatic center and the azide anion, and thus stabilizing bridging arrangements of the azide between one alkali-metal and two Zn atoms in an η(2) coordination mode are more favored. PMID:23161861

  1. Small diatomic alkali molecules at ultracold temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tout Taotao

    This thesis describes experimental work done with two of the smallest diatomic alkali molecules, 6Li2 and 23Na 6Li, each formed out of its constituent atoms at ultracold temperatures. The 23Na6Li molecule was formed for the first time at ultracold temperatures, after previous attempts failed due to an incorrect assignment of Feshbach resonances in the 6Li+23Na system. The experiment represents successful molecule formation around the most difficult Feshbach resonance ever used, and opens up the possibility of transferring NaLi to its spin-triplet ground state, which has both magnetic and electric dipole moments and is expected to be long-lived. For 6Li2, the experimental efforts in this thesis have solved a long-standing puzzle of apparently long lifetimes of closed-channel fermion pairs around a narrow Feshbach resonance, finding that the lifetime is in fact short, as expected in the absence of Pauli suppression of collisions. Moreover, measurements of collisions of Li2 with free Li atoms demonstrates a striking first example of collisions involving molecules at ultracold temperatures described by physics beyond universal long-range van der Waals interactions.

  2. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe. PMID:27385220

  3. The timing of alkali metasomatism in paleosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, A. W.; Holland, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the concentrations of rubidium and strontium and 87Sr/86Sr values of whole-rock samples from three paleosols of different ages. The oldest of the three weathering horizons, the 2,760 Ma Mt. Roe #1 paleosol in the Fortescue Group of Western Australia, experienced addition of Rb, and probably Sr, at 2,168 +/- 10 Ma. The intermediate paleosol, developed on the Hekpoort Basalt in South Africa, is estimated to have formed at 2,200 Ma, and yields a Rb-Sr isochron age of 1,925 +/- 32 Ma. The youngest of the three paleosols, developed on the Ongeluk basalt in Griqualand West, South Africa ca. 1,900 Ma, yielded a Rb-Sr age of 1,257 +/- 11 Ma. The Rb-Sr systematics of all three paleosols were reset during post-weathering metasomatism related to local or regional thermal disturbances. The Rb-Sr systematics of the paleosols were not subsequently disturbed. The near-complete removal of the alkali and alkaline earth elements from these paleosols during weathering made them particularly susceptible to resetting of their Rb-Sr systematics. Paleosols of this type are therefore sensitive indicators of the timing of thermal disturbances.

  4. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G

    2016-01-01

    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced. PMID:26860297

  5. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun’ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe.

  6. Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

    SciTech Connect

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jingxin; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Gomes, Henrique L.; De Leeuw, Dago M.

    2014-12-08

    Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics.

  7. Natural history-driven, plant-mediated RNAi-based study reveals CYP6B46’s role in a nicotine-mediated antipredator herbivore defense

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar S.; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Manduca sexta (Ms) larvae are known to efficiently excrete ingested nicotine when feeding on their nicotine-producing native hostplant, Nicotiana attenuata. Here we describe how ingested nicotine is co-opted for larval defense by a unique mechanism. Plant-mediated RNAi was used to silence a midgut-expressed, nicotine-induced cytochrome P450 6B46 (CYP6B46) in larvae consuming transgenic N. attenuata plants producing MsCYP6B46 dsRNA. These and transgenic nicotine-deficient plants were planted into native habitats to study the phenotypes of larvae feeding on these plants and the behavior of their predators. The attack-behavior of a native wolf spider (Camptocosa parallela), a major nocturnal predator, provided the key to understanding MsCYP6B46’s function: spiders clearly preferred CYP6B46-silenced larvae, just as they had preferred larvae fed nicotine-deficient plants. MsCYP6B46 redirects a small amount (0.65%) of ingested nicotine from the midgut into hemolymph, from which nicotine is exhaled through the spiracles as an antispider signal. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were more susceptible to spider-attack because they exhaled less nicotine because of lower hemolymph nicotine concentrations. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were impaired in distributing ingested nicotine from midgut to hemolymph, but not in the clearing of hemolymph nicotine or in the exhalation of nicotine from hemolymph. MsCYP6B46 could be a component of a previously hypothesized pump that converts nicotine to a short-lived, transportable, metabolite. Other predators, big-eyed bugs, and antlion larvae were insensitive to this defense. Thus, chemical defenses, too toxic to sequester, can be repurposed for defensive functions through respiration as a form of defensive halitosis, and predators can assist the functional elucidation of herbivore genes. PMID:24379363

  8. Efficient destruction of CF4 through in situ generation of alkali metals from heated alkali halide reducing mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Churl; Choi, Wonyong

    2002-03-15

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the most potent green house gases that are very recalcitrant at destruction. An effective way of converting PFCs using hot solid reagents into safe products has been recently introduced. By investigating the thermal reductive destruction of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) we provided new insight and more physicochemical consideration on this novel process. The complete destruction of CF4was successfully achieved by flowing the gas through a heated reagent bed (400-950 degrees C) that contained powder mixtures of alkali halides, CaO, and Si. The silicon acted as a reducing agent of alkali halides for the in-situ production of alkali metals, and the calcium oxide played the role of a halide ion acceptor. The absence of any single component in this ternary mixture drastically reduced the destruction efficiency of CF4. The CF4 destruction efficiencies with the solid reagent containing the alkali halide, MX, increased in the order of Li approximately Na < K < Cs for alkali cations and I < Br < Cl < F for halide anions. This trend agreed with the endothermicity of the alkali metal generation reaction: the higher the endothermicity, the lower the destruction efficiency. Alkali metal generation was indirectly detected by monitoring H2 production from its reaction with water. The production of alkali metals increased with NaF, KF, and CsF in this order. The CsF/CaO/Si system exhibited the complete destruction of CF4 at as low as 600 degrees C. The solid product analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of CaF2 and the depletion of Si with black carbon particles formed in the solid reagent residue. No CO/CO2 and toxic HF and SiF4 formation were detected in the exhaust gas. PMID:11944694

  9. Alkali-aggregate reactivity of typical siliceious glass and carbonate rocks in alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Duyou; Liu, Yongdao; Zheng, Yanzeng; Xu, Zhongzi; Shen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    For exploring the behaviour of alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) in alkali-activated geopolymeric materials and assessing the procedures for testing AAR in geopolymers, the expansion behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer mortars with pure silica glass and typical carbonate rocks were studied respectively by curing at various conditions, i.e. 23°C and 38°C with relative humidity over 95%, immersed in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. Results show that, at various curing conditions, neither harmful ASR nor harmful ACR was observed in geopolymers with the criteria specified for OPC system. However, with the change of curing conditions, the geopolymer binder and reactive aggregates may experience different reaction processes leading to quite different dimensional changes, especially with additional alkalis and elevated temperatures. It suggests that high temperature with additional alkali for accelerating AAR in traditional OPC system may not appropriate for assessing the alkali-aggregate reactivity behaviour in geopolymers designed for normal conditions. On the other hand, it is hopeful to control the dimensional change of geopolymer mortar or concrete by selecting the type of aggregates and the appropriate curing conditions, thus changing the harmful AAR in OPC into beneficial AAR in geopolymers and other alkali-activated cementitious systems.

  10. On-chip fabrication of alkali-metal vapor cells utilizing an alkali-metal source tablet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Ban, K.; Hirai, Y.; Sugano, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Mizutani, N.; Tabata, O.

    2013-11-01

    We describe a novel on-chip microfabrication technique for the alkali-metal vapor cell of an optically pumped atomic magnetometer (OPAM), utilizing an alkali-metal source tablet (AMST). The newly proposed AMST is a millimeter-sized piece of porous alumina whose considerable surface area holds deposited alkali-metal chloride (KCl) and barium azide (BaN6), source materials that effectively produce alkali-metal vapor at less than 400 °C. Our experiments indicated that the most effective pore size of the AMST is between 60 and 170 µm. The thickness of an insulating glass spacer holding the AMST was designed to confine generated alkali metal to the interior of the vapor cell during its production, and an integrated silicon heater was designed to seal the device using a glass frit, melted at an optimum temperature range of 460-490 °C that was determined by finite element method thermal simulation. The proposed design and AMST were used to successfully fabricate a K cell that was then operated as an OPAM with a measured sensitivity of 50 pT. These results demonstrate that the proposed concept for on-chip microfabrication of alkali-metal vapor cells may lead to effective replacement of conventional glassworking approaches.

  11. Mixed alkali effect on the spectroscopic properties of alkali-alkaline earth oxide borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, G.; Ramesh, B.; Shareefuddin, Md.; Chary, M. N.; Sayanna, R.

    2016-05-01

    The mixed alkali and alkaline earth oxide borate glass with the composition xK2O - (25-x) Li2O-12.5BaO-12.5MgO-50B2O3 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25mol %) and doped with 1mol% CuO were prepared by the melt quenching technique. From the optical absorption spectra the optical band gap, electronic polarizability(α02-), interaction parameter (A), theoretical and experimental optical basicity (Λ) values were evaluated. From the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectral data the number of spins (N) and susceptibility (χ) were evaluated. The values of (α02-), and (Λ) increases with increasing of K2O content and electronic polarizability and interaction parameter show opposite behaviuor which may be due to the creation of non-bridging oxygens and expansion of borate network. The reciprocal of susceptibility (1/χ) and spin concentration (N) as a function of K2O content, varied nonlinearly which may be due to creation of non-bridging oxygens in the present glass system. This may be attributed to mixed alkali effect (MAE).

  12. The reaction dynamics of alkali dimer molecules and electronically excited alkali atoms with simple molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, H.

    1995-12-01

    This dissertation presents the results from the crossed molecular beam studies on the dynamics of bimolecular collisions in the gas phase. The primary subjects include the interactions of alkali dimer molecules with simple molecules, and the inelastic scattering of electronically excited alkali atoms with O2. The reaction of the sodium dimers with oxygen molecules is described in Chapter 2. Two reaction pathways were observed for this four-center molecule-molecule reaction, i.e. the formations of NaO2 + Na and NaO + NaO. NaO2 products exhibit a very anisotropic angular distribution, indicating a direct spectator stripping mechanism for this reaction channel. The NaO formation follows the bond breaking of O2, which is likely a result of a charge transfer from Na2 to the excited state orbital of O2-. The scattering of sodium dimers from ammonium and methanol produced novel molecules, NaNH3 and Na(CH3OH), respectively. These experimental observations, as well as the discussions on the reaction dynamics and the chemical bonding within these molecules, will be presented in Chapter 3. The lower limits for the bond dissociation energies of these molecules are also obtained. Finally, Chapter 4 describes the energy transfer between oxygen molecules and electronically excited sodium atoms.

  13. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was

  14. Theory of Magnetotransport Anomalies in Alkali Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaodong

    The galvanomagnetic properties of alkali metals, especially those of potassium, are studied taking into account the existence of an incommensurate change-density wave (CDW) structure. Occurrence of the CDW broken symmetry truncates the Fermi surface with a large number of energy gaps. Furthermore, any macroscopic crystal is likely divided into CDW (')Q-domains. An orientational (')Q-texture leads to a preferred direction in the crystal. For such an exotic system the effective magnetoresistivity tensor is anomalous and is derived for various magnetic fields. The residual (zero-field) resistance is also anisotropic. For fields 0.5 - 3T, Hall coefficients are found to be anisotropic, and a longitudinal-transverse mixing effect is discovered. The diagonal elements of the magnetoresistivity tensor are found to have a linear magnetoresistance. When the field is increased above 4T sharp open-orbit magnetoresistance spectrum develops. From the theoretical magnetoresistivity tensor, the induced-torque amplitude and phase patterns for potassium spheres are calculated. The theory quantitatively explains all of the induced-torque anomalies found experimentally in the last fourteen years. An interacting electron system, which is free of the CDW instabilities, is also studied by considering its spin response to a weak sinusoidal magnetic field. The many-body correction G(,-)((')q,(omega)) caused by exchange and correlation is introduced to describe the correct wave -vector- and frequency-dependent spin susceptibility. The exact behavior of G(,-)((')q,(omega)) in the large-q limit is shown to be related to the pair distribution function g((')r) at r = 0. G(,-)((')q,(omega)) (--->) 4g(0)-1 /3, as q (--->) (INFIN).At metallic densities this value is negative, opposite in sign to the limit at small wave vectors. Thus the spin susceptibility for large wave vectors is suppressed, rather than enhanced, by many-body effects.

  15. Alkali content of alpine ultramafic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, W.; Mountjoy, W.

    1965-01-01

    The lower limit of abundance of sodium and potassium in ultramafic rocks is less than the threshold amount detectable by conventional analytical methods. By a dilutionaddition modification of the flame-spectrophotometric method, sodium and potassium have been determined in 40 specimens of alpine ultramafic rocks. Samples represent six regions in the United States and one in Australia, and include dunite, peridotite, pyroxenite, and their variably serpentinized and metamorphosed derivatives. The median value found for Na2O is 0.004 per cent, and the range of Na2O is 0.001-0.19. The median value for K2O is 0.0034 per cent and the range is 0.001-0.031 per cent. Alkali concentrations are below 0.01 per cent Na2O in 28 samples and below 0.01 per cent K2O in 35. Derivation of basalt magma from upper-mantle material similar to such ultramafic rocks, as has been postulated, is precluded by the relative amounts of sodium and potassium, which are from 200 to 600 times more abundant in basalt than in the ultramafic rocks. Similar factors apply to a number of other elements. No reasonable process could produce such concentrations in, for example, tens of thousands of cubic miles of uniform tholeiitic basalt. The ultramafic rocks might have originated either as magmatic crystal precipitates or as mantle residues left after fusion and removal of basaltic magma. Injection of ultramafic rocks to exposed positions is tectonic rather than magmatic. ?? 1965.

  16. Methylene blue related sterile endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Lim, A K E; Ulagantheran V, V; Siow, Y C; Lim, K S

    2008-08-01

    To report a case of methylene blue related endophthalmitis. Observational case report. Review of clinical record, photographs. A 60 year old man developed endophthalmitis after methylene blue was accidentally used to stain the anterior capsule during phacoemulsification of cataract. His left visual acuity deteriorated from 6/12 to 6/36 two weeks after the operation. Despite intensive treatment with topical and intravitreal antibiotics, his condition deteriorated. A vitrectomy and silicone oil injection eventually managed to control the progression of the disease and salvage the eye. However the visual outcome remained poor due to corneal decompensation and retinal ischemia. Both vitreous tap and vitreous biopsy were negative for any organism. Methylene blue is extremely toxic to ocular structures and should not be used intraocularly. PMID:19248701

  17. Laser demonstration and performance characterization of optically pumped Alkali Laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulham, Clifford V.

    Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) offer a promising approach for high power lasers in military applications that will not suffer from the long logistical trails of chemical lasers or the thermal management issues of diode pumped solid state lasers. This research focuses on characterizing a DPAL-type system to gain a better understanding of using this type of laser as a directed energy weapon. A rubidium laser operating at 795 nm is optically pumped by a pulsed titanium sapphire laser to investigate the dynamics of DPALs at pump intensities between 1.3 and 45 kW/cm2. Linear scaling as high as 32 times threshold is observed, with no evidence of second order kinetics. Comparison of laser characteristics with a quasi-two level analytic model suggests performance near the ideal steady-state limit, disregarding the mode mis-match. Additionally, the peak power scales linearly as high as 1 kW, suggesting aperture scaling to a few cm2 is sufficient to achieve tactical level laser powers. The temporal dynamics of the 100 ns pump and rubidium laser pulses are presented, and the continually evolving laser efficiency provides insight into the bottlenecking of the rubidium atoms in the 2P3/2 state. Lastly, multiple excited states of rubidium and cesium were accessed through two photon absorption in the red, yielding a blue and an IR photon through amplified stimulated emission. Threshold is modest at 0.3 mJ/pulse, and slope efficiencies increase dramatically with alkali concentrations and peak at 0.4%, with considerable opportunity for improvement. This versatile system might find applications for IR countermeasures or underwater communications.

  18. De novo mutations of the gene encoding the histone acetyltransferase KAT6B in two patients with Say-Barber/Biesecker/Young-Simpson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Szakszon, Katalin; Salpietro, Carmelo; Kakar, Naseebullah; Knegt, Alida C; Oláh, Éva; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Borck, Guntram

    2013-04-01

    The Say-Barber/Biesecker/Young-Simpson (SBBYS) type of the blepharophimosis-mental retardation syndrome group (Ohdo-like syndromes) is a multiple congenital malformation syndrome characterized by vertical narrowing and shortening of the palpebral fissures, ptosis, intellectual disability, hypothyroidism, hearing impairment, and dental anomalies. Mutations of the gene encoding the histone-acetyltransferase KAT6B have been recently identified in individuals affected by SBBYS syndrome. SBBYS syndrome-causing KAT6B mutations cluster in a ~1,700 basepair region in the 3' part of the large exon 18, while mutations located in the 5' region of the same exon have recently been identified to cause the genitopatellar syndrome (GPS), a clinically distinct although partially overlapping malformation-intellectual disability syndrome. Here, we present two children with clinical features of SBBYS syndrome and de novo truncating KAT6B mutations, including a boy who was diagnosed at the age of 4 months. Our results confirm the implication of KAT6B mutations in typical SBBYS syndrome and emphasize the importance of genotype-phenotype correlations at the KAT6B locus where mutations truncating the KAT6B protein at the amino-acid positions ~1,350-1,920 cause SBBYS syndrome. PMID:23436491

  19. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  20. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  1. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  2. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  3. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  4. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  5. Optical properties and electronic structure of alkali doped SWNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemes, Norbert M.; Fischer, John E.; Kamarás, Katalin; Borondics, Ferenc; Tanner, David B.; Rinzler, Andrew G.

    2003-03-01

    Alkali doped SWNT exhibit colors similar to alkali doped graphite (GIC). We study their electronic structure with IR reflectivity; the alkali dopants donate their valence electron to the SWNT host, so the free carrier concentration increases, shifting the Drude-edge into the visible spectral range. This is accompanied by a large shift of the Fermi-level, so the characteristic transitions between the 1D van Hove singularities of the undoped SWNT diminish. The presence of the alkali ions around the SWNT breaks the translational symmetry and increases coupling between parallel tubes within ropes. The momentum relaxation time shortens as the ropes become more three dimensional; alkali disorder contributes to the scattering. In p-type, HNO3 doped SWNT, the charge transfer is smaller; only the first subband of the semiconducting tubes gets depleted, shown by the disappearance of the first van Hove transition. This indicates a Fermi-level shift of ˜0.3 eV. The reflectivity has structure at low energy, which moves the Drude-peak to a sharp, intense peak at 0.1 eV in the optical conductivity, reminiscent of quasi-1D TTF-TCNQ.

  6. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A L; Stasinska, A; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

    2015-09-01

    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children. PMID:25984984

  7. Na{sub 6}B{sub 13}O{sub 22.5}, a new noncentrosymmetric sodium borate

    SciTech Connect

    Penin, N.; Touboul, M. . E-mail: marcel.touboul@sc.u-picardie.fr; Nowogrocki, G.

    2005-03-15

    Na{sub 6}B{sub 13}O{sub 22.5} (B/Na=2.17) single crystals were obtained by heating, melting and appropriately cooling borax, Na{sub 2}[B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}].8H{sub 2}O. Its formula has been determined by the resolution of the structure from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic Iba2 space group, with the following unit cell parameters: a=33.359(11)A, b=9.554(3)A, c=10.644(4)A; V=3392.4(19)A{sup 3}; Z=8. The crystal structure was solved from 3226 reflections until R{sub 1}=0.0385. It exhibits a three-dimensional framework built up from BO{sub 3} triangles ({delta}) and BO{sub 4} tetrahedra (T). Two kinds of borate groups can be considered forming two different double B{sub 3}O{sub 3} rings: two B{sub 4}O{sub 9} (linkage by two boron atoms) and one B{sub 5}O{sub 11} (linkage by one boron atom); the shorthand notation of the new fundamental building block (FBB) existing in this compound is: 13: {infinity}{sup 3} [(5: 3{delta}+2T)+2(4: 2{delta}+2T)]. The discovery of this new borate questions the real number of Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} varieties. The existence of Na{sub 6}B{sub 13}O{sub 22.5} (B/Na=2.17) and of another recently discovered borate, Na{sub 3}B{sub 7}O{sub 12} (B/Na=2.33; FBB 7: {infinity}{sup 3} [(3: 2{delta}+T)+(3: {delta}+2T)+(1: {delta})], with a composition close to the long-known borate {alpha}-Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} (B/Na=2; FBB 8: {infinity}{sup 3} [(5: 3{delta}+2T)+(3: 2{delta}+T)], may explain the very complex equilibria reported in the Na{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase diagram, especially in this range of composition.

  8. Thermodynamics of Liquid Alkali Metals and Their Binary Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakor, P. B.; Patel, Minal H.; Gajjar, P. N.; Jani, A. R.

    2009-07-01

    The theoretical investigation of thermodynamic properties like internal energy, entropy, Helmholtz free energy, heat of mixing (ΔE) and entropy of mixing (ΔS) of liquid alkali metals and their binary alloys are reported in the present paper. The effect of concentration on the thermodynamic properties of Ac1Bc2 alloy of the alkali-alkali elements is investigated and reported for the first time using our well established local pseudopotential. To investigate influence of exchange and correlation effects, we have used five different local field correction functions viz; Hartree(H), Taylor(T), Ichimaru and Utsumi(IU), Farid et al. (F) and Sarkar et al. (S). The increase of concentration C2, increases the internal energy and Helmholtz free energy of liquid alloy Ac1Bc2. The behavior of present computation is not showing any abnormality in the outcome and hence confirms the applicability of our model potential in explaining the thermodynamics of liquid binary alloys.

  9. Orbital Feshbach Resonance in Alkali-Earth Atoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren; Cheng, Yanting; Zhai, Hui; Zhang, Peng

    2015-09-25

    For a mixture of alkali-earth atomic gas in the long-lived excited state ^{3}P_{0} and the ground state ^{1}S_{0}, in addition to nuclear spin, another "orbital" index is introduced to distinguish these two internal states. In this Letter we propose a mechanism to induce Feshbach resonance between two atoms with different orbital and nuclear spin quantum numbers. Two essential ingredients are the interorbital spin-exchange process and orbital dependence of the Landé g factors. Here the orbital degrees of freedom plays a similar role as the electron spin degree of freedom in magnetic Feshbach resonance in alkali-metal atoms. This resonance is particularly accessible for the ^{173}Yb system. The BCS-BEC crossover in this system requires two fermion pairing order parameters, and displays a significant difference compared to that in an alkali-metal system. PMID:26451561

  10. Orbital Feshbach Resonance in Alkali-Earth Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ren; Cheng, Yanting; Zhai, Hui; Zhang, Peng

    2015-09-01

    For a mixture of alkali-earth atomic gas in the long-lived excited state 3P0 and the ground state 1S0, in addition to nuclear spin, another "orbital" index is introduced to distinguish these two internal states. In this Letter we propose a mechanism to induce Feshbach resonance between two atoms with different orbital and nuclear spin quantum numbers. Two essential ingredients are the interorbital spin-exchange process and orbital dependence of the Landé g factors. Here the orbital degrees of freedom plays a similar role as the electron spin degree of freedom in magnetic Feshbach resonance in alkali-metal atoms. This resonance is particularly accessible for the 173Yb system. The BCS-BEC crossover in this system requires two fermion pairing order parameters, and displays a significant difference compared to that in an alkali-metal system.

  11. Release and sorption of alkali metals in coal conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Witthohn, A.; Oeltjen, L.; Hilpert, K.

    1998-07-01

    Released as gaseous species during coal combustion and gasification, alkali metal compounds cause high temperature corrosion especially at the gas turbine blading of coal-fired combined cycle power plants. Experimental and theoretical basic investigations are presented, which contribute to the understanding of the release and sorption of these contaminants. Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry was used to study the vaporization of coal ashes and slags at temperatures between 200 and 1,800 C and to determine the released alkali species and their partial pressures. The data base system FACT and the modified quasi-chemical model for non-ideal solutions were applied to model the thermodynamic behavior of coal slags and to determine material compositions of maximum alkali sorption capacity.

  12. The alkali-labile linkage between keratan sulphate and protein

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, John J.; Robinson, H. Clem

    1974-01-01

    Keratan sulphate was isolated from adult intervertebral disc in 90% yield by sequential digestion of the whole tissue with papain, Pronase and Proteus vulgaris chondroitin sulphate lyase. Treatment of this preparation with alkali cleaved a glycosidic bond between N-acetylgalactosamine and threonine and produced, by an alkali-catalysed `peeling' reaction, an unsaturated derivative of N-acetylgalactosamine which reacted as a chromogen in the Morgan–Elson reaction, but remained covalently bonded to the keratan sulphate chain. This derivative was reduced and labelled by alkaline NaB3H4. The substituent at position 3 of N-acetylgalactosamine in the keratan sulphate–protein linkage was identified as a disaccharide, N-acetylneuraminylgalactose, which was isolated from the reaction mixture after alkali treatment. PMID:4281652

  13. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess.

    PubMed

    Yung, C Y

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study. PMID:6395136

  14. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.

  15. Theoretical study of the alkali and alkaline-earth monosulfides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Ab initio calculations have been used to obtain accurate spectroscopic constants for the X2Pi and A2Sigma(+) states of the alkali sulfides and the X1Sigma(+), a3Pi, and A1Pi states of the alkaline-earth sulfides. In contrast to the alkali oxides, the alkali sulfides are found to have X2Pi ground states, due to the larger electrostatic interaction. Dissociation energies of 3.27 eV for BeS, 2.32 eV for MgS, 3.29 eV for CaS, and 3.41 eV for SrS have been obtained for the X1Sigma(+) states of the alkaline-earth sulfides, in good agreement with experimental results. Core correlation is shown to increase the Te values for the a3Pi and A1Pi states of MgS, CaS, and SrS.

  16. Superconductivity above 30 K in alkali-metal-doped hydrocarbon

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mianqi; Cao, Tingbing; Wang, Duming; Wu, Yue; Yang, Huaixin; Dong, Xiaoli; He, Junbao; Li, Fengwang; Chen, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of superconductivity with a transition temperature (Tc) at 18 K in Kxpicene has extended the possibility of high-Tc superconductors in organic materials. Previous experience based on similar hydrocarbons, like alkali-metal doped phenanthrene, suggested that even higher transition temperatures might be achieved in alkali-metals or alkali-earth-metals doped such polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs), a large family of molecules composed of fused benzene rings. Here we report the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity at 33 K in K-doped 1,2:8,9-dibenzopentacene (C30H18). To our best knowledge, it is higher than any Tc reported previously for an organic superconductor under ambient pressure. This finding provides an indication that superconductivity at much higher temperature may be possible in such PAHs system and is worthy of further exploration. PMID:22548129

  17. Blue light hazard and aniridia.

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, R. V.; Dickinson, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    The fundi of three patients with aniridia were photographed with a 470 nm illuminating light source. No apparent change in contrast was observable throughout the macular region. This would suggest an absence of the macular pigment. The likelihood of aniridics being more susceptible than normal persons to blue light damage is discussed. Images PMID:3978071

  18. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  19. Flying the Blue Ribbon Flag.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Lynda

    2000-01-01

    Guntersville Elementary School, a preK-2 school in Alabama, earned the U.S. Department of Education's Blue Ribbon Schools award through creative programs addressing school readiness, parent education, and the need for extended-day and summer activities; a progressive curriculum; and various community partnerships. (SV)

  20. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  1. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  2. The first direct evidence of pre-columbian sources of palygorskite for Maya Blue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Dean E.; Bohor, Bruce F.; Neff, Hector; Feinman, Gary M.; Williams, Patrick Ryan; Dussubieux, Laure; Bishop, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Maya Blue, a nano-structured clay–organic complex of palygorskite and indigo, was used predominantly before the Spanish Conquest. It has fascinated chemists, material scientists, archaeologists and art historians for decades because it is resistant to the effect of acids, alkalis, and other reagents, and its rich color has persisted for centuries in the harsh tropical climate of southern Mesoamerica. One of its components, palygorskite, is part of modern Maya indigenous knowledge, and ethnohistoric and archaeological data suggest that its modern sources were probably utilized in Prehispanic times. Yet no direct evidence verifies that palygorskite was actually mined from these sources to make Maya Blue. Here we characterize these sources compositionally, and compare our analyses to those of Maya Blue from Chichén Itzá and Palenque. We demonstrate that the palygorskite in most of these samples came from modern mines, providing the first direct evidence for the use of these sources for making Maya Blue. These findings reveal that modern Maya indigenous knowledge about palygorskite, its mining, and its source locations, is at least seven centuries old.

  3. Spill-Resistant Alkali-Metal-Vapor Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, William

    2005-01-01

    A spill-resistant vessel has been developed for dispensing an alkali-metal vapor. Vapors of alkali metals (most commonly, cesium or rubidium, both of which melt at temperatures slightly above room temperature) are needed for atomic frequency standards, experiments in spectroscopy, and experiments in laser cooling. Although the present spill-resistant alkali-metal dispenser was originally intended for use in the low-gravity environment of outer space, it can also be used in normal Earth gravitation: indeed, its utility as a vapor source was confirmed by use of cesium in a ground apparatus. The vessel is made of copper. It consists of an assembly of cylinders and flanges, shown in the figure. The uppermost cylinder is a fill tube. Initially, the vessel is evacuated, the alkali metal charge is distilled into the bottom of the vessel, and then the fill tube is pinched closed to form a vacuum seal. The innermost cylinder serves as the outlet for the vapor, yet prevents spilling by protruding above the surface of the alkali metal, no matter which way or how far the vessel is tilted. In the event (unlikely in normal Earth gravitation) that any drops of molten alkali metal have been shaken loose by vibration and are floating freely, a mesh cap on top of the inner cylinder prevents the drops from drifting out with the vapor. Liquid containment of the equivalent of 1.2 grams of cesium was confirmed for all orientations with rubbing alcohol in one of the prototypes later used with cesium.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: B6-B9.5 stars abundance analysis (Niemczura+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemczura, E.; Morel, T.; Aerts, C.

    2009-10-01

    The observational material consists of the high-resolution (R~40000-50000) spectroscopic observations of B-type stars obtained with the ELODIE and FEROS spectrographs. The ELODIE spectrograph was attached to the 1.93m telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France. The FEROS spectrograph was installed on the 1.52m and 2.2m telescopes at La Silla, Chile. Both instruments are cross-dispersed, fibre-fed echelle spectrographs. Typical signal-to-noise ratios of the spectra range from 100 to 150 at 550nm. The wavelength intervals covered are 390-680nm and 380-910nm for ELODIE and FEROS, respectively. In our initial sample, we have 160 FEROS spectra and 62 ELODIE spectra of B-type stars. Only the spectroscopic observations of the B6-B9.5 stars available in the GAUDI archive are analysed in this paper. We also excluded Be stars, supergiants and spectroscopic binaries for which the lines of two stars were visible in the spectra. Basic information about the analysed stars, including spectral type, name of the spectrograph, observation date in UT, V magnitude, interstellar reddening, indications of binarity, and abundance determinations in the literature are given in Table 1. (4 data files).

  5. Airfoil modification effects on subsonic and transonic pressure distributions and performance for the EA-6B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Sewall, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Longitudinal characteristics and wing-section pressure distributions are compared for the EA-6B airplane with and without airfoil modifications. The airfoil modifications were designed to increase low-speed maximum lift for maneuvering, while having a minimal effect on transonic performance. Section contour changes were confined to the leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap regions of the wing. Experimental data are analyzed from tests in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel on the baseline and two modified wing-fuselage configurations with the slats and flaps in their retracted positions. Wing modification effects on subsonic and transonic performance are seen in wing-section pressure distributions of the various configurations at similar lift coefficients. The modified-wing configurations produced maximum lift coefficients which exceeded those of the baseline configuration at low-speed Mach numbers (0.300 and 0.400). This benefit was related to the behavior of the wing upper surface leading-edge suction peak and the behavior of the trailing-edge pressure. At transonic Mach numbers (0.725 to 0.900), the wing modifications produced a somewhat stronger nose-down pitching moment, a slightly higher drag at low-lift levels, and a lower drag at higher lift levels.

  6. Yeast one-hybrid screening the potential regulator of CYP6B6 overexpression of Helicoverpa armigera under 2-tridecanone stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Liu, X N; Li, F; Zhuang, S Z; Huang, L N; Ma, J; Gao, X W

    2016-04-01

    In insect, the cytochrome P450 plays a pivotal role in detoxification to toxic allelochemicals. Helicoverpa armigera can tolerate and survive in 2-tridecanone treatment owing to the CYP6B6 responsive expression, which is controlled by some regulatory DNA sequences and transcription regulators. Therefore, the 2-tridecanone responsive region and transcription regulators of the CYP6B6 are responsible for detoxification of cotton bollworm. In this study, we used yeast one-hybrid to screen two potential transcription regulators of the CYP6B6 from H. armigera that respond to the plant secondary toxicant 2-tridecanone, which were named Prey1 and Prey2, respectively. According to the NCBI database blast, Prey1 is the homology with FK506 binding protein (FKBP) of Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori that belongs to the FKBP-C superfamily, while Prey2 may be a homology of an unknown protein of Papilio or the fcaL24 protein homology of B. mori. The electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the FKBP of prokaryotic expression could specifically bind to the active region of the CYP6B6 promoter. After the 6th instar larvae of H. armigera reared on 2-tridecanone artificial diet, we found there were similar patterns of CYP6B6 and FKBP expression of the cotton bollworm treated with 10 mg g-1 2-tridecanone for 48 h, which correlation coefficient was the highest (0.923). Thus, the FKBP is identified as a strong candidate for regulation of the CYP6B6 expression, when the cotton bollworm is treated with 2-tridecanone. This may lead us to a better understanding of transcriptional mechanism of CYP6B6 and provide very useful information for the pest control. PMID:26696496

  7. Interaction of alkali-metal overlayers with oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Hrbek, J.; Xu, G.; Sham, T.K.; Shek, M.L.

    1989-05-01

    The interaction of oxygen with alkali metals (Li, Na, K, and Cs) was studied with valence and core-level photoemission (PE) using synchrotron radiation and by multiple mass thermal desorption (TDS). During a stepwise coadsorption of oxygen at 80 K, an increase in the emission intensity, a linewidth broadening, and a negative binding-energy shift of alkali-metal core levels is observed. Two stages of oxygen adsorption are identified in PE and TDS. In the low O/sub 2/ exposure range, an oxide species is formed; at higher exposures, peroxide and superoxide species are observed in Na, K, and Cs. The potassium--oxygen interaction is discussed in detail.

  8. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  9. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulfur species from combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Wu, Baochun.

    1992-01-10

    Due to the generation of a wide variety of pollutants during coal combustion, research on the development of a multifunction sorbent for adsorbing SO{sub 2} and alkali compounds simultaneously is ongoing at the University of Arizona. The current work focuses on the thermodynamic behavior of the reacting system for alkali adsorption especially in gas phase. The temperature and pressure effects on sodium species and on the system are intensively investigated under the simulated flue gas composition condition. The interaction of sulfur dioxide with sodium chloride vapor and some other system elements is also explored.

  10. Interfacial tension in immiscible mixtures of alkali halides.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Vera; Rukavishnikova, Irina V; Stepanov, Victor P; Tkachev, Nikolai K

    2010-02-01

    The interfacial tension of the liquid-phase interface in seven immiscible reciprocal ternary mixtures of lithium fluoride with the following alkali halides: CsCl, KBr, RbBr, CsBr, KI, RbI, and CsI was measured using the cylinder weighing method over a wide temperature range. It was shown that for all mixtures the interfacial tension gradually decreases with growing temperature. The interfacial tension of the reciprocal ternary mixtures at a given temperature increases both with the alkali cation radius (K(+) < Rb(+) < Cs(+)) and with the radius of the halogen anion (Cl(-) < Br(-) < I(-)). PMID:20094678

  11. Feasibility of supersonic diode pumped alkali lasers: Model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2013-04-08

    The feasibility of supersonic operation of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) is studied for Cs and K atoms applying model calculations, based on a semi-analytical model previously used for studying static and subsonic flow DPALs. The operation of supersonic lasers is compared with that measured and modeled in subsonic lasers. The maximum power of supersonic Cs and K lasers is found to be higher than that of subsonic lasers with the same resonator and alkali density at the laser inlet by 25% and 70%, respectively. These results indicate that for scaling-up the power of DPALs, supersonic expansion should be considered.

  12. The Blues Poetry of Langston Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Edward E.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the criteria of the blues as an American art form. He then shows how Langston Hughes captures the mood, the feeling, the rhythm and the impact of the blues in his poetry. (Author/LF)

  13. Practical utility of the blue spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some aspects of multispectral photography in the blue region are discussed briefly, and sample images are submitted to demonstrate the potential utility of the blue multispectral record for oceanography.

  14. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  15. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  16. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  17. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  18. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  19. Ternary alkali-metal and transition metal or metalloid acetylides as alkali-metal intercalation electrodes for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Nemeth, Karoly; Srajer, George; Harkay, Katherine C; Terdik, Joseph Z

    2015-02-10

    Novel intercalation electrode materials including ternary acetylides of chemical formula: A.sub.nMC.sub.2 where A is alkali or alkaline-earth element; M is transition metal or metalloid element; C.sub.2 is reference to the acetylide ion; n is an integer that is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 when A is alkali element and 0, 1, or 2 when A is alkaline-earth element. The alkali elements are Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). The alkaline-earth elements are Berilium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra). M is a transition metal that is any element in groups 3 through 12 inclusive on the Periodic Table of Elements (elements 21 (Sc) to element 30 (Zn)). In another exemplary embodiment, M is a metalloid element.

  20. On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

  1. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... on September 3, 2010 (75 FR 54187). The workers supply claims processing services and customer... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc... Adjustment Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  7. IQCB1 and PDE6B Mutations Cause Similar Early Onset Retinal Degenerations in Two Closely Related Terrier Dog Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Mezey, Jason G.; Schweitzer, Peter A.; Boyko, Adam R.; Gao, Chuan; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Jordan, Julie Ann; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify the causative mutations in two early-onset canine retinal degenerations, crd1 and crd2, segregating in the American Staffordshire terrier and the Pit Bull Terrier breeds, respectively. Methods. Retinal morphology of crd1- and crd2-affected dogs was evaluated by light microscopy. DNA was extracted from affected and related unaffected controls. Association analysis was undertaken using the Illumina Canine SNP array and PLINK (crd1 study), or the Affymetrix Version 2 Canine array, the “MAGIC” genotype algorithm, and Fisher's Exact test for association (crd2 study). Positional candidate genes were evaluated for each disease. Results. Structural photoreceptor abnormalities were observed in crd1-affected dogs as young as 11-weeks old. Rod and cone inner segment (IS) and outer segments (OS) were abnormal in size, shape, and number. In crd2-affected dogs, rod and cone IS and OS were abnormal as early as 3 weeks of age, progressing with age to severe loss of the OS, and thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) by 12 weeks of age. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified association at the telomeric end of CFA3 in crd1-affected dogs and on CFA33 in crd2-affected dogs. Candidate gene evaluation identified a three bases deletion in exon 21 of PDE6B in crd1-affected dogs, and a cytosine insertion in exon 10 of IQCB1 in crd2-affected dogs. Conclusions. Identification of the mutations responsible for these two early-onset retinal degenerations provides new large animal models for comparative disease studies and evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches for the homologous human diseases. PMID:24045995

  8. Hydrodynamic assessment data associated with the July 2010 line 6B spill into the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, 2012–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reneau, Paul C.; Soong, David T.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamic-assessment data for the Kalamazoo River were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during 2012–14 to augment other hydrodynamic data-collection efforts by Enbridge Energy L.P. and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency associated with the 2010 Enbridge Line 6B oil spill. Specifically, the USGS data-collection efforts were focused on additional background data needed for 2013–14 updates to Enbridge’s 2012 hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models for simulating resuspension and deposition of submerged oil. The main data-collection activities consisted of the following along the Kalamazoo River: (1) a survey done by use of a Real-Time Network Global Navigation Satellite System, (2) water-level measurements in impounded sections, (3) velocity, discharge, and bathymetry measurements at transects and stationary points along the oil-affected reach of the river and in Morrow Delta and Lake, (4) estimates of tributary inflows, and (5) suspended-sediment concentrations and particle-size data at USGS streamgages along the Kalamazoo River. The method used to estimate bed shear stress from stationary velocity data is described. Averaged transect-based velocity data that were processed to match model grids also are included. In addition to model inputs and checks, these hydrodynamic-related data were used in submerged oil containment and recovery operations focused in impoundments and designated sediment traps. This report contains a description of the scope and methods associated with the hydrodynamic data collection and supplementary files of the USGS data that were used in modeling activities.

  9. Anionic group 6B metal carbonyls as homogeneous catalysts for carbon dioxide/hydrogen activation: the production of alkyl formates

    SciTech Connect

    Darensbourg, D.J.; Ovalles, C.

    1984-06-27

    The production of alkyl formates from the hydrocondensation of carbon dioxide in alcohols utilizing anionic group 6B carbonyl hydrides as catalysts is herein reported. HM(CO)/sub 5//sup -/ (M = Cr, W; derived from ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/) and their products of carbon dioxide insertion, HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/, have been found to be effective catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO/sub 2/ in alcohols under rather mild conditions (loading pressures of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/, 250 psi each, and 125/sup 0/C) to provide alkyl formates. The only metal carbonyl species detected in solution via spectroscopy, both at the end of a catalytic period and during catalysis, were M(CO)/sub 6/ and HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/. The metal hexacarbonyls were independently shown to be catalytically inactive. A catalytic cycle is proposed which initially involves release of formic acid from the metal center, either by reductive elimination of the hydrido formato ligands or ligand-assisted heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen with loss of formic acid. In a rapid subsequent process HCOOH reacts with alcohols to yield HCOOR. The addition of carbon monoxide retards alkyl formate production, strongly implying CO/sub 2/ to be the primary source of the carboxylic carbon atom in HCOOR. This was verified by carrying out reactions in the presence of HCO/sub 2/W(/sup 13/CO)/sub 5//sup -/ which provided only H/sup 12/COOR after short reaction periods. However, in the absence of hydrogen and carbon dioxide ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/ species were observed to be effective catalyst precursors for converting CO and methanol into methyl formate. 36 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  10. The magnetic moments of vanadium impurities in alkali hosts and induced spin current in alkali films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Funing

    Thin quench-condensed films of Na, K, Rb, and Cs are covered with 1/100 of a monolayer of Vanadium. Then the V impurities are covered with several atomic layers of the host. The magnetization of the sandwiches is measured by means of the anomalous Hall effect. For V impurities on the surface of Na and K, a magnetic moment of 7 Bohr magnetons is observed. After coverage with the host, the V moment became 6.5muB for the Na host. These results contradict the favored atomic model (predicting 0.6muB) and the resonance model. The V moment on the surface and in the bulk of Rb and Cs is about 4muB and considerably smaller than the measured moments of V in Na. Furthermore, the sign of the anomalous Hall resistance changes from negative for the Na host to positive for the Cs host. This indicates a change of the electronic structure of the impurity (plus host environment) when going from Na to Cs hosts. Sandwiches of FeK and FeCs are prepared at helium temperature and under ultra-high vacuum. The mean free path within these sandwiches can exceed the film thickness by a factor of five. This implies almost perfect specular reflection of the electrons at the interfaces. Therefore, the mean free path of the film is strongly dependent on the degree of the specular reflection. Furthermore, the experiments suggest that the specular reflections for spin-up and spin-down electrons are different at the Fe interface, resulting in a spin current in the alkali films. In order to detect this current, dilute Pb impurities are condensed on top of the free surface of the alkali films. Strong spin-orbit scatterers, such as Pb, introduce an anomalous Hall effect in the presence of a spin current, which can be detected through straightforward Hall measurements. The results of the AHE experiments clearly indicate the existence of a local spin current.

  11. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  12. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  13. Food habits of blue grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, R.E.

    1944-01-01

    The food habits of Blue Grouse vary from a simple winter diet that is made up predominantly of coniferous needles to a complex diet during the summer months, characterized by great variety of foods including green leaves, fruits and seeds, flowers, animal matter and coniferous needles. The spring and fall, which represent the transition periods between these two, are characterized by feeding habits that are generally intermediate. The diets of the two species of Blue Grouse, Dendrugapus obscurus and Dendragapus juliginosus, are quite similar as far as major types of food are concerned, but they differ considerably in the species that are taken. Such differences reflect differences in the vegetation within the ecologic and geographic ranges occupied by the two species.

  14. Chlor-Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Sanchez, C. M.; Exposito, E.; Frias-Ferrer, A.; Gonzalez-Garaia, J.; Monthiel, V.; Aldaz, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for students in the last year of degree program in chemical engineering, chemistry, or industrial chemistry is presented. It models the chlor-alkali process, one of the most important industrial applications of electrochemical technology and the second largest industrial consumer of electricity after aluminium industry.

  15. PVC waterproofing membranes and alkali-aggregated reaction in dams

    SciTech Connect

    Scuero, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    A waterproofing polyvinylchloride (PVC) based geocomposite was installed on two dams subject to alkali-aggregate reaction, to eliminate water intrusion and to protect the facing from further deterioration. The installation system allows drainage of the infiltrated water, thus accomplishing dehydration of the dam body. On one dam, the membrane also provided protection for future slot cutting.

  16. Influence of temperature on alkali stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes cells may induce alkali stress adaptation when exposed to sublethal concentrations of alkaline cleaners and sanitizers that may be frequently used in the food processing environment. In the present study, the effect of temperature on the induction and the stability of such alk...

  17. Assesment of Alkali Resistance of Basalt Used as Concrete Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    al-Swaidani, Aref M.; Baddoura, Mohammad K.; Aliyan, Samira D.; Choeb, Walid

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to report a part of an ongoing research on the influence of using crushed basalt as aggregates on one of durability-related properties of concrete (i.e. alkali-silica reaction which is the most common form of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction). Alkali resistance has been assessed through several methods specified in the American Standards. Results of petrographic examination, chemical test (ASTM C289) and accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C1260) have particularly been reported. In addition, the weight change and compressive strength of 28 days cured concrete containing basaltic aggregates were also reported after 90 days of exposure to 10% NaOH solution. Dolomite aggregate were used in the latter test for comparison. The experimental results revealed that basaltic rocks quarried from As-Swaida'a region were suitable for production of aggregates for concrete. According to the test results, the studied basalt aggregates can be classified as innocuous with regard to alkali-silica reaction. Further, the 10% sodium hydroxide attack did not affect the compressive strength of concrete.

  18. DUAL ALKALI TEST AND EVALUATION PROGRAM. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume I of the report is an executive summary of the results of a three-task program to investigate, characterize, and evaluate the basic process chemistry and the various operating modes of sodium-based dual alkali scrubbing processes. The tasks were: I, laboratory studies at b...

  19. Structural models for alkali-metal complexes of polyacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, N. S.; Shacklette, L. W.; Baughman, R. H.

    1990-02-01

    Structural models for a stage-2 complex are proposed for polyacetylene doped with less than about 0.1 potassium or rubidium atoms per carbon. These structures utilize as a basic motif an alkali-metal column surrounded by four planar-zig-zag polyacetylene chains, a structure found at the highest dopant levels. In the new stage-2 structures, each polyacetylene chain neighbors only one alkali-metal column, so the phase contains four polymer chains per alkali-metal column. Basic structural aspects for stage-1 and stage-2 structures are now established for both potassium- and rubidium-doped polyacetylene. X-ray-diffraction and electrochemical data show that undoped and doped phases coexist at low dopant concentrations (<0.06 K atom per C). X-ray-diffraction data, down to a Bragg spacing of 1.3 Å, for polyacetylene heavily doped with potassium (0.125-0.167 K atom per C) is fully consistent with our previously proposed stage-1 tetragonal unit cell containing two polyacetylene chains per alkali-metal column. There is no evidence for our samples requiring a distortion to a monoclinic unit cell as reported by others for heavily doped samples. The nature of structural transformations and the relationship between structure and electronic properties are discussed for potassium-doped polyacetylene.

  20. Modeling of alkali aggregate reaction effects in concrete dams

    SciTech Connect

    Capra, B.; Bournazel, J.P.; Bourdarot, E.

    1995-12-31

    Alkali Aggregate Reactions (AAR) are difficult to model due to the random distribution of the reactive sites and the imperfect knowledge of these chemical reactions. A new approach, using fracture mechanics and probabilities, capable to describe the anisotropic swelling of a structure is presented.

  1. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  2. LABORATORY STUDY OF LIMESTONE REGENERATION IN DUAL ALKALI SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a series of open- and closed-loop laboratory bench scale experiments which were carried out to study parameters which affect the reaction of limestone with dual alkali flue gas desulfurization system process liquors. It gives details of several sets of operat...

  3. Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery

    DOEpatents

    Elkins, P.E.; Bell, J.E.; Harlow, R.A.; Chase, G.G.

    1983-03-01

    A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed there between. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants there through at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed there between. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal there between. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal. 4 figs.

  4. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  5. Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery

    DOEpatents

    Elkins, Perry E.; Bell, Jerry E.; Harlow, Richard A.; Chase, Gordon G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed therebetween. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants therethrough at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed therebetween. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal therebetween. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal.

  6. ALKALI-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENTS AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project is to develop and characterize alkali-activated slag cements with minimal carbon footprints, as well as to answer scientific questions that have yet to be satisfactorily addressed by prior research. These questions include the final disposition...

  7. Electro-optic contribution to Raman scattering from alkali halides

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G.D.; Subbaswamy, K.R.

    1986-06-15

    The electro-optic contributions to second-order Raman scattering and field-induced first-order scattering from alkali halides are calculated explicitly in terms of the ionic hyperpolarizability coefficients. The relevant local-field corrections are evaluated. Illustrative numerical results are presented.

  8. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  9. The high stability of boron-doped lithium clusters Li 5B, Li 6B +/- and Li 7B: A case of the phenomenological shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Truong Ba; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2010-04-01

    A quantum chemical investigation of the clusters Li 5B, Li 6B +, Li 6B - and Li 7B was performed using the DFT, MP2 and CCSD(T) methods. The high symmetry structures ( C4v, 1A 1), ( Oh, 1A 1g) and ( D5h, 1A1') turnout to be the global minima for Li 5B, Li 6B + and Li 7B, respectively. These clusters are predicted to be highly stable species with large vertical ionization energies, and large HOMO-LUMO gaps. Chemical bonding of clusters was probed using an electron localizability indicator (ELI) which indicates a large aromatic character. The high stability of these clusters can be accounted for by the phenomenological shell model.

  10. Dependency of tunneling magneto-resistance on Fe insertion-layer thickness in Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based magnetic tunneling junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Kyo-Suk; Park, Jea-Gun

    2015-04-01

    For Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunneling junctions spin valves with [Co/Pd]n-synthetic-antiferromagnetic (SyAF) layers, the tunneling-magneto-resistance (TMR) ratio strongly depends on the nanoscale Fe insertion-layer thickness (tFe) between the Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer and MgO tunneling barrier. The TMR ratio rapidly increased as tFe increased up to 0.4 nm by improving the crystalline linearity of a MgO tunneling barrier and by suppressing the diffusion of Pd atoms from a [Co/Pd]n-SyAF. However, it abruptly decreased by further increasing tFe in transferring interfacial-perpendicular magnetic anisotropy into the IMA characteristic of the Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer. Thus, the TMR ratio peaked at tFe = 0.4 nm: i.e., 120% at 29 Ωμm2

  11. Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

  12. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  13. The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

    2010-09-23

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants. PMID:21841916

  14. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain ND6B, an Oil-Degrading Isolate from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected at a Depth of 1,210 Meters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harris, Austin P.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Stelling, Savannah C.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-11-26

    We report the draft genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain ND6B, which is able to grow with crude oil as a carbon source. Strain ND6B was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea deep water at a depth of 1,210 m. The genome of strain ND6B provides insight into the oil-degrading ability of the Pseudoalteromonas species.

  16. Conjugation of Polysaccharide 6B from Streptococcus pneumoniae with Pneumococcal Surface Protein A: PspA Conformation and Its Effect on the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Perciani, Catia T.; Barazzone, Giovana C.; Goulart, Cibelly; Carvalho, Eneas; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquin; Gonçalves, Viviane M.; Leite, Luciana C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the substantial beneficial effects of incorporating the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into immunization programs, serotype replacement has been observed after its widespread use. As there are many serotypes currently documented, the use of a conjugate vaccine relying on protective pneumococcal proteins as active carriers is a promising alternative to expand PCV coverage. In this study, capsular polysaccharide serotype 6B (PS6B) and recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A (rPspA), a well-known protective antigen from Streptococcus pneumoniae, were covalently attached by two conjugation methods. The conjugation methodology developed by our laboratory, employing 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) as an activating agent through carboxamide formation, was compared with reductive amination, a classical methodology. DMT-MM-mediated conjugation was shown to be more efficient in coupling PS6B to rPspA clade 1 (rPspA1): 55.0% of PS6B was in the conjugate fraction, whereas 24% was observed in the conjugate fraction with reductive amination. The influence of the conjugation process on the rPspA1 structure was assessed by circular dichroism. According to our results, both conjugation processes reduced the alpha-helical content of rPspA; reduction was more pronounced when the reaction between the polysaccharide capsule and rPspA1 was promoted between the carboxyl groups than the amine groups (46% and 13%, respectively). Regarding the immune response, both conjugates induced functional anti-rPspA1 and anti-PS6B antibodies. These results suggest that the secondary structure of PspA1, as well as its reactive groups (amine or carboxyl) involved in the linkage to PS6B, may not play an important role in eliciting a protective immune response to the antigens. PMID:23554468

  17. Coinfection of Human Herpesviruses 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B as Demonstrated by Novel Digital Droplet PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Leibovitch, Emily C.; Brunetto, Giovanna S.; Caruso, Breanna; Fenton, Kaylan; Ohayon, Joan; Reich, Daniel S.; Jacobson, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The human herpesviruses HHV-6A and HHV-6B have been associated with various neurologic disorders partly due to the detection of elevated viral DNA levels in patients compared to controls. However the reported frequency of these viruses varies widely, likely reflecting differences in PCR methodologies used for detection. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) is a third generation PCR technology that enables the absolute quantification of target DNA molecules. Mounting evidence of the biological differences between HHV-6A and HHV-6B has led to their recent reclassification as separate species. As it is now especially relevant to investigate each virus, our objectives were to first design a multiplex HHV-6A and HHV-6B ddPCR assay and then to investigate the incidence of HHV-6A and HHV-6B coinfection in samples from healthy donors and patients with MS, a disease in which HHV-6 is thought to play a role. In our assessment of healthy donors, we observed a heretofore-underappreciated high frequency of coinfection in PBMC and serum, and found that our assay precisely detects both HHV-6A and HHV-6B chromosomally integrated virus, which has important implications in clinical settings. Interestingly, upon comparing the saliva from MS patients and healthy donors, we detected a significantly elevated frequency of coinfection in MS saliva; increased detection of HHV-6A in MS patients is consistent with other studies suggesting that this viral species (thought to be more neurotropic than HHV-6B) is more prevalent among MS patients compared to healthy donors. As the biology and disease associations between these two viral species differ, identifying and quantifying both species of HHV-6 may provide clinically relevant information, as well as enhance our understanding of the roles of each in health and disease. PMID:24663487

  18. Structural properties and adsorption capacity of holocellulose aerogels synthesized from an alkali hydroxide-urea solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Hwang, Jae-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2014-05-01

    A tulip tree was used to synthesize a holocellulose aerogel from an aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution with the substitution of an organic solvent followed by freeze-drying. For comparison, the synthesized holocellulose aerogels were divided into two groups according to the source of the hydrogel, an upper suspended layer and a bottom concentrated layer of the centrifuged solution of cellulose and NaOH/urea solvents. We investigated the effects of the temperature of the pre-cooled NaOH/urea solution ( i.e., dissolution temperature) on the pore structure and the adsorption capacity of the holocellulose aerogel. A nano-fibrillar network structure of the holocellulose aerogel was observed, with little morphological difference in pore structure for different dissolution temperatures. Both micropores and mesopores were observed in the holocellulose aerogel. The specific surface area of the holocellulose aerogel was generally greater at lower dissolution temperatures. In a series of adsorption tests using methylene blue, the holocellulose aerogel showed the greatest adsorption capacity at the lowest dissolution temperature tested (-2°C). However, the dissolution temperature generally had little effect on the adsorption capacity. The holocellulose aerogel produced from the upper suspended layer of the centrifuged hydrogel solution showed a greater porosity and adsorption capacity than the one produced from the bottom concentrated layer. Overall, the aerogel made by utilizing a delignified tulip tree display a high surface area and a high adsorption property, indicating its possible application in eco-friendly adsorption materials.

  19. Properties of adsorbents prepared by the alkali activation of Aleksandriisk brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yu.V. Tamarkina; V.G. Kolobrodov; T.G. Shendrik; V.A. Kucherenko

    2009-07-01

    Highly microporous adsorbents (micropore fraction of about 70%) were prepared by the alkali activation-thermolysis (800{sup o}C, 1 h) of brown coal (C{sup daf} = 70.4%) in the presence of potassium hydroxide at the KOH/coal weight ratio R{sub KOH} {le} 2.0 g/g. The dependences of the specific surface areas and adsorption capacities of the adsorbents for methylene blue (A{sub MB}, mg/g), iodine (A{sub I}, mg/g), and hydrogen (A{sub H{sub 2}} wt %) on R{sub KOH} were determined. The adsorbents obtained at R{sub KOH}{ge} 1.0 g/g exhibited developed specific surface areas and good adsorption characteristics (A{sub I} = 1000-1200 mg/g, A{sub MB} = 200-250 mg/g, and A{sub H{sub 2}} {le} 3.16 wt % at 0.33 MPa). The high capacity for hydrogen allowed us to consider brown coal adsorbents as promising materials for use as hydrogen accumulators.

  20. Alkali element constraints on Earth-Moon relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Drake, M. J.; Jones, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Given their range of volatilities, alkali elements are potential tracers of temperature-dependent processes during planetary accretion and formation of the Earth-Moon system. Under the giant impact hypothesis, no direct connection between the composition of the Moon and the Earth is required, and proto-lunar material does not necessarily experience high temperatures. Models calling for multiple collisions with smaller planetesimals derive proto-lunar materials mainly from the Earth's mantle and explicitly invoke vaporization, shock melting and volatility-related fractionation. Na/K, K/Rb, and Rb/Cs should all increase in response to thermal volatization, so theories which derive the Moon substantially from Earth's mantle predict these ratios will be higher in the Moon than in the primitive mantle of the Earth. Despite the overall depletion of volatile elements in the Moon, its Na/K and K/Rb are equal to or less than those of Earth. A new model presented here for the composition of Earth's continental crust, a major repository of the alkali elements, suggests the Rb/Cs of the Moon is also less than that of Earth. Fractionation of the alkali elements between Earth and Moon are in the opposite sense to predictions based on the relative volatilities of these elements, if the Moon formed by high-T processing of Earth's mantle. Earth, rather than the Moon, appears to carry a signature of volatility-related fractionation in the alkali elements. This may reflect an early episode of intense heating on Earth with the Moon's alkali budget accreting from cooler material.

  1. Improvement of operation voltage and efficiency in inverted blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Huang, Hao Siang; Su, Yu-De; Liang, Yi-Hu; Chang, Yu-Shuo; Chiu, Chuan-Hao; Chang, Hsin-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Inverted organic light-emitting diodes (IOLEDs) have drawn considerable attention for use in active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) displays because of their easy integration with n-channel metal-oxide-based thin film transistors (TFTs). The most crucial issue for IOLEDs is the poor electron injection caused by the bottom cathode. According to previous reports, the turn-on voltages of FIrpic-based IOLEDs are within a range from 4 to 8 V. In this study, we focus on developing bottom-emission IOLEDs with low operating voltages through the use of adequate-charge injection materials. We successfully demonstrate a turn-on voltage as low as 3.7 V for blue phosphorescent IOLEDs. The effective electron injection layers (EIL) were constructed by combining an ultrathin aluminum layer, an alkali metal oxide layer and an organic layer doped with alkali metal oxide, allowing for the effective adjustment of the carrier balance in IOLEDs. The peak efficiencies of the IOLEDs reached 15.6%, 31.8 cd/A and 23.4 lm/W. An external nanocomposite scattering layer was used to further improve light extraction efficiency. The IOLEDs equipped with the SiO2 nanocomposite scattering layer respectively provided performance improvements of 1.3 and 1.5 times that of pristine blue phosphorescent IOLEDs at practical luminance levels of 100 cd/m2 and 1000 cd/m2. Through sophisticated EIL and external light-extraction structures, we obtained blue phosphorescent IOLEDs with satisfactory efficiency and low operation voltages, thereby demonstrating the great potential of nanocomposite film for application in IOLEDs.

  2. Cytochrome c{sub 6B} of Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 – Crystal structure and basic properties of novel c{sub 6}-like family representative

    SciTech Connect

    Zatwarnicki, Pawel; Barciszewski, Jakub; Krzywda, Szymon; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Kolesinski, Piotr; Szczepaniak, Andrzej

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Crystal structure of cytochrome c{sub 6B} from Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 was solved. • Basic biophysical properties of cytochrome c{sub 6B} were determined. • Cytochrome c{sub 6B} exhibits similar architecture to cytochrome c{sub 6}. • Organization of heme binding pocket of cytochrome c{sub 6B} differs from that of c{sub 6}. • Midpoint potential of cytochrome c{sub 6B} is significantly lower than of cytochrome c{sub 6}. - Abstract: Cytochromes c are soluble electron carriers of relatively low molecular weight, containing single heme moiety. In cyanobacteria cytochrome c{sub 6} participates in electron transfer from cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex to photosystem I. Recent phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of a few families of proteins homologous to the previously mentioned. Cytochrome c{sub 6A} from Arabidopsis thaliana was identified as a protein responsible for disulfide bond formation in response to intracellular redox state changes and c{sub 550} is well known element of photosystem II. However, function of cytochromes marked as c{sub 6B}, c{sub 6C} and c{sub M} as well as the physiological process in which they take a part still remain unidentified. Here we present the first structural and biophysical analysis of cytochrome from the c{sub 6B} family from mesophilic cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. WH 8102. Purified protein was crystallized and its structure was refined at 1.4 Å resolution. Overall architecture of this polypeptide resembles typical I-class cytochromes c. The main features, that distinguish described protein from cytochrome c{sub 6}, are slightly red-shifted α band of UV–Vis spectrum as well as relatively low midpoint potential (113.2 ± 2.2 mV). Although, physiological function of cytochrome c{sub 6B} has yet to be determined its properties probably exclude the participation of this protein in electron trafficking between b{sub 6}f complex and photosystem I.

  3. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  4. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei E-mail: wei.xue@sissa.it

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  5. Interactions and low-energy collisions between an alkali ion and an alkali atom of a different nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Arpita; Ghanmi, Chedli; Berriche, Hamid; Deb, Bimalendu

    2016-05-01

    We study theoretically interaction potentials and low-energy collisions between different alkali atoms and alkali ions. Specifically, we consider systems such as X + {{{Y}}}+, where X({{{Y}}}+) is either Li(Cs+) or Cs(Li+), Na(Cs+) or Cs(Na+) and Li(Rb+) or Rb(Li+). We calculate the molecular potentials of the ground and first two excited states of these three systems using a pseudopotential method and compare our results with those obtained by others. We derive ground-state scattering wave functions and analyze the cold collisional properties of these systems for a wide range of energies. We find that, in order to get convergent results for the total scattering cross sections for energies of the order 1 K, one needs to take into account at least 60 partial waves. The low-energy scattering properties calculated in this paper may serve as a precursor for experimental exploration of quantum collisions between an alkali atom and an alkali ion of a different nucleus.

  6. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  7. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  8. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  9. [Measurement of Mole Ratio for Alkali Metal Mixture by Using Spectral Absorption Method].

    PubMed

    Zou, Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Yao; Chen, Xi-yuan

    2015-08-01

    The ratio of alkali metal mixture is one of the most important parameters in gauge head belonging to the ultra-sensitivity inertial measurement equipment, which is required to detect precisely. According to the feature that ratio of alkali metal is related to alkali metal vapor density, the theory of optical depth is used to detect the ratio of alkali metal in the present article. The result shows that the data got by the theory of optical depth compared with empirical formula differs at three orders of magnitude, which can't ensure the accuracy. By changing the data processing method, model between spectral absorption rate and temperature in cell is established. The temperature in alkali metal cell is calibrated by spectral absorption rate. The ratio of alkali metal atoms in the cell is analyzed by calculating the alkali density with empirical formula. The computational error is less than 10%. PMID:26672309

  10. 17 CFR 240.3b-11 - Definitions relating to limited partnership roll-up transactions for purposes of sections 6(b)(9...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... limited partnership roll-up transactions for purposes of sections 6(b)(9), 14(h) and 15A(b)(12)-(13). 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Definitions § 240.3b-11 Definitions relating to limited partnership roll-up... limited partnership roll-up transaction does not include a transaction involving only entities that...

  11. Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-04-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ˜100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ≲ MB ≲ -18) and low surface brightnesses (˜23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M⊙ yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.

  12. The mixing of blue stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Stella; De Propris, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    We propose to obtain high resolution spectroscopy for a sample of 17 blue stragglers in M67, in order to measure abundances of Beryllium, Carbon, Oxygen and the Carbon isotope (13C/12C) abundance ratio. The main aim of this project is to measure indications of deep mixing and therefore elucidate the processes responsible for the formation of these stars, whether stellar collisions, WUMa type mass transfer or Algol-like binary evolution. The data will also allow us to measure the importance of magnetic fields and search for faint companions via their effect on other spectral lines

  13. Syntheses, crystal structures, and optical properties of Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10}X (X=F, Cl, Br)

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Lingyun; Pan, Shilie; Wu, Hongping; Su, Xin; Yu, Hongwei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Zhaohui; Huang, Zhenjun; Yang, Zhihua

    2013-08-15

    A series of lead-containing halogen oxyborates, Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10}X (X=F, Cl, Br), have been grown by high-temperature solution method and their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They are isostructural and crystallize in the space group Pbcm of the orthorhombic crystal system. The crystal structures are dominated by one-dimensional {sub ∞}[(Pb{sub 4}O)(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}] “Zig-Zag”-chains, while the remaining Pb atoms and X (X=F, Cl, Br) atoms are filled to balance the charge. Compared with the previously reported compound Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (the molecular formula Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} can be regarded as Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10.5}) with the space group Aba2, the structures of Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10}X (X=F, Cl, Br) are completely different from that of Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}. IR spectroscopy, UV–vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and theoretical calculations were also performed on the reported materials. Highlights: • A new family of lead-containing halogen oxyborates, Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10}X (X=F, Cl, Br), have been grown by high-temperature solution method. • Owing to the introduction of X atoms into Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, the structures of Pb{sub 6}B{sub 3}O{sub 10}X are completely different. • The crystal structures are dominated by one-dimensional {sub ∞}[(Pb{sub 4}O)(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}] “Zig-Zag”-chains.

  14. A critical role for the cholesterol-associated proteolipids PLP and M6B in myelination of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Werner, Hauke B; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Strenzke, Nicola; Saher, Gesine; Tenzer, Stefan; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; De Monasterio-Schrader, Patricia; Möbius, Wiebke; Moser, Tobias; Griffiths, Ian R; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2013-04-01

    The formation of central nervous system myelin by oligodendrocytes requires sterol synthesis and is associated with a significant enrichment of cholesterol in the myelin membrane. However, it is unknown how oligodendrocytes concentrate cholesterol above the level found in nonmyelin membranes. Here, we demonstrate a critical role for proteolipids in cholesterol accumulation. Mice lacking the most abundant myelin protein, proteolipid protein (PLP), are fully myelinated, but PLP-deficient myelin exhibits a reduced cholesterol content. We therefore hypothesized that "high cholesterol" is not essential in the myelin sheath itself but is required for an earlier step of myelin biogenesis that is fully compensated for in the absence of PLP. We also found that a PLP-homolog, glycoprotein M6B, is a myelin component of low abundance. By targeting the Gpm6b-gene and crossbreeding, we found that single-mutant mice lacking either PLP or M6B are fully myelinated, while double mutants remain severely hypomyelinated, with enhanced neurodegeneration and premature death. As both PLP and M6B bind membrane cholesterol and associate with the same cholesterol-rich oligodendroglial membrane microdomains, we suggest a model in which proteolipids facilitate myelination by sequestering cholesterol. While either proteolipid can maintain a threshold level of cholesterol in the secretory pathway that allows myelin biogenesis, lack of both proteolipids results in a severe molecular imbalance of prospective myelin membrane. However, M6B is not efficiently sorted into mature myelin, in which it is 200-fold less abundant than PLP. Thus, only PLP contributes to the high cholesterol content of myelin by association and co-transport. PMID:23322581

  15. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  16. Evaluation of cotton-fabric bleaching using hydrogen peroxide and Blue LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Bruno P.; Moriyama, Lilian T.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    The raw cotton production requires multiple steps being one of them the removal of impurities acquired during previous processes. This procedure is widely used by textile industries around the world and is called bleaching. The raw cotton is composed by cellulosic and non-cellulosic materials like waxes, pectins and oils, which are responsible for its characteristic yellowish color. The bleaching process aims to remove the non-cellulosic materials concentration in the fabric, increasing its whiteness degree. The most used bleaching method utilizes a bath in an alkali solution of hydrogen peroxide, stabilizers and buffer solutions under high temperature. In the present study we evaluated the possibility of using a blue illumination for the bleaching process. We used blue LEDs (450 nm) to illuminate an acid hydrogen peroxide solution at room temperature. The samples treated by this method were compared with the conventional bleaching process through a colorimetric analysis and by a multiple comparison visual inspection by volunteers. The samples were also studied by a tensile test in order to verify the integrity of the cloth after bleaching. The results of fabric visual inspection and colorimetric analysis showed a small advantage for the sample treated by the standard method. The tensile test showed an increasing on the yield strength of the cloth after blue light bleaching. The presented method has great applicability potential due to the similar results compared to the standard method, with relative low cost and reduced production of chemical waste.

  17. Petrology and geochemistry of alkali gabbronorites from lunar breccia 67975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Odette B.; Flohr, Marta K.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed results of petrologic and compositional studies of three clasts found in thin sections of the Apollo 16 lunar breccia 67975 and of four clasts extracted from the breccia (for instrumental neutron activation analysis) prior to thin sectioning are reported. The alkali gabbronorites of the breccia form two distinct subgroups, magnesian and ferroan. The magnesian gabbronorites are composed of bytownitic plagioclase, hypersthene, augite, a silica mineral, and trace Ba-rich K-feldspar. The ferroan gabbronorites are composed of ternary plagioclase, pigeonite, augite, Ba-rich K-feldspar, and a silica mineral. Trace minerals in both subgroups are apatite, REE-rich whitlockite, and zircon. The magnesian and ferroan alkali gabbronorites appear to have formed by progressive differentiation of the same, or closely related, parent REE-rich magmas.

  18. Alkali Halide Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHaven, S. L.; Wincheski, R. A.; Albin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  19. Wetting Transitions of Inert Gases on Alkali Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojan, M. J.; McDonald, I. A.; Cole, M. W.; Steele, W. A.

    1996-03-01

    Theoretical and experimental discoveries have been made recently of wetting and prewetting transitions of helium and hydrogen films on alkali metal surfaces [1,2]. New experiments show anomalous nonwetting behavior of Ne on Rb and Cs [3]. Building on earlier work [4], we have done and will describe results from the first Monte Carlo simulations showing wetting transitions for classical gases on alkali metal surfaces. * Research supported by an NSF Materials Research Group grant. 1. R. B.Hallock, J. Low Temp. Phys. 101, 31, 1995 2. M. W. Cole, J. Low Temp. Phys. 101, 25, 1995. 3. G. B. Hess, M. Sabatini, and M. H. W. Chan, unpublished 4. J. E. Finn and P. A. Monson, Phys. Rev. A 39, 6402, 1989.

  20. Properties and Performance of Alkali-Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Robert J.

    Alkali-activated concrete (AAC) made with industrial byproducts as the sole binder is rapidly emerging as a sustainable alternative to ordinary portland cement concrete (PCC). Despite its exemplary mechanical performance and durability, there remain several barriers to widespread commercialization of AAC. This dissertation addresses several of these barriers. Mathematical models are proposed which efficiently and accurately predict the compressive strength of AAC as a function of activator composition, binder type, and curing condition. The relationships between compressive strength and other mechanical properties (i.e., tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) are discussed, as are stress-strain relationships. Several aspects related to the durability of AAC are also discussed, including dimensional stability under drying conditions, alkali-silica reactivity, and chloride permeability. The results of these experimental investigations are disseminated in the context of real-world applicability.

  1. Alkali halide microstructured optical fiber for X-ray detection

    SciTech Connect

    DeHaven, S. L. E-mail: russel.a.wincheski@nasa.gov; Wincheski, R. A. E-mail: russel.a.wincheski@nasa.gov; Albin, S.

    2015-03-31

    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  2. Alkali elements in the Earth's core: Evidence from enstatite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodders, K.

    1995-01-01

    The abundances of alkali elements in the Earth's core are predicted by assuming that accretion of the Earth started from material similar in composition to enstatite chondrites and that enstatite achondrites (aubrites) provide a natural laboratory to study core-mantle differentiation under extremely reducing conditions. If core formation on the aubrite parent body is comparable with core formation on the early Earth, it is found that 2600 (+/- 1000) ppm Na, 550 (+/- 260) ppm K, 3.4 (+/- 2.1) ppm Rb, and 0.31 (+/- 0.24) ppm Cs can reside in the Earth's core. The alkali-element abundances are consistent with those predicted by independent estimates based on nebula condensation calculations and heat flow data.

  3. Coherent coupling of alkali atoms by random collisions.

    PubMed

    Katz, Or; Peleg, Or; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2015-09-11

    Random spin-exchange collisions in warm alkali vapor cause rapid decoherence and act to equilibrate the spin state of the atoms in the vapor. In contrast, here we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a coherent coupling of one alkali species to another species, mediated by these random collisions. We show that the minor species (potassium) inherits the magnetic properties of the dominant species (rubidium), including its lifetime (T_{1}), coherence time (T_{2}), gyromagnetic ratio, and spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetic-field threshold. We further show that this coupling can be completely controlled by varying the strength of the magnetic field. Finally, we explain these phenomena analytically by mode mixing of the two species via spin-exchange collisions. PMID:26406827

  4. Renal tubular acidosis due to the milk-alkali syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rochman, J; Better, O S; Winaver, J; Chaimowitz, C; Barzilai, A; Jacobs, R

    1977-06-01

    A 60-year-old man with a history of excessive ingestion of calcium carbonate presented with azotemia, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. His acid-base status was initially normal. Following the cessation of calcium carbonate treatment, the hypercalcemia and azotemia disappeared, and the patient was found to be in metabolic acidosis with blunted acid excretion and a urine pH of 6.1. Kidney biopsy showed focal tubular calcification; the tubular damage was apparently caused by hypercalcemia and had resulted in renal tubular acidosis. During the three months of observation since that time there has been a tendecy for spontaneous remission of the renal tubular acidosis. Impaired renal hydrogen ion excretion prevented the development of metabolic alkalosis despite ingestion of alkali initially, and was later responsible for the metabolic acidosis. Renal tubular acidosis occurring as a sequel to the milk-alkali syndrome may aggravate the danger of nephrocalcinosis in this syndrome. PMID:885714

  5. Operation and performance of a double-alkali scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Sachtschale, J.R.; Dydo, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Santa Fe Energy Co. (SFEC) installed a double-alkali sulfur dioxide absorber at its Kern River field near Bakersfield, CA. The flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system is designed to remove 95% of the sulfur dioxide from the exhaust of eight oil-fired steam generators when 1.5 wt% sulfur fuel oil is burned. The chemistry of the double-alkali process and the results of compliance and performance emissions testing are presented. Sulfur dioxide emission results are analyzed. Performance tests showed that total outlet sulfur dioxide emissions were 28.7 lbm/hr (0.00363 kg/s). If offset emissions are included, the net sulfur dioxide emissions were 0.22 lbm/hr (0.00003 kg/s).

  6. Polymerization reactivity of sulfomethylated alkali lignin modified with horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongjie; Wu, Xiaolei; Qiu, Xueqing; Chang, Yaqi; Lou, Hongming

    2014-03-01

    Alkali lignin (AL) was employed as raw materials in the present study. Sulfomethylation was conducted to improve the solubility of AL, while sulfomethylated alkali lignin (SAL) was further polymerized by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). HRP modification caused a significant increase in molecular weight of SAL which was over 20 times. It was also found to increase the amount of sulfonic and carboxyl groups while decrease the amount of phenolic and methoxyl groups in SAL. The adsorption quantity of self-assembled SAL film was improved after HRP modification. Sulfonation and HRP modification were mutually promoted. The polymerization reactivity of SAL in HRP modification was increased with its sulfonation degree. Meanwhile, HRP modification facilitated SAL's radical-sulfonation reaction. PMID:24534439

  7. Synthesis and studies on microhardness of alkali zinc borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhashini, Bhattacharya, Soumalya; Shashikala, H. D.; Udayashankar, N. K.

    2014-04-01

    The mixed alkali effect on zinc borate glasses have been reported. The glass systems of nominal composition 10Zn+xLi2O+yNa2O+80B2O3 (x = y = 0, 5, 10, 15 mol%) were prepared using standard melt quenching method. The structural, physical and mechanical properties of the samples have been studied using X-ray diffraction(XRD), density measurement and Vickers hardness measurement, respectively. A consistent increase in the density was observed, which explains the role of the modifiers (Li2O and Na2O) in the network modification of borate structure. The molar volume is decreasing linearly with the alkali concentration, which is attributed to the conversion of tetrahedral boron (BO4/2)- into (BO3/2)-. The microhardness studies reveals the anisotropy nature of the material. It further confirms that the samples belong to hard glass category.

  8. Optical Properties of Tm(3+) Ions in Alkali Germanate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2006-01-01

    Tm-doped alkali germanate glass is investigated for use as a laser material. Spectroscopic investigations of bulk Tm-doped germanate glass are reported for the absorption, emission and luminescence decay. Tm:germanate shows promise as a fiber laser when pumped with 0.792 m diodes because of low phonon energies. Spectroscopic analysis indicates low nonradiative quenching and pulsed laser performance studies confirm this prediction by showing a quantum efficiency of 1.69.

  9. Lithological influence of aggregate in the alkali-carbonate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. . E-mail: angel.lopez@aidico.es; Climent, V. . E-mail: vcliment@grupogla.com; Verdu, P.

    2006-08-15

    The reactivity of carbonate rock with the alkali content of cement, commonly called alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR), has been investigated. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) can also contribute in the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in carbonate rock, mainly due to micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz or clay content in carbonate aggregate. Both ACR and ASR can occur in the same system, as has been also evidenced on this paper. Carbonate aggregate samples were selected using lithological reactivity criteria, taking into account the presence of dedolomitization, partial dolomitization, micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz. Selected rocks include calcitic dolostone with chert (CDX), calcitic dolostone with dedolomitization (CDD), limestone with chert (LX), marly calcitic dolostone with partial dolomitization (CD), high-porosity ferric dolostone with clays (FD). To evaluate the reactivity, aggregates were studied using expansion tests following RILEM AAR-2, AAR-5, a modification using LiOH AAR-5Li was also tested. A complementary study was done using petrographic monitoring with polarised light microscopy on aggregates immersed in NaOH and LiOH solutions after different ages. SEM-EDAX has been used to identify the presence of brucite as a product of dedolomitization. An ACR reaction showed shrinkage of the mortar bars in alkaline solutions explained by induced dedolomitization, while an ASR process typically displayed expansion. Neither shrinkage nor expansion was observed when mortar bars were immersed in solutions of lithium hydroxide. Carbonate aggregate classification with AAR pathology risk has been elaborated based on mechanical behaviours by expansion and shrinkage. It is proposed to be used as a petrographic method for AAR diagnosis to complement the RILEM AAR1 specifically for carbonate aggregate. Aggregate materials can be classified as I (non-reactive), II (potentially reactive), and III (probably reactive), considering induced dedolomitization ACR

  10. Precision optical metrology with alkali-atom isoclinic points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Nathan; Driskell, Travis; Camparo, James

    2016-06-01

    Vapour-phase spectroscopy rarely involves transitions between well-isolated atomic states. Routinely, the spectra comprise overlapped Doppler/pressure-broadened resonances, which leads to a “pulling” of the spectral peaks from their true atomic resonance frequencies. This pulling gives the absorption resonances a temperature sensitivity, which limits their utility for precision spectroscopy when sub-Doppler techniques are not viable. Here, we discuss the use of alkali isoclinic points as a solution to this problem.

  11. Resonances in low-energy positron-alkali scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horbatsch, M.; Ward, S. J.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Close-coupling calculations were performed with up to five target states at energies in the excitation threshold region for positron scattering from Li, Na and K. Resonances were discovered in the L = 0, 1 and 2 channels in the vicinity of the atomic excitation thresholds. The widths of these resonances vary between 0.2 and 130 MeV. Evidence was found for the existence of positron-alkali bound states in all cases.

  12. High-energy transversely pumped alkali vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Komashko, A.

    2011-03-01

    We report on the results from our transversely pumped alkali laser. This system uses an Alexandrite laser to pump a stainless steel laser head. The system uses methane and helium as buffer gasses. Using rubidium, the system produced up to 40 mJ of output energy when pumped with 63 mJ. Slope efficiency was 75%. Using potassium as the lasing species the system produced 32 mJ and a 53% slope efficiency.

  13. Diode pumped alkali vapor lasers for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Krupke, B.; Komashko, A.

    2008-02-01

    General Atomics has been engaged in the development of diode pumped alkali vapor lasers. We have been examining the design space looking for designs that are both efficient and easily scalable to high powers. Computationally, we have looked at the effect of pump bandwidth on laser performance. We have also looked at different lasing species. We have used an alexandrite laser to study the relative merits of different designs. We report on the results of our experimental and computational studies.

  14. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  15. The Blue Marble 43 Years Later

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-18

    article title:  The Blue Marble 43 Years Later View larger image Here ... points over more than four decades apart. The iconic "Blue Marble" view on the left was taken 43 years ago on December 7, 1972 from Apollo ... points over more than four decades apart. The iconic "Blue Marble" view on the left was taken 43 years ago on December 7, 1972 from Apollo ...

  16. The Blue Dots Initiative and Roadmapping Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2010-10-01

    The Blue Dots initiative (a grassroot effort to build a scientific community in Europe around the exoplanet theme) is introduced. The Blue Dots activities include the elaboration of a roadmap towards the spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets, a summary of which is presented here. While the roadmap will need to be updated regularly, it is expected that the methodology developed within Blue Dots will provide a durable framework for the elaboration of future revisions.

  17. (abstract) Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Exchange Current at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    The microscopic mechanism of the alkali ion-electron recombination reaction at the three phase boundary zone formed by a porous metal electrode in the alkali vapor on the surface of an alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) ceramic has been studied by comparison of the expected rates for the three simplest reaction mechanisms with known temperature dependent rate data; and the physical parameters of typical porous metal electrode/BASE/alkali metal vapor reaction zones. The three simplest reactions are tunneling of electrons from the alkali coated electrode to a surface bound alkali metal ion; emission of an electron from the electrode with subsequent capture by a surface bound alkali metal ion; and thermal emission of an alkali cation from the BASE and its capture on the porous metal electrode surface where it may recombine with an electron. Only the first reaction adequately accounts for both the high observed rate and its temperature dependence. New results include crude modeling of simple, one step, three phase, solid/solid/gas electrochemical reaction.

  18. Spatial Polarization Profile in an Optically Pumped Alkali Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Ben; Patton, Brian; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, Will

    2009-05-01

    Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) is a technique used to polarize nuclei in gases, and more recently in solids, in excess of their equilibrium limit. SEOP is achieved by optically pumping an alkali vapor which subsequently transfers angular momentum to the nuclei of interest. The efficiency of SEOP is governed by optical pumping and relaxation of the alkali atoms, relaxation of the target nuclei, and interactions between the alkali and target substance. In this work we investigate the relationship between optical pumping and relaxation in cesium vapor with absorption spectroscopy at high magnetic field (2.7 T). Cesium vapor within a cylindrical glass vapor cell is optically pumped with a strong laser resonant with a D2 transition. The ground-state population of the vapor is measured at various positions along a diameter of the cell with a small, weak D1 laser beam which translates mechanically. The resulting polarization profile elucidates the interplay between optical pumping, diffusion in the buffer gas, and relaxation at the walls of the vapor cell. We report measurements of the spatial polarization profile in vapor cells with bare Pyrex walls and cells coated with paraffin (an anti-relaxation coating) or CsH salt (a target substance for SEOP), and compare them to numerical simulations. Further investigation might yield a new method for characterizing surface relaxation in vapor cells.

  19. Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping of Alkali Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Ben; Patton, Brian; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, Will; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2008-05-01

    Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) is a technique used to polarize nuclei in excess of their equilibrium limit. SEOP is achieved by optically pumping an alkali vapor which then transfers angular momentum to the nuclei of interest. We have recently hyperpolarized ^133Cs nuclei in solid CsH using SEOP, achieving magnetizations more than an order of magnitude larger than the thermal equilibrium value.ootnotetextIshikawa et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183004 (2007) In subsequent work, we investigate the mechanisms underlying this transfer of angular momentum. By optically pumping Cs vapor with laser light resonant with several optical transitions, each yielding different nuclear and electronic spin currents to the solid, we attempt to determine the source of transferred angular momentum. Early evidence suggests both electronic and nuclear spin polarization in the vapor contribute to ^133Cs nuclear polarization in the salt. The ^1H polarization is also mildly affected by optical pumping. We compare these results to numerical simulations and to results from other alkali salts. Further studies are warranted to discover if polarization can be transferred to other nuclei (e.g., alkali salts) on the cell walls.

  20. The Interfacial Transition Zone in Alkali-Activated Slag Mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Nicolas, Rackel; Provis, John

    2015-12-01

    The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is known to strongly influence the mechanical and transport properties of mortars and concretes. This paper studies the ITZ between siliceous (quartz) aggregates and alkali activated slag binders in the context of mortar specimens. Backscattered electron images (BSE) generated in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) are used to identify unreacted binder components, reaction products and porosity in the zone surrounding aggregate particles, by composition and density contrast. X-ray mapping is used to exclude the regions corresponding to the aggregates from the BSE image of the ITZ, thus enabling analysis of only the binder phases, which are segmented into binary images by grey level discrimination. A distinct yet dense ITZ region is present in the alkali-activated slag mortars, containing a reduced content of unreacted slag particles compared to the bulk binder. The elemental analysis of this region shows that it contains a (C,N)-A-S-H gel which seems to have a higher content of Na (potentially deposited through desiccation of the pore solution) and a lower content of Ca than the bulk inner and outer products forming in the main binding region. These differences are potentially important in terms of long-term concrete performance, as the absence of a highly porous interfacial transition zone region is expected to provide a positive influence on the mechanical and transport properties of alkali-activated slag concretes.

  1. Electron Densities and Alkali Atoms in Exoplanet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavvas, P.; Koskinen, T.; Yelle, R. V.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a detailed study on the properties of alkali atoms in extrasolar giant planets, and specifically focus on their role in generating the atmospheric free electron densities, as well as their impact on the transit depth observations. We focus our study on the case of HD 209458b, and we show that photoionization produces a large electron density in the middle atmosphere that is about two orders of magnitude larger than the density anticipated from thermal ionization. Our purely photochemical calculations, though, result in a much larger transit depth for K than observed for this planet. This result does not change even if the roles of molecular chemistry and excited state chemistry are considered for the alkali atoms. In contrast, the model results for the case of exoplanet XO-2b are in good agreement with the available observations. Given these results we discuss other possible scenarios, such as changes in the elemental abundances, changes in the temperature profiles, and the possible presence of clouds, which could potentially explain the observed HD 209458b alkali properties. We find that most of these scenarios cannot explain the observations, with the exception of a heterogeneous source (i.e., clouds or aerosols) under specific conditions, but we also note the discrepancies among the available observations.

  2. The structure of metallic complexes of polyacetylene with alkali metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, R. H.; Murthy, N. S.; Miller, G. G.

    1983-07-01

    The crystal structures of sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium doped polyacetylene have been determined using crystal packing and x-ray diffraction analyses. Each of these metallic complexes is tetragonal, with the polyacetylene chains forming a host lattice in which the alkali metal ions are present in channels. Lithium appears to be too small to stabilize the channel structure and an amorphous structure is observed. Predicted unit cell parameters and x-ray diffraction intensities are in agreement with observed values. Similarities with the alkali metal doped graphite suggest that hybridization between carbon pz orbitals and metal s orbitals occurs. Such hybridization is expected to result in a high conductivity component normal to the chain direction. On the other hand, direct overlap between polymer chains appears small, since alkali metal columns separate polymer chains. Compositions calculated for the channel structures (from meridional diffraction spacings, the intensity of equatorial diffraction lines, measured volume expansion, and distances in model complexes) all range from y=0.12 to 0.18 for (CHMy)x, where M is sodium, potassium, rubidium, or cesium.

  3. An accurate model potential for alkali neon systems.

    PubMed

    Zanuttini, D; Jacquet, E; Giglio, E; Douady, J; Gervais, B

    2009-12-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the ground and lowest excited states of M-Ne dimers, for M=Li, Na, and K. We show that the potential energy curves of these Van der Waals dimers can be obtained accurately by considering the alkali neon systems as one-electron systems. Following previous authors, the model describes the evolution of the alkali valence electron in the combined potentials of the alkali and neon cores by means of core polarization pseudopotentials. The key parameter for an accurate model is the M(+)-Ne potential energy curve, which was obtained by means of ab initio CCSD(T) calculation using a large basis set. For each MNe dimer, a systematic comparison with ab initio computation of the potential energy curve for the X, A, and B states shows the remarkable accuracy of the model. The vibrational analysis and the comparison with existing experimental data strengthens this conclusion and allows for a precise assignment of the vibrational levels. PMID:19968334

  4. Scattering of positrons and electrons by alkali atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. S.; Kauppila, W. E.; Kwan, C. K.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Parikh, S. P.; Wan, Y. J.; Zhou, S.; Dababneh, M. S.

    1990-01-01

    Absolute total scattering cross sections (Q sub T's) were measured for positrons and electrons colliding with sodium, potassium, and rubidium in the 1 to 102 eV range, using the same apparatus and experimental approach (a beam transmission technique) for both projectiles. The present results for positron-sodium and -rubidium collisions represent the first Q sub T measurements reported for these collision systems. Features which distinguish the present comparisons between positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's from those for other atoms and molecules (room-temperature gases) which have been used as targets for positrons and electrons are the proximity of the corresponding positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's over the entire energy range of overlap, with an indication of a merging or near-merging of the corresponding positron and electron Q sub T's near (and above) the relatively low energy of about 40 eV, and a general tendency for the positron-alkali atom Q sub T's to be higher than the corresponding electron values as the projectile energy is decreased below about 40 eV.

  5. Insulin receptor-related receptor as an extracellular alkali sensor

    PubMed Central

    Deyev, Igor E.; Sohet, Fabien; Vassilenko, Konstantin P.; Serova, Oxana V.; Popova, Nadezhda V.; Zozulya, Sergey A.; Burova, Elena B.; Houillier, Pascal; Rzhevsky, Dmitry I.; Berchatova, Anastasiya A.; Murashev, Arkady N.; Chugunov, Anton O.; Efremov, Roman G.; Nikol’sky, Nikolai N.; Bertelli, Eugenio; Eladari, Dominique; Petrenko, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR), an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor family, can be activated by alkaline media both in vitro and in vivo at pH>7.9. The alkali-sensing property of IRR is conserved in frog, mouse and human. IRR activation is specific, dose-dependent, quickly reversible and demonstrates positive cooperativity. It also triggers receptor conformational changes and elicits intracellular signaling. The pH sensitivity of IRR is primarily defined by its L1F extracellular domains. IRR is predominantly expressed in organs that come in contact with mildly alkaline media. In particular, IRR is expressed in the cell subsets of the kidney that secrete bicarbonate into urine. Disruption of IRR in mice impairs the renal response to alkali loading attested by development of metabolic alkalosis and decreased urinary bicarbonate excretion in response to this challenge. We therefore postulate that IRR is an alkali sensor that functions in the kidney to manage metabolic bicarbonate excess. PMID:21641549

  6. Electron densities and alkali atoms in exoplanet atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Lavvas, P.; Koskinen, T.; Yelle, R. V.

    2014-11-20

    We describe a detailed study on the properties of alkali atoms in extrasolar giant planets, and specifically focus on their role in generating the atmospheric free electron densities, as well as their impact on the transit depth observations. We focus our study on the case of HD 209458b, and we show that photoionization produces a large electron density in the middle atmosphere that is about two orders of magnitude larger than the density anticipated from thermal ionization. Our purely photochemical calculations, though, result in a much larger transit depth for K than observed for this planet. This result does not change even if the roles of molecular chemistry and excited state chemistry are considered for the alkali atoms. In contrast, the model results for the case of exoplanet XO-2b are in good agreement with the available observations. Given these results we discuss other possible scenarios, such as changes in the elemental abundances, changes in the temperature profiles, and the possible presence of clouds, which could potentially explain the observed HD 209458b alkali properties. We find that most of these scenarios cannot explain the observations, with the exception of a heterogeneous source (i.e., clouds or aerosols) under specific conditions, but we also note the discrepancies among the available observations.

  7. Effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K. J. Wahab, M. A. A. Mahmod, S. Idris, M. I. Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-22

    Alkali and heat treatments were first introduced by Kim et al. to prepare a bioactive surface on titanium. This method has been proven very effective and widely used in other studies to promote titanium osteointegration. This study aims to investigate further the effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of high purity titanium. High purity titanium foils were immersed in NaOH aqueous solutions of 0.5 M, 5 M and 15 M at 60°C and 80 °C for 1, 3 and 7 days. The surface morphology was examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The obtained phases were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the spectra range of 4000-600 cm{sup −1} at 4 cm{sup −1} resolution and 50 scans. At the same soaking temperature and soaking time, a thicker porous network was observed with increasing concentration of NaOH. At the same soaking temperature, a much porous structure was observed with increasing soaking time. At constant alkali concentration, more homogenously distributed porous surface structure was observed with increasing soaking temperature.

  8. Chlor-alkali producers evaluate safer alternatives to asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Stadig, W.

    1993-03-01

    Until recently, 75% of all US capacity for producing chlor-alkali - more than 40% of the world's capacity - has used asbestos diaphragm-cell technology. Although the Environmental Protection Agency continues to exempt asbestos use in diaphragms from restrictions, producers are considering alternatives. In Germany, stringent regulations will ban asbestos in chlor-alkali production after 1994. Heavy fines were levied recently against some chlor-alkali producers in the United States when EPA inspectors found asbestos fibers in cell renewal areas. Restrictions on the mining of asbestos raise the cost of obtaining adequate amounts of high-quality asbestos and gradually raise the cost of transporting and discarding spent diaphragms. Two alternatives are to use newly developed, non-asbestos diaphragms or to convert to existing ion-exchange membrane-cell technology. Only the former seems economical in the United States. The non-asbestos diaphragm is based on an inorganic polymer composite developed in 1988 as an asbestos substitute. The composite received Du Pont's Plunkett Award for Innovation with Teflon[trademark], landed on the National Development Association's 1991 Honor Roll and became a 1991 R D 100 Award winner. 6 figs.

  9. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  10. Polymer stabilized and dispersed blue phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemiklioglu, Emine

    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) materials have potential for advanced applications of display material and technology based on their optical behaviors, such as field-induced birefringence and sub-millisecond response time, which is at least one order of magnitude faster than the present nematic liquid crystal based displays. Since blue phases appear in the narrow temperature range between the chiral nematic and the isotropic phases, there is a temperature range limitation for the application of blue phase liquid crystal. In this dissertation, we have developed blue phase liquid crystal materials with a wide temperature range and low driving voltage. The first goal was to develop wide-temperature range blue phase liquid crystal materials using several stabilization methods notably polymer stabilization, doping of carbon-nanotubes and bent-core molecules. The temperature range could be expanded more than 54°C via the polymer stabilization. The second goal was to explore the polymer dispersed blue phase liquid crystal combining the advantages of the polymer dispersion method and blue phase materials. Polymer encapsulated blue phase films showed a large Kerr constant, low switching voltage and fast response time. Moreover, the temperature range of encapsulated blue phase films were successfully expanded from 9°C to 54°C .

  11. Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, C.-T.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Lin, T.-H.; Liu, J.-H.

    2010-03-22

    This study investigates an optically switchable band gap of photonic crystal that is based on an azobenzene-doped liquid crystal blue phase. The trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene deforms the cubic unit cell of the blue phase and shifts the photonic band gap. The fast back-isomerization of azobenzene was induced by irradiation with different wavelengths light. The crystal structure is verified using Kossel diffraction diagram. An optically addressable blue phase display, based on Bragg reflection from the photonic band gap, is also demonstrated. The tunable ranges are around red, green, and blue wavelengths and exhibit a bright saturated color.

  12. Expression of zebrafish pax6b in pancreas is regulated by two enhancers containing highly conserved cis-elements bound by PDX1, PBX and PREP factors

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, François M; Pasque, Vincent; Devos, Nathalie; Manfroid, Isabelle; Voz, Marianne L; Motte, Patrick; Biemar, Frédéric; Martial, Joseph A; Peers, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background PAX6 is a transcription factor playing a crucial role in the development of the eye and in the differentiation of the pancreatic endocrine cells as well as of enteroendocrine cells. Studies on the mouse Pax6 gene have shown that sequences upstream from the P0 promoter are required for expression in the lens and the pancreas; but there remain discrepancies regarding the precise location of the pancreatic regulatory elements. Results Due to genome duplication in the evolution of ray-finned fishes, zebrafish has two pax6 genes, pax6a and pax6b. While both zebrafish pax6 genes are expressed in the developing eye and nervous system, only pax6b is expressed in the endocrine cells of the pancreas. To investigate the cause of this differential expression, we used a combination of in silico, in vivo and in vitro approaches. We show that the pax6b P0 promoter targets expression to endocrine pancreatic cells and also to enteroendocrine cells, retinal neurons and the telencephalon of transgenic zebrafish. Deletion analyses indicate that strong pancreatic expression of the pax6b gene relies on the combined action of two conserved regulatory enhancers, called regions A and C. By means of gel shift assays, we detected binding of the homeoproteins PDX1, PBX and PREP to several cis-elements of these regions. In constrast, regions A and C of the zebrafish pax6a gene are not active in the pancreas, this difference being attributable to sequence divergences within two cis-elements binding the pancreatic homeoprotein PDX1. Conclusion Our data indicate a conserved role of enhancers A and C in the pancreatic expression of pax6b and emphasize the importance of the homeoproteins PBX and PREP cooperating with PDX1, in activating pax6b expression in endocrine pancreatic cells. This study also provides a striking example of how adaptative evolution of gene regulatory sequences upon gene duplication progressively leads to subfunctionalization of the paralogous gene pair. PMID

  13. Acid and alkali doped PBI electrolyte in electrochemical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Baozhong

    In this work the conductivity of blank PBI membrane, acid doped PBI and alkaline doped PBI was systematically studied. A new methodology for sorption kinetics study in electrolyte solution has been established by monitoring the conductivity change during the sorption process. The model of the doping process and mechanism of conductivity are proposed. The performance of PBI (doped under optimum conditions) in fuel cell as PEM was evaluated. The experimental results show that the blank PBI in acid solution is an ionic insulator. It clarified the long time confusion in this area. The acid doped PBI membrane is an ionic conductor. The conductivity increases with the concentration of the acid solution. In high concentration acid solution, the conductivity increases with the type of acid in the order: H2SO 4 > H3PO4 > HClO4 > HNO3 > HCl. The kinetics of the doping process was studied, by a continuous method. The ionic conductivity mechanism was established. The PBI membranes doped with H2SO4 and H3PO4 exhibit better performance than NafionRTM. The doped FBI has more resistance to CO poison. 3% CO in H2 has little effect on the H3PO 4 doped PBI membrane at 185°C. The conductivity of the alkali doped PBI membrane changes with the concentration of the alkaline solution and the type of the alkalis. The conductivity has a maximum in KOH and NaOH solution. The maximum conductivity in KOH is higher than in NaOH and LiOH. It is about 5 times of that of NafionRTM in alkaline solution. The two-step sorption process in alkaline solution was observed. The first step is the permeation process of the alkalis in the PBI membrane. The permeation is the results of diffusion and interaction. It is concluded that the permeation process is controlled by the rate of interaction between the alkali and PBI molecule. The second step is the relaxation process in the membrane. This step contributes more to the conductivity for the membrane than the first step. The ionic conductivity mechanism

  14. Modifier interaction and mixed-alkali effect in bond constraint theory applied to ternary alkali metaphosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto Rodrigues, Bruno; Deubener, Joachim; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2016-05-01

    Introducing an interaction parameter γ, we implement modifier interaction and the mixed-alkali effect into bond constraint theory, and apply this extension for simplistic property prediction on ternary phosphate glasses. The severity of the mixed alkali effect results from the interplay of two simultaneous contributions: Bond constraints on the modifier species soften or stiffen with decreasing or increasing γ, respectively. When the modifier size is not too dissimilar the decrease in γ reflects that the alkali ions can easily migrate between different sites, forcing the network to continuously re-accommodate for any subsequent distortions. With increasing size difference, migration becomes increasingly difficult without considerable network deformation. This holds even for smaller ions, where the sluggish dynamics of the larger constituent result in blocking of the fast ion movement, leading to the subsequent increase in γ. Beyond a certain size difference in the modifier pair, a value of γ exceeding unity may indicate the presence of steric hindrance due to the large surrounding modifiers impeding the phosphate network to re-accommodate deformation.

  15. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  16. Electronic and magnetic properties of Sr2MoBO6 (B=W, RE, Os): Investigation of possible half metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ningning; Li, Rui; Li, Qinan; Wang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic ordering temperatures of Sr2CrBO6 (B=W, Re, Os) are the top three in the class of double perovskites so far, whereas among them only Sr2CrWO6 is a half metal. In this study, by substituting Cr with Mo, Sr2MoBO6 is investigated by using the density functional theory. The calculated results indicate that all the three Mo-based compounds exhibit the half metallic nature, in particular Sr2MoOsO6 is a compensated half metal. On the other hand, Sr2MoBO6 is estimated to have at least a comparable magnetic ordering temperature with that of Sr2CrOsO6 (experimental value of 725 K). Therefore, we expect that Sr2MoBO6 (B=W, Re, Os) would be promising candidates as spintronic materials.

  17. Experiment and simulation study on alkalis transfer characteristic during direct combustion utilization of bagasse.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yanfen; Cao, Yawen; Chen, Tuo; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2015-10-01

    Bagasse is utilized as fuel in the biggest biomass power plant of China, however, alkalis in the fuel created severe agglomeration and slagging problems. Alkalis transfer characteristic, agglomeration causes in engineering practice, additive improvement effects and mechanism during bagasse combustion were investigated via experiments and simulations. Only slight agglomeration occurs in ash higher than 800°C. Serious agglomeration in practical operation should be attributed to the gaseous alkalis evaporating at high temperature and condensing on the cooler grain surfaces in CFB. It can be speculated that ash caking can be avoided with temperature lower than 750°C and heating surface corrosion caused by alkali metal vapor can be alleviated with temperature lower than 850°C. Kaolin added into the bagasse has an apparent advantage over CaO additive both in enhancing ash fusion point and relieving alkali-chloride corrosion by locking alkalis in dystectic solid compounds over the whole temperature range. PMID:26196420

  18. Pretreatment of garden biomass by alkali-assisted ultrasonication: effects on enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrastructural changes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims at studying the effectiveness of alkali-assisted ultrasonication on pretreatment of garden biomass (GB). Dry and powdered GB suspended in 1% NaOH was ultrasonicated for 15, 30 and 60 minutes at a frequency of 25 KHZ. The mode of action and effectiveness of alkali-assisted ultrasonication on GB was established through microscopic, scanning electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction studies. A perusal of results showed that alkali-assisted ultrasonication led to fibrillation of GB which ultimately facilitated enzymatic hydrolysis. The results also indicated that alkali-assisted ultrasonication is an efficient means of pretreatment of GB at moderate (45-50°C) working temperature and low (1%) concentration of alkali. The yield of reducing sugar after enzymatic hydrolysis increased almost six times as compared to control due to alkali-assisted ultrasonication. PMID:24843790

  19. Molecular Motor MYO1C, Acetyltransferase KAT6B and Osteogenetic Transcription Factor RUNX2 Expression in Human Masseter Muscle Contributes to Development of Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Desh, Heather; Gray, S Lauren; Horton, Michael J; Raoul, Gwenael; Rowlerson, Anthea M; Ferri, Joel; Vieira, Alexandre R; Sciote, James J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Type I myosins are molecular motors necessary for glucose transport in the cytoplasm and initiation of transcription in the nucleus. Two of these, MYO1H and MYO1C, are paralogs which may be important in the development of malocclusion. The objective of this study was to investigate their gene expression in the masseter muscle of malocclusion subjects. Two functionally related proteins known to contribute to malocclusion were also investigated: KAT6B (a chromatin remodeling epigenetic enzyme which is activated by MYO1C) and RUNX2 (a transcription factor regulating osteogenesis which is activated by KAT6B). Design Masseter muscle samples and malocclusion classifications were obtained from orthognathic surgery subjects. Muscle was sectioned and immunostained to determine fiber type properties. RNA was isolated from the remaining sample to determine expression levels for the four genes by TaqMan® RT-PCR. Fiber type properties, gene expression quantities and malocclusion classification were compared. Results There were very significant associations (P<0.0000001) between MYO1C and KAT6B expressions. There were also significant associations (P<0.005) between RUNX2 expression and masseter muscle type II fiber properties. Very few significant associations were identified between MYO1C and masseter muscle fiber type properties. Conclusions The relationship between MYO1C and KAT6B suggests that the two are interacting in chromatin remodeling for gene expression. This is the nuclear myosin1 (NM1) function of MYO1C. A surprising finding is the relationship between RUNX2 and type II masseter muscle fibers, since RUNX2 expression in mature muscle was previously unknown. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the role of RUNX2 in adult masseter muscle. PMID:24698832

  20. Characterization of a Disease-associated Mutation Affecting a Putative Splicing Regulatory Element in Intron 6b of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Gene*

    PubMed Central

    Faà, Valeria; Incani, Federica; Meloni, Alessandra; Corda, Denise; Masala, Maddalena; Baffico, A. Maria; Seia, Manuela; Cao, Antonio; Rosatelli, M. Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common recessive disorder caused by >1600 mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. About 13% of CFTR mutations are classified as “splicing mutations,” but for almost 40% of these, their role in affecting the pre-mRNA splicing of the gene is not yet defined. In this work, we describe a new splicing mutation detected in three unrelated Italian CF patients. By DNA analyses and mRNA studies, we identified the c.1002–1110_1113delTAAG mutation localized in intron 6b of the CFTR gene. At the mRNA level, this mutation creates an aberrant inclusion of a sequence of 101 nucleotides between exons 6b and 7. This sequence corresponds to a portion of intron 6b and resembles a cryptic exon because it is characterized by an upstream ag and a downstream gt sequence, which are most probably recognized as 5′- and 3′-splice sites by the spliceosome. Through functional analysis of this splicing defect, we show that this mutation abolishes the interaction of the splicing regulatory protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 with an intronic splicing regulatory element and creates a new recognition motif for the SRp75 splicing factor, causing activation of the cryptic exon. Our results show that the c.1002–1110_1113delTAAG mutation creates a new intronic splicing regulatory element in intron 6b of the CFTR gene exclusively recognized by SRp75. PMID:19759008

  1. Identification of Serpinb6b as a Species-specific Mouse Granzyme A Inhibitor Suggests Functional Divergence between Human and Mouse Granzyme A

    PubMed Central

    Kaiserman, Dion; Stewart, Sarah E.; Plasman, Kim; Gevaert, Kris; Van Damme, Petra; Bird, Phillip I.

    2014-01-01

    The granzyme family serine proteases are key effector molecules expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes. The physiological role of granzyme (Gzm) A is controversial, with significant debate over its ability to induce death in target cells. Here, we investigate the natural inhibitors of GzmA. We employed substrate phage display and positional proteomics to compare substrate specificities of mouse (m) and human (h) GzmA at the peptide and proteome-wide levels and we used the resulting substrate specificity profiles to search for potential inhibitors from the intracellular serpin family. We identified Serpinb6b as a potent inhibitor of mGzmA. Serpinb6b interacts with mGzmA, but not hGzmA, with an association constant of 1.9 ± 0.8 × 105 m−1 s−1 and a stoichiometry of inhibition of 1.8. Mouse GzmA is over five times more cytotoxic than hGzmA when delivered into P815 target cells with streptolysin O, whereas transfection of target cells with a Serpinb6b cDNA increases the EC50 value of mGzmA 13-fold, without affecting hGzmA cytotoxicity. Unexpectedly, we also found that Serpinb6b employs an exosite to specifically inhibit dimeric but not monomeric mGzmA. The identification of an intracellular inhibitor specific for mGzmA only indicates that a lineage-specific increase in GzmA cytotoxic potential has driven cognate inhibitor evolution. PMID:24505135

  2. Biochemical and Domain Analyses of FSUAxe6B, a Modular Acetyl Xylan Esterase, Identify a Unique Carbohydrate Binding Module in Fibrobacter succinogenes S85▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl xylan esterase (EC 3.1.1.72) is a member of a set of enzymes required to depolymerize hemicellulose, especially xylan that is composed of a main chain of β-1,4-linked xylopyranoside residues decorated with acetyl side groups. Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 Axe6B (FSUAxe6B) is an acetyl xylan esterase encoded in the genome of this rumen bacterium. The enzyme is a modular protein comprised of an esterase domain, a carbohydrate-binding module, and a region of unknown function. Sequences that are homologous to the region of unknown function are paralogously distributed, thus far, only in F. succinogenes. Therefore, the sequences were designated Fibrobacter succinogenes-specific paralogous module 1 (FPm-1). The FPm-1s are associated with at least 24 polypeptides in the genome of F. succinogenes S85. A bioinformatics search showed that most of the FPm-1-appended polypeptides are putative carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting a potential role in carbohydrate metabolism. Truncational analysis of FSUAxe6B, together with catalytic and substrate binding studies, has allowed us to delineate the functional modules in the polypeptide. The N-terminal half of FSUAxe6B harbors the activity that cleaves side chain acetyl groups from xylan-like substrates, and the binding of insoluble xylan was determined to originate from FPm-1. Site-directed mutagenesis studies of highly conserved active-site residues in the esterase domain suggested that the esterase activity is derived from a tetrad composed of Ser44, His273, Glu194, and Asp270, with both Glu194 and Asp270 functioning as helper acids, instead of a single carboxylate residue proposed to initiate catalysis. PMID:19897648

  3. Pax6a and Pax6b are required at different points in neuronal progenitor cell proliferation during zebrafish photoreceptor regeneration.

    PubMed

    Thummel, Ryan; Enright, Jennifer M; Kassen, Sean C; Montgomery, Jacob E; Bailey, Travis J; Hyde, David R

    2010-05-01

    The light-damaged zebrafish retina results in the death of photoreceptor cells and the subsequent regeneration of the missing rod and cone cells. Photoreceptor regeneration initiates with asymmetric Müller glial cell division to produce neuronal progenitor cells, which amplify, migrate to the outer nuclear layer (ONL), and differentiate into both classes of photoreceptor cells. In this study, we examined the role of the Pax6 protein in regeneration. In zebrafish, there are two Pax6 proteins, one encoded by the pax6a gene and the other encoded by the pax6b gene. We intravitreally injected and electroporated morpholinos that were complementary to either the pax6a or pax6b mRNA to knockdown the translation of the corresponding protein. Loss of Pax6b expression did not affect Müller glial cell division, but blocked the subsequent first cell division of the neuronal progenitors. In contrast, the paralogous Pax6a protein was required for later neuronal progenitor cell divisions, which maximized the number of neuronal progenitors. Without neuronal progenitor cell amplification, proliferation of resident ONL rod precursor cells, which can only regenerate rods, increased inversely proportional to the number of INL neuronal progenitor cells. This confirmed that Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitor cells are necessary to regenerate cones and that distinct mechanisms selectively regenerate rod and cone photoreceptors. This work also defines distinct roles for Pax6a and Pax6b in regulating neuronal progenitor cell proliferation in the adult zebrafish retina and increases our understanding of the molecular pathways required for photoreceptor cell regeneration. PMID:20152834

  4. Long- and short-range order in the Pd6B monoclinic superstructure and M6X5 and M6X allied superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. I.

    2011-07-01

    Symmetry analysis of the Pd6B monoclinic superstructure (space group C2/ c) formed in the cubic (with the B1 structure) solid solution of boron in palladium (PdB y ) has been carried out. The formation of this superstructure proceeds as a first-order phase transition via the disorder-order channel including nine nonequivalent superstructure vectors of four stars { k 10}, { k 4}, { k 3}, and { k 0}. For the Pd6B monoclinic super-structure (space group C2/ c), the distribution function for boron atoms is calculated and the interval of admissible values of the long-range order parameters is defined. It is shown that the transition channel determined in this way coincides with the channel in which the M6X monoclinic superstructure (space group C2) is formed; therefore, the Pd6B superstructure can also be described in space group C2 to the same degree of accuracy. The higher symmetry of the monoclinic model (space group C2/ c) suggests that it describes the structure of the Pd6B phase (Pd6B□5), as well as of mutually inverse phases M6X□5 and M6X5□, more adequately than the model with space group C2. It is shown that superstructures of the M6X□5 type (space groups C2/ c, C2, C2/ m, and P31) and inverse superstructures of the M6X5□ type with the same space groups have the positions of the nearest surrounding of metal atoms by two types of nonmetallic sublattice sites located in the first and second coordination spheres.

  5. Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

  6. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  7. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon. PMID:628994

  8. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues performances…

  9. THE ATMOSPHERES OF THE HOT-JUPITERS KEPLER-5b AND KEPLER-6b OBSERVED DURING OCCULTATIONS WITH WARM-SPITZER AND KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Latham, David W.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Knutson, Heather A.; Deming, Drake; Borucki, William J.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Seager, Sara

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports the detection and the measurements of occultations of the two transiting hot giant exoplanets Kepler-5b and Kepler-6b by their parent stars. The observations are obtained in the near-infrared with Warm-Spitzer Space Telescope and at optical wavelengths by combining more than a year of Kepler photometry. The investigation consists of constraining the eccentricities of these systems and of obtaining broadband emergent photometric data for individual planets. For both targets, the occultations are detected at the 3{sigma} level at each wavelength with mid-occultation times consistent with circular orbits. The brightness temperatures of these planets are deduced from the infrared observations and reach T{sub Spitzer} = 1930 {+-} 100 K and T{sub Spitzer} = 1660 {+-} 120 K for Kepler-5b and Kepler-6b, respectively. We measure optical geometric albedos A{sub g} in the Kepler bandpass and find A{sub g} = 0.12 {+-} 0.04 for Kepler-5b and A{sub g} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 for Kepler-6b, leading to upper an limit for the Bond albedo of A{sub B} {<=} 0.17 in both cases. The observations for both planets are best described by models for which most of the incident energy is redistributed on the dayside, with only less than 10% of the absorbed stellar flux redistributed to the nightside of these planets.

  10. Hydrothermal syntheses, crystal structures and characterization of new vanadoborates: The novel decorated cage cluster [V6B22O44(OH)10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Zhou, Jian; An, Litao; Chen, Rong; Hu, Feilong; Tang, Qiuling

    2013-05-01

    Three new vanadoborates [H3teta]3[V12B18O54(OH)6(H2O)]·(H3O)·5H2O (1, teta=triethylenetetramine), [H4teta]2[V6B22O44(OH)10] ·4.5H2O (2) and [H4tepa]2[V6B22O44(OH)10] ·4H2O (3, tepa=tetraethylenepentamine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1 contains cage cluster [V12B18O54(OH)6(H2O)]10- based on one puckered B18O36(OH)6 ring sandwiched between two V6O15 clusters. Both 2 and 3 contain new decorated cage cluster [V6B22O44(OH)10]8- built up from a central band of [V6O18] capped top and bottom by two raft-like polyborate [B11O20(OH)4] units. The magnetic susceptibility of 3 demonstrates the presence of antiferromagnetic interaction between VIV cations. The theoretical band structure and spectroscopic properties have been also studied.

  11. Integrins alpha(6A)beta 1 and alpha(6B)beta 1 promote different stages of chondrogenic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Segat, Daniela; Comai, Riccardo; Di Marco, Eddi; Strangio, Antonella; Cancedda, Ranieri; Franzi, Adriano T; Tacchetti, Carlo

    2002-08-30

    The differentiation of chondrocytes and of several other cell types is associated with a switch from the alpha(6B) to the alpha(6A) isoform of the laminin alpha(6)beta(1) integrin receptor. To define whether this event plays a functional role in cell differentiation, we used an in vitro model system that allows chick chondrogenic cells to remain undifferentiated when cultured in monolayer and to differentiate into chondrocytes when grown in suspension culture. We report that: (i) upon over-expression of the human alpha(6B), adherent chondrogenic cells differentiate to stage I chondrocytes (i.e. increased type II collagen, reduced type I collagen, fibronectin, alpha(5)beta(1) and growth rate, loss of fibroblast morphology); (ii) the expression of type II collagen requires the activation of p38 MAP kinase; (iii) the over-expression of alpha(6A) induces an incomplete differentiation to stage I chondrocytes, whereas no differentiation was observed in alpha(5) and mock-transfected control cells; (iv) a prevalence of the alpha(6A) subunit is necessary to stabilize the differentiated phenotype when cells are transferred to suspension culture. Altogether, these results indicate a functional role for the alpha(6B) to alpha(6A) switch in chondrocyte differentiation; the former promotes chondrocyte differentiation, and the latter is necessary in stabilizing the differentiated phenotype. PMID:12077132

  12. WARM SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THREE HOT EXOPLANETS: XO-4b, HAT-P-6b, AND HAT-P-8b

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Sada, Pedro V.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K.

    2012-02-10

    We analyze Warm Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera observations of the secondary eclipses of three planets, XO-4b, HAT-P-6b, and HAT-P-8b. We measure secondary eclipse amplitudes at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m for each target. XO-4b exhibits a stronger eclipse depth at 4.5 {mu}m than at 3.6 {mu}m, which is consistent with the presence of a temperature inversion. HAT-P-8b shows a stronger eclipse amplitude at 3.6 {mu}m and is best described by models without a temperature inversion. The eclipse depths of HAT-P-6b can be fitted with models with a small or no temperature inversion. We consider our results in the context of a postulated relationship between stellar activity and temperature inversion and a relationship between irradiation level and planet dayside temperature, as discussed by Knutson et al. and Cowan and Agol, respectively. Our results are consistent with these hypotheses, but do not significantly strengthen them. To measure accurate secondary eclipse central phases, we require accurate ephemerides. We obtain primary transit observations and supplement them with publicly available observations to update the orbital ephemerides of the three planets. Based on the secondary eclipse timing, we set upper boundaries for ecos ({omega}) for HAT-P-6b, HAT-P-8b, and XO-4b and find that the values are consistent with circular orbits.

  13. Recent materials compatibility studies in refractory metal-alkali metal systems for space power applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, R. W.; Hoffman, E. E.; Davies, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced Rankine and other proposed space power systems utilize refractory metals in contact with both single-phase and two-phase alkali metals at elevated temperatures. A number of recent compatibility experiments are described which emphasize the excellent compatibility of refractory metals with the alkali metals, lithium, sodium, and potassium, under a variety of environmental conditions. The alkali metal compatibilities of tantalum-, columbium-, molybdenum-, and tungsten-base alloys are discussed.

  14. Systematics of Alkali and PB Abundances in Meteoritic and Lunar Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, N. T.

    1996-03-01

    The alkali depletion is not a unique characteristic of the moon, but is common to eucrites, angrites, and the earth. Because the moon and the earth are depleted in more volatile Pb in a similar degree to both chondrites and achondrites, it is hard to assume that alkali depletion was caused by vaporization loss during the giant impact event. Alkali and volatile depletion might have originated from their source material which accreted to the planets.

  15. Identifying alkali metal inhibitors of crystal growth: a selection criterion based on ion pair hydration energy.

    PubMed

    Farmanesh, Sahar; Alamani, Bryan G; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2015-09-21

    We show that alkali metals function as effective modifiers of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallization wherein alkali-oxalate ion parings reduce the rate of crystal growth by as much as 60%. Our findings reveal a distinct trend in alkali metal efficacy that cannot be explained by colloidal theories or simple descriptors, such as ion size, but is consistent with a theoretical model that accounts for the ion pair's affinity for water. PMID:26242310

  16. Calculation of Radiative Corrections to E1 matrix elements in the Neutral Alkalis

    SciTech Connect

    Sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T

    2004-09-28

    Radiative corrections to E1 matrix elements for ns-np transitions in the alkali metal atoms lithium through francium are evaluated. They are found to be small for the lighter alkalis but significantly larger for the heavier alkalis, and in the case of cesium much larger than the experimental accuracy. The relation of the matrix element calculation to a recent decay rate calculation for hydrogenic ions is discussed, and application of the method to parity nonconservation in cesium is described.

  17. Methylene blue photosensitised strand cleavage of DNA: effects of dye binding and oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    OhUigin, C; McConnell, D J; Kelly, J M; van der Putten, W J

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that methylene blue (MB+) photosensitises DNA in either aerated or deaerated solutions, causing direct cleavage of phosphodiester bonds and rendering additional bonds labile to alkali. Evidence from unwinding and fluorimetric studies indicates that MB+ binds to DNA in at least 2 ways. Intercalation, which optimally induces helical unwinding of 24 degrees +/- 2 degrees per MB+, is markedly reduced upon neutralisation by Mg2+ of the DNA phosphates, while significant non-intercalative binding persists as shown by substantial fluorescence quenching at Mg2+ concentrations where there is little unwinding. MB+ induces photolysis at both low and high Mg2+ concentration - intercalation is apparently not required for photolysis. The quantum yield for strand breakage varies from 1-3 X 10(-7) under different conditions and is oxygen enhanced. The DNA cleavage is guanine specific. The 3' termini of the primary MB+-induced DNA photoproducts, unlike those generated by chemical sequencing retain an alkali labile adduct on the terminal phosphate. Images PMID:2821508

  18. Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-05-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  19. Elementary theorems regarding blue isocurvature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-04-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of Kasuya and Kawasaki [Axion Isocurvature Fluctuations with Extremely Blue Spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 80, 023516 (2009).], which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O (10 ) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  20. Crystallized alkali-silica gel in concrete from the late 1890s

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Karl . E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Gress, David . E-mail: dlgress@unh.edu; Van Dam, Tom . E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Sutter, Lawrence . E-mail: cee@mtu.edu

    2006-08-15

    The Elon Farnsworth Battery, a concrete structure completed in 1898, is in an advanced state of disrepair. To investigate the potential for rehabilitation, cores were extracted from the battery. Petrographic examination revealed abundant deposits of alkali silica reaction products in cracks associated with the quartz rich metasedimentary coarse aggregate. The products of the alkali silica reaction are variable in composition and morphology, including both amorphous and crystalline phases. The crystalline alkali silica reaction products are characterized by quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The broad extent of the reactivity is likely due to elevated alkali levels in the cements used.

  1. [Using a modified remote sensing imagery for interpreting changes in cultivated saline-alkali land].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Liu, Hui-tao; Liu, Hong-juan; Liu, Jin-tong

    2015-04-01

    This paper developed a new interpretation symbol system for grading and classifying saline-alkali land, using Huanghua, a cosatal city in Hebei Province as a case. The system was developed by inverting remote sensing images from 1992 to 2011 based on site investigation, plant cover characteristics and features of remote sensing images. Combining this interpretation symbol system with supervising classification method, the information on arable land was obtained for the coastal saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City, and the saline-alkali land area, changes in intensity of salinity-alkalinity and spatial distribution from 1992 to 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that salinization of arable land in Huanghua City alleviated from 1992 to 2011. The severely and moderately saline-alkali land area decreased in 2011 compared with 1992, while the non/slightly saline land area increased. The moderately saline-alkali land in southeast transformed to non/slightly saline-alkaline, while the severely saline-alkali land in west of the city far from the coastal zone became moderately saline-alkaline. The center of gravity (CG) of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in arable land within the saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City were climate, hydrology and human activities. PMID:26259441

  2. High-temperature interactions of alkali vapors with solids during coal combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Punjak, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    A temperature and concentration programmed reaction method is used to investigate the mechanism by which organically bound alkali is released from carbonaceous substrates. Vaporization of the alkali is preceded by reduction of oxygen-bearing groups during which CO is generated. A residual amount of alkali remains after complete reduction. This residual level is greater for potassium, indicating that potassium has stronger interactions with graphitic substrates that sodium. Other mineral substrates were exposed to high temperature alkali chloride vapors under both nitrogen and simulated flue gas atmospheres to investigate their potential application as sorbents for the removal of alkali from coal conversion flue gases. The compounds containing alumina and silica are found to readily adsorb alkali vapors and the minerals kaolinite, bauxite and emathlite are identified as promising alkali sorbents. The fundamentals of alkali adsorption on kaolinite, bauxite and emathlite are compared and analyzed both experimentally and through theoretical modeling. The experiments were performed in a microgravimetric reactor system; the sorbents were characterized before and after alkali adsorption using scanning Auger microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, mercury porosimetry and atomic emission spectrophotometry. The results show that the process is not a simple physical condensation, but a complex combination of several diffusion steps and reactions.

  3. A patient showing features of both SBBYSS and GPS supports the concept of a KAT6B-related disease spectrum, with mutations in mid-exon 18 possibly leading to combined phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Vlckova, Marketa; Simandlova, Martina; Zimmermann, Pavel; Stranecky, Viktor; Hartmannova, Hana; Hodanova, Katerina; Havlovicova, Marketa; Hancarova, Miroslava; Kmoch, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Zdenek

    2015-10-01

    Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS) are two distinct clinically overlapping syndromes caused by de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in the KAT6B gene encoding lysine acetyltransferase 6B, a part of the histone H3 acetyltransferase complex. We describe an 8-year-old girl with a KAT6B mutation and a combined GPS/SBBYSS phenotype. The comparison of this patient with 61 previously published cases with KAT6B mutations and GPS, SBBYSS or combined GPS/SBBYSS phenotypes allowed us to separate the KAT6B mutations into four groups according to their position in the gene (reflecting nonsense mediated RNA decay and protein domains) and their clinical outcome. We suggest that mutations in mid-exon 18 corresponding to the C-terminal end of the acidic (Asp/Glu-rich) domain of KAT6B may have more variable expressivity leading to GPS, SBBYSS or combined phenotypes, in contrast to defects in other regions of the gene which contribute more specifically to either GPS or SBBYSS. Notwithstanding the clinical overlap, our cluster analysis of phenotypes of all known patients with KAT6B mutations supports the existence of two clinical entities, GPS and SBBYSS, as poles within the KAT6B-related disease spectrum. The awareness of these phenomena is important for qualified genetic counselling of patients with KAT6B mutations. PMID:26370006

  4. Symplectites in garnet megacrysts captured by alkali mafic magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseeva, Anna; Vysotskiy, Sergey; Karabtsov, Alexander; Alexandrov, Igor; Chashchin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Megacrysts are widespread in Cenozoic alkali-basalts of many volcanic provinces of the world. Garnet megacrysts containing symplectites are the most interesting, as can be used for reconstruction of physical and chemical conditions in liquid basalt at the moment of garnet crystal capture. The collection of garnet megacrysts and garnet-pyroxene aggregates from Shavaryn-Tsaram (Hangaj plateau, Mongolia) and Bartoj (Dzhida basaltic field, Russia) paleovolcanoes has studied. Cenozoic alkali basaltic volcanism of these two spatially separated areas is considered to be related to a uniform process of lithosphere spreading in Baikal and related Central Asian rift systems. The studying of garnet-pyroxene aggregate and fragments of garnet megacrysts from these two paleovolcanoes revealed two mineral associations: primary and secondary. The former includes garnet and clinopyroxene, the letter (symplectite) is presented by products of garnet disintegration (clinopyroxene remain unaltered). At least two paragenesis can be allocated: 1) shpinel - plagioclase-olivine sometimes with gedrite and orthopyroxene; 2) olivine (with glass). Experimental modeling of decomposition process in garnet megacryst has been carried out with the help of 'Selector' softwear at various P-T parameters. Physical and chemical conditions of this paragenesis occurrence have also been estimated by up-to-date geothermometers and geobarometers (T 950-1000 C, P 4-4.5 kbar. Conclusions: 1. Garnet megacrysts are apparently in non-equilibrium with alkali-basalts. They were formed in conditions corresponding to zones of mantle plums at the bottom of crust, in magmatic chambers at constant infiltration of fluid. Subsequently megacrysts were captured by alkali-basalt magma and taken out to the surface. 2. Kelyphitic rims on garnet megacrysts is a result of partial melting of megacrysts on interaction with the hosting alkali basaltic rock. During melting garnet transforms with the formation of Na-K glass and Mg

  5. Exotic s-wave superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Capone, Massimo; Arita, Ryotaro

    2016-04-01

    Alkali-doped fullerides ({{A}3}{{\\text{C}}60} with A  =  K, Rb, Cs) show a surprising phase diagram, in which a high transition-temperature ({{T}\\text{c}} ) s-wave superconducting state emerges next to a Mott insulating phase as a function of the lattice spacing. This is in contrast with the common belief that Mott physics and phonon-driven s-wave superconductivity are incompatible, raising a fundamental question on the mechanism of the high-{{T}\\text{c}} superconductivity. This article reviews recent ab initio calculations, which have succeeded in reproducing comprehensively the experimental phase diagram with high accuracy and elucidated an unusual cooperation between the electron-phonon coupling and the electron-electron interactions leading to Mott localization to realize an unconventional s-wave superconductivity in the alkali-doped fullerides. A driving force behind the exotic physics is unusual intramolecular interactions, characterized by the coexistence of a strongly repulsive Coulomb interaction and a small effectively negative exchange interaction. This is realized by a subtle energy balance between the coupling with the Jahn-Teller phonons and Hund’s coupling within the {{\\text{C}}60} molecule. The unusual form of the interaction leads to a formation of pairs of up- and down-spin electrons on the molecules, which enables the s-wave pairing. The emergent superconductivity crucially relies on the presence of the Jahn-Teller phonons, but surprisingly benefits from the strong correlations because the correlations suppress the kinetic energy of the electrons and help the formation of the electron pairs, in agreement with previous model calculations. This confirms that the alkali-doped fullerides are a new type of unconventional superconductors, where the unusual synergy between the phonons and Coulomb interactions drives the high-{{T}\\text{c}} superconductivity.

  6. Research on mouse model of grade II corneal alkali burn

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jun-Qiang; Qin, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Shi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    AIM To choose appropriate concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution to establish a stable and consistent corneal alkali burn mouse model in grade II. METHODS The mice (n=60) were randomly divided into four groups and 15 mice each group. Corneal alkali burns were induced by placing circle filter paper soaked with NaOH solutions on the right central cornea for 30s. The concentrations of NaOH solutions of groups A, B, C, and D were 0.1 mol/L, 0.15 mol/L, 0.2 mol/L, and 1.0 mol/L respectively. Then these corneas were irrigated with 20 mL physiological saline (0.9% NaCl). On day 7 postburn, slit lamp microscope was used to observe corneal opacity, corneal epithelial sodium fluorescein staining positive rate, incidence of corneal ulcer and corneal neovascularization, meanwhile pictures of the anterior eyes were taken. Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography was used to scan cornea to observe corneal epithelial defect and corneal ulcer. RESULTS Corneal opacity scores (x±s) were not significantly different between the group A and group B (P=0.097). Incidence of corneal ulcer in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P=0.035). Incidence of corneal ulcer and perforation rate in group B was lower than that in group C. Group C and D had corneal neovascularization, and incidence of corneal neovascularization in group D was significantly higher than that in group C (P=0.000). CONCLUSION Using 0.15 mol/L NaOH can establish grade II mouse model of corneal alkali burns. PMID:27162717

  7. Exotic s-wave superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerides.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Capone, Massimo; Arita, Ryotaro

    2016-04-20

    Alkali-doped fullerides (A3C60 with A = K, Rb, Cs) show a surprising phase diagram, in which a high transition-temperature (Tc) s-wave superconducting state emerges next to a Mott insulating phase as a function of the lattice spacing. This is in contrast with the common belief that Mott physics and phonon-driven s-wave superconductivity are incompatible, raising a fundamental question on the mechanism of the high-Tc superconductivity. This article reviews recent ab initio calculations, which have succeeded in reproducing comprehensively the experimental phase diagram with high accuracy and elucidated an unusual cooperation between the electron-phonon coupling and the electron-electron interactions leading to Mott localization to realize an unconventional s-wave superconductivity in the alkali-doped fullerides. A driving force behind the exotic physics is unusual intramolecular interactions, characterized by the coexistence of a strongly repulsive Coulomb interaction and a small effectively negative exchange interaction. This is realized by a subtle energy balance between the coupling with the Jahn-Teller phonons and Hund's coupling within the C60 molecule. The unusual form of the interaction leads to a formation of pairs of up- and down-spin electrons on the molecules, which enables the s-wave pairing. The emergent superconductivity crucially relies on the presence of the Jahn-Teller phonons, but surprisingly benefits from the strong correlations because the correlations suppress the kinetic energy of the electrons and help the formation of the electron pairs, in agreement with previous model calculations. This confirms that the alkali-doped fullerides are a new type of unconventional superconductors, where the unusual synergy between the phonons and Coulomb interactions drives the high-Tc superconductivity. PMID:26974650

  8. Magnetic Resonance Reversals in Optically Pumped Alkali-Metal Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fei; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2007-06-01

    We report an unusual new phenomenon, peculiar sign reversals of the ground-state magnetic resonances and of the ``zero-dip" resonance (Zeeman resonance at zero field) of optically-pumped, alkali-metal vapors. These anomalies occur when a ``weak" circular polarized D1 laser light is tuned to pump atoms predominantly from the lower ground-state hyperfine multiplet. One can understand the signal reversals in simple, semi-quantitative way with reference to this distribution. uantitative computer simulations are in excellent greement with observations.

  9. Intrinsic Impurities in Glass Alkali-Vapor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, B.; Ishikawa, K.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2007-07-01

    We report NMR measurements of metallic Cs133 in glass cells. The solid-liquid phase transition was studied by observing the NMR peaks arising from these two phases; surprisingly, many cells yielded two additional NMR peaks below the melting point. We attribute these signals to two distinct impurities which can dissolve in the liquid alkali metal and affect its chemical shift. Intentional contamination of cesium cells with O2 confirms this hypothesis for one peak. The other contaminant remains unknown but can appear in evacuated cells. Similar effects have been seen in Rb87 cells.

  10. Magnetic resonance reversals in optically pumped alkali-metal vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, F.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2007-05-01

    We report an unusual phenomenon, peculiar sign reversals of the ground-state magnetic resonances and of the zero-dip resonance (Zeeman resonance at zero field) of optically pumped, alkali-metal vapors. These anomalies occur when a weak circularly polarized D1 laser light is tuned to pump atoms predominantly from the lower ground-state hyperfine multiplet. One can understand the signal reversals in a simple, semiquantitative way with reference to the spin-temperature distribution. Quantitative computer simulations are in excellent agreement with observations.

  11. Determination of Alkali Ions in Biological and Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the common methods for the determination of the alkali metals is given. These are drawn from all of the three principle branches of quantitative analysis and consist mainly of optical atomic spectrometric methods, ion-selective electrodes, and the separation methods of ion-chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Their main characteristics and performance parameters are discussed. Important specific applications are also examined, namely clinical analysis, single cell analysis, the analysis of soil samples and hydroponic nutrient solutions, as well as the detection of the radioactive (137)Cs isotope. PMID:26860298

  12. Wave optics simulation of diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Nagaoka, Ryuji; Nagaoka, Hiroki; Nagai, Toru; Wani, Fumio

    2016-03-01

    A numerical simulation code for a diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) was developed. The code employs the Fresnel- Kirchhoff diffraction integral for both laser mode and pump light propagations. A three-dimensional rate equation set was developed to determine the local gain. The spectral divergence of the pump beam was represented by a series of monochromatic beams with different wavelengths. The calculated results showed an excellent agreements with relevant experimental results. It was found that the main channel of the pump power drain is the spontaneous emission from the upper level of the lasing transition.

  13. Alkali metal/halide thermal energy storage systems performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.; Stearns, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A pseudoheat-pipe heat transfer mechanism has been demonstrated effective in terms of both total heat removal efficiency and rate, on the one hand, and system isothermal characteristics, on the other, for solar thermal energy storage systems of the kind being contemplated for spacecraft. The selection of appropriate salt and alkali metal substances for the system renders it applicable to a wide temperature range. The rapid heat transfer rate obtainable makes possible the placing of the thermal energy storage system around the solar receiver canister, and the immersing of heat transfer fluid tubes in the phase change salt to obtain an isothermal heat source.

  14. Alkali-silica reaction resistant concrete using pumice blended cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Uma

    Durability of structures is a major challenge for the building industry. One of the many types of concrete deterioration that can affect durability is alkali-silica reaction (ASR). ASR has been found in most types of concrete structures, including dams, bridges, pavements, and other structures that are 20 to 50 years old. The degradation mechanism of ASR produces a gel that significantly expands in the presence of water as supplied from the surrounding environment. This expansion gel product can create high stresses and cracking of the concrete, which can lead to other forms of degradation and expensive structural replacement costs. The four essential factors that produce an expansive ASR gel in concrete are the presence of alkalis, siliceous aggregate, moisture, and free calcium hydroxide (CH). If concrete is starved of any one of these essential components, the expansion can be prevented. Reducing CH through the use of a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) such as natural pozzolan pumice is the focus of this research. By using a pozzolan, the amount of CH is reduced with time based on the effectiveness of the pozzolan. Many pozzolans exist, but one such naturally occurring pozzolanic material is pumice. This research focuses on determining the effect of a finely ground pumice as a SCM in terms of its resistance to ASR expansion, as well as improving resistance to other potential concrete durability mechanisms. In spite of having high alkali contents in the pumice, mixtures containing the SCM pumice more effectively mitigated the ASR expansion reaction than other degradation mechanisms. Depending on the reactivity of the aggregates and fineness of the pumice, 10-15% replacement of cement with the pumice was found to reduce the ASR expansion to the acceptable limits. The amount of CH remaining in the concrete was compared to the ASR expansion in order to improve understanding of the role of CH in the ASR reaction. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X

  15. Hypercalcemic encephalopathy due to milk alkali syndrome and injection teriparatide.

    PubMed

    Kharb, Sandeep; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Pandit, Aditi; Brar, Karninder S; Garg, M K

    2012-11-01

    An 82-year-old male, a known case of severe osteoporosis with vertebral fracture and prostatic carcinoma, was treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue, calcium carbonate, cholecalciferol sachet and injection teriparatide. His diet consisted of milk and curd. He developed altered behavior and generalized weakness, and on investigation, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis with low parathyroid hormone levels were detected. Injection teriparatide was stopped and he was managed with forced saline diuresis and injection zoledronic acid. He was diagnosed as a case of milk alkali syndrome in whom teriparatide and prolonged immobilization played a permissive role in the development of hypercalcemic encephalopathy. PMID:23226658

  16. Optical response of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass

    SciTech Connect

    Burchianti, A; Marinelli, C; Mariotti, E; Bogi, A; Marmugi, L; Giomi, S; Maccari, M; Veronesi, S; Moi, L

    2014-03-28

    We study the influence of optical radiation on adsorption and desorption processes of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass matrices. Exposure of the sample to near-IR or visible light changes the atomic distribution inside the glass nanopores, forcing the entire system to evolve towards a different state. This effect, due to both atomic photodesorption and confinement, causes the growth and evaporation of metastable nanoparticles. It is shown that, by a proper choice of light characteristics and pore size, these processes can be controlled and tailored, thus opening new perspectives for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces. (nanoobjects)

  17. A new mechanism for radiation damage processes in alkali halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinko, V. I.; Turkin, A. A.; Vainshtein, D. I.; den Hartog, H. W.

    1999-12-01

    We present a theory of radiation damage formation in alkali halides based on a new mechanism of dislocation climb, which involves the production of VF centers (self-trapped hole neighboring a cation vacancy) as a result of the absorption of H centers of dislocation lines. We consider the evolution of all experimentally observed extended defects: metal colloids, gas bubbles, and vacancy voids. Voids are shown to arise and grow large due to the reaction between F and VF centers at the surface of halogen bubbles. Voids can ignite a back reaction between the radiolytic products resulting in decomposition of the irradiated material.

  18. Chemical compatibility of structural materials in alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this task are to (a) evaluate the chemical compatibility of structural alloys such as V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloy and Type 316 stainless steel for application in liquid alkali metals such as lithium and sodium-78 wt.% potassium (NaK) at temperatures in the range that are of interest for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER); (b) evaluate the transfer of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen between structural materials and liquid metals; and (c) evaluate the effects of such transfers on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the materials for long-term service in liquid-metal-environments.

  19. Ground state properties of alkali and alkaline-earth hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentealba, P.; Reyes, O.; Stoll, H.; Preuss, H.

    1987-11-01

    The ground state potential energy curves of alkali (LiH to CsH) and alkaline-earth monohydrides (BeH to BaH) have been calculated. A pseudopotential formalism including a core-polarization potential has been used. For the valence correlation energy, two different methods, the local spin-density functional and the configuration interaction with single and double excitations, have been employed. Dissociation energies, bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, anharmonicity constants, and dipole moments are reported. The agreement with experimental values, where available, is very good. A discussion and a comparison with other theoretical values, at different levels of approximation, are also included.

  20. Polarizability measurements of the alkalis using an atom interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromada, Ivan; Holmgren, William; Trubko, Raisa; Ronan, Joseph; Cronin, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    We discuss our latest static DC polarizability measurements of the alkalis: Li through Cs. Our Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer uses nanogratings to diffract and recombine any atom or molecular beam. Because we use the same machine to measure polarizability of different atoms, we are able to report polarizability ratios (e.g., αNa/αLi) with 0.1% precision. To achieve this precision, we also describe a novel technique called phase chopping to measure the atom beam velocity with 0.05% precision.

  1. Nuclear alkali metal Rankine power systems for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, J.C.; Holcomb, R.S.

    1986-08-01

    Nucler power systems utilizing alkali metal Rankine power conversion cycles offer the potential for high efficiency, lightweight space power plants. Conceptual design studies are being carried out for both direct and indirect cycle systems for steady state space power applications. A computational model has been developed for calculating the performance, size, and weight of these systems over a wide range of design parameters. The model is described briefly and results from parametric design studies, with descriptions of typical point designs, are presented in this paper.

  2. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.; Franco, S.C.S.

    1994-03-29

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications. 6 figures.

  3. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.; Franco, Sofia C. S.

    1994-01-01

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications.

  4. Workability and mechanical properties of alkali activated slag concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, F.G.; Sanjayan, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation on concrete containing alkali activated slag (AAS) as the binder, with emphasis on achievement of reasonable workability and equivalent one-day strength to portland cement concrete at normal curing temperatures. Two types of activators were used: sodium hydroxide in combination with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate in combination with hydrated lime. The fresh concrete properties reported include slump and slump loss, air content, and bleed. Mechanical properties of AAS concrete, including compressive strength, elastic modulus, flexural strength, drying shrinkage, and creep are contrasted with those of portland cement concrete.

  5. Theoretical determination of the alkali-metal superoxide bond energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sodupe, Mariona; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The bond dissociation energies for the alkali-metal superoxides have been computed using extensive Gaussian basis sets and treating electron correlation at the modified coupled-pair functional level. Our computed D0 values are 61.4, 37.2, 40.6, and 38.4 kcal/mol for LiO2, NaO2, KO2, and RbO2, respectively. These values, which are expected to be lower bounds and accurate to 2 kcal/mol, agree well with some of the older flame data, but rule out several recent experimental measurements.

  6. Laser synthesis of ultracold alkali metal dimers: optimization and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazyuk, E. A.; Zaitsevskii, A. V.; Stolyarov, A. V.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.

    2015-10-01

    The review concerns the potential of modern high-resolution laser spectroscopy and state-of-the-art ab initio electronic structure calculations used to obtain comprehensive information on the energy and radiative properties of strongly coupled rovibronic diatomic states. The possibility of deperturbation treatment of the intermediate electronically excited states at the experimental (spectroscopic) level of accuracy is demonstrated taking alkali metal dimers as examples. The deperturbation analysis is of crucial importance to optimize multistep laser synthesis and stabilization of ultracold molecular ensembles in their absolute ground level. The bibliography includes 227 references.

  7. Alkali-metal silicate binders and methods of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A paint binder is described which uses a potassium or sodium silicate dispersion having a silicon dioxide to alkali-metal oxide mol ratio of from 4.8:1 to 6.0:1. The binder exhibits stability during both manufacture and storage. The process of making the binder is predictable and repeatable and the binder may be made with inexpensive components. The high mol ratio is achieved with the inclusion of a silicon dioxide hydrogel. The binder, which also employs a silicone, is in the final form of a hydrogel sol.

  8. An electron diffraction study of alkali chloride vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mawhorter, R. J.; Fink, M.; Hartley, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    A study of monomers and dimers of the four alkali chlorides NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl in the vapor phase using the counting method of high energy electron diffraction is reported. Nozzle temperatures from 850-960 K were required to achieve the necessary vapor pressures of approximately 0.01 torr. Using harmonic calculations for the monomer and dimer 1 values, a consistent set of structures for all four molecules was obained. The corrected monomer distances reproduce the microwave values very well. The experiment yields information on the amount of dimer present in the vapor, and these results are compared with thermodynamic values.

  9. Crystal growth of sulfide materials from alkali polysulfide liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The fluids experiment system was designed for low temperature solution growth, nominally aqueous solution growth. The alkali polysulfides, compositions in the systems Na2S-S and K2S-S form liquids in the temperature range of 190 C to 400 C. These can be used as solvents for other important classes of materials such as transition metal and other sulfides which are not soluble in aqueous media. Among these materials are luminescent and electroluminescent crystals whose physical properties are sensitive functions of crystal perfection and which could, therefore, serve as test materials for perfection improvement under microgravity conditions.

  10. Physiological Evaluation of Alkali-Salt Tolerance of Thirty Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Lines.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guofu; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Xunzhong; Yao, Fengjiao; Huang, Yan; Ervin, Erik H; Zhao, Bingyu

    2015-01-01

    Soil salt-alkalization is a major limiting factor for crop production in many regions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season C4 perennial rhizomatous bunchgrass and a target lignocellulosic biofuel species. The objective of this study was to evaluate relative alkali-salt tolerance among 30 switchgrass lines. Tillers of each switchgrass line were transplanted into pots filled with fine sand. Two months after transplanting, plants at E5 developmental stage were grown in either half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 0 mM Na+ (control) or half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 150 mM Na+ and pH of 9.5 (alkali-salt stress treatment) for 20 d. Alkali-salt stress damaged cell membranes [higher electrolyte leakage (EL)], reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr). An alkali-salt stress tolerance trait index (ASTTI) for each parameter was calculated based on the ratio of the value under alkali-salt stress and the value under non-stress conditions for each parameter of each line. Relative alkali-salt tolerance was determined based on principal components analysis and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and their ASTTI values. Significant differences in alkali-salt stress tolerance were found among the 30 lines. Lowland lines TEM-SEC, Alamo, TEM-SLC and Kanlow were classified as alkali-salt tolerant. In contrast, three lowland lines (AM-314/MS-155, BN-13645-64) and two upland lines (Caddo and Blackwell-1) were classified as alkali-salt sensitive. The results suggest wide variations exist in alkali-salt stress tolerance among the 30 switchgrass lines. The approach of using a combination of principal components and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and related ASTTI is feasible for evaluating alkali-salt tolerance in switchgrass. PMID:26146987

  11. Cool Stars Sing the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttermoser, D. G.

    2005-12-01

    A high-dispersion spectral atlas of cool red giant stars in the blue and violet is presented. The spectra were obtained over a six-year time period with the stellar spectrograph of the McMath-Pierce Telescope on Kitt Peak. Both N-type carbon stars and M-type oxygen-rich stars are presented from 3900 to 4600 Å, with the M-type stars containing both semiregular and Mira-type variables. The dominant absorption features in these stars at these wavelength result primarily from neutral metals, especially iron, and the CH and CN diatomic molecules. The Miras also show strong emission lines during some of their pulsation cycle. Many of these emission lines result from fluorescence from the Mg II h & k lines in the UV. For these fluoresced features, comparisons are made between the Miras and the semiregular carbon-rich and oxygen-rich variables. Where the oxygen-rich semiregulars show no hint of fluorescence in these features, the carbon stars show a definite ``filling-in'' of the absorption lines.

  12. Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2014-05-01

    We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure. PMID:24836265

  13. Retinal Effects Of Blue Light Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, William T.; Mueller, Harold A.; Ruffolo, J. J.

    1980-10-01

    Recent research has shown that blue light exposure is an important factor in certain types of retinal injury. The mammalian ocular media transmits the spectral band 400-1400 nm to the retina. The short wavelengths (400-550 nm) produce a photochemical or actinic type of damage, while the longer wavelengths (550-1400 nm) produce thermal damage. Distinction between the two types of retinal damage are discussed briefly and the importance of the blue light effect for solar retinitis and eclipse blindness is emphasized. The significance of blue light retinal injury is summarized for various environmental and occupational exposures.

  14. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  15. Blue outliers among intermediate redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, P.; Sulentic, J. W.; Stirpe, G. M.; Dultzin, D.; Del Olmo, A.; Martínez-Carballo, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    [OIII]λ 5007 "blue outliers"—that are suggestive of outflows in the narrow line region of quasars—appear to be much more common at intermediate z (high luminosity) than at low z. About 40~% of quasars in a Hamburg ESO intermediate z sample of 52 sources qualify as "blue outliers" (i.e., quasars with [OIII]λλ 4959,5007 lines showing large systematic blueshifts with respect to rest frame). We discuss major findings on what has become an intriguing field in active galactic nuclei research and stress the relevance of "blue outliers" to feedback and host galaxy evolution.

  16. Nonlinear pressure shifts of alkali-metal atoms in xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuyer, Bart; Xia, Tian; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2011-05-01

    Compact, portable atomic frequency standards are based on the microwave resonance frequencies of alkali-metal atoms in inert buffer gases. The frequency shift of these resonances due to collisions with the buffer gas is known as the pressure shift. We demonstrate that the microwave resonance frequencies of ground-state 87Rb and 133Cs atoms have a nonlinear dependence on the pressure of the buffer gas Xe. Previous work has demonstrated a nonlinear dependence in Ar and Kr, but not He and N2, which is thought to be due to the loosely-bound van der Waals molecules that are known to form between alkali-metal and buffer-gas atoms in Ar, Kr, and Xe, but not He and N2. Surprisingly, we find that the nonlinearities in Xe are of the opposite sign to those in Ar and Kr, even though the overall shifts for each of these gases are negative. This discrepancy suggests that though the shifts due to the molecules in Ar and Kr are positive, the shifts due to the molecules in Xe are negative. No nonlinearities were observed in the buffer gas Ne to within our experimental accuracy, which suggests that molecules do not form in Ne. Additionally, we present improved measurements of the shifts of Rb and Cs in He and N2 and of Rb in Ar and Kr. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Department of Defense through the NDSEG program.

  17. Synthesis and studies on microhardness of alkali zinc borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Subhashini, Bhattacharya, Soumalya Shashikala, H. D. Udayashankar, N. K.

    2014-04-24

    The mixed alkali effect on zinc borate glasses have been reported. The glass systems of nominal composition 10Zn+xLi{sub 2}O+yNa{sub 2}O+80B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = y = 0, 5, 10, 15 mol%) were prepared using standard melt quenching method. The structural, physical and mechanical properties of the samples have been studied using X-ray diffraction(XRD), density measurement and Vickers hardness measurement, respectively. A consistent increase in the density was observed, which explains the role of the modifiers (Li{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O) in the network modification of borate structure. The molar volume is decreasing linearly with the alkali concentration, which is attributed to the conversion of tetrahedral boron (BO{sub 4/2}){sup −} into (BO{sub 3/2}){sup −}. The microhardness studies reveals the anisotropy nature of the material. It further confirms that the samples belong to hard glass category.

  18. Laser cooling of nuclear spin 0 alkali 78Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, J. A.; Gorelov, A.; Anholm, M.

    2015-05-01

    The textbook example for sub-Doppler cooling is a J = 1/2 I = 0 alkali atom in lin ⊥ lin molasses. In the σ+ σ- configuration of a standard MOT, the main sub-Doppler cooling mechanism relies on changing alignment (MF2 population) with the summed linear polarization orientation, but there is no such variation in AC Stark shift for F = 1/2. We have nevertheless looked for signs of sub-Doppler cooling by trapping I = 0 78Rb in a standard MOT and measuring the cloud size as a function of laser detuning and intensity. The 78Rb cloud size does not change significantly with lowered intensity, and expands slightly with detuning, consistent with minimal to no sub-Doppler cooling. Our geometry does show the well-known substantially smaller cloud size with detuning and intensity for I = 3/2 87Rb. Maintaining an I = 0 alkali cloud size with lowered intensity will help our planned β- ν correlation experiments in 38mK decay by suppressing possible production of photoassisted dimers. Supported by NSERC and NRC Canada through TRIUMF.

  19. Alkali oxide-tantalum, niobium and antimony oxide ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. S.; Brower, W. S.; Parker, H. S.; Minor, D. B.; Waring, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The phase equilibrium relations of four systems were investigated in detail. These consisted of sodium and potassium antimonates with antimony oxide and tantalum and niobium oxide with rubidium oxide as far as the ratio 4Rb2O:llB2O5 (B=Nb, Ta). The ternary system NaSbO3-Sb2O4-NaF was investigated extensively to determine the actual composition of the body centered cubic sodium antimonate. Various other binary and ternary oxide systems involving alkali oxides were examined in lesser detail. The phases synthesized were screened by ion exchange methods to determine mobility of the mobility of the alkali ion within the niobium, tantalum or antimony oxide (fluoride) structural framework. Five structure types warranted further investigation; these structure types are (1) hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB), (2) pyrochlore, (3) the hybrid HTB-pyrochlore hexagonal ordered phases, (4) body centered cubic antimonates and (5) 2K2O:3Nb2O5. Although all of these phases exhibit good ion exchange properties only the pyrochlore was prepared with Na(+) ions as an equilibrium phase and as a low porosity ceramic. Sb(+3) in the channel interferes with ionic conductivity in this case, although relatively good ionic conductivity was found for the metastable Na(+) ion exchanged analogs of RbTa2O5F and KTaWO6 pyrochlore phases.

  20. Crystal chemistry of hydrothermally grown ternary alkali rare earth fluorides.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Colin D; Comer, Sara; Fulle, Kyle; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; Kolis, Joseph W

    2015-12-01

    The structural variations of several alkali metal rare earth fluoride single crystals are summarized. Two different stoichiometric formulations are considered, namely those of ARE2F7 and ARE3F10 (A = K, Rb, Cs; RE = Y, La-Lu), over a wide range of ionic radii of both the alkali and rare earth (RE) ions. Previously reported and several new single-crystal structures are considered. The new single crystals are grown using hydrothermal methods and the structures are compared with literature reports of structures grown from both melts and hydrothermal fluids. The data reported here are combined with the literature data to gain a greater understanding of structural subtleties surrounding these systems. The work underscores the importance of the size of the cations to the observed structure type and also introduces synthetic technique as a contributor to the same. New insights based on single-crystal structure analysis in the work introduce a new disordered structure type in the case of ARE2F7, and examine the trends and boundaries of the ARE3F10 stoichiometry. Such fundamental structural information is useful in understanding the potential applications of these compounds as optical materials. PMID:26634734