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Sample records for alkali reaction products

  1. Microscopic analysis of alkali-aggregate reaction products in a 50-year-old concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Isabel . E-mail: ifernand@fc.up.pt; Noronha, Fernando . E-mail: fmnoronh@fc.up.pt; Teles, Madalena . E-mail: mteles@fe.up.pt

    2004-11-15

    Fifty-year-old concrete from a large dam was examined in the scope of an investigation program concerning the properties of granite as aggregate material for concrete. Site inspection, which was developed in order to detect possible signs of deterioration of the concrete, revealed the existence of efflorescence and exudations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analyses were attempted to identify the composition of these materials and their morphology. From the analyses, it was concluded that some of the exudations were composed by alkali-silica gel. In these samples, an interesting behavior was observed in different moments after a 3-month interval. It was noticed that the initially noncrystalline alkali-silica gel transformed into sodium-rich needles and tablets after a few months kept in a desiccator in the laboratory. Therefore, it was concluded that the materials identified corresponded to different stages of evolution of an alkali-aggregate reaction product.

  2. Alkali-silica reaction products: Comparison between samples from concrete structures and laboratory test specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Sachlova, Sarka Prikryl, Richard; Pertold, Zdenek

    2010-12-15

    Alkali-silica gels (ASG) were investigated in concrete from bridge structures (constructed from the 1920s to 2000), as well as in experimental specimens; employing optical microscopy, petrographic image analysis, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The main differences were found in the chemical composition and morphology of the ASGs. ASGs which had formed in older concrete samples (50-80 years old) show a partly crystalline structure and higher Ca{sup 2+} content, indicating their aging and maturation. Younger concrete samples and experimental test specimens exhibit the presence of amorphous ASG. The chemistry of ASG from experimental specimens reflects the chemical composition of accelerating solutions. - Research Highlights: {yields} Quantitative analysis of alkali-silica gels {yields} Comparison of ASR in experimental conditions with ASR in bridge structures {yields} Investigation of factors affecting alkali-silica reaction {yields} Investigation of ASR of different types of aggregates.

  3. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Duyou; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-06-15

    Surface alteration of typical aggregates with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity, i.e. Spratt limestone (SL) and Pittsburg dolomitic limestone (PL), were studied by XRD and SEM/EDS after autoclaving in KOH, NaOH and LiOH solutions at 150 deg. C for 150 h. The results indicate that: (1) NaOH shows the strongest attack on both ASR and ACR aggregates, the weakest attack is with LiOH. For both aggregates autoclaved in different alkali media, the crystalline degree, morphology and distribution of products are quite different. More crystalline products are formed on rock surfaces in KOH than that in NaOH solution, while almost no amorphous product is formed in LiOH solution; (2) in addition to dedolomitization of PL in KOH, NaOH and LiOH solutions, cryptocrystalline quartz in PL involves in reaction with alkaline solution and forms typical alkali-silica product in NaOH and KOH solutions, but forms lithium silicate (Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) in LiOH solution; (3) in addition to massive alkali-silica product formed in SL autoclaved in different alkaline solutions, a small amount of dolomite existing in SL may simultaneously dedolomitize and possibly contribute to expansion; (4) it is promising to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to distinguish the alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity of aggregate when both ASR and ACR might coexist.

  4. In situ alkali-silica reaction observed by x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtis, K.E.; Monteiro, P.J.M.; Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W.

    1997-04-01

    In concrete, alkali metal ions and hydroxyl ions contributed by the cement and reactive silicates present in aggregate can participate in a destructive alkali-silica reaction (ASR). This reaction of the alkalis with the silicates produces a gel that tends to imbibe water found in the concrete pores, leading to swelling of the gel and eventual cracking of the affected concrete member. Over 104 cases of alkali-aggregate reaction in dams and spillways have been reported around the world. At present, no method exists to arrest the expansive chemical reaction which generates significant distress in the affected structures. Most existing techniques available for the examination of concrete microstructure, including ASR products, demand that samples be dried and exposed to high pressure during the observation period. These sample preparation requirements present a major disadvantage for the study of alkali-silica reaction. Given the nature of the reaction and the affect of water on its products, it is likely that the removal of water will affect the morphology, creating artifacts in the sample. The purpose of this research is to observe and characterize the alkali-silica reaction, including each of the specific reactions identified previously, in situ without introducing sample artifacts. For observation of unconditioned samples, x-ray microscopy offers an opportunity for such an examination of the alkali-silica reaction. Currently, this investigation is focusing on the effect of calcium ions on the alkali-silica reaction.

  5. Lithological influence of aggregate in the alkali-carbonate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. . E-mail: angel.lopez@aidico.es; Climent, V. . E-mail: vcliment@grupogla.com; Verdu, P.

    2006-08-15

    The reactivity of carbonate rock with the alkali content of cement, commonly called alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR), has been investigated. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) can also contribute in the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in carbonate rock, mainly due to micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz or clay content in carbonate aggregate. Both ACR and ASR can occur in the same system, as has been also evidenced on this paper. Carbonate aggregate samples were selected using lithological reactivity criteria, taking into account the presence of dedolomitization, partial dolomitization, micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz. Selected rocks include calcitic dolostone with chert (CDX), calcitic dolostone with dedolomitization (CDD), limestone with chert (LX), marly calcitic dolostone with partial dolomitization (CD), high-porosity ferric dolostone with clays (FD). To evaluate the reactivity, aggregates were studied using expansion tests following RILEM AAR-2, AAR-5, a modification using LiOH AAR-5Li was also tested. A complementary study was done using petrographic monitoring with polarised light microscopy on aggregates immersed in NaOH and LiOH solutions after different ages. SEM-EDAX has been used to identify the presence of brucite as a product of dedolomitization. An ACR reaction showed shrinkage of the mortar bars in alkaline solutions explained by induced dedolomitization, while an ASR process typically displayed expansion. Neither shrinkage nor expansion was observed when mortar bars were immersed in solutions of lithium hydroxide. Carbonate aggregate classification with AAR pathology risk has been elaborated based on mechanical behaviours by expansion and shrinkage. It is proposed to be used as a petrographic method for AAR diagnosis to complement the RILEM AAR1 specifically for carbonate aggregate. Aggregate materials can be classified as I (non-reactive), II (potentially reactive), and III (probably reactive), considering induced dedolomitization ACR

  6. The reaction dynamics of alkali dimer molecules and electronically excited alkali atoms with simple molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Hongtao

    1995-12-01

    This dissertation presents the results from the crossed molecular beam studies on the dynamics of bimolecular collisions in the gas phase. The primary subjects include the interactions of alkali dimer molecules with simple molecules, and the inelastic scattering of electronically excited alkali atoms with O2. The reaction of the sodium dimers with oxygen molecules is described in Chapter 2. Two reaction pathways were observed for this four-center molecule-molecule reaction, i.e. the formations of NaO2 + Na and NaO + NaO. NaO2 products exhibit a very anisotropic angular distribution, indicating a direct spectator stripping mechanism for this reaction channel. The NaO formation follows the bond breaking of O2, which is likely a result of a charge transfer from Na2 to the excited state orbital of O2-. The scattering of sodium dimers from ammonium and methanol produced novel molecules, NaNH3 and Na(CH3OH), respectively. These experimental observations, as well as the discussions on the reaction dynamics and the chemical bonding within these molecules, will be presented in Chapter 3. The lower limits for the bond dissociation energies of these molecules are also obtained. Finally, Chapter 4 describes the energy transfer between oxygen molecules and electronically excited sodium atoms.

  7. Application of micro X-ray diffraction to investigate the reaction products formed by the alkali silica reaction in concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dähn, R.; Arakcheeva, A.; Schaub, Ph.; Pattison, P.; Chapuis, G.; Grolimund, D.; Wieland, E.; Leemann, A.

    2015-12-21

    Alkali–silica reaction (ASR) is one of the most important deterioration mechanisms in concrete leading to substantial damages of structures worldwide. Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) was employed to characterize the mineral phases formed in micro-cracks of concrete aggregates as a consequence of ASR. This particular high spatial resolution technique enables to directly gain structural information on ASR products formed in a 40-year old motorway bridge damaged due to ASR. Micro-X-ray-fluorescence was applied on thin sections to locate the reaction products formed in veins within concrete aggregates. Micro-XRD pattern were collected at selected points of interest along a vein by rotating the sample. Rietveld refinement determined the structure of the ASR product consisting of a new layered framework similar to mountainite and rhodesite. Furthermore, it is conceivable that understanding the structure of the ASR product may help developing new technical treatments inhibiting ASR.

  8. Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete containing high-alkali cement and granite aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Owsiak, Z

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses results of the research into the influence of high-alkali Portland cement on granite aggregate. The deformation of the concrete structure occurred after 18 months. The research was carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope equipped with a high-energy dispersive X-ray analyzer that allowed observation of unpolished sections of concrete bars exhibiting the cracking pattern typical of the alkali-silica reaction. Both the microscopic observation and the X-ray elemental analysis confirm the presence of alkali-silica gel and secondary ettringite in the cracks.

  9. Reaction of aromatic compounds with nucleophilic reagents in liquid ammonia. VIII. The origin of the oxygen atom of the hydroxy group in the products from the hydroxylation of 1-nitronaphthalene with alkali and molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Malykhin, E.V.; Shteingarts, V.D.

    1987-10-20

    In the reaction of 1-nitronaphthalene with K/sup 18/OH and /sup 16/O/sub 2/ in liquid ammonia 1-nitro-2- and 4-nitro-1-naphthols labeled with the /sup 18/O isotope in the hydroxyl group are formed. The ratio of the isomers and the content of the /sup 18/O isotope depend on the ratio of 1-nitronaphthalene and alkali, on the temperature, and on the presence of moisture in the ammonia. The amount of the /sup 18/O isotope in the hydroxylation products indicates that in contrast to the analogous reaction of nitrobenzene and its derivatives the hydroxy function of the products in this case is formed not only from the alkali but also to a significant degree form the oxygen of the O/sub 2/.

  10. Alkali-silica reaction resistant concrete using pumice blended cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Uma

    Durability of structures is a major challenge for the building industry. One of the many types of concrete deterioration that can affect durability is alkali-silica reaction (ASR). ASR has been found in most types of concrete structures, including dams, bridges, pavements, and other structures that are 20 to 50 years old. The degradation mechanism of ASR produces a gel that significantly expands in the presence of water as supplied from the surrounding environment. This expansion gel product can create high stresses and cracking of the concrete, which can lead to other forms of degradation and expensive structural replacement costs. The four essential factors that produce an expansive ASR gel in concrete are the presence of alkalis, siliceous aggregate, moisture, and free calcium hydroxide (CH). If concrete is starved of any one of these essential components, the expansion can be prevented. Reducing CH through the use of a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) such as natural pozzolan pumice is the focus of this research. By using a pozzolan, the amount of CH is reduced with time based on the effectiveness of the pozzolan. Many pozzolans exist, but one such naturally occurring pozzolanic material is pumice. This research focuses on determining the effect of a finely ground pumice as a SCM in terms of its resistance to ASR expansion, as well as improving resistance to other potential concrete durability mechanisms. In spite of having high alkali contents in the pumice, mixtures containing the SCM pumice more effectively mitigated the ASR expansion reaction than other degradation mechanisms. Depending on the reactivity of the aggregates and fineness of the pumice, 10-15% replacement of cement with the pumice was found to reduce the ASR expansion to the acceptable limits. The amount of CH remaining in the concrete was compared to the ASR expansion in order to improve understanding of the role of CH in the ASR reaction. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X

  11. Ingestion of caustic alkali farm products.

    PubMed

    Neidich, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the Poison Prevention Packaging Act took effect, the number of ingestions of caustic alkali from household products has been significantly reduced. Commercial caustic alkalis used on farms, however, were not included in this legislation. Fourteen children over a 5 year period were seen after ingestion of commercial caustic alkalis used on farms. Seven of the children had ingested liquid pipeline cleaners and seven had ingested solid agents used for a variety of reasons. Six of seven children ingesting liquid agents did so from nonoriginal containers into which the caustic had been transferred for convenience. All seven children ingesting solid agents did so from the original container. Eight of the 14 children were found to have second-degree or worse esophageal involvement. Both solid and liquid caustic agents used commercially on farms can cause significant morbidity. Development of a child-resistant container for daily transfer of liquid pipeline agents could be helpful in preventing injuries from liquid pipeline cleaners. Pediatric gastroenterologists as well as primary care physicians in rural areas should be familiar with this type of injury and should take an active role in instructing parents of children living on farms to prevent such injuries. Extension of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act to caustic alkalis used on farms needs to be considered.

  12. Laser scanning confocal microscopy for in situ monitoring of alkali-silica reaction.

    PubMed

    Collins, C L; Ideker, J H; Kurtis, K E

    2004-02-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) occurs in concrete between reactive siliceous components in the aggregate and the strongly alkaline pore solution, resulting in the formation of a potentially expansive gel product. Lithium additives have been shown to reduce expansion associated with ASR, but the mechanism(s) by which lithium reduces expansion have not been understood. Therefore, development of an in situ method to observe reactions associated with ASR is highly desirable, as it will allow for non-destructive observation of the reaction product formation and damage evolution over time, as the reaction progresses. A technique to image into mortar through glass aggregate by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), producing three-dimensional representations of the sample was developed. This LSCM technique was utilized to monitor the progress of alkali-silica reaction in mortar samples prepared with alkali-reactive glass aggregate both in the presence and in the absence of lithium additives: LiNO3, LiCl or LiOH. The method proved to be effective in qualitatively monitoring crack formation and growth and product formation, within cracks and at the paste/aggregate interface. In particular, dendritic products were observed at the paste/aggregate interface only in those samples containing lithium, suggesting that these products may play a role in ASR mitigation.

  13. Influence of lithium hydroxide on alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bulteel, D.; Garcia-Diaz, E.; Degrugilliers, P.

    2010-04-15

    Several papers show that the use of lithium limits the development of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of lithium's role on the alteration mechanism of ASR. The approach used is a chemical method which allowed a quantitative measurement of the specific degree of reaction of ASR. The chemical concrete sub-system used, called model reactor, is composed of the main ASR reagents: reactive aggregate, portlandite and alkaline solution. Different reaction degrees are measured and compared for different alkaline solutions: NaOH, KOH and LiOH. Alteration by ASR is observed with the same reaction degrees in the presence of NaOH and KOH, accompanied by the consumption of hydroxyl concentration. On the other hand with LiOH, ASR is very limited. Reaction degree values evolve little and the hydroxyl concentration remains about stable. These observations demonstrate that lithium ions have an inhibitor role on ASR.

  14. Coulomb explosion during the early stages of the reaction of alkali metals with water.

    PubMed

    Mason, Philip E; Uhlig, Frank; Vaněk, Václav; Buttersack, Tillmann; Bauerecker, Sigurd; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-03-01

    Alkali metals can react explosively with water and it is textbook knowledge that this vigorous behaviour results from heat release, steam formation and ignition of the hydrogen gas that is produced. Here we suggest that the initial process enabling the alkali metal explosion in water is, however, of a completely different nature. High-speed camera imaging of liquid drops of a sodium/potassium alloy in water reveals submillisecond formation of metal spikes that protrude from the surface of the drop. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that on immersion in water there is an almost immediate release of electrons from the metal surface. The system thus quickly reaches the Rayleigh instability limit, which leads to a 'coulomb explosion' of the alkali metal drop. Consequently, a new metal surface in contact with water is formed, which explains why the reaction does not become self-quenched by its products, but can rather lead to explosive behaviour.

  15. Historical and Experimental Studies of Alkali and Trinitrotoluene Reaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    Certainly attempts at titration in aqueous media would be futile in light of the virtually non- Bxiste•ut acidic properties of TNT. B. Production of Red...to get an addition compound of TNT and methyl alcohol which is the nitronic acid from which the alkali metal salts are derived. Hantzsch 4 originally...of quinol nitrol acids . The colored compounds formed by nitro-substituted aromatic com- pounds in alcoholic alkaline media occur only when one or more

  16. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete (II) expansion and microstructure of concrete microbar

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Duyou . E-mail: duyoulu@njut.edu.cn; Mei Laibao; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Mo Xiangyin; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-06-15

    The effect of the type of alkalis on the expansion behavior of concrete microbars containing typical aggregate with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity was studied. The results verified that: (1) at the same molar concentration, sodium has the strongest contribution to expansion due to both ASR and ACR, followed by potassium and lithium; (2) sufficient LiOH can completely suppress expansion due to ASR whereas it can induce expansion due to ACR. It is possible to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to clarify the ACR contribution when ASR and ACR may coexist. It has been shown that a small amount of dolomite in the fine-grained siliceous Spratt limestone, which has always been used as a reference aggregate for high alkali-silica reactivity, might dedolomitize in alkaline environment and contribute to the expansion. That is to say, Spratt limestone may exhibit both alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactivity, although alkali-silica reactivity is predominant. Microstructural study suggested that the mechanism in which lithium controls ASR expansion is mainly due to the favorable formation of lithium-containing less-expansive product around aggregate particles and the protection of the reactive aggregate from further attack by alkalis by the lithium-containing product layer.

  17. The effects of lithium hydroxide solution on alkali silica reaction gels created with opal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lyndon D.; Beaudoin, James J.; Grattan-Bellew, Patrick

    2004-04-01

    The reaction of Nevada opal with calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide solutions was investigated. In addition, opal was exposed to a combined solution of these three hydroxides. The progress of the three reactions was followed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results indicated the presence of a low-angle peak exclusive to the lithium-based reactions. The NMR results suggested a change in the silicate structure in the presence of lithium. These techniques indicated that the reaction of the alkali with the opal starting material is inhibited and perhaps stopped in the presence of lithium hydroxide. SEM revealed that the morphology of the reaction products on the surface of the reacted opal grains is markedly different invariably. It was concluded that evidence to support the theory of a protective layer exists and that the nature of the layer varies with ion type.

  18. A simple environmentally friendly, and chemically specific method for the identification and evaluation of the alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Carey, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    One of the principal mechanisms of premature degradation of concrete is the alkali silica reaction, in which an alkali-rick silica gel froms around and within some reactive aggregate grains, in pores, along fractures, and within paste. A rapid, dual staining method is described whereby reaction products associated with the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) are readily identified by their pink or yellow color following treatment in the laboratory or field. The method is based on both the compositional and physical characteristics of the ASR gel; hence, it provides greater information than non-chemical-specific techniques (such as the uranyl acetate method). In addition, the chemicals used in the staining method pose minimal health risks and are environmentally benign.

  19. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon in volume at low cost were studied. Experiments were performed to evaluate product separation and collection processes, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes, determine the effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction, and make preliminary engineering and economic analyses of a scaled-up process.

  20. Detection of alkali-silica reaction swelling in concrete by staining

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Jr., George D.; Carey, J. William

    1998-01-01

    A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobaltinitrite and rhodamine B is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na--K--Ca--Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca--Si gels are identified by pink staining.

  1. Detection of alkali-silica reaction swelling in concrete by staining

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Carey, J.W.

    1998-04-14

    A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobalt nitrite and rhodamine B is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na-K-Ca-Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca-Si gels are identified by pink staining.

  2. Relation of expansion due to alkali silica reaction to the degree of reaction measured by SEM image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haha, M. Ben; Gallucci, E. Guidoum, A.; Scrivener, K.L.

    2007-08-15

    Scanning Electron Microscopy Image Analysis (SEM-IA) was used to quantify the degree of alkali silica reaction in affected microbars, mortar and concrete prisms. It was found that the degree of reaction gave a unique correlation with the macroscopic expansion for three different aggregates, stored at three temperatures and with two levels of alkali. The relationships found for the concretes and the mortars overlap when normalised by the aggregate content. This relationship seems to be linear up to a critical reaction degree which coincides with crack initiation within the reactive aggregates.

  3. Use of ground clay brick as a pozzolanic material to reduce the alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Turanli, L.; Bektas, F.; Monteiro, P.J.M

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to use ground clay brick (GCB) as a pozzolanic material to minimize the alkali-silica reaction expansion. Two different types of clay bricks were finely ground and their activity indices were determined. ASTM accelerated mortar bar tests were performed to investigate the effect of GCB when used to replace cement mass. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the GCBs meet the strength activity requirements of ASTM. In addition, the GCBs were found to be effective in suppressing the alkali-silica reaction expansion. The expansion decreased as the amount of GCBs in the mortar increased.

  4. The effects of potassium and rubidium hydroxide on the alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shomglin, K.; Turanli, L.; Wenk, H.-R.; Monteiro, P.J.M.; Sposito, G

    2003-11-01

    Expansion of mortar specimens prepared with an aggregate of mylonite from the Santa Rosa mylonite zone in southern California was studied to investigate the effect of different alkali ions on the alkali-silica reaction in concrete. The expansion tests indicate that mortar has a greater expansion when subjected to a sodium hydroxide bath than in a sodium-potassium-rubidium hydroxide bath. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of mortar bars at early ages show that rubidium ions, used as tracer, were present throughout the sample by the third day of exposure. The analysis also shows a high concentration of rubidium in silica gel from mortar bars exposed to bath solutions containing rubidium. The results suggest that expansion of mortar bars using ASTM C 1260 does not depend on the diffusion of alkali ions. The results indicate that the expansion of alkali-silica gel depends on the type of alkali ions present. Alkali-silica gel containing rubidium shows a lower concentration of calcium, suggesting competition for the same sites.

  5. Alkali-Stabilized Pt-OHx Species Catalyze Low-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Y.; Pierre, D; Si, R; Deng, W; Ferrin, P; Nilekar, A; Peng, G; Herron, J; Bell, D; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    We report that alkali ions (sodium or potassium) added in small amounts activate platinum adsorbed on alumina or silica for the low-temperature water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (H{sub 2}O + CO {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) used for producing H{sub 2}. The alkali ion-associated surface OH groups are activated by CO at low temperatures ({approx}100 C) in the presence of atomically dispersed platinum. Both experimental evidence and density functional theory calculations suggest that a partially oxidized Pt-alkali-O{sub x}(OH){sub y} species is the active site for the low-temperature Pt-catalyzed WGS reaction. These findings are useful for the design of highly active and stable WGS catalysts that contain only trace amounts of a precious metal without the need for a reducible oxide support such as ceria.

  6. Facile nucleophilic fluorination reactions using tert-alcohols as a reaction medium: significantly enhanced reactivity of alkali metal fluorides and improved selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Chi, Dae Yoon

    2008-02-01

    Although protic solvents are generally not preferred for nucleophilic displacement reactions because of their partial positive charge and hydrogen-bonding capacity that solvate the nucleophile and reduce its reactivity, we recently reported a remarkably beneficial effect of using tertiary alcohols as a reaction media for nucleophilic fluorination with alkali metal fluorides, as well as fluorine-18 radiolabeling with [18F]fluoride ion for the preparation of PET radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we investigate further the influence of the tert-alcohol reaction medium for nucleophilic fluorination with alkali metal fluorides by studying various interactions among tert-alcohols, the alkali metal fluoride (CsF), and the sulfonyloxy substrate. Factors such as hydrogen bonding between CsF and the tert-alcohol solvent, the formation of a tert-alcohol solvated fluoride, and hydrogen bonding between the sulfonate leaving group and the tert-alcohol appear to contribute to the dramatic increase in the rate of the nucleophilic fluorination reaction in the absence of any kind of catalyst. We found that fluorination of 1-(2-mesyloxyethyl)naphthalene (5) and N-5-bromopentanoyl-3,4-dimethoxyaniline (8) with Bu(4)N(+)F(-) in a tert-alcohol afforded the corresponding fluoro products in much higher yield than obtained by the conventional methods using dipolar aprotic solvents. The protic medium also suppresses formation of byproducts, such as alkenes, ethers, and cyclic adducts.

  7. Alkali-silica reaction and pore solution composition in mortars in sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Mitsunori; Takeuchi, Katsunobu

    1996-12-01

    The promotion of expansion of mortars containing a reactive aggregate in 1N NaCl solution at 38 C was attributed to a rise of OH{sup {minus}} ion concentration in the pore solution in the mortars. However, it is ambiguous whether the promotion of expansion of mortars in sea water at a room temperature can be explained in the same way as in NaCl solution at an elevated temperature. This study aims at pursuing the expansion behavior of mortars containing a reactive aggregate relating it to their pore solution composition and the extent of alkali-silica reaction occurring within reactive grains. The alkali-silica reaction in mortars in sea water and 0.5 1N NaCl solution at 20 C appears to progress differently from that in mortars in 1N NaCl solution at an elevated temperature of 38 C. The promotion of expansion of mortars in sea water at 20 C was found to be responsible for an effect of Cl{sup {minus}} ions in the alkali-silica reaction at early stages of immersion. Only when OH{sup {minus}} ion concentration in the pore solution was relatively high, NaCl and sea water could accelerate the alkali-silica reaction in mortars at 20 C.

  8. Influence of stress restraint on the expansive behaviour of concrete affected by alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Berra, M.; Faggiani, G.; Mangialardi, T.; Paolini, A.E.

    2010-09-15

    The primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether the Threshold Alkali Level (TAL) of the concrete aggregates may be taken as a suitable reactivity parameter for the selection of aggregates susceptible of alkali-silica reaction (ASR), even when ASR expansion in concrete develops under restrained conditions. Concrete mixes made with different alkali contents and two natural siliceous aggregates with very different TALs were tested for their expansivity at 38 {sup o}C and 100% RH under unrestrained and restrained conditions. Four compressive stress levels over the range from 0.17 to 3.50 N/mm{sup 2} were applied by using a new appositely designed experimental equipment. The lowest stress (0.17 N/mm{sup 2}) was selected in order to estimate the expansive pressure developed by the ASR gel under 'free' expansion conditions. It was found that, even under restrained conditions, the threshold alkali level proves to be a suitable reactivity parameter for designing concrete mixes that are not susceptible of deleterious ASR expansion. An empirical relationship between expansive pressure, concrete alkali content and aggregate TAL was developed in view of its possible use for ASR diagnosis and/or safety evaluation of concrete structures.

  9. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  10. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating.

  11. Stability of cenospheres in lightweight cement composites in terms of alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junyan Zhang Minhong; Li Wei; Chia, Kok-Seng; Liew, Richard J.Y.

    2012-05-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on characteristics and stability of cenospheres used in lightweight cement composites. ASTM C227 and C1260 tests were used to evaluate if cenospheres are potentially deleterious due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Natural sand was used as control. Examination by scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and analyses by X-ray diffractometer and thermogravimetry were conducted on samples with cenospheres after 9-month C227 and C1260 tests to better understand the behavior of cenospheres exposed to high alkaline environments and higher temperatures in these tests. Results indicate that cenospheres are not potentially deleterious due to ASR. Expansion of the mortar specimens tested to ASTM C227 and C1260 seems to be affected by the pozzolanic reactivity of cenospheres. Fine cenospheres showed limited pozzolanic reactivity at 28-30 Degree-Sign C and 38 Degree-Sign C, but exhibited significant pozzolanic reactivity at 80 Degree-Sign C with aluminum tobermorite [Ca{sub 5}Si{sub 5}Al(OH)O{sub 17} Bullet-Operator 5H{sub 2}O] identified as the main reaction product.

  12. Reactions between cold methyl halide molecules and alkali-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, Jesse J.; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-07

    We investigate the potential energy surfaces and activation energies for reactions between methyl halide molecules CH{sub 3}X (X = F, Cl, Br, I) and alkali-metal atoms A (A = Li, Na, K, Rb) using high-level ab initio calculations. We examine the anisotropy of each intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) and the mechanism and energetics of the only available exothermic reaction pathway, CH{sub 3}X + A → CH{sub 3} + AX. The region of the transition state is explored using two-dimensional PES cuts and estimates of the activation energies are inferred. Nearly all combinations of methyl halide and alkali-metal atom have positive barrier heights, indicating that reactions at low temperatures will be slow.

  13. Petrography study of two siliceous limestones submitted to alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Monnin, Y. . E-mail: monnin@ensm-douai.fr; Degrugilliers, P.; Bulteel, D.; Garcia-Diaz, E.

    2006-08-15

    This study presents the contribution of petrography to the comprehension of the alkali-silica reaction mechanism applied to two siliceous limestones. A petrography study was made on the two aggregates before reaction to define their relative proportions and types of reactive silica and to observe their distribution in the microstructure. Then a model reactor, constituted by the reactive siliceous limestone aggregate, portlandite and NaOH, was used to measure the swelling due to reaction of the silica with alkalis and the free expansion of the aggregates. The volume evolution between both aggregates was very different and could be explained by the preliminary petrographic study. It appears that the swelling of the aggregates is conditioned by the microstructure of the carbonated matrix, the quantity and the distribution of the reactive silica.

  14. Investigation of structural properties associated with alkali-silica reaction by means of macro- and micro-structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mo Xiangyin . E-mail: moxiangyin@njnu.edu.cn; Fournier, Benoit

    2007-02-15

    Structural properties associated with alkali-silica reaction were systematically investigated by means of macro-structural accelerated mortar prism expansion levels testing, combined with micro-structural analysis. One part of this study is to determine the reactivity of the aggregate by means of accelerated mortar bar tests, and also to evaluate perlite aggregate constituents, especially the presence of deleterious components and find main causes of the alkali-silica reaction, which was based on the petrographic studies by optical microscope and the implication of X-ray diffraction on the aggregate. Results implied that the aggregate was highly alkali-silica reactive and the main micro-crystalline quartz-intermediate character and matrix that is mainly composed of chalcedony are potentially suitable for alkali-silica reaction. The other part is to study the long-term effect of lithium salts against alkali-silica reaction by testing accelerated mortar prism expansion levels. The macro-structural results were also consistent with the micro-structural mechanisms of alkali-silica reaction of mortar prisms containing this aggregate and the effect of chemical admixtures by means of the methods of scanning electron microscope-X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was indicated by these techniques that lithium salts, which were introduced into concrete containing reactive aggregate at the mixing stage, suppressed the alkali-silica reaction by producing non-expansive crystalline materials.

  15. Petrography study on altered flint aggregate by alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bulteel, D. . E-mail: bulteel@ensm-douai.fr; Rafai, N.; Degrugilliers, P.; Garcia-Diaz, E.

    2004-11-15

    The aim of our study is to improve our understanding of an alkali-silica reaction (ASR) via petrography. We used a chemical concrete subsystem: flint aggregate, portlandite and KOH. The altered flint aggregate is followed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after acid treatment at different intervals. After acid treatment, the observations showed an increase in aggregate porosity and revealed internal degradation of the aggregate. This degradation created amorphous zones. Before acid treatment, the analyses on polished sections by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) enabled visualization of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} penetration into the aggregate. The appearance of amorphous zones and penetration of positive ions into the aggregate are correlated with the increase in the molar fraction of silanol sites. This degradation is specific to the alkali-silica reaction.

  16. Alkali metal mediated C-C bond coupling reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2015-02-01

    Metal catalyzed carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is one of the important reactions in pharmacy and in organic chemistry. In the present study, the electron and hole capture dynamics of a lithium-benzene sandwich complex, expressed by Li(Bz)2, have been investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics method. Following the electron capture of Li(Bz)2, the structure of [Li(Bz)2]- was drastically changed: Bz-Bz parallel form was rapidly fluctuated as a function of time, and a new C-C single bond was formed in the C1-C1' position of Bz-Bz interaction system. In the hole capture, the intermolecular vibration between Bz-Bz rings was only enhanced. The mechanism of C-C bond formation in the electron capture was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  17. Alkali metal mediated C–C bond coupling reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2015-02-14

    Metal catalyzed carbon-carbon (C–C) bond formation is one of the important reactions in pharmacy and in organic chemistry. In the present study, the electron and hole capture dynamics of a lithium-benzene sandwich complex, expressed by Li(Bz){sub 2}, have been investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics method. Following the electron capture of Li(Bz){sub 2}, the structure of [Li(Bz){sub 2}]{sup −} was drastically changed: Bz–Bz parallel form was rapidly fluctuated as a function of time, and a new C–C single bond was formed in the C{sub 1}–C{sub 1}′ position of Bz–Bz interaction system. In the hole capture, the intermolecular vibration between Bz–Bz rings was only enhanced. The mechanism of C–C bond formation in the electron capture was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  18. Alkali metal mediated C-C bond coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2015-02-14

    Metal catalyzed carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is one of the important reactions in pharmacy and in organic chemistry. In the present study, the electron and hole capture dynamics of a lithium-benzene sandwich complex, expressed by Li(Bz)2, have been investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics method. Following the electron capture of Li(Bz)2, the structure of [Li(Bz)2](-) was drastically changed: Bz-Bz parallel form was rapidly fluctuated as a function of time, and a new C-C single bond was formed in the C1-C1' position of Bz-Bz interaction system. In the hole capture, the intermolecular vibration between Bz-Bz rings was only enhanced. The mechanism of C-C bond formation in the electron capture was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  19. New observations on the mechanism of lithium nitrate against alkali silica reaction (ASR)

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Thomas, M.D.A.; Bremner, T.W.; Folliard, K.J.; Fournier, B.

    2010-01-15

    In the current study, in order to elucidate the mechanisms for the favorable effects of lithium nitrate in controlling alkali silica reaction (ASR), vycor glass disk immersion specimens and glass disk-cement paste sandwich specimens were prepared and examined by XRD, SEM and Laser Ablation Induction Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Results showed that when glass disk was immersed in only NaOH solution, the glass was attacked by hydroxyl ions but no solid reaction product was found, thus the presence of calcium was essential for the formation of ASR gel. In the presence of lithium, the glass surface was covered by a thick layer of Li-Si crystal. With the addition of Ca(OH){sub 2}, the glass surface was completely covered by Li-Si crystal and a lithium-bearing low Ca-Na-(K)-Si gel. These two phases either form a dense matrix with Li-Si crystal serving as the framework, and the gel filling in the void space, or the Li-Si crystal serving as the foundation to completely cover the entire reactive SiO{sub 2} surface, and the gel sitting on top of these crystal particles. Hence, the suppressive effects of LiNO{sub 3} were attributed to the formation of a layer of Li-Si crystals intimately at the reactive SiO{sub 2} particle surface and the formation of Li-bearing low-Ca ASR gel products. The Li-bearing low-Ca ASR gels may have a dense and rigid structure, thus having low capacity to absorb moisture from the surrounding paste, and exhibiting a non-swelling property.

  20. Alkali - Aggregate reaction (AAR) A brief history of discovery of tis basic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Leps, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    Alkali Aggregate Reaction (AAR), also variously known as Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) and even Alkali Carbonate Reaction (ACR), has troubled and challenged those of us since the 1930`s who would have liked to think of portland cement concrete and aggregates as a simple, reliable, inert, enduring construction material. Its complex and not easily understood chemistry successfully defied the understanding of the engineering fraternity for many decades. After all, civil engineers, architects, and construction engineers are not chemists or petrographers, and are only minimally laboratory-oriented or trained. Furthermore, the almost infinite variety of minerals which Nature has provided in the form of rocks and aggregates indeed constituted a nearly insurmountable challenge to the ready development of a credible understanding of the chemistry of expanding concrete. Accordingly, although a few talented pioneers such as E.A. Stephenson in 1916, J.C. Pearson & G.F. Loughlin in 1923, Professor R.J. Holden in 1935, and F. M. Lea & C.H. Desch in 1935, nibbled at the edges of understanding how gels were formed in the alkali-aggregate interaction process, it was not until 1940 when an engineer, Thomas E. Stanton, dared to publish a preliminary but understandable view of what causes portland cement concrete to expand. The writer`s interest in AAR began as far back as 1946 when the importance of the problem was repeatedly brought to his attention by Ralph W. Spencer, then Chief Civil Engineer of Southern California Edison Company, who was the writer`s supervisor in planning, designing and contracting the construction of many major projects, including dams. Previously as well as subsequently, the writer`s interest was enhanced by friendships and association with pioneers of AAR such as Professor Roy Carlson, Professor R.E. Davis, Lewis H. Tuthill, R.F. Blanks, and Roger Rhoades. The writer regrets never having met Thomas E. Stanton and his chief chemist, G.H.P.

  1. Assessment of Alkali-Silica Reaction Damage in Mortars with Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Jayapalan, A. R.; Kurtis, K. E.; Kim, J.-Y.; Jacobs, L. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this work, a nonlinear ultrasonic modulation technique is employed to assess the damage state of portland cement mortar samples induced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Due to the nonlinear interaction of propagating waves caused by distributed microcracks that are agitated from its equilibrium state, the ultrasonic responses of samples produce sideband frequencies around the frequency of propagating waves. The amplitude of the sidebands depends on the amplitude of the input signals and is particularly sensitive to the state of damage evolved in the sample. Therefore, the development of internal microcracks with increasing duration of exposure to aggressive conditions can be quantitatively related to the variation of external ultrasonic measurements. The ultrasonic results are compared with results from standard ASR expansion measurements (ASTM C 1260), and a proportionally increasing relation was found in the early stages. In addition, aggregates with different alkali-reactivity (i.e., low reactivity or high reactivity) were examined in a similar manner. The results indicate that the nonlinear parameter obtained from ultrasonic tests directly reflects the difference of aggregate reactivity. This clearly indicates that the developed nonlinear ultrasonic method is potentially a good alternative for a more rapid and still reliable assessment of aggregate alkali-reactivity.

  2. Alkali-aggregate reaction under the influence of deicing salts in the Hokuriku district, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tetsuya . E-mail: katayamat@kge.co.jp; Tagami, Masahiko; Sarai, Yoshinori; Izumi, Satoshi; Hira, Toshikatsu

    2004-11-15

    Concrete cores taken from highway bridges and culverts undergoing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) were investigated petrographically by means of core scanning, point counting, polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), electron-probe microanalysis with energy-dispersive spectrometry, in conjunction with wet chemical analyses and expansion tests. Field damage was roughly proportional to the content of andesite in the gravel aggregates due to the presence of highly reactive cristobalite and tridymite. Electron-probe microanalyzer analysis of unhydrated cement phases in the concrete revealed that the cement used had contained at least 0.5% to 1.0% alkali (Na{sub 2}Oeq) and that both the aggregates and the deicing salts had supplied part of the water-soluble alkali to concrete toward the threshold of producing ASR (Na{sub 2}O{sub eq} 3.0 kg/m{sup 3}). An accelerated concrete core expansion test (1 M NaOH, 80 deg. C) of the damaged structures mostly gave core expansions of >0.10% at 21 days (or >0.05% at 14 days), nearly comparable to those of a slow expansion test with saturated NaCl solution (50 deg. C, 91 days) which produced Cl-containing ASR gel.

  3. Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete from Fontana Dam, North Carolina, Tennessee Valley Authority.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    crossed polarized 1.482 > n < 1.502 light. Alternating growth layers of clear and of tan translucent 1.480 > n < 1.520 gel; some of the clear material is... vermiculite was present in one piece of aggregate; a small amount of amphibole was tentatively identified in several pieces. Small amounts of iron sulfide were...the alkali-silica reaction, which is present in all the cores from block 31 examined here, contribute to the stress developed, to growth in height, and

  4. Structures of alkali metals in silica gel nanopores: new materials for chemical reductions and hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Shatnawi, Mouath; Paglia, Gianluca; Dye, James L; Cram, Kevin C; Lefenfeld, Michael; Billinge, Simon J L

    2007-02-07

    Alkali metals and their alloys can be protected from spontaneous reaction with dry air by intercalation (with subsequent heating) into the pores of silica gel (SG) at loadings up to 40 wt %. The resulting loose, black powders are convenient materials for chemical reduction of organic compounds and the production of clean hydrogen. The problem addressed in this paper is the nature of the reducing species present in these amorphous materials. The atomic pair distribution function (PDF), which considers both Bragg and diffuse scattering components, was used to examine their structures. Liquid Na-K alloys added to silica gel at room temperature (stage 0) or heated to 150 degrees C (stage I) as well as stage I Na-SG, retain the overall pattern of pure silica gel. Broad oscillations in the PDF show that added alkali metals remain in the pores as nanoscale metal clusters. 23Na MAS NMR studies confirm the presence of Na(0) and demonstrate that Na+ ions are formed as well. The relative amounts of Na(0) and Na(+) depend on both the overall metal loading and the average pore size. The results suggest that ionization occurs near or in the SiO2 walls, with neutral metal present in the larger cavities. The fate of the electrons released by ionization is uncertain, but they may add to the silica gel lattice, or form an "electride-like plasma" near the silica gel walls. A remaining mystery is why the stage I material does not show a melting endotherm of the encapsulated metal and does not react with dry oxygen. Na-SG when heated to 400 degrees C (stage II) yields a dual-phase reaction product that consists of Na(4)Si(4) and Na(2)SiO(3).

  5. Biodegradation of Leonardite by an alkali-producing bacterial community and characterization of the degraded products.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tong-Guo; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Jin-Shui; Li, Bao-Zhen; Yuan, Hong-Li

    2012-03-01

    In this study, three bacterial communities were obtained from 12 Leonardite samples with the aim of identifying a clean, effective, and economic technique for the dissolution of Leonardite, a type of low-grade coal, in the production of humic acid (HA). The biodegradation ability and characteristics of the degraded products of the most effective bacterial community (MCSL-2), which degraded 50% of the Leonardite within 21 days, were further investigated. Analyses of elemental composition, (13)C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared revealed that the contents of C, O, and aliphatic carbon were similar in biodegraded humic acid (bHA) and chemically (alkali) extracted humic acid (cHA). However, the N and carboxyl carbon contents of bHA was higher than that of cHA. Furthermore, a positive correlation was identified between the degradation efficiency and the increasing pH of the culture medium, while increases of manganese peroxidase and esterase activities were also observed. These data demonstrated that both alkali production and enzyme reactions were involved in Leonardite solubilization by MCSL-2, although the former mechanism predominated. No fungus was observed by microscopy. Only four bacterial phylotypes were recognized, and Bacillus licheniformis-related bacteria were identified as the main group in MCSL-2 by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, thus demonstrating that Leonardite degradation ability has a limited distribution in bacteria. Hormone-like bioactivities of bHA were also detected. In this study, a bacterial community capable of Leonardite degradation was identified and the products characterized. These data implicate the use of such bacteria for the exploitation of Leonardite as a biofertilizer.

  6. Low-temperature oxidation of alkali overlayers: Ionic species and reaction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krix, David; Nienhaus, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    Clean and oxidized alkali metal films have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thin films, typically 10 nm thick, of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium have been deposited on silicon substrates and oxidized at 120 K. Plasmon losses were found to dress the primary photo emission structures of the metals’ core lines which confirms the metallic, bulk like nature of the films. The emission from the O 1s core levels was used to determine the chemical composition and the reaction kinetics during the exposure to molecular oxygen at low pressures. Molecular oxide ions O2- and O22- as well as atomic oxygen ions O2- were detected in varying amounts depending on the alkali metal used. Diffusive transport of material in the film is shown to greatly determine the composition of the oxides. Especially, the growth of potassium superoxide is explained by the diffusion of potassium atoms to the surface and growth at the surface in a Deal-Grove like model.

  7. Microstructural Changes Due to Alkali-Silica Reaction during Standard Mortar Test

    DOE PAGES

    Shin, Jun-Ho; Struble, Leslie; Kirkpatrick, R.

    2015-12-01

    The microstructural development of mortar bars with silica glass aggregate undergoing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) under the conditions of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test C1260 was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and qualitative X-ray microanalysis. Cracking in the aggregate, the hydrated paste, and the paste-aggregate interface was important in the development of the microstructure. Cracks were characterized according to their location, their relationship to other cracks, and whether they are filled with ASR gel. Expansion of the bars was approximately 1% at 12 days and 2% at 53 days. They fell apart by 63 days. The barsmore » contained two zones, an inner region that was undergoing ASR and an outer and much more highly damaged zone that extended further inward over time. Evidence of ASR was present even during the period when specimens were immersed in water, prior to immersion in NaOH solution.« less

  8. Microstructural Changes Due to Alkali-Silica Reaction during Standard Mortar Test

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jun-Ho; Struble, Leslie; Kirkpatrick, R.

    2015-12-01

    The microstructural development of mortar bars with silica glass aggregate undergoing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) under the conditions of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test C1260 was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and qualitative X-ray microanalysis. Cracking in the aggregate, the hydrated paste, and the paste-aggregate interface was important in the development of the microstructure. Cracks were characterized according to their location, their relationship to other cracks, and whether they are filled with ASR gel. Expansion of the bars was approximately 1% at 12 days and 2% at 53 days. They fell apart by 63 days. The bars contained two zones, an inner region that was undergoing ASR and an outer and much more highly damaged zone that extended further inward over time. Evidence of ASR was present even during the period when specimens were immersed in water, prior to immersion in NaOH solution.

  9. Concrete modelling for expertise of structures affected by alkali aggregate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Grimal, E.; Sellier, A.; Multon, S.; Le Pape, Y.; Bourdarot, E.

    2010-04-15

    Alkali aggregate reaction (AAR) affects numerous civil engineering structures and causes irreversible expansion and cracking. In order to control the safety level and the maintenance cost of its hydraulic dams, Electricite de France (EDF) must reach better comprehension and better prediction of the expansion phenomena. For this purpose, EDF has developed a numerical model based on the finite element method in order to assess the mechanical behaviour of damaged structures. The model takes the following phenomena into account: concrete creep, the stress induced by the formation of AAR gel and the mechanical damage. A rheological model was developed to assess the coupling between the different phenomena (creep, AAR and anisotropic damage). Experimental results were used to test the model. The results show the capability of the model to predict the experimental behaviour of beams subjected to AAR. In order to obtain such prediction, it is necessary to take all the phenomena occurring in the concrete into consideration.

  10. Effect of moisture conditions and transfers on alkali silica reaction damaged structures

    SciTech Connect

    Multon, Stephane; Toutlemonde, Francois

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this paper is to point out the water driving effect on the alkali silica reaction (ASR) expansion and particularly when modifications of moisture conditions occur. After being submitted to a unidirectional moisture gradient during 14 months, the upper faces of ASR reactive beams were covered by water for 9 months. This late water supply on the upper face rapidly produced large expansions, which mainly occurred along the transverse and the vertical directions resulting in large longitudinal cracks. Companion nonreactive specimens were kept in the same environmental conditions in order to quantify the basic characteristics of moisture-dependent expansive behaviour of the material. The paper focuses on the effects of late water supply or late drying on already ASR-damaged concrete, which is a significant concern for real-life structures. Both structural effects of late water supply on ASR progress in already damaged structures and interpretation of such phenomena are described.

  11. Insights into alkali-silica reaction damage in mortar through acoustic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, M.; Kim, J.-Y.; Jacobs, L. J.; Kurtis, K. E.

    2016-02-01

    The progression of damage as a result of alkali-silica reaction in mortar samples is monitored by using the Nonlinear Impact Resonance Acoustic Spectroscopy (NIRAS) method and expansion measurements, which were performed daily. Results of this study show a strong correlation between the cumulative average nonlinearity parameter and expansion for each sample type, and a strong linear relationship between fourteen-day expansion and the cumulative average nonlinearity of among sample types. In addition to the cumulative average nonlinearity parameter, the standard deviation of average nonlinearity parameter shows strong correlation with the fourteen-day expansion of sample types. Results provide insights to the relationship with the acoustic nonlinearity and damage caused by the ASR.

  12. Microwave material characterization of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) gel in cementitious materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Ashkan

    Since alkali-silica reaction (ASR) was recognized as a durability challenge in cement-based materials over 70 years ago, numerous methods have been utilized to prevent, detect, and mitigate this issue. However, quantifying the amount of produced ASR byproducts (i.e., ASR gel) in-service is still of great interest in the infrastructure industry. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to bring a new understanding to the fundamentals of ASR formation from a microwave dielectric property characterization point-of-view, and more importantly, to investigate the potential for devising a microwave nondestructive testing approach for ASR gel detection and evaluation. To this end, a comprehensive dielectric mixing model was developed with the potential for predicting the effective dielectric constant of mortar samples with and without the presence of ASR gel. To provide pertinent inputs to the model, critical factors on the influence of ASR gel formation on dielectric and reflection properties of several mortar samples were investigated at R, S, and X-band. Effects of humidity, alkali content, and long-term curing conditions on ASR-prone mortars were also investigated. Additionally, dielectric properties of chemically different synthetic ASR gel were also determined. All of these, collectively, served as critical inputs to the mixing model. The resulting developed dielectric mixing model has the potential to be further utilized to quantify the amount of produced ASR gel in cement-based materials. This methodology, once becomes more mature, will bring new insight to the ASR reaction, allowing for advancements in design, detection and mitigation of ASR, and eventually has the potential to become a method-of-choice for in-situ infrastructure health-monitoring of existing structures.

  13. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2016-10-04

    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  14. Alkalis in Coal and Coal Cleaning Products / Alkalia W Węglu I Productach Jego Wzbogacania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytnar, Krzysztof; Burmistrz, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    In the coking process, the prevailing part of the alkalis contained in the coal charge goes to coke. The content of alkalis in coal (and also in coke) is determined mainly by the content of two elements: sodium and potasium. The presence of these elements in coal is connected with their occurrence in the mineral matter and moisture of coal. In the mineral matter and moisture of the coals used for the coke production determinable the content of sodium is 26.6 up to 62. per cent, whereas that of potassium is 37.1 up to 73.4 per cent of the total content of alkalis. Major carriers of alkalis are clay minerals. Occasionally alkalis are found in micas and feldspars. The fraction of alkalis contained in the moisture of the coal used for the production of coke in the total amount of alkalis contained there is 17.8 up to 62.0 per cent. The presence of sodium and potassium in the coal moisture is strictly connected with the presence of the chloride ions. The analysis of the water drained during process of the water-extracting from the flotoconcentrate showed that the Na to K mass ratio in the coal moisture is 20:1. Increased amount of the alkalis in the coal blends results in increased content of the alkalis in coke. This leads to the increase of the reactivity (CRI index), and to the decrease of strength (CSR index) determined with the Nippon Steel Co. method. W procesie koksowania przeważająca część zawartych we wsadzie węglowym alkaliów przechodzi do koksu. Zawartość alkaliów w węglu, a co za tym idzie i w koksie determinowana jest głównie zawartością dwóch pierwiastków: sodu i potasu. Obecność tych pierwiastków w węglu wiąże się z występowaniem ich w substancji mineralnej i wilgoci węgla. W substancji mineralnej oraz wilgoci węgli stosowanych do produkcji koksu, oznaczona zawartość sodu wynosi od 26.6 do 62.9%, a zawartość potasu od 37.1 do 73.4% alkaliów ogółem. Głównymi nośnikami alkaliów w substancji mineralnej są minera

  15. Microwave-based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Keshwani, Deepak R; Cheng, Jay J

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass are promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioethanol production. However, pretreatment of lignocelluloses is required to improve production of fermentable sugars from enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave-based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass was investigated in this study. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute alkali reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 W for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Simons' stain method was used to quantify changes in biomass porosity as a result of the pretreatment. Pretreatments were evaluated based on yields of total reducing sugars, glucose, and xylose. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent for microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass. 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass pretreated under optimal conditions. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared with solid losses, lignin reduction, and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments.

  16. Monitoring, Modeling, and Diagnosis of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Small Concrete Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Cai, Guowei; Gribok, Andrei V.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2015-09-01

    Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Structural health monitoring of concrete structures aims to understand the current health condition of a structure based on heterogeneous measurements to produce high-confidence actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. This report describes alkali-silica reaction (ASR) degradation mechanisms and factors influencing the ASR. A fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical model developed by Saouma and Perotti by taking into consideration the effects of stress on the reaction kinetics and anisotropic volumetric expansion is presented in this report. This model is implemented in the GRIZZLY code based on the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment. The implemented model in the GRIZZLY code is randomly used to initiate ASR in a 2D and 3D lattice to study the percolation aspects of concrete. The percolation aspects help determine the transport properties of the material and therefore the durability and service life of concrete. This report summarizes the effort to develop small-size concrete samples with embedded glass to mimic ASR. The concrete samples were treated in water and sodium hydroxide solution at elevated temperature to study how ingress of sodium ions and hydroxide ions at elevated temperature impacts concrete samples embedded with glass. Thermal camera was used to monitor the changes in the concrete sample and results are summarized.

  17. Measurement of alkali-silica reaction progression by ultrasonic waves attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Pierre, Francois; Rivard, Patrice . E-mail: Patrice.Rivard@Usherbrooke.ca; Ballivy, Gerard

    2007-06-15

    Development of non-destructive methods, developed specifically for assessing the damage induced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete structures, is needed in order to carry out a systematic evaluation of the concrete condition. The aim of this study is to monitor the evolution of the ASR-damage in laboratory with concrete samples with ultrasonic pulse velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves methods. For this study, results of both methods were compared with expansion and mass variation. One reactive concrete mixture was made with reactive aggregate, and one other mixture, incorporating non-reactive aggregate, was made as a control. Specimens were kept at 38 deg. C in a 1 mol l{sup -1} NaOH solution to accelerate the reaction. Attenuation of transmitted ultrasonic waves appeared to be more appropriate for the evaluation of ASR-damage compared with pulse velocity. The attenuation of accelerated reactive concrete cylinders increased by 90% after 1 year while it increased by 40% for the non-reactive concrete used as a control. Major part of the attenuation increase in the non-reactive concrete is due to liquid absorption. This work suggests that in-situ non-destructive techniques based on ultrasonic wave attenuation, like ultrasonic attenuation tomography, should be developed in order to evaluate the development of ASR in concrete structures. Petrographic examination confirmed that damage to concrete is associated with ASR.

  18. Reaction product imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  19. Evaluation Of Demercurization Efficiency Of Chlor-Alkali Production In Pavlodar City, Kazakhstan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury pollution in Pavlodar, a city in northeastern Kazakhstan, is the result of chlor-alkali chemical plant operations in 1975-1993, where chlorine production capacity was approximately 100,000 tons per year. The total quantity of metallic mercury released into the environmen...

  20. Effect of basic alkali-pickling conditions on the production of lysinoalanine in preserved eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    During the pickling process, strong alkali causes significant lysinoalanine (LAL) formation in preserved eggs, which may reduce the nutritional value of the proteins and result in a potential hazard to human health. In this study, the impacts of the alkali treatment conditions on the production of LAL in preserved eggs were investigated. Preserved eggs were prepared using different times and temperatures, and alkali-pickling solutions with different types and concentrations of alkali and metal salts, and the corresponding LAL contents were measured. The results showed the following: during the pickling period of the preserved egg, the content of LAL in the egg white first rapidly increased and then slowly increased; the content of LAL in the egg yolk continued to increase significantly. During the aging period, the levels of LAL in both egg white and egg yolk slowly increased. The amounts of LAL in the preserved eggs were not significantly different at temperatures between 20 and 25ºC. At higher pickling temperatures, the LAL content in the preserved eggs increased. With the increase of alkali concentration in the alkali-pickling solution, the LAL content in the egg white and egg yolk showed an overall trend of an initial increase followed by a slight decrease. The content of LAL produced in preserved eggs treated with KOH was lower than in those treated with NaOH. NaCl and KCl produced no significant effects on the production of LAL in the preserved eggs. With increasing amounts of heavy metal salts, the LAL content in the preserved eggs first decreased and then increased. The LAL content generated in the CuSO4 group was lower than that in either the ZnSO4 or PbO groups.

  1. Ion transport of Fr nuclear reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, J.A.; Cahn, S.B.; Dutta, S.B.

    1993-04-01

    Experiments planned for fundamental studies of radioactive atoms in magneto-optic traps require efficient deceleration and transport of nuclear reaction products to energies and locations where they can be trapped. The authors have built a low-energy ion transport system for Francium and other alkalis. A thick Au target is held on a W rod at 45{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The heavy-ion fusion reaction 115 MeV {sup 18}O + {sup 197}Au produces {sup 211,210,209}Fr recoil products which are stopped in the target. The target is heated to close to the melting point of Au to allow the Fr to diffuse to the surface, where it is ionized due to Au`s high work function, and is directly extracted by an electrode at 90{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The Fr is transported by electrostatic optics {approximately}1 m to a catcher viewed by an {alpha} detector: {ge}15% of the Fr produced in the target reaches the catcher. 2{times}10{sup 5} Fr/sec have been produced at the catcher, yielding at equilibrium a sample of 3x10{sup 7}Fr nuclei. This scheme physically decouples the target diffusion from the surface neutralization process, which can occur at a lower temperature more compatible with the neutral-atom trap.

  2. Microscopy and Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy Characterization of Quartz Exhibiting Different Alkali-Silica Reaction Potential.

    PubMed

    Kuchařová, Aneta; Götze, Jens; Šachlová, Šárka; Pertold, Zdeněk; Přikryl, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Different quartz types from several localities in the Czech Republic and Sweden were examined by polarizing microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy, spectroscopy, and petrographic image analysis, and tested by use of an accelerated mortar bar test (following ASTM C1260). The highest alkali-silica reaction potential was indicated by very fine-grained chert, containing significant amounts of fine-grained to cryptocrystalline matrix. The chert exhibited a dark red CL emission band at ~640 nm with a low intensity. Fine-grained orthoquartzites, as well as fine-grained metamorphic vein quartz, separated from phyllite exhibited medium expansion values. The orthoquartzites showed various CL of quartz grains, from blue through violet, red, and brown. Two CL spectral bands at ~450 and ~630 nm, with various intensities, were detected. The quartz from phyllite displayed an inhomogeneous dark red CL with two CL spectral bands of low intensities at ~460 and ~640 nm. The massive coarse-grained pegmatite quartz from pegmatite was assessed to be nonreactive and displayed a typical short-lived blue CL (~480 nm). The higher reactivity of the fine-grained hydrothermal quartz may be connected with high concentrations of defect centers, and probably with amorphized micro-regions in the quartz, respectively; indicated by a yellow CL emission (~570 nm).

  3. Classification of alkali-silica reaction and corrosion distress using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, Marwa; ElBatanouny, Mohamed; Serrato, Michael; Dixon, Kenneth; Larosche, Carl; Ziehl, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates approximately 100 commercial nuclear power reactor facilities that contribute about 20% of the total electric energy produced in the United States. Half of these reactor facilities are over 30 years old and are approaching their original design service life. Due to economic and durability considerations, significant portions of many of the facilities were constructed with reinforced concrete, including the containment facilities, cooling towers, and foundations. While most of these concrete facilities have performed exceptionally well throughout their initial expected service life, some are beginning to exhibit different forms of concrete deterioration. In this study, acoustic emission (AE) is used to monitor two main concrete deterioration mechanisms; alkali-silica reaction (ASR) distress and corrosion of reinforcing steel. An accelerated ASR test was conducted where specimens were continuously monitored with AE. The results show that AE can detect and classify damage due to ASR distress in the specimens. AE was also used to remotely monitor active corrosion regions in a reactor facility. AE monitoring of accelerated corrosion testing was also conducted on a concrete block specimen cut from a similar reactor building. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to correlate AE activity to quantifiable corrosion measurements and to enhance capabilities for service life prediction.

  4. Influence of steel fibers on the development of alkali-aggregate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pires de Carvalho, Maria Rita; Pagan Hasparyk, Nicole

    2010-04-15

    This work presents the results of an experimental research concerning the use of fibers in mortar specimens subjected to alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR). Two types of steel fibers (0.16 mm diameter and 6.0 mm length, and 0.20 mm diameter and 13.0 mm length) were used with fiber volume contents of 1% and 2%. Besides the expansion accelerated tests, compressive tests and flexural tests have also been carried out to display the main mechanical characteristics of the fiber-reinforced mortars after being subjected to AAR. Moreover, the microstructure of the specimens was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. The results shown that the addition of steel fibers reduced the expansion due to AAR for the experimental conditions studied in this paper. The most expressive benefit corresponded to the addition of 13.0 mm fibers in the mixture containing 2% fiber content. This fiber volume content also corresponded to the maximum increment in the mechanical properties compared to the reference mortar, mainly for the post-cracking strength and for the toughness in bending. It was observed that the fibers have a beneficial effect on the material, without compromising its main mechanical properties.

  5. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) detection in concrete from frequency dependent ultrasonic attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Peng; Patton, Mark E.; Greve, David W.; Harley, Joel B.; Liu, Chang; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2014-02-01

    The alkali-silica reaction (ASR) occurs between the reactive aggregates and the alkaline cement paste in concrete, eventually producing damage such as swelling and cracking. This research uses mechanical tests and ultrasonic tests to detect ASR onset in concrete specimens. The test specimens are fabricated in pairs, one specimen typically subjected to an accelerated ASR environment (immersion in 1 N NaOH solution at 80°C) and the second specimen comparable but not exposed to the accelerated ASR environment. In mechanical tests, the transverse and longitudinal resonant frequencies are measured. Results show that ASR damage would lower the resonant frequencies. In the ultrasonic test, broadband excitations are used and pitch-catch records are obtained. The presence of ASR damage in concrete is shown to cause frequency dependent ultrasonic attenuation. Signals from ASR damaged specimens show strong attenuation at high frequencies and weak attenuation at low frequencies. In contrast, signals frompaired non-ASR specimens show comparable energy over the entire range of measured frequencies. The cumulative distribution function of frequency components (CDF) is used to characterize the ultrasonic passband changes caused by ASR damage and detect the existence of ASR damage in frequency domain.

  6. Unified mechanism of alkali and alkaline earth catalyzed gasification reactions of carbon by CO2 and H2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, S.G.; Yang, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    From molecular orbital calculations, a unified mechanism is proposed for the gasification reactions of graphite by CO2 and H2O, both uncatalyzed and catalyzed by alkali and alkaline earth catalysts. In this mechanism, there are two types of oxygen intermediates that are bonded to the active edge carbon atoms: an in-plane semiquinone type, Cf(O), and an off-plane oxygen bonded to two saturated carbon atoms that are adjacent to the semiquinone species, C(O)Cf(O). The rate-limiting step is the decomposition of these intermediates by breaking the C-C bonds that are connected to Cf(O). A new rate equation is derived for the uncatalyzed reactions, and that for the catalyzed reactions is readily available from the proposed mechanism. The proposed mechanism can account for several unresolved experimental observations: TPD and TK (transient kinetics) desorption results of the catalyzed systems, the similar activation energies for the uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions, and the relative activities of the alkali and alkaline earth elements. The net charge of the edge carbon active site is substantially changed by gaining electron density from the alkali or alkaline earth element (by forming C-O-M, where M stands for metal). The relative catalytic activities of these elements can be correlated with their abilities of donating electrons and changing the net charge of the edge carbon atom. As shown previously (Chen, S. G.; Yang, R. T. J. Catal. 1993, 141, 102), only clusters of the alkali compounds are active. This derives from the ability of the clusters to dissociate CO2 and H2O to form O atoms and the mobility of the dissociated O atoms facilitated by the clusters.

  7. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  8. Sustainable production of acrylic acid: alkali-ion exchanged beta zeolite for gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Tao, Li-Zhi; Liang, Yu; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid (LA) to acrylic acid (AA) was investigated over alkali-exchanged β zeolite (M(x)Na(1-x)β, M=Li(+), K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+)) of different exchange degrees (x). The reaction was conducted under varying conditions to understand the catalyst selectivity for AA production and trends of byproduct formation. The nature and exchange degree of M(+) were found to be critical for the acid-base properties and catalytic performance of the exchanged zeolite. K(x)Na(1-x)β of x=0.94 appeared to be the best performing catalyst whereas Li(x)Na(1-x)β and Naβ were the poorest in terms of AA selectivity and yield. The AA yield as high as 61 mol % (selectivity: 64 mol %) could be obtained under optimized reaction conditions for up to 8 h over the best performing K0.94Na0.06β. The acid and base properties of the catalysts were probed, respectively by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of adsorbed NH3 and CO2, and were related to the electrostatic potentials of the alkali ions in the zeolite, which provided a basis for the discussion of the acid-base catalysis for sustainable AA formation from LA.

  9. Quantitative diagnosis and prognosis framework for concrete degradation due to alkali-silica reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Neal, Kyle; Nath, Paromita; Bao, Yanqing; Cai, Guowei; Orme, Peter; Adams, Douglas; Agarwal, Vivek

    2017-02-01

    This research is seeking to develop a probabilistic framework for health diagnosis and prognosis of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants that are subjected to physical, chemical, environment, and mechanical degradation. The proposed framework consists of four elements: monitoring, data analytics, uncertainty quantification, and prognosis. The current work focuses on degradation caused by ASR (alkali-silica reaction). Controlled concrete specimens with reactive aggregate are prepared to develop accelerated ASR degradation. Different monitoring techniques — infrared thermography, digital image correlation (DIC), mechanical deformation measurements, nonlinear impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy (NIRAS), and vibro-acoustic modulation (VAM) — are studied for ASR diagnosis of the specimens. Both DIC and mechanical measurements record the specimen deformation caused by ASR gel expansion. Thermography is used to compare the thermal response of pristine and damaged concrete specimens and generate a 2-D map of the damage (i.e., ASR gel and cracked area), thus facilitating localization and quantification of damage. NIRAS and VAM are two separate vibration-based techniques that detect nonlinear changes in dynamic properties caused by the damage. The diagnosis results from multiple techniques are then fused using a Bayesian network, which also helps to quantify the uncertainty in the diagnosis. Prognosis of ASR degradation is then performed based on the current state of degradation obtained from diagnosis, by using a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) model for ASR degradation. This comprehensive approach of monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty-quantified diagnosis and prognosis will facilitate the development of a quantitative, risk informed framework that will support continuous assessment and risk management of structural health and performance.

  10. Use of Fly Ash in the Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-12

    and Concrete Research, 1996. 26(6): p. 963-977. 38. Dong, D.V., P.D. Huu, and N.N. Lan. Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Properties of High Strength ...Concrete Research, 1996. 26(6): p. 963-977. 38. Dong, D.V., P.D. Huu, and N.N. Lan. Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Properties of High Strength Concrete. in...FA4 with a) low alkali cement and b) high alkali cement, all cured at 38oC

  11. Enhanced saccharification of rice straw and hull by microwave-alkali pretreatment and lignocellulolytic enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Tuteja, Shuchi; Singh, Namita; Bishnoi, Narsi R

    2011-01-01

    In this study, statistical design of experiments was employed to plan experiments and optimize the microwave-alkali pretreatment of rice straw and hulls. Process parameters important in pretreatment of biomass were identified by a Plackett-Burman design and the parameters with significant effects were optimized using a box-behnken design (BBD). Experimental results show that alkali concentration (AC), irradiation time (IT) and substrate concentration (SC) were main factors governing the saccharification of rice straw and hulls. Optimum conditions of pretreatment were AC 2.75%, IT 22.50 min and SC 30 g/L, as optimized by BBD. The growth and production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from Aspergillus heteromorphus, solid state fermentation (SSF) was performed using rice straw and hulls pretreated under optimum conditions. Cellulases and xylanase reached the highest enzyme activity at 6th day of fermentation while maximum manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activity occurred at 12th day.

  12. Slow pyrolysis of prot, alkali and dealkaline lignins for production of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Bijoy; Singh, Rawel; Kumar, Jitendra; Khan, Adnan Ali; Krishna, Bhavya B; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2016-08-01

    Effect of different lignins were studied during slow pyrolysis. Maximum bio-oil yield of 31.2, 34.1, and 29.5wt.% was obtained at 350, 450 and 350°C for prot lignin, alkali lignin and dealkaline lignin respectively. Maximum yield of phenolic compounds 78%, 80% and 92% from prot lignin, alkali and dealkaline lignin at 350, 450 and 350°C. The differences in the pyrolysis products indicated the source of lignins such as soft and hard wood lignins. The biochar characterisation revealed that the various ether linkages were broken during pyrolysis and lignin was converted into monomeric substituted phenols. Bio-oil showed that the relative contents of each phenolic compound changes significantly with pyrolysis temperature and also the relative contents of each compound changes with different samples.

  13. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulphur species from combustion. Quarterly report No. 10, December 1992--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Wu, Baochun

    1993-07-26

    A number of sorbents with alumina-silicate base and sulfur capturing active sites have been developed for simultaneous removal of alkali metal compounds and sulfur dioxide. Current report will focus on bauxite sorbents, which includes experiments on sulfur dioxide absorption, alkali capturing and alkali/sulfur absorption simultaneously by bauxite-based sorbents. The alkali compound used here is sodium chloride. Experiments show an effective adsorption of sulfur or alkali separately, and the combined adsorption of alkali/sulfur. Atomic absorption analysis of reaction products shows that there is a much higher sodium content in the combined reaction products than that of the single reaction of alkali absorption by bauxite. Further X-ray diffraction analysis shows that there is sodium sulfate in the final products of simultaneous reaction, which indicates the formation and then condensation of sodium sulfate in the reaction system.

  14. Chemo-mechanical modeling for prediction of alkali silica reaction (ASR) expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Multon, Stephane Sellier, Alain; Cyr, Martin

    2009-06-15

    The effect of the size of the aggregate on ASR expansion has already been well illustrated. This paper presents a microscopic model to analyze the development of ASR expansion of mortars containing reactive aggregate of different sizes. The attack of the reactive silica by alkali was determined through the mass balance equation, which controls the diffusion mechanism in the aggregate and the fixation of the alkali in the ASR gels. The mechanical part of the model is based on the damage theory in order to assess the decrease of stiffness of the mortar due to cracking caused by ASR and to calculate the expansion of a Representative Elementary Volume (REV) of concrete. Parameters of the model were estimated by curve fitting the expansions of four experimental mortars. The paper shows that the decrease of expansion with the size of the aggregate and the increase of the expansion with the alkali content are reproduced by the model, which is able to predict the expansions of six other mortars containing two sizes of reactive aggregate and cast with two alkali contents.

  15. Summary of research on the effect of LiNO{sub 3} on alkali-silica reaction in new concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Thomas, M.D.A.; Bremner, T.W.; Folliard, K.J.; Fournier, B.

    2010-04-15

    This paper summarizes findings from a research study conducted at the University of New Brunswick in collaboration with the University of Texas at Austin, and CANMET-MTL, on the effect of LiNO{sub 3} on ASR in new concrete. The studies included expansion testing, silica dissolution measurements and microstructural examinations of cement systems containing glass and two different reactive aggregates (NB and NS). Only a small proportion of the data are presented here for the purpose of highlighting the principal findings of this investigation. Based on these findings, it is proposed that the inhibiting effect of LiNO{sub 3} against ASR in new concrete is attributed to the formation of two reaction products in the presence of lithium, these being a crystalline lithium silicate compound (Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) crystal and a Li-bearing, low Ca silica gel. These two phases could serve as a diffusion barrier and protective layer to prevent the reactive silica from further attack by alkalis. It was found that the reason the two reactive aggregates selected responded differently to LiNO{sub 3} was due to the difference in their textural features. The NB aggregate contained reactive volcanic glass particles, the surface of which was immediately and equally available to sodium, potassium and lithium, and thus a Li-Si barrier was able to form quickly. The reactive phase in the NS aggregate was microcrystalline and strained quartz, which was embedded in a dense matrix of a non-reactive predominantly alumino-silicate phase and was not easily accessible to lithium.

  16. Crystallized alkali-silica gel in concrete from the late 1890s

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Karl . E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Gress, David . E-mail: dlgress@unh.edu; Van Dam, Tom . E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Sutter, Lawrence . E-mail: cee@mtu.edu

    2006-08-15

    The Elon Farnsworth Battery, a concrete structure completed in 1898, is in an advanced state of disrepair. To investigate the potential for rehabilitation, cores were extracted from the battery. Petrographic examination revealed abundant deposits of alkali silica reaction products in cracks associated with the quartz rich metasedimentary coarse aggregate. The products of the alkali silica reaction are variable in composition and morphology, including both amorphous and crystalline phases. The crystalline alkali silica reaction products are characterized by quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The broad extent of the reactivity is likely due to elevated alkali levels in the cements used.

  17. Desulfurizing Coal With an Alkali Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental coal-desulfurization process uses alkalies and steam in fluidized-bed reactor. With highly volatile, high-sulfur bituminous coal, process removed 98 percent of pyritic sulfur and 47 percent of organic sulfur. Used in coal liquefaction and in production of clean solid fuels and synthetic liquid fuels. Nitrogen or steam flows through bed of coal in reactor. Alkalies react with sulfur, removing it from coal. Nitrogen flow fluidizes bed while heating or cooling; steam is fluidizing medium during reaction.

  18. Methods for Controlling Effects of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    calcium hydroxide with water showed the reactivity of the fume and identified a well crystallized calcium silicate (CSH-I) as the reaction product. 9...tridymite High- and low-temperature Minor cristobalite I i %’I There was probably also some amorphous material. Similar work with a separate hand sample...8217 "."".’ " ".’""., combinations of silica fume and CH with water resulted in the formation of h well crystallized calcium silicate hydrate-I (CSH-I

  19. Bioelectrochemical recovery of waste-derived volatile fatty acids and production of hydrogen and alkali.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-09-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are organic compounds of great importance for various industries and environmental processes. Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic wastes are promising alternative technologies for VFA production. However, one of the major challenges is development of sustainable downstream technologies for VFA recovery. In this study, an innovative microbial bipolar electrodialysis cell (MBEDC) was developed to meet the challenge of waste-derived VFA recovery, produce hydrogen and alkali, and potentially treat wastewater. The MBEDC was operated in fed-batch mode. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, a VFA recovery efficiency of 98.3%, H2 of 18.4 mL and alkali production presented as pH of 12.64 were obtained using synthetic fermentation broth. The applied voltage, initial VFA concentrations and composition were affecting the VFA recovery. The energy balance revealed that net energy (5.20-6.86 kWh/kg-VFA recovered) was produced at all the applied voltages (0.8-1.4 V). The coexistence of other anionic species had no negative effect on VFA transportation. The VFA concentration was increased 2.96 times after three consecutive batches. Furthermore, the applicability of MBEDC was successfully verified with digestate. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility of a new method for waste-derived VFA recovery and valuable products production that uses wastewater as fuel and bacteria as catalyst.

  20. Ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse: improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the potential of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment in order to improve the rupture of the recalcitrant structures of the cashew able bagasse (CAB), lignocellulosic by-product in Brazil with no commercial value, is obtained from cashew apple process to juice production, was studied. First, biomass composition of CAB was determined, and the percentage of glucan and lignin was 20.54 ± 0.70% and 33.80 ± 1.30%, respectively. CAB content in terms of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, 19.21 ± 0.35%, 12.05 ± 0.37%, and 38.11 ± 0.08%, respectively, was also determined. Results showed that, after enzymatic hydrolysis, alkali concentration exerted influence on glucose formation, after pretreatment with 0.2 and 1.0 mo L(-1) of NaOH (372 ± 12 and 355 ± 37 mg g(glucan)(-1) ) when 2% (w/v) of cashew apple bagasse pretreated by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment (CAB-M) was used. On the other hand, pretreatment time (15-30 min) and microwave power (600-900 W) exerted no significant effect on hydrolysis. On enzymatic hydrolysis step, improvement on solid percentage (16% w/v) and enzyme load (30 FPU g (CAB-M) (-1) ) increased glucose concentration to 15 g L(-1). The fermentation of the hydrolyzate by Saccharomyces cerevesiae resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 5.6 g L(-1) and 1.41 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  1. Diffusion with chemical reaction: An attempt to explain number density anomalies in experiments involving alkali vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    The mutual diffusion of two reacting gases is examined which takes place in a bath of inert gas atoms. Solutions are obtained between concentric spheres, each sphere acting as a source for one of the reactants. The calculational model is used to illustrate severe number density gradients observed in absorption experiments with alkali vapor. Severe gradients result when sq root k/D R is approximately 5 where k, D, and R are respectively the second order rate constant, the multicomponent diffusion constant, and the geometrical dimension of the experiment.

  2. Mercury from chlor-alkali plants: measured concentrations in food product sugar

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Mercury cell chlor-alkali products are used to produce thousands of other products including food ingredients such as citric acid, sodium benzoate, and high fructose corn syrup. High fructose corn syrup is used in food products to enhance shelf life. A pilot study was conducted to determine if high fructose corn syrup contains mercury, a toxic metal historically used as an anti-microbial. High fructose corn syrup samples were collected from three different manufacturers and analyzed for total mercury. The samples were found to contain levels of mercury ranging from below a detection limit of 0.005 to 0.570 micrograms mercury per gram of high fructose corn syrup. Average daily consumption of high fructose corn syrup is about 50 grams per person in the United States. With respect to total mercury exposure, it may be necessary to account for this source of mercury in the diet of children and sensitive populations. PMID:19171026

  3. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown. PMID:7151750

  4. Cathodoluminescence microscopy and petrographic image analysis of aggregates in concrete pavements affected by alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Stastna, A.; Sachlova, S.; Pertold, Z.; Prikryl, R.; Leichmann, J.

    2012-03-15

    Various microscopic techniques (cathodoluminescence, polarizing and electron microscopy) were combined with image analysis with the aim to determine a) the modal composition and degradation features within concrete, and b) the petrographic characteristics and the geological types (rocks, and their provenance) of the aggregates. Concrete samples were taken from five different portions of Highway Nos. D1, D11, and D5 (the Czech Republic). Coarse and fine aggregates were found to be primarily composed of volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, as well as of quartz and feldspar aggregates of variable origins. The alkali-silica reaction was observed to be the main degradation mechanism, based upon the presence of microcracks and alkali-silica gels in the concrete. Use of cathodoluminescence enabled the identification of the source materials of the quartz aggregates, based upon their CL characteristics (i.e., color, intensity, microfractures, deformation, and zoning), which is difficult to distinguish only employing polarizing and electron microscopy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR in concrete pavements on the Highways Nos. D1, D5 and D11 (Czech Republic). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodoluminescence was combined with various microscopic techniques and image analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR was attributed to aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Source materials of aggregates were identified based on cathodoluminescence characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quartz comes from different volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic parent rocks.

  5. A chemo-mechanical model for the acoustic nonlinearity change in concrete with alkali-silica reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Jacobs, L. J.; Qu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data have demonstrated that damage induced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete, even in its very early stage, can cause changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter β. This provides a means to characterize ASR damage in concrete nondestructively. However, there is currently no model that explains the relationship between the acoustic nonlinearity parameter and ASR damage. In this work, we present a micromechanics-based chemo-mechanical model that relates the acoustic nonlinearity parameter to ASR damage. The mechanical part of the model is developed based on a modified version of the generalized self-consistent theory. The chemical part of the model accounts for two opposing diffusion processes. One is the diffusion of alkali ions in the pore solution into aggregates, and the other is the permeation of ASR gel from the aggregate surface into the surrounding porous cement matrix. Furthermore, a fracture model is used to simulate crack initiation and growth, so that the crack density and total expansion can be obtained. Finally, the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is determined as a function of exposure time by accounting for the gel pressure and the crack density. This model provides a way to quantitatively predict the changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter due to ASR damage, which can be used to guide experimental measurements for nondestructive evaluation of ASR damage.

  6. Microwave NDE method for health-monitoring of concrete structures containing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, A.; Hatfield, S.; Donnell, K. M.; Zoughi, R.; Kurtis, K. E.

    2014-02-01

    The presence of reactive aggregates combined with sufficient moisture and concentration of alkalis are the three basic requirements for damage due alkali-silica reaction (ASR) gel formation and expansion in concrete. For health-monitoring of concrete structures, and in order to investigate the potential for detecting ASR gel formation in existing structures, one potential technique involves studying changes in the temporal complex dielectric constant of concrete structures. In this paper, a microwave nondestructive testing approach is proposed which involves soaking two hardened mortar samples and measuring the change in their temporal complex dielectric constant in order to distinguish between the sample containing ASR gel and the one devoid of it. Part of the free water becomes bound in the sample containing ASR gel and since a portion of the microcracks in this sample contain ASR gel, the rate of evaporation of water of the two samples is expected to be different. The complex dielectric constant of the samples is significantly dependent upon the volumetric level and movement (in and out of the samples) of free water. Therefore, studying the relative different temporal rate of change in this parameter is expected to yield information about the presence or absence of ASR gel.

  7. Pretreatment of banana agricultural waste for bio-ethanol production: individual and interactive effects of acid and alkali pretreatments with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Gadhe, Abhijit; Rath, Ritika; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Wate, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Banana agricultural waste is one of the potential lignocellulosic substrates which are mostly un-utilized but sufficiently available in many parts of the world. In the present study, suitability of banana waste for biofuel production with respect to pretreatment and reducing sugar yield was assessed. The effectiveness of both acid and alkali pretreatments along with autoclaving, microwave heating and ultrasonication on different morphological parts of banana (BMPs) was studied. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and numerical point prediction tool of MINITAB RELEASE 14. Accordingly, the optimum cumulative conditions for maximum recovery of reducing sugar through acid pretreatment are: leaf (LF) as the substrate with 25 min of reaction time and 180°C of reaction temperature using microwave. Whereas, the optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatments are: pith (PH) as the substrate with 51 min of reaction time and 50°C of reaction temperature using ultrasonication (US).

  8. Immediate reactions to rubber products.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, T; Wahl, R

    1992-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of contact urticaria (CU) and systemic reactions to rubber products. Thirty-one patients are presented: most were atopic (20/31) and women (26/31); 71% worked in the medical field; 32.2% (10/31) showed signs of hand dermatitis. In 28 patients (90.3%), rub and/or prick tests with liquid latex in different dilutions and with latex gloves led to an immediate type of positive reaction. The allergen(s) appear in part to be water soluble: 20 of 28 patients (71.4%) revealed positive test reactions to an aqueous glove extract. In two patients, urticarial test reactions to tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD), mercapto mix, and p-phenylenediamine (PPD mix) were considered as possible contributing factors of CU. Cornstarch was negative in all patients (scratch). Sixteen of 27 sera (59.2%) showed radioallergosorbent (RAST) class 0 using latex allergen disks. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacoyl-amide (SDS-PAGE) determined protein bands of less than or equal to 14 kD (not allergen specific) and approx 28 kD. The Western blot detected the 28 kD protein as allergen in the sera of three patients. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) proved no protein bands. Immunoprinting performed with sera of five patients presented allergen bands in a pH range between 3.8 and 4.55. This shows the radio staining (immunoprint) is more sensitive than is the Coomassie blue staining. Although three sera showed RAST class 0, immunoblotting detected allergen bands. In this case the immunoblot appears to be more sensitive than the RAST. A cross reactivity between latex and banana could not be established. Alternative gloves are Neolon (neoprene) or Elastyren (styrene-butadiene polymer).

  9. Enhanced cellulosic ethanol production from mild-alkali pretreated rice straw in SSF using Clavispora NRRL Y-50464

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the first lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from mild alkali retreated rice straw using a native ß-glucosidase producing yeast strain, Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 by SSF. Ethanol production and efficiency of ethanol conversion from 10, 15, and 20% of solids loading of rice stra...

  10. Sugar production from barley straw biomass pretreated by combined alkali and enzymatic extrusion.

    PubMed

    Duque, A; Manzanares, P; Ballesteros, I; Negro, M J; Oliva, J M; González, A; Ballesteros, M

    2014-04-01

    A pretreatment that combines a thermo-mechanical process (extrusion) with chemical and biological catalysts to produce fermentable sugars from barley straw (BS) biomass was investigated. BS was firstly extruded with alkali and then, the pretreated material (extrudate) was submitted to extrusion with hydrolytic enzymes (bioextrusion). The bioextrudate was found to have 35% (w/w dwb) of total solids in soluble form, partly coming from carbohydrate hydrolysis during bioextrusion. About 48% of soluble solids dry weight is comprised by sugars, mostly glucose and xylose. Further enzymatic hydrolysis of bioextrudate could be successfully carried out at high solid loading level of 30% (w/v), with sugar production yield of 32 g glucose and 18 g xylose/100g bioextrudate at 72 h incubation (equivalent to 96 and 52 g/l concentration, respectively). These results, together with the high level of integration of the process, indicate a great potential of this pretreatment technology for sugar production from lignocellulosic substrates.

  11. Alkali pretreatment enhances biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunqin; Wang, Dehan; Wu, Shaoquan; Wang, Chunmin

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this research was to develop an alkali pretreatment process prior to anaerobic digestion (AD) of pulp and paper sludge (PPS) to improve the methane productivity. Different concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution were used to pretreat PPS, and then followed by AD of PPS and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed bioreactors, 1L capacity with 700 mL worked. Optimal amount of sodium hydroxide for organics solubilization in the step of pretreatment was 8 g NaOH/100g TS(sludge). Under this condition, the PPS flocs structure was well disrupted resulting in the void rate and fiber size decreased after pretreatment, and SCOD increased up to 83% as well as the peak value of VFA concentration attained 1040 mg acetic acid/L during AD. The AD efficiency of PPS with and without pretreatment was evaluated. The highest methane yield under optimal pretreatment condition was 0.32 m(3) CH(4)/kg VS(removal), 183.5% of the control. The results indicated that alkali/NaOH pretreatment could be an effective method for improving methane yield with PPS.

  12. Alkaline melt - peridotite reaction as a potential mechanism for the nephelinite-alkali basalt transition observed in intraplate volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilet, S.; Rochat, L. L.; Baker, M. B.; Stolper, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Melt-peridotite reaction is a process that can significantly modify the compositions of melts as they transit the mantle. Depending on the silica activity of the liquid such interaction can cause either the dissolution of olivine (ol) with associated precipitation of orthopyroxene (opx), or opx dissolution and ol precipitation. Here we show that the reaction between alkaline melts and peridotite at pressures of 1.5-3 GPa can reproduce the range of mafic compositions seen in intraplate volcanoes. Alkaline lavas from continental volcanoes or oceanic islands underlain by thick lithosphere (>50 km) are characterized by a compositional continuum from nephelinites to alkali olivine basalts (and sometimes to tholeiites). This continuum is associated with a decrease in incompatible trace-element concentrations from nephelinitic to less alkaline magmas. This continuum is classically interpreted as reflecting an increase in the degree of partial melting of a common source. However, no experiments on mantle lithologies (peridotite, pyroxenite) have reproduced the observed compositional spectrum (or even the observed range of silica contents: ~40 to 48 wt. % SiO2). Further, the decreases in HREE concentrations in lavas along the continuum (i.e., nephelinites to alkali olivine basalts/tholeiites) seem difficult to explain by increasing degrees of partial melting of a common source. Alternatively, this continuum could be explained by reaction between nephelinitic/basanitic liquid and peridotite [1, 2]. To test this hypothesis, we performed 'sandwich' experiments in which a layer of hornblendite (producing nephelinitic liquids upon melting [2]) was packed between layers of moderately depleted peridotite. Experiments were performed at 1.5, 2.5, and 3 GPa and temperatures of 1225-1450°C. The melts produced by the reaction are significantly richer in SiO2 (~4-5 wt. %) than the initial alkaline liquid; this increase is explained by the dissolution of opx at all three pressures and

  13. Effects of chemical form of sodium on the product characteristics of alkali lignin pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-liang; Yuan, Hong-you; Yin, Xiu-li; Wu, Chuang-zhi; Wu, Shu-bin; Zhou, Zhao-qiu

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Na as organic bound form or as inorganic salts form on the pyrolysis products characteristics of alkali lignin were investigated by using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR), tube furnace and thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results of TG-FTIR and tube furnace indicated that the two chemical forms Na reduced the releasing peak temperature of CO and phenols leading to the peak temperature of the maximum mass loss rate shifted to low temperature zone. Furthermore, organic bound Na obviously improved the elimination of alkyl substituent leading to the yields of phenol and guaiacol increased, while inorganic Na increased the elimination of phenolic hydroxyl groups promoting the formation of ethers. It was also found the two chemical forms Na had different effects on the gasification reactivity of chars. For inorganic Na, the char conversion decreased with increasing the char forming temperature, while organic bound Na was opposite.

  14. Improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from corn stalk by alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ling-Yan; Ma, Yu-Long; Ma, Xiao-Xia; Lv, Jun-Min

    2016-07-01

    A combinative technology of alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was used to pretreat corn stalk (CS) for improving the efficiencies of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The results showed that this strategy could not only remove hemicellulose and lignin but also decrease the crystallinity of cellulose. About 98.0% of enzymatic hydrolysis yield was obtained from the pretreated CS as compared with 46.9% from the untreated sample. The yield for corresponding ethanol yield was 64.6% while untreated CS was only 18.8%. Besides, xylose yield obtained from the untreated CS was only 11.1%, while this value was 93.8% for alkali with NMMO pretreated sample. These results suggest that a combination of alkali with 50% (wt/wt) NMMO solution may be a promising alternative for pretreatment of lignocellulose, which can increase the productions of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

  15. Optimization of alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil for production of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Meher, L C; Dharmagadda, Vidya S S; Naik, S N

    2006-08-01

    Studies were carried out on transesterification of Karanja oil with methanol for the production of biodiesel. The reaction parameters such as catalyst concentration, alcohol/oil molar ratio, temperature, and rate of mixing were optimized for production of Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME). The fatty acid methyl esters content in the reaction mixture were quantified by HPLC and 1H NMR method. The yield of methyl esters from Karanja oil under the optimal condition was 97-98%.

  16. Coupled alkali feldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in batch systems: 4. Numerical modeling of kinetic reaction paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Lu, Peng; Zheng, Zuoping; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores how dissolution and precipitation reactions are coupled in batch reactor experimental systems at elevated temperatures. This is the fourth paper in our series of "Coupled Alkali Feldspar Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation in Batch Systems". In our third paper, we demonstrated via speciation-solubility modeling that partial equilibrium between secondary minerals and aqueous solutions was not attained in feldspar hydrolysis batch reactors at 90-300 °C and that a strong coupling between dissolution and precipitation reactions follows as a consequence of the slower precipitation of secondary minerals ( Zhu and Lu, 2009). Here, we develop this concept further by using numerical reaction path models to elucidate how the dissolution and precipitation reactions are coupled. Modeling results show that a quasi-steady state was reached. At the quasi-steady state, dissolution reactions proceeded at rates that are orders of magnitude slower than the rates measured at far from equilibrium. The quasi-steady state is determined by the relative rate constants, and strongly influenced by the function of Gibbs free energy of reaction ( ΔG) in the rate laws. To explore the potential effects of fluid flow rates on the coupling of reactions, we extrapolate a batch system ( Ganor et al., 2007) to open systems and simulated one-dimensional reactive mass transport for oligoclase dissolution and kaolinite precipitation in homogeneous porous media. Different steady states were achieved at different locations along the one-dimensional domain. The time-space distribution and saturation indices (SI) at the steady states were a function of flow rates for a given kinetic model. Regardless of the differences in SI, the ratio between oligoclase dissolution rates and kaolinite precipitation rates remained 1.626, as in the batch system case ( Ganor et al., 2007). Therefore, our simulation results demonstrated coupling among dissolution, precipitation, and flow rates

  17. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, Phase 1 and Phase 2. Final report, October 1979 - February 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, C.R.; Gould, R.K.; Felder, W.

    1981-03-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  18. A study of switchgrass pyrolysis: Product variability and reaction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovee, Jonathan Matthew

    Samples of the same cultivar of cave-in-rock switchgrass were harvested from plots in Frankenmuth, Roger City, Cass County, and Grand Valley, Michigan. It was determined that variation exists, between locations, among the pyrolytic compounds which can lead to variability in bio-oil and increased processing costs at bio-refineries to make hydrocarbon fuels. Washed and extractives-free switchgrass samples, which contain a lower alkali and alkaline earth metals content than untreated samples, were shown to produce lower amounts of acids, esters, furans, ketones, phenolics, and saccharides and also larger amounts of aldehydes upon pyrolysis. Although the minerals catalyzed pyrolytic reactions, there was no evidence indicating their effect on reducing the production of anhydrosugars, specifically levoglucosan. To further link minerals present in the biomass to a catalytic pathway, mathematic models were employed to determine the kinetic parameters of the switchgrass. While the calculated activation energies of switchgrass, using the FWO and KAS methods, were 227.7 and 217.8 kJ/mol, correspondingly, it was concluded that the activation energies for the switchgrass hemicellulose and cellulose peaks were 115.5 and 158.2 kJ/mol, respectively, using a modified model-fitting method. The minerals that effect the production of small molecules and levoglucosan also have an observable catalytic effect on switchgrass reaction rate, which may be quantifiable through the use of reaction kinetics so as to determine activation energy.

  19. Development of microwave and impedance spectroscopy methods for in-situ nondestructive evaluation of alkali silica reaction in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heifetz, Alexander; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Lu, Juan; Aranson, Igor S.; Vinokur, Valerii M.; Bentivegna, Anthony F.

    2017-02-01

    Aging concrete degradation due to alkali silica reaction (ASR) is a challenge to sustainability of critical infrastructure, such as nuclear power plants. Currently, there is no standard, nondestructive method for detecting ASR in concrete. We report on the progress in developing electromagnetic (EM) methods, consisting of microwave and impedance spectroscopy techniques, for nondestructive detection of ASR. The microwave and impedance spectroscopy methods are complementary since they provide information about material electrical properties in GHz and Hz to KHz EM spectral bands, respectively. Preliminary studies were conducted using accelerated testing concrete prism specimens developed according to ASTM C1293 standard. Microwave and impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed on ASR specimens at the first and the second month maturity level, as well as on age-matched controls. Microwave tests consisted of reflection and transmission measurements using dielectric-loaded antennas, with the focus on X-band spectrum. Impedance measurements were performed using flexible electrode patches. Measurement results by both microwave and impedance spectroscopy methods indicate observable differences in electrical properties between reactive and non-reactive specimens. In addition, trends in measurement data obtained with the two complementary EM techniques are consistent and correlate with ASR progression in specimens.

  20. Evidence of alkali rich melt reactions with mantle peridotite : Natural observations and experimental analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, T. B.; Milke, R.; Wunder, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Heldburg Phonolite, (Thuringia, Germany) is peculiar in its nature due to its absence of a Eu anomaly, and hence lack of feldspar fractionation, as well as the presence of spinel lherzolite xenocrysts. These observations suggest a higher than normal (mantle) pressure of origin, and its potential as a metasomatic agent at depth is explored in this work. Disequilibrium between the phonolite and its entrained upper mantle xenocrysts resulted in the development of secondary reaction rim assemblages of; (1) phlogopite + minor diopside around olivine, (2) pargasitic amphibole, phlogopite and minor diopside around orthopyroxene. We document both the natural rims and the attempts to reproduce them under experimental conditions, in order to elucidate the likely origin of the phonolite and its efficacy for metasomatising the upper mantle. Platinum capsules were loaded with mixtures of crushed mineral separates, (of pure synthetic forsterite, San Carlos olivine, synthetic enstatite or a natural enstatite from Kilosa, Tanzania) with a synthetic Fe-free phonolite melt in a 16:84% weight ratio, respectively. Experiments were run in a piston cylinder apparatus with CaF2 as the pressure medium. In addition to varying PT conditions, a wide range of water contents were tested (0-14wt%). It was found that pressures of 10-14 kbar, and temperatures of 900-1000°C, satisfy the conditions at which the reactions can form, thus, it is likely that the phonolite existed at upper mantle conditions. Water must be present to stabilize the desired hydrous phases, with >6wt% required at 900°C and 10 kbar. The destabilization of feldspar is also essential to the process, hence higher water contents are needed at the lowest PT conditions compared to 4-5 wt. % H2O at greater PT. The formation of amphibole around enstatite appears to be affected by sluggish reaction kinetics and the orientation of the host pyroxene, sometimes leading to diopside single rims. Furthermore we note some of the

  1. Alkali-activated binders by use of industrial by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Buchwald, A.; Schulz, M

    2005-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) materials are used as alkaline accelerators for latent hydraulic substances and as alkali activators for different alumosilicate materials, including ground-granulated blast furnace slag, low-calcium fly ash and metakaolin. The dusts differ in their phase composition, especially in the amount of reactive phases and the kind and amount of alkali salts. The quantitative phase composition, pore solution composition and strength behavior of the activated blends is reported.

  2. Development of the microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell for desalination as well as acid and alkali productions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanshan; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo; Qin, Bangyu; Luo, Yong

    2012-02-21

    By combining the microbial electrolysis cell and the microbial desalination cell, the microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) becomes a novel device to desalinate salty water. However, several factors, such as sharp pH decrease and Cl(-) accumulation in the anode chamber, limit the MEDC development. In this study, a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) was developed with four chambers using a bipolar membrane. Results showed that the pH in the anode chamber of the MEDCC always remained near 7.0, which greatly enhanced the microbial activities in the cell. With applied voltages of 0.3-1.0 V, 62%-97% of Coulombic efficiencies were achieved from the MEDCC, which were 1.5-2.0 times of those from the MEDC. With 10 mL of 10 g/L NaCl in the desalination chamber, desalination rates of the MEDCC reached 46%-86% within 18 h. Another unique feature of the MEDCC was the simultaneous production of HCl and NaOH in the cell. With 1.0 V applied voltage, the pH values at 18 h in the acid-production chamber and cathode chamber were 0.68 and 12.9, respectively. With the MEDCC, the problem with large pH changes in the anode chamber was resolved, and products of the acid and alkali were obtained.

  3. Biological treatment of wastewater discharged from biodiesel fuel production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification.

    PubMed

    Suehara, Ken-ichiro; Kawamoto, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Eiko; Kohda, Jiro; Nakano, Yasuhisa; Yano, Takuo

    2005-10-01

    The biological treatment of wastewater discharged from a biodiesel fuel (BDF) production plant conducting alkali catalysis transesterification was investigated. BDF wastewater has a high pH and high hexane-extracted oil and low nitrogen concentrations, and inhibits the growth of microorganisms. The biological treatment of BDF wastewater is difficult because the composition of such wastewater is not suitable for microbial growth. To apply the microbiological treatment of BDF wastewater using an oil degradable yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, the pH was adjusted to 6.8 and several nutrients such as a nitrogen source (ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride or urea), yeast extract, KH2PO4 and MgSO4.7H2O were added to the wastewater. The optimal initial concentration of yeast extract was 1 g/l and the optimal C/N ratio was between 17 and 68 when using urea as a nitrogen source. A growth inhibitor was also present in the BDF wastewater, and this growth inhibitor could be detected by measuring the solid content in an aqueous phase after the hexane extraction of the wastewater. Microorganisms could not grow at solid contents higher than 2.14 g/l in the wastewater. To avoid the growth inhibition, the BDF wastewater was diluted with the same volume of water. Oil degradation in the diluted BDF wastewater was observed and the best result was obtained under the determined optimal conditions. This treatment system is simple because no controllers, except for a temperature, are necessary. These results suggest that the biological treatment system developed for BDF wastewater is useful for small-scale BDF production plants.

  4. Comparative study on sample stacking by moving reaction boundary formed with weak acid and weak or strong alkali in capillary electrophoresis: I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chengxi; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Liuyin; Shao, Jing; Li, Si

    2011-05-15

    The condensation of low abundance zwitterion substance, such as protein and peptide, has great significance to the study on proteomics. This paper develops the theory on design of online stacking conditions of zwitterion by a moving reaction boundary (MRB) in capillary electrophoresis (CE). This concerns the choice of running and sample buffers, velocity design of MRB, and salt effect on the stacking. The theoretical results unveil that: (1) the velocity of MRB formed with weak acidic buffer and strong alkali should be set between zero and the velocity of zwitterion in the alkali phase, or no stacking occurs; (2) if a strong alkali is used to prepare the sample, a much long front plug of strong base must be injected before the alkaline sample plug for complete stacking, whereas no such front plug is needed if a weak alkali with enough high concentration and pH value is used to prepare the sample buffer; (3) the existence of salt in sample matrix has a weak effect on the stacking of zwitterion if sample is prepared with weak alkaline buffer, while has a dramatic effect on the same stacking if with a strong base buffer. In addition, the concentration of weak alkali used for preparation of sample should be set at the point, at which the velocity of MRB is as much as possible close to that of negative zwitterion. The developed theory and its computation are quantitatively proved by the experiments of zwitterion stacking by the MRB as shown in the previous and the accompanying papers. The proposed theoretic results hold obvious significances on-column stacking of low abundance zwitterions, such as amino acid, or peptides or proteins, in CE.

  5. Production of Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters by Optimized Alkali-Catalyzed Methanolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present study, biodiesel was prepared from sunflower oil by transesterification of crude oil with methanol using a variety of reaction conditions. The objectives of this work were to optimize sunflower oil methyl ester (SOME) production and to evaluate the resultant optimized methyl esters a...

  6. Dynamics of alkali ions-neutral molecules reactions: Radio frequency-guided beam experimental cross-sections and direct quasiclassical trajectory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, J.; Andres, J. de; Lucas, J. M.; Alberti, M.; Huarte-Larranaga, F.; Bassi, D.; Aguilar, A.

    2012-11-27

    Different reactive processes taking place in collisions between alkali ions and neutral i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}Cl molecules in the low (center of mass frame) energy range have been studied using an octopole radiofrequency guided-ion-beam apparatus developed in our laboratory. Cross-section energy dependences for all these reactions have been obtained in absolute units. Ab initio electronic structure calculations for those colliding systems evolving on the ground single potential surface have given relevant information on the main topological features of the surfaces. For some of the reactions a dynamic study by 'on the fly' trajectories has complemented the available experimental and electronic structure information.

  7. Alkali- or acid-induced changes in structure, moisture absorption ability and deacetylating reaction of β-chitin extracted from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) pens.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-01-01

    Alkali- or acid-induced structural modifications in β-chitin from squid (Dosidicus gigas, d'Orbigny, 1835) pens and their moisture absorption ability (MAA) and deacetylating reaction were investigated and compared with α-chitin from shrimp shells. β-Chitin was converted into the α-form after 3h in 40% NaOH or 1-3 h in 40% HCl solution, and α-chitin obtained from NaOH treatment had higher MAA than had native α-chitin, due to polymorphic destructions. In contrast, induced α-chitin from acid treatment of β-chitin had few polymorphic modifications, showing no significant change (P>0.05) in MAA. β-Chitin was more susceptible to alkali deacetylation than was α-chitin, and required a lower concentration of NaOH and shorter reaction time. These results demonstrate that alkali- or acid-treated β-chitin retained high susceptibility toward solvents, which in turn resulted in good biological activity of β-chitosan for use as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial substance or application as edible coatings and films for various food applications.

  8. Energy distribution among reaction products. IV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maylotte, D. H.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Use of an infrared chemiluminescence technique, called 'Method II,' or the 'method of arrested relaxation' to measure the distribution of energy among products of the Cl + HI and Cl + DI reactions. Preliminary results are also given for the Br + HI and Cl + HBr reactions. Instead of measuring vibrational relaxation, Method II attempts to arrest vibrational and rotational relaxation by the rapid removal of excited products at a cold surface.

  9. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  10. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  11. Efficient destruction of CF4 through in situ generation of alkali metals from heated alkali halide reducing mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Churl; Choi, Wonyong

    2002-03-15

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the most potent green house gases that are very recalcitrant at destruction. An effective way of converting PFCs using hot solid reagents into safe products has been recently introduced. By investigating the thermal reductive destruction of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) we provided new insight and more physicochemical consideration on this novel process. The complete destruction of CF4was successfully achieved by flowing the gas through a heated reagent bed (400-950 degrees C) that contained powder mixtures of alkali halides, CaO, and Si. The silicon acted as a reducing agent of alkali halides for the in-situ production of alkali metals, and the calcium oxide played the role of a halide ion acceptor. The absence of any single component in this ternary mixture drastically reduced the destruction efficiency of CF4. The CF4 destruction efficiencies with the solid reagent containing the alkali halide, MX, increased in the order of Li approximately Na < K < Cs for alkali cations and I < Br < Cl < F for halide anions. This trend agreed with the endothermicity of the alkali metal generation reaction: the higher the endothermicity, the lower the destruction efficiency. Alkali metal generation was indirectly detected by monitoring H2 production from its reaction with water. The production of alkali metals increased with NaF, KF, and CsF in this order. The CsF/CaO/Si system exhibited the complete destruction of CF4 at as low as 600 degrees C. The solid product analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of CaF2 and the depletion of Si with black carbon particles formed in the solid reagent residue. No CO/CO2 and toxic HF and SiF4 formation were detected in the exhaust gas.

  12. [Pretreatment of oil palm residues by dilute alkali for cellulosic ethanol production].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhou, Yujie; Li, Jinping; Dai, Lingmei; Liu, Dehua; Zhang, Jian'an; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2013-04-01

    In the study, we used oil palm residues (empty fruit bunch, EFB) as raw material to produce cellulosic ethanol by pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Firstly, the pretreatment of EFB with alkali, alkali/hydrogen peroxide and the effects on the components and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose were studied. The results show that dilute alkali was the suitable pretreatment method and the conditions were first to soak the substrate with 1% sodium hydroxide with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 at 40 degrees C for 24 h, and then subjected to 121 degrees C for 30 min. Under the conditions, EFB solid recovery was 74.09%, and glucan, xylan and lignin content were 44.08%, 25.74% and 13.89%, respectively. After separated with alkali solution, the pretreated EFB was washed and hydrolyzed for 72 h with 5% substrate concentration and 30 FPU/g dry mass (DM) enzyme loading, and the conversion of glucan and xylan reached 84.44% and 89.28%, respectively. We further investigated the effects of substrate concentration and enzyme loading on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The results show that when enzyme loading was 30 FPU/g DM and substrate concentration was increased from 5% to 25%, ethanol concentration were 9.76 g/L and 35.25 g/L after 72 h fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (inoculum size 5%, V/V), which was 79.09% and 56.96% of ethanol theory yield.

  13. Preparatory production of quercetin-3-β-D-glucopyranoside using alkali-tolerant thermostable α-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Weignerová, Lenka; Marhol, Petr; Gerstorferová, Daniela; Křen, Vladimír

    2012-07-01

    Extensive screening for a robust producer of α-L-rhamnosidase activity from well-defined strains of filamentous fungi, including multifactorial optimization (inducers, cultivation conditions) was accomplished. Enzyme production of the optimal producer Aspergillus terreus (non-toxigenic) was scaled up to 50L. α-L-Rhamnosidase, which was fully characterized, proved to be thermo- and alkali-tolerant, thus enabling effective operation at 70°C and pH 8.0. These conditions allow for a very high substrate (rutin) load up to 100-300 g/L, thus enabling very high volumetric productivity of the reaction product quercetin-3-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin). Here, a novel concept of "immobilised substrate" is used. Isoquercitrin is a highly effective and biocompatible antioxidant with strong anti-inflammatory activities. Rutin biotransformation was optimized and scaled up to ca 10 kg production and thus the robustness of the large-scale production was demonstrated. Isoquercitrin can be produced to a very high purity (98%) in multikilogram amounts, without any quercetin and directly applicable in nutraceuticals.

  14. Essential contribution of CCL3 to alkali-induced corneal neovascularization by regulating vascular endothelial growth factor production by macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peirong; Li, Longbiao; Wu, Yu; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the roles of CCL3 and its specific chemokine receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, in alkali-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV). Methods Chemical denudation of corneal and limbal epithelium was performed on wild-type (WT) BALB/c mice and CCL3-, CCR1-, and CCR5-deficienct (knockout [KO]) counterparts. Two weeks after injury CNV was quantified by immunostaining with anti-CD31. Angiogenic factor expression and leukocyte accumulation in the early phase after injury were quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. Results Alkali injury augmented the intraocular mRNA expression of CCL3 and its receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, together with a transient infiltration of F4/80 positive macrophages and Gr-1 positive neutrophils. Compared with WT mice, CCL3-KO and CCR5-KO mice but not CCR1-KO mice exhibited reduced CNV two weeks after injury both macroscopically and microscopically as evidenced by CD31 positive areas. Concomitantly, the infiltration of F4/80 positive macrophages but not Gr-1 positive neutrophils was significantly attenuated in CCL3-KO mice compared with WT mice. Intracorneal infiltration of CCR5 expressing cells was significantly impaired in CCL3-KO mice compared with WT mice. Alkali injury induced a massive increase in the intraocular mRNA expression of a potent angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in WT mice whereas these increments were severely retarded in CCL3-KO mice. Moreover, CCL3 enhanced VEGF expression by murine peritoneal macrophages at both the mRNA and the protein level. Furthermore, topical CCL3 application restored CNV, which was macroscopically and microscopically reduced in CCL3-KO mice after two weeks to levels similar to those found in WT mice. Conclusions In alkali-induced CNV, CCL3 induced macrophages to infiltrate and produce VEGF by binding to CCR5 but not to CCR1 and eventually promoted angiogenesis. PMID:18776949

  15. Trotter products and reaction-diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Emil

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a class of generalized diffusion-reaction equations of the form , where A is a pseudodifferential operator which generates a Feller semigroup. Using the Trotter product formula we give a corresponding discrete time integro-difference equation for numerical solutions.

  16. Validated stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of cefixime trihydrate in the presence of its acid and alkali degradation products.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Nadia M; Abdel-Fattah, Laila; Weshahy, Soheir A; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Boltia, Shereen A

    2015-01-01

    Five simple, accurate, precise, and economical spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of cefixime trihydrate (CFX) in the presence of its acid and alkali degradation products without prior separation. In the first method, second derivative (2D) and first derivative (1D) spectrophotometry was applied to the absorption spectra of CFX and its acid (2D) or alkali (1D) degradation products by measuring the amplitude at 289 and 308 nm, respectively. The second method was a first derivative (1DD) ratio spectrophotometric method where the peak amplitudes were measured at 311 nm in presence of the acid degradation product, and 273 and 306 nm in presence of its alkali degradation product. The third method was ratio subtraction spectrophotometry where the drug is determined at 286 nm in laboratory-prepared mixtures of CFX and its acid or alkali degradation product. The fourth method was based on dual wavelength analysis; two wavelengths were selected at which the absorbances of one component were the same, so wavelengths 209 and 252 nm were used to determine CFX in presence of its acid degradation product and 310 and 321 nm in presence of its alkali degradation product. The fifth method was bivariate spectrophotometric calibration based on four linear regression equations obtained at the wavelengths 231 and 290 nm, and 231 and 285 nm for the binary mixture of CFX with either its acid or alkali degradation product, respectively. The developed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of CFX in laboratory-prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical formulations with good recoveries, and their validation was carried out following the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The results obtained were statistically compared with each other and showed no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

  17. Process for obtaining molybdenum as a useful product from molybdeniferous solutions containing alkali metal carbonate, sulphate, hydroxide or hydrogen carbonate and possibly uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, P.

    1984-02-21

    A process is claimed for obtaining molybdenum as a useful product from aqueous solutions to be purified, according to claim 1 of French patent No. 2,404,601, which contain, besides molybdenum, alkali metal carbonate, sulphate, hydroxide or hydrogen carbonate and which may also contain uranium, and inorganic and/or organic impurities. These solutions are treated at a temperature which is at most equal to the boiling temperature by means of lime to convert the alkali metal carbonate into hydroxide and to precipitate the insoluble calcium salts formed, then separating and washing the first precipitate which essentially contains calcium carbonate, from an alkali metal hydroxide-enriched liquor, which is concentrated by evaporation at the same time as the washing liquor of the first precipitate, to produce an alkali metal hydroxide content which is at most equal to 50%, to produce a second precipitate formed by a mixture of alkali metal molybdate and sulphate, characterized in that said solid mixture is dispersed in an acid aqueous liquor which is heated at from 120/sup 0/C to 250/sup 0/C under pressure to cause precipitation of anhydrous Mo0/sub 3/ which is subsequently separated from the mother liquor which essentially contains alkali metal sulphate.

  18. Oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation on combined acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate for advanced biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhenhua; Zanotti, Michael; Archer, Steven; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    A combined hydrolysis process, which first mixed dilute acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover at a 1:1 (w/w) ratio, directly followed by enzymatic saccharification without pH adjustment, has been developed in this study in order to minimize the need of neutralization, detoxification, and washing during the process of lignocellulosic biofuel production. The oleaginous fungus Mortierella isabellina was selected and applied to the combined hydrolysate as well as a synthetic medium to compare fungal lipid accumulation and biodiesel production in both shake flask and 7.5L fermentor. Fungal cultivation on combined hydrolysate exhibited comparable cell mass and lipid yield with those from synthetic medium, indicating that the integration of combined hydrolysis with oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation has great potential to improve performance of advanced lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  19. Reactive scattering of electronically excited alkali atoms with molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Mestdagh, J.M.; Balko, B.A.; Covinsky, M.H.; Weiss, P.S.; Vernon, M.F.; Schmidt, H.; Lee, Y.T.

    1987-06-01

    Representative families of excited alkali atom reactions have been studied using a crossed beam apparatus. For those alkali-molecule systems in which reactions are also known for ground state alkali and involve an early electron transfer step, no large differences are observed in the reactivity as Na is excited. More interesting are the reactions with hydrogen halides (HCl): it was found that adding electronic energy into Na changes the reaction mechanism. Early electron transfer is responsible of Na(5S, 4D) reactions, but not of Na(3P) reactions. Moreover, the NaCl product scattering is dominated by the HCl/sup -/ repulsion in Na(5S, 4D) reactions, and by the NaCl-H repulsion in the case of Na(3P). The reaction of Na with O/sub 2/ is of particular interest since it was found to be state specific. Only Na(4D) reacts, and the reaction requires restrictive constraints on the impact parameter and the reactants' relative orientation. The reaction with NO/sub 2/ is even more complex since Na(4D) leads to the formation of NaO by two different pathways. It must be mentioned however, that the identification of NaO as product in these reactions has yet to be confirmed.

  20. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies in a chlor-alkali production facility.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo

    2011-06-01

    The waste management of a chlor-alkali and calcium chloride industrial facility from southern Chile was the object of this study. The main solid waste materials generated in these processes are brine sediments and calcium chloride sediments, respectively. Both residues are mixed in the liquid phase and filtered in a press filter, obtaining a final low humidity solid waste, called 'mixed sediments', which is disposed of in an industrial landfill as non-hazardous waste. The aim of the present study was to compare by means of LCA, the current waste management option of the studied chlor-alkali facility, namely landfill disposal, with two new possible options: the reuse of the mixed sediments as mineral additive in compost and the use of brine sediments as an unconventional sorbent for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The functional unit was defined as 1 tonne of waste being managed. To perform this evaluation, software SimaPro 7.0 was used, selecting the Ecoindicator 99 and CML 2000 methodologies for impact evaluation. The obtained results indicate that the use of brine sediments as a novel material for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater (scenario 3) presented environmental benefits when compared with the waste management option of sediments landfilling (scenario 1). The avoided environmental loads, generated by the substitution of activated granular carbon and the removal of Cu and Zn from wastewater in the treatment process generated positive environmental impacts, enhancing the environmental performance of scenario 3.

  1. Amorphisation mechanism of a flint aggregate during the alkali-silica reaction: X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption XANES contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Verstraete, J.; Khouchaf, L.; Bulteel, D.; Garcia-Diaz, E.; Flank, A.M; Tuilier, M.H

    2004-04-01

    Flint samples at different stages of the Alkali-Silica Reaction were prepared and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and silicon K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure techniques (XANES). The results are compared to those of measurements performed on alpha quartz c-SiO{sub 2} and rough flint aggregate. The molar fraction of Q{sub 3} sites is determined as a function of the time of reaction. Up to 14 h of attack, the effect of the reaction seems of little importance. From 30 to 168 h, we showed an acceleration of the effect of the reaction on the crystal structure of the aggregate resulting in an amorphisation of the crystal. During this period, the amorphous fraction increases linearly with the number of Q{sub 3} sites. The results of the XANES confirm the amorphisation of the aggregate during the reaction and show the presence of silicon in a tetrahedral environment of oxygen whatever the time of attack.

  2. Unified ZnO Q-dot growth mechanism from simultaneous UV-Vis and EXAFS monitoring of sol-gel reactions induced by different alkali base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, Bruno L.; Silva, Marlon N.; Santilli, Celso V.; Briois, Valérie; Pulcinelli, Sandra H.

    2016-11-01

    This article aims to give experimental evidences of the universality of main steps involved in ZnO nanoparticles formation and growth from sol-gel process. In this way, we revisit the effect of the alkali base (LiOH, NaOH, KOH) used to induce the hydrolysis-condensation reaction in order to unfold the ZnO Q-dot formation mechanisms by using simultaneous time resolved monitoring of zinc species and Q-dot size by combining EXAFS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Irrespective of the alkali base used, nucleation and growth of ZnO Q-dots occur by consumption of zinc oxy-acetate precursor. Higher amounts of ZnO nanocrystal are produced as the strength of the base increases. After achieving the steady state equilibrium regime the Q-dot growth occurs initially by oriented attachment coalescence mechanism followed by the Ostwald ripening coarsening. The dependence of the formation and growth mechanisms on the base strength allows the fine tuning of the Q-dot size and photoluminescence properties.

  3. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K.

    2009-07-01

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  4. Alkali metal ion catalysis and inhibition in nucleophilic displacement reactions at phosphorus centers: ethyl and methyl paraoxon and ethyl and methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Um, Ik-Hwan; Shin, Young-Hee; Lee, Seung-Eun; Yang, Kiyull; Buncel, Erwin

    2008-02-01

    We report on the ethanolysis of the P=O and P=S compounds ethyl and methyl paraoxon (1a and 1b) and ethyl and methyl parathion (2a and 2b). Plots of spectrophotometrically measured rate constants, kobsd versus [MOEt], the alkali ethoxide concentration, show distinct upward and downward curvatures, pointing to the importance of ion-pairing phenomena and a differential reactivity of free ions and ion pairs. Three types of reactivity and selectivity patterns have been discerned: (1) For the P=O compounds 1a and 1b, LiOEt > NaOEt > KOEt > EtO-; (2) for the P=S compound 2a, KOEt > EtO- > NaOEt > LiOEt; (3) for P=S, 2b, 18C6-crown-complexed KOEt > KOEt = EtO(-) > NaOEt > LiOEt. These selectivity patterns are characteristic of both catalysis and inhibition by alkali-metal cations depending on the nature of the electrophilic center, P=O vs P=S, and the metal cation. Ground-state (GS) vs transition-state (TS) stabilization energies shed light on the catalytic and inhibitory tendencies. The unprecedented catalytic behavior of crowned-K(+) for the reaction of 2b is noteworthy. Modeling reveals an extreme steric interaction for the reaction of 2a with crowned-K(+), which is responsible for the absence of catalysis in this system. Overall, P=O exhibits greater reactivity than P=S, increasing from 50- to 60-fold with free EtO(-) and up to 2000-fold with LiOEt, reflecting an intrinsic P=O vs P=S reactivity difference (thio effect). The origin of reactivity and selectivity differences in these systems is discussed on the basis of competing electrostatic effects and solvational requirements as function of anionic electric field strength and cation size (Eisenman's theory).

  5. Biodiesel production from soybean oil by quaternized polysulfone alkali-catalyzed membrane.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenying; Li, Hongbin; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Haixia; Du, Qiyun

    2016-06-01

    A series of alkalized polysulfones (APSF) were synthesized by several chemical reactions (chloromethylation, quaternization and alkalization). Among these reactions, chloromethylation and quaternization are two key reactions and have been studied in detail regarding the optimization of both chloromethylation and quaternization. FTIR and (1)H NMR spectrum confirmed the successful preparation of chloromethylated polysulfone. The best IEC of APSF was obtained for 1.68meqg(-1) under reaction time of 10h and reaction temperature of 45°C. The APSF membrane as a heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was prepared through the method of solvent evaporation phase inversion. The effects of co-solvent types, mass ratios of soybean oil/co-solvent, water content and free fatty acids (FFAs) content in soybean oil on the conversions using the APSF membrane during transesterification were studied. The reusability of the APSF membrane and the kinetics of the reaction catalyzed by the APSF membrane were also investigated.

  6. Chlor-Alkali Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, S.; Tilak, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    Chlor-alkali technology is one of the largest electrochemical industries in the world, the main products being chlorine and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) generated simultaneously by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. This technology is reviewed in terms of electrochemical principles and manufacturing processes involved. (Author/JN)

  7. Adding nickel formate in alkali lignin to increase contents of alkylphenols and aromatics during fast pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jing; Wang, Wen-Liang; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Jian-Min; Cai, Li-Ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2017-03-01

    The composition of pyrolysis vapors obtained from alkali lignin pyrolysis with the additive of nickel formate was examined using the pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Characterization of bio-chars was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the nickel formate significantly increased liquid yield, simplified the types of alkali lignin pyrolysis products and increased individual component contents. The additive of nickel formate increased contents of alkylphenols and aromatics from alkali lignin pyrolysis. With an increase in temperature, a greater amount of the relative contents can be achieved. The nickel formate was thermally decomposed to form hydrogen, resulting in hydrodeoxygenation of alkali lignin during pyrolysis. It was also found that Ni is in favor of producing alkylphenols. The analysis based on the experimental result provided evidences used to propose reaction mechanism for pyrolysis of nickel formate-assisted alkali lignin.

  8. Combined alkali and acid pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for reducing sugar and biofertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Ji; Liu, Jia-Heng; Sun, Li-Fan; Hu, Zong-Fu; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pretreated with alkaline reagents including potassium hydroxide, lime and ammonia to enhance enzymatic saccharification. Under the best pretreatment conditions (1M KOH, 80 °C, 90 min; 1M lime, 80 °C, 120 min; 10 M ammonia, 70 °C, 120 min), the total reducing sugar (TRS) yield reached 258.6, 204.2 and 251.2 mg/g raw SMS, which were respectively 6.15, 4.86, and 5.98 times of untreated SMS. The effects of pretreatment by above alkaline reagents and sulfuric acid on the composition and structure of SMS were evaluated to provide comparative performance data. A new process, combined alkali and acid (CAA) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, was innovatively proposed to improve the cost-effectiveness and avoid environmental problems. The SMS residue after CAA pretreatment-enzymatic hydrolysis process was converted to biofertilizer with Pichia farinose FL7 and a cell density of 3.0×10(8) cfu/g in biomass was attained.

  9. Desiccating Stress-Induced MMP Production and Activity Worsens Wound Healing in Alkali-Burned Corneas

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Fang; Pelegrino, Flavia S. A.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Volpe, Eugene A.; Li, De-Quan; de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of dry eye on ocular surface protease activity and sight threatening corneal complications following ocular surface chemical injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were subjected to unilateral alkali burn (AB) with or without concomitant dry eye for 2 or 5 days. Mice were observed daily for appearance of corneal perforation. Whole corneas were harvested and lysed for RNA extraction. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure expression of inflammation cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Matrix metalloproteinase–9 activity, gelatinase activity, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated in corneal lysates. Presence of infiltrating neutrophils was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Results Eyes subjected to the combined model of AB and dry eye (CM) had 20% sterile corneal perforation rate as soon as 1 day after the initial injury, which increased to 35% by 5 days, delayed wound closure and increased corneal opacity. Increased levels of IL-1β, -6, and MMPs-1, -3, -8, -9, and -13, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CSCL1) transcripts were found after 2 days in CM compared with AB corneas. Increased MMP-1, -3, -9, and -13 immunoreactivity and gelatinolytic activity were seen in CM corneas compared with AB. Increased neutrophil infiltration and MPO activity was noted in the CM group compared with AB 2 days post injury. Conclusions Desiccating stress worsens outcome of ocular AB, creating a cytokine and protease storm with greater neutrophil infiltration, increasing the risk of corneal perforation. PMID:26225631

  10. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level.

  11. Enhancing bio-butanol production from biomass of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 with sequential alkali pretreatment and acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Guo, Wanqian; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nanqi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a successful butanol production method using alkali and acid pretreated biomass of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6. The butanol concentration, yield, and productivity were 13.1g/L, 0.58mol/mol sugar, 0.66g/L/h, respectively. Nearly 2.93L/L of biohydrogen was produced during the acidogenesis phase in ABE fermentation. The hydrogen yield and productivity were 0.39mol/mol sugar and 104.2g/L/h respectively. In addition, the high glucose consumption efficiency (97.5%) suggests that the hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH (1%) followed by H2SO4 (3%) did not contain inhibitors to the fermentation. It was also discovered that an excess amount of nitrogen sources arising from hydrolysis of highly concentrated microalgal biomass negatively affected the butanol production. This work demonstrates the technical feasibility of producing butanol from sustainable third-generation feedstock (i.e., microalgal biomass).

  12. Structure-dependent interactions between alkali feldspars and organic compounds: implications for reactions in geologic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Min, Yujia; Jun, Young-Shin

    2013-01-02

    Organic compounds in deep saline aquifers may change supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2))-induced geochemical processes by attacking specific components in a mineral's crystal structure. Here we investigate effects of acetate and oxalate on alkali feldspar-brine interactions in a simulated geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) environment at 100 atm of CO(2) and 90 °C. We show that both organics enhance the net extent of feldspar's dissolution, with oxalate showing a more prominent effect than acetate. Further, we demonstrate that the increased reactivity of Al-O-Si linkages due to the presence of oxalate results in the promotion of both Al and Si release from feldspars. As a consequence, the degree of Al-Si order may affect the effect of oxalate on feldspar dissolution: a promotion of ~500% in terms of cumulative Si concentration was observed after 75 h of dissolution for sanidine (a highly disordered feldspar) owing to oxalate, while the corresponding increase for albite (a highly ordered feldspar) was ~90%. These results provide new insights into the dependence of feldspar dissolution kinetics on the crystallographic properties of the mineral under GCS conditions.

  13. Transfer-type products accompanying cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.

    2005-12-15

    Production of nuclei heavier than the target is treated for projectile-target combinations used in cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy nuclei. These products are related to transfer-type or to asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions. The production of isotopes in the transfer-type reactions emitting of {alpha} particles with large energies is discussed.

  14. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2017-01-17

    A method for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock. The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  15. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  16. Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

  17. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes.

  18. Evaluation of thermal, ultrasonic and alkali pretreatments on mixed-microalgal biomass to enhance anaerobic methane production.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sunja; Park, Seonghwan; Seon, Jiyun; Yu, Jaechul; Lee, Taeho

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion was regarded as one of the ways to recover energy from mixed-microalgae biomass in this study. After applying thermal-, ultrasonic-, and alkali-pretreatments to raw microalgae biomass to promote the digestion efficiency, a biochemical methane potential was investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the pre-treatments for the purpose. As the pretreatment intensity increased, the solubilization of the mixed microalgae increased. However, the increased solubilization was not followed proportionally by the increased methane production. The highest methane productivity was achieved by the thermal-pretreatment at 120 °C (405 mL CH4/g-VS), which was 1.2 times higher than that of the non-pretreatment condition (336 mL CH4/g-VS). The net energy analysis revealed that only the pretreatment adjusted to pH 9 yielded a slightly higher energy gains (12.8 kJ/g-VS) than that of non-pretreatment condition (11.9 kJ/g-VS). These findings recommend direct supply of microalgae biomass for anaerobic digestion.

  19. Evolution of the pore structure during the early stages of the alkali-activation reaction: An in situ small-angle neutron scattering investigation

    DOE PAGES

    White, Claire E.; Olds, Daniel P.; Hartl, Monika; ...

    2017-02-01

    The long-term durability of cement-based materials is influenced by the pore structure and associated permeability at the sub-micrometre length scale. With the emergence of new types of sustainable cements in recent decades, there is a pressing need to be able to predict the durability of these new materials, and therefore nondestructive experimental techniques capable of characterizing the evolution of the pore structure are increasingly crucial for investigating cement durability. Here, small-angle neutron scattering is used to analyze the evolution of the pore structure in alkali-activated materials over the initial 24 h of reaction in order to assess the characteristic poremore » sizes that emerge during these short time scales. By using a unified fitting approach for data modeling, information on the pore size and surface roughness is obtained for a variety of precursor chemistries and morphologies (metakaolin- and slag-based pastes). Furthermore, the impact of activator chemistry is elucidatedviathe analysis of pastes synthesized using hydroxide- and silicate-based activators. It is found that the main aspect influencing the size of pores that are accessible using small-angle neutron scattering analysis (approximately 10–500 Å in diameter) is the availability of free silica in the activating solution, which leads to a more refined pore structure with smaller average pore size. Furthermore, as the reaction progresses the gel pores visible using this scattering technique are seen to increase in size.« less

  20. Electroweak meson production reaction in the nucleon resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Toru

    2015-10-15

    We report on our recent study of the the neutrino-nucleon reaction in the nucleon resonance region. The dynamical reaction model of meson production reaction on the nucleon for the pion and photon induced reaction has been developed in order to investigate the spectrum of nucleon excited state. We have extended this model in order to describe the weak meson production reactions with the πN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ and ππN final states. We also studied the role of the final state interaction in the photon and the neutrino induced pion production reaction on the deuteron around the Δ(1232) resonance region.

  1. Alkalis in alternative biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Bryers, R.W.; Baxter, L.L.; Jenkins, B.M.; Oden, L.L.

    1994-12-31

    The alkali content and behavior of inorganic material of annually produced biofuels severely limits their use for generating electrical power in conventional furnaces. A recent eighteen-month investigation of the chemistry and firing characteristics of 26 different biofuels has been conducted. Firing conditions were simulated in the laboratory for eleven biofuels. This paper describes some results from the investigation including fuel properties, deposits, deposition mechanisms, and implications for biomass boiler design, fuel sampling and characterizations. Urban wood fuel, agricultural residues, energy crops, and other potential alternate fuels are included in the study. Conventional methods for establishing fuel alkali content and determining ash sticky temperatures were deceptive. The crux of the problem was found to be the high concentration of potassium in biofuels and its reactions with other fuel constituents which lower the ``sticky temperature`` of the ash to the 650 C to 760 C (1,200 F-1,400 F).

  2. Properties of the solid thermolysis products of brown coal impregnated with an alkali

    SciTech Connect

    Yu.V. Tamarkina; L.A. Bovan; V.A. Kucherenko

    2008-08-15

    The mechanism of formation of a porous active carbon framework is considered, and the properties of the solid thermolysis products of brown coal (Aleksandriisk deposit, Ukraine) with potassium hydroxide are studied. The yields of the solid thermolysis products and potassium humates, the rate of the interaction of the solid thermolysis products with KOH at 700-900{sup o}C, the specific surface areas, the adsorption capacities for methylene blue and iodine, and the specific activities of surface areas are determined under variation of the KOH/coal ratio KOH < 18 mol/kg and temperature (110-900{sup o}C).

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated cashew apple bagasse with alkali and diluted sulfuric Acid for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cashew apple bagasse (CAB) after diluted acid (CAB-H) and alkali pretreatment (CAB-OH), and to evaluate its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose conversion of 82 +/- 2 mg/g CAB-H and 730 +/- 20 mg/g CAB-OH was obtained when 2% (w/v) of solid and 30 FPU/g bagasse was used during hydrolysis at 45 degrees C, 2-fold higher than when using 15 FPU/g bagasse, 44 +/- 2 mg/g CAB-H, and 450 +/- 50 mg/g CAB-OH, respectively. Ethanol concentration and productivity, achieved after 6 h of fermentation, were 20.0 +/- 0.2 g L(-1) and 3.33 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively, when using CAB-OH hydrolyzate (initial glucose concentration of 52.4 g L(-1)). For CAB-H hydrolyzate (initial glucose concentration of 17.4 g L(-1)), ethanol concentration and productivity were 8.2 +/- 0.1 g L(-1) and 2.7 g L(-1) h(-1) in 3 h, respectively. Hydrolyzates fermentation resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.38 and 0.47 g/g glucose with pretreated CAB-OH and CAB-H, respectively. Ethanol concentration and productivity, obtained using CAB-OH hydrolyzate, were close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of cashew apple juice or sugar cane juice.

  4. Alkali-silica reactions of mortars produced by using waste glass as fine aggregate and admixtures such as fly ash and Li2CO3.

    PubMed

    Topçu, Ilker Bekir; Boğa, Ahmet Raif; Bilir, Turhan

    2008-01-01

    Use of waste glass or glass cullet (GC) as concrete aggregate is becoming more widespread each day because of the increase in resource efficiency. Recycling of wastes is very important for sustainable development. When glass is used as aggregate in concrete or mortar, expansions and internal stresses occur due to an alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Furthermore, rapid loss in durability is generally observed due to extreme crack formation and an increase in permeability. It is necessary to use some kind of chemical or mineral admixture to reduce crack formation. In this study, mortar bars are produced by using three different colors of glass in four different quantities as fine aggregate by weight, and the effects of these glass aggregates on ASR are investigated, corresponding to ASTM C 1260. Additionally, in order to reduce the expansions of mortars, 10% and 20% fly ash (FA) as mineral admixture and 1% and 2% Li(2)CO(3) as chemical admixture are incorporated by weight in the cement and their effects on expansion are examined. It is observed that among white (WG), green (GG) and brown glass (BG) aggregates, WG aggregate causes the greatest expansion. In addition, expansion increases with an increase in amount of glass. According to the test results, it is seen that over 20% FA and 2% Li(2)CO(3) replacements are required to produce mortars which have expansion values below the 0.2% critical value when exposed to ASR. However, usages of these admixtures reduce expansions occurring because of ASR.

  5. Energy distribution among reaction products. V.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anlauf, K. G.; Horne, D. S.; Macdonald, R. G.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of three reactions, one point of theoretical interest being the predicted correlation between barrier height and barrier location. The H + Br 2 reaction having a lower activation barrier than H + Cl 2, should have an earlier barrier, and hence a greater percentage attractive energy release and higher efficiency of vibrational excitation. Information is developed concerning the effect of isotopic substitution in the pair of reactions H + Cl 2 and D + Cl 2. The 'arrested relaxation' method was used. Essentially, the method involves reacting two diffuse reagent beams in a reaction vessel with background pressure less than 0.001 torr, and with walls cooled by liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

  6. Assesment of Alkali Resistance of Basalt Used as Concrete Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    al-Swaidani, Aref M.; Baddoura, Mohammad K.; Aliyan, Samira D.; Choeb, Walid

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to report a part of an ongoing research on the influence of using crushed basalt as aggregates on one of durability-related properties of concrete (i.e. alkali-silica reaction which is the most common form of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction). Alkali resistance has been assessed through several methods specified in the American Standards. Results of petrographic examination, chemical test (ASTM C289) and accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C1260) have particularly been reported. In addition, the weight change and compressive strength of 28 days cured concrete containing basaltic aggregates were also reported after 90 days of exposure to 10% NaOH solution. Dolomite aggregate were used in the latter test for comparison. The experimental results revealed that basaltic rocks quarried from As-Swaida'a region were suitable for production of aggregates for concrete. According to the test results, the studied basalt aggregates can be classified as innocuous with regard to alkali-silica reaction. Further, the 10% sodium hydroxide attack did not affect the compressive strength of concrete.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS COMPOSITIONS TO IMMOBILIZE ALKALI, ALKALINE EARTH, LANTHANIDE AND TRANSITION METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.

    2009-06-24

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) waste management strategy revolves around specific treatment of individual or groups of separated waste streams. A goal for the separations processes is to efficiently manage the waste to be dispositioned as high level radioactive waste. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) baseline technology for immobilization of the lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) wastes is vitrification into a borosilicate glass. A current interest is to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined waste streams to most cost effectively immobilize the wastes resulting from aqueous fuel reprocessing. Studies showed that high waste loadings are achievable for the Ln only (Option 1) stream. Waste loadings in excess of 60 wt % (on a calcined oxide basis) were demonstrated via a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. The resulting glasses had excellent relative durability as determined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). For a combined Ln and TM waste stream glass (Option 2), noble metal solubility was found to limit waste loading. However, the measured PCT normalized elemental releases for this glass were at least an order of magnitude below that of Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Current efforts to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined Ln, TM, alkali (Cs is the primary radionuclide of concern) and alkaline earth (Sr is the primary radionuclide of concern) wastes (Option 3) have shown that these approaches are feasible. However, waste loading limitations with respect to heat load (Cs/Sr loading), molybdenum solubility and/or noble metal solubility will likely be realized and must be considered in determining the cost effectiveness of these approaches.

  8. Full-scale treatment of wastewater from a biodiesel fuel production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification.

    PubMed

    De Gisi, Sabino; Galasso, Maurizio; De Feo, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of wastewater derived from a biodiesel fuel (BDF) production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification was studied at full scale. The investigated wastewater treatment plant consisted of the following phases: primary adsorption/coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation processes, biological treatment with the combination of trickling filter and activated sludge systems, secondary flocculation/sedimentation processes, and reverse osmosis (RO) system with spiral membranes. All the processes were developed in a continuous mode, while the RO experiment was performed with batch tests. Two types of BDF wastewater were considered: the first wastewater (WW1) had an average total chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH and feed flow rate of 10,850.8 mg/L, 5.9 and 2946.7 L/h, respectively, while the second wastewater (WW2) had an average total COD, pH and feed flow rate of 43,898.9 mg/L, 3.3 and 2884.6 L/h, respectively. The obtained results from the continuous tests showed a COD removal percentage of more than 90% for the two types of wastewater considered. The removal of biorefractory COD and salts was obtained with a membrane technology in order to reuse the RO permeate in the factory production cycle. The rejections percentage of soluble COD, chlorides and sulphates were 92.8%, 95.0% and 99.5%, respectively. Because the spiral membranes required a high number of washing cycles, the use of plane membranes was preferable. Finally, the RO reject material should be evaporated using the large amount of inexpensive heat present in this type of industry.

  9. GRIZZLY Model of Multi-Reactive Species Diffusion, Moisture/Heat Transfer and Alkali-Silica Reaction for Simulating Concrete Aging and Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hai; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Cai, Guowei

    2015-09-01

    Concrete is widely used in the construction of nuclear facilities because of its structural strength and its ability to shield radiation. The use of concrete in nuclear power plants for containment and shielding of radiation and radioactive materials has made its performance crucial for the safe operation of the facility. As such, when life extension is considered for nuclear power plants, it is critical to have accurate and reliable predictive tools to address concerns related to various aging processes of concrete structures and the capacity of structures subjected to age-related degradation. The goal of this report is to document the progress of the development and implementation of a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical model in GRIZZLY code with the ultimate goal to reliably simulate and predict long-term performance and response of aged NPP concrete structures subjected to a number of aging mechanisms including external chemical attacks and volume-changing chemical reactions within concrete structures induced by alkali-silica reactions and long-term exposure to irradiation. Based on a number of survey reports of concrete aging mechanisms relevant to nuclear power plants and recommendations from researchers in concrete community, we’ve implemented three modules during FY15 in GRIZZLY code, (1) multi-species reactive diffusion model within cement materials; (2) coupled moisture and heat transfer model in concrete; and (3) anisotropic, stress-dependent, alkali-silica reaction induced swelling model. The multi-species reactive diffusion model was implemented with the objective to model aging of concrete structures subjected to aggressive external chemical attacks (e.g., chloride attack, sulfate attack, etc.). It considers multiple processes relevant to external chemical attacks such as diffusion of ions in aqueous phase within pore spaces, equilibrium chemical speciation reactions and kinetic mineral dissolution/precipitation. The moisture

  10. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  11. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  12. Kinetic study of the α-tocopherol-regeneration reaction of ubiquinol-10 in methanol and acetonitrile solutions: notable effect of the alkali and alkaline earth metal salts on the reaction rates.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kazuo; Oi, Masanori; Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi

    2012-03-01

    A kinetic study of regeneration reaction of α-tocopherol (α-TocH) by ubiquinol-10 has been performed in the presence of four kinds of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts (LiClO(4), NaClO(4), NaI, and Mg(ClO(4))(2)) in methanol and acetonitrile solutions, using double-mixing stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The second-order rate constants (k(r)'s) for the reaction of α-tocopheroxyl (α-Toc•) radical with ubiquinol-10 increased and decreased notably with increasing concentrations of metal salts in methanol and acetonitrile, respectively. The k(r) values increased in the order of no metal salt < NaClO(4) ~ NaI < LiClO(4) < Mg(ClO(4))(2) at the same concentration of metal salts in methanol. On the other hand, in acetonitrile, the k(r) values decreased in the order of no metal salt > NaClO(4) ~ NaI > LiClO(4) > Mg(ClO(4))(2) at the same concentration of metal salts. The metal salts having a smaller ionic radius of cation and a larger charge of cation gave a larger k(r) value in methanol, and a smaller k(r) value in acetonitrile. The effect of anion was almost negligible in both the solvents. Notable effects of metal cations on the UV-vis absorption spectrum of α-Toc• radical were observed in aprotic acetonitrile solution, suggesting complex formation between α-Toc• and metal cations. On the other hand, effects of metal cations were negligible in protic methanol, suggesting that the complex formation between α-Toc• and metal cations is hindered by the hydrogen bond between α-Toc• and methanol molecules. The difference between the reaction mechanisms in methanol and acetonitrile solutions was discussed on the basis of the results obtained. High concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts coexist with α-TocH and ubiquinol-10 in plasma, blood, and many tissues, suggesting the contribution of the metal salts to the above regeneration reaction in biological systems.

  13. From unexpected reactions to a new family of ionic co-crystals: the case of barbituric acid with alkali bromides and caesium iodide.

    PubMed

    Braga, Dario; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Prosperi, Susanna; Gobetto, Roberto; Chierotti, Michele R

    2010-11-07

    Pressing solid barbituric acid with KBr to prepare samples for IR spectroscopy leads to the formation of an ionic co-crystal, in which the co-former is a classical ionic salt; co-crystal formation is also obtained with the other alkali bromides (LiBr, NaBr, RbBr and CsBr) and with caesium iodide. The simultaneous presence of alkali and halide ions affects the dissolution properties of barbituric acid in water.

  14. Bimolecular gas-phase exchange of alkali metals between cationized biomolecules and neutral crown ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, M.; Dearden, D.V.; Hofstadler, S.

    1995-12-31

    Electrospray ionization of polypeptides and nucleic acids often yields ions containing sodium or potassium charge carriers. These alkali adducts are frequently the residue of ionic buffers used to preserve protein conformation in solution or artifacts of a natural matrix such as blood plasma. Measures taken in solution to desalinate these samples are hindered by the desire to maintain native conformation. The authors here show that ion-molecule chemistry is an alternate means of removing alkali metal ions from multiply-charged biomolecules. Ion-molecule reactions of multiply charged polypeptides with crown ethers result in adduction of the crown if protons are the only charge bearing species, or desalting if alkali metals are among the charge carriers. Both product ions, the desalted peptide and the crown/alkali metal complex, are observed in the latter case.

  15. Thermochemical cyclic system for splitting water and/or carbon dioxide by means of cerium compounds and reactions useful therein

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.; Robinson, P.R.

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen from water comprises reacting ceric oxide with monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate to yield a solid reaction product, oxygen and water. The solid reaction product, alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, and water, are reacted to yield hydrogen, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Ceric oxide is recycled. Trialkali metal phosphate, carbon dioxide and water are reacted to yield monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate and alkali metal bicarbonate, which are recycled. The cyclic process can be modified for producing carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide by reacting the alkali metal cerous phosphate and alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate in the absence of water to produce carbon monoxide, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Carbon monoxide can be converted to hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction.

  16. Thermochemical cyclic system for splitting water and/or carbon dioxide by means of cerium compounds and reactions useful therein

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1980-01-01

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen from water comprises reacting ceric oxide with monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate to yield a solid reaction product, oxygen and water. The solid reaction product, alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, and water, are reacted to yield hydrogen, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Ceric oxide is recycled. Trialkali metal phosphate, carbon dioxide and water are reacted to yield monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate and alkali metal bicarbonate, which are recycled. The cylic process can be modified for producing carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide by reacting the alkali metal cerous phosphate and alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate in the absence of water to produce carbon monoxide, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Carbon monoxide can be converted to hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction.

  17. Meson Production in p+d Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimala, W.; Betigeri, M.; Bojowald, J.; Budzanowski, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Ernst, J.; Freindl, L.; Frekers, D.; Garske, W.; Grewer, K.; Hamacher, A.; Ilieva, J.; Jarczyk, L.; Kilian, K.; Kliczewski, S.; Kolev, D.; Kutsarova, T.; Lieb, J.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Nann, H.; Pentchev, L.; Plendl, H. S.; Protic, D.; Razen, B.; von Rossen, P.; Roy, B.; Siudak, R.; Smyrski, J.; Strzalkowski, A.; Tsenov, R.; Zwoll, K.

    2000-10-01

    Differential cross sections of the pd→ 3H π +/ 3He π 0 reactions were measured simultaneously at three beam momenta: 750 MeV/c, 800 MeV/c and 850 MeV/c. The differential cross section of the pd→ 3He η was measured at 1675 MeV/c beam momentum. All measurements cover a wide angular range in the CM system. The experiments were performed at the COSY accelerator in Juelich, Germany, by means of high purity Germanium Wall detector together with the magnetic spectrometer BIG KARL. Estimated cross sections were compared with the predictions of simple theoretical models. In case of isospin symmetric pd→ 3H π +/ 3He π 0 reactions, the average cross section ratio was estimated.

  18. Production of radioactive nuclides in inverse reaction kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traykov, E.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Bosswell, M.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O. C.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.; Young, A. R.

    2007-03-01

    Efficient production of short-lived radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for various applications. It is particularly relevant when the isotope of interest is only a few nucleons away from a stable isotope. In this article production via charge exchange and stripping reactions in combination with a magnetic separator is explored. The relation between the separator transmission efficiency, the production yield, and the choice of beam energy is discussed. The results of some exploratory experiments will be presented.

  19. Massive production of nanoparticles via mist reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ran; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2009-06-01

    A novel conceptual nanoparticle fabrication method is proposed in this paper. It can be easily implemented for the preparation of micro or nanoparticles through a reaction between mists with different specific chemical compounds produced by ultrasonic atomization technology. Ultrasonic atomization is an established technology that easily atomizes liquid to produce very small droplets-in the orders of tens to hundreds of micrometers. The results reveal that metal oxide nanoparticles, such as iron oxide can be massively produced via reactions between metal chlorides and sodium carbonate in an experimental set-up based on physical and chemical principles. The density of the nanoparticle distribution is also investigated and determined to be dependent on the amount of mist reacted and the collection time. Moreover, since the vibrational frequency of ultrasound can be adjusted, we can control the size of micro-droplets of reactants, hence producing particles of different dimensions. Given that the double mist reaction method is easily controllable, environmentally friendly and extremely low in cost, it can potentially become a significant method for making micro/nano particles in the newly emerging field of nanofabrication and integration.

  20. The Production of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Anions in Inert Gas Matrices Doped with Alkali Metals. Electronic Absorption Spectra of the Pentacene Anion (C22H14(-))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halasinski, Thomas M.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The absorption spectra of pentacene (C22H14) and its radical cation (C22H14(+)) and anion (C22H14(-)) isolated in inert-gas matrices of Ne, Ar, and Kr are reported from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The associated vibronic band systems and their spectroscopic assignments are discussed together with the physical and chemical conditions governing ion (and counterion) production in the solid matrix. In particular, the formation of isolated pentacene anions is found to be optimized in matrices doped with alkali metal (Na and K).

  1. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  2. Thermal effects in Cs DPAL and alkali cell window damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Rotondaro, M. D.; Shaffer, M. K.; Knize, R. J.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments on power scaling of Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) revealed some limiting parasitic effects such as alkali cell windows and gain medium contamination and damage, output power degradation in time and others causing lasing efficiency decrease or even stop lasing1 . These problems can be connected with thermal effects, ionization, chemical interactions between the gain medium components and alkali cells materials. Study of all these and, possibly, other limiting effects and ways to mitigate them is very important for high power DPAL development. In this talk we present results of our experiments on temperature measurements in the gain medium of operating Cs DPAL at different pump power levels in the range from lasing threshold to the levels causing damage of the alkali cell windows. For precise contactless in situ temperature measurements, we used an interferometric technique, developed in our lab2 . In these experiments we demonstrated that damage of the lasing alkali cell starts in the bulk with thermal breakdown of the hydrocarbon buffer gas. The degradation processes start at definite critical temperatures of the gain medium, different for each mixture of buffer gas. At this critical temperature, the hydrocarbon and the excited alkali metal begin to react producing the characteristic black soot and, possibly, some other chemical compounds, which both harm the laser performance and significantly increase the harmful heat deposition within the laser medium. This soot, being highly absorptive, is catastrophically heated to very high temperatures that visually observed as bulk burning. This process quickly spreads to the cell windows and causes their damage. As a result, the whole cell is also contaminated with products of chemical reactions.

  3. Ethanol production via in situ fungal saccharification and fermentation of mild alkali and steam pretreated corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prachand; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Pometto, Anthony L; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2010-11-01

    The effect of mild alkali and steam pretreatments on fungal saccharification and sequential simultaneous-saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn fiber to ethanol was studied. The corn fiber was pretreated with: (i) 2% NaOH (w/w) at 30 degrees C for 2h and (ii) steaming at 100 degrees C for 2h. Ethanol yields were 2.6g, 2.9g and 5.5g ethanol/100g of corn fiber, respectively, for Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trichoderma reesei saccharification and sequential SSFs. SSF with commercial cellulase enzyme - Spezyme-CP had 7.7g ethanol/100g corn fiber. Mild alkali pretreatment resulted in higher glucose yields following fungal saccharification of corn fiber. However, the ethanol yields were comparatively similar for untreated and mild alkali pretreated corn fiber. Solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber with fungi can be improved to either eliminate or reduce the dosage of commercial cellulase enzymes during SSF.

  4. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.; Gorbaty, Martin L.; Tsou, Joe M.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  5. Products of the Benzene + O(3P) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Meloni, Giovanni; Trevitt, Adam J.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.; Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai

    2009-12-21

    The gas-phase reaction of benzene with O(3P) is of considerable interest for modeling of aromatic oxidation, and also because there exist fundamental questions concerning the prominence of intersystem crossing in the reaction. While its overall rate constant has been studied extensively, there are still significant uncertainties in the product distribution. The reaction proceeds mainly through the addition of the O atom to benzene, forming an initial triplet diradical adduct, which can either dissociate to form the phenoxy radical and H atom, or undergo intersystem crossing onto a singlet surface, followed by a multiplicity of internal isomerizations, leading to several possible reaction products. In this work, we examined the product branching ratios of the reaction between benzene and O(3P) over the temperature range of 300 to 1000 K and pressure range of 1 to 10 Torr. The reactions were initiated by pulsed-laser photolysis of NO2 in the presence of benzene and helium buffer in a slow-flow reactor, and reaction products were identified by using the multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer operating at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Phenol and phenoxy radical were detected and quantified. Cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radical were directly identified for the first time. Finally, ab initio calculations and master equation/RRKM modeling were used to reproduce the experimental branching ratios, yielding pressure-dependent rate expressions for the reaction channels, including phenoxy + H, phenol, cyclopentadiene + CO, which are proposed for kinetic modeling of benzene oxidation.

  6. Chapter K: Progress in the Evaluation of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete Construction in the Pacific Northwest, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shrimer, Fred H.

    2005-01-01

    The supply of aggregates suitable for use in construction and maintenance of infrastructure in western North America is a continuing concern to the engineering and resources-management community. Steady population growth throughout the region has fueled demand for high-quality aggregates, in the face of rapid depletion of existing aggregate resources and slow and difficult permitting of new sources of traditional aggregate types. In addition to these challenges, the requirement for aggregates to meet various engineering standards continues to increase. In addition to their physical-mechanical properties, other performance characteristics of construction aggregates specifically depend on their mineralogy and texture. These properties can result in deleterious chemical reactions when aggregate is used in concrete mixes. When this chemical reaction-termed 'alkali-aggregate reaction' (AAR)-occurs, it can pose a major problem for concrete structures, reducing their service life and requiring expensive repair or even replacement of the concrete. AAR is thus to be avoided in order to promote the longevity of concrete structures and to ensure that public moneys invested in infrastructure are well spent. Because the AAR phenomenon is directly related to the mineral composition, texture, and petrogenesis of the rock particles that make up aggregates, an understanding of the relation between the geology and the performance of aggregates in concrete is important. In the Pacific Northwest, some aggregates have a moderate to high AAR potential, but many others have no or only a low AAR potential. Overall, AAR is not as widespread or serious a problem in the Pacific Northwest as in other regions of North America. The identification of reactive aggregates in the Pacific Northwest and the accurate prediction of their behavior in concrete continue to present challenges for the assessment and management of geologic resources to the owners and operators of pits and quarries and to the

  7. Milk-alkali syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  8. Method for the safe disposal of alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry R.

    1977-01-01

    Alkali metals such as those employed in liquid metal coolant systems can be safely reacted to form hydroxides by first dissolving the alkali metal in relatively inert metals such as lead or bismuth. The alloy thus formed is contacted with a molten salt including the alkali metal hydroxide and possibly the alkali metal carbonate in the presence of oxygen. This oxidizes the alkali metal to an oxide which is soluble within the molten salt. The salt is separated and contacted with steam or steam-CO.sub.2 mixture to convert the alkali metal oxide to the hydroxide. These reactions can be conducted with minimal hydrogen evolution and with the heat of reaction distributed between the several reaction steps.

  9. Toxicity of aerosols of sodium reaction products.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, G M; Allen, M D; Stevens, D L

    1979-01-01

    Sodium is used as the heat transfer medium in several new energy technologies such as liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors and solar-thermal collection systems. Because sodium burns in air and reacts violently with water, the potential exists for an airborne release of sodium combustion products and subsequent human exposure. To help evaluate the potential short-term hazard from an accidental sodium fire, male juvenile or adult Wistar rats were exposed to sodium aerosols for 2 hours to determine the dose at which 50 percent of the animals were affected (ED50) for each age group. The estimated ED50 of 510 microgram/l for adults was not significantly different from the estimated ED50 of 489 microgram/l for juveniles. The incidence of acute laryngitis, attributed to exposure, was three times higher for juvenile rats than for adults, and the degree of severity of this lesion was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher for juveniles.

  10. Mechanism of the alkali degradation of (6-4) photoproduct-containing DNA.

    PubMed

    Arichi, Norihito; Inase, Aki; Eto, Sachise; Mizukoshi, Toshimi; Yamamoto, Junpei; Iwai, Shigenori

    2012-03-21

    The (6-4) photoproduct is one of the major damaged bases produced by ultraviolet light in DNA. This lesion is known to be alkali-labile, and strand breaks occur at its sites when UV-irradiated DNA is treated with hot alkali. We have analyzed the product obtained by the alkali treatment of a dinucleoside monophosphate containing the (6-4) photoproduct, by HPLC, NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. We previously found that the N3-C4 bond of the 5' component was hydrolyzed by a mild alkali treatment, and the present study revealed that the following reaction was the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond at the 3' component. The sugar moiety of this component was lost, even when a 3'-flanking nucleotide was not present. Glycosidic bond hydrolysis was also observed for a dimer and a trimer containing 5-methyl-2-pyrimidinone, which was used as an analog of the 3' component of the (6-4) photoproduct, and its mechanism was elucidated. Finally, the alkali treatment of a tetramer, d(GT(6-4)TC), yielded 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate, while 2'-deoxyguanosine 3'-monophosphate was not detected. This result demonstrated the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond at the 3' component of the (6-4) photoproduct and the subsequent strand break by β-elimination. It was also shown that the glycosidic bond at the 3' component of the Dewar valence isomer was more alkali-labile than that of the (6-4) photoproduct.

  11. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  12. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, Raymond D.; McPheeters, Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  13. Fumaric Acid Production from Alkali-Pretreated Corncob by Fed-Batch Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Combined with Separated Hydrolysis and Fermentation at High Solids Loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhou, Jin; Ouyang, Shuiping; Ouyang, Jia; Yong, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Production of fumaric acid from alkali-pretreated corncob (APC) at high solids loading was investigated using a combination of separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Rhizopus oryzae. Four different fermentation modes were tested to maximize fumaric acid concentration at high solids loading. The highest concentration of 41.32 g/L fumaric acid was obtained from 20 % (w/v) APC at 38 °C in the combined SHF and fed-batch SSF process, compared with 19.13 g/L fumaric acid in batch SSF alone. The results indicated that a combination of SHF and fed-batch SSF significantly improved production of fumaric acid from lignocellulose by R. oryzae than that achieved with batch SSF at high solids loading.

  14. Kinetics, mechanisms and products of reactions of Criegee intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr-Ewing, Andrew

    The atmospheric ozonolysis of alkenes such as isoprene produces Criegee intermediates which are increasingly recognized as important contributors to oxidation chemistry in the Earth's troposphere. Stabilized Criegee intermediates are conveniently produced in the laboratory by ultraviolet photolysis of diiodoalkanes in the presence of O2, and can be detected by absorption spectroscopy using their strong electronic bands in the near ultraviolet region. We have used these techniques to study a wide range of reactions of Criegee intermediates, including their self-reactions, and reactions with carboxylic acids and various other trace atmospheric constituents. In collaboration with the Sandia National Laboratory group led by Drs C.A. Taatjes and D.L. Osborn, we have used photoionization and mass spectrometry methods, combined with electronic structure calculations, to characterize the products of several of these reactions. Our laboratory studies determine rate coefficients for the Criegee intermediate reactions, many of which prove to be fast. In the case of reactions with carboxylic acids, a correlation between the dipole moments of the reactants and the reaction rate coefficients suggests a dipole-capture controlled reaction and allows us to propose a structure-activity relationship to predict the rates of related processes. The contributions of these various Criegee intermediate reactions to the chemistry of the troposphere have been assessed using the STOCHEM-CRI global atmospheric chemistry model. This work was supported by NERC grant NE/K004905/1.

  15. Device and method for upgrading petroleum feedstocks and petroleum refinery streams using an alkali metal conductive membrane

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2016-09-13

    A reactor has two chambers, namely an oil feedstock chamber and a source chamber. An ion separator separates the oil feedstock chamber from the source chamber, wherein the ion separator allows alkali metal ions to pass from the source chamber, through the ion separator, and into the oil feedstock chamber. A cathode is at least partially housed within the oil feedstock chamber and an anode is at least partially housed within the source chamber. A quantity of an oil feedstock is within the oil feedstock chamber, the oil feedstock comprising at least one carbon atom and a heteroatom and/or one or more heavy metals, the oil feedstock further comprising naphthenic acid. When the alkali metal ion enters the oil feedstock chamber, the alkali metal reacts with the heteroatom, the heavy metals and/or the naphthenic acid, wherein the reaction with the alkali metal forms inorganic products.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  9. Development of a novel ultrasound-assisted alkali pretreatment strategy for the production of bioethanol and xylanases from chili post harvest residue.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Abraham, Amith; Gnansounou, Edgard; Ummalyma, Sabeela Beevi; Thomas, Leya; Pandey, Ashok

    2017-03-04

    A novel ultrasound-assisted alkali pretreatment strategy was developed which could effectively remove lignin and hemicelluloses and improve the sugar yield from chili post harvest residue. Operational parameters that affect the pretreatment efficiency were studied and optimized. Inhibitor analysis of the hydrolyzate revealed that major fermentation inhibitors like furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural as well as organic acids like citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid were absent. Hence fermentation can be carried out without detoxification of the hydrolyzate. Changes in structural properties of the biomass were studied in relation to the pretreatment process using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the changes in chemical composition were also monitored. The biomass pretreated with the optimized novel method could yield 0.428g/g of reducing sugars upon enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolyzate obtained by this novel pretreatment strategy was found to be suitable for bioethanol and xylanase production.

  10. Ozone-cyclohexene reaction in air: quantitative analysis of particulate products and the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, S.; Tanonaka, T.; Weng, J.; Bandow, H.; Takagi, H.; Akimot, H.

    1985-10-01

    Both gaseous and particulate products of the cyclohexene-ozone reaction were analyzed. Major gaseous products were aldehydes that consist of adipaldehyde (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/CHO), glutaraldehyde (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CHO), and pentanal (CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CHO). The sum of the primary yields of aldehydes reaches as high as 50%. In addition to aldehydes, formic acid, CO, and CO/sub 2/ were produced, but formaldehyde was not detected. Main particulate products were adipaldehyde, 6-oxohexanoic acid (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/COOH), adipic acid (HOOC(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/COOH), glutaraldehyde, 5-oxopentanoic acid (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/COOH), and glutaric acid (HOOC(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/COOH). All these compounds were analyzed quantitatively, and the fraction of initial cyclohexene converted to aerosol organic carbon was estimated to be 13 +/- 3% as the value extrapolated to a ppm concentration range of reactants. Although the reaction mechanism is in general explainable in terms of the Criegee mechanism, the reaction pathway to form formic acid is quite unique in this reaction system. The entire mechanism was discussed on the basis of the quantitative product analysis data.

  11. Energy distribution among reaction products. VII - H + F2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.; Sloan, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The 'arrested relaxation' variant of the IR chemiluminescence technique is used in a study of the distribution of vibrational, rotational and translational energies between the products of the reaction by which H + F2 yields HF + F. Diagrams are plotted and numerical values are obtained for the energy distribution rate constants.

  12. Pion production in high-energy neutrino reactions with nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosel, U.

    2015-06-01

    Background: A quantitative understanding of neutrino interactions with nuclei is needed for precision era neutrino long baseline experiments (MINOS, NOvA, DUNE) which all use nuclear targets. Pion production is the dominant reaction channel at the energies of these experiments. Purpose: Investigate the influence of nuclear effects on neutrino-induced pion production cross sections and compare predictions for pion-production with available data. Method: The Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) model is used for the description of all incoherent channels in neutrino-nucleus reactions. Results: Differential cross sections for charged and neutral pion production for the MINER ν A neutrino and antineutrino flux are calculated. An estimate for the coherent cross section is obtained from a comparison of data with theoretical results for incoherent cross sections. The invariant mass (W ) distribution of the Δ resonances produced is analyzed. Conclusions: Final state interactions affect the pion kinetic energy spectra significantly. The data for charged pion production at MINER ν A are compatible with the results of calculations using elementary data taken from an old Argonne National Laboratory experiment. Remaining differences for charged pion production can be attributed to coherent production; the data for antineutrino induced neutral pion production, where no coherent contribution is present, are reproduced quite well. The analysis of W distributions shows that sharp cuts on experimentally reconstructed invariant masses lead to shape distortions of the true W distributions for nuclear targets.

  13. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulfur species from combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Mwabe, P.O.

    1994-02-01

    Experimental work was carried out on a 17 kW, 600 cm long, gas laboratory combustor, to investigate the post flame reactive capture of alkali species by kaolinite. Emphasis was on alkali/sorbent interactions occurring in flue gas at temperatures above the alkali dewpoint and on the formation of water insoluble reaction products. Time-temperature studies were carried out by injecting kaolinite at different axial points along the combustor. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on alkali capture was investigated by doping the flame with SO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} gases to simulate coal flame environments. Particle time and temperature history was kept as close as possible to that which would ordinarily be found in a practical boiler. Experiments designed to extract apparent initial reaction rates were carried using a narrow range, 1-2 {mu}m modal size sorbent, while, a coarse, multi size sorbent was used to investigate the governing transport mechanisms. The capture reaction has been proposed to be between alkali hydroxide and activated kaolinite, and remains so in the presence of sulfur and chlorine. The presence of sulfur reduces sodium capture by under 10% at 1300{degree}C. Larger reductions at lower temperatures are attributed to the elevated dewpoint of sodium ({approximately}850{degree}C) with subsequent reduction in sorbent residence time in the alkali gas phase domain. Chlorine reduces sodium capture by 30% across the temperature range covered by the present experiments. This result has been linked to thermodynamic equilibria between sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and water.

  14. Hydrogen production from methane through catalytic partial oxidation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freni, S.; Calogero, G.; Cavallaro, S.

    This paper reviews recent developments in syn-gas production processes used for partial methane oxidation with and/or without steam. In particular, we examined different process charts (fixed bed, fluidised bed, membrane, etc.), kinds of catalysts (powders, foams, monoliths, etc.) and catalytically active phases (Ni, Pt, Rh, etc.). The explanation of the various suggested technical solutions accounted for the reaction mechanism that may selectively lead to calibrated mixtures of CO and H 2 or to the unwanted formation of products of total oxidation (CO 2 and H 2O) and pyrolysis (coke). Moreover, the new classes of catalysts allow the use of small reactors to treat large amounts of methane (monoliths) or separate hydrogen in situ from the other reaction products (membrane). This leads to higher conversions and selectivity than could have been expected thermodynamically. Although catalysts based on Rh are extremely expensive, they can be used to minimise H 2O formation by maximising H 2 yield.

  15. The Interfacial Transition Zone in Alkali-Activated Slag Mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Nicolas, Rackel; Provis, John

    2015-12-01

    The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is known to strongly influence the mechanical and transport properties of mortars and concretes. This paper studies the ITZ between siliceous (quartz) aggregates and alkali activated slag binders in the context of mortar specimens. Backscattered electron images (BSE) generated in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) are used to identify unreacted binder components, reaction products and porosity in the zone surrounding aggregate particles, by composition and density contrast. X-ray mapping is used to exclude the regions corresponding to the aggregates from the BSE image of the ITZ, thus enabling analysis of only the binder phases, which are segmented into binary images by grey level discrimination. A distinct yet dense ITZ region is present in the alkali-activated slag mortars, containing a reduced content of unreacted slag particles compared to the bulk binder. The elemental analysis of this region shows that it contains a (C,N)-A-S-H gel which seems to have a higher content of Na (potentially deposited through desiccation of the pore solution) and a lower content of Ca than the bulk inner and outer products forming in the main binding region. These differences are potentially important in terms of long-term concrete performance, as the absence of a highly porous interfacial transition zone region is expected to provide a positive influence on the mechanical and transport properties of alkali-activated slag concretes.

  16. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Anand, M.; Carvill, B.

    1995-09-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction (SER) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process, the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The consequences of SER are: (1) reformation reaction at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than conventional SMR (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (2) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 99+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (3) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The early focus of the program will be on the identification of an adsorbent/chemisorbent for CO{sub 2} and on the demonstration of the SER concept for SMR in our state-of-the-art bench scale process. In the latter stages, a pilot plant will be built to scale-up the technology and to develop engineering data. The program has just been initiated and no significant results for SMR will be reported. However, results demonstrating the basic principles and process schemes of SER technology will be presented for reverse water gas shift reaction as the model reaction. If successful, this technology will be commercialized by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) and used in its existing hydrogen business. APCI is the world leader in merchant hydrogen production for a wide range of industrial applications.

  17. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J

    2014-07-21

    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  18. Taste-active maillard reaction products: the "tasty" world of nonvolatile maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    This study was done to obtain greater insight into the structures and sensory activities of those tastants that are not present in foods per se, but are generated during food processing by Maillard-type reactions from carbohydrates and amino acids and thus remain unknown. In order to rank the tastants according to their relative taste impact and to identify the key tastants generated during thermal food processing, the so-called taste dilution analysis (TDA), which uses the human tongue as a biosensor for tastants, was applied to heated, intensely bitter tasting binary mixtures of glucose or xylose and proline or alanine, respectively. This screening technique led to the identification of previously unknown taste compounds, among which intensely bitter tastants such as quinizolate and homoquinizolate, a pungent-tasting pyranopyranone, cyclopentenone derivatives exhibiting a physiological cooling effect, as well as a taste-enhancing pyridinium betaine named alapyridaine will be presented.

  19. Dual Position Sensitive MWPC for tracking reaction products at VAMOS++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandebrouck, M.; Lemasson, A.; Rejmund, M.; Fremont, G.; Pancin, J.; Navin, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Goupil, J.; Spitaels, C.; Jacquot, B.

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics and performance of a Dual Position Sensitive Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (DPS-MWPC) used to measure the scattering angle, the interaction position on the target and the velocity of reaction products detected in the VAMOS++ magnetic spectrometer, are reported. The detector consists of a pair of position sensitive low pressure MWPCs and provides both fast timing signals, along with the two-dimensional position coordinates required to define the trajectory of the reaction products. A time-of-flight resolution of 305(11) ps (FWHM) was measured. The measured resolutions (FWHM) were 2.5(3) mrad and 560(70) μm for the scattering angle and the interaction point at the target respectively. The subsequent improvement of the Doppler correction of the energy of the γ-rays, detected in the γ-ray tracking array AGATA in coincidence with isotopically identified ions in VAMOS++, is also discussed.

  20. Mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated fly ash geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Komljenović, M; Bascarević, Z; Bradić, V

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the properties of geopolymer obtained by alkali-activation of fly ash (FA), i.e. the influence of characteristics of the representative group of FA (class F) from Serbia, as well as that of the nature and concentration of various activators on mechanical and microstructural properties of geopolymers. Aqueous solutions of Ca(OH)(2), NaOH, NaOH+Na(2)CO(3), KOH and sodium silicate (water glass) of various concentrations were used as alkali activators. It was established that the nature and concentration of the activator was the most dominant parameter in the alkali-activation process. In respect of physical characteristics of FA, the key parameter was fineness. The geopolymer based on FA with the highest content of fine particles (<43 microm), showed the highest compressive strength in all cases. Regardless of FA characteristics, nature and concentration of the activator, the alkali-activation products were mainly amorphous. The formation of crystalline phases (zeolites) occurred in some cases, depending on the reaction conditions. The highest compressive strength was obtained using sodium silicate. Together with the increase of sodium silicate SiO(2)/Na(2)O mass ratio, the atomic Si/Al ratio in the reaction products was also increased. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, high strength was directly related to the high Si/Al ratio.

  1. Effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Jiang, Long; Wang, Yi; Su, Sheng; Sun, Lushi; Xu, Boyang; He, Limo; Xiang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to investigate effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures. The yield of CO, H2 and C2H4 was increased and that of CO2 was suppressed with increasing temperature. Increasing temperature could also promote depolymerization and aromatization reactions of active tars, forming heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, leading to decrease of tar yields and species diversity. Diverse performance of inherent AAEMs at different temperatures significantly affected the distribution of pyrolysis products. The presence of inherent AAEMs promoted water-gas shift reaction, and enhanced the yield of H2 and CO2. Additionally, inherent AAEMs not only promoted breakage and decarboxylation/decarbonylation reaction of thermally labile hetero atoms of the tar but also enhanced thermal decomposing of heavier aromatics. Inherent AAEMs could also significantly enhance the decomposition of levoglucosan, and alkaline earth metals showed greater effect than alkali metals.

  2. Alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide double alkoxide precursors to alkali metal yttrium oxide nanomaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Neville, Michael L.; Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; ...

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a series of alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide ([AY(ONep)4]) compounds were developed as precursors to alkali yttrium oxide (AYO2) nanomaterials. The reaction of yttrium amide ([Y(NR2)3] where R=Si(CH3)3) with four equivalents of H-ONep followed by addition of [A(NR2)] (A=Li, Na, K) or Ao (Ao=Rb, Cs) led to the formation of a complex series of AnY(ONep)3+n species, crystallographically identified as [Y2Li3(μ3-ONep)(μ3-HONep)(μ-ONep)5(ONep)3(HONep)2] (1), [YNa2(μ3-ONep)4(ONep)]2 (2), {[Y2K3(μ3-ONep)3(μ-ONep)4(ONep)2(ηξ-tol)2][Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4]•ηx-tol]} (3), [Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4] (3a), [Y2Rb3(μ4-ONep)3(μ-ONep)6] (4), and [Y2Cs4(μ6-O)(μ3-ONep)6(μ3-HONep)2(ONep)2(ηx-tol)4]•tol (5). Compounds 1–5 were investigated as single source precursors to AYOx nanomaterials following solvothermal routes (pyridine, 185 °C for 24h). The final products after thermal processing weremore » found by powder X-ray diffraction experiments to be Y2O3 with variable sized particles based on transmission electron diffraction. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies indicated that the heavier alkali metal species were present in the isolated nanomaterials.« less

  3. Alkali Metal Handling Practices at NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvail, Patrick G.; Carter, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is NASA s principle propulsion development center. Research and development is coordinated and carried out on not only the existing transportation systems, but also those that may be flown in the near future. Heat pipe cooled fast fission cores are among several concepts being considered for the Nuclear Systems Initiative. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a capability to handle high-purity alkali metals for use in heat pipes or liquid metal heat transfer loops. This capability is a low budget prototype of an alkali metal handling system that would allow the production of flight qualified heat pipe modules or alkali metal loops. The processing approach used to introduce pure alkali metal into heat pipe modules and other test articles are described in this paper.

  4. Multi-strangeness production in hadron induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanos, T.; Moustakidis, Ch.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Lenske, H.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss in detail the formation and propagation of multi-strangeness particles in reactions induced by hadron beams relevant for the forthcoming experiments at FAIR. We focus the discussion on the production of the decuplet-particle Ω and study for the first time the production and propagation mechanism of this heavy hyperon inside hadronic environments. The transport calculations show the possibility of Ω-production in the forthcoming P ‾ANDA-experiment, which can be achieved with measurable probabilities using high-energy secondary Ξ-beams. We predict cross sections for Ω-production. The theoretical results are important in understanding the hyperon-nucleon and, in particular, the hyperon-hyperon interactions also in the high-strangeness sector. We emphasize the importance of our studies for the research plans at FAIR.

  5. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulphur species from combustion. Quarterly report No. 11, March 1993--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Wu, Baochun

    1993-07-26

    Sulfur dioxide is one of the major pollutant from coal combustion application and gasification. The capture of sulfur from flue gas with lime has been investigated and proven to be effective. Previous work concluded that the overall conversion of lime is limited by the micro-structure of the particles and reaction temperature. Due to the larger specific volume of product of calcium sulfate than that of the raw sorbent of calcium carbonate, which may cause pore blockage at the pore mouth and increase the diffusion resistance of sulfur dioxide through the product layer, but this pore plugging will not apply to the particle less than 0.01 cm in diameter. The reaction temperature, which determined the chemical reaction kinetics, between 800{degrees}C to 850{degrees}C, is recommended to be the best chemical reaction temperature for sulfur removal by lime. The alkali vapor removal has been the subject of many studies due to the possible application of coal combustion and hot flue gas turbine combined cycle which requires alkali concentration in the flue gas phase of sub parts per billion (ppB) level. But this process will increase the coal utilization efficiency dramatically. Some clay materials such as kaolinite and alumina-silica mixture like bauxite are found to be a very good sorbent for the adsorption of alkali vapor. The main objective of this research is to develop sorbents with alumina-silica base for both as a carrier to calcium and sorbents to alkali. A number of sorbents, with bauxite based and calcium active sites, have been developed and tested in a series of experiments. The experimental results of adsorption of sulfur dioxide, alkali and combined adsorption of sulfur/alkali have been given in the previous report.

  6. Experimental studies of alunite: II. Rates of alunite-water alkali and isotope exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffregen, R.E.; Rye, R.O.; Wasserman, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Rates of alkali exchange between alunite and water have been measured in hydrothermal experiments of 1 hour to 259 days duration at 150 to 400??C. Examination of run products by scanning electron microscope indicates that the reaction takes place by dissolution-reprecipitation. This exchange is modeled with an empirical rate equation which assumes a linear decrease in mineral surface area with percent exchange (f) and a linear dependence of the rate on the square root of the affinity for the alkali exchange reaction. This equation provides a good fit of the experimental data for f = 17% to 90% and yields log rate constants which range from -6.25 moles alkali m-2s-1 at 400??C to - 11.7 moles alkali m-2s-1 at 200??C. The variation in these rates with temperature is given by the equation log k* = -8.17(1000/T(K)) + 5.54 (r2 = 0.987) which yields an activation energy of 37.4 ?? 1.5 kcal/mol. For comparison, data from O'Neil and Taylor (1967) and Merigoux (1968) modeled with a pseudo-second-order rate expression give an activation energy of 36.1 ?? 2.9 kcal/mol for alkali-feldspar water Na-K exchange. In the absence of coupled alkali exchange, oxygen isotope exchange between alunite and water also occurs by dissolution-reprecipitation but rates are one to three orders of magnitude lower than those for alkali exchange. In fine-grained alunites, significant D-H exchange occurs by hydrogen diffusion at temperatures as low as 100??C. Computed hydrogen diffusion coefficients range from -15.7 to -17.3 cm2s-1 and suggest that the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion may be as low as 6 kcal/mol. These experiments indicate that rates of alkali exchange in the relatively coarse-grained alunites typical of hydrothermal ore deposits are insignificant, and support the reliability of K-Ar age data from such samples. However, the fine-grained alunites typical of low temperature settings may be susceptible to limited alkali exchange at surficial conditions which could cause

  7. Mecanismes d'action des fines et des granulats de verre sur la reaction alcali-silice et la reaction pouzzolanique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idir, Rachida

    Recycling composite glass with different colours in order to be manufactured into new glass products is at present not economically viable. Therefore, the search for new issues other than stockpile areas or dumping sites could be a serious opportunity. To a certain extent, one of the possible solutions is to use the recycled glass in manufacturing cements and in the preparation of concrete mixtures. However, it is essential to manage the two main behaviours that the glass can have when used in cement-based materials: (1) the use of glass as coarse aggregates reveals harmful behaviour related to alkali-silica reaction; (2) on the other hand, it can result in useful behaviour related to pozzolanic reaction if used as fine particles. Furthermore, the significant alkali content should not be overlooked as their mass corresponds to about 13% of the total mass of the glass and as they may activate the alkali-silica reaction. An experimental programme was conducted to provide answers to the various questions raised about the use of glass in cement-based materials. The first part of this work was primarily devoted to the evaluation of the reactive potential of glass in mortars (alkali and pozzolanic reactions). At this stage, nine classes of glass particles ranging from 3mum to 2.5 mm were considered. Then, fine glass particles were used in order to counteract the negative effect of some classes of coarse aggregates having revealed alkali-reactive behaviour. The second part of this work was performed to study the mechanisms that could explain the behaviours of fine and coarse particles in aqueous and concentrated environments. Different answers have been proposed to explain the observed behaviour in terms of grain sizes of glass. Keywords: Glass, Powder, Pozzolan, aggregates, alkali-reaction, alkali-aggregate reaction, alkali-silica reaction, Pouzzolanicity, alkalis, Mortars

  8. Effect of thermal pre-treatment on inoculum sludge to enhance bio-hydrogen production from alkali hydrolysed rice straw in a mesophilic anaerobic baffled reactor.

    PubMed

    El-Bery, Haitham; Tawfik, Ahmed; Kumari, Sheena; Bux, Faizal

    2013-01-01

    The effect of thermal pre-treatment on inoculum sludge for continuous H2 production from alkali hydrolysed rice straw using anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was investigated. Two reactors, ABR1 and ABR2, were inoculated with untreated and thermally pre-treated sludge, respectively. Both reactors were operated in parallel at a constant hydraulic retention time of 20 h and organic loading rate ranged from 0.5 to 2.16 g COD/L d. The results obtained indicated that ABR2 achieved a better hydrogen conversion rate and hydrogen yield as compared with ABR1. The hydrogen conversion rates were 30% and 24%, while the hydrogen yields were 1.19 and 0.97 mol H2/mol glucose for ABR2 and ABR1, respectively. Similar trend was observed for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and carbohydrate removal, where ABR2 provided a removal efficiency of 53 +/- 2.3% for COD and 46 +/- 2% for carbohydrate. The microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA phylogeny revealed the presence of different species of bacteria, namely Clostridium, Prevotella, Paludibacter, Ensifer, and Petrimonas within the reactors. Volatile fatty acids generated from ABR1 and ABR2 were mainly in the form of acetate and butyrate and a relatively low fraction ofpropionate was detected in ABR1. Based on these results, thermal pre-treatment ofinoculum sludge is preferable for hydrogen production from hydrolysed rice straw.

  9. Production and decay of baryonic resonances in pion induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przygoda, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Pion induced reactions give unique opportunities for an unambiguous description of baryonic resonances and their coupling channels. A systematic energy scan and high precision data, in conjunction with a partial wave analysis, allow for the study of the excitation function of the various contributions. A review of available world data unravels strong need for modern facilities delivering measurements with a pion beam. Recently, HADES collaboration collected data in pion-induced reactions on light (12C) and heavy (74W) nuclei at a beam momentum of 1.7 GeV/c dedicated to strangeness production. It was followed by a systematic scan at four different pion beam momenta (0.656, 0.69, 0.748 and 0.8 GeV/c) in π- - p reaction in order to tackle the role of N(1520) resonance in conjunction with the intermediate ρ production. First results on exclusive channels with one pion (π- p) and two pions (nπ+π-, pπ-π0) in the final state are discussed.

  10. Production of medical 99 m Tc isotope via photonuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, K.; Takahashi, N.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Fan, G. T.; Takemoto, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishimura, M.

    2017-01-01

    99 m Tc with a 6 hour half-life is one of the most important medical isotopes used for the Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) inspection in hospitals of US, Canada, Europe and Japan. 99 m Tc isotopes are extracted by the milking method from parent 99Mo isotopes with a 66 hour half-life. The supply of 99Mo isotopes now encounters a serious crisis. Hospitals may not suitably receive 99Mo medical isotopes in near future, due to difficulties in production by research nuclear reactors. Many countries are now looking for alternative ways to generate 99Mo isotopes other than those with research reactors. We discuss a sustained availability of 99 m Tc isotopes via the nat Mo(γ, n) photonuclear reaction, and discuss to solve technical problems for extracting pure 99 m Tc isotopes from other output materials of photonuclear reactions.

  11. Manifestation of macroscopic correlations in elementary reaction kinetics. I. Irreversible reaction A +A→product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doktorov, Alexander B.; Kipriyanov, Alexander A.; Kipriyanov, Alexey A.

    2010-05-01

    Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A +A→product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution.

  12. Manifestation of macroscopic correlations in elementary reaction kinetics. I. Irreversible reaction A+A-->product.

    PubMed

    Doktorov, Alexander B; Kipriyanov, Alexander A; Kipriyanov, Alexey A

    2010-05-28

    Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A+A-->product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution.

  13. Theoretical aspects of product formation from the NCO + NO reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.C.; He, Y. ); Melius, C.F. )

    1993-09-09

    The reaction of NCO with NO, an important elementary process involved in the reduction of NO[sub x] by HNCO, has been studied theoretically using the BAC-MP4 technique in conjunction with RRKM calculations. The computed molecular structures and thermochemical data for various intermediates and transition states suggest that the reaction takes place primarily via the singlet, ground electronic state OCNNO molecule according to the following mechanism; (step a) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] N[sub 2]O + CO; (step b) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] c-OCNNO[minus] N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2]. The formation of N[sub 2]O + CO occurs by the fragmentation of the singlet OCNNO intermediate step (a), whereas the production of N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2] by cyclization-fragmentation occurs via step b. The tight transition states leading to the formation of these products, coupled with the loose entrance channel, give rise to the experimentally observed strong negative temperature dependence which can be quantitatively accounted for by the results of RRKM calculations based on the BAC-MP4 data. The experimentally measured product branching ratio for channels a and b could be accounted for theoretically by lowering the calculated energy barrier for step a by 3.6 kcal/mol, corresponding to about 15% of the barrier height. 22 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Highly Dispersed Pt Nanoparticles for the Production of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by the Catalytic Degrading of Alkali Lignin.

    PubMed

    Sanyoto, Bernardi; Dwiatmoko, Adid Adep; Choi, Jae-Wook; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin; Kim, Chang Soo; Lim, Jong-Choo

    2016-05-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons were produced from lignin, a complex natural amorphous polymer commonly regarded as by-product of the pulping process and from biofuel production. The catalytic decomposition of lignin using supported Pt catalysts was performed to produce small molecule hydrocarbons. Aromatic small-molecule hydrocarbon products were identified and quantified using GC/MS and GC-FID, which demonstrated that 27.6% of aromatic hydrocarbons were obtained from the activated carbon-supported Pt (Pt/AC) catalyst which had the highest Pt surface area.

  15. Cementitious binders from activated stainless steel refining slag and the effect of alkali solutions.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Cizer, Özlem; Pontikes, Yiannis; Snellings, Ruben; Vandewalle, Lucie; Blanpain, Bart; Van Balen, Koen

    2015-04-09

    With an aim of producing high value cementitious binder, stainless steel refining slag containing a high amount of CaO in γ-dicalcium silicate form was activated with NaOH and Na-silicate as well as KOH and K-silicate solutions, followed by steam curing at 80 °C. Higher levels of alkali-silicate in the activating solution resulted in higher cumulative heat suggesting accelerated reaction kinetics. With respect to compressive strength, higher levels of alkali silicate resulted in higher strength and the mortars with Na activator were found to have higher early strength than the ones with K activator. The long term strength was found to be similar, regardless of the alkali metal. Thermogravimetric, QXRD and FTIR analyses showed an increase in the amount of reaction products (C-S-H type) over time, further confirming the reactivity of the crystalline slag. Batch leaching results showed lower leaching of heavy metals and metalloids with K activator compared to the Na activator. These results demonstrate that the alkali type and the ratio of hydroxide to silicates have a significant impact on the hydration and mechanical strength development of the stainless steel slag. The above findings can aid in the recycling and valorization of these type of slags which otherwise end up landfilled.

  16. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    There are several ceramic materials which are currently being considered for use as structural elements in coal combustion and coal conversion systems because of their thermal and mechanical properties. These include alumina (refractories, membranes, heat engines); silicon carbide and silicon nitride (turbine engines, internal combustion engines, heat exchangers, particulate filters); zirconia (internal combustion engines, turbine engines, refractories); and mullite and cordierite (particulate filters, refractories, heat exchangers). High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, and zirconia. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products and determination of the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time. 145 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. A new effective process for production of curdlan oligosaccharides based on alkali-neutralization treatment and acid hydrolysis of curdlan particles in water suspension.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zong, Yu; Li, Wei-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Biologically active β-1,3-oligosaccharides with rapidly growing biomedical applications are produced from hydrolysis of curdlan polysaccharide. The water-insoluble curdlan impedes its hydrolysis efficiency which is enhanced by our newly developed alkali-neutralization treatment process to increase the stability of curdlan suspension to more than 20 days, while the untreated control settled within 5 min. A putative double-layer structure model comprising of a compact core and a hydrated outer layer was proposed to describe the treated curdlan particles based on sedimentation and scanning electron microscopy observation. This model was verified by single- and two-step acid hydrolysis, indicative of the reduced susceptibility to hydrolysis when close to the compact core. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography analyses, and effective HPLC procedure led to the development of improved process to produce purified individual β-1,3-oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization from 2 to 10 and potential for biomedical applications from curdlan hydrolyzate. Our new curdlan oligosaccharide production process offers an even better alternative to the previously published processes.

  18. Comparison of process configurations for ethanol production from acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with and without β-glucosidase expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqiang; Liu, Cheng; Hong, Jiefang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Kun; Huang, Xinyu; Zou, Shaolan; Zhang, Minhua

    2013-08-01

    β-Glucosidase was shown to have synergistic effects with commercial cellulase in the hydrolysis of acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob, especially at the dose of 5 U/g biomass and 5 or 10 FPU/g biomass. An integrating yeast strain 45# expressing β-glucosidase was constructed that utilized cellobiose quickly and efficiently. Process configurations were compared under conditions of 10% solid content, 10 FPU cellulase/g biomass, 5 U β-glucosidase/g biomass (only used for parental strain W303-1A), 1g/kg yeast loading and 3.3g/kg urea supplementation. While separate hydrolysis and fermentation was optimal for W303-1A and the ethanol titer and yield reached 3.22 g/100g and 75.6% (expressed as a percentage of the theoretical yield), respectively, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was optimal for strain 45# and the ethanol titer and yield reached 3.31 g/100g and 77.7%, respectively. These results are valuable in optimization of the process configuration and improving the yeast strain selected for cellulosic ethanol production.

  19. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  20. Early age hydration and pozzolanic reaction in natural zeolite blended cements: Reaction kinetics and products by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Snellings, R.; Mertens, G.; Cizer, O.; Elsen, J.

    2010-12-15

    The in situ early-age hydration and pozzolanic reaction in cements blended with natural zeolites were investigated by time-resolved synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld quantitative phase analysis. Chabazite and Na-, K-, and Ca-exchanged clinoptilolite materials were mixed with Portland cement in a 3:7 weight ratio and hydrated in situ at 40 {sup o}C. The evolution of phase contents showed that the addition of natural zeolites accelerates the onset of C{sub 3}S hydration and precipitation of CH and AFt. Kinetic analysis of the consumption of C{sub 3}S indicates that the enveloping C-S-H layer is thinner and/or less dense in the presence of alkali-exchanged clinoptilolite pozzolans. The zeolite pozzolanic activity is interpreted to depend on the zeolite exchangeable cation content and on the crystallinity. The addition of natural zeolites alters the structural evolution of the C-S-H product. Longer silicate chains and a lower C/S ratio are deduced from the evolution of the C-S-H b-cell parameter.

  1. Removal of triclosan via peroxidases-mediated reactions in water: Reaction kinetics, products and detoxification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Peng, Jianbiao; Zhang, Ya; Ji, Yuefei; Shi, Huanhuan; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-06-05

    This study investigated and compared reaction kinetics, product characterization, and toxicity variation of triclosan (TCS) removal mediated by soybean peroxidase (SBP), a recognized potential peroxidase for removing phenolic pollutants, and the commonly used horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with the goal of assessing the technical feasibility of SBP-catalyzed removal of TCS. Reaction conditions such as pH, H2O2 concentration and enzyme dosage were found to have a strong influence on the removal efficiency of TCS. SBP can retain its catalytic ability to remove TCS over broad ranges of pH and H2O2 concentration, while the optimal pH and H2O2 concentration were 7.0 and 8μM, respectively. 98% TCS was removed with only 0.1UmL(-1) SBP in 30min reaction time, while an HRP dose of 0.3UmL(-1) was required to achieve the similar conversion. The catalytic performance of SBP towards TCS was more efficient than that of HRP, which can be explained by catalytic rate constant (KCAT) and catalytic efficiency (KCAT/KM) for the two enzymes. MS analysis in combination with quantum chemistry computation showed that the polymerization products were generated via CC and CO coupling pathways. The polymers were proved to be nontoxic through growth inhibition of green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus). Taking into consideration of the enzymatic treatment cost, SBP may be a better alternative to HRP upon the removal and detoxification of TCS in water/wastewater treatment.

  2. Exploration of mid-temperature alkali-metal-ion extraction route using PTFE (AEP): transformation of α-NaFeO2-type layered oxides into rutile-type binary oxides.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Tadashi C; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2012-07-02

    Alkali-metal-ion extraction reactions using poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE; AEP reactions) were performed on two kinds of α-NaFeO(2)-type layered compounds: Na(0.68)(Li(0.68/3)Ti(1-0.68/3))O(2) and K(0.70)(Li(0.70/3)Sn(1-0.70/3))O(2). At 400 °C in flowing argon, these layered compounds were reacted with PTFE. By these reactions, alkali-metal ions in the layered compounds were successfully extracted, and TiO(2) and SnO(2) with rutile-type structure were formed. The structural similarity between the alkali-metal-ion-extracted layered compounds and the binary metal oxide products in these unique alkali-metal-ion extraction reactions was interpreted in terms of their interatomic distance distribution by atomic pair distribution function analysis. The results of this study indicate that PTFE is an effective agent to extract alkali-metal ions from layered compounds, and AEP reaction is not limited to the previously reported γ-FeOOH-type layered titania K(0.8)(Li(0.27)Ti(1.73))O(4), but is also applicable to other layered titania and other non-titanium-based layered metal oxides. Therefore, it was clarified that AEP reactions are widely applicable routes to prepare various compounds, including those that are difficult to synthesize by other reactions.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  8. Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

  9. (abstract) Fundamental Mechanisms of Electrode Kinetics and Alkali Metal Atom Transport at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrode kinetics and mass transport of alkali metal oxidation and alkali metal cation reduction at the solid electrolyte/porous electrode boundary as well as alkali metal transport through porous metal electrodes has important applications in optimizing device performance in alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) cells which are high temperature, high current density electrochemical cells. Basic studies of these processes also affords the opportunity to investigate a very basic electrochemical reaction over a wide range of conditions; and a variety of mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. The temperature range of these investigations covers 700K to 1240K; the alkali metal vapor pressures range from about 10(sup -2) to 10(sup 2) Pa; and electrodes studied have included Mo, W, Mo/Na(sub 2)MoO(sub 4), W/Na(sub 2)WO(sub 4), WPt(sub x), and WRh(sub x) (1.0 < x < 6.0 ) with Na at Na-beta'-alumina, and Mo with K at K-beta'-alumina. Both liquid metal/solid electrolyte/alkali metal vapor and alkali metal vapor/solid electrolyte/vapor cells have been used to characterize the reaction and transport processes. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes.

  10. Solvent- and catalyst-free mechanochemical synthesis of alkali metal monohydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Hlova, Ihor Z.; Castle, Andra; Goldston, Jennifer F.; Gupta, Shalabh; Prost, Timothy; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Scott Chumbley, L.; Pruski, Marek; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2016-07-06

    Alkali metal monohydrides, AH (A = Li–Cs) have been synthesized in quantitative yields at room temperature by reactive milling of alkali metals in the presence of hydrogen gas at 200 bar or less. The mechanochemical approach reported here eliminates problems associated with the malleability of alkali metals — especially Li, Na, and K — and promotes effective solid–gas reactions, ensuring their completion. This is achieved by incorporating a certain volume fraction of the corresponding hydride powder as a process control agent, which allows continuous and efficient milling primarily by coating the surface of metal particles, effectively blocking cold welding. Formation of high-purity crystalline monohydrides has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and volumetric analyses of reactively desorbed H2 from as-milled samples. The proposed synthesis method is scalable and particularly effective for extremely air-sensitive materials, such as alkali and alkaline earth metal hydrides. Furthermore, the technique may also be favorable for production in continuous reactors operating at room temperature, thereby reducing the total processing time, energy consumption and, hence, the cost of production of these hydrides or their derivatives and composites.

  11. Solvent- and catalyst-free mechanochemical synthesis of alkali metal monohydrides

    DOE PAGES

    Hlova, Ihor Z.; Castle, Andra; Goldston, Jennifer F.; ...

    2016-07-06

    Alkali metal monohydrides, AH (A = Li–Cs) have been synthesized in quantitative yields at room temperature by reactive milling of alkali metals in the presence of hydrogen gas at 200 bar or less. The mechanochemical approach reported here eliminates problems associated with the malleability of alkali metals — especially Li, Na, and K — and promotes effective solid–gas reactions, ensuring their completion. This is achieved by incorporating a certain volume fraction of the corresponding hydride powder as a process control agent, which allows continuous and efficient milling primarily by coating the surface of metal particles, effectively blocking cold welding. Formationmore » of high-purity crystalline monohydrides has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and volumetric analyses of reactively desorbed H2 from as-milled samples. The proposed synthesis method is scalable and particularly effective for extremely air-sensitive materials, such as alkali and alkaline earth metal hydrides. Furthermore, the technique may also be favorable for production in continuous reactors operating at room temperature, thereby reducing the total processing time, energy consumption and, hence, the cost of production of these hydrides or their derivatives and composites.« less

  12. Effects of the order of addition of reagents and alkali on modification of wheat starches.

    PubMed

    Sui, Zhongquan; Huber, Kerry C; BeMiller, James N

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this research was to determine if adding reactive reagents to wheat starch granules before addition of alkali (the TRF method) would produce products that are different than those obtained with the conventional procedure (adding alkali before addition of reagent). Laboratory-isolated (LI) and commercial (C) normal (NWS) and waxy (WWS) wheat starches were each reacted with 6 reagents (acetic-adipic mixed anhydride (AAMA), phosphoryl chloride (POCl3), sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP), acetic anhydride (AA), succinic anhydride (SA), octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)). Data obtained were similar to those previously obtained with maize starches (Sui, Huber, & BeMiller, 2013). Almost no starch polymer molecule modification occurred when the TRF method and AAMA or AA were used; less than a third as much reaction when SA was the reagent used, and about the same amount of reaction when POCl3, STMP, or OSA were the reagents used (for different reasons).

  13. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant production under extreme environmental conditions by alkali-halo-thermophilic bacteria from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Abdelmoneim, T S; Almaghrabi, O A

    2015-07-01

    Twenty three morphologically distinct microbial colonies were isolated from soil and sea water samples, which were collected from Jeddah region, Saudi Arabia for screening of the most potent biosurfactant strains. The isolated bacteria were selected by using different methods as drop collapse test, oil displacement test, blue agar test, blood hemolysis test, emulsification activity and surface tension. The results showed that the ability of Virgibacillus salarius to grow and reduce surface tension under a wide range of pH, salinities and temperatures gives bacteria isolate an advantage in many applications such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food industries and bioremediation in marine environment. The biosurfactant production by V. salarius decreased surface tension and emulsifying activity (30 mN/m and 80%, respectively). In addition to reducing the production cost of biosurfactants by tested several plant-derived oils such as jatropha oil, castor oils, jojoba oil, canola oil and cottonseed oil. In this respect the feasibility to reusing old frying oil of sunflower for production rhamnolipids and sophorolipids, their use that lead to solve many ecological and industrial problems.

  14. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Copuroglu, Oguzhan; Andic-Cakir, Ozge; Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M.; Kuehnel, Radko

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO{sub 2}. The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  15. H + CD4 abstraction reaction dynamics: product energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenfang; Lendvay, György; Troya, Diego; Schatz, George C; Camden, Jon P; Bechtel, Hans A; Brown, Davida J A; Martin, Marion R; Zare, Richard N

    2006-03-09

    This paper presents experimental and theoretical studies of the product energy partitioning associated with the H + CD4 (nu = 0) --> HD + CD3 reaction for the collision energy range 0.5-3.0 eV. The theoretical results are based on quasiclassical trajectories from (1) first principles direct dynamics calculations (B3LYP/6-31G), (2) an empirical surface developed by Espinosa-García [J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 116, 10664] (EG), and (3) two semiempirical surfaces (MSINDO and reparametrized MSINDO). We find that most of the energy appears in product translation at energies just above the reactive threshold; however, HD vibration and rotation become quite important at energies above 1 eV, each accounting for over 20% of the available energy above 1.5 eV, according to the B3LYP calculations. The barrier on the B3LYP surface, though being later than that on EG, predicts significantly higher HD vibrational excitation than EG. This deviation is contradictory to what would be expected on the basis of the Polanyi rules and derives from modest differences in the potential energy surfaces. The CD3 internal energy is generally quite low, and we present detailed rotational state distributions which show that the CD3 rotational distribution is largely independent of collision energy in the 0.75-1.95 eV range. The most populated rotational levels are N = 5 and 6 on B3LYP, with most of that excitation being associated with motion about the C2 axes, rather than C3 axis, of the CD3 product, in good agreement with the experimental results. Through our extensive studies in this and previous work concerning the scattering dynamics, we conclude that B3LYP/6-31G provides the best available description of the overall dynamics for the title reaction at relatively high collision energies.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  19. Paramagnetic products of the reaction of hydrogen atoms with sodium azide

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, A.A.; Lisetskii, V.N.; Kulikov, N.F.; Savel'ev, G.G.

    1987-09-01

    The reaction of hydrogen atoms with sodium azide in high-frequency discharges has been postulated to lead to NaNH and molecular nitrogen as reaction products. This article investigates these products via electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Data are given on reaction and ionization kinetics as well as on the electronic structure and hyperfine interaction of the products.

  20. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10494 - Reaction product of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and alkylene imine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of trimethylolpropane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10494 Reaction product of trimethylolpropane.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction product of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-03-461) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10428 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10428 Section 721.10428 Protection of Environment..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10494 - Reaction product of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and alkylene imine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of trimethylolpropane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10494 Reaction product of trimethylolpropane.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction product of...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (PMN P-09-48) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10428 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10428 Section 721.10428 Protection of Environment..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10484 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10484 Section 721.10484 Protection of... Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN P-04-432; CAS No....

  14. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10484 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10484 Section 721.10484 Protection of... Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN P-04-432; CAS No....

  17. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (PMN P-09-48) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-03-461) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  8. 78 FR 78748 - 2,5-Furandione, polymer With ethenylbenzene, Reaction Products With polyethylene-polypropylene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2,5-Furandione, polymer With ethenylbenzene, Reaction Products With polyethylene... for residues of 2,5-furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene, reaction products with polyethylene... permissible level for residues of 2,5-furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene, reaction products...

  9. Apparatus enables accurate determination of alkali oxides in alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.; Gahn, R. F.; Graab, J. W.; Maple, W. E.; Rosenblum, L.

    1966-01-01

    Evacuated apparatus determines the alkali oxide content of an alkali metal by separating the metal from the oxide by amalgamation with mercury. The apparatus prevents oxygen and moisture from inadvertently entering the system during the sampling and analytical procedure.

  10. Effects of alkali treatments on Ag nanowire transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Kang, Jun-gu; Eom, Tae-yil; Moon, Bongjin; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we employ various alkali materials (alkali metals with different base strengths, and ammonia gas and solution) to improve the conductivity of silver nanowire (Ag NW)-networked films. The alkali treatment appears to remove the surface oxide and improve the conductivity. When applied with TiO2 nanoparticles, the treatment appears more effective as the alkalis gather around wire junctions and help them weld to each other via heat emitted from the reduction reaction. The ammonia solution treatment is found to be quick and aggressive, damaging the wires severely in the case of excessive treatment. On the other hand, the ammonia gas treatment seems much less aggressive and does not damage the wires even after a long exposure. The results of this study highlight the effectiveness of the alkali treatment in improving of the conductivity of Ag NW-networked transparent conductive films.

  11. Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the oil palm for bioethanol production: a thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44 min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment.

  12. Chlorination of parabens: reaction kinetics and transformation product identification.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qianhui; Ji, Feng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qiquan; Hu, Zhenhu; Yuan, Shoujun

    2016-11-01

    The reactivity and fate of parabens during chlorination were investigated in this work. Chlorination kinetics of methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), propylparaben (PrP), and butylparaben (BuP) were studied in the pH range of 4.0 to 11.0 at 25 ± 1 °C. Apparent rate constants (k app) of 9.65 × 10(-3) M(-0.614)·s(-1), 1.77 × 10(-2) M(-1.019)·s(-1), 2.98 × 10(-2) M(-0.851)·s(-1), and 1.76 × 10(-2) M(-0.860)·s(-1) for MeP, EtP, PrP, and BuP, respectively, were obtained at pH 7.0. The rate constants depended on the solution pH, temperature, and NH4(+) concentration. The maximum k app was obtained at pH 8.0, and the minimum value was obtained at pH 11.0. The reaction rate constants increased with increasing temperature. When NH4(+) was added to the solution, the reaction of parabens was inhibited due to the rapid formation of chloramines. Two main transformation products, 3-chloro-parabens and 3,5-dichloro-parabens, were identified by GC-MS and LCMS-IT-TOF, and a reaction pathway was proposed. Dichlorinated parabens accumulated in solution, which is a threat to human health and the aqueous environment.

  13. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials.

  14. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S.

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  15. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  16. Ideas about Acids and Alkalis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplis, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Investigates students' ideas, conceptions, and misconceptions about acids and alkalis before and after a teaching sequence in a small-scale research project. Concludes that student understanding of acids and alkalis is lacking. (DDR)

  17. Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.

    1996-10-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The key consequences of SERP are: (i) reformation reaction is carried out at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than that in a conventional SMR reactor (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (ii) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 98+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (iii) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The first phase of the program has focused on the development of a sorbent for CO{sub 2} which has (a) reversible CO{sub 2} capacity >0.3 mmol/g at low partial pressures of CO{sub 2} (0.1 - 1.0 atm) in the presence of excess steam (pH{sub 2}O/pCO{sub 2}>20) at 400-500{degrees}C and (b) fast sorption-desorption kinetics for CO{sub 2}, at 400-500{degrees}C. Several families of supported sorbents have been identified that meet the target CO{sub 2} capacity. A few of these sorbents have been tested under repeated sorption/desorption cycles and extended exposure to high pressure steam at 400-500{degrees}C. One sorbent has been scaled up to larger quantities (2-3 kg) and tested in the laboratory process equipment for sorption and desorption kinetics of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2}, sorption and desorption kinetics are desirably fast. This was a critical path item for the first phase of the program and now has been successfully demonstrated. A reactor has been designed that will allow nearly isothermal operation for SERP-SMR. This reactor was integrated into an overall process flow diagram for the SERP-SMR process.

  18. A reactor system for studying the interactions between alkali vapors and ceramic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shadman, F.; Punjak, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of interaction between alkali vapors and several ceramic compounds are studied. A unique micro-gravimetric reactor is designed and utilized for this study. Bauxite and kaolin are very good adsorbents for alkali chlorides and are potentially good additives for control of alkali during coal combustion and gasification. The experimental data shows that the alkali capturing process is a combination of physisorption, chemisorption and chemical reaction. An analytical model is developed assuming a multi-layer adsorption of alkali on substrate followed by a rate-controlling rection on the surface. The experimental results and model predictions are in good agreement.

  19. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  20. (abstract) Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Exchange Current at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    The microscopic mechanism of the alkali ion-electron recombination reaction at the three phase boundary zone formed by a porous metal electrode in the alkali vapor on the surface of an alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) ceramic has been studied by comparison of the expected rates for the three simplest reaction mechanisms with known temperature dependent rate data; and the physical parameters of typical porous metal electrode/BASE/alkali metal vapor reaction zones. The three simplest reactions are tunneling of electrons from the alkali coated electrode to a surface bound alkali metal ion; emission of an electron from the electrode with subsequent capture by a surface bound alkali metal ion; and thermal emission of an alkali cation from the BASE and its capture on the porous metal electrode surface where it may recombine with an electron. Only the first reaction adequately accounts for both the high observed rate and its temperature dependence. New results include crude modeling of simple, one step, three phase, solid/solid/gas electrochemical reaction.

  1. Quasielastic production of polarized hyperons in antineutrino-nucleon reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, F.; Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    We have studied the differential cross section as well as the longitudinal and perpendicular components of polarization of the final hyperon (Λ ,Σ ) produced in the antineutrino induced quasielastic charged current reactions on nucleon and nuclear targets. The nucleon-hyperon transition form factors are determined from the experimental data on quasielastic (Δ S =0 ) charged current (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering and the semileptonic decay of neutron and hyperons assuming G-invariance, T-invariance, and SU(3) symmetry. The vector transition form factors are obtained in terms of nucleon electromagnetic form factors for which various parametrizations available in the literature have been used. A dipole parametrization for the axial vector form factor and the pseudoscalar transition form factor derived in terms of the axial vector form factor assuming PCAC and GT relation extended to the strangeness sector has been used in numerical evaluations. The flux averaged cross section and polarization observables corresponding to the CERN Gargamelle experiment have been calculated for quasielastic hyperon production and found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations. The numerical results for the flux averaged differential cross section d/σ d Q2 and longitudinal (perpendicular) polarization PL(Q2)(PP(Q2)) relevant for the antineutrino fluxes of MINER ν A , MicroBooNE, and T2K experiments have been presented. This will be useful in interpreting future experimental results on production cross sections and polarization observables from the experiments on the quasielastic production of hyperons induced by antineutrinos and exploring the possibility of determining the axial vector and pseudoscalar form factors in the strangeness sector.

  2. Chemical Reaction and Flow Modeling in Fullerene and Nanotube Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Farhat, Samir; Greendyke, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of processes to produce fullerenes and carbon nanotubes has largely been empirical. Fullerenes were first discovered in the soot produced by laser ablation of graphite [1]and then in the soot of electric arc evaporated carbon. Techniques and conditions for producing larger and larger quantities of fullerenes depended mainly on trial and error empirical variations of these processes, with attempts to scale them up by using larger electrodes and targets and higher power. Various concepts of how fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were formed were put forth, but very little was done based on chemical kinetics of the reactions. This was mainly due to the complex mixture of species and complex nature of conditions in the reactors. Temperatures in the reactors varied from several thousand degrees Kelvin down to near room temperature. There are hundreds of species possible, ranging from atomic carbon to large clusters of carbonaceous soot, and metallic catalyst atoms to metal clusters, to complexes of metals and carbon. Most of the chemical kinetics of the reactions and the thermodynamic properties of clusters and complexes have only been approximated. In addition, flow conditions in the reactors are transient or unsteady, and three dimensional, with steep spatial gradients of temperature and species concentrations. All these factors make computational simulations of reactors very complex and challenging. This article addresses the development of the chemical reaction involved in fullerene production and extends this to production of carbon nanotubes by the laser ablation/oven process and by the electric arc evaporation process. In addition, the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process is discussed. The article is in several parts. The first one addresses the thermochemical aspects of modeling; and considers the development of chemical rate equations, estimates of reaction rates, and thermodynamic properties where they are available. The second part

  3. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10570 - Cyclic amine reaction product with acetophenone and formaldehyde acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cyclic amine reaction product with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10570 Cyclic amine reaction product... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cyclic amine reaction...

  8. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10570 - Cyclic amine reaction product with acetophenone and formaldehyde acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cyclic amine reaction product with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10570 Cyclic amine reaction product... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cyclic amine reaction...

  2. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  3. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (PMN P-11-204) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  7. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  8. Hypernuclear production by the (π+,K+) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoba, T.; Bandō, H.; Wünsch, R.; Žofka, J.

    1988-09-01

    The (π+,K+) strength functions (cross sections) are systematically calculated in the distorted-wave impulse approximation for the production of light-to-heavy hypernuclei: 12ΛC, 16ΛO, 28ΛSi, 40ΛCa, 56ΛFe, 90ΛZr (and 208ΛPb). The quasifree continuum effects are taken into account in the frameworks of the Kapur-Peierls method and also of the continuum shell model. The characteristic feature of the (π+,K+) reaction is to provide well-separated series of peaks with high spin corresponding to the bound and resonant Λ states, yielding information on deep-lying hyperon states in heavy nuclei as well. Reasons for this effectiveness are clarified and discussed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the recent experiments which further demonstrates that the average Λ nucleus well can be simulated by an appropriate Woods-Saxon type potential (V0~=-30 MeV) over a wide mass range of hypernuclei to a good approximation.

  9. Electrochemical device for converting carbon dioxide to a reaction product

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    An electrochemical device converts carbon dioxide to a reaction product. The device includes an anode and a cathode, each comprising a quantity of catalyst. The anode and cathode each has reactant introduced thereto. A polymer electrolyte membrane is interposed between the anode and the cathode. At least a portion of the cathode catalyst is directly exposed to gaseous carbon dioxide during electrolysis. The average current density at the membrane is at least 20 mA/cm.sup.2, measured as the area of the cathode gas diffusion layer that is covered by catalyst, and CO selectivity is at least 50% at a cell potential of 3.0 V. In some embodiments, the polymer electrolyte membrane comprises a polymer in which a constituent monomer is (p-vinylbenzyl)-R, where R is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums, pyridiniums and phosphoniums. In some embodiments, the polymer electrolyte membrane is a Helper Membrane comprising a polymer containing an imidazolium ligand, a pyridinium ligand, or a phosphonium ligand.

  10. Near threshold two meson production in hardonic fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Rainer

    1991-04-01

    An approved and funded exclusive COSY experiment is presented, which focuses on near threshold two meson production via the reactions p+d→3 He+π+π- and p+d→3 He+K+K-. It takes advantage of the high quality of the cooled external COSY beam and the existing spectrometer BIG KARL. The setup consists of a vertex wall and a scintillator cylinder and endcap covering a 4π solid angle. The large efficiency and high resolution of this detection method will yield precision data on the low energy (T<50 MeV) meson-meson interaction and probe into questions like the ABC-effect and KḲ molecule. The detector further allows a measurement of possible radiative φ (1020) decay, which will directly probe the strange quark content of the f0(975). Existing inclusive data as well as first results of a very recent `semi-exclusive' experiment performed at SATURNE will be also be presented.

  11. Enhance luminescence by introducing alkali metal ions (R+ = Li+, Na+ and K+) in SrAl2O4:Eu3+ phosphor by solid-state reaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Sahu, Ishwar

    2016-05-01

    In the present article, the role of charge compensator ions (R+ = Li+, Na+ and K+) in europium-doped strontium aluminate (SrAl2O4:Eu3+) phosphors was synthesized by the high-temperature, solid-state reaction method. The crystal structures of sintered phosphors were in a monoclinic phase with space group P21. The trap parameters which are mainly activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of the kinetics (b) were evaluated by using the peak shape method. The calculated trap depths are in the range from 0.76 to 0.84 eV. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the phosphor exhibited emission peak with good intensity at 595 nm, corresponding to 5D0-7F1 (514 nm) orange emission and weak 5D0-7F2 (614 nm) red emission. The excitation spectra monitored at 595 nm show a broad band from 220 to 320 nm ascribed to O-Eu charge-transfer state transition and the other peaks in the range of 350-500 nm originated from f-f transitions of Eu3+ ions. The strongest band at 394 nm can be assigned to 7F0-5L6 transition of Eu3+ ions due to the typical f-f transitions within Eu3+ of 4f6 configuration. The latter lies in near ultraviolet (350-500 nm) emission of UV LED. CIE color chromaticity diagram and thermoluminescence spectra confirm that the synthesized phosphors would emit an orange-red color. Incorporating R+ = Li+, Na+ and K+ as the compensator charge, the emission intensity of SrAl2O4:Eu3+ phosphor can be obviously enhanced and the emission intensity of SrAl2O4:Eu3+ doping Li+ is higher than that of Na+ or K+ ions.

  12. The characterisation of an alkali-stable maltogenic amylase from Bacillus lehensis G1 and improved malto-oligosaccharide production by hydrolysis suppression.

    PubMed

    Abdul Manas, Nor Hasmaliana; Pachelles, Samson; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md

    2014-01-01

    A maltogenic amylase (MAG1) from alkaliphilic Bacillus lehensis G1 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterised for its hydrolysis and transglycosylation properties. The enzyme exhibited high stability at pH values from 7.0 to 10.0. The hydrolysis of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) produced malto-oligosaccharides of various lengths. In addition to hydrolysis, MAG1 also demonstrated transglycosylation activity for the synthesis of longer malto-oligosaccharides. The thermodynamic equilibrium of the multiple reactions was shifted towards synthesis when the reaction conditions were optimised and the water activity was suppressed, which resulted in a yield of 38% transglycosylation products consisting of malto-oligosaccharides of various lengths. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed the presence of malto-oligosaccharides with a higher degree of polymerisation than maltoheptaose, which has never been reported for other maltogenic amylases. The addition of organic solvents into the reaction further suppressed the water activity. The increase in the transglycosylation-to-hydrolysis ratio from 1.29 to 2.15 and the increased specificity toward maltopentaose production demonstrated the enhanced synthetic property of the enzyme. The high transglycosylation activity of maltogenic amylase offers a great advantage for synthesising malto-oligosaccharides and rare carbohydrates.

  13. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N.; Hullette, J.N.

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate

  14. Scalable preparation, characterization, and application of alkali-treated starch as a new organic base catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tamaddon, Fatemeh; KazemiVarnamkhasti, MohammadTaghi

    2017-01-02

    Preparation, characterization, and application of alkali starch (AS) given by dry co-grinding of starch and alkali is described in this work. Grinding using a mortar (agate) and pestle or, more conveniently, a ball mill has been found to be satisfactory for the preparation of the AS. The AS products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. The base capacities of ASs were 4.25-4.45 mmol/g, respectively. AS is a low cost and easy to handle base catalyst that showed promising catalytic performance in the synthesis of a dihydroquinazoline-based antibacterial drug that involves tandem hydration or decarboxylative amidation, imination, and Aza-Michael reactions.

  15. Alkali-vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Komashko, A.; Krupke, W. F.

    2010-02-01

    We report on the results from several of our alkali laser systems. We show highly efficient performance from an alexandrite-pumped rubidium laser. Using a laser diode stack as a pump source, we demonstrate up to 145 W of average power from a CW system. We present a design for a transversely pumped demonstration system that will show all of the required laser physics for a high power system.

  16. Ultrasonic coal washing to leach alkali elements from coals.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, S; Reddy, V Midhun; Nagarajan, R

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of fly ash particles onto heat-transfer surfaces is often one of the reasons for unscheduled shut-downs of coal-fired boilers. Fouling deposits encountered in convective sections of a boiler are characterized by arrival of ash particles in solidified (solid) state. Fouling is most frequently caused by condensation and chemical reaction of alkali vapors with the deposited ash particles creating a wet surface conducive to collect impacting ash particles. Hence, the amount of alkali elements present in coals, which, in turn, is available in the flue gas as condensable vapors, determines the formation and growth of fouling deposits. In this context, removal of alkali elements becomes vital when inferior coals having high-ash content are utilized for power generation. With the concept of reducing alkali elements present in a coal entering the combustor, whereby the fouling deposits can either be minimized or be weakened due to absence of alkali gluing effect, the ultrasonic leaching of alkali elements from coals is investigated in this study. Ultrasonic water-washing and chemical-washing, in comparison with agitation, are studied in order to estimate the intensification of the alkali removal process by sonication.

  17. Gamma ray line production from cosmic ray spallation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma ray line intensities due to cosmic ray spallation reactions in clouds, the galactic disk and accreting binary pulsars are calculated. With the most favorable plausible assumptions, only a few lines may be detectable to the level of 0.0000001 per sq. cm per sec. The intensities are compared with those generated in nuclear excitation reactions.

  18. Butanol production employing fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum GX01 using alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus QS 7-2-4.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zong-Wen; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Zheng-Wu; Liang, Jing-Juan; Du, Liang-Wei; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SB) is a potential feedstock for butanol production. However, biological production of butanol from SB is less economically viable. In this study, evaluation of eight pretreatments on SB showed that alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from SB while retaining the intact native structure of the released microfibrils. In total, 99% of cellulose and 100% of hemicellulose in alkali-pretreated SB were hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus. The hydrolysate was used to produce butanol in a fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. At 60h, 14.17 and 21.11gL(-1) of butanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) were produced from 68.89gL(-1) of total sugars, respectively, yielding 0.22 and 0.33gg(-1) of sugars. The maximum yield of butanol and ABE reached 15.4g and 22.9g per 100g raw SB, respectively. This established process may have potential application for butanol production from SB.

  19. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Polymerase of Rous Sarcoma Virus: Reaction Conditions and Analysis of the Reaction Product Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, D. H. L.; Ruprecht, Ruth; Simpson, R. W.; Spiegelman, S.

    1971-01-01

    Reaction conditions for Rous sarcoma virus ribonucleic acid (RNA)-instructed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase activity are described whereby the viral RNA is relatively protected from endogenous or added nuclease activity. Three analyses of reaction product nucleic acids (3H-RNA, 32P-DNA) were compared, namely, gel electrophoresis, Cs2SO4 gradient centrifugation, and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. It was found that hydroxyapatite analysis could be misleading unless the state of the template RNA was monitored concomitantly with the DNA analysis. Gel electrophoresis and Cs2SO4 gradient centrifugation gave comparable results. It was concluded that analyses of the product of reverse transcriptase reactions should not only refer to the template RNA and product DNA species, but also be performed with virus or viral RNA which do not have or obtain nicks in the 60S RNA. Otherwise, interpretation of the results would have the ambiguity of potential artifacts caused by those degraded RNA molecules. PMID:4332143

  20. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  1. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  6. Laser ion source for multi-nucleon transfer reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a laser ion source for the target-like fragments (TLFs) produced in multi-nucleon transfer (MNT) reactions. The operation principle of the source is based on the in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) approach. In the source TLFs are thermalized and neutralized in high pressure and high purity argon gas, and are extracted after being selectively re-ionized in a multi-step laser resonance ionization process. The laser ion source has been implemented at the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) for β-decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes with N = 126 of nuclear astrophysical interest. The simulations of gas flow and ion-beam optics have been performed to optimize the gas cell for efficient thermalization and fast transporting the TLFs, and the mass-separator for efficient transport with high mass-resolving power, respectively. To confirm the performances expected at the design stage, off-line experiments have been performed by using 56Fe atoms evaporated from a filament in the gas cell. The gas-transport time of 230 ms in the argon cell and the measured KISS mass-resolving power of 900 are consistent with the designed values. The high purity of the gas-cell system, which is extremely important for efficient and highly-selective production of laser ions, was achieved and confirmed from the mass distribution of the extracted ions. After the off-line tests, on-line experiments were conducted by directly injecting energetic 56Fe beam into the gas cell. After thermalization of the injected 56Fe beam, laser-produced singly-charged 56Fe+ ions were extracted. The extraction efficiency and selectivity of the gas cell in the presence of plasma induced by 56Fe beam injection as well as the time profile of the extracted ions were investigated; extraction efficiency of 0.25%, a beam purity of >99% and an extraction time of 270 ms. It has been confirmed that the performance of the KISS laser ion source is satisfactory to start the measurements of

  7. Control of alkali species in gasification systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turn, S.; Kinoshita, C.; Ishimura, D. Zhou, J.; Hiraki, T.; Masutani, S.

    2000-07-13

    Gas-phase alkali metal compounds contribute to fouling, slagging, corrosion, and agglomeration problems in energy conversion facilities. One mitigation strategy applicable at high temperature is to pass the gas stream through a fixed bed sorbent or getter material, which preferentially absorbs alkali via physical adsorption or chemisorption. This report presents results of an experimental investigation of high-temperature alkali removal from a hot filtered gasifier product gas stream using a packed bed of sorbent material. Two getter materials, activated bauxite and emathlite, were tested at two levels of space time by using two interchangeable reactors of different internal diameters. The effect of getter particle size was also investigated.

  8. Product distribution for the reaction of HO2 with ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reports the direct measurement of the reaction product HOCl from the reaction of H2O with ClO, and sets an upper limit for the possible product O3, using a discharge flow/mass spectrometry/resonance fluorescence apparatus. The upper limits of the reaction channel producing HCl + O3 are 1.5% at 298 K and 3.0% at 248 K. It is seen that the HCl production rate from the HO2 + ClO reaction could be as large as that from the Cl + CH4 reaction in the lower and middle stratosphere. Thus, this reaction may possibly increase the HCl production rate appreciably and thereby reduce the calculated O3 destruction by chlorofluoromethanes.

  9. Singlet oxygen production in the reaction of superoxide with organic peroxides.

    PubMed

    MacManus-Spencer, Laura A; Edhlund, Betsy L; McNeill, Kristopher

    2006-01-20

    [reaction: see text] A selective chemiluminescent probe for singlet oxygen has been employed to detect and quantify singlet oxygen in the reactions of superoxide with organic peroxides. The production of singlet oxygen has been quantified in the reaction of superoxide with benzoyl peroxide (BP). No singlet oxygen was detected in the reactions of superoxide with cumyl peroxide, tert-butyl peroxide, or tert-butyl hydroperoxide. On the basis of these results and on the temperature dependence of the reaction, we proposed a mechanism for singlet oxygen formation in the reaction of superoxide with BP.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  5. Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jin; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Chen, Meng-Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Formose reaction converts formaldehyde to carbohydrates. We found that formose reaction can be used linking the biomass gasification with the aqueous-phase processing (APP) to produce liquid transportation fuel in three steps. First, formaldehyde from syn-gas was converted to triose. This was followed by aldol condensation and dehydration to 4-hydroxymethylfurfural (4-HMF). Finally, 4-HMF was hydrogenated to produce 2,4-dimethylfuran (2,4-DMF) or C9-C15 branched-chain alkanes as liquid transportation fuels. In the linked strategy, high energy-consuming pretreatment as well as expensive and polluting hydrolysis of biomass were omitted, but the high energy recovery of APP was inherited. In addition, the hexoketoses via formose reaction could be converted to HMFs directly without isomerization. A potential platform molecule 4-HMF was formed simultaneously in APP. PMID:23393625

  6. Comparison of Complementary Reactions in the Production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Sarah; Gregorich, Kenneth; Dragojevic, Irena; Ellison, Paul; Garcia, Mitch Andre; Gates, Jacklyn; Stavsetra, Liv; Ali, Mazhar; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-01-21

    The new reaction 208Pb(59Co,n)266Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7+5.2-3.3 pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of 266Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied 209Bi(58Fe,n)266Mt reaction.

  7. Comparison of complementary reactions in the production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Dragojevic, I.; Ellison, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Dvorak, J.; Stavsetra, L.; Ali, M. N.

    2009-02-15

    The new reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 59}Co,n){sup 266}Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7{sub -3.3}{sup +5.2} pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of {sup 266}Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied {sup 209}Bi({sup 58}Fe,n){sup 266}Mt reaction.

  8. Crystal structures and topological aspects of the high-temperature phases and decomposition products of the alkali-metal oxalates M2[C2O4] (M=K, Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Dinnebier, Robert E; Vensky, Sascha; Jansen, Martin; Hanson, Jonathan C

    2005-02-04

    The high-temperature phases of the alkali-metal oxalates M2[C2O4] (M = K, Rb, Cs), and their decomposition products M2[CO3] (M = K, Rb, Cs), were investigated by fast, angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction with an image-plate detector, and also by simultaneous differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/mass spectrometry (MS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The following phases, in order of decreasing temperature, were observed and crystallographically characterized (an asterisk denotes a previously unknown modification): *alpha-K2[C2O4], *alpha-Rb2[C2O4], *alpha-Cs2[C2O4], alpha-K2[CO3], *alpha-Rb2[CO3], and *alpha-Cs2[CO3] in space group P6(3)/mmc; *beta-Rb2[C2O4], *beta-Cs2[C2O4], *beta-Rb2[CO3], and *beta-Cs2[CO3] in Pnma; gamma-Rb2[C2O4], gamma-Cs[C2O4], gamma-Rb2[CO3], and gamma-Cs2[CO3] in P2(1)/c; and delta-K2[C2O4] and delta-Rb2[C2O4] in Pbam. With respect to the centers of gravity of the oxalate and carbonate anions, respectively, the crystal structures of all known alkali-metal oxalates and carbonates belong to the AlB2 family, and adopt either the AlB2 or the Ni2In arrangement depending on the size of the cation and the temperature. Despite the different sizes and constitutions of the carbonate and oxalate anions, the high-temperature phases of the alkali-metal carbonates M2[CO3] (M = K, Rb, Cs), exhibit the same sequence of basic structures as the corresponding alkali-metal oxalates. The topological aspects and order-disorder phenomena at elevated temperature are discussed.

  9. Tuning Lipase Reaction for Production of Fatty Acids from Oil.

    PubMed

    Odaneth, Annamma A; Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Bhat, Anuradha D; Lali, Arvind M

    2016-10-01

    Fats or oils are split partially or completely to obtain fatty acids that find wide applications in oleo-chemical industries. Lipase-mediated complete splitting (hydrolysis) of oils is a green process having great potential to replace the traditional methods of oil splitting. However, cost of lipases, mechanistic kinetic equilibrium and associated operational limitations prove to be deterrents for scale up of the enzymatic oil splitting process. In the present study, we demonstrate the use of immobilised 1,3-regioselective lipase (HyLIP) for complete hydrolysis of oil in monophasic reaction medium. Incorporation of a polar organic solvent (tert-butanol, 1:5, v/v) homogenises the oil-water mixture and contributes positively towards complete hydrolysis. The monophasic oil hydrolysis reaction with optimised water concentration (0.05 %, v/v) gave Free Fatty Acid (FFA) yield of 88 % (HyLIP and Novozym-435) and 66 % (TLIM and RMIM). Smart reaction engineering and modification of the reaction intermediates to favourable substrate lead to ∼99 % degree of hydrolysis of triglycerides with ∼90 % FFA yield using 1,3-regioselective lipase. The present work becomes basic platform for developing technologies for synthesis of fatty acids, monoglycerides, diglycerides and glycerol.

  10. Utility of spectral measurements of secondary reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.E.

    1986-02-01

    The spectra of 15 MeV protons and 14 MeV neutrons produced in the burnup of 0.8 MeV THe ions and 1 MeV tritons through the d(THe,p) and d(t,n) fusion reactions contain information on the velocity distributions of the energetic THe ions and tritons. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  11. [Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge by acid-alkali pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guang-Huan; Zhou, Xing-Qiu; Wu, Jian-Dong

    2012-06-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge, acid-alkali pretreatment method was studied. Three different pretreatment methods (alkali alone,acid-alkali, alkali-acid) were compared to investigate their impacts on hydrolysis and acidification of activated sludge. In addition, their influences on methane-producing in subsequent anaerobic digestion process were also studied. The results showed that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of alkaline treatment alone was about 16% higher than the combining of acid and alkali treatment, SCOD concentration increased to 5406.1 mg x L(-1) after 8 d pretreatment. After treated by acid (pH 4.0, 4 d) and alkali (pH 10.0, 4 d), the acetic acid production and its content in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were higher than other pretreatment methods. And the acetic acid production (as COD/VSS) could reach 74.4 mg x g(-1), accounting for 60.5% of SCFAs. After acid-alkali pretreatment, the C: N ratio of the sludge mixed liquor was about 25, and the C: P ratio was between 35-40, which was more favorable than C: N and C: P ratio of alkali alone and alkali-acid to subsequent anaerobic digestion. The control experiments showed that, after acid-alkali pretreatment, anaerobic digestion cumulative methane yield (CH4/VSS(in)) reached to 136.1 mL x g(-1) at 15 d, which was about 2.5-, 1.6-, and 1.7-fold of the blank (unpretreated), alkali alone pretreatment and alkali-acid pretreatment, respectively. After acid-alkali pretreatment for 8 d and anaerobic digestion for 15 d, the removal efficiency of VSS was about 60.9%, and the sludge reduction effect was better than other pretreatments. It is obvious that the acid-alkali pretreatment method was more favorable to anaerobic digestion and sludge reduction.

  12. [Fluorescence enhancement of flavoxate hydrochloride in alkali solution and its application in pharmaceutical analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-hong; Sun, Chong-mei; Wei, Yong-ju

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescence enhancement reaction of flavoxate hydrochloride (FX) in strong alkali solution was studied, the mechanism of the reaction was investigated, and a novel fluorimetric method for analysis of FX in drug sample was established. FX has no intrinsic fluorescence, but it can slowly produce fluorescence in strong alkali solution. Heating can promote the fluorescence enhancement reaction. In 3D fluorescence spectra of the decomposition product of FX, two fluorescence peaks, located respectively at excitation wavelengths λex/ emission wavelength λem =223/410 nm, and 302/410 nm, were observed. Using quinine sulfate as a reference, fluorescence quantum yield of the decomposition product was measured to be 0.50. The structural characteriza- tion and spectral analysis of the decomposition product reveal that ester bond hydrolysis reaction of FX is firstly occurred during heating process, forming 3-methylflavone-8-carboxylic acid (MFA), then a cleavage reaction of the γ-pyrone ring of MFA occurred, producing α, β-unsaturated ketone. This product includes adjacent hydroxyl benzoic acid group in its molecule, which can form intramolecular hydrogen bond under alkaline condition, so that increase the conjugate degree and enhance the rigidity of the molecule, and thereby cause fluorescence enhancement. Based on this fluorescence enhancement reaction, a fluorimetric method was proposed for the determination of FX. A linear calibration curve covered the concentration range 0.020 3-0.487 µg · mL. The regression equation was I(F) = 23.9 + 5357.3 c, with correlation coefficient r = 0.999 7 (n = 8), detection limit D = 1.1 ng · mL(-1). The method was applied to the analysis of FX tablets, with a spiked recovery rate of 100.2%. The reliability of the method was verified by a UV-spectrophotometric method.

  13. Preparation of alkali metal dispersions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Landel, R. F. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for producing alkali metal dispersions of high purity. The dispersions are prepared by varying the equilibrium solubility of the alkali metal in a suitable organic solvent in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The equilibrium variation is produced by temperature change. The size of the particles is controlled by controlling the rate of temperature change.

  14. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  15. The Hydroxyl Radical Reaction Rate Constant and Products of Dimethyl Succinate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    reaction. Formic acid is believed to be a degradation product of the primary product, methyl glyoxylate (MG, CH3OC(=O)C(=O)H). Product formation...O)OH)) at a yield of only vi 2.17 ± 0.25%. Extensive efforts were used to identify other primary products but none were measured. Formic acid ...initiating the OH + DMS reaction. Formic acid is believed to be a degradation product of the primary product, methyl glyoxylate (MG, CH3OC(=O)C(=O)H

  16. Difficulties in Interpreting Alkali Metal Trends at the Senior Chemistry Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Explores the reasons for the differences in alkali metal reactivity in water in terms of thermodynamics rather than ionization trends. Shows that differences in alkali metal reactivity with water are more appropriately explained in terms of the kinetics of the reactions. (MM)

  17. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  18. Effects of hydrolysis and carbonization reactions on hydrochar production.

    PubMed

    Fakkaew, K; Koottatep, T; Polprasert, C

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process which converts wet biomass into hydrochar. In this study, a low-energy HTC process named "Two-stage HTC" comprising of hydrolysis and carbonization stages using faecal sludge as feedstock was developed and optimized. The experimental results indicated the optimum conditions of the two-stage HTC to be; hydrolysis temperature of 170 °C, hydrolysis reaction time of 155 min, carbonization temperature of 215 °C, and carbonization reaction time of 100 min. The hydrolysis reaction time and carbonization temperature had a statistically significant effect on energy content of the produced hydrochar. Energy input of the two-stage HTC was about 25% less than conventional HTC. Energy efficiency of the two-stage HTC for treating faecal sludge was higher than that of conventional HTC and other thermal conversion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification. The two-stage HTC could be considered as a potential technology for treating FS and producing hydrochar.

  19. Effect of an allophanic soil on humification reactions between catechol and glycine: Spectroscopic investigations of reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masami; Miura, Akitaka; Sasaki, Masahide; Izumo, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Adduction of amino acids to phenols is a possible humification reaction pathway [F.J. Stevenson, Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reaction, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1994, pp. 188-211; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Sci. Total Environ. 62 (1987) 435; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55 (1991) 1156; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 112 (2003) 31; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 124 (2005) 415]. To elucidate the reaction kinetics and products of abiotic humification, the effects of an allophanic soil on the adduction of amino acids to phenols were investigated using catechol (CT) and glycine (Gly) as a model phenol and amino acid, respectively. An aqueous solution containing CT and Gly (pH 7.0) in the presence of allophanic soil was incubated for 2 weeks, and the kinetics of the humification reactions were monitored by analysis of absorptivity at 600 nm ( E600). A mixture of CT and Gly in the absence of allophanic soil was used as a control. The E600 value increased markedly in the presence of allophanic soil. In addition, unreacted CT was detected in the control reaction mixture, but not in the allophane-containing reaction mixture. Under the sterilized conditions, absorbance at 600 nm for the control reaction mixture was significantly smaller than that for the allophanic soil-containing reaction mixture, which indicates there was no microbial participation during incubation. These results indicate that the allophanic soil effectively facilitated humification reactions between CT and Gly. The reaction mixtures were acidified and humic-like acid (HLA) was isolated as a precipitate. The elemental composition, acidic functional group contents, molecular weight, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS 13C NMR, and 1H NMR spectra of the purified HLAs were analyzed. The results of these analyses indicate that the nitrogen atom of Gly binds to the aromatic carbon of CT in the HLA products.

  20. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton’s second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field. PMID:27377532

  1. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction.

    PubMed

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-07-05

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton's second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field.

  2. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-07-01

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton’s second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field.

  3. High-temperature interactions of alkali vapors with solids during coal combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Punjak, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    A temperature and concentration programmed reaction method is used to investigate the mechanism by which organically bound alkali is released from carbonaceous substrates. Vaporization of the alkali is preceded by reduction of oxygen-bearing groups during which CO is generated. A residual amount of alkali remains after complete reduction. This residual level is greater for potassium, indicating that potassium has stronger interactions with graphitic substrates that sodium. Other mineral substrates were exposed to high temperature alkali chloride vapors under both nitrogen and simulated flue gas atmospheres to investigate their potential application as sorbents for the removal of alkali from coal conversion flue gases. The compounds containing alumina and silica are found to readily adsorb alkali vapors and the minerals kaolinite, bauxite and emathlite are identified as promising alkali sorbents. The fundamentals of alkali adsorption on kaolinite, bauxite and emathlite are compared and analyzed both experimentally and through theoretical modeling. The experiments were performed in a microgravimetric reactor system; the sorbents were characterized before and after alkali adsorption using scanning Auger microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, mercury porosimetry and atomic emission spectrophotometry. The results show that the process is not a simple physical condensation, but a complex combination of several diffusion steps and reactions.

  4. Alkali activation of recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from fluidised-bed combustion: Stabilisation/solidification of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Yliniemi, Juho; Pesonen, Janne; Tiainen, Minna; Illikainen, Mirja

    2015-09-01

    Recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from a fluidized bed boiler was alkali-activated and granulated with a sodium-silicate solution in order to immobilise the heavy metals it contains. The effect of blast-furnace slag and metakaolin as co-binders were studied. Leaching standard EN 12457-3 was applied to evaluate the immobilisation potential. The results showed that Ba, Pb and Zn were effectively immobilised. However, there was increased leaching after alkali activation for As, Cu, Mo, Sb and V. The co-binders had minimal or even negative effect on the immobilisation. One exception was found for Cr, in which the slag decreased leaching, and one was found for Cu, in which the slag increased leaching. A sequential leaching procedure was utilized to gain a deeper understanding of the immobilisation mechanism. By using a sequential leaching procedure it is possible fractionate elements into watersoluble, acid-soluble, easily-reduced and oxidisable fractions, yielding a total 'bioavailable' amount that is potentially hazardous for the environment. It was found that the total bioavailable amount was lower following alkali activation for all heavy metals, although the water-soluble fraction was higher for some metals. Evidence from leaching tests suggests the immobilisation mechanism was chemical retention, or trapping inside the alkali activation reaction products, rather than physical retention, adsorption or precipitation as hydroxides.

  5. The Hydroxyl Radical Reaction Rate Constant and Products of Cyclohexanol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    atmospheric degradation mechanism. The observed products and their formation yields were: cyclohexanone (0.55 0.06), hexanedial (0.32 0.15), 3...COL, tridecane, and decane were obtained from Aldrich with a purity of 99%. Pentanal (99%) and cyclohexanone (99%) were purchased through Ultra... Cyclohexanone (CON) was the only OH COL re- action product observed during the initial kinetic ex- periments. Its presence was also detected later using

  6. Application of the aza-Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of natural products.

    PubMed

    Cao, Min-Hui; Green, Nicholas J; Xu, Sheng-Zhen

    2017-03-22

    The Diels-Alder reaction that involves a nitrogen atom in the diene or dienophile is termed the aza-Diels-Alder reaction. As well as the powerful all-carbon Diels-Alder reaction, the aza-Diels-Alder reaction has also played an important role in the total synthesis of natural products. Herein, we review various natural products using an aza-Diels-Alder reaction as a key step to their total synthesis, and divide the syntheses into inter- and intra-molecular aza-Diels-Alder reactions and a retro-aza-Diels-Alder reaction. Inter- and intra-molecular aza-Diels-Alder reactions involve an imine as an electron deficient dienophile and an imine as an electron deficient azadiene. The significance of the aza-Diels-Alder reaction for the construction of a six-membered ring containing nitrogen is tremendous, but the development of asymmetric, in particular catalytic enantioselective intramolecular aza-Diels-Alder reaction in the total synthesis of natural products remains highly challenging, and will no doubt see enormous advances in the future.

  7. Energy requirement for alkali assisted microwave and high pressure reactor pretreatments of cotton plant residue and its hydrolysis for fermentable sugar production for biofuel application.

    PubMed

    Vani, Sankar; Binod, Parameswaran; Kuttiraja, Mathiyazhakan; Sindhu, Raveendran; Sandhya, Soolamkandath Variem; Preeti, Varghese Elizabeth; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, alkali assisted microwave pretreatment (AAMP) of cotton plant residue (CPR) with high pressure reactor pretreatment was compared. Further, modeling of AAMP was attempted. AAMP, followed by enzymatic saccharification was evaluated and the critical parameters were identified to be exposure time, particle size and enzyme loading. The levels of these parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to enhance sugar yield. AAMP of CPR (1mm average size) for 6 min at 300 W yielded solid fractions that on hydrolysis resulted in maximum reducing sugar yield of 0.495 g/g. The energy required for AAMP at 300 W for 6 min was 108 kJ whereas high pressure pretreatment (180°C, 100 rpm for 45 min) requires 5 times more energy i.e., 540 kJ. Physiochemical characterization of native and pretreated feedstock revealed differences between high pressure pretreatment and AAMP.

  8. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  9. Alkali-aggregate reactivity of typical siliceious glass and carbonate rocks in alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Duyou; Liu, Yongdao; Zheng, Yanzeng; Xu, Zhongzi; Shen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    For exploring the behaviour of alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) in alkali-activated geopolymeric materials and assessing the procedures for testing AAR in geopolymers, the expansion behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer mortars with pure silica glass and typical carbonate rocks were studied respectively by curing at various conditions, i.e. 23°C and 38°C with relative humidity over 95%, immersed in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. Results show that, at various curing conditions, neither harmful ASR nor harmful ACR was observed in geopolymers with the criteria specified for OPC system. However, with the change of curing conditions, the geopolymer binder and reactive aggregates may experience different reaction processes leading to quite different dimensional changes, especially with additional alkalis and elevated temperatures. It suggests that high temperature with additional alkali for accelerating AAR in traditional OPC system may not appropriate for assessing the alkali-aggregate reactivity behaviour in geopolymers designed for normal conditions. On the other hand, it is hopeful to control the dimensional change of geopolymer mortar or concrete by selecting the type of aggregates and the appropriate curing conditions, thus changing the harmful AAR in OPC into beneficial AAR in geopolymers and other alkali-activated cementitious systems.

  10. The reaction of cobaloximes with hydrogen: Products and thermodynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Estes, Deven P.; Grills, David C.; Norton, Jack R.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, a cobalt hydride has been proposed as an intermediate in many reactions of the Co(dmgBF₂)₂L₂ system, but its observation has proven difficult. We have observed the UV–vis spectra of Co(dmgBF₂)₂L₂ (1) in CH₃CN under hydrogen pressures up to 70 atm. A Co(I) compound (6), with an exchangeable proton, is eventually formed. We have determined the bond dissociation free energy and pKa of the new O–H bond in 6 to be 50.5 kcal/mol and 13.4, respectively, in CH₃CN, matching previous reports.

  11. Application of the Solid-Supported Glaser-Hay Reaction to Natural Product Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lampkowski, Jessica S; Uthappa, Diya M; Halonski, John F; Maza, Johnathan C; Young, Douglas D

    2016-12-16

    The Glaser-Hay coupling of terminal alkynes is a useful synthetic reaction for the preparation of polyynes; however, chemoselectivity issues have precluded its widespread utilization. Conducting the reaction on a solid-support provides a mechanism to alleviate the chemoselectivity issues and provide products in high purities and yields. Moreover, the polyyne core is a key component to several natural products. Herein, we describe the application of a solid-supported Glaser-Hay reaction in the preparation of several natural products. These compounds were then screened for antibacterial activity, illustrating the utility of the methodology.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (generic). 721.10375... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (PMN P-10-200)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (generic). 721.10375... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (PMN P-10-200)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (generic). 721.10375... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer with N-vinyl caprolactam (PMN P-10-200)...

  15. Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Jonathan E.

    2006-05-23

    The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

  16. Optical model methods of predicting nuclide production from spallation reactions.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, C R; Townsend, L W; Tripathi, R K; Cucinotta, F A

    1998-02-01

    Quantum mechanical optical model methods for calculating isotope production cross sections from the spallation of heavy nuclei by high-energy protons are developed from a modified abrasion-ablation collision formalism. The abrasion step is treated quantum-mechanically as a knockout process which leaves the residual prefragment nucleus in an excited state. In ablation the prefragment deexcites to produce the final fragment. The excitation energies of the prefragments are estimated from a combination of liquid drop and frictional-spectator interaction considerations. Estimates of elemental and isotopic production cross sections are in good agreement with recently published cross section measurements.

  17. Energy distribution among reaction products. VI - F + H2, D2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the F + H2 reaction, which is of special theoretical interest since it is one of the simplest examples of an exothermic chemical reaction. The FH2 system involves only 11 electrons, and the computation of a potential-energy hypersurface to chemical accuracy may now be within the reach of ab initio calculations. The 'arrested relaxation' variant of the infrared chemiluminescence method is used to obtain the initial vibrational, rotational and translational energy distributions in the products of exothermic reactions.

  18. Universal CG cloning of polymerase chain reaction products.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Julian; Brown, Andrew J

    2015-02-15

    Single-insert cloning of DNA fragments without restriction enzymes has traditionally been achieved using TA cloning, with annealing of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment containing a single overhanging 3' A to a plasmid vector containing a 3' T. In this article, we show that the analogous "CG cloning" is faster and far more efficient, using AhdI to generate a C-vector. For an afternoon ligation, CG cloning achieved double the cloning efficiency and more than 4-fold the number of transformants compared with TA cloning. However, blunt-end ligation was markedly more efficient than both. CG cloning could prove to be extremely useful for single-copy high-throughput cloning.

  19. Miscible viscous fingering involving production of gel by chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Hoshino, Kenichi

    2015-11-01

    We have experimentally investigated miscible viscous fingering with chemical reactions producing gel. Here, two systems were employed. In one system, sodium polyacrylate (SPA) solution and aluminum ion (Al3 +) solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In another system, SPA solution and ferric ion (Fe3 +) solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In the case of Al3 +, displacement efficiency was smaller than that in the non-reactive case, whereas in the case of Fe3 +, the displacement efficiency was larger. We consider that the difference in change of the patterns in the two systems will be caused by the difference in the properties of the gels. Therefore, we have measured the rheological properties of the gels by means of a rheometer. We discuss relationship between the VF patterns and the rheological measurement.

  20. Pion production in heavy ion reactions near absolute thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Stachel, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Paul, P.; Zhang, P.H.; Obenshain, F.E.; Plasil, F.; Young, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Pion production in heavy ion collisions at energies below the free nucleon-nucleon threshold, i.e., at energies, where the pion mass exceeds the kinetic energy of a projectile nucleon in the zero momentum frame, has been discussed for a long time in terms of probing the intrinsic Fermi motion in the projectile and target nuclei. However, as the beam energy is lowered, this process gets more and more unlikely and below a certain energy it should not be observed anymore. In a sharp cut-off Fermi gas model this occurs at E/sub lab/=50 MeV/u. However, as long as the total center of mass energy exceeds the pion mass, pions still can be produced by a cooperative sharing of the beam energy of several (or all) projectile nucleons. The experiments presented here are meant to extend the experimental information into that kinematic domain and represent the up to now lowest beam energy, where pion production has been identified unambiguously. The production of a pion of 100 MeV kinematic energy with a 35 MeV/u /sup 14/N beam requires Fermi momenta as high as approx.350 MeV/c or alternatively 60% of the total beam energy. The information from the present experiments together with the results of previous experiments at higher beam energies of 44 MeV/u and 60 to 84 MeV/u allows one to distinguish between the alternative production mechanisms.

  1. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PRODUCTS FROM THE REACTION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is of biological significance and may be implicated in the overall toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic. The course of the reaction in aqueous phase was monitored and an initial product, dimethylthioarsin...

  2. Mapping Students' Conceptual Modes When Thinking about Chemical Reactions Used to Make a Desired Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrich, M. L.; Talanquer, V.

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this qualitative research study was to uncover major implicit assumptions that students with different levels of training in the discipline apply when thinking and making decisions about chemical reactions used to make a desired product. In particular, we elicited different ways of conceptualizing why chemical reactions happen…

  3. Use of Moessbauer spectroscopy to study reaction products of polyphenols and iron compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, J. ); Suwalski, J. )

    1994-05-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study parameters of the reaction products of iron compounds (Fe[sup III]) and polyphenols with hydroxyl (OH) groups in ortho positions. Polyphenols used in the reaction were catechol, pyrogallol, gallic acid, and oak tannin. The Fe-containing compounds were hydrated ferric sulfate (Fe[sub 2][SO[sub 4

  4. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  5. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  6. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10242 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, polysulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10242 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10242 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, polysulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10242 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10241 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, sulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10241 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10242 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, polysulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10242 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10241 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, sulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10241 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10241 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane, sulfurized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10241 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle,...

  13. Reactions between beta-lactoglobulin and genipin: kinetics and characterization of the products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we present the first detailed report of the reaction kinetics studies and the characterization of the products from the endothermic reactions between beta-lactoglobulin and genipin. The effects of concentration, temperature, and pH were examined. In the temperature range studied, th...

  14. Lubricant and fuel compositions containing reaction products of polyalkenyl succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, D.A.; Cardis, A.B.; McGonigle, S.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes an additive for liquid hydrocarbon fuel composition, particularly diesel fuels. The additive composition is the reaction product of polyalkenyl-substituted succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles. It also finds use in lubricant compositions.

  15. Dynamical coupled-channels study of meson production reactions from EBAC@Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroyuki Kamano

    2011-10-01

    We present the current status of a combined and simultaneous analysis of meson production reactions based on a dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model, which is conducted at Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) of Jefferson Lab.

  16. Dynamical coupled-channels study of meson production reactions from EBACatJLab

    SciTech Connect

    Kamano, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-24

    We present the current status of a combined and simultaneous analysis of meson production reactions based on a dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model, which is conducted at Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) of Jefferson Lab.

  17. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  18. Glycosylation of aromatic amines I: Characterization of reaction products and kinetic scheme.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Madhushree Y; Kearney, William R; Kirsch, Lee E

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of aliphatic and aromatic amines with reducing sugars are important in both drug stability and synthesis. The formation of glycosylamines in solution, the first step in the Maillard reaction, does not typically cause browning but results in decreased potency and is hence significant from the aspect of drug instability. The purpose of this research was to present (1) unreported ionic equilibria of model reactant (kynurenine), (2) the analytical methods used to characterize and measure reaction products, (3) the kinetic scheme used to measure reaction rates and (4) relevant properties of various reducing sugars that impact the reaction rate in solution. The methods used to identify the reversible formation of two products from the reaction of kynurenine and monosaccharides included LC mass spectrometry, UV spectroscopy, and 1-D and 2-D (1)H-(1)H COSY NMR spectroscopy. Kinetics was studied using a stability-indicating HPLC method. The results indicated the formation of alpha and beta glycosylamines by a pseudo first-order reversible reaction scheme in the pH range of 1-6. The forward reaction was a function of initial glucose concentration but not the reverse reaction. It was concluded that the reaction kinetics and equilibrium concentrations of the glycosylamines were pH-dependent and also a function of the acyclic content of the reacting glucose isomer.

  19. Ethanol production from acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob by endoglucanase and β-glucosidase co-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae subject to the expression of heterologous genes and nutrition added.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunying; Zou, Shaolan; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Huajun; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Hong, Jiefang; Zhang, Minhua

    2016-05-01

    Low-cost technologies to overcome the recalcitrance of cellulose are the key to widespread utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. Efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose requires the synergism of various cellulases, and the ratios of each cellulase are required to be regulated to achieve the maximum hydrolysis. On the other hand, engineering of cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains is a promising strategy for lignocellulosic ethanol production. The expression of cellulase-encoding genes in yeast would affect the synergism of cellulases and thus the fermentation ability of strains with exogenous enzyme addition. However, such researches are rarely reported. In this study, ten endoglucanase and β-glucosidase co-expressing S. cerevisiae strains were constructed and evaluated by enzyme assay and fermentation performance measurement. The results showed that: (1) maximum ethanol titers of recombinant strains exhibited high variability in YPSC medium (20 g/l peptone, 10 g/l yeast extract, 100 g/l acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob) within 10 days. However, they had relatively little difference in USC medium (100 g/l acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob, 0.33 g/l urea, pH 5.0). (2) Strains 17# and 19#, with ratio (CMCase to β-glucosidase) of 7.04 ± 0.61 and 7.40 ± 0.71 respectively, had the highest fermentation performance in YPSC. However, strains 11# and 3# with the highest titers in USC medium had a higher ratio of CMCase to β-glucosidase, and CMCase activities. These results indicated that nutrition, enzyme activities and the ratio of heterologous enzymes had notable influence on the fermentation ability of cellulase-expressing yeast.

  20. Interfacing microbial styrene production with a biocompatible cyclopropanation reaction.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Stephen; Balskus, Emily P

    2015-06-08

    The introduction of new reactivity into living organisms is a major challenge in synthetic biology. Despite an increasing interest in both the development of small-molecule catalysts that are compatible with aqueous media and the engineering of enzymes to perform new chemistry in vitro, the integration of non-native reactivity into metabolic pathways for small-molecule production has been underexplored. Herein we report a biocompatible iron(III) phthalocyanine catalyst capable of efficient olefin cyclopropanation in the presence of a living microorganism. By interfacing this catalyst with E. coli engineered to produce styrene, we synthesized non-natural phenyl cyclopropanes directly from D-glucose in single-vessel fermentations. This process is the first example of the combination of nonbiological carbene-transfer reactivity with cellular metabolism for small-molecule production.

  1. The unexpected product of Diels-Alder reaction between "indanocyclon" and maleimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowolski, Michał A.; Roszkowski, Piotr; Struga, Marta; Szulczyk, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    A heterocyclic compound commonly known as "indanocyclon" undergoes an unexpected Diels-Alder addition with maleimide. The resulting product has been isolated and characterized in order to get an information about its structure and possible mechanism of the reaction. Extensive comparison of single crystal properties of 3-(2,8-dioxo-1,3-diphenyl-2,8-dihydrocyclopenta[a]inden-8a(1H)-yl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione and favorable product of the reaction has been also performed.

  2. Dynamical Coupled-Channel Model of Meson Production Reactions in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    T.-S. H. Lee; A. Matsuyama; T. Sato

    2006-11-15

    A dynamical coupled-channel model is presented for investigating the nucleon resonances (N*) in the meson production reactions induced by pions and photons. Our objective is to extract the N* parameters and to investigate the meson production reaction mechanisms for mapping out the quark-gluon substructure of N* from the data. The model is based on an energy-independent Hamiltonian which is derived from a set of Lagrangians by using a unitary transformation method.

  3. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  8. Kinetics and products of the OH radical-initiated reaction of 3-methyl-2-butenal.

    PubMed

    Tuazon, Ernesto C; Aschmann, Sara M; Nishino, Noriko; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    2005-06-07

    Kinetics and products of the gas-phase reaction of OH radicals with 3-methyl-2-butenal [(CH3)2C=CHCHO] have been investigated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure of air. Using a relative rate method with methacrolein as the reference compound, a rate constant for the reaction of OH radicals with 3-methyl-2-butenal of (6.21 +/- 0.18) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at 296 +/- 2 K was measured, where the indicated error does not include the uncertainty in the rate constant for the methacrolein reference compound. Products of this reaction were investigated using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine for on-fiber derivatization of carbonyl compounds, with subsequent thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography. The products observed and the molar formation yields were: glyoxal, 40 +/- 3%; acetone, 74 +/- 6%; 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal, 4.6 +/- 0.7%; CO2, 39% initially, decreasing to 30% at greater extents of reaction; peroxyacyl nitrate(s) [RC(O)OONO2], 5-8%, increasing with the extent of reaction and with the sum of the CO2 and RC(O)OONO2 yields being 38 +/- 6%; and organic nitrates [RONO2], 8.5 +/- 2.3%. The formation of these products is readily explained by a reaction mechanism based on those previously formulated for the corresponding reactions of the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes acrolein, crotonaldehyde and methacrolein. Based on the mechanism proposed, at room temperature H-atom abstraction from the CHO group accounts for 40 +/- 6% of the overall reaction, and OH radical addition to the carbon atoms of the C=C bond accounts for 53 +/- 4% of the overall reaction. Hence 93 +/- 8% of the reaction products and pathways are accounted for.

  9. Production of macromolecular chloramines by chlorine-transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Bedner, Mary; MacCrehan, William A; Helz, George R

    2004-03-15

    Chlorination of treated wastewaters is undertaken to prevent dispersal of human pathogens into the environment. Except in well-nitrified effluents, the primary agents in chlorination, Cl2(g) or NaOCl(aq), are short-lived and quickly transfer oxidative chlorine to secondary agents (N-chloramines), which then participate in the disinfection process. Maturation of residual chlorine resulting from chlorine-transfer reactions is still poorly characterized. Using gel permeation and reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with a novel, oxidant-specific detector, unanticipated trends during the maturation of residual chlorine in wastewater are identified. Within 2 min after addition of NaOCl, and continuing for several hours at least, significant amounts of oxidative chlorine are transferred to secondary agents that are moderately to strongly hydrophobic and to agents that have high relative molecular masses (Mr 1300-25000). It is hypothesized that hydrophobic stabilization of organic chloramines (RNHCl(o)) thermodynamically drives these transfers, making macromolecular chloramines the ultimate oxidative chlorine carriers. Macromolecular chloramines are expected to be sluggish oxidants, as observed in their reduction by sulfite, and are expected to be poor disinfectants. If transfer of oxidative chlorine to high Mr components occurs widely at treatment plants, then this phenomenon offers a new, physicochemical explanation for the well-known impotency of organic chloramines in wastewater disinfection.

  10. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation by Molecular-Weight Building Reactions of Biogenic Oxidation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanti, K.; Guenther, A.; Matsunaga, S.; Smith, J.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the chemical composition of atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) remains one of the significant challenges to accurately representing OA in air quality and climate models. Meeting this challenge will require further understanding of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), of which biogenic emissions are thought to be major precursors. Of recent interest is the significance of higher-molecular weight (MW) compounds (i.e., "oligomers"). Theoretical, laboratory, and field study results suggest that relatively volatile oxidation products may contribute to SOA formation through multi-phase MW- building reactions. The significance of such reactions for biogenic SOA formation, including for newly considered precursors such as isoprene, is explored in this work. Theoretical and field studies are employed to: 1) identify MW-building reactions that may contribute to SOA formation in the atmosphere, 2) identify MW-building reaction products in ambient samples, and 3) parameterize atmospheric SOA formation by MW-building reactions of biogenic oxidation products. Likely reactions of biogenic oxidation products include ester, amide, and peroxyhemiacetal formation. Each of the proposed reactions involves known oxidation productions of biogenic precursors (e.g., carboxylic acids and aldehydes) reacting with one another and/or other atmospheric constituents (e.g., sulfuric acid and ammonia) to form higher-MW/lower-volatility products that can condense to form SOA. It has been suggested that products of MW-building reactions can revert to the parent reactants during sampling and analysis. Thus, relatively volatile compounds detected in ambient particle samples in fact may be decomposition products of higher-MW products. The contribution of relatively volatile biogenic oxidation products to SOA via ester, amide, and peroxyhemiacetal formation, as determined by studies based on fundamental thermodynamics and gas/particle partitioning theory, will be discussed; in addition to

  11. Calculations of long-lived isomer production in neutron reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have carried out theoretical calculations for the production of the long-lived isomers {sup 93m}Nb({1/2}{sup {minus}}, 16y), {sup 121m}Sn(11/2{minus}, 55 yr), {sup 166m}Ho(7-, 1200 yr), {sup 184m}Re(8+, 165 d), {sup 186m}Re(8+, 2{times}10{sup 5} yr), {sup 178m}Hf(16+, 31 yr), {sup 179m}Hf(25/2-, 25 d), {sup 192m}Ir(9+, 241 yr), all of which pose potential radiation activation problems in nuclear fusion reactors. We consider (n, 2n), (n,n{prime}), and (n, {gamma}) production modes and compare our results both with experimental data (where available) and systematic. We also investigate the dependence of the isomeric cross section ratio on incident neutron energy for the isomers under consideration. The statistical Hauser-Feshbach plus preequilibrium code GNASH was used for the calculations. Where discrete state experimental information was lacking, rotational band members above the isomeric state, which can be justified theoretically but have not been experimentally resolved, were reconstructed. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Contact allergy to a reaction product in Hirudoid cream: an example of compound allergy.

    PubMed

    Smeenk, G; Kerckhoffs, H P; Schreurs, P H

    1987-02-01

    We have investigated patients with a contact allergy to Hirudoid cream. The hypersensitivity reactions appeared to be due to an allergy to the cream base, but the separate ingredients did not give rise to positive patch test reactions. The hypersensitivity proved to be due to an allergy to a reaction product, and the simultaneous presence of the preservatives 1,3,5-trihydroxyethylhexahydrotriazine and thymol was found to be necessary for the occurrence of a positive patch test reaction. A new allergen was found to be formed by the reaction between thymol and the degradation products of the triazine derivative. This allergen was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy as 3-(hydroxyethyl)-5-methyl-8-(2-methylethyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazi ne.

  13. FTIR Analysis of Alkali Activated Slag and Fly Ash Using Deconvolution Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madavarapu, Sateesh Babu

    The studies on aluminosilicate materials to replace traditional construction materials such as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to reduce the effects caused has been an important research area for the past decades. Many properties like strength have already been studied and the primary focus is to learn about the reaction mechanism and the effect of the parameters on the formed products. The aim of this research was to explore the structural changes and reaction product analysis of geopolymers (Slag & Fly Ash) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and deconvolution techniques. Spectroscopic techniques give valuable information at a molecular level but not all methods are economic and simple. To understand the mechanisms of alkali activated aluminosilicate materials, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR has been used where the effect of the parameters on the reaction products have been analyzed. To analyze complex systems like geopolymers using FTIR, deconvolution techniques help to obtain the properties of a particular peak attributed to a certain molecular vibration. Time and temperature dependent analysis were done on slag pastes to understand the polymerization of reactive silica in the system with time and temperature variance. For time dependent analysis slag has been activated with sodium and potassium silicates using two different `n'values and three different silica modulus [Ms- (SiO2 /M2 O)] values. The temperature dependent analysis was done by curing the samples at 60°C and 80°C. Similarly fly ash has been studied by activating with alkali hydroxides and alkali silicates. Under the same curing conditions the fly ash samples were evaluated to analyze the effects of added silicates for alkali activation. The peak shifts in the FTIR explains the changes in the structural nature of the matrix and can be identified using the deconvolution technique. A strong correlation is found between the concentrations of silicate monomer in the

  14. 40 CFR 721.10237 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. 721.10237 Section 721.10237 Protection of Environment... acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products and phenol, sodium salts (PMN P-09-146; CAS No. 1065544-88-8) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. 721.10238 Section 721.10238 Protection of..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10285 - Formaldehyde, polymer with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10285 Section 721.10285 Protection of... with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance..., polymer with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine (PMN P-11-33;...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5560 - Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz[c...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6-oxide. 721.5560 Section 721... Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6... identified as formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10363 - Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4â² -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (generic). 721.10363 Section... Substances § 721.10363 Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4..., reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (PMN P-10-47) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10538 - Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea. 721.10538 Section 721.10538 Protection... Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea. (a... phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10538 - Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea. 721.10538 Section 721.10538 Protection... Phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea. (a... phosphonium, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-, chloride (1:1), reaction products with 1-tetradecanamine and urea...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10481 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. 721.10481 Section 721.10481 Protection of Environment... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant new..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica (PMN P-04-429; CAS No. 630106-01-3) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429... Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids... identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10363 - Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4â² -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (generic). 721.10363 Section... Substances § 721.10363 Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4..., reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (PMN P-10-47) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10482 - Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. 721.10482 Section 721.10482 Protection of... Silicones, di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., di-Me, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica (PMN P-04-430; CAS No....

  14. 40 CFR 721.10481 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. 721.10481 Section 721.10481 Protection of Environment... vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant new..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with silica (PMN P-04-429; CAS No. 630106-01-3) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9400 - Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of phenolic... Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty acid esters and oils, and glyceride... substances identified generically as Reaction product of phenolic pentaerythritol tetraesters with fatty...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10285 - Formaldehyde, polymer with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10285 Section 721.10285 Protection of... with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance..., polymer with 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine (PMN P-11-33;...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. 721.10238 Section 721.10238 Protection of..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429... Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids... identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10237 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. 721.10237 Section 721.10237 Protection of Environment... acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products and phenol, sodium salts (PMN P-09-146; CAS No. 1065544-88-8) is subject to...